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1

RECREATION ISSUES IN RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our country it is difficult to start rural tourism activity because almost all times, especially when cities have become a special category of communities, towns, urban population,, escaped "always in rural areas where he met relatives where were the so-called,, country house "and where he could find peace in the midst of unspoiled nature atmosphere. In addition, those various actions that attracts individuals to travel in rural areas. Thus there Sanziene habits when, according to tradition, Maramures then proceeded to the monasteries of Moldova pilgrimages to places of worship, celebrate holidays in the Villages and monasteries, and the like. The concept of rural tourism has evolved, encompassing all tourism activities taking place in rural areas. Gradually the extent of diversification of tourism practiced in the rural areas has outlined some forms: actual rural tourism, rural tourism, green tourism.

Mariana Chiril?

2013-05-01

2

Cancer treatment in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inability to deliver cancer prevention and treatment to the rural population poses a significant barrier in the national effort to reduce cancer mortality. Since 25 percent of the U.S. population lives in rural areas and few rural areas are readily accessible to cancer centers or Community Clinical Oncology Programs (CCOPs), the prospects for accomplishing the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Goals for the Year 2000 are limited unless substantive changes occur in rural cancer care delivery. This article reviews the problem of cancer risk and care in rural areas and describes one effort to deliver state-of-the-art cancer treatment to rural patients in Virginia. It describes the needs and barriers to access in rural Virginia, the structural elements of the Rural Cancer Outreach Program, and the health policy issues that result when subspecialty care is exported to disadvantaged areas. PMID:10122367

Desch, C E; Smith, T J; Breindel, C L; Simonson, C J; Kane, N

1992-01-01

3

Sn Attenuation in Iran and Surrounding Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have proposed a complex seismic attenuation structure across the Middle East. In order to improve the knowledge of the uppermost mantle in Iran and surrounding areas, we collected a large data set consisting of 16 years (1996-2011) of waveforms recorded by 305 permanent and temporary stations. The high frequency Sn phase is blocked for much of the northern Middle East therefore we have looked to identify low frequency Sn waveforms. We used a bandpass filter (0.1-0.5Hz) to identify efficient longer period Sn phases. In order to determine Sn Q we applied a Two station Method (TSM) to eliminate the source effects. We have used the LSQR algorithm to tomographically map Sn attenuation tomography across the Iranian plateau. Our preliminary results indicate very low Q values within the central Iranian plateau down to less than 100. The pattern we observe is roughly consistent with tomographic Pn velocity models from prior studies. We also hope to compare our results with studies in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau to have a better understanding of the propagation characteristics of long period Sn. In both the Tibetan and Iranian plateaus we appear high uppermost mantle attenuation beneath the highest topography indicating a thin and hot uppermost mantle.

Ku, W.; Bao, X.; Kaviani, A.; Sandvol, E. A.

2012-12-01

4

Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

1987-01-01

5

Educational Attainment in Rural Areas  

Dec 31, 2009 ... Studies of Educational Attainment Using Pre-2004 Definitions of. Urban and \\Rural . .... (based on settlement size and sparsity) as well as measures of area \\deprivation. .... This literature review is designed to familiarise the reader with the \\findings and methodology of previous ..... contributors to an inquiry.

6

A typology of rural areas in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper is to present a method to establish the typology of rural areas in Serbia. Initially the OECD rurality criterion was applied to define the rural areas in Serbia. Subsequently, relevant indicators were selected (demographic, geographic, economic, employment-related, human capital, agricultural, tourism and infrastructure) and used to define and distinguish relatively homogeneous rural regions, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis (VARIMAX method) and cluster an...

2008-01-01

7

PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AMONG POPULATION OF SULTANPUR KUNHARI AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA, HARIDWAR, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The average prevalence of hypertension in India is 25% in urban and 10% in rural inhabitants. Prevalence of hypertension has been found to increase in traditional populations undergoing innovation. There is a strong correlation between changing lifestyle factors and increase in hypertension. Objectives: 1.To study prevalence of hypertension among population of Sultanpur Kunhari and its surrounding area, Haridwar Uttarakhand. 2. To study association between various factors and hypertension in ...

2012-01-01

8

A typology of rural areas in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a method to establish the typology of rural areas in Serbia. Initially the OECD rurality criterion was applied to define the rural areas in Serbia. Subsequently, relevant indicators were selected (demographic, geographic, economic, employment-related, human capital, agricultural, tourism and infrastructure and used to define and distinguish relatively homogeneous rural regions, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis (VARIMAX method and cluster analysis. Cluster analysis revealed six regions of different sizes and characteristics. Practical considerations reduced this to four types, resulting in a robust scheme which accurately reflects the heterogeneous nature of rural Serbia.

Bogdanov Natalija

2008-01-01

9

ICT and Innovation in Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ICT in innovation processes and acts play more and more important role in rural areas. The regional innovation performance is different in regions and lower in rural areas. The new requrements for developing new application and services is to increase the wireless and broadband services. Some EU supported RTD project served to develop the agri.food sector and rural areas. The Living Labs concept may improve the RTD results

2008-01-01

10

Tectonics and seismicity of Baku and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : In this article it is described Baku and its surrounding areas, where the main tectonics are the Caucasus, strike-slip faults and reverse faults. The Caucasus is a part of the Alpine-Himalayan folding belt and situated between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The main faults in this region are the Pembak-Sevan fault, the Garni fault and the Talesh fault. The Pembak-Sevan fault and the Garni fault are characterized by right-leteral strike slip faults. The Talesh fault is characterized by reverse fault and the Talesh Mountains have been thrust over the south Caspian depression. Some earthquake catalogues for Baku and surrounding region had been prepared from different sources. The qreat earthquakes had been occured in the Caucasus, the Caspian sea and the Tales fault and around Baku.

2002-09-01

11

Plastic surgery in rural area: A report  

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Full Text Available Most of our rural population does not seek the expensive specialist service of distant city hospitals due to social or financial reasons. Existing health system in rural area is not efficient enough to meet the health demands of such vast population. There is only one Government Plastic surgery unit covering the population of 40 lacs leading to huge backlog of patients waiting for reconstructive surgery. To evade this situation a team of Plastic surgeons from Government Medical College Jabalpur goes to rural areas twice a year and has operated in on nine occasions since last 4 years. The activities and experiences of the last nine visits are reported here.

Agarwal Pawan

2005-01-01

12

Multifunctional character of rural areas in Poland  

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Full Text Available Multifunctional development of rural areas involves implementation of new non-agricultural functions, such as production, commerce or services. This strategy results from social and economic difficulties in these areas, economic underdevelopment, ineffective agricultural farms and unemployment. The research material used in the paper included analysis of the related literature, analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in the area of Poland and the author’s own observations. As results from the study, rural areas should perform the functions of food production, environmental protection, culture, tourism and providing services for municipal areas. These functions should provide the basis for development of additional non-agricultural activity. This involves the plans made by people who live in the country for starting businesses in the area of services, commerce, transport, tourism and craftsmanship and handicraft. The non- -agricultural activities which have already been performed suggest, on the one hand, opti-mistic opportunities of growth in rural areas but, on the other hand, are not conducive to the development of agricultural functions, which are inherent in rural areas.

Jan Sikora

2012-04-01

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PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AMONG POPULATION OF SULTANPUR KUNHARI AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA, HARIDWAR, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA  

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Full Text Available The average prevalence of hypertension in India is 25% in urban and 10% in rural inhabitants. Prevalence of hypertension has been found to increase in traditional populations undergoing innovation. There is a strong correlation between changing lifestyle factors and increase in hypertension. Objectives: 1.To study prevalence of hypertension among population of Sultanpur Kunhari and its surrounding area, Haridwar Uttarakhand. 2. To study association between various factors and hypertension in a rural community of the study area. A community based cross sectional study was carried out in the selected area for the study. The cross sectional field study involved 500 respondents, aged 30 years and above using simple random sampling technique. A study instrument which included behavioral risk factor questionnaire (Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and type of diet and physical measurements of height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and blood pressure was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze data. The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 11%. It was higher in females (12.1% than males (10%. It was seen that prevalence of hypertension increased with age. Prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among individuals, aged 40 years and above, with high body mass index and increased waist hip ratio, (P<.05. The prevalence of hypertension is high and is associated with socio-demographic factors. Hence there is need for primordial prevention efforts on large scale.

Izharul Hasan

2012-03-01

14

Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

Weinberg, Mark

15

Renewable energy systems for rural areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the rural areas, especially those located far enough from infrastructure facilities (highways and national roads, electricity and gas networks, etc.), energy supply (both quantitatively and qualitatively) is scarcer than in the urban ones. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the use of renewable energy hybrid systems in order to increase the quality and the quantity of energy supplied to the rural settlements. The paper is thus a guide of how to choose the appropriate energy source with higher potential and efficiency, minimal capital and operational costs and better comfort. (authors)

2007-11-22

16

ECG ABNORMALITIES IN RURAL AREAS  

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Full Text Available A survey was carried out in the summer of 1972 in east Azerbaijan, northwest Iran, to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. ECG tracings were prepared from 198 women and 178 men aged 40-60. Only 45% of the tracings were completely normal. Q/QS abnormalities were found in 4.7% of tracings, left axis deviation in 4% tall R wave in 37%, ST depression in 3.9% of men and 14.1% of women and T wave inversion in 2.2% of men and 11.6% of women. Further studies are recommended to explain this high prevalence of ST depression and T wave inversion in the women of this area.

M. Daneshapjooh

1975-08-01

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Study on the Strategy of Enhancing the Rural Credit Cooperatives’ Supporting Agriculture, Rural Areas and Farmers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The lack of capital is a major obstacle to the development of agriculture, rural areas and farmers. The main reasons of the lack of capital are: the disadvantages of the Rural Credit Cooperatives (RCCs) themselves; the lack of supporting policies for agriculture, rural areas and farmers; the lack of effective competition mechanism in the rural financial market, and so on. As the RCC perfecting itself, our government needs to widen the way for other financial institutions entering the rural fi...

Xiaoqing Li; Zhitao Song

2012-01-01

18

Cancer information needs in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although cancer presents obstacles for all who experience it, persons in rural communities must negotiate additional challenges. This study determined the cancer information (CI) needs and the CI-seeking behavior and preferences among rural-dwelling persons. Patients (N = 801) = 50 years of age seen in 36 rural Kansas primary care practices completed a Cancer Care Information Needs Survey (CCINS); physicians completed a cancer resource knowledge and preference survey. Of the 801 patients, 184 (23%) reported a CI need. Of these 184 patients, 45% reported either not discussing cancer or having insufficient discussion time with their physicians; 44% needed more information after consulting their physician. Patients more likely to report a CI need were young, female, Internet users, persons with a prior cancer diagnosis, and persons seeing male physicians or physicians in group/multispecialty practices. Patients and physicians were unfamiliar with services provided by national cancer organizations. Physicians are a primary CI source; however, patients who need CI report insufficient cancer discussion time with their physician and need more CI after consulting their physician. Promoting access to national CI sources could bridge the CI needs gap that exists in rural areas currently. PMID:16036728

Engelman, Kimberly K; Perpich, Denise L; Peterson, Shelly L; Hall, Matthew A; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Stanton, Annette L

2005-01-01

19

Role-in Rural Areas of Shanxi  

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Full Text Available This study uses the income of rural residents per capita income grouping and panel data of 2001-2010 from "Shanxi Statistical Yearbook". The study uses the World Bank's software Povcal and the purchasing power of $ 1.25 per person per day as the poverty line to measure the index of the extent of poverty in rural areas in Shanxi Province. It was found that the poverty rate decreases exponentially significant effect, but the poverty gap index decreased to a lesser extent and the poverty gap squared index relatively rose. This suggests that economic growth to poverty reduction of the total population especially to the poor in the richer part of the population has a distinct role, but to the poor population living in extreme poverty has negative effects. Rapid economic growth will increase extreme poverty, resulting in further widening the gap between rich and poor.

Zhan-ju Cui

2013-01-01

20

Generation of technologies in rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technologies are at present generated in the framework of a system of paradigms which originated in the developed world, which is not adequate for the developing countries. This article proposes a research methodology that, while generating technologies appropriate for rural areas, contributes at the same time to the building of a new system of paradigms adequate for the needs and conditions of developing societies. The final aim of the methodology, which presupposes local participation, is to define a technological space which is the set of requirements and constraints that the technology has to satisfy. Any technology fitting that space is appropriate, whether locally produced or imported. 16 references, 2 figures.

Herrera, A.O.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Promoting energy conservation in the rural areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is estimated that more than 70% of the population of Ghana live in the rural areas. Cooking and heating in these areas are mainly achieved by fuelwood and other biomass. Although wood is a renewable energy resource, this is only so if it is grown faster than it is consumed. Firewood consumption exceeds forest growth in Ghana and other developing countries. Added to this, is the fact that the World's wood resource is used for such purposes as sawn timber, clearing of land and felling trees for agricultural purposes, etc. If our forests are to be preserved it is this population that has to be targeted. One method of reducing fuelwood demand is to encourage alternative supplies such as biogas (methane). Rural populations could be mobilized to construct bio-latrines in their communities to make use of the biogas generated to cook their food and also for heating purposes. Through levies, funds could be generated to undertake such projects in each community. Before this could be possible, a lot of education will have to be undertaken by the Renewable Energy unit of the Ministry of Mines and Energy. This is because many people are apprehensive of the idea of cooking with gas derived from their own feces. Some of the benefits to be derived from such a project are the use of the effluent slurry as high quality organic manure for farming. This will surely lead to increase food production and help to keep the environment clean (au)

2001-03-29

22

Catawba Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Lake Wylie, South Carolina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Catawba Nuclear Station, located near Lake Wylie, South Carolina, during the period 31 May through 7 June 1984. The survey covered a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area centered on the Station. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus cosmic exposure rate at the 1-meter level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial plus cosmic gamma exposure rate ranged from 3.7 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h), the cosmic level over Lake Wylie, to 17.4 ..mu..R/h just east of the Catawba River below the dam site. A search of the gamma data showed no man-made gamma emitters in the survey area. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations on the ground to support the aerial data. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Fritzsche, A.E.

1984-10-01

23

Catawba Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Lake Wylie, South Carolina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Catawba Nuclear Station, located near Lake Wylie, South Carolina, during the period 31 May through 7 June 1984. The survey covered a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area centered on the Station. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus cosmic exposure rate at the 1-meter level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial plus cosmic gamma exposure rate ranged from 3.7 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), the cosmic level over Lake Wylie, to 17.4 ?R/h just east of the Catawba River below the dam site. A search of the gamma data showed no man-made gamma emitters in the survey area. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations on the ground to support the aerial data. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

1984-06-07

24

Climatic features of Ljig municipal and its surrounding area  

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Full Text Available Territory of Ljig municipal is located in Podrinje-Colubara region and belongs to the temperate continental climate with continental rain regime. This is hilly- mountainous area with 848 m altitude (Rajac Mountain and 723 m relative height, in which are deeply incised (up to 500 m valleys of Ljig River and its tributaries. These geomorphologic features cause airstreams direction in this territory, and because of that some parts of Ljig municipal have temperate continental climate (like valleys and some of them have severe continental climate (like Rajac Mountain. The peak of precipitation is at the end of spring and beginning of summer - in May and June, and the driest months are February and October. The great influences on climatic changes in Ljig municipal and its area have north low parts of Panonian area, which are open for penetration of damp and cold air streams from north, northwest and west. This mountain area on south part of Ljig municipal is some kind of "dam" for cold air streams from south, so they are considerable colder on this territory. On the base of available data in period 1961-1990 from Meteorological Annuals of Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Serbia climatologic overview is presented.

Milanovi? Ana

2006-01-01

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Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

1991-01-01

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Factual biosphere database for Dounreay and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Dounreay region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Dounreay area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

1991-01-01

27

Changes in Rural Areas and Regional Development  

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Full Text Available The present study examines how regional development has been affected by social, economic and environmental changes in three regions located in central Greece. These regions were affected significantly by social and economic changes, because of substantial new infrastructure development that took place related to a ski resort and agritourism establishments. Sample data were collected on the characteristics of residents and land use in these three rural areas. The results of the study show that tourist development is very important for the socio-economic improvement of these regions. Using cross-tabulation statistical methods it was found that regions with better infrastructure attract more tourists than regions with inferior infrastructure (p-value = 0.000 and residents with higher education have better income than residents with lower education (p-value = 0.000.

Helen Theodoropoulou

2008-01-01

28

Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.

Raluca IGNAT

2012-12-01

29

On the future of local communities in rural areas  

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Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and emotional connection of people living there. In other words, their participation and their self-identification with these communities is a key prerequisite. Although the renewal of our rural communities is an extremely difficult task, filled with many dilemmas, inconsistencies and objective contradictions, it is not unresolvable, at least for one type of these communities. With the well-thought strategy of planning and management of rural development, these processes can be accelerated and channelled in the desired direction. This paper discusses some possible solutions and gives more concrete propositions in relation to this problem.

Maleševi? Krstan

2003-01-01

30

Rural area renewable energy implementation hampered by negative  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A current year-long project, run by the sustainable energy futures (SEF) research group of the natural resources and the environment unit of the Council for Science and Industrial Research (CSIR), to investigate the implementation of integrated energy systems in rural areas, has determined that power generation from renewable electricity currently plays an inadequately small role in rural areas.

Swanepoel, Esmarie

2007-01-01

31

Alternative delivery systems in rural areas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Alternative delivery systems, such as HMOs, PPOs, and primary care case-management programs, have a long history in rural America despite significant impediments to their development. However, little is known about the effect of these systems on rural communities and their medical care delivery systems. Existing studies, which focus on rural HMOs, are qualitative in nature and generally are directed at identifying factors that facilitate or retard HMO development. Despite their limitations, t...

Christianson, J. B.

1989-01-01

32

Electrification of rural areas by solar PV  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

1992-05-01

33

Service Delivery in Rural Areas: Context, Problems and Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that efforts to develop community - based programs for the mentally retarded in rural areas must address problems and issues that are somewhat different from those in urban areas. Such problems include a lack of services, facilities, dia...

C. R. Horejsi

1976-01-01

34

APPEARANCE MOTIVATIONS OF RURAL TOURISM IN RURAL AREA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the trends developing tourism industry is returning to nature, already manifested in all countries, the current post-industrial civilization has created the need for withdrawal (for several days) of the metropolis. And for the huge tourism potential of our country, rural tourism is one of the most attractive travel packages and this from a multiple perspective: on the one hand, the tourist, Romanian or foreign, which will require increasingly more intense this tourist service, on th...

Eduard Bianu; Claudia Sîrbulescu; Daniel Chiril?

2013-01-01

35

RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?  

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Full Text Available Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the lack of education among rural people etc. Under these circumstances, thepaper tries, through documentation, analysis and processing statistical data, to quantify the development level of entrepreneurship in rural areas in Romania, compared with developed EU countries (such as: Germany, Great Britain, France etc., in order to reveal the gaps in this sector. To increase the relevance of the analysis, the paper also analyzes the possible causes that can stimulate or repress the expression of entrepreneurship and its implementation in Romanian and European rural areas, such as: different levels of fiscal pressure, the existence, effectiveness and efficiency of programs implementation for stimulating and supporting entrepreneurship in general and in rural areas, in particular, the different business culture etc. These results generated from the research will finally create a set of premises for adopting international best practices and develop pragmatic solutions and programs to increase entrepreneurship, which can leads to new business initiatives in the Romanian rural area.In conclusion, for a quality of life growth and a decrease of negative social and economic phenomena with medium and long-term impact, it is necessary an increase of the living standards, done by increasing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural areas. Specifically, there are needed investments in the development of human resources in rural areas and in supporting its entrepreneurial efforts and activities in order to generateprofitable activities that can ensure motivating financial and social rewards for medium and long terms.

Alexandru Costin CÎRSTEA

2013-01-01

36

Innovation centres as growth points for smaller towns and rural areas  

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Full Text Available This article addresses the role of innovative centres in the development of surrounding areas beyond large cities. At the same time, the innovative development of rural areas should be of a composite nature; municipality development strategies take innovations into account. International practices serve as a an argument in favour of establishing innovative centres in smaller and medium-sized towns in order to facilitate the socioeconomic development of the territory and surrounding rural areas. Science parks created in smaller towns give a boost to socioeconomic development. The authors analyse the case of the science park in the town of Gusev in the Kaliningrad region and emphasise the role of development and adoption of legal acts at regional and municipal levels, for example, the law «On the production policy of the Kaliningrad region».

Belova A. V.

2012-01-01

37

Atmospheric Effects on Communication and Electronic Warfare Systems Within Turkey and Surrounding Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This thesis presents the most complete climatology of radio wave (VHF and higher frequencies) tropospheric ducting within Turkey and the surrounding areas ever published. This ducting can result in greatly extended propagation ranges. Atmospheric data fro...

S. Turk

2010-01-01

38

Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo) to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (...

2013-01-01

39

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197, equine (63, pigs (25, sheep (11, and dogs (28 were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197 among cattle and 10.7% (3/28 among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular dos parasitas através do sequenciamento dos produtos amplificados na PCR do gene SSU rRNA. Foram coletadas amostras fecais de animais domésticos criados para subsistência e estimação nas propriedades rurais do entorno de três fragmentos florestais. Amostras de bovinos (197, equinos (63, suínos (25, ovinos (11 e cães (28 foram coletadas de 98 propriedades rurais. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium para a espécie bovina foi de 3,0% (6/197; para os cães, de 10,7% (3/28; e para os demais animais os resultados foram negativos. Todas as sequências obtidas das seis amostras de bovinos apresentaram identidade molecular com Cryptosporidium andersoni, enquanto as sequências oriundas de amostras de fezes de cães revelaram-se similares ao C. canis. A ocorrência do Cryptosporidium entre os animais estudados foi baixa. Diante dos resultados do presente estudo, o ciclo zoonótico da criptosporidiose parece ter menos importância nesta região. A presença de espécies de Cryptosporidium ainda pouco relatadas em humanos pode ser, por outro lado, importante para a fauna silvestre, uma vez que estes animais podem ser considerados como uma fonte de infecção e disseminação deste protozoário. O impacto e a magnitude da infecção de C. andersoni, em ruminantes selvagens, e de C. canis, em cães silvestres, deve ser avaliado em estudos futuros, com intuito de verificar a real importância dessas espécies nesta região.

Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

2010-12-01

40

Final Report. [Training of Physicians for Rural Areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Southwest Alabama Medical Education Consortium (SAMEC) is to create an organization to operate a medical residency program focused on rural physician training. If successful, this program would also serve as a national model to address physician placement in other rural and underserved areas.

McLaughlin, Max, MD

2004-07-23

 
 
 
 
41

HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

2005-01-01

42

Study on the Environmental Tritium in Surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah - Bandung Landfill Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation of environmental tritium distribution in surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah landfill areas has been carried out. The aim of this investigation was to know tritium concentration in surrounding of both landfill areas. Normally, tritium concentration in the nature is around 0-5 TU. The results of this investigation showed that the tritium concentration in both shallow groundwater of both landfill areas were still in the range of its normal limit, whereas tritium concentration in stream along both landfill areas and leached water showed higher value. Tritium concentration in deep groundwater of Bantar Gebang landfill showed about the zero value, it means is the normal condition. (author)

2004-02-01

43

Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

2008-06-01

44

Structural transformations from rural area in the Republic of Moldova  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the links between rural transformations and sustainable livelihoods, looking in particular at the impact of the structural changes over the national economy. In order to achieve this, there were used the following research methods such as: analysis of the economic indicators, methods of comparative analysis, assessment of the public policies’ impact on the rural development.The agri-food sector in the Republic of Moldova is based on extensive farming and is insufficiently adapted to market economy conditions. There is a growing understanding in the country that the rural economy is not confined to the agricultural sector, but embraces the broad spectrum of needs of all rural people including living standards, economic activities and natural resources. The paper contains conclusions and proposals on diversification of agriculture and non farm activities in rural areas

Lucasenco Eugenia

2013-01-01

45

Energy and rural areas; Energie und Laendliche Raeume  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the 1st Goettinger talks on agricultural legislation at 5th November, 2010, the following lectures were held: (1) Energy supply and rural municipality (Johann-Christian Pielow); (2) Legal issues and practical handling of the compensation of provider rights (Hubertus Schmitte); (3) Energy economic plan approval in the rural area using natural gas pipelines as an example (Mathias Wolkewitz), (4) Maritime regional planning - Instrument for conflict resolution between wind power and fishery (Nico Nolte); (5) Energy and agriculture (Jose Martinez).

Martinez, Jose (ed.)

2013-02-01

46

In-situ gamma spectrometry measurements of the surrounding area of a decommissioned repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper the authors present the use of a portable high resolution gamma spectrometer in the measurement of the surrounding area of a former repository for radioactive wastes, decommissioned more than 15 years ago. In the spectra recording this work the presence of Co-60 was evidenced. (Author) 2 Figs., 1 Tab., 6 Refs

1994-01-01

47

Territorial ordering in Toay area and surroundings, La Pampa province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This present work aims to provide a territorial ordering in an area limited by the 36 grades 39 minutes and 36 grades 43 minutes Southern Parallels and the 64 grades 20 minutes and 64 grades 27 minutes. Meridians from the same hemisphere; within such area, the population from Toay and surroundings are held/contained. The empiric method employed was taken from Gomez Orea (1993). The area was divided into environmental synthesis units and through the use of different proposed tasks it was possible to reach an objective description of the area with the distribution of its varied units

2004-09-01

48

Assessment of land degradation and its spatial and temporal variation in Beijing surrounding area  

Science.gov (United States)

The indulgence in willful persecution of sandstorm had made great attention of many countries around the world. Chinese government and the Chinese academy of science going with some other countries have devoted a large amount of vigor to study the crucial environment problem. Due to the main source areas of sandstorm all located in the arid and semi-arid regions where there have great area, hard natural condition and bad traffic condition, it's very difficult to accomplish source area and the reason of sandstorm. For this destination, a international cooperation organization has been established to clarify the occur mechanism, transfer process and the following environment impact of sandstorm. The organization includes many researchers come form USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. Beijing surrounding area is one of the main sandstorm sources in recent years. In order to understand fully of the sandstorm form and development, we analyzed the land use degradation of Beijing surrounding area during the last ten years. 71 scenes Landsat TM/ETM, 611 scenes DRG and DEM data had been processed in our study. This paper made a detail describe of using Landsat image data and high resolution DEM data to construe the soil erosion and vegetation degenerate. The result shows that the irrational human activities and land use style are the main factors of land use degradation. In case of Beijing surrounding area, the land degradation directly impacted the frequency and intensity of sand & dust storm in Northern China. The case study region of Beijing surrounding area includes 51 counties that belong to three provinces and autonomous regions.

Li, Shuang; Dong, Suocheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhiqiang, Gao

2005-08-01

49

Computer Usage and Achievement among Adults in Rural Area Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: Previous study showed that most of the adults especially from rural area they are not expert and do not have any knowledge in using computer. Besides that, they cannot afford to buy a computer at home. Due to this problem, Ministry if Rural Development organized the Computer Literacy Program to increase adult?s knowledge and skills in using computer. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to study the achievement of adult learners towards Computer Literacy Program which organized by Ministry of Rural Development in Malaysia to increase quality of life among adults in rural communities. Approach: A survey was carried out in Selangor state of Malaysia. A total number of 120 adults from the program were involved; 42 male adults and 78 female adults. Results: The survey showed that the participants have higher achievement in computer usage in the Computer Literacy Programme. Conclusion: It is suggested that a comprehensive assessment should be conducted by Ministry of Rural Development in order to increase quality of life among adults in rural area. The implications of these findings showed that participants have higher achievement in the aspect of knowledge, skills and motivation in computer usage.

Abdul R. Ahmad

2009-01-01

50

Pubertad en adolescentes de áreas rurales y urbanas / Puberty in adolescent of rural and urban areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: los factores genéticos determinan un crecimiento potencial, pero el medio ambiente, inhibe o acelera su expresión. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento según procedencia urbana o rural, de variables relacionadas con el desarrollo puberal: telarquia, pubarquia, menarquia. Métodos: se [...] realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional en adolescentes urbanas y rurales con edades entre 12 a 15 años. En los municipios Urbano Noris, Cacocum y la zona urbana de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido de enero 2009 a enero 2010; previo consentimiento informado y en ambiente acogedor se les realizó encuesta en modelo semiestructurado. Se creó una base de datos con su posterior procesamiento estadístico descriptivos como: análisis porcentual, desviación estándar, media aritmética y t de Student, cálculos necesarios para obtener los resultados. Resultados: en las adolescentes de procedencia rural la telarquia aparece a los 11,36 años y en la urbana a los 10,36 años. La pubarquia se manifestó a los 11,18 y 10,36 años en el área rural y urbana respectivamente. La menarquia a los 12,4 y 11,14 años, en el área rural y urbana, o sea la pubertad aparece un año antes en el área urbana. Conclusión: resultó significativa la diferencia de la edad media en el área urbana y el inicio de la pubertad. Abstract in english Introduction: the genetic factors determine a potential growth, but the environment inhibits and to speed up its expression. Objective: to determine the behavior according the urban or rural origin of the variables related to the pubertal development: telarche, pubarche and menarche. Methods: a corr [...] elation and descriptive study was conducted in urban and rural adolescents from the Holguín province from January, 2009 to January, 2010 subject to informed consent and in suitable environment they were polled in a semistructured form. A database was created with its latter statistic descriptive processing including: percentage analysis, standard deviation (SD), arithmetic mean and t-Student test; estimation necessary to obtain the results. Results: in adolescents from rural the telarche appears at the 11,36 years old and in the urban ones at 10,36 years old. The pubarche was manifested at 11,18 and 10,36 years old in the rural and urban area, respectively. The menarche appears at 12,4 and 11,14 years old in the rural and urban areas, that is, the puberty appears a year before in the urban area. Conclusion: it was significant the difference in mean age in the urban area and the onset of puberty.

Osorio Mora, María de la Caridad; González Balmaceda, Ariana; Mora de Zayas, María de los Ángeles; Olivero Pupo, Juana.

51

Pubertad en adolescentes de áreas rurales y urbanas Puberty in adolescent of rural and urban areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: los factores genéticos determinan un crecimiento potencial, pero el medio ambiente, inhibe o acelera su expresión. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento según procedencia urbana o rural, de variables relacionadas con el desarrollo puberal: telarquia, pubarquia, menarquia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional en adolescentes urbanas y rurales con edades entre 12 a 15 años. En los municipios Urbano Noris, Cacocum y la zona urbana de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido de enero 2009 a enero 2010; previo consentimiento informado y en ambiente acogedor se les realizó encuesta en modelo semiestructurado. Se creó una base de datos con su posterior procesamiento estadístico descriptivos como: análisis porcentual, desviación estándar, media aritmética y t de Student, cálculos necesarios para obtener los resultados. Resultados: en las adolescentes de procedencia rural la telarquia aparece a los 11,36 años y en la urbana a los 10,36 años. La pubarquia se manifestó a los 11,18 y 10,36 años en el área rural y urbana respectivamente. La menarquia a los 12,4 y 11,14 años, en el área rural y urbana, o sea la pubertad aparece un año antes en el área urbana. Conclusión: resultó significativa la diferencia de la edad media en el área urbana y el inicio de la pubertad.Introduction: the genetic factors determine a potential growth, but the environment inhibits and to speed up its expression. Objective: to determine the behavior according the urban or rural origin of the variables related to the pubertal development: telarche, pubarche and menarche. Methods: a correlation and descriptive study was conducted in urban and rural adolescents from the Holguín province from January, 2009 to January, 2010 subject to informed consent and in suitable environment they were polled in a semistructured form. A database was created with its latter statistic descriptive processing including: percentage analysis, standard deviation (SD, arithmetic mean and t-Student test; estimation necessary to obtain the results. Results: in adolescents from rural the telarche appears at the 11,36 years old and in the urban ones at 10,36 years old. The pubarche was manifested at 11,18 and 10,36 years old in the rural and urban area, respectively. The menarche appears at 12,4 and 11,14 years old in the rural and urban areas, that is, the puberty appears a year before in the urban area. Conclusion: it was significant the difference in mean age in the urban area and the onset of puberty.

María de la Caridad Osorio Mora

2012-06-01

52

An aerial radiological survey of the Clinton Power Station and surrounding area, Clinton, Illinois, September 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Clinton Power Station, Clinton, Illinois, during the period 22 September--2 October 1987. The purpose of the 256-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level values was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. The activity profile of the survey area was extremely uniform, in the range of 10 to 12 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h), with the exception of the town of Weldon and the parking lots surrounding the power station. In both cases, the activity was 1 to 2 ..mu..R/h lower than the surrounding terrain due to a smaller concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in the surface material of these areas. The only enhanced exposure rate observed in this survey was associated with the reactor unit. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Guss, P.P.

1988-10-01

53

An aerial radiological survey of the Clinton Power Station and surrounding area, Clinton, Illinois, September 1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Clinton Power Station, Clinton, Illinois, during the period 22 September--2 October 1987. The purpose of the 256-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level values was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. The activity profile of the survey area was extremely uniform, in the range of 10 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), with the exception of the town of Weldon and the parking lots surrounding the power station. In both cases, the activity was 1 to 2 ?R/h lower than the surrounding terrain due to a smaller concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in the surface material of these areas. The only enhanced exposure rate observed in this survey was associated with the reactor unit. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

1988-01-01

54

An aerial radiological survey of the former Chemetron factory site and surrounding area, Newburgh Heights, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period April 15--27, 1991, over an area surrounding the former location of a Chemetron Corporation factory and an associated disposal site. The area surveyed is situated in Newburgh Heights, Ohio, 3 kilometers south of Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the former factory and dump site and surrounding area. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region were generally uniform and typical of natural background: 3--7 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), excluding an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 ?R/h. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over three areas within the survey region. Two areas, both within the boundary of a sewage processing plant, showed evidence of cobalt-60 (60CO). A third area, measured over a chemical factory, showed evidence of thorium-232 (232Th). Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ionization chamber measurements were obtained at seven locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements are in agreement with the aerial data

1992-01-01

55

An aerial radiological survey of the former Chemetron factory site and surrounding area, Newburgh Heights, Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period April 15--27, 1991, over an area surrounding the former location of a Chemetron Corporation factory and an associated disposal site. The area surveyed is situated in Newburgh Heights, Ohio, 3 kilometers south of Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the former factory and dump site and surrounding area. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region were generally uniform and typical of natural background: 3--7 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h), excluding an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over three areas within the survey region. Two areas, both within the boundary of a sewage processing plant, showed evidence of cobalt-60 ({sup 60}CO). A third area, measured over a chemical factory, showed evidence of thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th). Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ionization chamber measurements were obtained at seven locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements are in agreement with the aerial data.

1992-04-01

56

An aerial radiological survey of the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity surrounding the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-mile) area that encompasses the plant site of which a large portion is located in the Mississippi River Basin. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that measures gamma radiation. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Estimated exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 6-8 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in the Mississippi River basin, (b) from 8-10 ?R/h in areas adjacent to the basin, and (c) below 6 ?R/h over the Mississippi River and the portions of the basin that were included in the survey area. Man-made radiation (22-1,600 ?R/h) was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site; cobalt-60 was the primary source of activity found at the Prairie Island site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. Estimated exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

1997-01-01

57

An Aerial Gamma Ray Survey of the Surrounding Area of Sizewell Nuclear Power Station  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An airborne gamma ray survey of the surroundings of the Sizewell nuclear power station was conducted to define the present levels of radiation background for reference purposes. A twin engine helicopter fitted with a high volume NaI detector and two semiconductor detectors was used. A 20x30km area around the site was surveyed with 500 m line spacing, with an inner zone of 6x6 km being investigated with 250 m line spacing.

Sanderson, D. C. W.; Allyson, J. D.; Cresswell, A.

1997-01-01

58

Age distribution of fossil landslides in the Tyrol (Austria) and its surrounding areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some of the largest mass movements in the Alps cluster spatially in the Tyrol (Austria). Fault-related valley deepening and coalescence of brittle discontinuities structurally controlled the progressive failure and the kinematics of several slopes. To evaluate the spatial and temporal landslide distribution, a first comprehensive compilation of dated mass movements in the Eastern Alps has been made. At present, more than 480 different landslides in the Tyrol and its surrounding areas, includi...

2008-01-01

59

An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

Proctor, A.E.

1997-06-01

60

Land-use planning and sustainable development of rural areas; Amenagement du territoire et developpement rural durable  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of rural development applies to two different realities: that of a space where the resources developed by man form the basis for a multitude of uses, the most important of which is agriculture, and that of the populations that derive their revenue from those resources and inhabit that space. Sustainable development as it relates to rural development, applies two paradigms: the rational management of resources in a rural environment, and responsible participation of rural communities in the development processes that concern them. The paradigms at times partially overlap and interact, but leave important questions unresolved. The author began by providing a definition of rural area, whereby it defines the space utilized by rural populations. The paradigms were discussed, followed by the options of rational management of natural resources. The options of economic and social development of rural areas was next examined. Another section was devoted to land-use planning as an instrument of reconciliation in sustainable rural development.

Lazarev, G.

2002-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Working Together for Older People in Rural Areas  

looks in-depth at these issues and how they impact on older people's lives in \\rural areas. ... Providing older people with better information and advice on \\health, well-being, housing and other .... Within 20 years, half the adult \\population will.

62

Social Aspects of Tourism Carrying Capacity in Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tourism plays a major role in the economic development of rural areas. However, local planners often emphasize its economic benefits while the negative social impacts are not managed sufficiently. Social carrying capacity of a destination should be considered when making decisions on tourism development

Zuza?k, Roman; Svatos, Miloslav; Lostak, Michael; Vargáné Csobán Katalin

2008-01-01

63

Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the four classified areas.

SOEJONO

2013-04-01

64

SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in R...

Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan; Tanase (Rosca) Laura Daniela; Morar Mihai Gelu

2012-01-01

65

Deposition fluxes of PCDD/Fs in the area surrounding a steel plant in northwest Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper aims at investigating the contribution of a steel plant located in a rural area in northwestern Italy (700,000 tons of steel/year) to the deposition fluxes of Polychorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) at local level through the analysis of sampling data, literature data, and air dispersion model (AERMOD)output data. Total measured deposition fluxes of PCDD/PCDFs in three monitoring stations were consistent with other studies carried out in Italy in urban and suburban areas and in rural European areas; while these were lower than those measured in other European urban/suburban areas or in sites influenced by industrial sources. Furthermore, the measured fluxes were also compared with the pattern of PCDD/Fs in ambient air sampled at the same sites in a previous study. This comparison showed a similarity between air concentration and deposition patterns of the samples collected at the three monitoring stations and a clear distinction of these from the source. The study was completed with AERMOD simulations, conducted with a mass mean particle diameter of 0.5 ?m, according to the particle size distribution of the samples collected at the source. AERMOD calculated deposition fluxes of two to three orders of magnitude lower than those measured in two monitoring points; while in the most distant monitoring station, the deposition fluxes were too low to be calculated by the model. The simulations confirmed that the most distant monitoring station was not subject to emissions from the steel plant. The analysis highlighted the limited influence of the source in the local PCDD/F deposition fluxes. PMID:24585258

Onofrio, Maurizio; Spataro, Roberta; Botta, Serena

2014-06-01

66

An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 {mu}R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation.

Vojtech, R.J.

1994-03-01

67

An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 ?R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation

1994-01-01

68

Composition of Trees Grown Surrounding Water Springs at Two Areas in Purwosari Pasuruan, East Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to find out the composition of trees grown surrounding water springs at two areas in Purwosari, Pasuruan, East Java. Eleven plots for each area were observed. The data were analyzed using Mueller-Dombois’s method to calculate their importance value indexes, while Shannon-Wiener’s formula was used for determining the diversity index. The coordinate and altitude of every water spring or its group’s site was determined using Geographical Position System (GPS to know their positions on the map. The result indicated that there were at least 30 families, 49 genera which consisted of 68 species of trees grown surrounding water springs at the first area with 5.49 of diversity index, while the second area, consisted of 34 families, 63 genera and 79 species of trees with 5.24 diversity index. The diversity of trees species from Moraceae was the highest among other families, both at the first and the second area, whereas, trees species having a significant important value index included Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Ficus racemosa, Horsfieldia irya and Ficus virens. The position of the springs in the two areas within the sub-districts of Purwosari is in the range of 7º44'448 " south latitude; 112º44'353" east longitude up to 7º46'339 " south latitude; 112º41’190" east longitude at an altitude between 251 and 522 m above sea level. We hope that the information can be used as an alternative guidance to restore or to conserve such areas in order to save and sustain trees diversity and their habitat.

Soejono

2012-12-01

69

An aerial radiological survey of the EG G Mound Applied Technologies and surrounding area, Miamisburg, Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over EG G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, Ohio, during the period of June 9--24, 1989. The purpose of the 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. In addition, ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level was.constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates measured in the area typically ranged from 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h).

1992-11-01

70

Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

Hude Quan

2013-03-01

71

An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within [plus minus]15%.

1992-11-01

72

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of ±15%

1993-01-01

73

The identification of soil radionuclides in the area of Puspiptek and surrounding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of PUSPIPTEK and the surrounding are potentially exposed by radionuclides, because the operation of the nuclear research plant. The PPTN Serpong was operated long than 10 years, therefore soil radioactivity need to evaluate. The determination of radioactivity in the soil samples which be taken from research location using gamma spectrometry on June-August. The result of the research identified natural radionuclides K-40; Thorium decay series Ac-228, Bi-212, Pb-212, Tl-208, Ra-224 and Rn-220; Uranium decay series Bi-214, Pa-234, Pb-214 and Actinium decay series Bi-211, Po-211. There are no identification radionuclides produce from the activation of PPTN Serpong

2002-02-01

74

Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

M?rioara Drug?

2010-05-01

75

Moving to the countryside - migrants in rural areas of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denmark is undergoing a process of centralisation and concentration of economic growth, employment and people in and around its larger cities. Other more peripheral areas have been stagnating and loosing both jobs and inhabitants over a long period of time. Important social, cultural and economic changes are taken place in the countryside due to various restructuring processes and more recently some of these changes are related to in-migration. There are few Danish studies on migration into rural and peripheral areas but e.g. Andersen (2008) �rø et al. (2005) show how those moving to rural areas have very different reasons for moving and have different expectations and needs. Other international studies e.g. Boyle & Halfacree (1998), Chavez (2005), Clooke, Goodwin & Milbourne (1998), Cuba & Hummon (1993), Hidalgo & Hernandez (2001) Mesch & Manor (1998) rather focus on processes of change from the view of the local population, migrants and relations between them. This paper reports on a study on migrants who have moved long distances to settle in rural and peripheral areas of Denmark. The study focuses on moving motives, background and expectations of migrants in relation to living in rural and peripheral areas. One important theme is the relationship between migrants or newcomers and locals stressing social change, attachment and integration from the view of migrants. Our study is based on an understanding that there are multiple reasons and motivations that influence migration decision-making thereby applying a biographical approach inspired by e.g. Giddens (1984), Boyle and Halfacree (1998) seeking to 'demonstrate the complexity of the seemingly simple act of migration and its embeddedness within the everyday context of daily life for those involved'. Our study further finds inspiration in the concept of 'elective belonging' by Savage et al. (2005) in terms of understanding peoples sense of being at home as related to 'reflexive processes in which they can satisfactory account to themselves how they come to live where they do'.

Nørgaard, Helle

76

Impacts of Rural Development Projects on Rural Areas in Turkey: A Study on Yozgat Rural Development Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines economic structure and results of economic activities of farms (2001-2002 production years) in the context of Yozgat Rural Development Project (YRDP) that implemented between 1991 and 2001 in the Yozgat province in Turkey by International Fund For Agricultural Development (IFAD) and aims at disclosing economic effects of YRDP on farms in the region. For this purpose, farmers living within and outside of the project area were interviewed and a questionnaire study was carrie...

Ali Berk; Sinasi Akdemir

2006-01-01

77

COASTAL PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY OF SURABAYA AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA TO SEA LEVEL RISE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study for coastal vulnerability to sea level rise was carried out in Surabaya and its surrounding area, it has focused on calculations of the physical vulnerability index were used coastal vulnerability index (CVI methods. It was standardized by the multi criteria analysis (MCA approach according to the study area.The score of each physical variable derived from remote sensing satellite data and the results of studies that have been done, such as modeling results and thematic maps, and then integrated into geographic information systems (GIS. Result of this study showsthat the coastal areas of Gresik, Surabaya, and Sidoarjo in the very low to very high vulnerability level. Physically, the low land areas with open and slightly open coastal have a high vulnerability category. The high level vulnerability was found located in the northern of Madura Strait (Gresik Regency that overlooks to the Java Sea is about 28.81% from the entire of study areas. Meanwhile, the moderate, low and very low levels of vulnerability were located on Surabaya and Sidoarjo Regency that have more protected coastal area,relatively. According to the physical condition, the coastal elevation is the most variable that contributes to the high of vulnerability index in the coastal of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo Regency.

Sayidah Sulma

2012-11-01

78

Influences on the choice of health professionals to practise in rural areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Training health care professionals (HCPs) to work in rural areas is a challenge for educationalists. This study aimed to understand how HCPs choose to work in rural areas and how education influences this. METHODS: Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with 15 HCPs working in rural areas in SA. RESULTS: Themes identified included personal, facilitating,contextual, staying and reinforcing factors. Personal attributes

2007-01-01

79

The Problem Of Youth Unemployment in Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of Czech agricultural labour market has been continuously predominantly negative since 1989 and recently, the problem of youth unemployment is acute in many countries, not only in the Czech Republic, but also in the Russian Federation, where most of graduates of agricultural universities work in non-agricultural sphere and in urban area. The present paper tries to consider the problems faced by youth in the labour market after graduating from the university, the reasons for working in any sphere but not in agriculture and not in rural area. It identifies the factors influencing the profession choice by young people. It considers the opportunities for attracting young people to work in agriculture and rural aria.

N. Grigoryeva

2012-03-01

80

Energizing rural areas of developing countries using IRES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Renewable energy resources can play a significant role in supplying the energy needed in the rural areas of developing countries for improving the living environment and for economic development. The concept of energization in which all the available renewable resources are used in an integrated fashion with proper resource-need matching is preferable to straight-forward electrification. This paper discusses the application and design of Integrated Renewable Energy Systems (IRES) for energizing the rural areas of developing countries. The design tool IRES-KB that has been developed has the potential for on-site interaction with local populace and can serve both as a design tool and as a planning tool.

Ramakumar, R. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
81

E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. This methodology supports the use of networking and communications technology in teaching and learning. E-Learning is generally meant for remote learning or distance learning, but can also be used in face-to-face mode. In this paper we have made study about the awareness and impact of E-Learning in selected rural areas in India, the providers and learners ratio and an analysis on the collected data has been made to find the advantages of E-Learning resources and their affect on social and mental development of the individuals belonging to rural areas.

Rimmi Anand

2012-06-01

82

An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

Singman, L.V.

1994-11-01

83

An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent

1994-01-01

84

An aerial radiological survey of Project Rulison and surrounding area, Battlement Creek Valley, Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Project Rulison site, 40 miles (64 kilometers) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado, from July 6 through July 12, 1993. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 250 feet (76 meters) over a 6.5-square-mile (17-square-kilometer) area at a 200-foot (61-meter) altitude surrounding Battlement Creek Valley. The gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a high altitude aerial photograph of the area. The terrestrial exposure rate varied from 3.5 to 12.5 {mu}R/h (excluding cosmic) at 1 meter above ground level. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were found.

NONE

1995-08-01

85

SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a net exporter of organic production.

Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

2012-07-01

86

Agrotourism - A Sustainable Development for Rural Area of Korca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term agro-tourism emerged in the late twentieth century. It includes agricultural farms that are related to tourism. This notion represents all activities related not only to tourists but also to the organizers of the holidays in general. Agro tourism is very important for rural communities as well as urban areas. It can provide several advantages: income, employment, use accommodation, activities, natural resource conservation, recreation and education. But the main problem for many countries is the low level of farm income. Agro tourism intends to obtain higher standards of living for rural communities especially through increased income for people who work in agriculture.There are five main forms of rural tourism which bring benefits both for tourists and for the local community.• Natural tourism, which is mainly preferred for its recreational value.• Cultural tourism, which is mainly related to culture, history and archeology of the area destination.• Ecotourism, as a form of tourism that presents natural resources while maintaining the values and local population welfare.• Village tourism, where visitors live and enjoy the various activities of peasant life.• Agro tourism, in which tourists see and participate in traditional agricultural practices without destroying the ecosystems, the host bases. Development in Korca region is one of the main priorities of the regional strategy. The study will be focused on four villages: Dardhe, Voskopoja, Vithkuq and Prespa. We will see the advantages and weaknesses of rural tourism development in these areas, as well as their benefits. We will also see a study about the residents’ perceptions of the tourism development in the area and of the agro- touristic behavior of the tourists there.

STELA ZOTO

2013-05-01

87

Gendered experiences of teaching in poor rural areas of Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The low presence of female teachers serving in schools in deprived rural areas is one of the main constraints militating against girls' access and achievement in basic education in Ghana. Studies suggest that low self-esteem among girls is a key factor preventing them from attaining higher levels of education, which can be enhanced through more gender sensitive teaching methods, and the presence of female teachers as role models. This paper investigates the reasons why the majority of Ghanaia...

Casely-hayford, Leslie; University Of Cambridge, Faculty Of Education

2007-01-01

88

Changes of infrastructure of rural areas in Poland in terms of the European Union  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of a separation of rural areas and subsequently basing on the definition of rural areas by TERYT the analysis of changes of infrastructure (mainly technical and social in the country, urban areas and rural areas in the years 2003-2009 has been presented. As a result of external circumstances, including financial support of the European Union the pace of changes in rural areas accelerates, especially with regard to the level of infrastructure. Moreover, the present evolution of function of rural areas has been characterised in terms of Poland’s accession to the European Union.

Franciszek Kapusta

2012-04-01

89

An aerial radiological survey of the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation facility and surrounding area, Saxton, Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period July 5 to 22, 1989, over an 83-square kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC) facility which is owned by General Public Utilities and located near Saxton, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) over most of the survey area. The levels over the SNEC family did not differ from the exposure rates seen over the entire survey area. Cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels typical of worldwide fallout deposition were detected throughout the surveyed area. No other trends of Cs-137 were observed. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at six locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data

1991-01-01

90

An aerial radiological survey of the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation facility and surrounding area, Saxton, Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period July 5 to 22, 1989, over an 83-square kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC) facility which is owned by General Public Utilities and located near Saxton, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h) over most of the survey area. The levels over the SNEC family did not differ from the exposure rates seen over the entire survey area. Cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels typical of worldwide fallout deposition were detected throughout the surveyed area. No other trends of Cs-137 were observed. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at six locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data.

Hoover, R.A.

1991-10-01

91

An aerial radiological survey of the Braidwood Generating Station and surrounding area, Braidwood, Illinois, August 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Braidwood Generating Station, Braidwood, Illinois, during the period 5 August through 16 August 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Terrestrial-only exposure rates varied from 0 to 8 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). The highest exposure rates were recorded over strip-mined areas. Lower-than-average exposures rates were measured over bodies of water and large paved areas. No areas of enhanced exposure rates due to man-made radionuclides were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

1989-01-01

92

A procura do turismo em espaço rural / The demand for tourism in rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER) em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quot [...] idiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas. Abstract in english This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA) in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break [...] free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

Luís, Silva.

93

An Analysis of Ict Development Strategy Framework in Chinese Rural Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development strategy in Chinese rural areas is an indispensable part of national development strategies. This paper reviews the ICT framework in agriculture and rural areas launched by the Department of Agriculture in China. It compares the rural ICT policies and strategies between China and the European Union (EU). The ICT development strategy framework is analyzed based on the situation in Chinese rural area and the experiences of the EU. Some lessons and suggestions are provided.

Duan, Meiying; Warren, Martyn; Lang, Yunwen; Lu, Shaokun; Yang, Linnan

94

An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 ("6"0Co) and cesium-137 ("1"3"7Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 ("2"3"5U). Protactinium-234m ("2"3"4"mPa) and "6"0Co Were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data

1993-01-01

95

Automation of radiation exposure dose calculation in the area surrounding reactor of Musashi Institute of Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to develop a system, by which the data on wind direction, wind velocity, temperature, humidity, sunshine, radiation balance, rain fall and others in the vicinity of the stack of the nuclear facility are collected every moment and analyzed, the information not measured so far is extracted, those are continuously digitally recorded, and if the release of radioactive materials out of the stack is assumed, its effects on the surrounding environment are immediately computed and indicated on a graphic display. The system to detect abnormality for the back up of reactor operators and to issue the appropriate instruction is also to be developed in parallel by collecting data on the operating status of the reactor and from the monitors watching the surrounding area. It is considered to unify the data format for carrying out easily mutual comparison of such data and their evaluation in future and to connect the reactor facilities of universities in Japan on-line if possible, by co-developing this system together with these universities making the reactor of Musashi Institute of Technology as a model. In this report, the system configuration and block diagrams and respective satellite functions and operations are described. These satellites include new MK system, reactor-related data collection, weather data collection, colored CRT display, operator console, and packet type data exchanger. Most noteworthy is the data collection with an ultrasonic anemometer, and its construction is illustrated. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

1981-06-01

96

Domestic dogs in rural communities around protected areas: conservation problem or conflict solution?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog-wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog-wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25-75% of the dog-wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Singer, Randall S; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

2014-01-01

97

Changes in the Older Population and Implications for Rural Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

According to this new report from the Economic Research Service, the oldest segment of the US population, those 85 years old and older, grew 37 percent between 1980 and 1990. The "oldest old are more likely to be women, to be in poor health, to live alone, and to be poor." Changes in the Older Population and Implications for Rural Areas considers this change in the population and the effects of being elderly and poor in the rural parts of the United States. The report concludes that the US needs to be aware of this shift in population and allocate funds in order to cover the costs of Social Security, health care, and other services for the elderly.

Rogers, Carolyn C.

2000-01-01

98

Measuring the equity of inpatient utilization in Chinese rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background As an important outcome of the health system, equity in health service utilization has attracted an increasing amount of attention in the literature on health reform in China in recent years. The poor, who frequently require more services, are often the least able to pay, while the wealthy utilize disproportionately more services although they have less need. Whereas equity in health service utilization between richer and poorer populations has been studied in urban areas, the equity in health service utilization in rural areas has received little attention. With improving levels of economic development, the introduction of health insurance and increasing costs of health services, health service utilization patterns have changed dramatically in rural areas in recent years. However, previous studies have shown neither the extent of utilization inequity, nor which factors are associated with utilization inequity in rural China. Methods This paper uses previously unavailable country-wide data and focuses on income-related inequity of inpatient utilization and its determinants in Chinese rural areas. The data for this study come from the Chinese National Health Services Surveys (NHSS conducted in 2003 and 2008. To measure the level of inequity in inpatient utilization over time, the concentration index, decomposition of the concentration index, and decomposition of change in the concentration index are employed. Results This study finds that even with the same need for inpatient services, richer individuals utilize more inpatient services than poorer individuals. Income is the principal determinant of this pro-rich inpatient utilization inequity- wealthier individuals are able to pay for more services and therefore use more services regardless of need. However, rising income and increased health insurance coverage have reduced the inequity in inpatient utilization in spite of increasing inpatient prices. Conclusions There remains a strong pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilization in rural China. However, a narrowing income gap between the rich and poor and greater access to health insurance has effectively reduced income inequality, equalizing access to care. This suggests that the most effective way to reduce the inequity is to narrow the gap of income between the rich and poor while adopting social risk protection.

Xu Ke

2011-08-01

99

90Sr and 137Cs in Environmental Samples at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center and Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determination of 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental samples collected around Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) and surrounding areas during 1997 - 1998 were obtained. Radioactivity of 90Sr in surface water leaf and fish were 0-3.0 mBq/l 0-0.2 Bq/kg fresh and 0-0.1 Bq/kg fresh. Radioactivity of 137Cs in the same samples were 0.8-3.3 mBq/l 0.2-0.9 Bq/kg fresh and 0.1-0.3 Bq/kg fresh respectively. The levels of the radioactivity show the base line levels of radioactivity at ONRC for preoperation situation which will benefit for radiation protection to the public

1998-12-01

100

Methods of survey of energy supply and demand in rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The importance is stressed of a detailed survey of both the energy requirements in rural areas and also the resources to meet them for appropriate and environmentally sound rural energy planning. Factors to be considered in setting up surveys of energy supply and demand in rural areas are briefly reviewed.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

An aerial radiological survey of the Salmon Site and surrounding area, Lamar County, Mississippi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former Atomic Energy Commission Test Site at the Salmon Site and surrounding area between April 20 and May 1, 1992. The Salmon Site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 20 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma-ray environment of the Salmon Site and adjacent lands. A contour map showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a rectified aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates within the area are between 5 and 8 ?R/h. The reported exposure rates include a cosmic-ray contribution estimated to be 3.7 ?R/h. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and in situ measurements, taken with a pressurized ion chamber and a high-purity germanium detector, were obtained at 4 locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of and are in agreement with the aerial data

1994-01-01

102

An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant

1997-01-01

103

An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant.

Phoenix, K.A.

1997-04-01

104

An aerial radiological survey of the Salmon Site and surrounding area, Lamar County, Mississippi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former Atomic Energy Commission Test Site at the Salmon Site and surrounding area between April 20 and May 1, 1992. The Salmon Site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 20 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma-ray environment of the Salmon Site and adjacent lands. A contour map showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a rectified aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates within the area are between 5 and 8 {mu}R/h. The reported exposure rates include a cosmic-ray contribution estimated to be 3.7 {mu}R/h. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and in situ measurements, taken with a pressurized ion chamber and a high-purity germanium detector, were obtained at 4 locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of and are in agreement with the aerial data.

Kernan, W.J.

1994-05-01

105

An aerial radiological survey of the Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Cordova, Illinois  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station in Cordova, Illinois, during the period May 9 through May 18, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) over a 65-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the Quad Cities Power Station and surrounding area and to determine any radiological impact on the area over the past twenty years. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 5 and 15 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based ''benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assay of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

1993-01-01

106

An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from August 10-16, 1993, over a 78-square-kilometer (30-square-mile) area of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was performed at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with a line spacing of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on a set of United States Geological Survey topographic maps of the area and an aerial photograph of the plant. The terrestrial gamma exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour at 1 meter above the ground. Protactinium-234m was observed at six sites within the boundaries of the plant. At a seventh site, only uranium-235 was observed. No other man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was present in a detectable quantity, either on or off the plant property. Soil sample and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ± 7.5%

1994-01-01

107

An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted from September 12--29, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the site's terrestrial radiological environment for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) along a series of parallel lines 152 meters (500 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 440 square kilometers (170 square miles) as defined by the Tennessee Valley Authority Map S-16A of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation and adjacent area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) in the form of a radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 14 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). The man-made radionuclides, cobalt-60, cesium-137, and protactinium-234m (a radioisotope indicative of depleted uranium), were detected at several facilities on the site. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several locations within the survey boundary. In addition to the large scale aerial survey, two special flyovers were requested by the Department of Energy. The first request was to conduct a survey of a 1-mile {times} 2-mile area in south Knoxville, Tennessee. The area had been used previously to store contaminated scrap metals from operations at the Oak Ridge site. The second request was to fly several passes over a 5-mile length of railroad tracks leading from the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, north through the city of Oak Ridge. The railroad tracks had been previously used in the transport of cesium-137.

Maurer, R.J.

1989-09-01

108

A universal inequality between angular momentum and horizon area for axisymmetric and stationary black holes with surrounding matter  

CERN Multimedia

We prove that for sub-extremal axisymmetric and stationary black holes with arbitrary surrounding matter the inequality $8\\pi|J|area of the black hole.

Hennig, Jörg; Cederbaum, Carla

2008-01-01

109

Impacts of Religious and Pilgrimage Tourism in Rural Areas: The Case of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural tourism has speedily developed and become an engine for economic development and plays a great role towards socio-economic changes in rural areas. However, its impact is controversial and not always obvious. To examine these issues, this research presents an empirical analysis of pilgrimage and religious tourism and the impacts of these types of travel in rural areas in Iran. The paper provides examples of these impacts and transformations in the three rural centers as Tourism Model Vil...

Mehdi Pourtaheri; Khalil Rahmani; Hassan Ahmadi

2012-01-01

110

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people's thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes. PMID:23718775

Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Katureebe, Sheila K; Gitta, Sheba N; Mwaka, Amos D; Atuyambe, Lynn

2013-01-01

111

Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was developed. It reflects a modern system of relationships to the land in the laws and regulations on the federal, regional and local levels. It is a tool for informational and legal support in the decision-making process in the field of the wildlife management. The federal laws regulate the situation in general, and the departmental regulations govern its adjustment by components. The analysis of legal acts' dynamics in the sphere of wildlife management and environmental protection was conducted in order to monitoring the situation and evaluate the changes of relationships to the territory for 10 years (2001-2011 years). As the result with the use of GIS-technology a map of legal zoning was created. This electronic map has become a GIS model of the legal zoning, besides the informational content each contour includes cadastral data and information about its legal status. The model is created as a form of refraction of legislative base through a natural and economic basis of the territory. It allows shifting to the analysis of strategy of the territorial use, choice of optimal strategy of regional development, and decision-making and its realization.

Lesnykh, Svetlana

2013-04-01

112

A Study on Water Utilization in Chinese Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
In China, because rural population is great and agriculture is very important in national economy, rural areas have becomes a main sphere of water consume. There exist the problems of water shortage and water waste in the countryside. The conflicts of water resource supply and demand between industry and agriculture are very conspicuous. Various factors that include ideology, finance, technology, management and policy restrict the rational and effective use of water resource. The survey on the villages of Jia Ge Zhuang and Yao Bai Zhuang in Ji County, Tianjin reflects these problems. The government tries to solve the problems by making laws and policies, as well as affording financial and technology support to towns and villages. At the same time, it is necessary for the government to make officials and farmers realize the importance of rational water usage and saving by doing propaganda, coordinating the inter-governments relations, and defining the departments’ duties. For realizing the objective of rational water usage, it is necessary to take measures to construct and perfect irrigation installations by both superior and local governments’ investment and farmers’ labor force.
Key Words: Chinese Rural Areas, Water Resource, Rational Use, Farmland, Irrigation System
Résumé: En Chine,la population est grande et l’agriculture est très importante dans l’économie nationale. Les régions rurales sont devenues un sphère principal de la consommation d’eau. Il existe les problèmes d’insuffisance d’eau et le gaspillage d’eau dans la campagne. Les conflits sur les resources d’eau fournie et demandée entre industrie and agriculture sont très fréquents. Les facteurs variés tels qu’idéologie, finance, technologie, management et politique limitent l’usage rationel et effectif de ressources d’eau. L’enquête sur les villages de Jia Ge Zhuang et Yao Bai Zhuang dans le pays Ji, Tianjin reflète ces problèmes. Le government tente de résoudres les problèmes par l’élabortion des lois et les poliques, ainsi que le support financierl et technologique aux bourgs et villages. Au meme temps, il est nécessaire pour le government à render conscients les officiels et les paysans l’ importance de l’usage rationel en économisant par la publicité, en coordonnant les relations inter-governmentaux, et en déterminant les tâches des départments. Pour la realiser l’objectif de l’usage d’eau rational, il est nécessaire de prendre des mesures pour construire et perfectionner l’ installations d’irrigation par l’investissement des governements supérieurs et locaux ainsi que les forces des labeurs.
Mots clés: Les régions rurales chionoises, Ressource d’eau, usage rationel, fermier, Système d’ Irrigation

Rong TAN

2009-12-01

113

An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m ([sup 234m]Pa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of [sup 234m]Pa, a uranium-238 ([sup 238]U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 ([sup 234]U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data.

1992-09-01

114

Analysis of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Machida and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivity in surface soil at Kanagawa, Tokyo, Chiba and the surrounding area have been measured during the period from March to July 2011 after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant arising from the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. The soil samples were dried at 97degC for 20-24 h, and weighted. The ?-ray spectra were measured with a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector equipped with a multichannel analyzer. The radioactivity level of 137Cs was found to be a few Bq/kg to one hundred in 15 samples with the average of 43 Bq/kg on April 1 as the compassion date, and that of 134Cs to be nearly the same range (0.5-142 Bq/kg) with the average of 49 Bq/kg. The radioactivity level of 131I was 20-60 Bq/kg at lower limit and several hundred Bq/kg at upper limit, and found to be higher than that of the cesium isotopes. The radioactivity ratio of 134Cs/137Cs was found to be 0.9-1.2 for all the samples, while that of 131I/137Cs was likely to be characteristic for the sampling area. (author)

2011-09-01

115

An aerial radiological survey of the Argonne National Laboratory and surrounding area, Argonne, Illinois  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period May 17 through May 26, 1989, over a 32-square-mile (83-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) facilities located near Argonne, Illinois. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with line spacings of 200 feet (61 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 7 to 15 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). The highest observed level over the ANL facility buildings was in the contour range of 247 to 512 {mu}R/h. A search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of cobalt-60 and/or cesium-137 over most of the buildings with elevated count rates. Manganese-54 was detected over one of the sites where cobalt-60 was also seen. A comparison of the contour plots from the present survey and the previous surveys was made. How- ever, due to changes in instrumentation since the last survey, a direct comparison is not possible. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. These data were found to agree with the aerial data.

Hoover, R.A.

1994-05-01

116

An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m (234mPa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of 234mPa, a uranium-238 (238U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 (234U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data

1992-01-01

117

An aerial radiological survey of the Argonne National Laboratory and surrounding area, Argonne, Illinois  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period May 17 through May 26, 1989, over a 32-square-mile (83-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) facilities located near Argonne, Illinois. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with line spacings of 200 feet (61 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 7 to 15 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). The highest observed level over the ANL facility buildings was in the contour range of 247 to 512 ?R/h. A search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of cobalt-60 and/or cesium-137 over most of the buildings with elevated count rates. Manganese-54 was detected over one of the sites where cobalt-60 was also seen. A comparison of the contour plots from the present survey and the previous surveys was made. How- ever, due to changes in instrumentation since the last survey, a direct comparison is not possible. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. These data were found to agree with the aerial data

1994-01-01

118

Ocular Morbid Conditions in the Rural Area of Central India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular morbid conditions are responsible for partial or total blindness. Ocular morbidities by its sheer magnitude form an enormous problem, not only in human suffering, but also in terms of economical loss and social burden. Aim: The aim of present study was to find the prevalence of ocular morbidities in rural area. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study in area covered by Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC, Hingna which is under the administrative control of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College [IGGMC], Nagpur, was carried out in 194 families with 925 study subjects during February 2005-December 2005. The study focuses on ocular examination and diagnosis of ocular morbid conditions. Both eyes were examined and all the relevant clinical findings were recorded in predesigned proforma. Chi Square test was used for the analysis of data .Results: The results revealed that out of 925 study subjects 297(32.11% were had ocular morbidity. Common ocular morbidity was Myopia (13.62%, Conjunctival xerosis (12.11%, Hypermetropia (11.68%, Xerophthalmia (3.46%, Pterygium (2.92%, immature senile cataract (2.70%, Eye strain (2.49%, mature senile cataract (1.84% and Presbyopia (0.86%. Females were more affected (36.58% as compared to males (28.37%, [?2 = 7.09; d.f. =1, P< 0.05]. It was observed that as the age increases the prevalence of ocular morbidity increases [?2=318.03; d.f =7, p<0.001].Higher prevalence of ocular morbid conditions was found in Illiterates 122 (40.94% [?2 = 16.47; d.f. =3, p<0.001] Conclusion: High prevalence of ocular morbidities was found in rural areas of central India with greater predominance among women and illiterates.

Vaishali K Shrote (Brahmapurkar

2012-09-01

119

Wood as a primal fuel for rural areas of Estonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 20% of the population of Estonia has individual heating systems, mainly using domestic fuels such as wood and peat. This cheaper fuel is widely used in rural areas. The first studies of fuel consumption of households were made in Estonia in 1928 and 1934. At present there is a lack of reliable data. In 1995-1998 the authors carried out an investigation to analyze the situation nowadays. The data indicates that some wood used as fuel is not reflected in official statistics. This result means that the actual share of biofuels in the Estonian energy supply is bigger than that shown in official statistics. (author)

Muiste, P. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia); Kask, U. [Tallinn Technical University (Estonia)

1999-07-01

120

Photovoltaic power systems for rural areas of developing countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Photovoltaic (PV) applications for rural areas of underdeveloped countries are discussed in relation to PV system technology, reliability, and present and projected cost. The information presented is derived mainly from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with PV systems deployed with a variety of users for applications relevant to LDCs. A detailed description of two village power systems is included. Energy cost comparisons are presented for PV systems versus alternative energy sources. It is concluded, based on present PV system technology, reliability and cost that photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for LDCs in both the near- and far-term.

Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

EU policy for agriculture, food and rural areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The European Union, now of 27 member states, varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and rural areas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in member states. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a long-term path to freer and more open markets, with increased attention at EU and member-state levels to food quality, food safety and animal welfare as well as the environment and the development of...

Oskam, A. J.; Meester, G.; Silvis, H. J.

2010-01-01

122

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HOSPITALIZED BURN PATIENTS IN RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Burns represent one of the major health problems in India.Objective: To study some of the important epidemiological factors in relation to burn cases. Methods: Present study was retrospective study of all burn injury cases admitted hospital situated in rural area. The information obtained was tabulated analyzed using the software GraphPad Instat. Results: Overall female burn patients were significantly higher than male. Majority of female patients had total burn surface area more than 35% whereas 48.70% of the male patients had a total burn surface area more than 35% (χ2= 7.99, p = 0.005. Thermal burn was the commonest cause of burn followed by scalds. In majority of the patients (91.8% burns were caused by flame occurred at home.Conclusion: Public education on safer first-aid practices and availability of good burn care facilities is necessary.

Deepak B Phalke

2012-04-01

123

Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 ?g/m3, respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

2014-02-01

124

Probability impact analysis of potential radioactive release from Fukushima accident to surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper simulated the potential impact of radioactive material from the Fukushima accident to the surrounding areas with China as an area of special concern. Using the five-year meteorological data in Spring during 2004-2008 as input, the forward 3D trajectories started 8 times a day at 50 m high above four simulated releasing points, which were ± 0.2 degree latitude and longitude centering around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was calculated with an interval of 3 h and a trajectory length of 5 d. By means of cluster analysis to results of trajectory calculation, the atmospheric transport pathways of all the 14720 trajectories derived were obtained that enabled the following statistical analysis to the frequency of radioactive material in reaching interest region as well the probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration. The results showed a relatively low frequency in Spring with its peak appeared in May. For instance the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Harbin in May is 0.9%, Shanghai 0.6%, Taiwan 0.2%, and Beijing 0.1% with an average migration time of 3.2 d, 4.2 d , 4.5 d and 4.6 d respectively. The lowest frequency showed in March, the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Taiwan in March is merely 0.1%, for Harbin is 0.1% and 0 for the rest of areas concerned in our country. The probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are consistent with the impact analysis results of trajectories. Meanwhile, the impact of probability field to other regions can be observed from the results. (authors)

2013-01-01

125

Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3''x3'') at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of 'Marinelli' container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of 137Cs, for which maesured activities correspond, within allowed measurement error, to the conditions before the start of NPP Temelin operation

2008-08-07

126

The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

1974-08-19

127

The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

1980-12-15

128

Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

Kenitiro Suguio

2012-12-01

129

Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South Africa  

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Background. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is common in parts of South Africa; rural residence is a frequently cited risk factor. We conducted a FAS school prevalence survey of an isolated rural community in a West Coast village of Western Cape Province, so obtaining the first directly measured rate, focusing specifically on a South African rural area, of FAS and partial FAS (PFAS).

Olivier, L.; Urban, M.; Chersich, Matthew; Temmerman, Marleen; Viljoen, D.

2013-01-01

130

Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.

Goodman Catherine

2010-07-01

131

Ecology of small mammals in a Brazilian rural area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A small mammal study was carried out in Pamparrão valley, Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 1991 to July 1996. The area was characterised by small rural properties with vegetable plantations, pasture lands and small forest fragments. Small mammals were captured in seven line tran [...] sects along the valley. Eleven small mammal species were captured: the didelphid marsupials Didelphis aurita, Philander frenata and Monodelphis americana, and the rodents Nectomys squamipes, Akodon cursor, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Bolomys lasiurus, Oecomys concolor (Sigmodontinae), Rattus ratlus (Murinae), Proechimys iheringi and Euryzygo-matomys guiara (Echimyidae). The heterogeneous habitat configuration probably allowed the occurrence of marsupials and more rodent species when compared to studies in monoculture areas.

Paulo Sergio, D' Andrea; Rosana, Gentile; Rui, Cerqueira; Carlos Eduardo V, Grelle; Claudia, Horta; Luis, Rey.

132

Robust, multifunctional flood defenses in the Dutch rural riverine area  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the possible functions as well as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for robust flood defenses in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands on the basis of the recent literature and case studies at five locations in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is planned. For each of the case studies semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders were conducted. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of a robust, multifunctional dike in comparison to a traditional dike appeared to be the more efficient space use due to the combination of different functions, a longer-term focus and greater safety.

van Loon-Steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

2014-05-01

133

Lightning flash densities in urban and rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline of Israel  

Science.gov (United States)

Lightning flash densities near Tel-Aviv and Haifa, the two largest metropolitan areas in Israel, are compared to rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline. The average flash density in the Tel-Aviv area is ~1.2 flashes/km2/year, increasing from south to north and reaching a maximum in Haifa-bay and the near-by Mt. Carmel. Based on 4 years of lightning data obtained from the Israeli Electrical Company LPATS system (2004/5-2006/7 and 2008/9), we mapped flash densities by using high-resolution Google-earth visualization tools. The maximum lightning flash density is typically found to occur just west of the coastline above the Mediterranean Sea and to decrease eastward over land. The urban complex of the metropolitan Tel-Aviv area shows a clear increase in total lightning density compared to more rural regions to its north and south. An increase in positive-cloud-to-ground (+CG) flash density is present downwind from the Tel-Aviv urban area. A clear mid-week effect is also apparent in +CG densities with peak currents >50 kA north-east of the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area. The second maximum in flash density is found north of Haifa and its surrounding industrial complex, where it is probably dominated by the orographic effect of Mt. Carmel. A possible explanation for the lightning density anomaly in the Tel-Aviv area may be the Urban-Heat Island (UHI) effect, which alters the storm dynamics by enhancing convection and invigorating lightning activity downwind. Alternatively, aerosols emitted from industrial and vehicle activities may be ingested by the passing thunderclouds, modifying the microphysical processes within them and enhancing the ice mass flux, known to be directly related to the flash rate.

Yair, Y.; Binshtok, G.; Price, C.

2009-09-01

134

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. METHOD: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive stud [...] y in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. RESULTS: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people's thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus, Rutebemberwa; Sheila K., Katureebe; Sheba N., Gitta; Amos D., Mwaka; Lynn, Atuyambe.

135

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

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Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus Rutebemberwa

2013-01-01

136

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus Rutebemberwa

2013-05-01

137

Age distribution of fossil landslides in the Tyrol (Austria and its surrounding areas  

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Full Text Available Some of the largest mass movements in the Alps cluster spatially in the Tyrol (Austria. Fault-related valley deepening and coalescence of brittle discontinuities structurally controlled the progressive failure and the kinematics of several slopes. To evaluate the spatial and temporal landslide distribution, a first comprehensive compilation of dated mass movements in the Eastern Alps has been made. At present, more than 480 different landslides in the Tyrol and its surrounding areas, including some 120 fossil events, are recorded in a GIS-linked geodatabase. These compiled data show a rather continuous temporal distribution of landslide activities, with (i some peaks of activity in the early Holocene at about 10 500–9400 cal BP and (ii in the Tyrol a significant increase of deep-seated rockslides in the Subboreal at about 4200–3000 cal BP. The majority of Holocene mass movements were not directly triggered by deglaciation processes, but clearly took a preparation of some 1000 years, after ice withdrawal, until slopes collapsed. In view of this, several processes that may promote rock strength degradation are discussed. After the Late-Glacial, slope stabilities were affected by stress redistribution and by subcritical crack growth. Fracture propagating processes may have been favoured by glacial loading and unloading, by earthquakes and by pore pressure fluctuations. Repeated dynamic loading, even if at subcritical energy levels, initiates brittle fracture propagation and thus substantially promotes slope instabilities. Compiled age dating shows that several landslides in the Tyrol coincide temporally with the progradation of some larger debris flows in the nearby main valleys and, partially, with glacier advances in the Austrian Central Alps, indicating climatic phases of increased water supply. This gives evidence of elevated pore pressures within the intensely fractured rock masses. As a result, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations are induced by complex and polyphase interactions of lithological and structural parameters, morphological changes, subcritical fracture propagation, variable seismic activity and climatically controlled groundwater flows.

C. Prager

2008-04-01

138

Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e. 12 and 20 mm for coronary and peripheral sizing, respectively) for different vessel-tissue configurations: (i) blood vessel fully embedded in muscle tissue, (ii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue, and (iii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue with fat covering half of the arterial vessel (anterior portion). The simulations suggest that the parallel conductance and accuracy of measurement is dependent on the inhomogeneous/anisotropic configuration of surrounding tissue, including the asymmetric dimension and anisotropy in electrical conductivity of surrounding tissue. Specifically, the measurement was shown to be accurate as long as the vessel was superficial, regardless of the considerable total surrounding tissue dimension for coronary or peripheral arteries. Moreover, it was shown that the unfavourable impact of parallel conductance on the accuracy of conductance catheter measurement is decreased by the combination of a lower transverse electrical conductivity of surrounding muscle tissue, a smaller electrode spacing and a larger lumen diameter. The present findings confirm that the conductance catheter technique provides an accurate platform for sizing of clinically relevant (i.e. superficial and diseased) arteries. PMID:22718991

Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Kassab, Ghassan S

2012-11-01

139

The Effects of Non-Farm Business in Rural Sustainable Development: A Case Study in Sanandaj's Rural Areas, Kurdistan  

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Full Text Available Rural economy has an important role in rural sustainabledevelopment in every region or country. However, therural economy in Iran is too much depending on agricultureand development of other rural economy in particular nonfarmactivities, has been neglected by Iranian rural communities.Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the role ofnon-farm business on rural sustainable development in SanandajTownship. This study was a type of surveying research andemployed both questionnaire and interview tools. A four-partquestionnaire (with 48 questions was developed in order tocollect data from the respondents. Likert-type responses withfive scales were used to assess different sections of the questionnaires.The questionnaires’ reliability was tested by Cronbach’sAlpha technique and it was 76% (?= 0.76. A numberof 279 families, 181 families with and 98 without non-farmbusiness were selected randomly in 2011. Results of the studyshowed that non-farm business can contribute to employmentgrowth, income generating, and prevent seasonal and permanentmigration from rural areas. Based on the results, non-farmbusiness and non-farm industries need to be strongly investedby financial facilities through rural cooperatives and unions.Additionally, encouraging rural participation is essential innon-farms and industrial activities.

Reza Movahedi

2012-06-01

140

Brazilian university technology transfer to rural areas / Transferência de tecnologia de universidades brasileiras na área rural  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em agricultura, há diferenças entre a produtividade média obtida pelos produtores e o potencial produtivo dos cultivos. Há informação tecnológica disponível para aumentar a produtividade, mas nem todos os produtores têm acesso e/ou usam a informação. Isso caracteriza claramente um problema de extens [...] ão e transferência de tecnologia. Há vários sistemas de transferência de tecnologia, mas, como não há sistema que se ajuste a todas as condições, é necessário criar alternativas adequadas às condições de cada local. Outro desafio da extensão rural é ser eficiente, apesar da contínua redução de recursos. Uma proposta advinda das constantes reformas na extensão verificada ao redor do mundo é o trabalho integrado entre a iniciativa privada e o poder público. A universidade pública contribuiria para o treinamento e a atualização dos recursos humanos envolvidos com assistência técnica, apontado como um dos aspectos limitantes na transferência de tecnologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar, por meio de revisão bibliográfica, alternativas de promover a transferência de tecnologias geradas nas universidades públicas brasileiras para a área rural. Assim, é apresentada uma proposta de transferência de tecnologia a ser gerenciada pelas Pró-reitorias de extensão das universidades brasileiras, tendo como base os grupos consolidados de pesquisa, nos quais poderiam ser incorporados outros profissionais de acordo com a necessidade. Dessa forma, a universidade pública recuperaria parte da sua função social, integrando ensino, pesquisa e extensão. Abstract in english In agriculture, there is a difference between average yield obtained by farmers and crop potential. There is technology available to increase yields, but not all farmers have access to it and/or use this information. This clearly characterizes an extension and technology transference problem. There [...] are several technology transfer systems, but there is no system to fit all conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to create extension solutions according to local conditions. Another rural extension challenge is efficiency, despite continuous funding reductions. One proposal that has resulted from extension reform worldwide has suggested integration between the public and private sectors. The public universities could play the role of training and updating technical assistance of human resources, which is the one of the main aspects that has limited technology transfer. The objective of this study was to identify approaches to promote technology transfer generated in Brazilian public universities to rural areas through literature review. An experimental approach of technology transfer is presented here where a Brazilian university extension Vice-chancellor incorporates professionals from consolidated research groups according to demand. In this way, public universities take part of their social functions, by integrating teaching, research, and extension.

Enio, Marchesan; Scott Allen, Senseman.

 
 
 
 
141

The movement of labor in Chinese rural areas: with a focus on developed regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent Chinese economic reforms target both agrarian and urban sectors. This paper discusses employment structure change in rural areas and the interindustry movement of labor, with particular attention to relevant institutional aspects. The residencies and population system and the employment-welfare-insurance system are reviewed. Socioeconomic structure and labor market mechanisms in rural areas are considered as the basis for the movement of labor; forms of employment and labor market characteristics in rural areas are identified; and factors influencing job-related behavior of the work force in agricultural households, as well as mechanisms regulating interindustry movement of the work force are quantified. These issues are investigated only for the Sunan area and suburban villages near Shanghai. Review suggests that labor force movement within China's rural areas has gained momentum despite institutional limitations. The rural employment structure has changed to impact the entire national economy. Village and township enterprises have helped raise income levels of farming households, industrialize and urbanize rural areas, and strengthen ties between rural and urban areas. To sustain growth in rural and national economies, however, greater differentiation is needed between the functions of administrative and economic sectors, competitive principles should be introduced in rural areas, and institutional restrictions on population and labor force movements should be relaxed. PMID:12285850

Yan, S P

1990-12-01

142

ECONOMIC REVIVAL OF THE RURAL AREA THROUGH TOURISM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romania’s entry on the european coordonates imposes a continue economical development. The achievement of this target implies the use of the existing methods and the capitalization of all opportunities at best parameters. In this way, optimizing the economical results which appeared as a result of the practice of a bio agriculture (the attainment of natural products in enviroments untouched by the destructive effects of pollution and also the profesionalistic capitalization of the turistic potential, in all its forms, will lead to a certain economical efficiency.Turistic services extent and diversify according to the socio-economical changes and their favourable area of development. The the appearance of the „rural tourism” and „agrotourism” terms enriches the whole notion of „tourism” by diversifying it’s forms of expression.

Gheorghe Pribeanu

2012-01-01

143

An aerial radiological survey of the Faultless Site and surrounding area. Final report, September 9, 1996 - September 12, 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Faultless site was measured during September 9-12, 1996, using aerial radiological survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the site and to identify any unexpected man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a four-mile (six-kilometer) radius of the site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Terrestrial exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on maps of the survey area. Terrestrial exposure rates in areas surrounding the site varied from 12-16 microroentgens per hour. No evidence of man-made radiation was detected at the site

1997-01-01

144

Benefits of donkeys in rural and urban areas in northwest Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study is to explore the benefits of donkeys for rural and urban smallholder farmers in northwest Nigeria. We visited 112 smallholder donkey farmers located in rural and urban areas from four states in northwest Nigeriathrough four focus group meetings, interviews with individual farmers and in depth interview with 12 key informants. In addition, 80 citizens were interviewed about their perception on donkeys. Donkeys were used more intensively in urban than in rural areas...

2013-01-01

145

DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AND AGRO-TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE IN ROMANIAN RURAL AREAS DURING 2000 – 2012  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: More and more tourists from around the world are passionate about the beauty that nature has created. Romania has, including and especially in rural areas many attractions, some already known, others less known. Tourism practiced in various forms in rural areas of Romania offers people who want to relax, who loves nature, culture and folk art, a treasure chest of ancient rural civilization values and can save time ...

Daniela Ruxandra Andrei; Verginia Chiri?escu; Mihaela Kruzslicika; Manuela Rodica Gogonea; Mariana Sandu

2013-01-01

146

An exploration of revitalization strategies for rural areas : the case of the Northern Free State / Daniel Francois Meyer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural areas, globally, are characterized as poor regions, with two-thirds of the world’s poor people residing in rural areas. In South Africa, 70 percent of the poor population or 3.6 million households, live in rural areas. In the last three State of the Nation Addresses (SONA) in South Africa by President Zuma since 2011, rural development has been placed high on government’s developmental agenda. The formulation of a comprehensive rural development policy, with coordinated implementati...

Meyer, Daniel Francois

2013-01-01

147

Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

2014-01-01

148

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

1991-01-01

149

Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 ?g/m(3), respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. PMID:24270102

Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

2014-02-01

150

Innovacionnye centry kak tochki rosta dlja malyh gorodov i sel'skoj mestnosti [Innovation centres as growth points for smaller towns and rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article addresses the role of innovative centres in the development of surrounding areas beyond large cities. At the same time, the innovative development of rural areas should be of a composite nature; municipality development strategies take innovations into account. International practices serve as a an argument in favour of establishing innovative centres in smaller and medium-sized towns in order to facilitate the socioeconomic development of the territory and surrounding rural areas. Science parks created in smaller towns give a boost to socioeconomic development. The authors analyse the case of the science park in the town of Gusev in the Kaliningrad region and emphasise the role of development and adoption of legal acts at regional and municipal levels, for example, the law «On the production policy of the Kaliningrad region».

Belova Anna

2012-01-01

151

Changes in the level and quality of life of the population in rural areas in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main priorities of the European Union is to strengthen the policy of rural areas in order to improve the level and quality of life. The aim of this study was to provide the level and quality of life in rural areas in Poland and analyse the changes that have occurred in this area since 2003. Coefficients of variation, asymmetry and dynamic factor were calculated utilizing the applied methods. On the basis of the analysis it can be stated that there were significant changes in the equipment in rural areas in the technical infrastructure. Improved housing conditions and increased satisfaction withmaterial and the housing situation were also observed.

Anna Murawska

2012-09-01

152

Asthma and allergies in rural areas of Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of studies have consistently shown that growing up on a farm in various rural areas in Europe confers protection from the development of hay fever, atopic sensitization, and less consistently of asthma from childhood into young adulthood. Exposures to livestock as well as consumption of unpasteurized milk are likely to be distinct and relevant sources of protective exposures. In turn, the underlying microbial exposures have not been identified with certainty. Although environmental exposures to bacterial and fungal components have been found to be inversely related to asthma and atopy, they do not explain the "farming effect." The mechanisms conveying the protection are still poorly understood. An important role for innate immune responses is suggested by findings relating to increased expression of genes of Toll-like receptors in exposed children. How this activation of innate immunity is translated into reduced IgE-specific adaptive immune responses remains to be elucidated, but may invoke a number of distinct allergen-specific steps. PMID:17607001

von Mutius, Erika

2007-07-01

153

SIGNIFICANCE OF STATISTICS IN HEALTH SCIENCES IN RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article is aimed at significance ofstatistics in growing health science industries. Health andstatistics are essential tools in demography; health care, medicalprofession and community services. Statistics plays verysignificant role to describe what is normal and healthy inpopulation and to find limits of normality in variables, such asweight and pulse rate, sex and haemoglobin, age andmenstruation cycle etc. Statistics in health sciences willarticulates leading causes of death, sickness, whether particulardiseases is rising or falling in severity and prevalence. Statisticaldata collected from measurements or surveillance that definesthe characteristics of specific population samples. Descriptivestatistics précis the utility, efficacy and expenses of medical goodsand facilities. Progressively, health care organizations employstatistical analysis to measure their performance outcomes. Thistype of study is important in finding the correlation between twovariables, comparison in the action of different drugs, to find anassociation between two attributes, in field of Anatomy &Physiology, Pharmacology, Medicines, and Public health &Community medicines respectively. By collecting the waitingtimes of five different patients chosen at random from Govtdispensary Mallewal, district Patiala, Govt dispensary Dhablan,district Patiala , Govt dispensary Todarpur, district Patiala Govtdispensary Bahadurgarh, district Patiala(treated as out-patientclinics A, B, C, and D to determine if there are differencesbetween the dispensaries using Kruskal-Wallis Application(statistics one can know how statistics is helpful in rural area.

Reetu Malhotra , Vandana Singh , Dr. Rajesh Kumar

2012-05-01

154

Energy balance of adolescent girls in rural area of Varanasi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although several studies have been undertaken on dietary intake of adolescent girls, studies on their energy expenditure and thereby energy balance are few. In order to explore these aspects, this community based cross-sectional study was done on 270 adolescent girls of a rural area of Varanasi, selected by adopting appropriate sampling technique. Nutritional status of study subjects was assessed on the basis of BMI. Their energy intake was computed by 24 hours recall oral questionnaire method. Estimation of energy expenditure was based on physical activity which was noted by 24 hours activity recall questionnaire method. Average energy intake (1609.42 +/- 528.87 kcal/day) of the study subjects was less than their mean energy expenditure (1896.19 kcal/day). Their energy expenditure was significantly influenced by several factors (e.g. age, caste, type of family, etc.) As much as 69.63%, subjects were in negative energy balance. Majority of subjects belonging to lower (79.37%) and middle (75.19%) SES were in the negative energy balance. Negative energy balance has been significantly less in subjects belonging to high SES, having main occupation of the family as business and high per capita income groups with respect to their corresponding subcategories. In all 68.52% study subjects had BMI 1.4. Under nutrition was significantly (p 1.4 (i.e. 70.33%) than in subjects with rate of energy expenditure < or = 1.4. PMID:15129863

Choudhary, S; Mishra, C P; Shukla, K P

2003-01-01

155

Modeling demand for public transit services in rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate estimates of demand are critical for planning, designing, and operating public transit systems. Previous research has demonstrated that the expected demand in rural areas is a function of both demographic and transit system variables. Numerous models have been proposed to describe the relationship between the aforementioned variables. However, most of them are site specific and their validity over time and space is not reported or perhaps has not been tested. Moreover, input variables in some cases are extremely difficult to quantify. In this article, the estimation of demand using the generalized linear modeling technique is discussed. Two separate models, one for fixed-route and another for demand-responsive services, are presented. These models, calibrated with data from systems in nine different states, are used to demonstrate the appropriateness and validity of generalized linear models compared to the regression models. They explain over 70% of the variation in expected demand for fixed-route services and 60% of the variation in expected demand for demand-responsive services. It was found that the models are spatially transferable and that data for calibration are easily obtainable.

Attaluri, P.; Seneviratne, P.N.; Javid, M. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-05-01

156

An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.

Proctor, A.E.

1997-06-01

157

Radionuclide renography in rural areas of the Gambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A transportable renography apparatus has been used to study subjects in rural communities in the Gambia. The apparatus fits into six metal containers which can be sealed against dust and moisture and carried in the back of a Land-Rover. A small petrol generator can be used to supply power in the field. A three-detector renogram is recorded on a chart recorder whilst digital data are recorded on a C60 cassette for subsequent deconvolution analysis. Indices of renal function, such as mean renal transit time (MTT) and relative effective renal plasma flow (%ERPF), are obtained from the digital data, and a blood sample taken after the renogram is used to estimate overall effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). The apparatus has been reliable, with no serious breakdowns, but supplies of 131I-Hippuran have been a difficult problem. The short half-life of 131I and the short shelf-life of 131I-Hippuran limit the time spent in the field to a few days and delays in delivery from the United Kingdom have had serious consequences. Measurements in an area free from urinary schistosomiasis were used to establish normal values and relationships with other indices, such as time to peak counts and percentage uptake. Results from an area where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic showed a statistically significant difference in MTT and ERPF but not in %ERPF. MTT was longer in subjects aged 45 or less in the endemic area, but no statistically significant differences were found for older subjects. ERPF was lower for subjects aged 17 or above in the endemic area, but for subjects aged 16 or less it was higher with a positive correlation between ERPF and urinary egg count. Subjects who had a second renogram one year after treatment with metrifonate showed some improvement. By the time of a two-year follow-up nine subjects had died in the endemic area and four of them had abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF. Only one subject with abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF had survived. (author)

1985-08-26

158

Are mental disorders more common in urban than rural areas of the United States?  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban vs. rural residence is commonly cited as a risk factor for depression and other mental disorders, but epidemiological evidence for this relationship in the US is inconclusive. We examined three consecutive annual samples (2009-2011) of adolescents (age 12-17, N = 55,583) and adults (age 18 and over, N = 116,459) from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare the prevalence of major depression and other serious mental illness across four categories of urbanicity: 1) large metropolitan areas, 2) small metropolitan areas, 3) semi-rural areas, and 4) rural areas, with and without adjustment for other demographic risk factors. For adolescents, no association was observed between urbanicity and the prevalence of major depression, with or without statistical adjustments. For adults, no differences were found in the prevalence of major depression or serious mental illness between large metropolitan areas and rural areas, but the prevalence of both was slightly higher in the two intermediate urbanicity categories than in large metropolitan areas, with statistically significant odds ratios after adjustment ranging from 1.12 to 1.19. Contrary to expectations, the prevalence of mental disorders was not higher in the most urban compared with the most rural areas, suggesting that the move to identify mechanistic explanations for risk associated with the urban environment is premature. Evidence of slightly higher prevalence in small urban and semi-rural areas relative to large urban areas, reported for the first time, requires additional investigation. PMID:24857610

Breslau, Joshua; Marshall, Grant N; Pincus, Harold A; Brown, Ryan A

2014-09-01

159

The Delivery of Services to Mentally Retarded Persons Living in Rural Areas: Context, Problems and Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategies and techniques for developing community-based programs for mentally retarded persons in rural areas must take into consideration local circumstances, resources, and characteristics. Rural norms such as overt racial segregation, social conformity, the importance of church, and the stigma of obtaining human services for personal problems…

Horejsi, Charles R.

160

20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty...will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty...will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

ANALYSIS OF LIVING INDICATORS IN RURAL AREA OF ROMANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: Method and living conditions of the rural population is determined based on of living indicators, which shows significant differences in the national territory. The way of living of the rural population is determined by many factors such as:traditional cultural models,socio-demographic characteristics,economic power of the population,localities resources for building materials etc.All this correlated with the level of developmen...

Ioana Anda Milin; Sorin Milin; Iuliana Ioana Merce; Ioan Fruja

2013-01-01

162

Prevalence of Goiter in rural area of Belgaum district, Karnataka  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: To determine the prevalence of goiter and to study the factors influencing goiter among people of the rural community in Karnataka state, a community based study. Setting and Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out to find out the prevalence of goiter in a rural community of Belgaum district. The study was conducted by house-to-house survey for a period of one month. Materials and Methods: Two villages (Handiganur and Gundwad) were selected ...

2009-01-01

163

MASS VACCINTION IN RURAL AREA OF IRAN: A SEROEVALUATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an attempt to convert mass vaccination practices to the Extended Programme on Immunization, a sero-evaluation study was carried out in rural Iran in 1976. A total of 22 246 rural children of 2-12 years of age were sampled. Blood samples taken on filter paper were tested by indirect hemagglutination technique to determine the level of circulating antibodies against tetanus toxoid. Tetanus was selected as an index not only because natural antibody against it is practically non existent, but ...

Nasseri, K.; Malekafzali, H.; Semsar-yazdi, M.; Parvaz, P.

1983-01-01

164

Measles antibody levels in children of rural and urban areas of Nigeria following vaccination campaign.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study compares the presence and level of measles haemagglutination inhibiting antibody in the sera of primary school children in selected rural and urban areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria following a vaccination campaign. The results, analysed by Mann-Whitney statistical test at alpha = 0.05, showed significantly higher levels of haemagglutination inhibiting antibody in all the age groups in urban areas when compared with rural areas. The implications of these findings on measles vaccinatio...

Eghafona, N. O.; Odama, L. E.; Emejuaiwe, S. O.; Obineche, E. N.; Tafida, D. S.

1987-01-01

165

An aerial radiological survey of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Decatur, Alabama  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 12 July to 17 July 1985 over a 97-square-kilometer (37-square-mile) area centered on the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station located near Decatur, Alabama. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with line spacings of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus the cosmic exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates north and east of Wheeler Lake ranged from approximately 11 to 18 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), while the area south and west of the lake ranged from approximately 9 to 11 ?R/h. Two areas of increased exposure rate were evident. One of these areas was associated with the main units of the reactor facility, while the other was associated with a temporary radiological waste holding area inside the plant's protected area. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of a third area within the plant facility. This area is utilized as a temporary low-level radioactive waste storage site. All three areas indicated the presence of Co-60. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations to support the aerial data. In addition, soil samples were also taken at six locations along the shore of Wheeler Lake. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

1985-07-17

166

An aerial radiological survey of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Decatur, Alabama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 12 July to 17 July 1985 over a 97-square-kilometer (37-square-mile) area centered on the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station located near Decatur, Alabama. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with line spacings of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus the cosmic exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates north and east of Wheeler Lake ranged from approximately 11 to 18 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h), while the area south and west of the lake ranged from approximately 9 to 11 ..mu..R/h. Two areas of increased exposure rate were evident. One of these areas was associated with the main units of the reactor facility, while the other was associated with a temporary radiological waste holding area inside the plant's protected area. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of a third area within the plant facility. This area is utilized as a temporary low-level radioactive waste storage site. All three areas indicated the presence of Co-60. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations to support the aerial data. In addition, soil samples were also taken at six locations along the shore of Wheeler Lake. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

Berry, H.A.

1986-10-01

167

Infant mortality in rural areas of Comprehensive Rural Health Services Project, Ballabgarh.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors attempt to identify factors affecting the infant mortality rate in India using data on registered births and deaths among a rural population of about 35,000 in Dayalpur in 1975. PMID:721277

Reddaiah, V P; Nath, L M

1978-07-01

168

Survey of Bacteriological Quality of the Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Saqqez City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Safe drinking water providing is one of the main purposes in the community. Development and improvement of community is related to the public health. In this study !we studied the bacteriological quality of 116 villages under coverage of the water and wastewater companies in rural areas of Saqqez in.1386"nMaterial and Methods:Drinking water of these rural areas have provided of deep, semi-depth- wells and spring water sources. Because in numerous rural areas bo...

Dehghani, M. H.; Ghaderpoori, M.; Fazlzadeh, M.; Golmohamadi, S.

2009-01-01

169

Menarchial Age of Secondary School Girls in Urban and Rural Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The menarchial age of 859 secondary school girls consisting of 508 from urban and 351 from rural area of Rivers State, Nigeria were determined, using questionnaires and interview method. Data collation revealed that 69.2% (243 of the rural population were menstruating, while 70.1% (356 of the urban population were menstruating. Mean ages of menarche were 13.19±1.32 years and 14.22±1.47 years for urban and rural areas respectively .A statistically significant lower mean menarchial age was observed in urban area girls, compared to their rural counterparts. Girls from families of high socio-economic class has significantly lower mean menarchial age in both urban and rural area. The mean age of menarche was significantly higher in girls involved in vigorous sporting activity in rural areas compared to their non-sporting counterparts. Urban school girls attain menarche earlier than those in rural area. High socio-economic class and vigorous sporting activity can be predisposing factors to low and high age of menarche respectively. There is need for redefinition of high socio-economic class in Nigeria.

Ikaraoha CI

2005-08-01

170

The importance of social capital in rural development, networking and decision-making in rural areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural decline is frequently explained in economic terms by unfavourable conditions and by missing resources or support. But this link is not entirely clear and does not apply in all regions. Some particularly remote rural regions with a very sparse population, a lack of policy support, poor economic performance and unfavourable climatic conditions prove more viable than some regions with more plentiful economic resources and support. The presentation will discuss the issue whether the concept...

2009-01-01

171

INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM SOUTHERN COUNTRIES RURAL AREAS : WHICH IMPACT ON AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL SUSTAINABILITY ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Relationship between migration, development and agriculture is an old issue which dates back to Lewis and his analysis of rural-urban migration in developing countries. The economic analysis of migration (especially the so-called new economics of labour migration – NELM) has strong connections with the microeconomics of peasant or rural households. NELM particularly focuses on contracts between migrants and their remaining family or community, which leads to remittances. These migrant netwo...

Requier-desjardins, Denis

2010-01-01

172

Assumption on the Reform of Social Security of Migrant Workers from Rural Areas from an Angle of Unified System in Urban and Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China is making efforts to improve the social security for migrant workers from rural areas and that for farmers in rural areas. However, due to the strong mobility of migrant workers, the efforts are hard to coordinate. To establish a unified social security system for urban and rural areas is the most reasonable objective and can be put into practice at present. This system should cover a wide and comprehensive scope. In China, no matter whether city or countryside, every citizen should possess an only integrated account for social security. The account must move together with the citizen. The initial account of a migrant worker can be established in either city or countryside.

Anmin Chen

2009-02-01

173

[Community participation for a latrine project in Senegalese rural area].  

Science.gov (United States)

The rural community of Ngohé faces serious hygiene and sanitation problems because of the poor quality of water, and in particular due to the lack of latrines in shelters. As of 2003, a three-year project for the construction of latrines was initiated within the framework of a donor agency programme to support the health region of Diourbel. After three years of activity, the poor results recorded provided considerable justification for the analysis of community participation in the project. A cross-cutting descriptive and analytical survey was carried out from December 14 -17th, 2005. Two trained investigators collected the data through individual and group interviews. It was found that there was close community participation in the decision-making process to determine which activities would be undertaken; however, it was limited in the areas of need assessment, mobilization and management of resources as well as monitoring and evaluation. Community participation was considered average concerning the implementation of activities. The low rate of latrines (1.7%), correlated with the high proportion of diarrhea as one of the main reason for consultation in 2004 (33.4%) and 2005 (29.4%), expressed the non-achievement of the project's objectives, which was planned to end in 2006. Many projects have shortcomings and pitfalls in their participatory strategy at al phases, especially during that of implementation. Frequently, participation efforts are limited to the recruitment of community participants. The organization and coordination that should accompany and support strategies for community participation must be adapted to the context of the poor and disadvantaged populations, a majority of whom are illiterate, as they are less sensitized to the benefits of hygiene and health promotion. It is the responsibility of health professionals to organize community representatives and to strengthen their capabilities in the field of hygiene and health in order to ensure the community ownership and sustainability of such projects. PMID:20441631

Ndiaye, Papa; Ndiaye, Ndéye Magatte; Diongue, Mayassine; Faye, Adama; Dia, Anta Tal

2010-01-01

174

International cooperation on wind energy for rural areas in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the recent wind energy activities in China is given. China has a long history in harnessing the wind; modern development started during the late seventies. The Chinese wind potential is mainly in the coastal regions (North East and South East) and in Inner Mongolia. The actual total installed wind power is estimated to be 15 MW. For low lift (within 2 meters), high volume applications, e.g. salt making in salt pans along the coast, of mechanical windmills coupled to screw pumps have been developed. In Inner Mongolia, small portable wind generators (50-200 MW) charging car batteries are supplying some 100,000 farmer and herdsman families with electricity for television and lighting. The average energy consumption is between 200 and 300 kWh per year and the corresponding kWh price 0.40 to 0.50 US$. Since 1988 the demand for small wind generators declined due to the lower wool prices on the world market, affecting the income of the herdsman, and due to the fact that the machines have to be marketed in remote, less accesible rural areas. Various demonstration projects have been set up, f.e. a decentralized energy system on Dachen Island, including a wind diesel hybrid system. On Kongdon Island a 60 kW wind turbine and a 60 kW diesel generator were installed. With several foreign wind turbine manufacturers cooperations have been set up for licensed production in China. Also wind farms have been installed. The largest Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 meter diameter, 200 kW machine. Western organizations or manufacturers are involved in most of the cooperatives. For the next five years the focus is on development of a large 150 and 200 kW machine and a windmill coupled to a centrifugal pump for lifting heads between 2 and 5 meter. 1 fig., 3 refs

1991-01-01

175

The new integrated aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields volcano and surrounding areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present and analyze the new detailed aeromagnetic data set resulting from a recent survey carried out in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. The survey was aimed at gaining new insight into the volcanological characteristics of the region north of Phlegrean Fields (Parete-Villa Literno area) where remarkable thickness of volcanic/sub- volcanic rocks were found in wells. Measurement of total magnetic field was performed on two different flight levels, 70 m and 400 m above the ...

2004-01-01

176

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/reha...

Duka, Ykateryna D.; Ilchenko, Svetlana I.; Kharytonov, Mykola M.; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L.

2011-01-01

177

Crustal and lithospheric structure of the Alborz Mountains, Iran, and surrounding areas from integrated geophysical modeling  

Science.gov (United States)

Using gravity, geoid, topography and surface heat flow data, we have modeled the density and temperature distribution in the lithosphere along three profiles crossing Iran in SW-NE direction from the Arabian foreland in the SW to the South Caspian Basin and the Turan Platform to the NE. We find thin lithosphere (100-120 km) underneath central Iran, whereas thick lithosphere (up to 240 km) is found underneath Arabia, the South Caspian Basin and the Turan Platform. Crustal thickening is found under the Zagros and Alborz mountains (up to 60 km) and under the Kopet-Dagh Mountains (48 km), whereas the thin crust under the southern Caspian Sea is either an oceanic crust or a highly thinned continental one. Below the South Caspian Sea, the shape of the crust-mantle interface and the base of the lithosphere indicate a subduction of the South Caspian block toward the N-NW. Further east, under the Kopet-Dagh, no evidence for active subduction is visible. This can be explained by a rheologically very strong South Caspian block, surrounded by weaker continental lithosphere.

Motavalli-Anbaran, Seyed-Hani; Zeyen, Hermann; Brunet, Marie-FrançOise; Ardestani, Vahid Ebrahimzadeh

2011-10-01

178

A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

1987-02-01

179

Preparation of Potentially Site Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Java Island and Its Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)

2008-06-01

180

An aerial radiological survey of the Seabrook Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Seabrook, New Hampshire, July 1988  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Seabrook Nuclear Station, Seabrook, New Hampshire, during the period 6 July through 14 July 1988. The purpose of the 247-square-kilometer (96-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the station and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates measured in the area typically ranged form 9 to 12 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). In areas where water shielded the earth, lower exposure rates were measured. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the station were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

1989-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

An aerial radiological survey of the Seabrook Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Seabrook, New Hampshire, July 1988  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Seabrook Nuclear Station, Seabrook, New Hampshire, during the period 6 July through 14 July 1988. The purpose of the 247-square-kilometer (96-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the station and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates measured in the area typically ranged form 9 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). In areas where water shielded the earth, lower exposure rates were measured. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the station were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

1988-07-14

182

The importance of social capital in rural development, networking and decision-making in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural decline is frequently explained in economic terms by unfavourable conditions and by missing resources or support. But this link is not entirely clear and does not apply in all regions. Some particularly remote rural regions with a very sparse population, a lack of policy support, poor economic performance and unfavourable climatic conditions prove more viable than some regions with more plentiful economic resources and support. The presentation will discuss the issue whether the concept of social capital could lead to a better understanding of these patterns. The role of social capital will be demonstrated by means of a model connecting it with rural development, multifunctionality, local governance and environmental perception and national policies. The findings of several case studies within the EUROLAN project (Strengthening the Multifunctional Use of Land: Coping with marginalisation, suggest that social capital should be more recognized by policy makers as a key issue in the rural development process, hampering (when weak or supporting (when strong and well-rooted the implementation of rural development policies.La marginalisation rurale peut en grande partie s’expliquer par les conditions peu favorables et un manque de ressources, mais pas uniquement et pas dans toutes les régions. Certaines régions de faible densité, aux conditions économiques et climatiques peu favorables, et qui ne font pas l’objet de politiques locales d’envergure, s’avèrent plus viables que certaines régions bien plus aisées. Dans le présent article, nous nous demanderons si le capital social peut aider à combler ce fossé, et si tel est le cas, dans quelle mesure. Le rôle du capital social sera démontré en tant que vecteur d’un modèle le reliant avec le développement rural, la plurifonctionnalité, la gouvernance locale, la perception environnementale et les politiques nationales. Les résultats de certaines études de cas inclues dans le projet EUROLAN (Renforcement de l’usage multifonctionnel du Sol, prendre en charge la marginalisation laissent entendre que le capital social devrait être mieux pris en compte par les acteurs politiques comme une question clé dans le processus de développement rural, freinant (lorsqu’elles sont faibles ou encourageant (lorsqu’elles sont fortes et bien enracinées la mise en œuvre de politiques de développement rural.

Georg Wiesinger

2009-03-01

183

Human Trypanosomiasis in Ethiopia: Investigations in Pinybago Village and the Surrounding Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

The initial appearance in 1967 of human sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, in Ethiopia was followed by an outbreak in the Gilo River area of Illubabor Province. By the end of 1971 approximately 260 confirmed cases had been record...

E. McConnell J. R. Baker

1974-01-01

184

An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station was conducted during September 18 to 21, 1998, and encompassed a 53.1-square-kilometer area. The survey was conducted by the U. S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The purpose of the survey was to measure and map the general exposure-rate levels that existed within the survey area and to define the areas of man-made radionuclide activity. The inferred exposure rates were generally uniform and typical of the natural background radiation, which varied from less than 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour. Enhanced exposure rates, not attributable to natural background, and activity from man-made radionuclides were detected over the power station. The detected man-made radionuclide activity was due to the presence of cobalt-60, which is a nuclear activation product, and cesium-137, which is a long-lived fission product. The detected man-made radionuclides were generally consistent with those expected from routine plant operations. Areas outside of the power station boundaries were found to be free of any detectable man-made radionuclides. A series of ground-based, pressurized ionization chamber exposure-rate measurements were acquired at four locations within the survey boundaries. The results of these measurements were compared and found to be within 5 to 30 percent of the corresponding 1998 inferred aerial exposure-rate data

1999-01-01

185

Non-natural conditions of development in rural areas of Middle Pomerania (synthetic measurement)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents non-natural conditions in rural areas of Middle Pomerania. The region was delimited into four different levels of natural conditions. The research was based on the synthetic indicator.

2010-01-01

186

Non-natural conditions of development in rural areas of Middle Pomerania (synthetic measurement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents non-natural conditions in rural areas of Middle Pomerania. The region was delimited into four different levels of natural conditions. The research was based on the synthetic indicator.

Natalia Bartkowiak

2010-01-01

187

Chernobyl radiological data for accident consequence assessment. Behaviour in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this draft is presented the results of a first effort to summarize information related to the radionuclides behaviour in rural areas, in order to estimate pathway parameters to assess accident consequences. This topic encloses relevant aspects concerni...

A. Bottino A. Sacripanti

1989-01-01

188

[Re-establishing access to care for the most disadvantaged in rural areas].  

Science.gov (United States)

Inhabitants of rural areas are not spared deprivation. In May 2013 Médecins du Monde created a Health and Coordination Support Network in Auvergne with the aim of reintegrating them into the general healthcare system. PMID:24881237

El Khoury, Hala; Dessenne, Pascal

2014-04-01

189

Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes

2007-05-01

190

Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes.

Ip, Carman C.M. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk; Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wai, Onyx W.H. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li, Y.-S. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2007-05-15

191

Rural Diversity and heterogeneity in less-favoured areas: the quest for policy targeting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wide diversity among farmers and fields is a prime characteristic of livelihoods and production systems in less-favoured areas. One-size-fits-all policies can therefore not provide adequate solutions to poverty and degradation problems. Sustainable rural development strategies in these areas need to focus on the potential for resource use intensification, based on a careful combination of local and regional measures. Various pathways for development can be identified for enabling rural househ...

Ruben, R.; Pender, J.

2004-01-01

192

ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups ...

Botezat Elena Aurelia; Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

2011-01-01

193

Health Profile Of Aged Persons In Urban & Rural Field Practice Areas Of Medical College, Amrisar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research question: What is the health status of aged persons in urban and rural area? Objectives: 1. To study the socio-demographic profile. 2. To study the health status of aged persons in urban and rural areas and factors associated with it. Study design: Cross-sectional Participants: Persons aged 60 years and above. Sample size: 698 (423 males and 275 females) Study variables: Age, Sex, marital status, occupation, literacy status, addition, morbidity pattern and disability. Results: Among ...

Padda A.S; Mohan V; Singh Jagjit; Deepti S.S; Singh Gurmeet; Dhillon H.S

1998-01-01

194

Deprivation, low birth weight, and children's height: a comparison between rural and urban areas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To compare proportions of low birthweight babies and mean heights of schoolchildren between rural and urban areas at different levels of social deprivation. DESIGN--Cross sectional population based study classifying cases by Townsend material deprivation index of enumeration district of residence and by rural areas, small towns, and large towns. SETTING--Northumberland Health District. SUBJECTS--18,930 singleton infants delivered alive during January 1985 to September 1990 and resi...

1993-01-01

195

Characteristics of Women with Unwanted Pregnancies and Reasons for Contraceptive Methods Discontination: Sample of Rural Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence and characteristics of women with unwanted pregnancy in rural area and to examine pregnant women’s contraceptive method preferences, satisfaction with the methods and reason the methods discontinuation. METHOD: This study was carried out in Manisa city rural area between the dates of January and June 2011 in women who agreed to participate in the study. The sample of the research is composed of 239 pregnant women. The research was ...

Semra Ay; Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu

2012-01-01

196

Water defluoridation, water denitrification and water desalination in rural areas in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many borehole waters in rural areas in South Africa are unfit for human consumption because the fluoride (>1,5 mg/?), nitrate-nitrogen (>6 mg/?) and salinity (>1 500 mg/?) concentrations are too high. Ion exchange (IX) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology are available that can be used for defluoridation, denitrification and desalination of water. However, methodology, guidelines and the economics for the use of these technologies in rural areas are not readily available. Therefore, the ...

Schoeman, J. J.

2010-01-01

197

The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbo...

2011-01-01

198

Water Pollution and its Effects on Human Health in Rural Areas of Faisalabad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was envisaged to assess the water pollution and its effects on human health in rural areas of Faisalabad. The study was conducted in three villages of Faisalabad district using simple random method. 150 respondents were selected from three villages (i.e. 50 from each village. The data were collected from the rural areas through well structured interviewing schedule by using face to face survey method. The collected data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical techniques.

Samina Farid

2002-01-01

199

Side Activities of Non-Farmers in Rural Areas in the Netherlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many rural areas, not only in The Netherlands but also elsewhere in Europe, has been observed a variety of employment opportunities for rural populations, following the decline in traditional agricultural employment. This contributes to the fact that the countryside is changing and rural areas can be viewed as new spaces of work. As a result, rural economy is no longer dominated by agricultural activities, but by activities such as small scale industrial production, service provision, landscape management, and residential use. To a certain extent these activities have the form of side-activities next to primary income sources. Most attention in both scientific literature and policies is focused on side-activities by farmers, such as agro-tourism and direct marketing. However, according to empirical data from The Netherlands, most side-activities are developed by non-farmers. In this paper the focus is on this last group. The amounts and types of non-farmers’ and farmers side-activities will be deployed, together with their motives to start new entrepreneurship endeavors and the impact on the local community. It will be argued that this type of activities will stimulate rural economic development offering new job opportunities for income generation to the rural inhabitants and create new economic spaces in rural geographical contexts transforming the rural economy.

Marianna Markantoni

2012-01-01

200

Detailed study of the seismotectonic setting in the Lucanian Apennines and surrounding areas (Southern Italy)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research work I analyzed the instrumental seismicity of Southern Italy in the area including the Lucanian Apennines and Bradano foredeep, making use of the most recent seismological database available so far. I examined the seismicity occurred during the period between 2001 and 2006, considering 514 events with magnitudes M ? 2.0. In the first part of the work, P- and S-wave arrival times, recorded by the Italian National Seismic Network (RSNC) operated by the Istituto Nazionale di ...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Survey of Microbial Quality of Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Kashan-Iran in Second Half of 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study is surveying microbial quality of drinking water in Kashan rural areas and determining the rural population that using safe water in terms of microbial quality in second-half of 2008. In this cross-sectional study, microbial quality of water in all rural areas was determined in 3 stages based on 3 parameters as Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC. The results of this study illustrates that 100.0, 47.71 and 92.99% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of Kashan Rural Water and Wastewater Company (KRWWC and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Fecal Coliforms and 98.4, 21.2 and 88.00% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of KRWWC rural areas and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Total Coliforms. There is also a meaningful difference in microbial quality between under coverage and non-under coverage rural areas. The results of this study express that the fecal contamination in under coverage rural areas is excellent, but there is a bad condition in non-under coverage areas. Generally, the microbial quality in all Kashan rural areas is approximately equal to national microbial criteria. Its been also illustrated that the role of KRWWC in supplying safe drinking water in terms of microbial quality for rural population is very important.

M. Heidari

2011-01-01

202

The new integrated aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields volcano and surrounding areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present and analyze the new detailed aeromagnetic data set resulting from a recent survey carried out in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. The survey was aimed at gaining new insight into the volcanological characteristics of the region north of Phlegrean Fields (Parete-Villa Literno area where remarkable thickness of volcanic/sub- volcanic rocks were found in wells. Measurement of total magnetic field was performed on two different flight levels, 70 m and 400 m above the ground surface, along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Both aeromagnetic maps show the noisy effect of linear anomalies evidently due to the presence of railway lines. To filter out these local anomalies a method based on discrete wavelet transform was used, allowing an accurate local filtering and leaving the rest of the field practically unchanged. The filtered data set was integrated with the existing Agip aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields, leading to a new aeromagnetic map of the whole Phlegrean volcanic area. The compilation of the pole reduced map and of the maps of the Analytic Signal and of the Horizontal Derivative of the integrated data set represents a first step for the interpretation of the maps in terms of geological structures of the whole Phlegrean volcanic district.

A. Rapolla

2004-06-01

203

Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

2005-01-01

204

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

Ykateryna D. Duka

2011-05-01

205

Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

2008-06-01

206

Measurement of Aerosol Optical Property in Hong Kong Rural Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change and visibility impairment. The evidence of the role in climate change is required for monitoring the extinction, absorption, scattering coefficient and single scattering albedo in different sites around world. In the southern China public attention are focusing on severe regional visibility problem and its connection to regional air pollution. Black carbon (BC) is a form of atmospheric aerosol and can reduce visibility through absorption of solar radiation and it is an important primary aerosol cause global warming. Here, we presented the 2-year measurements (2011-2013) of aerosol optical properties, using aethalometer and nephelometer to measure scattering (Bsp), absorption coefficient (Bab), single scattering albedo (SSA) and scattering angstrom exponent (?s) in Hong Kong rural area (Hok Tsui) and determine the Hong Kong regional pollution status. The mean Bsp, Bab, ?s and SSA during the sampling period is 110.84±89.19, 15.09±9.85 Mm-1, 1.0±0.42 and 0.84±0.11, respectively. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are both ~22% higher than the median. The significant seasonal variation of absorption and scattering coefficient is observed, which was lower in spring (12.87±7.5 and 91.30±73.3) and summer (10.84±10.1 and 65.24±75.2) seasons but has higher value in autumn (16.79±8.9 and 124.23±82.4) and winter (18.74±10.3 and 157.27±98.8) seasons. Similar as scattering and absorption value, in spring and summer, the SSA is lower than the value measured in autumn and winter seasons, indicates that absorption coefficient play an important role in spring and summer seasons than in autumn and winter seasons. Compared to scattering and absorption coefficient data reported by [1] in HT, 14 years ago, the annual scattering coefficient is increased about ~106% and absorption coefficient decreased ~11%. The main reason for absorption coefficient decreasing relies on BC concentration significantly decreased. In addition, the value of SSA is 0.8 in 2011 compared with 0.7 in 2001and it could estimate that secondary pollution increasing greatly.

GAO, Yuan; Lee, Shun-cheng; Huang, Yu; Lai, Senchao

2014-05-01

207

Status Inconsistency in Rural Areas: A Replication and Critique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Replicating the work of others who hypothesized that status inconsistancy increases political liberalism, this study involved a random sample of rural Michigan population. Utilizing multiple regression analysis, respondents were scored on the variables of occupation, income, education, religion, and political party preference. Hypotheses tested…

Salopek, Phillip A.; Vanderpool, Christopher K.

208

The dispersion of fibrous amphiboles by glacial processes in the area surrounding Libby, Montana, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Mining operations began at a world-class vermiculite deposit at Vermiculite Mountain near Libby, Montana, circa 1920 and ended in 1990. Fibrous and asbestiform amphiboles intergrown with vermiculite ore are suspected to be a causative factor in an abnormally high number of cases of respiratory diseases in former mine and mill workers, and in residents of Libby. The question addressed in this report is whether some of the amphibole from Vermiculite Mountain could have been dispersed by Pleistocene glacial processes rather than by human activity after vermiculite mining began. The history of Pinedale glaciation in the Libby area provides a framework for estimating the presence and distribution of asbestiform amphiboles derived from Vermiculite Mountain and found in naturally occurring sediments of Glacial Lake Kootenai that underlie the Libby Valley area. There were two situations where sediments derived from Vermiculite Mountain were deposited into Glacial Lake Kootenai: (1) as lake-bottom sediments derived from meltwater flowing down Rainy Creek when the valley south of Vermiculite Mountain was free of ice but active ice still covered Vermiculite Mountain; and (2) as lake-bottom sediments eroded from the Rainy Creek outwash and re-deposited during a re-advance of the Purcell Trench Glacier lobe near Moyie Springs, Idaho.

Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Adams, David T.; Hoefen, Todd M.

2011-01-01

209

An aerial radiological survey of the Hanford Site and surrounding area, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, during the period 5 July through 26 August 1988. The survey was expanded, and additional flights were conducted to the east of the site and along the banks of the Columbia River down to McNary Dam near Umatilla. The survey was flown at altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) by a helicopter containing 17 liters (eight 2 in. x 4 in. x 16 in.) of sodium iodide detectors. Gamma ray data were collected over the survey area by flying north-south lines spaced 122 meters (400 feet) apart. The processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were generally consistent with those expected from normal background emitters and man-made fission/activation products resulting from activities at the site. External exposure rates were generally 10 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) with some operating areas over 1000 ?R/h. The radiation levels over more than 95% of the site are due to normal background exposure rates. 3 refs., 25 figs

1988-08-26

210

Effect of organic suspended solids and their sedimentation on the surrounding sea area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of sediment contamination was made in one of the 23 specific designated important ports in Japan, the inner part of which had been used as wood pool. The study focused on the relationship between contaminants and organic matter in terms of ignition loss and the impact of the wood pool on the port area. Organic matter exists in the form of suspended solids and deposits. Sediment samples were taken from the mouths of the rivers feeding into Shimizu Port, from the wood pool and from Shimizu Port. Samples within Shimizu Port showed that as the ignition loss decreased with distance from the wood pool, other properties including the concentrations of trace metals, ignition loss and sulfide content also decreased with the distance. In conclusion, Shimizu Port seems to function as a buffer area between the wood pool and Suruga Bay. - Suspended solids can act as adsorbents for hazardous substances in surface water and their sedimentation can prevent the pollutants from spreading into the ocean.

Fukue, Masaharu [Department of Marine Civil Engineering, Tokai University, 3-20-1 Orido, Shimizu-ku, Shizuoka 424-8610 (Japan); Mulligan, Catherine N. [Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. W, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada)]. E-mail: mulligan@civil.concordia.ca; Sato, Yoshio [Department of Marine Science, Tokai University, 3-20-1 Orido, Shimizu-ku, Shizuoka 424-8610 (Japan); Fujikawa, Toshihide [Graduate Student, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

2007-09-15

211

Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 1970 respectively, were not checked. From the analysis of 201 records (sightings, signs of presence, animals found dead and skins, we found that the badger, weasel and stone marten selected middle-low altitude (since 1000 m a.s.l., the pine marten and stoat the middle-high altitude. The former species frequented mainly agricultural lands of bottom of the valley with built-up areas, the latter ones occurred mainly in forest habitat of secluded valleys (the pine marten, and in stony ground and alpine prairies (the stoat. The badger was the most diffuse species, the pine marten the least one. On a total of 46 grids of the study area, 32.6% presented three mustelid species, 17.4% five species. The badger and the stone marten were the species with the greatest overlapping range (61.7% of the grids, the weasel and the stoat with the smallest one (23.4% of the grids. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mustelidi nel Parco Adamello-Brenta e aree limitrofe (Trentino, Alpi centrali - L'indagine, condotta nel 1991-93, ha interessato un'area di 1085 km² e ha permesso di definire le mappe di distribuzione, secondo una griglia di 6,4x5,5 km desunta dalla Carta Topografica generale (scala 1:10000 edita dalla Provincia Autonoma di Trento, di cinque specie: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina e Martes martes. La presenza di Mustela putorius e di Lutra lutra, accertata fino intorno agli anni '60 e '70 rispettivamente, non è stata invece confermata. Dall'analisi di 201 segnalazioni (osservazioni dirette, segni di presenza, animali trovati morti o imbalsamati è stato rilevato che le fasce altitudinali medio-basse (fino a 1000 m sono selezionate da tasso, donnola e faina che frequentano soprattutto ambienti coltivati di fondovalle con presenza di centri abitati, quelle medio-alte da martora e ermellino che utilizzano rispettivamente comprensori forestali delle vallate interne e ambienti con presenza di versanti detritici, praterie alpine e malghe. La specie più diffusa è risultata il tasso, quella meno diffusa la martora. Il 32,6% delle 46 griglie, in cui è stata suddivisa l'area di studio, mostra la presenza di 3 specie, il 17,4% di 5 specie. I1 tasso e la faina sono risultate le specie con maggior sovrapposizione di areale di distribuzione (61,7% delle griglie, la donnola e l'ermellino quelle con minor sovrapposizione (23,4% delle griglie.

Paolo Pedrini

1995-12-01

212

An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10?R/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

1988-04-04

213

An aerial radiological survey of the EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies and surrounding area, Miamisburg, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, Ohio, during the period of June 9--24, 1989. The purpose of the 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. In addition, ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level was.constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates measured in the area typically ranged from 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (?R/h)

1992-01-01

214

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREA IN ROMANIA XXI  

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Full Text Available The present paper intends to design a strategy for the sustainable development of the Romanian agriculture and rural area, to identify the main modalities to reach the strategic objectives for the years 2013, 2020 and 2030. Romania needs a multifunctional and competitive agriculture, which is also complementary to the agriculture of the other European Union countries. Main decisions have to be taken with regard to the support to the different agricultural systems under competition, among which the most important are the following: food production versus biofuel production, conventional agriculture versus biotechnological agriculture, intensive agriculture on family holdings versus agriculture on very large-sized farms. It is very important for the Romanian agriculture to determine the equilibrium point for each above-mentioned case, the optimum level that transforms competition into internal and external complementariness. The strategies that have been designed so far generally envisaged all these economic and social desiderata, while trying to impose a new rural area development philosophy, based upon the sustainable rural development concept, which presupposes a harmonious blending between the agriculture (and forestry economy component and the non-agricultural rural economy component, based upon the following principles: harmony between the rural economy and the environment, rural area naturalization by preserving the natural environment, the use of natural local resources, mainly renewable resources, diversification of agricultural economy structure through pluriactivity, through the extension and diversification of agri-food economy, of non-agricultural economy and of rural services.

P. I. OTIMAN

2008-05-01

215

Teleophthalmology: a model for eye care delivery in rural and underserved areas of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tamilnadu and can be replicated at the national level. This community outreach programme using telemedicine facilities has increased awareness of eye diseases, improved access to specialized health care, helped in local community empowerment, and provided employment opportunities. Early detection of sight threatening disorders by teleophthalmology and prompt treatment can help decrease visual impairment. Conclusion. Teleophthalmology can be a very effective model for improving eye care delivery system in rural and underserved areas of India. PMID:22295192

Prathiba, Vijayaraghavan; Rema, Mohan

2011-01-01

216

Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

2005-01-01

217

Digital tabulation of stratigraphic data from oil and gas wells in Cuyama Valley and surrounding areas, central California  

Science.gov (United States)

Stratigraphic information from 391 oil and gas exploration wells from Cuyama Valley, California, and surrounding areas are herein compiled in digital form from reports that were released originally in paper form. The Cuyama Basin is located within the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges and north of the western Transverse Ranges, west of the San Andreas fault. Knowledge of the location and elevation of stratigraphic tops of formations throughout the basin is a first step toward understanding depositional trends and the structural evolution of the basin through time, and helps in understanding the slip history and partitioning of slip on San Andreas and related faults.

Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; Shumaker, Lauren E.; Scheirer, Daniel S.

2013-01-01

218

Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (? 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

Setel Philip

2005-01-01

219

A Development of the dust deposition in the area surrounding the SMZ, a.s., Jel?ava plant  

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Full Text Available The area of Jel?ava ? Lubeník ranks among the eight excessively polluted areas registered in Slovakia. The main cause of this situation is a hundred years of existence of the exploitation and processing of magnesite. The SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava is currently the biggest Slovak producer of brick and steel magnesite-based clinkers. The technological procedures used to process the raw material represent the main source of solid polluting substances as well as the primary dustiness in the area surrounding the plant. The negative visual look of the surrounding country has its origin in the past, when a 25-times higher quantity of the currently produced solid emissions was released into the air in some years, while the current value of the pollution does not exceed 200 tons per year. The devastated, deforested and degrassed surfaces of the area surrounding the plant and roads became a significant source of secondary dustiness in the given area.Since 1994 ÚGt SAV Ko?ice in co-operation with SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava has been focusing on the monitoring of solid emissions in the form of dust deposition. 18 sampling points situated in the vicinity of the plant, mainly in surrounding villages and city Jel?ava were originally built for the purpose of sampling the dust deposition. The samples were taken monthly , analysed by the gravimetric method and the samples of dust deposition was determined in g.m-2.(30 days-1. To analyse all samples, they were cumulated for a certain period and then the selected elements were analysed using the AAS method. The results of the dust deposition were averaged for each individual year of the period from 1996 to 1999 to make a better interpretation of the results. The results of the chemical analysis represent an average for a given period. The main component of the dust deposition, i.e. MgO is stated as an average value in individual years.The processed results from 1996 to 1999 show a decreasing trend in the total dust deposition in all localities, except for 1999, when a slight increase was observed in some localities. This increase observed in the most exposed sampling points in the vicinity of the main primary sources did not achieve the value recorded in 1996. In addition to the localities in the vicinity of the plant, the highest hygienic admissible dust deposition [12.5 g.m-2.(30 days-1] was sporadically exceeded on the places located in the populated zone of Jel?ava, especially during summer dry seasons. The decrease observed in 1999 in the case of the most exposed places in the vicinity of the plant can be caused by an increase in the secondary dust deposition in the given area. The average yearly dust deposition in Jel?ava, representing ca. 10 g.m-2.(30 days-1 was 2-3 times lower than the stated values of the dust deposition measured in the 80-ties. The MgO deposition follows the development in the total dust deposition. The average content of heavy metals in the dust deposition is relatively small and it increases proportionally with the distance from the main source confirming that SMZ, a.s. is not a big producer of these elements, the content of which has a decreasing trend probably due to a change in the fuel used in the plant. In spite of an increasing production, the plant implements measures to reduce a negative influence of the dust pollution on the surrounding area.

Hanèu¾ák Jozef

2000-09-01

220

A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

1997-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings  

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Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

Mindriany Syafila

2012-11-01

222

Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas : Creative People and Social Network  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire, utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited.

Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

2014-01-01

223

[Characteristics of delta18O in precipitation and water vapor sources in Lanzhou City and its surrounding area].  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the 243 daily precipitation samples and meteorological statistics at the four stations at Lanzhou city and its surrounding area (Yongdeng, Gaolan and Yuzhong) from April 2011 to March 2012, the characteristics of stable isotopes in precipitation, as well as the correlation between stable isotopes and meteorological records, were analyzed. The precipitation equation of Lanzhou city and its surrounding area were calculated through the regression analysis, and the water vapor source of the four sites was tracked by the HYSPLIT 4. 9 model, and water vapor transmission regime was established. Results showed that the precipitation equation of deltaD =7.48 delta18O + 8.13 indicated intense evaporation; delta18O value was low in winter but high in summer; The variations of observed d-excess was stable all over the year, but there was variation in different time periods; The spatial distribution showed that the weighted delta18O value decreased from the west to the east; The linear relationships between delta18O and temperature was positive correlation, but the linear relationships between delta18O and precipitation was negative correlation; The seasonal variations of delta18O indicated that westerly water vapor, local moisture and summer monsoon all had influence on this region in a large scale, but the westerly water vapor played a dominant role. However, the impact of monsoon moisture had a seasonal limitation, mainly during the period from June to early August. PMID:24364289

Chen, Fen-Li; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Ma, Qian; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Li, Fei

2013-10-01

224

Information and Communication Technologies for Regional Development in the Czech Republic – Broadband Connectivity in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available The present paper introduces chosen results of an ICT development survey in the regions of the Czech Republic. The survey was primarily focused on broadband connectivity and its adoption by agricultural enterprises operating in rural areas. The survey was conducted in the context of both the EU strategy "Digital Agenda for Europe" and the national program document "National Policy in Electronic Communications - Digital Czech Republic". It stems from the enquiries that the situation is not – in spite of a certain improvement – satisfactory and the digital divide remains highly topical in rural areas of the Czech Republic. Broadband connectivity reaches practically 100% in urban areas and more than 85% in suburban areas whereas the rural areas show only about 75% availability. In many parts of the Czech Republic, a high quality Internet connection is quite questionable and sometimes even unavailable until present.

J. Van?k

2011-09-01

225

PARTICULARITIES OF EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

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Full Text Available The majority of employed population in rural areas is engaged either in agricultural activities mostly being informal activities, or they are employed in the public sector through the activities of education, health care, culture, social welfare, which are quite modest share in rural employment structure. Both agricultural activities, which can not ensure a rapid growth of labor productivity and employment in the public sector can not provide a level of income needed for a decent living where salaries depend on the limited possibilities of local budget. In the created conditions, in order to improve the situation of employment in rural areas the necessity to develop nonagricultural activities appears, it would increase rural incomes and would reduce urban migration.

Olga SÂRBU

2013-01-01

226

ASSESSING SELF-CONSUMPTION IMPORTANCE ON THE INCOME IN RURAL AREAS  

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Full Text Available Value of goods produced and consumed is an important part of the lifestyle of the rural population, own consumption delimiting subsistence economy size and living standards. Under these circumstances, this paper aims to assess the importance of self-consumption in population income and expenditure structure and its implications for different social groups in rural areas. In 2011, in rural areas, the equivalent consumption of agricultural products from own resources accounted for 37.4% of total revenues and 47.0% of the total food consumption. In this context, our main results emphasize that high values indicate an involution in own consumption from an economic perspective and a growing importance of agriculture in ensuring non-monetary income of the rural population

Adina IORGA

2013-01-01

227

Endogenous resources utilization of rural areas in shaping sustainable development in Poland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents rural areas in Poland in the context of endogenous resources utilization and functional diversification in 2007 and 2008. One of the directions of multifunctional rural development is renewable energy production based on local resources. Effective utilization of both environmental and technological resources for agricultural production was discussed by the reference to the energy crops production. Energy crops pose an alternative source of energy (biomass) and are base...

Szyman?ska, Daniela; Chodkowska-miszczuk, Justyna

2011-01-01

228

Open source handheld-based EMR for paramedics working in rural areas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a handheld-based electronic medical record (EMR) for use in certain rural settings. The system is based on the Linux operating system and allows access to large mobile databases. The open source system is designed for paramedical health workers serving remote areas in rural India. A PDA loaded with the handheld-based EMR provides workers who have little access to medical doctors with different kinds of decision support and alerts. It addresses two important problems in developing ...

Anantraman, Vishwanath; Mikkelsen, Tarjei; Khilnani, Reshma; Kumar, Vikram S.; Pentland, Alex; Ohno-machado, Lucila

2002-01-01

229

A study of efficiency of MCH services in rural area of district Ludhiana (Punjab)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Cross Sectional study was conducted to evaluate the quantitative indicators of MCH services in the Rural population of Ludhiana District in four villages of the field practice area of the Rural Health Training Center. The methodology adopted was a supervision and observation of the routine services provided by the team of the field workers. . The data collected was, analyzed in the Epi –i...

Sanjay Gupta*

2011-01-01

230

Cancer Outcomes Research in a Rural Area: A Multi-Institution Partnership Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whereas, most cancer research data come from high-profile academic centers, little is known about the outcomes of cancer care in rural communities. We summarize the experience of building a multi-institution partnership to develop a cancer outcomes research infrastructure in Southwest Georgia (SWGA), a primarily rural 33-county area with over 700,000 residents. The partnership includes eight institutions: the Emory University in Atlanta, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), t...

2009-01-01

231

Embeddedness of Entrepreneurs in Rural Areas: A Comparative Rough Set Data Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to identify the critical factor(s) that determine the embeddedness level (EL) of rural entrepreneurs. In order to achieve this aim, existing applied studies on the embeddedness of entrepreneurs undertaken in different rural areas were systematically collected to create a database in order to provide the material for a systematic comparative analysis. This was done in order to highlight common and contrasting findings from a set of selected studies for different ELs. As many re...

Gulumser, Aliye Ahu; Nijkamp, Peter; Baycan-levent, Tuzin; Brons, Martijn

2009-01-01

232

Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the 1999…

Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

2004-01-01

233

Survey of Bacteriological Quality of the Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Saqqez City  

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Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Safe drinking water providing is one of the main purposes in the community. Development and improvement of community is related to the public health. In this study !we studied the bacteriological quality of 116 villages under coverage of the water and wastewater companies in rural areas of Saqqez in.1386"nMaterial and Methods:Drinking water of these rural areas have provided of deep, semi-depth- wells and spring water sources. Because in numerous rural areas both sources of drinking water and in some of them different sources of drinking water were used (old and new storage water source, in general, 359 samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory for testing to evaluate its quality. We also used linear Regression statistical analysis for collected data."nResults:results show that residual chlorine in drinking water in 33.88 percent of rural areas population were in range 0.2-1 mg/l. For 98.3 percent of the seqqez rural population, the turbidity was lower than the maximum permissible levels of drinking water standards of Iran (5 NTU. There was no any E.coli contamination in 88 percent of drinking water in saqqez rural areas."nConclusion:Based on WHO guidelines concerning the microbial quality of water published in 2006! the average indicator for lack of E.coli in water of rural areas of seqqez was 88 percent and water is safe or good for drinking.

S Golmohamadi

2009-09-01

234

Prevalence of Goiter in rural area of Belgaum district, Karnataka  

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Full Text Available Background: To determine the prevalence of goiter and to study the factors influencing goiter among people of the rural community in Karnataka state, a community based study. Setting and Study Design: A cross sectional study was carried out to find out the prevalence of goiter in a rural community of Belgaum district. The study was conducted by house-to-house survey for a period of one month. Materials and Methods: Two villages (Handiganur and Gundwad were selected randomly from Belgaum and Raibag taluks of Belgaum district. All the family members in each household were examined for the presence of goiter using WHO criteria. Iodine content of the salt sample obtained from each household was estimated by using spot testing kits. Information regarding the determinants of goiter was collected and recorded in a pre tested proforma. Data collected was analyzed using SPSS statistical packages. Results: The prevalence of goiter among rural population was found to be 16.6%. Goiter of grade 1 was 15.7% and that of grade 2 was 0.9%. Prevalence among males and females were 7.2% and 21.8%, respectively. The prevalence of goiter was highest among adolescents. Estimation of iodine content in the salt sample revealed that 50% of samples had adequate iodine content (> 15 ppm. Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis revealed that females of the age group 10-49 years were independently associated with goiter. Conclusion: Prevalence of goiter was relatively high and therefore constituted a public health problem in this region.

Kamath R

2009-01-01

235

Aerial radiological survey of the Feed Materials Production Center and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, located near Fernald, Ohio, during the period April 24 to 27, 1985. The survey covered a 70-square-kilometer (27-square-mile) area centered on the plant. The highest exposure rates, in excess of 0.35 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the plant. This radiation was due to the presence of nuclides which were consistent with normal plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates, varying from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h), were due to naturally-occurring potassium, uranium, thorium, and daughter products. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7..mu..R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. Soil sample results showed several areas just outside the site boundary with slightly elevated amounts of U-238. The levels, however, were well below the detection limit of the aerial system. The only off-site area that showed apparent above background activity in the aerial data was directly west of the storage silos. The symmetric shape of the contours, however, suggests that these elevated levels are due to ''shine'' from material stored on-site in the silos and not to actual off-site contamination. Detailed comparison of the 1985 aerial survey data with a previous survey conducted in 1976 showed no significant change in any area outside the plant boundary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

1985-10-01

236

Aerial radiological survey of the Feed Materials Production Center and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, located near Fernald, Ohio, during the period April 24 to 27, 1985. The survey covered a 70-square-kilometer (27-square-mile) area centered on the plant. The highest exposure rates, in excess of 0.35 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the plant. This radiation was due to the presence of nuclides which were consistent with normal plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates, varying from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), were due to naturally-occurring potassium, uranium, thorium, and daughter products. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. Soil sample results showed several areas just outside the site boundary with slightly elevated amounts of U-238. The levels, however, were well below the detection limit of the aerial system. The only off-site area that showed apparent above background activity in the aerial data was directly west of the storage silos. The symmetric shape of the contours, however, suggests that these elevated levels are due to ''shine'' from material stored on-site in the silos and not to actual off-site contamination. Detailed comparison of the 1985 aerial survey data with a previous survey conducted in 1976 showed no significant change in any area outside the plant boundary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

1985-01-01

237

The “LEADER Approach” - New Development Opportunity for Rural Areas in Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrated rural development programmes, which are prepared with the active involvement of local citizens, have a long tradition in Slovenia. In the period 1991-2006, Slovenia introduced “Programmes of Integrated Rural Development and Village Renewal” and “Development Programmes for Rural Areas”, which were quite similar to the LEADER initiative in theEuropean Union. From the 2007-2013 programming period, the LEADER approach has been mainstreamed within the overall EU rural development policy. This means that LEADER is included in national and regional rural development programmes supported by the EU,alongside a range of other rural development axes. The main emphasis of the current paper is given to the implementation of the LEADER approach and establishment of local action groups in the 2007-2013 programming period. The paper consists of three parts. The first part presents the general characteristics of the LEADER approach and the measures which are carried out in the 2007-2013 Rural Development Programme. In the second part, an analysis of 33 Local Action Groups is described. The main focus is given to spatial-demographic characteristics, the partnership structure, and the organisation of the decision making body.The paper concludes with an analysis of 33 Local Development Strategies. We analysed the extent to which the strategic goals and priority tasks of Local Development Strategies follow the economic, social and spatial-environmental component of sustainable development.

Tomaž Cunder, B.Sc. Geography

2010-03-01

238

Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

2008-01-01

239

Integrated development – essential condition for modernisation of rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The inspiration to take up the issue of integrated development in the context of the modernization of the village was, on the one hand, the conviction of the urgent need of stimulation, on the other hand, there was a concern that it should not be identified entirely with the integrated management system. Although the idea of integrated development is no longer a novelty, but it still remains a declaration and not translated into effective mechanisms for the functioning of local communities. The need to popularise it further does not require an extensive justification. The essence of the modernisation of rural background, characteristics of the integrated management of development, its place in the future EU policy 2014-2020 and in the new system of integrated planning in Poland, will be presented: rural location in the system of integrated management development, declared in selected strategic documents, the role of smart specialization of regions, the Opolskie voivodeship good practice to stimulate development, recommendations for further actions conducive to integrated development, including modernization of the countryside.

Ma?gorzata S?odowa-He?pa

2012-04-01

240

The Utilization of Insect-resources in Chinese Rural Area  

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Full Text Available Human beings'uncontrolled exploitation lead to the rapid consumption and depletion of many natural resources.Mankind is facing an unprecedented dilemma in survival and development which. Searching, development and utilization of new natural resources will be an important way to solve the current problems. Insects, as an important natural resource needing to be further exploited, have aroused wide concerns and may play an important role in tackling food crisis and natural resources depletion. In China, insects have been being utilized for a long time as an important natural resource and there were lots of practices and experiences in the use of insect, especially in the rural regions. In this paper, we presented the current situation of insect utilization in Chinese rural regions and introduced edible insects being used by ethnic people in Yunnan province of China, the place which is special for its diversity in ethnic culture and folkways. In addition, constraints and prospects in using insect resources were discussed and analyzed as well. It was expected that the experiences in using insect resources in China could be helpful for other countries to promote the utilization of insect resources in near future.

Chuanhui YI

2010-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Community Based Study Of Self Reported Morbidity Of Reproductive Tract Among Women Of Reproductive Age In Rural Area Of Rajasthan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research questions: What is the prevalence of morbidity of reproductive tract among women in a rural area of Rajasthan? Objectives: 1. To assess the load of reproductive morbidity among the rural women. 2. To study the association of potential risk factors with reproductive tract infection. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A village of Bikaner (rural western Rajasthan). Participants: 1044 rural women aged 15-45. Study period: June 2000 to October 2000. Statistical analysis: Percentages...

Rathore Monika; Swami S. S; Gupta B. L; Sen Vandana; Vyas B. L; Bhargav A; Vyas Rekha

2003-01-01

242

Business Incubators Give New Firms in Rural Areas a Head Start.  

Science.gov (United States)

Business incubators can help fledgling firms get off the ground by providing business services and rental space, at below-market costs, for a business's first few years. The payoff for the community is more jobs. Concentrated until recently in urban areas, incubators are now succeeding in rural areas too. (JHZ)

Weinberg, Mark L.

1987-01-01

243

A note on the energy consumption of urban slums and rural areas in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct energy consumption in Sao Paulo, Brazil, for slums and rural areas were compared, with the conclusion that they are very similar for the same expenditure regardless of the geographical area in which they occur. Slums are shown to be more energy efficient. The relevance of these results to account for changes in energy consumption due to social changes is emphasized.

Vanin, V.R.; Droichi, M.S.; Goldemberg, J.; Graca, G.M.G.; Higa, T.T.

1983-08-01

244

An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

1986-07-15

245

An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

Berry, H.A.

1987-02-01

246

Land Policy and Systematic Transformation in Chinese Rural Areas ?1950—1978?  

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Full Text Available Based on historical review of the Chinese rural land policy from 1950 to 1978, we looked back the devious journey undergone in Chinese rural areas during this period. At first, the landlord’s ownership was transferred into the peasant’s ownership; and then private ownership was transferred into public ownership. The radical transformation of property right and process of agricultural cooperation went against the economic law and the wills of the mass peasants, which led to laggard rural productive forces and long-term low peasants’ income level. During the policy transformation process, political and ideological factors played the predominant role, which led to harmful results. The experiences in this period demonstrated that the economic developmental model and systematic arrangement in Chinese rural areas should satisfy the peasants’ free wills and protect the peasants’ essential interests. Only in this way could the Chinese rural economy gain fast development. Key Words: Chinese Rural Areas, Land Policy, System Arrangement, Ideology, Interests. Abstrait: Basés sur une révision historique de la politique de terre dans les régions rurales de Chine de 1950 à 1978, nous avons mené un examen rétrospectif sur le parcours détourné qu’avaient traversé ces régions pendant cette période. Au début, les terres des propriétaires fonciers avaient été transférées comme propriétés des paysans ; et puis, les propriétés privées avaient été transféré comme propriétés publiques. La transformation radicale du droit de propriété et le processus de la coopération agricole après la réforme de terre allaient à l’encontre de la loi économique et de la volonté des paysans, ce qui avait conduit à un retard des forces productives dans les régions rurales et à un niveau de revenu très inférieur pour les paysans chinois. Dans ce processus de transformation de politiques, les facteurs politiques et idéologiques avaient joué un rôle prédominant, d’où des résultats défavorables. Les expériences que nous avons tirées pendant cette période montrent bien que le modèle du développement économique et l’arrangement systématique dans les régions rurales de Chine doivent satisfaire la volonté des paysans et protéger leurs intérêts fondamentaux. C’est aussi le seul moyen qui permette aux régions rurales de Chine de réaliser un développement rapide. Mots Clés: Régions Rurales de Chine, Politique de Terre, Transformation Systématique, Idéologie, Intérêts. ???????????? 1950?? 1978???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????

Rong TAN

2005-03-01

247

Small field segments surrounded by large areas only shielded by a multileaf collimator: Comparison of experiments and dose calculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Complex radiotherapy fields delivered using a tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) often feature small open segments surrounded by large areas of the beam only shielded by the MLC. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two modern dose calculation algorithms to accurately calculate the dose in these fields which would be common, for example, in volumetric modulated arc treatment (VMAT) and study the impact of variations in dosimetric leaf gap (DLG), focal spot size, and MLC transmission in the beam models. Methods: Nine test fields with small fields (0.6-3 cm side length) surrounded by large MLC shielded areas (secondary collimator 12 Multiplication-Sign 12 cm{sup 2}) were created using a 6 MV beam from a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf MLC. Measurements of output factors and profiles were performed using a diamond detector (PTW) and compared to two dose calculations algorithms anisotropic analytical algorithm [(AAA) and Acuros XB] implemented on a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (Varian Eclipse 10). Results: Both calculation algorithms predicted output factors within 1% for field sizes larger than 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2}. For smaller fields AAA tended to underestimate the dose. Profiles were predicted well for all fields except for problems of Acuros XB to model the secondary penumbra between MLC shielded fields and the secondary collimator. A focal spot size of 1 mm or less, DLG 1.4 mm and MLC transmission of 1.4% provided a generally good model for our experimental setup. Conclusions: AAA and Acuros XB were found to predict the dose under small MLC defined field segments well. While DLG and focal spot affect mostly the penumbra, the choice of correct MLC transmission will be essential to model treatments such as VMAT accurately.

Kron, T.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Cramb, J.; Lonski, P.; Cozzi, L.; Fogliata, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006, Australia and Department of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006 (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006, Australia and Department of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)

2012-12-15

248

Small field segments surrounded by large areas only shielded by a multileaf collimator: Comparison of experiments and dose calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Complex radiotherapy fields delivered using a tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) often feature small open segments surrounded by large areas of the beam only shielded by the MLC. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two modern dose calculation algorithms to accurately calculate the dose in these fields which would be common, for example, in volumetric modulated arc treatment (VMAT) and study the impact of variations in dosimetric leaf gap (DLG), focal spot size, and MLC transmission in the beam models. Methods: Nine test fields with small fields (0.6–3 cm side length) surrounded by large MLC shielded areas (secondary collimator 12 × 12 cm2) were created using a 6 MV beam from a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf MLC. Measurements of output factors and profiles were performed using a diamond detector (PTW) and compared to two dose calculations algorithms anisotropic analytical algorithm [(AAA) and Acuros XB] implemented on a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (Varian Eclipse 10). Results: Both calculation algorithms predicted output factors within 1% for field sizes larger than 1 × 1 cm2. For smaller fields AAA tended to underestimate the dose. Profiles were predicted well for all fields except for problems of Acuros XB to model the secondary penumbra between MLC shielded fields and the secondary collimator. A focal spot size of 1 mm or less, DLG 1.4 mm and MLC transmission of 1.4% provided a generally good model for our experimental setup. Conclusions: AAA and Acuros XB were found to predict the dose under small MLC defined field segments well. While DLG and focal spot affect mostly the penumbra, the choice of correct MLC transmission will be essential to model treatments such as VMAT accurately.

2012-12-01

249

Assessment of government housing program for young professionals in rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan  

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Full Text Available Support of young professionals in rural areas, in particular help to ensure their housing is a priority for the state in the agricultural sector. The solution to this problem provides not only the influx of young professionals in agriculture in Tatarstan, but also the consolidation of the village, which is associated with socialization. The outflow of young people from rural areas led to the deterioration of the demographic and professional characteristics of the staff of the agricultural organizations, and therefore providing housing for young professionals in many ways is a priority in the strategic plan, as it is connected with the stabilization of employment in the long run. It is necessary to apply a new approach to social development of the village, as the existing forms of support do not make substantial changes. Some results of the program to provide affordable housing for young families and young professionals in rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan are examined.

Gafurova Gulnara Talgatovna

2012-06-01

250

Multifunctional centers in rural areas : Fabrics of social and human capital  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually being abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces such a model: Multifunctional centers. Such a model reflects a long tradition of local centralization in rural areas, that is, a golden compromise between ruralization and urbanization. First, I argue that governments should actively invest in rural areas rather than practicing laissez-faire. Second, I trace ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnationalGarden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks, and facilities for local associations as theatre scenes and sports halls. The centers should be designed to secure both economies of scale and geographic proximity. Empirical evidence indicates that such large meeting places in fact foster physical and social cohesion, as well as human capital and informal learning. Also that the stock of beneficial bridging social capital thus created actually contributes to attract newcomers and counteract depopulation.

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

2009-01-01

251

Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

2012-01-01

252

LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009, which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education and training (leading to the underutilization of labor in rural areas, while major shortages in the labor market and increased migration phenomenon manifests.\\r\

Mosora Liviu - Cosmin

2011-07-01

253

STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA  

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Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

Rubeena Bano

2009-03-01

254

Measuring social well-being in the rural areas of the Kaliningrad region  

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Full Text Available This article evaluates the social wellbeing of rural municipalities of the Kaliningrad region. The degree of social wellbeing is assessed on the basis of an analysis of statistical data and expert evaluations. Rural districts were identified in the Kaliningrad region on the basis of the following criteria: the share of population residing in the rural areas (threshold value of 50 %; the share of non-residential areas (threshold value of 75 %, the share of agricultural lands (threshold value of 50 %. Further analysis was based on the indices of geodemographic situation, investment potential, and production development. Rural municipalities were ranked according to these indices. The study showed that the best performing area are the suburban districts of Guryevsk and Bagrationovsk and the agricultural districts of Nesterov and Pravdinsk, whereas the worst performing ones are those of Gvardeisk, Krasnoznamensk, Ozersk, and Chernykhovsk. A comparison with the other constituent entities of the Northwestern federal district proved that the level of social wellbeing of Kaliningrad rural municipalities is rather high and most of them have made the transition from depression to sustainable development.

Romanova E. A.

2014-01-01

255

European Union funds as a stimulus of rural areas proenvironmental development – an example of rural communities in the wielkopolska voivodeship  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the opinion of rural communes of the Wielkopolskie voivodeship, about their participation in the EU funds for proenvironmental action development, scale and barriers of this phenomenon. Lack of financial resources has been recognised by the target communities as a major barrier to implementation of environmental protection activities, EU funds, in turn, an important source of support for this type of investment – up to 83% of the population has tried to obtain funds from the European Union for the environmental objectives. Funds from the European Union first of all served respondents to improve the area infrastructure of water and wastewater management.

Hanna Pondel

2012-04-01

256

Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural. RESULTS: During 1990-2000 a total of 48 761 cervical cancer (CC deaths were reported in Mexico (1990=4 280 deaths/year; 2000=4 620 deaths/year. On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference=Mexico City found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR]=10.99; Nayarit, RR=10.5. Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population. CONCLUSIONS: CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection.

Palacio-Mejía Lina Sofía

2003-01-01

257

ALINA JURAVLE (GASLER, The Romanian Rural Areas in the Context of European Development Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the Romanian rural areas from the perspective of certain indicators related to agricultural economy, employment and the quality of human resources, insisting on several of the significant problems that are slowing down rural development in Romania. These problems are discussed in relation with the objectives and the impact of national and European development strategies.The EU strategic guidelines and objectives set as a main priority the increased competitiveness of the rural economy, especially of the agricultural economy, which corresponds to the specific needs of the "old" Member States (EU15, as reflecting a specific historical development path. In the national rural strategy, prioritizing competitiveness objectives to the detriment of market integration and modernization objectives proves to be inappropriate for the immediate challenges posed by the Romanian rural economy, where the vast majority of agricultural holdings are outside the commercial and production mechanisms of the market. This could explain the low values of implementation indicators for the national rural development plan (PNDR measures and the low absorption rate of allocated funds and contracts concluded in relation to most measures.

ADELA ?ERBAN

2012-04-01

258

Mapping permanent preservation areas and natural forest fragments as subsidy to the registration of legal reserve areas in rural properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major objective of this work was to identify and quantify forest fragments suitable to be used as private protected land in rural properties located in the São Bartolomeu creek watershed, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological procedures included: mapping of 78 forest fragments through the visual interpretation of an Ikonos II satellite image; delineation of Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs from a hydrographically conditioned digital elevation model and mapping of 292 rural properties through interviews with owners, with the aid of a printed Ikonos II image. The generated maps were overlapped (crossed, allowing the identification of forest fragments that could be used as private protected land in rural property. The result indicated that, from the total of properties evaluated, only 41 (14.04% have more than 20% of forest cover, and therefore, are in condition to attend the environmental law for private protected land.

Vicente Paulo Soares

2011-12-01

259

An aerial radiological survey of the River Bend Station and surrounding area, St. Francisville, Louisiana: Date of survey: March 1987  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 19 through 31 March 1987 over a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area surrounding the River Bend Station located near St. Francisville, Louisiana. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 152 meters (500 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 8 to 10 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. The levels over the nuclear power reactor were above background. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of a man-made source of radiation to the west of the River Bend Station. This source proved to be a 70-curie Co-60 source belonging to the Gulf States Utilities coal-fired electric power plant. Spectra of the River Bend reactor did not show the presence of unexpected radioisotopes. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Hoover, R.A.

1988-10-01

260

An aerial radiological survey of the River Bend Station and surrounding area, St. Francisville, Louisiana: Date of survey: March 1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 19 through 31 March 1987 over a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area surrounding the River Bend Station located near St. Francisville, Louisiana. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 152 meters (500 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 8 to 10 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. The levels over the nuclear power reactor were above background. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of a man-made source of radiation to the west of the River Bend Station. This source proved to be a 70-curie Co-60 source belonging to the Gulf States Utilities coal-fired electric power plant. Spectra of the River Bend reactor did not show the presence of unexpected radioisotopes. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

1987-03-31

 
 
 
 
261

An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background

1994-01-01

262

An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background.

1994-05-01

263

Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 11–12 km. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in Northwest India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar. Comparisons with the OMI and MODIS measurements show the unique capability of the CALIPSO lidar to provide unambiguous, altitude-resolved dust measurements.

Z. Liu

2008-08-01

264

Contribuição para modelo de plano de saúde dental em area rural concentrada  

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Full Text Available This work was developed in order to obtain data which allow, through survey of the up to date oral health conditions of 236 families living in a rural area, to offer subsidies to formulate a project for a dental health program for concentrated rural areas, also using the main developed knowledge, concerning to time, cost and auxiliary staff.Este trabalho foi elaborado visando obter dados que permitam, através do levantamento do estado de saúde oral de famílias residentes numa área rural, oferecer subsídios para a formulação de um projeto de programa de saúde dental para áreas rurais concentradas, utilizando também os principais conhecimentos desenvolvidos, quanto a tempo, custo e pessoal auxiliar.

Aldo Luiz Hille

1979-11-01

265

Strategic management of utilization of new and renewable energy in the rural areas of Tunisia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Tunisia, the rural people have the smallest amounts of energy available. Their energy is used mainly for basic needs, and it often comes from non-commercial fuels, especially wood. The environmental impacts of intensified production processes aggravate the degradation of ecologic systems. The analysis of the energy situation in rural areas of Tunisia has shown that a growing energy consumption can be expected over the entire spectrum of economic and social activities. To cope with this crisis, technologies for energy requirements should not only meet energy needs; they must also be geared to particular economic, social and environmental conditions. Technically efficient, decentralized systems for the utilization of new and renewable energy can help in this by meeting the demand for high quality energy. This article attempts to propose precepts upon which a strategy can be formulated for a rational use of renewable energy in the rural areas. (Author)

Chaibi, M.T. (Centre de Recherche du Genie Rural, Ariana, Tunis (Tunisia))

1993-01-01

266

Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1) examine the determinants of the likelihood of the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2) for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of p...

Pierre Kébreau Alexandre; Gilbert Saint-Jean; Lee Crandall; Etzer Fevrin

2005-01-01

267

Unsafe CSOM still a challenge in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency of complications in unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in the department Otorhinolaryngology MMIMSR over the time duration of one year from March 2011 to April 2012. Fifty consecutive patients were selected whose clinical diagnosis was CSOM Attico-antral type.Conclusion: The rate of complications, especially more serious intracranial complications ,observed in developing countries is significantly more than those observed in studies from the developed countries. (12. In our study the frequency of extracranial complications excluding ossicular erosion is 22% and the frequency of intracranial complications is 4%. It was observed by Memon et al (13 in 2008 that in a series of 390 patients of chronic discharging ears that the rate of extracranial complications was 4.10% and rate of intracranial complications was 2.3%of the unsafe variety . The high frequency in our study may be explained by the fact that we are sitting in a rural background with very poor socio-economic background patients. Osama U et al (14 from Turkey reveals the rate of 1.35% of extracranial complications and 1.97% of intracranial complications in his study.

Ginni Datta

2014-04-01

268

Regional cooperation for MSW management in rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The economic pressures are great for smaller communities and rural counties to look for regional solutions to the municipal solid waste (MSW) management challenges they face. While efforts to develop and sustain cooperative ventures often have been successful, there have been a number of notable exceptions, six examples of which are presented. These successful efforts in multi-county cooperation around the country vary from one another in a number of ways, such as geographic and demographic characteristics, the legal mechanism employed, and the specific focus of the cooperative activities, e.g., regional disposal capacity, recycling, composting, and household hazardous waste (HHW) management. The case study methodology involved acquiring written material documenting the history and experience of the effort, a two- to three-day on-site visit involving personal interviews with key participants, and further follow-up telephone interviews with people representing various perspectives or interests related to the effort. The objective of the analysis of these case studies was to identify factors that appear to be critical in either fostering or hindering progress toward effective regional cooperation. Attention was given to economic, political, legal, and social factors that could suggest appropriate implementation methods at the local, regional, or state levels.

Park, W.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1997-02-01

269

[Chagas disease in a rural area of Northeast Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

A serological and medical survey on Chagas disease was carried out between December 1997 and June 2000 in four villages of the semi-arid rural Northeast Brazil. The average human serological prevalence rate of 11.8% was strongly linked with age: 1.1% for people under 25, 13.7% for people aged of 26 to 49, 29.5% for people aged of 50+. The clinical form was indeterminate for 57% of the infected population, cardiac for 35%, digestive or mixed for 8%. The infected patients under 55 received at home an etiologic treatment with benznidazol. The survey confirms the drastic reduction of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission during the last decades, especially since 25 years. This situation is the result jointly of the antivectorial activities, improvement of education level and changes in the way of life. However Chagas disease is still a serious problem, especially for numerous middle-aged infected adults. The situation could be improved by increasing the serologic screening in the field as well as the counselling and the treatment of the patients. PMID:15462201

Gazin, P; Melo, G; Abuquerque, A; Oliveira, W; Soula, G; Audry, P

2004-08-01

270

AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In India, half of the world's labour force is in agriculture and an estimated 1.3 billion workers are engaged in agricultural production world wide. The share of the agricultural labour force in the very economically active population is under 10 per cent in the developed countries and accounts for 59 per cent of workers in the less developed regions (International Labour Conference (ILC 2000. Compared to workers in other sectors, agricultural workers are under protected. They suffer from sever health problems. In most of the countries, including India, agricultural workers are excluded from any employment injury benefit or insurance scheme. Farmers in India are rarely covered by any schemes. Only if they contribute individually to insurance schemes, they get social security benefits. In agriculture, the most vulnerable groups are daily wage labourers, women workers, and child labourers most of them are very poor. They are the one who are exposed to occupational hazards. In India agricultural work is carried out mostly in rural environment where there is no clean-cut distinction between working and living conditions. Most agricultural work is carried out in the open air and farmers depend on weather to perform their agricultural activities. Uneven weather further aggravates health conditions of the people and influence their working conditions.

Chandrashekhar B.

2014-07-01

271

Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti / El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad que habían dado a luz en los tres años anteriores a la entre-vista, fueron: 1) examinar los factores que [...] determinan la probabilidad de que las mu-jeres acudan a atención prenatal en las zonas rurales y urbanas del país y 2) dentro del grupo de mujeres con una o más consultas prenatales, examinar los factores que determinan el número de dichas consultas en las zonas rurales y urbanas. MÉTODOS: En el análisis multifactorial se emplearon modelos logísticos para deter-minar qué factores explicaban la decisión de acudir a control prenatal, y se usaron modelos binomiales negativos para determinar el número de consultas prenatales dentro del subgrupo de mujeres que consultaron por lo menos una vez. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad esperada de acudir a control prenatal, determinada según el valor medio de las variables de control, fue de 77,16% en las zonas rurales, en comparación con 85,83% en las zonas urbanas de Haití. Dentro del grupo de mu-jeres que acudieron a servicios de control prenatal, las madres en zonas rurales tuvieron un número esperado de consultas prenatales de 3,78, en comparación con 5,06 en las zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES: Un buen porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas tiene acceso a servicios de atención prenatal en Haití, pero las madres en zonas rurales que eligieron acudir a dichos servicios tuvieron un poco menos del mínimo de cuatro consultas recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El nivel educativo de las madres y de sus parejas es un factor pronóstico muy importante en relación con el uso de servicios de atención prenatal. Las consultas repetidas se vieron obstaculizadas en las zonas rurales por el mayor tiempo de desplazamiento y la mayor distancia hasta el centro de salud. Los formuladores de políticas y los proveedores de atención sanitaria deben tener en cuenta estos resultados a la hora de tomar decisiones sobre la prestación y administración de los servicios de salud en Haití. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1) examine the determinants of the likelihood o [...] f the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2) for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.

Alexandre, Pierre Kébreau; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Crandall, Lee; Fevrin, Etzer.

272

Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1 examine the determinants of the likelihood of the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2 for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad que habían dado a luz en los tres años anteriores a la entre-vista, fueron: 1 examinar los factores que determinan la probabilidad de que las mu-jeres acudan a atención prenatal en las zonas rurales y urbanas del país y 2 dentro del grupo de mujeres con una o más consultas prenatales, examinar los factores que determinan el número de dichas consultas en las zonas rurales y urbanas. MÉTODOS: En el análisis multifactorial se emplearon modelos logísticos para deter-minar qué factores explicaban la decisión de acudir a control prenatal, y se usaron modelos binomiales negativos para determinar el número de consultas prenatales dentro del subgrupo de mujeres que consultaron por lo menos una vez. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad esperada de acudir a control prenatal, determinada según el valor medio de las variables de control, fue de 77,16% en las zonas rurales, en comparación con 85,83% en las zonas urbanas de Haití. Dentro del grupo de mu-jeres que acudieron a servicios de control prenatal, las madres en zonas rurales tuvieron un número esperado de consultas prenatales de 3,78, en comparación con 5,06 en las zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES: Un buen porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas tiene acceso a servicios de atención prenatal en Haití, pero las madres en zonas rurales que eligieron acudir a dichos servicios tuvieron un poco menos del mínimo de cuatro consultas recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El nivel educativo de las madres y de sus parejas es un factor pronóstico muy importante en relación con el uso de servicios de atención prenatal. Las consultas repetidas se vieron obstaculizadas en las zonas rurales por el mayor tiempo de desplazamiento y la mayor distancia hasta el centro de salud. Los formuladores de políticas y los proveedores de atención sanitaria deben tener en cuenta estos resultados a la hora de tomar decisiones sobre la prestación y administración de los servicios de salud en Haití.

Pierre Kébreau Alexandre

2005-08-01

273

Strategies for Organization and Development of Tourism Function in Rural Areas Case Study: Villages of Qom Province, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regarding its appeals and capacities, tourism function of rural areas in Qom province has not adequately played an effective role in advancing rural sustainable development. Therefore, the current research attempts at identifying and preparing organization and development strategies for tourism function in rural areas of Qom province. Research method is descriptive-analytical and it is applied in terms of its content. The present study aims at searching for organization and development str...

Mohammad Ali Ahmadi Shapourabadi

2013-01-01

274

Injuries in rural and urban areas of Agra district: an observational study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Injuries are becoming major public health problem worldwide and since India is also passing through a major socio-demographic, epidemiological and technological transition; injuries are coming up as an emerging health problem. Objectives: To find out prevalence of “Injuries”, causative mechanism, place of injury & distribution in rural & urban area of Agra district. Material & Methods: It is type of observational study in rural & urban area of Agra district. The area to be surveyed was selected by multistage stratified random sampling technique. A recall period of three months for minor injuries & one year for major injuries or deaths due to injury was used. A total of 4 villages covering 2439 population and in urban area 2 mohallas & 2 slums covering 2410 population were surveyed. Data collected was entered on Fox. Pro (vs 2.6 and analyzed by SPSS (vs. 10. Results: A total of 93 persons in rural and 142 persons in urban had major while 147 peoples in rural and 200 peoples in urban had minor injuries during the recall period. Among the injured most common mechanism for major & minor injury was due to fall (45.16% & 36.73%. Regarding place maximum major injury occur at home (32.26% in rural while in urban it was road/highway (46.48% but for minor it the home being commonest place in both rural & urban (40.82% & 55%. Conclusions: Considering the high morbidities due to injuries focusing health education efforts based on local epidemiology and behavioral practices is needed. 

M Sharma

2013-12-01

275

[Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae) in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area].  

Science.gov (United States)

As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or disseminators of infectious diseases (including parasites), coyotes (Canis latrans) may also serve as indicators of ecological health. In Costa Rica, little information exists on coyote parasites, making research necessary to identify potential zoonotic interactions. For this reason, a survey of the coyote parasites was performed in a mixed area of protected woodland and agricultural land, surrounding Irazú Volcano National Park (IVNP) in Cartago, Costa Rica. Over a one-year period, 209 fecal samples were collected directly from the ground. Collection took place on a monthly basis in a trail sectioned into three sub-areas named Irazú (closest to the volcano), potato fields (where potatoes were cultivated), and Prusia (a protected sector of IVNP). Sectioning the trail allowed separate collection and analysis of the samples, where 99 were obtained from Irazú, 11 from potato fields and 99 from Prusia. Using direct examination and mechanical concentration 36.84% positive samples containing at least one helminth were found. The presence of parasites was similar for both woodland areas (33.3% in Prusia and 37.4% in Irazú), but differed from the 63.6% observed in the potato fields. Hookworm parasites (probably Ancylostoma caninum), threadworms (possibly Strongyloides sp.), Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. and Taenia pisiformis were identified, as well as Hymenolepis diminuta, possible spurious parasite resulting from the ingestion of rodents by coyotes. Seasonal details are discussed, concluding that wet and dry seasons affect presence of parasites. Some remarks are made on the importance of these first findings for Costa Rica, especially considering the systematic way in which the collection of samples was carried out. PMID:23894947

Niehaus, Carmen; Valerio, Idalia; Blanco, Kinndle; Chinchilla, Misael

2012-06-01

276

Research and Study on Living Conditions of Empty Nest Elderly in Rural Areas of Gansu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through a questionnaire survey, house surveys, case interviews, etc., Gansu Province on the empty nest elderly in rural areas to survive conditions of systematic survey, in-depth analysis of the impact of rural endowment insurance system for internal and external factors and put forward countermeasures and suggestions related.
Kew Words: Rural areas; Empty nest elderly; Living conditions; Investigate
Résumé: Par le biais des enquêtes en questionnaire, au foyer et en interviews etc, on a effectué une investigation sur les personnes âgées qui vivent dans le nid vide dans la province de Gansu, notamment celles dans les zones rurales qui survivent à des conditions d'enquête systématiques. L’article fait une analyse approfondie sur l'impact du système d'assurances-vie temporaires, sur les facteurs internes et externes et met en avant les contre-mesures et des suggestions appropriés.
Mots-clés: zones rurales; les personnes âgées qui vivent dans le nid vide; conditions de vie, investigations
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An YAN

2008-12-01

277

Hábitos de salud en escolares en ámbito urbano y rural / Health habits in schoolchildren in urban and rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. En los primeros años de vida se produce la asimilación e interiorización de los hábitos de salud que van a condicionar la vida adulta, siendo fundamentales las características socioambientales para la adquisición de los mismos. Objetivos Nos planteamos conocer los hábitos de salud que [...] presentan los escolares de dos zonas geográficas contrapuestas: la urbana y la rural. Metodología. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo con alumnos de 10 y 11 años de una zona urbana y de una rural, llevándose a cabo una prueba de comparación de dos proporciones de muestras independientes. Resultados. Se han recogido 104 encuestas (21.2% de ámbito rural) en las cuales se observa la existencia de un porcentaje importante en cuanto a la falta de hábito de lavado de manos e higiene dental se refiere. Respecto a la alimentación, existe un pequeño número de niños que acuden al colegio sin desayunar y, en caso de hacerlo, es considerable el porcentaje obtenido en el consumo de bollería y zumos envasados, apreciándose un déficit en el de verduras y pescados. Aunque mayoritariamente realizan actividad física, el 10% no la hacen nunca. Asimismo se aprecia un excesivo uso del televisor preferido frente a otros hábitos. En lo relacionado con el tabaquismo, cabe destacar que un 30% conviven con fumadores, y un 6% han probado el tabaco. En lo referente al alcohol un porcentaje importante (4.8%-19.5%) ya lo ha probado mayoritariamente en el ámbito familiar. Conclusiones. La finalidad del estudio es el de servir como punto de partida para la planificación de futuras actuaciones, ya que indica la existencia de situaciones de riesgo: alteraciones en la salud bucodental por déficit de cuidados e higiene, hábitos alimenticios incorrectos, hábitos sedentarios e inicio temprano de consumo o contacto con sustancias tóxicas. Abstract in english Introduction. ln the first years of life assimilation occurs and the understanding of health habits that will shape adult life, and these socio-environmental characteristics are fundamental for the acquisition of health habits. Objectives. This study is aimed at ascertaining the health habits of sch [...] oolchildren from two opposing geographical areas (urban and rural). Methodology. We performed a descriptive study of students aged 10/11 years old from urban and rural areas, performing a comparison test of two proportions from independent samples. Results. 104 surveys were obtained (21.2% from rural areas). There is a significant percentage which refers to a lack of hand washing and dental hygiene habits. With regard to food there is a small percentage of children who come to school without breakfast, among those who did, it was found that a significant percentage have pastries and packaged juices showing a lack in consumption of vegetables and fish. Although largely physically inactive, 10% never take exercise. There is high television consumption and other habits are that, 30% live with smokers and 6% have tried snuff. A significant percentage (4.8% -19.5%) have tried alcohol, mostly in the family. Conclusions. The study should serve as a starting point for planning future actions, and indicates the existence of risk: changes in oral health due to a lack of care and hygiene, bad eating habits, sedentary habits and the early onset of contact with consumption, or with toxic substances.

Martínez Sabater, Antonio; Marzá Gascón, Asunción; Llorca Tauste, Julia; Martínez Puig, Cristina; Escrivá Aznar, Gema; Blasco Roque, Mercedes.

278

Gender and Quality of Life in Rural Areas: The Relevance of Training Programmes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing nations could greatly improve the quality of life in rural areas by adequately involving women in agricultural extension and training programs. Policy objectives of many developing countries neglect the contributory role of girls and women and often constrain them from seizing opportunities for individual development. In Nigeria, the…

Williams, Stella B.

279

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALNUTRITION (UNDER NUTRITION AMONG UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN A SECTION OF RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prevalence of malnutrition is very high in India; especially in rural area. A cross sectional study was done in randomly selected six villages to estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomicfactors associated with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the under five children was 50.46%.Children from lower socioeconomic status, with low birth weight were significantly malnourished.

Deepak B. Phalke

2009-06-01

280

Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

Shyu, Chian-Woei

2010-05-19

 
 
 
 
281

STUDY ON THE NATURAL AND ANTHROPIC TOURISM RESOURCES – FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA HA?EG-RETEZAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rural area from ?ara Ha?egului – Retezat is one of the richest area in Romania in natural and anthropic tourism supplies, determined by the natural, socio-cultural, economic and historical potential that can be used for tourism purposes. As the tourism potential comprises few economic resources that can be used only “in situ”, their inclusion in the economic circuit of values represents the premise of a superior economic process of rural development in the rural area ?ara Ha?egului - Retezat.Starting from the great variety of the tourism supply, the specialists in economy and tourism management can find optimum solutions for the development of the rural and agro-tourism services as a sustainable rural development component, while the optimization of the rural tourism services activities can be based on mathematical models and adequate system analyses.

GABRIELA BOTICI

2012-05-01

282

An aerial radiological survey of Ottawa, Illinois and surrounding area, Ottawa Illinois: Date of survey, May 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the town of Ottawa, Illinois, located 128 kilometers (80 miles) southwest of Chicago, Illinois, during the period 12 May through 20 May 1986. The object of the survey was to locate any possible radium anomalies in the Ottawa area. The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) suspected that radium residues from the former Luminous Processes Plant may have been distributed around the town. The IDNS was decontaminating the Luminous Processes Plant site during the aerial survey. Approximately 23 square kilometers (9 square miles) surrounding the town of Ottawa were surveyed. A contour map derived from the aerial data indicated the presence of anomalous radium at 11 locations in and around Ottawa. A copy of the map was given to the IDNS in Ottawa at the end of the survey period. Subsequent to the aerial survey, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) obtained a high-altitude aerial photograph of Ottawa on 17 June 1986. The aerial photograph was used as the underlying map for the radiological survey data. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

1986-05-20

283

An aerial radiological survey of Ottawa, Illinois and surrounding area, Ottawa Illinois: Date of survey, May 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the town of Ottawa, Illinois, located 128 kilometers (80 miles) southwest of Chicago, Illinois, during the period 12 May through 20 May 1986. The object of the survey was to locate any possible radium anomalies in the Ottawa area. The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) suspected that radium residues from the former Luminous Processes Plant may have been distributed around the town. The IDNS was decontaminating the Luminous Processes Plant site during the aerial survey. Approximately 23 square kilometers (9 square miles) surrounding the town of Ottawa were surveyed. A contour map derived from the aerial data indicated the presence of anomalous radium at 11 locations in and around Ottawa. A copy of the map was given to the IDNS in Ottawa at the end of the survey period. Subsequent to the aerial survey, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) obtained a high-altitude aerial photograph of Ottawa on 17 June 1986. The aerial photograph was used as the underlying map for the radiological survey data. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab.

1986-10-01

284

Eye damage following radiotherapy in the surrounding area of the eyes. Its relation to local exposure doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation damage of the eyes was investigated in 233 patients who underwent radiotherapy (consisting of 204 with Linac x-ray, 13 with Linac electron beam and 16 with unknown kind of irradiation) for tumors in the eyes or their surrounding areas, with special reference to its relation to exposure doses to the cornea, lens and retina calculated. Corneal damage was seen in 66% of the total patients and in all patients irradiated with 5,000 rad or more. Cataract was seen in 48% of the total patients, in all patients with 6,000 rad or more and in 10% of patients with 3,000 rad or less. Retinopathy was seen in 45% of the total patients, in all patients with 8,000 rad or more and in 12% of patients with 4,000 rad or less. Iridocyclitis and glaucoma were seen in 15% of the total patietns, in 53% of patients with 6,000 rad or more and 8% of patients with 4,000 rad or less. These results suggest the possibility that eye damage can be prevented by precise radiotherapy techniques. (Namekawa, K.).

Tabuchi, Shoko; Oda, Itsuo

1984-12-01

285

A quantitative comparison of frugivorous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae) in tropical forests and rural areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the current knowledge about African tephritids originates from studies performed in agricultural areas, while information about their distribution in pristine or moderately disturbed environments is extremely scarce. This study aims at (i) describing levels of spatial variability of frugivorous tephritids in tropical forests and small rural villages of the Congo River basin and (ii) verifying if human-mediated activities, such as small-scale agriculture and trade, can affect their distribution patterns. Four locations were sampled along a 250?km stretch of the Congo River. At each location, pristine and disturbed habitats (i.e. tropical forests and small rural villages, respectively) were sampled, with three replicate sites in each combination of habitat and location. Sampling with modified McPhail traps baited with four different attractants yielded 819 tephritid specimens of 29 species from seven genera (Bactrocera, Carpophthoromyia, Ceratitis, Dacus, Celidodacus, Perilampsis, Trirhithrum). The three most abundant species sampled (Dacus bivittatus, D. punctatifrons, Bactrocera invadens) showed significant variations in abundance across locations and sites and accounted for 98.29% of the overall dissimilarity between habitats. Assemblages differed among locations and sites while they showed significant differences between pristine and disturbed habitats in two out of the four locations. This study shows that frugivorous tephritids in central Congo have remarkably patchy distributions with differences among locations and sites representing the main source of variability. Our data show that, in rural villages of central Democratic Republic of Congo, human activities, such as small-scale agriculture and local commerce, are not always sufficient to promote differences between the tephritid assemblages of villages and those of the surrounding tropical forests. PMID:21554799

Virgilio, M; Backeljau, T; Emeleme, R; Juakali, J L; De Meyer, M

2011-10-01

286

Research on the Information Supporting System for the New Educational Mechanism Reforming in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Based on the analysis of information requirements and the funds guaranteeing system reform of rural compulsory education, this paper tried to design and construct an information support system for the new network-based educational mechanism reforming in rural areas. This paper also defined the concept of this new system and its framework. A prospective forecast was also given in terms of its function and application. This paper intended to provide effective informationized managing measures for the implementation of the new educational mechanism.

Jianxiong Huang

2009-04-01

287

The Optimization Mechanism of Administrative Sanctions for Violation of Environmental Laws in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Optimization mechanism for sanctioning administrative for violations of environmental legislation is one of the basic guarantees of ensuring environmental sustainability and comfort in the rural space. Under the new provisions of the Offences Code has expanded the area of applying of penalties for contraventions on the soil, waste, water and wildlife. There are several new forms of punishment, such as work for the benefit of rural communities, meant to increase the economic, social and environmental effects of the mechanism of administrative sanctions, but they are rarely applied. There is a multiple increase of fines imposed for infringement of environmental legislation on soils, water resources, atmospheric air and the animal kingdom.

Petru BACAL

2010-06-01

288

Participation of Rural People in Dairy Enterprise in a Selected Area of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to be participation of rural people in dairy enterprise in relation to their socio-economic characteristics in the selected areas of Bangladesh. The study was carried out at the five village of Bogra District of Bangladesh. From each village 20 farm families were selected with the purpose of the study and data were collected from them by direct interview. A total of 62% respondents were engaged in agriculture sector who have one or more dairy cattle. About 49% rural pe...

2004-01-01

289

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DORNA BASIN, BY PROMOTING TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREAS  

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Full Text Available Any strategy of diversification of non-agricultural economic activities and development of micro-enterprises in rural areas, aims to increase farms’ side incomes from non-agricultural activities, to create new job opportunities, new services for local people, to promote entrepreneurship and development of rural tourism. Sustainable developmentby promoting tourism should have as objective, besides recovery and sustainable promotion of cultural heritage the natural resources with tourism potential as well and the use of local products, which are marketed not only as raw materials but also as products with added value.

Andrei Lucian VINTIL?

2013-01-01

290

Analysis of the Radiopollution of the City of Sarajevo and its Surrounding Area with Regard to Radionuclides  

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Full Text Available In recent years, great attention has been focused on the research of problems related to the environment and processes occurring within it. The accident that occurred at Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl (1986 unquestionably warned that global pollution with radioactive substances on a continent scale may be expected. The past twenty years have been marked with the utilization of metal uranium – a depleted isotope of uranium-235 for various purposes. Today, depleted uranium has found its use in modern armies and it is used as efficient ammunition against armored military systems.There are estimates about the usage of ammunition with depleted uranium deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war (1992–1995. The region of Bosnia and Herzegovina was exposed to the direct influence of the global dispersion processes that had occurred in May 1986 as a consequence of emissions originating from Nuclear Power Plant “Lenin” in Chernobyl. In thiswork the radionuclides fraction analysis (238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K i 137Cs of surface samples (0–5 cm originating from the City of Sarajevo and its surroundings has been presented. The soil samples were taken from nine locations in the city and the surrounding area: Blekin potok, Kobilja glava, Bentbaša, Vraca, Prirodno-matematieki fakultet (PMF, Aziai, Hrasnica, Butmir, and Blažuj. The analyses were performed at the Department for Environment of Jo?ef Štefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Ge HP detector connected to Ortec MCA Gamma Vision 32 Software was used in addition to the Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique (INAA.The results of the analysis were compared with data available for the City of Sarajevo (years 1986, 1987 and 1988 and Slovenia. Analyses were made after Chernobyl catastrophe. Almost all of radionuclides analysed have shown to have a slightly higher specific radioactivity when compared to the data obtained in 1986, 1987 and 1989 for the City of Sarajevo. Our results are in accordance with the values obtained in Slovenia except in the case of 137Cs at location Vraca, where a significantly higher concentration has been observed and reaching ? = 460 ± 20 Bq kg–1.

Huremovi?, J.

2009-04-01

291

Wireless Regional Access Networks: A Wise Choice for Internet Connectivity to Rural Areas of Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available Wireless Regional Access Network (WRAN is increasingly becoming the focus architecture for future rural and remote area access networks. Firstly, we explain “the Zimbabwean problem”, and then give brief discussions of existing technologies deployed for rural communications elsewhere in the world. As we searched for solutions to the Zimbabwean problem, special attention was given to technologies such as cognitive radio networks. In the process, WRAN, which saves on deployment and license costs, has extended coverage range, increased cell capacity and utilises idle TV spectrum, was identified as a suitable broadband access candidate for providing connectivity to the rural areas of Zimbabwe. A design network structure suitable for rural areas in Zimbabwe is proposed and a basic cognitive radio (CR simulation to show the possibility of harnessing idle Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation TV channels/frequency bands using CR technology was successfully run. Power spectrum density estimation model for sensing was used. A number of implementation challenges such as the effect of antenna height on the hidden terminal problem, MIMO incorporation in order to mitigate for such effects in WRAN networks, the investigation and mitigation of interference contribution from remote television stations, WRAN networks and other primary stations and users are discussed.

Mardeni Roslee

2013-06-01

292

Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t� test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

Gandotra V.K

1998-01-01

293

INTESTINAL PARASITIC PREVALENCE IN RURAL AREA CHILDREN MOBARAKEH-ISFAHAN -1997  

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Introduction: intestinal parasitic infection is considered as one of the important health indices and the differences in it"s prevalence in different communities, explain the need for the periodical study of the prevalence inorder to organize, convenient preventative programs. previous studies have shown that prevalence of parasitic infection in rural areas is higher than urban areas. Therefore in this survey for the first time, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to...

Baghaei, M.; Daneshvar Farzanegan, P.; Mirlouhi, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

2001-01-01

294

Service provision for older people with mental health problems in a rural area of Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: Unmet mental health care needs of older people (aged 65 and over) have been identified as a serious problem internationally, particularly in rural areas. In this study we explored the views of health and social care providers of the barriers to effective mental health care for older people in a rural region in Australia.Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 participants from 13 organisations providing care and support to older people in a rural region of Australia. A framework analysis approach was used to thematically analyse the data.Results: Two main themes were identified: 'Recognising the Problem' and 'Service Availability and Access'. In particular the participants identified the impact of the attitudes of older people and health professionals, as well as service inadequacies and gaps in services, on the provision of mental health care to older people in a rural region.Conclusion: This study supports previous work on intrinsic and extrinsic barriers to older people with mental health problems accessing mental health services. The study also offers new insight into the difficulties that arise from the separation of physical and mental health systems for older people with multiple needs, and the impact of living in a rural region on unmet mental health care needs of older people. PMID:24499436

Muir-Cochrane, Eimear; O'Kane, Deb; Barkway, Pat; Oster, Candice; Fuller, Jeffrey

2014-08-01

295

Efficient public transport in rural and low density urban areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All European countries have large areas characterized by low population density, where agriculture and small-scale industry often play a predominant role. Here transport services are often restricted and this can affect the quality of life of the local inhabitants, so that an infrastructure and public transport system that can compete with motor car flexibility is required. The aim of the publication is to propose solutions to the lack of public transport in low population density areas, and these solutions should take socio-economic, environmental and energy saving considerations into consideration. Some of the solutions offered are the use of multi-purpose vehicles, transport coordination, removal of organizational barriers, the use of computer and communication technology and methods of decreasing energy consumption within the field of transportation. Motives for the development of public transport are also dealt with. (AB)

NONE

1995-07-01

296

Mothers? Perceptions & Ambitions About Their Daughters in Rural Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research question: What are the perceptions and ambitions of mothers about their daughters in relation to critical areas like literacy, age of marriage & child bearing, health risk due to early marriage etc. Objectives: To raise the level of awareness of mothers through ongoing programmes focused on women. Design: Before and after study in population. Participants: Mothers of girls aged 7-19 years. Study variables: Literacy, caste, communication, menstruation, food distribution in the family...

1997-01-01

297

Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

2004-07-01

298

Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-07-01

299

Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

2011-10-24

300

Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Phlebotomine fauna in a rural area of the Brazilian Pantanal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study was to identify among the phlebotomine fauna potential leishmaniasis vectors. The study was carried out in Corumbá county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mid-West Brazil (18º59'S, 56º39'W). Sand fly captures were undertaken fortnightly with automatic light traps at 11 sites in forested environments and anthropic areas from April 2001 to July 2003. A total of only 41 specimens were captured. Thirty-one percent of the specimens were captured in forests and 68.3% in anthrop...

2006-01-01

302

The planning of rural lands in the Neapolitan metropolitan area: an impossible challenge?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the Neapolitan metropolitan area the rural lands are often represented by close areas inside large conurbations, for which there isn’t any interest to cultivation, because of the most greater economic convenience of their transformation in built areas. Such development is stimulated by the control of the territory practiced by the organized crime (camorra able to rule the urbanization process. It’s necessary to regain the control of these areas, through different actions, to preserve them such open spaces, to improve environmental conditions and to assure a high quality level to the metropolitan landscape.

Biagio Cillo

2013-07-01

303

Rural and Urban Areas Planning Orientation in the Flood Plain of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

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Full Text Available This paper proposes new development orientation for cities and rural residential areas in the Plain of Reeds, a region in Southern Vietnam that is subject to annual flooding and is grounded in the author’s practical experience and theoretical analysis. Furthermore, this study is based on the plain's features, the history of the foundation of regional urban and residential areas, and the successes and failures of previous planning in the region. Based on data from the Vietnamese government and the IMF, this development orientation is in opposition to the views of many leaders with respect to the development of the cities and rural residential areas of the region. It is hoped that this study will help administrators, planners, and other authorities in Vietnam and other countries.

Nguyen Thanh Nguyen

2013-12-01

304

Mothers? Perceptions & Ambitions About Their Daughters in Rural Area  

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Full Text Available Research question: What are the perceptions and ambitions of mothers about their daughters in relation to critical areas like literacy, age of marriage & child bearing, health risk due to early marriage etc. Objectives: To raise the level of awareness of mothers through ongoing programmes focused on women. Design: Before and after study in population. Participants: Mothers of girls aged 7-19 years. Study variables: Literacy, caste, communication, menstruation, food distribution in the family, age of marriage & childbirth, health risks, sources of information. Outcome variables: Raised level of awareness on critical areas as mentioned above. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions. Results: A little less than half (48% of mother�s felt that their daughters could study as long as they desired. Though 73-82% of mothers knew the health risk of early marriage yet 67% of girls were married below the age of 18 years. Only 15% of mothers educated their daughters on the subject of menstruation. Female children were considered the last priority for nutritious food. The results of this study necessitate strengthening of women programmes for better awareness; favorable attitudes and sound practices.

Lal Sunder

1997-01-01

305

Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drink...

2013-01-01

306

Socio-economic aspects development of the rural areas Ekonomiczno-spo?eczne aspekty rozwoju obszarów wiejskich  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There has been a change in the urban-rural relations in recent decades, as a result of increased mobility and intensity of information flow, changes in the production processes and the growing globalization of markets. The old urban-rural division lost its importance for the new ones: the metropolitan areas and those beside metropolitan. This can lead to the end of the traditional urban-rural relations, some signs are already seen. This is already observed in the process of “growi...

Beata Skubiak

2013-01-01

307

Community based assessment of biochemical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in rural and tribal area of himalayan region, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Context. Evident change in nutrition and lifestyle among individuals of urban and rural areas raises suspicion for similar change in tribal area population of India. Aim. To study the biochemical risk factor for CVDs in rural and tribal population of Sub-Himalayan state of India. Settings and Design. Cross-sectional study in rural (low altitude) and tribal (high altitude) area of Himachal Pradesh, India. Methodology. Blood lipid profile using standard laboratory methods. Statistical Analysis. Chi-square test and multiple linear regression analysis. Results. Total of 900 individuals were studied in both areas. As per Asian criteria, obesity (BMI 27.5-30.0?kg/m(2)) was observed to be significantly high (P = 0.00) as 13.7% in tribal area as compared to 5.5% in rural area. Normal level of TC (abnormal lipid profile in tribal area demands establishment of an effective surveillance system for development of chronic diseases. PMID:24455263

Bhardwaj, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Bansal, Pradeep; Bhushan, Satya; Chander, Vishav

2013-01-01

308

Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

Irohibe Ifeoma

2014-03-01

309

Assessment of welfare living and public law with an emphasis on rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, the quality of life is the main objective of all planning which is produced by the thinkers and planners. Problems is faced our rural areas challenges such as, weak sources of income, loss of opportunity and good job opportunities and housing instability. Present study seeks to answer the question how is the quality of life of the sample? How been it spatial distribution the quality of the sample villages? Research method is descriptive - analytical with an emphasis on the questionnaire. Based on this approach explain the descriptive statistical analysis and test results show Comments on the conditions the quality of life of society have been evaluated (education and leisure as moderate and less of it. Meanwhile, can be seen the most difficult aspects of environmental and economic conditions that the calculated T statistic shows Frequency deviation than average So that more rural areas are located the quality of the environment at a disadvantage. Findings show that the distribution of all the components influencing the quality of life in rural Shahindezh is observed significant differences in terms of location or distance of the rural population.

Sajjad Ehrami

2013-06-01

310

Risk factors for dementia in a rural area of Northeastern Brazil Fatores de risco para demência em uma área rural do nordeste do Brasil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for dementia among the elderly in a rural area of Northeastern Brazil. METHOD: The subjects assessed were all 60 years old or older, and lived in a rural region of Bahia, a Northeastern State of Brazil. CAMDEX, a structured clinical evaluation protocol, was used for diagnosis, and applied at the home of the subjects. RESULTS: The risk factors identified were divided in accordance with socio-demographic characteristics, the presence of co-morbid conditions, ...

Manuela Oliveira de Cerqueira Magalhães; Josecy Maria de Souza Peixoto; Mônica Hupsel Frank; Irênio Gomes; Bernardo Mota Rodrigues; Carla Menezes; Eduardo Cardoso; Fernando Carvalho; Roque Aras; Ailton Melo

2008-01-01

311

Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 ?g m(-3) in the mining area; 48 ?g m(-3) in the rural area and 45 ?g m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 ?g m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921

Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

2014-08-01

312

Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8 y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3, mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9 tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4 obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2 de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6 de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños (Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8 were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3 were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9 were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4 were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2 were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6 were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (<5,000 people, with OR = 1.49 (95%CI: 1.13-1.95 and OR = 1.33 (95%CI: 1.06-1.67, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas is very high and is even higher in towns with less than 5,000 inhabitants.

Valle Coronado Vázquez

2012-10-01

313

Differentiating Countryside: Social Representations and Governance Patterns in Rural Areas with High Social Density--The Case of Chianti, Italy  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt to…

Brunori, Gianluca; Rossi, Adanella

2007-01-01

314

Computerized Coordinated Service Center: A Comparison of Service Methodologies and Costs in the Urban and Rural Area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten parallel human service agencies (five urban and five rural) were compared to identify variations in the service delivery system and to compare the costs of service provision. The agencies responded to approximately 36 questions covering eight major areas and were compared and contrasted, urban versus rural, according to the type of agency. All…

Waldman, Risa J.; And Others

315

Surveillance of Dengue Vectors Mosquito in Some Rural Areas of Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available A 24 week survey was conducted in some rural areas of Bangladesh and found a total of 256 positive containers and a total of 9415 larvae. In an average a 25.80% larvae positive containers were found in Malikanda and 8.00% in Dohar sadar. Aedes albopictus (Skuse were found in all the study areas, but Aedes aegypti were found only in Jahangirnagar campus (Savar and Zingera (Keranigonj areas. Percentage of positive houses was highest in Pachimde (35% and lowest in Jahangirnagar (6%. Aedes aegypti (L. larvae were found mainly in tyres, bamboo stumps earthen pots and coconut shells, whereas Aedes albopictus in all types of containers.

Kabirul Bashar

2005-01-01

316

The Expectations of the Local Community and Visitors From Tourism in Rural Areas: Case of Safranbolu-Yörükköyü Village  

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The formation and development of tourism in a specific rural area is bound to the natural and cultural landscape assets, which alters that area from others. In fact, many components such as the local culture, agricultural pattern and natural resources are the features that form rural areas. For this reason determining the expectations and inclinations of the local community who are the center of the target group and those participators that are to use these resources is an important subject. ...

Tugba Kiper; Mukerrem Arslan

2007-01-01

317

Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

Anti? Ljiljana

2013-01-01

318

Limits of the applicability of the social structural model in Czech rural areas  

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Full Text Available This article focuses on the voting behaviour of citizens in rural areas of the Czech Republic. Within thetheoretical embodiment of the relationships between the individual in a social structure and voting behaviour, aso-called social-structural model for voting behaviour is often mentioned. However, when explaining thebehaviour of the voting behaviour of citizens living under the conditions of the Czech Republic the applicabilityof this model is of course disputable. Due to the predominant inconsistencies of the social status of citizens ofrural areas, it is not at all possible to determine the hypothesis of the applicability of a social-structural model ofvoting behaviour for citizens living in the conditions of the Czech rural countryside. The aim of this article is,through a case study of Zatec region, to prove the predominant (inconsistency of the social status of the givenpopulation.

R. Kopriva

2010-12-01

319

[Incentives to attract and retain the health workforce in rural areas of Peru: a qualitative study].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study aimed to identify the main incentives for attracting and retaining health workers in rural and remote health facilities in Ayacucho, Peru. In-depth interviews were performed with 80 physicians, obstetricians, nurses, and nurse technicians in the poorest areas (20 per group), plus 11 health managers. Ayacucho lacks systematic policies for attracting and retaining human resources. The main incentives, in order of relevance, were higher wages, opportunities for further training, longer/permanent contracts, better infrastructure and medical equipment, and more staff. Interviewees also mentioned improved housing conditions and food, the opportunity to be closer to family, and recognition by the health system. Health workers and policymakers share perceptions on key incentives to encourage work in rural areas. However, there are also singularities to be considered when designing specific strategies. Public initiatives thus need to be monitored and evaluated closely in order to ensure the intended impact. PMID:22488318

Huicho, Luis; Canseco, Francisco Díez; Lema, Claudia; Miranda, J Jaime; Lescano, Andrés G

2012-04-01

320

Prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children in a rural area of Tanzania  

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AIMS—The study measured the prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children between 7 and 19 years of age in a rural area of Tanzania, and investigated whether teachers could successfully provide the first component of a school eye screening service.?METHODS—Teachers from each of three primary schools in Mwanza Region tested visual acuity using a Snellen's E chart in 1438 pupils. 1386 of these pupils were then interviewed and underwent a full eye examination by an eye team...

Wedner, S.; Ross, D.; Balira, R.; Kaji, L.; Foster, A.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa  

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The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The activated alumina and revers...

Schoeman, J. J.

2009-01-01

322

Chances of the new EU regional policy for rural (peripherical) areas : the case study of Leader  

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The new tendencies on the EU regional policy, since the late nineties may represent a threat to the rural peripherical areas. The traditional integrated approaches of the development programmes are giving place to a project-support oriented policy. The financing plans result more and more from the total of the projects budgets. Under the "regional competitiveness" umbrella, this approach overemphasises though the economic vertices of the sustainability concept and a short term planning practi...

Fonseca, Madalena Pires Da; Maier, Jo?rg

2004-01-01

323

Nutritional Status and School Achievements in a Rural Area of Anti-Atlas, Morocco  

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Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of children. However, malnutrition affects physical growth, cognitive development, physical work capacity, and it consequently influences human performance and health. The present study was designed to identify factors that may influence the nutritional status and educational achievements of the children in a rural area of ANTI Atlas of Morocco. The nutritional status of 162 children (12 to 15 years of age) was assessed by nutr...

2011-01-01

324

Nutritional status of preschool children in poor rural areas of China.  

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Described are the main findings of the first large-scale nutrition monitoring project carried out over a 4-year period in China. The nutritional status of nearly 10,000 preschool children in 18 comparatively poor rural areas in seven provinces was followed each year over the period 1986-89 in order to identify their major nutritional problems and improve their growth and development. Physical measurements were made and dietary surveys and biochemical tests were performed on a subsample of the...

1994-01-01

325

A model for telecommunication technology transfer and diffusion into the rural areas of South Africa  

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Telecommunication is one of the keys to sustainable economic development in South Africa. Mobile operators are already reaching people in rural areas without roads, rail or a stable power supply. Telecommunication is also a fast moving high-technology field where technology transfer occurs regularly. Technology transfer is however a complex subject where governmental regulations, social and cultural aspects, needs, expectations, aspirations, financial abilities and technological capabil...

Pieterse, H. L.; Pretorius, Marthinus W.

2002-01-01

326

Prehypertension and hypertension among young Indonesian adults at a primary health care in a rural area  

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Full Text Available Background: Prehypertension and hypertension were related with many complications of nearly every organ, but often neglected by young adults in rural area. This research was done to observe the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among young adult in a primary health care of rural area at Cicurug, Sukabumi District, West Java.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Cicurug Public Health Center, Sukabumi District, West Java. The subjects were consecutively recruited from the outpatient clinic on Monday until Saturday in September 2012,18–25 years old, not pregnant nor having shock. They were interviewed about their age, gender, physical activity, sitting hours, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and family history and examined by trained health professionals (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Results: From 111 young adults, 34.2% had prehypertension and 17.1% had hypertension. Within sex groups, the prevalence of prehypertension was higher in females, whereas hypertension was occurred more in males. Neither of family history from mother nor father were associated with prehypertension and hypertension compared with normotension. Total activity was not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.6; p = 0.052 and hypertension (OR = 1.758; p = 0.498. BMI was associated with hypertension (OR = 3.354; p = 0.041 and not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.343; p = 0.099.Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were relatively high among young adult in primary health care of rural area. Intervention to prevent further complications needs to be done early with lifestyle modification because blood pressure is associated with modifiable risk factors, such as BMI and total activity. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:39-45Keywords: Hypertension, prehypertension, rural area, young adult

Felix F. Widjaja

2013-02-01

327

Prevalence of articular chondrocalcinosis in elderly subjects in a rural area of Catalonia.  

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OBJECTIVES--To undertake an epidemiological survey of the prevalence of radiological chondrocalcinosis in the elderly population of Osona, a rural area of Catalonia, north east Spain. METHODS--Knee and wrist radiographs were performed on 261 subjects (141 women, 120 men) aged at least 60 years, who attended a series of 35 general practitioners for various medical problems. RESULTS--Twenty seven subjects had articular chondrocalcinosis, which represents a crude prevalence of 10%. Articular cho...

1993-01-01

328

Dimensions of sustainable rural development in mountainous and less favored areas: Evidence from Greece  

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The aim of this paper is to classify research, policy priorities, and development objectives in mountainous and less favored areas into a conceptual framework of sustainable rural development. The classification of sustainable development is based on the three main pillars: economic development, environmental conservation, and societal equity. Under the pillar of economic development, the role of agrotourism and the role of mountainous agricultural food products are considered. Under the pill...

Nastis Stefanos A.; Papanagiotou Evaggelos

2009-01-01

329

Primary Health Care in the Rural Area of the Islamic Republic of Iran  

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Primary health care in the Islamic Republic of Iran was conceived and nurtured on the strength of scientific research, politi­cal commitment, and well thought out planning. Due to expansion of PHC network in rural areas of Iran health Indicators have significantly improved. The health care and network in this country is, however, in need of serious repair if all this endeav­ors hither to be wasted. 

Malekafzali, H.

2009-01-01

330

A Study Of Infant Feeding Practices And The Underlying Factors In A Rural Area Of Delhi  

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Research questions: 1. What are the infant feeding practices in a rural area? 2. What are the reasons underlying the harmful infant feeding practices? Objectives: 1. To study feeding practices among infants. 2. To find out the factors underlying various harmful practices. 3. To find out the sources of information/advice for the prevailing practices. 4. To determine Whether the Practice of giving diluted animal milk to infants is associated with type of family, caste or educational status of m...

Taneja D.K; Saha Renuka; Dabas Pratibha; Gautam V. P; Tripathy Y; Mehra M

2003-01-01

331

Prevalence of Ocular Morbidities among School Children in Rural Area of North Maharashtra in India  

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The global initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness sets a major challenge to work relentlessly to avoid the preventable blindness. Effective methods of vision screening in school children are useful in detecting correctable causes of decreased vision. Present study was conducted with the objective of estimating the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children in rural area. A cross sectional study was conducted among school going adolescents studying from 5th to 10th sta...

Deshpande Jayant D, Malathi K.

2011-01-01

332

Rural Water Supply Management and Sustainability: The Case of Adama Area, Ethiopia  

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Wise utilization of water resources is becoming very important as world faces water crises. The main objective of this study was to investigate the rural water supply systems with case study in Adama area, in central Ethiopia. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed. Four sample water schemes were selected and totally 148 (63 were female) representative households were selected for answering the questionnaires. ...

Abebe Tadesse; Techane Bosona; Girma Gebresenbet

2013-01-01

333

Microbiological aspects of underground water quality for human consumption in rural area  

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Full Text Available Underground water sources from rural area of Northeast of Romania are frequently polluted with fecal contaminants. Surface and groundwater sources used as drinking water were affected in 2005-2007 by natural disasters (floods, drought. In the period 2007-2009 were analyzed 321 samples of water from underground sources for human consumption. Descriptive statistics for 1038 microbiological indicators are presented in this paper

Luminita-Smaranda Iancu

2010-01-01

334

Female carpet weavers' visual acuity and effective factors: Fordu rural area of Qom  

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Background: Healthy vision of workers is one of the important elements in carpet weaving industry which has essential role in improving of the job quality and efficiency. Visual acuity is the primary outcome measure in most studies involving eye diseases. Ihe aim of this study was determination of visual acuity and its effective factors in women carpet weaver in fordu rural area of Qom has been investigated.  Methods: In a cross-sectional (descriptive-analytical) study visual acuity of 1...

Khajenasiri F.; Sotoudeh G.

2007-01-01

335

Primary Health Care in the Rural Area of the Islamic Republic of Iran  

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Full Text Available Primary health care in the Islamic Republic of Iran was conceived and nurtured on the strength of scientific research, politi­cal commitment, and well thought out planning. Due to expansion of PHC network in rural areas of Iran health Indicators have significantly improved. The health care and network in this country is, however, in need of serious repair if all this endeav­ors hither to be wasted. 

H Malekafzali

2009-03-01

336

Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in [...] children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The activated alumina and reverse osmosis processes are both processes that can be very effectively applied for water defluoridation. The activated alumina process, however, is considered to be a more simple and robust process for water defluoridation, especially in a rural area. Therefore, the activated alumina process was selected for water defluoridation. An activated alumina plant was designed, constructed and commissioned in the rural area. Fluoride in the feed water is removed from 6 to 8 mg/? to less than 1.5 mg/?. No reduction in plant output was experienced over 6 service cycles. Therefore, it appears that fouling of the activated alumina should not be a problem. Plant output varied between 940 and 1 296 m³ to a fluoride breakthrough of approximately 2.0 mg/?. No significant operational problems were experienced during commissioning and the plant is performing satisfactorily. Spent regenerant is disposed of into evaporation ponds. It was demonstrated that a 1st world technology could be effectively applied in a rural area with proper training and supervision of the operators. The capital and operational costs of the 200 m³/d defluoridation plant are estimated at approximately R1.2m. and R0.7/m³ treated water.

JJ, Schoeman.

337

Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women of Rural Area of Vadodara District, Gujarat  

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Background: With the growing aged population in the country, postmenopausal health problems and needs are likely to become a great challenge to public health. This is more so related to the women with poor social background like those residing in rural areas. Material & Methods: Design: Cross-sectional study, Participants: 147 post-menopausal women residing in Piparia village of Vadodara district were involved in the study, based on sample size calculation and necessary assumptions. Infor...

2011-01-01

338

Case-Control Study of Diarrheal Disease Etiology in a Remote Rural Area in Western Thailand  

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The objective was to assess the association of enteric pathogens in diarrheal disease in a remote rural area in Thailand. Stool specimens were collected from 236 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and from 236 asymptomatic controls. Standard microbiologic methods, and enzyme immunoassay for viral pathogens, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium, were used to identify enteric pathogens with susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. Campylobacter, Plesiomonas, Salmonella, and ...

Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Mcdaniel, Philip; Sornsakrin, Siriporn; Srijan, Apichai; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Mason, Carl J.

2010-01-01

339

The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

Md. M. Hossain

2010-01-01

340

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural area of Brazil Prevalência da síndrome metabólica em área rural do Brasil  

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CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is recognized worldwide as an important public health concern. However, little information is available for rural populations in Brazil. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with MS in a rural village in Brazil in 2004. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional population-based study, in Virgem das Graças, a rural community in the Jequitinhonha Valley, State of Minas Gerais. METHODS: MS was the dependent variable, define...

Gustavo Velásquez-Meléndez; Andrea Gazzinelli; Rodrigo Côrrea-Oliveira; Adriano Marçal Pimenta; Gilberto Kac

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 310 participants in carbon sequestration project. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The stepwise method was used in the regression analysis. Results: The result indicates that 30% of the variance in the perception of respondents about role of extension in adopting solar energy could be explained by using educational films and slides, contacting with extension agents, visiting sample sites and providing lectures. Conclusion and Recommendations: The results demonstrated that success of solar energy will depend on the informing population about benefits and in this regard the authorities should provide accurate and on time information. There is no single and appropriate intervention for developing and protecting solar energy in rural areas and in view of the numerous and varied constraints and opportunities, there is need to develop location- specific strategies.

Seyed J.F. Hosseini

2011-01-01

342

The Implementation of Preventive Vaccination of Dogs and Cats against Rabies in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal viral infection that has no specific treatment. For that reason prevention, especially vaccinations against rabies, is the matter of the utmost importance. The study involved 176 dog owners (possessing 257 dogs and 86 cat owners (possessing 182 cats from rural areas in Lublin province. The special original inquiry questionnaire was applied. Results: Preventive vaccination of dogs against rabies is properly realized by only 64.8 ± 7 % dog owners (below the level recommended by WHO and by only 19.8 ± 9.1 % of cat owners - inhabitants of rural areas in Lublin Province. 16.5 % of respondents confessed that they have never vaccinated their dogs against rabies. 48.3 ± 7.4 % of dog owners as well as 65.1 ± 10.1 % of cat owners don't have any veterinary health certificates for their animals. Conclusions: The standards of veterinary care as well as effectiveness of dogs and cats vaccinations against rabies in rural areas in Poland need to be improved.

Witold Kollataj

2012-01-01

343

Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility.

2009-08-01

344

Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

Vinhas, Denise Martins

2004-07-01

345

Evaluation of the composition of terrestrial invertebrates in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The terrestrial invertebrates participate actively in the formation of the soil, and can be utilized as bioindicators of environmental disturbance. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the fauna composition of terrestrial invertebrates, in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul. The collection was carried out in a single fragment of Araucaria Forest, with structurally differentiated two-point samplings, through pitfall traps. A total of 1,776 invertebrates was captured, pertaining to Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca and Plathyhelminthes phyla, of which Arthropoda and Hexapoda were the most representative groups. In Hexapoda, eleven orders were registered, and of those, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola and Diptera were the most abundant. Although the studied fragment had been under recuperation for about 10 years after approximately 40 years of antropic interference, and was therefore surrounded by areas utilized for farming, agriculture and highways, it contained different groups of terrestrial invertebrates on wide-ranging thropic levels, which were important for the spatial structure and the composition of litterfall of the fragment.

Marta Luciane Fischer

2008-03-01

346

An aerial radiological survey of the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. Final report, October 29, 1996 - November 2, 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity surrounding the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area that encompasses the plant site of which a large portion is located in the Mississippi River Basin. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that measures gamma radiation. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Estimated exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 6-8 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in the Mississippi River Basin and (b) below 6 ?R/h over the Mississippi River and portions of its basin that were included in the survey area. Man-made radiation (22-1,600 ?R/h) was found at the plant site; nitrogen-1 6 was the primary source of activity found at the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. Estimated exposure rates measured in the area surrounding the site during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1970 preoperational survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

1997-01-01

347

THE IMPORTANCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE ICT NETWORK IN ACHIEVING KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN THE RURAL AREAS  

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Full Text Available Currently in Romania, the information sources available to farmers are limited and belong mostly to the public sector. The knowledge provided is relevant but insufficient in order to meet the needs of the Romanian farmers, especially since they are not oriented towards the market, as the main segment of interest. This paper has the intention to emphasize the need to introduce ICT as the main tool in supporting the decision making process and in resolving the specific issues faced by this sector In analyzing the current situation regarding this matter, in order to propose ways to resolve the problems encountered in achieving knowledge transfer, until now, were addressed issues such as: the evolution of the knowledge transfer concept, development milestones and actions that marked the RDI sector as the main producer of information, the main supporters of the farmers in their information actions (World Bank, IFAD, means, procedures and techniques used for transmitting knowledge (extension; consultancy. But what is most important is making all this resulted information available for the farmers, fact which can only be accomplished, in our opinion, by introducing and implementing ICT in the rural areas. The main method of research is the statistical data analysis of the data regarding the components involved in the knowledge transfer process and the current status of implementation of ICT in the rural areas. Among the expected results are included identifying the main restrictive factors in achieving knowledge transfer in rural and the main implications that implementing ICT would have on farmers' market position. Introducing ICT in the rural area is, in our opinion the best way to transform information, as a research result, into knowledge, becoming this way a real input for the farmer In practice, this will lead to lower production costs, lower prices for inputs, increased revenues by increasing the production’s prices and, not least, increased level of the European funding resources attracted for supporting investments.

Menda Teodora - Adriana

2011-07-01

348

Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities between the poor and the non-poor in urban areas of SSA. Specific policies geared at preferentially improving the health and nutrition of the urban poor should be implemented, so that while targeting the best attainable average level of health, reducing gaps between population groups is also on target. To successfully monitor the gaps between urban poor and non-poor, existing data collection programs such as the DHS and other nationally representative surveys should be re-designed to capture the changing patterns of the spatial distribution of population.

Fotso Jean-Christophe

2006-07-01

349

Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were 137Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

2004-01-01

350

Mobility patterns in a rural area of Machakos district, Kenya in 1974-1980.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors discuss selected findings of a study conducted between 1974 and 1980 in a rural area of Machakos district, Kenya. As part of a broader epidemiological study, data were collected concerning aspects of migration and circulation. These findings and methodological problems encountered in analyzing the data are discussed. Direct and indirect measures of migration are included. Figures are presented for annual intra-area, in- and out-migration rates; migration rates by age and sex; and the most common categories of persons involved in different types of circulation. Reasons for observed changes in migration patterns are discussed. PMID:12340807

Van Ginneken, J K; Omondi-odhiambo; Muller, A S

1986-01-01

351

Photovoltaic systems. Their uses in the rural area. Photovoltaik. Einsatz im laendlichen Raum  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In rural areas, there are quite a number of uses for photovoltaic systems. As an example, a farm is mentioned where 3500 litres of drinking water per day for animals are extracted using solar energy. The system is assisted in winter by a small wind turbine. Moreover, water pumped up by means of solar power is excellent to irrigate smaller and larger areas. Further uses are the power supply of distant animal shelters, outhouses and systems, filling and ventilation of fish ponds, drying houses in connection with air collectors, electric fences. (BWI).

Schulz, H. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany, F.R.). Landesanstalt fuer Landtechnik Weihenstephan)

1989-08-01

352

Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in a Child from a Rural Area: A Rare Case Report  

Science.gov (United States)

In humans, infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is usually uncommon but has been reported from various areas of the world. Parasitization rates ranging between 0.001% and 5.5% have been reported according to different surveys. We report a rare case of H. diminuta infection in a 10-year-old female from the rural area of Kendrapada district of Odisha. The patient came to our pediatrics outpatient department with the chief complain of intermittent abdominal pain, anal pruritus and nocturnal restlessness. She responded well to praziquantel therapy.

Tiwari, Shreekant; Karuna, Tadepalli; Rautaraya, Bibhudutta

2014-01-01

353

Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in a Child from a Rural Area: A Rare Case Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

In humans, infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is usually uncommon but has been reported from various areas of the world. Parasitization rates ranging between 0.001% and 5.5% have been reported according to different surveys. We report a rare case of H. diminuta infection in a 10-year-old female from the rural area of Kendrapada district of Odisha. The patient came to our pediatrics outpatient department with the chief complain of intermittent abdominal pain, anal pruritus and nocturnal restlessness. She responded well to praziquantel therapy. PMID:24696564

Tiwari, Shreekant; Karuna, Tadepalli; Rautaraya, Bibhudutta

2014-01-01

354

Evaluation Plan: National Advanced Rural Transportation Systems. Field Operational Tests of Traveler Information Services in Tourism Areas. Executive Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is part of a series of planning documents for the evaluation of Field Operational Tests of Traveler Information Services in Rural Tourism Areas (Branson TRIP and I-40 TTIS). The Branson Travel and Recreational Information Program (Branson TR...

J. Orban B. Pierce M. Burt H. Clark D. Burkom

1998-01-01

355

A social work programme for poverty stricken families in rural areas of the Northern Cape Province / Mercutio Motshedi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was conducted in Heuningvlei community in the Kgalagadi District Municipality in the Northern Cape Province. This study was part of the "Tshwaragano Project" with the general aim of empowering the disadvantaged communities in rural areas.

Motshedi, Mosimanegape Mercutio

2009-01-01

356

Early implementation of WHO recommendations for the retention of health workers in remote and rural areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The maldistribution of health workers between urban and rural areas is a policy concern in virtually all countries. It prevents equitable access to health services, can contribute to increased health-care costs and underutilization of health professional skills in urban areas, and is a barrier to universal health coverage. To address this long-standing concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued global recommendations to improve the rural recruitment and retention of the health workforce. This paper presents experiences with local and regional adaptation and adoption of WHO recommendations. It highlights challenges and lessons learnt in implementation in two countries – the Lao People's Democratic Republic and South Africa – and provides a broader perspective in two regions – Asia and Europe. At country level, the use of the recommendations facilitated a more structured and focused policy dialogue, which resulted in the development and adoption of more relevant and evidence-based policies. At regional level, the recommendations sparked a more sustained effort for cross-country policy assessment and joint learning. There is a need for impact assessment and evaluation that focus on the links between the rural availability of health workers and universal health coverage. The effects of any health-financing reforms on incentive structures for health workers will also have to be assessed if the central role of more equitably distributed health workers in achieving universal health coverage is to be supported.

Buchan, James; Couper, Ian D; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thepannya, Khampasong; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Perfilieva, Galina

2013-01-01

357

Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

Madhu K

2009-01-01

358

Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland  

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Full Text Available This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. Results of pH tests indicated that 23.1% of the water sources were acidic, 7.7% were neutral and 69.2% were alkaline. Water collected from the unprotected wells tested acidic, had a pH of 5.96, implying that it is corrosive and might present health risks to humans and livestock. Sources with highly alkaline water were the borehole, spring, hot spring standpipes, and rivers. Survey findings show that colour, taste, smell and turbidity are the quality parameters mostly used by rural households to determine water suitability for domestic use. Most ground water sources were found to have saline water due to low ground water recharge in the area. Water quality remains a sustainable development challenge in the rural areas of Swaziland.

Amos Olutola Fadiran

2012-03-01

359

Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women of Rural Area of Vadodara District, Gujarat  

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Full Text Available Background: With the growing aged population in the country, postmenopausal health problems and needs are likely to become a great challenge to public health. This is more so related to the women with poor social background like those residing in rural areas. Material & Methods: Design: Cross-sectional study, Participants: 147 post-menopausal women residing in Piparia village of Vadodara district were involved in the study, based on sample size calculation and necessary assumptions. Information was filled up in a pre-tested questionnaire. Objective: To study the social and demographic characteristics of the post-menopausal women in rural areas of Vadodara district, Gujarat. Results: Among a total of 147 respondents, the mean age was 58.32 (48-68 years, while the mean age of inception of menopause was 47.74 (44.84-50.64 years. Labor work (n=37, 25.2% was the most common occupation. Among all the respondents, 98.5% belonged to social class 4 or below, 18.4% were widow and 40% were below poverty line (BPL. 74.8% were not literate and 42.9% were dependent on their children for daily living. Conclusion: Rural post-menopausal women in India suffer many social disadvantages which could make them more vulnerable to experience more frequent and more severe of menopausal symptoms. Along with geriatric care, this special group of women also needs a separate focus for health care provision.

Donald Christian, Manish Kathad, Bharat Bhavsar

2011-01-01

360

TRADE AND RESTAURANT BUSINESS SPHERE IN RURAL AREAS OF UKRAINE: STATE, PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS  

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Full Text Available Rural social infrastructure is the material and organizational basis for satisfaction of vital needs of population. However, unsatisfactory economic and social conditions influence the extinction of village, extend the continuous unsettled zones of rural territories, scatter and reduce the level of provision of social infrastructure objects. In order to stop the negative processes in social infrastructures of village, the complex of measures in relation to the improvement of maintenance of villagers should be taken, the practical steps for saving and increasing the material base of social infrastructure should be worked out, in particular trade and restaurant economy.The article is concerned with research of the current situation in trade and restaurant economy in rural areas of Ukraine and determination of the problems of their development. The statistical analysis of data from the State committee of statistics was conducted, the indexes of development were calculated, a structural analysis was performed and basic progress of trade and restaurant economy trends in rural areas was determined.It is educed that the consumption market of rural locality in Ukraine is characterized by a limit of goods assortment, by in-depth tendency in relation to the problem of goods’ quality and its correspondence to the standards of food safety, by low purchasing power of villagers, and also by closing of retails’ networks.As for restaurant economy, it is well-proven that the change of the system of administrative management resulted in the redistribution of rights and duties of regional administrations and their vertical relations with central government bodies and enterprise structures. In the past the chain development, providing separate contingents of employees and students, was centrally planned. At present, when considerable amount of industrial enterprises has stopped working and the objects of social infrastructure became the communal property, regulation of food supply is controlled neither by the management of industrial enterprises nor by local authorities. Therefore, the development of restaurant economy under the new conditions requires the modernization of control system both on nation-wide and regional levels and at the level of separate enterprises and organizations.Thus, use of new approaches to management of trade and restaurant economy development, improving the state regulation methods will allow to renew and strengthen infrastructural potential, optimize financial flows, increase the level of satisfaction of respective necessities of rural population on this basis, promote the role of industries in providing the complex of social development of regions, to create background for attracting the investments.

T. Bulakh

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas  

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Full Text Available The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbeing. We provide empirical evidence for this urban–rural interconnection, using results from a survey in the Netherlands. In addition to their attachment to local and regional green places, survey results show that residents of the capital city of Amsterdam have a high appreciation of a wide range of natural, rural places throughout the country. We argue that these (until now invisible urban–rural ties should be made more visible because these natural areas enjoyed by urban residents can no longer be taken for granted. Financial and other support for nature conservation are therefore needed. However, to organise support for nature can often be problematic because nature is a public good and collective action is often difficult to launch. The invisible and distant ties of urban dwellers for rural areas complicate the task even more. Nevertheless, it is increasingly recognised that the Internet opens many doors for community building and may help to overcome the “illogic” of collective action. In the research project “Sympathy for the Commons”, we aim to investigate the possibilities provided by the internet by building online communities around nature areas and enquiring into the available support and funding that these communities can provide.

Rixt A. Bijker

2014-06-01

362

Design for renewable energy systems with application to rural areas in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study uses optimization modeling to study efficient ways to integrate renewable energy systems to provide electricity and heat in rural Japan. The model provides minimum cost system configuration and operation taking into account hour-by-hour energy availability and demand. Grid electricity is available to rural areas of Japan, but it is relatively expensive. Local renewable energy generation can be economic while using grid electricity to compensate for the intermittency of the renewable generation. In the model, renewable electricity can be provided by a combination of wind, photovoltaic, and biomass. Heat can be provided by petroleum, LPG, and geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). We find that due to the relatively high cost of grid electricity, there is significant penetration of wind generation. In turn, the penetration of wind creates economic conditions that encourage GHP penetration. The integrated renewable system reduces the annual cost of the entire system by 31%, and reduces the carbon emissions by 50%

2005-01-01

363

DIVERSITY OF RURAL LESS-FAVOURED AREAS IN PODLASIE PROVINCE, POLAND  

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Full Text Available In this study we present multivariable characterization of 105 communes in Podlasie province; almost all of these communes have status of LFA (less-favoured areas. The eleven variables which are indicators of enironmental and socio-economic conditions were used for evaluation of regional differentiation. Statistical methods i.e. principal component analysis (PCA and hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward’s method afford us to identify most important variables and to clasify communes into 5 distinct clusters. Among the studied variables these showing farmer skills, land use, farm production intensity, activities of rural local populations were the major descriptors for adequate quantitative characterizing and discriminating the communes in Podlasie province. Quality of agro-ecological environment was not an important factor discriminating the rural LFAs.

Barbara ROSZKOWSKA-M?DRA

2007-07-01

364

Survey of Microbial Quality of Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Kashan-Iran in Second Half of 2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the study is surveying microbial quality of drinking water in Kashan rural areas and determining the rural population that using safe water in terms of microbial quality in second-half of 2008. In this cross-sectional study, microbial quality of water in all rural areas was determined in 3 stages based on 3 parameters as Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC). The results of this study illustrates that 100.0, 47.71 and 92.99% population in under ...

Miranzadeh, M. B.; Heidari, M.; Mesdaghinia, A. R.; Younesian, M.

2011-01-01

365

Utility of a thematic network in primary health care: a controlled interventional study in a rural area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU). It supports a virtual multidisciplinary community for physicians, focused on the improvement of clinical practice. This is a study of the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, specifically as a platform of communication between specialists at the hospital and doctors in the rural area. Methods In order to study...

Coma del Corral Maria Jesús; Abaigar Luquín Pedro; Cordero Guevara José; Olea Movilla Angel; Torres Torres Gerardo; Lozano Garcia Javier

2005-01-01

366

Geography, private costs and uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in a remote rural area  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between geographical location, private costs, health provider costs and uptake of health screening is unclear. This paper examines these relationships in a screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland, a rural and remote area of over 10,000 square miles. Methods Men aged 65–74 (n = 9323 were invited to attend screening at 51 locations in 50 settlements. Effects of geography, deprivation and age on uptake were examined. Among 8,355 attendees, 8,292 completed a questionnaire detailing mode of travel and costs incurred, time travelled, whether accompanied, whether dependants were cared for, and what they would have been doing if not attending screening, thus allowing private costs to be calculated. Health provider (NHS costs were also determined. Data were analysed by deprivation categories, using the Scottish Indices of Deprivation (2003, and by settlement type ranging from urban to very remote rural. Results Uptake of screening was high in all settlement types (mean 89.6%, range 87.4 – 92.6%. Non-attendees were more deprived in terms of income, employment, education and health but there was no significant difference between non-attendees and attendees in terms of geographical access to services. Age was similar in both groups. The highest private costs (median £7.29 per man and NHS screening costs (£18.27 per man invited were observed in very remote rural areas. Corresponding values for all subjects were: private cost £4.34 and NHS cost £15.72 per man invited. Conclusion Uptake of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in this remote and rural setting was high in comparison with previous studies, and this applied across all settlement types. Geographical location did not affect uptake, most likely due to the outreach approach adopted. Private and NHS costs were highest in very remote settings but still compared favourably with other published studies.

Cairns John

2006-03-01

367

Analysis of airborne particulate matter collected in urban and rural area by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED IN URBAND AND RURAL AREA BY INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. This report presents the work of monitoring study on air particulate matter (PMs) in Indonesia on the period of 2002 to 2004. The PMs were collected at two sampling site that represented an urban and rural area using Gent stacked air sampler for 24 hours, once a month for each sampling point. Fine and coarse fractions of PMs were collected. The PMs deposited on a filter were measured for mass concentration and were analyzed for elemental concentration by using INAA. Irradiation of filters were carried out at GA. Siwabessy reactor and were counted by high-resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The PM10 analysis resulted shows that the range of PM10 for rural site was 5.5 ?g.m-3 to 46.9 ?g.m-3 while PM10 for urban site was 12.0 ?g.m-3 to 93.1 ?g.m-3. About 17 elements of Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, I, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, V and Zn were analyzed through short and long irradiation of INAA. Among, the elements of Al, Br, Cl, Fe and Na were found at mayor component. The pollutants of Fe, V, Sb, Cr, Zn and Co were higher at urban site compare to the rural site. It could be conclude that the mean of 24 hours PM10 and mean annual of fine fraction were still below the PMs National Standard for both sampling sites. The INAA technique could be used to control the pollutant concentration on environmental sample. (author)

2006-07-01

368

Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is common in parts of South Africa; rural residence is a frequently cited risk factor. We conducted a FAS school prevalence survey of an isolated rural community in a West Coast village of Western Cape Province, so obtaining the first directly measured rate, [...] focusing specifically on a South African rural area, of FAS and partial FAS (PFAS). METHODS: The study area (Aurora village), a community of about 2 500 people in a grain-producing region, has one primary school. All learners were eligible for study inclusion. Initial anthropometry screening was followed by a diagnostic stage entailing examination by a dysmorphologist for features of FAS, neurodevelopmental assessment, and an interview assessing maternal alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Of 160 learners screened, 78 (49%) were screen-positive, of whom 63 (81%) were clinically assessed for FAS. The overall FAS/PFAS rate among the screened learners was 17.5% (95% confidence interval 12.0 - 24.2%), with 16 (10.0%) children having FAS and 12 (7.5%) PFAS. High rates of stunting, underweight and microcephaly were noted in all learners, especially those with FAS or PFAS. Five (18%) mothers of affected children were deceased by the time of assessment. CONCLUSION: We describe very high rates of FAS/PFAS in an isolated rural part of the Western Cape that is not located in a viticultural region. Our study suggests that the prevalence of FAS may be very high in isolated communities, or in particular hot-spots. It adds to the growing evidence that FAS/PFAS is a significant, and underestimated, health problem in South Africa. Expanded screening and surveillance programmes, and preventive interventions, are urgently needed

L, Olivier; M, Urban; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; D, Viljoen.

369

A Framework for Providing E-Services to the Rural Areas using Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks  

CERN Multimedia

In recent years, the proliferation of mobile computing devices has driven a revolutionary change in the computing world. The nature of ubiquitous devices makes wireless networks the easiest solution for their interconnection. This has led to the rapid growth of several wireless systems like wireless ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks etc. In this paper we have proposed a framework for rural development by providing various e-services to the rural areas with the help of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We have discussed how timely and accurate information could be collected from the rural areas using wireless technologies. In addition to this, we have also mentioned the technical and operational challenges that could hinder the implementation of such a framework in the rural areas in the developing countries.

Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Sayeed, Sabit Anjum; Ahmed, Farruk; Hong, Choong Seon

2007-01-01

370

Knowledge, attitude and practices related to dengue in rural and slum areas of Delhi after the dengue epidemic of 1996.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess the knowledge and attitudes about dengue and practice of prevention followed by the residents of a rural area and an urban resettlement colony of East Delhi, an interview based cross sectional KAP study was undertaken in Jan 97 to Feb 97, a few months after the dengue epidemic in rural area and urban areas of East Delhi. A pre-structured and pre-tested format containing the relevant questions was administered to the subjects. A total of 687 subjects (334 rural and 353 urban) were interviewed. Nearly four fifth (82.3%) of these were aware of Dengue. Audiovisual media was the most common source of information in both the areas. Knowledge about the disease was fair to good. Fever was the commonest symptom of the disease known to 92% urban and 83% rural respondents followed by symptoms of bleeding and headache. Mosquito was known to spread the disease to 71% rural and 89% urban respondents. More than two third respondents in urban and two fifth in rural areas had used some method of mosquito control or personal protection during the epidemic. PMID:9914677

Gupta, P; Kumar, P; Aggarwal, O P

1998-06-01

371

Study of the Factor Involved in Non-farming Labor Supply in Rural Areas in Ghoochan Township  

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Full Text Available Considering the population growth and limitation of expansion in cultivation areas, employment in non-agricultural jobs in rural areas is inevitable. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the supply of labor of the rural families on non-agricultural jobs in the rural areas. A sample of 300 families from rural areas of the Ghoochan Township in 2000-2001 was studied. The data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. The analysis used a multivariable regression equation. The results showed that: 1. The wage level of the non-agricultural experience of the person had positive effect on the supply of labors to non-agricultural jobs. 2. However, this effect was negative for the number of days the person worked on farm. Finally, since wages earned from non-agricultural jobs was higher than that of agricultural jobs. Therefore, it is suggested that for the purpose of increasing the income of rural people, non-agricultural jobs in rural areas be facilitated and encouraged

J. Mir Mohammad Sadeghi

2004-07-01

372

Utilization of maternal and child health care services by primigravida females in urban and rural areas of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maternal complications and poor perinatal outcome are highly associated with nonutilisation of antenatal and delivery care services and poor socioeconomic conditions of the patient. It is essential that all pregnant women have access to high quality obstetric care throughout their pregnancies. Present longitudinal study was carried out to compare utilization of maternal and child health care services by urban and rural primigravida females. A total of 240 study participants were enrolled in this study. More illiteracy and less mean age at the time of marriage were observed in rural population. Poor knowledge about prelacteal feed, colostrums, tetanus injection and iron-follic acid tablet consumption was noted in both urban and rural areas. Very few study participants from both areas were counselled for HIV testing before pregnancy. More numbers of abortions (19.2%) were noted in urban study participants compared to rural area. Thus utilization of maternal and child health care (MCH) services was poor in both urban and rural areas. A sustained and focussed IEC campaign to improve the awareness amongst community on MCH will help in improving community participation. This may improve the quality, accessibility, and utilization of maternal health care services provided by the government agencies in both rural and urban areas. PMID:24977099

Mahajan, Hemant; Sharma, Bhuwan

2014-01-01

373

An Ecological Inventory Approach to Developing Curricula for Rural Areas of Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper describes a curriculum development pilot study in a rural village in India. The purpose of the study was to develop and test application of an ecological inventory approach to curriculum development integrating academic and functional skill training. Ecologically valid curricula teach the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values required by students to function effectively in current and future environments (e.g., urban and/or rural, academic, vocational, domestic, community and recreational) in which the students perform. The discussion illustrates application of ecological inventories and describes several related data collection instruments and procedures. The paper also describes an Integrated Core Curriculum Structure (ICCS) as a guide for designing curricula based on ecological inventories. An example is provided of a practical Thematic Unit Plan derived from the ICCS and integrating a variety of functional and academic skills into a guide for instruction and evaluation. The discussion provides a clear insight into many of the problems faced by students, school leavers and graduates in rural areas of developing countries, both in their daily lives and as they plan for their futures.

Baine, David; Puhan, Biranchi; Puhan, Gautam; Puhan, Siba

2000-05-01

374

Aspects of Quality of Life by Type of Regions in European Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of the quality of life aspects, expressed through the indicators, by branch and by regions, allow to observe their contribution to economic and social development in rural area at national and community level. The analyzed indicators are: population density, age structure of the population, economic development (gross domestic product /capita, structure of economy (gross value added by branch, structure of employment, employment rate, unemployment and the long-term unemployment.The analysis of indicators is realised at NUTS 3 (county level by types of regions. The determining of types of regions (“predominantly rural regions” - PR, “intermediate regions” - IR and “predominantly urban regions” - PU is corresponding to NUTS 3 county level, which are based on a revised urban-rural typology. The comparative analysis of economic-social aspects, for Romania and for other EU countries highlights the gaps by types of regions (PR, IR and PU and by branch (primary sector, secondary sector, tertiary sector, what allows the focusing the efforts to reduce them.

Cristina NECULAI

2011-06-01

375

Compliance to Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation among Pregnant Women in Urban and Rural Areas in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Low compliance has been linked to the ineffectiveness of supplementation programme among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the compliance of vitamin and mineral supplementation among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in urban and rural areas. A total of 118 pregnant women aged 28±4 years (urban areas = 62; rural areas = 56 were recruited. Socio demographic data and compliance to supplementation were obtained through self-reported questionnaire. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb was obtained from the antenatal records. More than two-thirds of the subjects (79.7% were in third trimester and less than a third (20.3% was in second trimester. Overall, 49.2% of subjects complied with vitamin and mineral supplementation. The mean of weight and haemoglobin concentration were 63.7±15.1 kg and 11.3±1.1 g d/L, respectively. The overall percentage of subjects who complied with vitamin and mineral supplementation was 49.2%. There was no significant difference in percentage of subjects who complied with the supplements in urban (46.8% and rural areas (51.8% (p = 0.587. The prevalence of anaemia among the subjects (Hb <11 g d/L was 42.3% (n = 50. Prevalence of anaemia was lower in the compliant group compared with the non-compliant group (34.5% vs 50%, p = 0.01. Pregnant mothers who did not comply to the supplementation had significantly lower haemoglobin concentration (11.0±1.0 g d/L compared with those who complied (11.5±1.2 g d/L (p = 0.01. Percentage of compliance in anaemic and non-anaemic subjects were 34.5 and 65.5%, respectively (p = 0.088. The main reasons for non-compliance reported by subjects in both areas were forgetfulness (33.9%, side effects (nausea and vomiting (11.9% and worry regarding big size of babies (5.1%. In summary, the incidence of anemia is still high while compliance to supplementation is still low. Comprehensive nutrition education and health promotion programme should be carried out targeting pregnant women in urban and rural to educate the importance of compliance with the vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy.

A.M. Zahara

2010-01-01

376

ASSESSMENT OF THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG THE WOMEN OF RURAL AND URBAN AREAS OF RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Aim of the study was to document the prevalence of use of Contraceptives among the rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Specific objectives were to identify the percentage of women using contraceptive, to document different methods used for contraception, to assess the knowledge regarding contraception and to identify the reasons of use and non-use between rural and urban areas of the Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 200females were recruited to assess the use of contraceptives from different rural areas of Kallar Sayedan, and urban areas of Rawalpindi. Questionnaires were filled and data was analysed by SPSS version 19.The p value was found to be 0.661 for psychological effects. This means that the use of contraceptives is not dependent on psychological effects. The percentage of ease factor among rural area was 12% and urban area was 26%.The significance for religious factor was checked and the p value was found to be .000.This means that higher use of contraception was seen in women who considered that there is no religious barrier to contraception. Overall results of this study were found to be 100%.According to the knowledge the concept of contraception was assessed was 93% in both areas. In which the contraceptive use in urban was 59% while in rural was 56%.Different methods were used in which high use was IUCD among the other mentioned methods that included pills, injection, tubal legations and others (use of condoms by their husbands, percentage was about 31% -25%in both areas.

Hina Rehman

2013-06-01

377

Formação dos profissionais das áreas de ciências agrárias em segurança do trabalho rural / Preparation of professionals in the area of agrarian sciences regarding safety in rural work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar se os futuros profissionais que serão engajados ao mercado de trabalho têm recebido orientações e treinamentos para atuar na questão da segurança no trabalho rural e estabelecer relações entre a formação profissional e a informação levada aos produtores rurais. [...] Foi utilizado como instrumento de pesquisa um questionário aplicado a 209 produtores/trabalhadores rurais, 156 discentes formandos, da área de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina e 75 discentes do Colégio Agrícola Estadual Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR). A coleta dos dados foi realizada nos meses de junho, julho e agosto de 2006. Os resultados mostraram que tanto os produtores/trabalhadores rurais como os futuros profissionais não estão conscientizados com relação à segurança no trabalho rural. Portanto, tornar a disciplina Segurança e Higiene do Trabalho Rural obrigatória nos currículos dos cursos da área de Ciências Agrárias, colocar em prática a prevenção de acidentes ocupacionais no meio rural e realizar uma reciclagem contínua dos profissionais que atuam na área, por meio de treinamentos e do acesso a informações atualizadas que poderiam se apresentar como alternativas para a prevenção de acidentes na área rural. Abstract in english The present paper had the objective of checking if the professional who will be engaged in the job market had received proper orientation and training to act in rural working safety, to establish relations between professional orientation and the information which will be given to rural growers. As [...] research instrument, a questionnaire was used and applied to 209 growers and farm works, 156 graduated students of crop science at the Londrina State University and 75 students of the Agriculture High School Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR). The data were collected during the months of June, July, and August 2006. The results showed that neither the farm works and growers nor the students were conscious of safety in rural labor. Therefore, we suggest the inclusion of the course Safety and Hygiene in Rural Labor in the core curriculum for the preparation of crop science students. It is also necessary to put into practice the rules of occupation accident prevention for rural labor and a permanent recycling of professionals working in this area through training program and access to current information to be alternatives in preventing accidents become a necessity.

Adilson Luiz, Seifert; Débora Cristina, Santiago.

378

Formação dos profissionais das áreas de ciências agrárias em segurança do trabalho rural Preparation of professionals in the area of agrarian sciences regarding safety in rural work  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar se os futuros profissionais que serão engajados ao mercado de trabalho têm recebido orientações e treinamentos para atuar na questão da segurança no trabalho rural e estabelecer relações entre a formação profissional e a informação levada aos produtores rurais. Foi utilizado como instrumento de pesquisa um questionário aplicado a 209 produtores/trabalhadores rurais, 156 discentes formandos, da área de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina e 75 discentes do Colégio Agrícola Estadual Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR. A coleta dos dados foi realizada nos meses de junho, julho e agosto de 2006. Os resultados mostraram que tanto os produtores/trabalhadores rurais como os futuros profissionais não estão conscientizados com relação à segurança no trabalho rural. Portanto, tornar a disciplina Segurança e Higiene do Trabalho Rural obrigatória nos currículos dos cursos da área de Ciências Agrárias, colocar em prática a prevenção de acidentes ocupacionais no meio rural e realizar uma reciclagem contínua dos profissionais que atuam na área, por meio de treinamentos e do acesso a informações atualizadas que poderiam se apresentar como alternativas para a prevenção de acidentes na área rural.The present paper had the objective of checking if the professional who will be engaged in the job market had received proper orientation and training to act in rural working safety, to establish relations between professional orientation and the information which will be given to rural growers. As research instrument, a questionnaire was used and applied to 209 growers and farm works, 156 graduated students of crop science at the Londrina State University and 75 students of the Agriculture High School Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR. The data were collected during the months of June, July, and August 2006. The results showed that neither the farm works and growers nor the students were conscious of safety in rural labor. Therefore, we suggest the inclusion of the course Safety and Hygiene in Rural Labor in the core curriculum for the preparation of crop science students. It is also necessary to put into practice the rules of occupation accident prevention for rural labor and a permanent recycling of professionals working in this area through training program and access to current information to be alternatives in preventing accidents become a necessity.

Adilson Luiz Seifert

2009-08-01

379

Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area  

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Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors influenced diurnal periodicity of airborne fungal spores.

Idalia Kasprzyk

2006-06-01

380

Prevalence of Ocular Morbidities among School Children in Rural Area of North Maharashtra in India  

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Full Text Available The global initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness sets a major challenge to work relentlessly to avoid the preventable blindness. Effective methods of vision screening in school children are useful in detecting correctable causes of decreased vision. Present study was conducted with the objective of estimating the prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children in rural area. A cross sectional study was conducted among school going adolescents studying from 5th to 10th standard in the age group 10-16 years in rural area. The ocular examination of school children was done at the respective schools. All the data obtained was analyzed using the software StatistiXL version 1.8. Chi square test was used to observe the association of the ocular morbidities with respect to age, sex, education of father, occupation, class, and nutritional status. Prevalence of ocular morbidities was found to be 27.65 %. Refractive errors and Vitamin A deficiency were the most common ocular disorders. The prevalence of ocular morbidity showed significant association with socio-economic status (?2=29.8, p<0.001, education and occupation of parents, while no significant association was found between ocular morbidity and sex of the school children (?2=0.162, p=0.687, family type (?2=2.41, p=0.121, and religion (?2=6.77, p=0.08 of the school children. Nutritional status of children was significantly associated with the occurrence of ocular morbidity. High prevalence of ocular morbidity among school children in rural area was observed. Periodic screening of school children is very essential to improve the quality of eye-sight.

Deshpande Jayant D, Malathi K

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Spatial explicit assessment of rural land abandonment in the Mediterranean area  

Science.gov (United States)

This study adopts the "syndrome approach", originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), ( Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990-2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization-nature interactions. In the frame of the Rural Exodus Syndrome the RLA can be interpreted as the occurrence of environmental degradation through the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices. Multi-source spatial data, including biophysical-related variables mainly derived from Earth Observation as well as socio-economical GIS-based data, were used to define proxies for expected underlying processes and drivers of the mentioned syndrome. The analysis of data is rooted in the fuzzy set theory and approximate reasoning techniques which allows for the handling of uncertain and imprecise knowledge of environmental systems. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction operators (GCD)