WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding rural areas

  1. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Ansari; Seyed Mehdi Mirdamadi; Azita Zand; Masoumeh Arfaee

    2013-01-01

    Rural entrepreneurship can be considered as one of the solutions to reduce poverty, migration and develop employment in rural environments. In this study, the necessity of sustainable entrepreneurship, the effective factors and the barriers to entrepreneurship in rural area will be described. In this regard, a model has been considered to create a sustainable rural entrepreneurship area by establishing a logical connection between the effective factors in entrepreneurship. Some of the most im...

  2. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually being abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quali...

  3. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural entrepreneurship can be considered as one of the solutions to reduce poverty, migration and develop employment in rural environments. In this study, the necessity of sustainable entrepreneurship, the effective factors and the barriers to entrepreneurship in rural area will be described. In this regard, a model has been considered to create a sustainable rural entrepreneurship area by establishing a logical connection between the effective factors in entrepreneurship. Some of the most important challenges that can be pointed out are: lack of access to capital and facilities, problems in supplying goods and services, emphasis on an industry or particular business, low possibility risk in villages and lack of supporting organizations. Review and analysis of rural entrepreneurship in order to achieve sustainability. This research in implementation process is qualitative and in objective is descriptive and then analytic. The results indicate that comprehensive development can never be obtained without rural development and in order to achieve this goal the best investment is creating a context for sustainable entrepreneurship and its promotion in rural area since the entrepreneurship has this ability to identify resources, opportunities and problems available in the context while devising new solutions to move toward developing of different aspects of village and environment.

  4. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contributor to mitigate these challenges. This system uses ITS to plan and coordinate carpooling. A study in two Danish rural areas found that a markedly part of residents are interesting in Intelligent Carpoolin...

  5. Rural areas under urban pressure in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Overbeek, M.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this Introduction paper, I will describe the motivation behind this special issue on the role of rural-urban relationships in preserving the rural landscape in Europe. Based on the RURBAN project 'Building new relationships in rural areas under urban pressure', the special issue aims to identify the impact of urban pressure on rural landscapes and to explore the contribution of 'rural goods and services' (RGS) to them. This paper will start with an overview of the concepts of rural-urban ...

  6. PENSIONS MANAGEMENT IN THE RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela BOTEZATU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Local boarding houses tourism has found its best expression represented by tourist areas, because the natural landscapes and authentic rural customs already exist and thrive. Rural tourism and tourism business initiation at the hostel comes with solutions for rural development. Moreover, the rural areas represent about 92% of the total area of the country. In this context, the author comes to treat the aspects of tourism activities in rural areas in this article, focusing on practical research in the field. There are described pensions performance factors, complexity of administrator's functions from pension, the importance of cooperation and the networking in the field and examples of good practice.

  7. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-07-01

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 - 2011. We found that: (1) the urban environment generated increasing negative impact on the surrounding areas, and the PM2.5 concentration difference between urban and rural areas was particularly high in large cities. (2) Nearly half of the Chinese prefectures (156 out of 350) showed increased impact of urban PM2.5 pollution on its surrounding areas. Those prefectures were mainly located along two belts: one from northeast China to Sichuan province, the other from Shanghai to Guangxi province. Our study demonstrates the deterioration in urban air quality and its potential impacts on its surrounding areas in China. We hope that the results presented here will encourage different approaches to urbanization to mitigate the negative impact caused by urban air pollution, both in China and other rapidly developing countries.

  8. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  9. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336...

  10. Development Areas of Rural Tourism in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of rural tourism forms has increased in recent years. From the initiatives with individual character it has been reached a real alternative leisure. The reason? Authenticity of rural areas is a quality becoming more demanding in terms of current life. Synonymous with a holiday spent with little money in nature, rural tourism forms, like and are becoming increasingly popular. Folk heritage of folk architecture, folk customs and traditions, crafts, port and popular folklore, gastronomy specific is the most popular tourist attractions in rural tourism. Therefore, tourist villages and agro-tourist offer circumscribed, in particular, to Romanian folk brand areas, which fortunately, also benefits of natural attractions of great beauty.

  11. Medical library support in rural areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J K; Cooper, D; Johnson, T P

    1983-01-01

    Physicians in rural areas often feel professionally isolated due to lack of access to medical center services, particularly library services. To test the need for and use of medical library services, an experimental program was established for physicians in southeastern Kentucky. Physicians were given a toll-free number to call for assistance or to make requests, and persons in two rural locations were trained in the use of basic library reference sources. A communication procedure to a unive...

  12. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  13. Disseminating ambient assisted living in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  14. The Educational Infrastructure in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safra, Martine

    The rural areas in the world are experiencing an identity crisis: for example, in France some areas are losing population, while those that are growing find that the population is changing from agricultural workers to retired persons and blue-collar and white-collar employees. This report, which summarizes discussion at a recent Organisation for…

  15. Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Mark

    One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

  16. PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AMONG POPULATION OF SULTANPUR KUNHARI AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA, HARIDWAR, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izharul Hasan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The average prevalence of hypertension in India is 25% in urban and 10% in rural inhabitants. Prevalence of hypertension has been found to increase in traditional populations undergoing innovation. There is a strong correlation between changing lifestyle factors and increase in hypertension. Objectives: 1.To study prevalence of hypertension among population of Sultanpur Kunhari and its surrounding area, Haridwar Uttarakhand. 2. To study association between various factors and hypertension in a rural community of the study area. A community based cross sectional study was carried out in the selected area for the study. The cross sectional field study involved 500 respondents, aged 30 years and above using simple random sampling technique. A study instrument which included behavioral risk factor questionnaire (Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and type of diet and physical measurements of height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and blood pressure was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze data. The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 11%. It was higher in females (12.1% than males (10%. It was seen that prevalence of hypertension increased with age. Prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among individuals, aged 40 years and above, with high body mass index and increased waist hip ratio, (P<.05. The prevalence of hypertension is high and is associated with socio-demographic factors. Hence there is need for primordial prevention efforts on large scale.

  17. Poverty in Rural Areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Alan R.

    The poverty problems in rural America are categorized and analyzed in terms of the extent and persistence of rural poverty, causes and costs of poverty, poverty characteristics of rural areas, and implications for anti-poverty programs. The report defines poverty and briefly traces the history of rural poverty over the past 20 years. Maps, charts,…

  18. [Regional PM pollution in Beijing and surrounding area during summertime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang; Jia, Ying-Tao; Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Hui; Wang, Si-Wen

    2009-07-15

    The air quality in Beijing and surrounding area is influenced by local emission and regional transport. To study the characteristics of regional pollution, PM (particulate matter) samples were collected simultaneously at 4 sites including Tsinghua University (TH) and Miyun reservoir (MY) in Beijing, Renqiu (RQ, Hebei Province), and Shangdu (SD, Inner Mongolia) during August, 2007, and temporal/spatial distributions of PM2.5 mass concentrations along with 22 elements in TSP were characterized. PM2.5 mass concentrations were quite different at 4 sites, following the sequence as RQ > TH > MY > SD. The highest concentrations of pollution-derived elements S, Zn, Pb, Cu, As, Sb, Ni, Cd, In, Se were found in RQ, showing the most intensive anthropogenic influence around this region, and their lowest variation indicated that the pollution mostly came from local sources. Controlled by the meteorological factors, highest daily variations of these elements were found at SD with relative lower concentrations. The correlation coefficients of S, Pb, Cd, In, As, Zn concentrations between TH and MY were all higher than 0.70, which implies similar sources for these elements at the 2 sites in Beijing. At the beginning and the end of the Sawtooth pollution episode in Beijing, concentrations of most elements in Miyun were comparable with the lowest concentrations at Shangdu observed during the sampling period, which means Miyun could well represent the regional characteristics of clean air mass from the northwest. Uniform spatial distribution of high sulfate was found (about 10 microg/m3) at the peaks of Sawtooth episode, which implies the important contribution from secondary aerosol during the regional pollution. Variable sources of PM at each site and their regional influence were discussed based on the different characteristics of elemental enrichment factors. PMID:19774978

  19. Sustainable development of rural areas - Methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hediger, Werner; Dorenbos, Annemarie; Lehmann, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    Sustainable development is both a global and local challenge to managing change. It requires integrating social, ecological and economic objectives and system requirements that are generally expressed in terms of maintaining some suitably defined aggregates of social, ecological and economic capital. Apart from global environmental constraints, these aggregates are mainly determined at the local scale. This is of particular importance for the development of rural areas that more directly depe...

  20. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

  1. Role-in Rural Areas of Shanxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-ju Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the income of rural residents per capita income grouping and panel data of 2001-2010 from "Shanxi Statistical Yearbook". The study uses the World Bank's software Povcal and the purchasing power of $ 1.25 per person per day as the poverty line to measure the index of the extent of poverty in rural areas in Shanxi Province. It was found that the poverty rate decreases exponentially significant effect, but the poverty gap index decreased to a lesser extent and the poverty gap squared index relatively rose. This suggests that economic growth to poverty reduction of the total population especially to the poor in the richer part of the population has a distinct role, but to the poor population living in extreme poverty has negative effects. Rapid economic growth will increase extreme poverty, resulting in further widening the gap between rich and poor.

  2. Inclusive education in schools in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Antonio Callado Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since Spain decided to embark on the development of inclusive schooling, studies have taken place to see if the inclusive principle is being developed satisfactorily. Inclusive schooling implies that all students, regardless of their particular characteristics, may be taught in ordinary schools, and in the majority of cases receive help in the classroom in which they have been integrated in order to cover any special educational needs. Our research aims to find out if schools situated in rural areas follow this principle and, once it has been put into practice, what strategies are being used. To this end, we designed a questionnaire addressed to Infant and Primary school teachers in the Sierra Sur area in the province of Jaén, in an agricultural context where most of the population live on olive picking and the cultivation of olive groves. Given the extension of the area, our research concentrated on schools situated in urban nuclei with a population of less than one thousand five hundred inhabitants. The results obtained demonstrate that rural areas do not take full advantage of the context they are in to favour inclusion processes and continue to develop proposals that are merely integrative.

  3. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  4. Promoting energy conservation in the rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that more than 70% of the population of Ghana live in the rural areas. Cooking and heating in these areas are mainly achieved by fuelwood and other biomass. Although wood is a renewable energy resource, this is only so if it is grown faster than it is consumed. Firewood consumption exceeds forest growth in Ghana and other developing countries. Added to this, is the fact that the World's wood resource is used for such purposes as sawn timber, clearing of land and felling trees for agricultural purposes, etc. If our forests are to be preserved it is this population that has to be targeted. One method of reducing fuelwood demand is to encourage alternative supplies such as biogas (methane). Rural populations could be mobilized to construct bio-latrines in their communities to make use of the biogas generated to cook their food and also for heating purposes. Through levies, funds could be generated to undertake such projects in each community. Before this could be possible, a lot of education will have to be undertaken by the Renewable Energy unit of the Ministry of Mines and Energy. This is because many people are apprehensive of the idea of cooking with gas derived from their own feces. Some of the benefits to be derived from such a project are the use of the effluent slurry as high quality organic manure for farming. This will surely lead to increase food production and help to keep the environment clean (au)

  5. Factual biosphere database for Dounreay and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Dounreay region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Dounreay area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

  6. Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

  7. Geology of the Ören and Surrounding Areas, SW Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, ÖMER FEYZ? GÜRER & YÜCEL

    2002-01-01

    On the Lycian Nappes of SW Anatolia, Neogene basins developed along two different trends in different periods. NNE-trending basins formed during the Early-Middle Miocene period as exemplified by the Ören and Yata?an grabens. These graben fills consist of three distinct rock units. At the base are (1) coarse clastics, sourced from elevated areas adjacent to the basin-bounding faults. These are linear river-valley fills. They give way upward to (2) alternating coal-bearing sandstone and limesto...

  8. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  9. Logistic support in rural areas – the idea and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bruska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities, specific to rural areas are a sphere of interest of agrologistics. It offers the possibility of using methods and techniques proved in supply chains management to agribusiness processes. Their identification is the basis of comprehensive development of logistic support system for rural areas.

  10. Electrification of rural areas by solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

  11. Innovation centres as growth points for smaller towns and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belova A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the role of innovative centres in the development of surrounding areas beyond large cities. At the same time, the innovative development of rural areas should be of a composite nature; municipality development strategies take innovations into account. International practices serve as a an argument in favour of establishing innovative centres in smaller and medium-sized towns in order to facilitate the socioeconomic development of the territory and surrounding rural areas. Science parks created in smaller towns give a boost to socioeconomic development. The authors analyse the case of the science park in the town of Gusev in the Kaliningrad region and emphasise the role of development and adoption of legal acts at regional and municipal levels, for example, the law «On the production policy of the Kaliningrad region».

  12. APPEARANCE MOTIVATIONS OF RURAL TOURISM IN RURAL AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Bianu; Claudia Sîrbulescu; Daniel Chiril?

    2013-01-01

    One of the trends developing tourism industry is returning to nature, already manifested in all countries, the current post-industrial civilization has created the need for withdrawal (for several days) of the metropolis. And for the huge tourism potential of our country, rural tourism is one of the most attractive travel packages and this from a multiple perspective: on the one hand, the tourist, Romanian or foreign, which will require increasingly more intense this tourist service, on the o...

  13. SCHOOL LIBRARY PROGRAMS IN RURAL AREAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIGHTOWER, GRACE; AND OTHERS

    TWO OF THE MAJOR HANDICAPS TO GOOD RURAL SCHOOL LIBRARY PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN INADEQUATE FINANCES AND SMALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS. THROUGH RECENT FEDERAL ASSISTANCE, REORGANIZATION OF SCHOOLS, ESTABLISHMENT OF INTERMEDIATE UNITS, AND OTHER MEANS OF COOPERATING ACROSS DISTRICT LINES, RURAL SCHOOL LIBRARY PROGRAMS HAVE BEEN IMPROVED. A GOOD SCHOOL LIBRARY…

  14. Idea of tourist management of the Radojewo palace park and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Miko?ajczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a proper tourist trails in the palace park in Radojewo and surrounding areas, according to protected areas requirements, local space management plan, as well as with harmony with natural and landscape values. The ecotourism was found as the only possible kind of tourism in this area. The present areas management is not sufficient, hence the proposition of supplementation presented here, such as information tables and small architecture elements. Radojewo and its surroundings are a high tourism potential areas. The new bicycle trail is proposed in the neighbourhood of the park. It is meant to create a better communication with surrounding areas. Two kinds of pedestrian trails are suggested on the park area together with proper tourist infrastructure. There is also a necessity to assign the palace as a historical object.

  15. Final Report. [Training of Physicians for Rural Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, Max, MD

    2004-07-23

    The purpose of the Southwest Alabama Medical Education Consortium (SAMEC) is to create an organization to operate a medical residency program focused on rural physician training. If successful, this program would also serve as a national model to address physician placement in other rural and underserved areas.

  16. Rural areas development – local needs and external forces.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    T?šitel, Jan; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    Warsaw : Polish Academy of Sciences, 2006 - (Florianczyk, Z.; Czapiewski, K.), s. 87-97 ISBN 83-89666-60-X. - (European Rural Development Network. 4) R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : rural development * local communities * marginality * tourism * protected areas Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil / Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anaiá da Paixão, Sevá; Mikaela Renata, Funada; Sheila de Oliveira, Souza; Alessandra, Nava; Leonardo José, Richtzenhain; Rodrigo Martins, Soares.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular dos [...] parasitas através do sequenciamento dos produtos amplificados na PCR do gene SSU rRNA. Foram coletadas amostras fecais de animais domésticos criados para subsistência e estimação nas propriedades rurais do entorno de três fragmentos florestais. Amostras de bovinos (197), equinos (63), suínos (25), ovinos (11) e cães (28) foram coletadas de 98 propriedades rurais. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium para a espécie bovina foi de 3,0% (6/197); para os cães, de 10,7% (3/28); e para os demais animais os resultados foram negativos. Todas as sequências obtidas das seis amostras de bovinos apresentaram identidade molecular com Cryptosporidium andersoni, enquanto as sequências oriundas de amostras de fezes de cães revelaram-se similares ao C. canis. A ocorrência do Cryptosporidium entre os animais estudados foi baixa. Diante dos resultados do presente estudo, o ciclo zoonótico da criptosporidiose parece ter menos importância nesta região. A presença de espécies de Cryptosporidium ainda pouco relatadas em humanos pode ser, por outro lado, importante para a fauna silvestre, uma vez que estes animais podem ser considerados como uma fonte de infecção e disseminação deste protozoário. O impacto e a magnitude da infecção de C. andersoni, em ruminantes selvagens, e de C. canis, em cães silvestres, deve ser avaliado em estudos futuros, com intuito de verificar a real importância dessas espécies nesta região. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasit [...] es by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.

  18. Accessibility to and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services in a rural area of state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dener Carlos dos, Reis; Helmut, Kloos; Charles, King; Humberto Ferreira Oliveira, Quites; Leonardo Ferreira, Matoso; Kellen Rosa, Coelho; Andrea, Gazzinelli.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper was to compare accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis diagnostic and treatment services in a small village and the surrounding rural area in northern part of the state of Minas Gerais Brazil. The study included 1,228 individuals: 935 central village resid [...] ents and 293 rural residents of São Pedro do Jequitinhonha. Schistosoma mansoni infection rates were significantly higher in the central village than in the rural area during a survey in 2007 (44.3% and 23.5%, respectively) and during the 2002 schistosomiasis case-finding campaign (33.1% and 26.5%, respectively) (p

  19. Alternative futures of rural areas in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, K.M.; Terluin, I.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study alternative futures of rural areas in the EU are explored. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of seven scenario studies of rural areas in the EU was conducted. Often, these scenario studies constructed a baseline scenario - derived from an extrapolation of past trends and policies - and a number of alternative scenarios with different degrees of policy intervention. The time horizon in the scenario studies varies from 2020 to 2035. By focusing on a number of main drivers a...

  20. Rural areas, land planning and heritage evaluation: some educational proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas, José Manuel; Themudo Barata, Filipe; Capelo, Sofia; Maharjan, Monalisa

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas are frequently neglected in development politics and processes. This problem has become especially important in peri-urban zones affecting a large amount of people in what concerns mainly basic resources as well as livelihoods, pattern of life, heritage and culture, and identity. Only with land planning it is possible to condition the rural areas deterioration and preserve heritage values that are a resource with a real economic potential, although they are usually seen as a burde...

  1. Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

  2. 7 CFR 25.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Designation Process § 25.301 Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas. In choosing among nominated rural areas eligible for designation as Empowerment...

  3. APPEARANCE MOTIVATIONS OF RURAL TOURISM IN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Bianu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the trends developing tourism industry is returning to nature, already manifested in all countries, the current post-industrial civilization has created the need for withdrawal (for several days of the metropolis. And for the huge tourism potential of our country, rural tourism is one of the most attractive travel packages and this from a multiple perspective: on the one hand, the tourist, Romanian or foreign, which will require increasingly more intense this tourist service, on the other hand, villagers who will use all the energy and skill to integrate into what will become the association's efforts to profile a network covering the whole country.It is no secret that beyond the obvious need to relax in nature, one that comes to rest here gladly participate in these habits. And because of its beautiful pictures plus original memories about a different way of life and a different culture, local efforts to justify open house to receive tourists, efforts will be rewarded in the future. Experience from other countries confirms most optimistic forecasts.

  4. The Role of Rural Tourism on the Development of Rural Areas: The Case of Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Giannakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas in the European Union are currently undergoing significant economic and social changes, mostly induced by the international trade liberalization and the strengthening of the role of rural development policy. There is an increasing awareness of the need to accompany changes in rural areas through the diversification of their economic base that seems to be the only answer to their socioeconomic survival. Rural tourism has been considered a means of achieving such economic and social development due to its capacity to generate local employment and stimulate external investment into the communities. Within this context, the objective of this paper is to investigate the economic role of tourism on the development of rural areas in Cyprus. Tourism economic impact assessment is based on a constructed input-output table for rural Cyprus followed by a tourism-centered multiplier analysis. Model results suggest that tourism creates significant backward linkages in the rural economy of Cyprus and offers great potential for improving economic activity.

  5. A Study on Water Utilization in Chinese Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Rong; Liu, Ping; zhi-yong YU; CUI, JIE

    2009-01-01


    In China, because rural population is great and agriculture is very important in national economy, rural areas have becomes a main sphere of water consume. There exist the problems of water shortage and water waste in the countryside. The conflicts of water resource supply and demand between industry and agriculture are very conspicuous. Various factors that include ideology, finance, technology, management and policy restrict the rational and effective use of water resource. The ...

  6. Indian approaches to retaining skilled health workers in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Sundararaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PROBLEM: The lack of skilled service providers in rural areas of India has emerged as the most important constraint in achieving universal health care. India has about 1.4 million medical practitioners, 74% of whom live in urban areas where they serve only 28% of the population, while the rural population remains largely underserved. APPROACH: The National Rural Health Mission, launched by the Government of India in 2005, promoted various state and national initiatives to address this issue. Under India's federal constitution, the states are responsible for implementing the health system with financial support from the national government. LOCAL SETTING: The availability of doctors and nurses is limited by a lack of training colleges in states with the greatest need as well as the reluctance of professionals from urban areas to work in rural areas. Before 2005, the most common strategy was compulsory rural service bonds and mandatory rural service for preferential admission into post-graduate programmes. RELEVANT CHANGES: Initiatives under the National Rural Health Mission include an increase in sanctioned posts for public health facilities, incentives, workforce management policies, locality-specific recruitment and the creation of a new service cadre specifically for public sector employment. As a result, the National Rural Health Mission has added more than 82 343 skilled health workers to the public health workforce. LESSONS LEARNT: The problem of uneven distribution of skilled health workers can be solved. Educational strategies and community health worker programmes have shown promising results. Most of these strategies are too recent for outcome evaluation, although this would help optimize and develop an ideal mix of strategies for different contexts.

  7. Trivial Injuries In A Rural Area Of Ambala

    OpenAIRE

    Singh A.J; Kaur A

    1993-01-01

    Research question: What are the management practices of a rural community towards trivial injuries sustained by them. Objectives: To study 1. action taken by individuals in the management of trivial injuries, 2.factors related with trivial injuries. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Rural area of Haryana. Participants: individuals attending the outpatient department of Community Health Centres, Primary Health Centres, sub-centres, local registered medical practitioners (RMPs). Study var...

  8. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other... HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.13 Central Cities... purchase by each Enterprise of mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and...

  9. Quality of life in rural areas: A topic for the Rural Development policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer René

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary transformations of rural areas involve changes in land uses, economic perspectives, connectivity, livelihoods, but also in lifestyles, whereupon a traditional view of ‘the rural’ and, consequently, of ‘rural development’ no longer holds. Accordingly, EU’s 2007-2013 Rural Development policy (RDP is one framework to incorporate aspects labelled as quality of life (QOL alongside traditional rural tenets. With a new rendition of the RDP underway, this paper scopes the content and extent of the expired RDP regarding its incorporation of QOL, in order to better identify considerations for future policy making. Using novel methodology called topic modelling, a series of latent semantic structures within the RDP could be unravelled and re-interpreted via a dual categorization system based on RDP’s own view on QOL, and on definitions provided by independent research. Corroborated by other audits, the findings indicate a thematic overemphasis on agriculture, with the focus on QOL being largely insignificant. Such results point to a rationale different than the assumed one, at the same time reinforcing an outdated view of rurality in the face of the ostensibly fundamental turn towards viewing rural areas in a wider, more humanistic, perspective. This unexpected issue of underrepresentation is next addressed through three possible drivers: conceptual (lingering productionist view of the rural, ideological (capitalist prerogative preventing non-pecuniary values from entering policy and material (institutional lock-ins incapable of accommodating significant deviations from an agricultural focus. The paper ends with a critical discussion and some reflections on the broader concept of rurality.

  10. Tidal propagation in the Gulf of Khambhat, Bombay High, and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    -diurnal and diurnal constituents at forty-two ports in the Gulf and surrounding areas is sued to define characteristics of the tides. A barotropic numerical model based on shallow water wave equations to simulate the sea level and circulation in the region is used...

  11. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misi?n?, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation regarding the land use of the Natura 2000 buffer areas is contributing to the degradation of the services provide by these areas. Acknowledgments RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission, for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research) and COST Action IS1204 Tourism, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Services (TObeWELL) References Dasselaar, I.V. (2013) The impact of a buffer zone. The influence of the introduction of buffer zones surrounding Natura 2000 areas on local actors, the case of het Boetelerveld in the Netherlands. Master Thesis Forest and Nature Conservation, Forest and Nature Conservation Policy group, 69 p. Hansen, A.J. (2007) Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands. Ecological Applications, 17, 974-978. McDonald, R.I., Kareiva, P., Forman, R.T.T. (2008) The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 141, 1695-1703. Pereira, P., Monkevicius, A., Siarova, A. (2014) Public perception of the Environmental, Social and Economic impacts of Urban Sprawl in Vilnius. Societal Studies, 6, 256-290. Salvati, L., Sabbi, A. (2011) Exploring long-term land cover changes in an urban region of southern of Europe. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 18, 273-282.

  12. Territorial ordering in Toay area and surroundings, La Pampa province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This present work aims to provide a territorial ordering in an area limited by the 36 grades 39 minutes and 36 grades 43 minutes Southern Parallels and the 64 grades 20 minutes and 64 grades 27 minutes. Meridians from the same hemisphere; within such area, the population from Toay and surroundings are held/contained. The empiric method employed was taken from Gomez Orea (1993). The area was divided into environmental synthesis units and through the use of different proposed tasks it was possible to reach an objective description of the area with the distribution of its varied units

  13. Computer Usage and Achievement among Adults in Rural Area Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul R. Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Previous study showed that most of the adults especially from rural area they are not expert and do not have any knowledge in using computer. Besides that, they cannot afford to buy a computer at home. Due to this problem, Ministry if Rural Development organized the Computer Literacy Program to increase adult?s knowledge and skills in using computer. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to study the achievement of adult learners towards Computer Literacy Program which organized by Ministry of Rural Development in Malaysia to increase quality of life among adults in rural communities. Approach: A survey was carried out in Selangor state of Malaysia. A total number of 120 adults from the program were involved; 42 male adults and 78 female adults. Results: The survey showed that the participants have higher achievement in computer usage in the Computer Literacy Programme. Conclusion: It is suggested that a comprehensive assessment should be conducted by Ministry of Rural Development in order to increase quality of life among adults in rural area. The implications of these findings showed that participants have higher achievement in the aspect of knowledge, skills and motivation in computer usage.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGE? COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Miu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Arge? County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through exceptions or total qualities, methods (of diagnostic analysis, foundation-optimization of decisions etc. and different management techniques can be applied, depending on the characteristics aimed.The conditions which must be met by the effective rural tourism management are: observation and appreciation of nature as well as knowledge of cultural traditions, inventory of protected natural areas and of the cultural ones in a protected area, establishment of potential market of tourists, setting of support threshold based on the compliance with the consumption norms per tourist.

  15. Pubertad en adolescentes de áreas rurales y urbanas / Puberty in adolescent of rural and urban areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María de la Caridad, Osorio Mora; Ariana, González Balmaceda; María de los Ángeles, Mora de Zayas; Juana, Olivero Pupo.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los factores genéticos determinan un crecimiento potencial, pero el medio ambiente, inhibe o acelera su expresión. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento según procedencia urbana o rural, de variables relacionadas con el desarrollo puberal: telarquia, pubarquia, menarquia. Métodos: se [...] realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional en adolescentes urbanas y rurales con edades entre 12 a 15 años. En los municipios Urbano Noris, Cacocum y la zona urbana de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido de enero 2009 a enero 2010; previo consentimiento informado y en ambiente acogedor se les realizó encuesta en modelo semiestructurado. Se creó una base de datos con su posterior procesamiento estadístico descriptivos como: análisis porcentual, desviación estándar, media aritmética y t de Student, cálculos necesarios para obtener los resultados. Resultados: en las adolescentes de procedencia rural la telarquia aparece a los 11,36 años y en la urbana a los 10,36 años. La pubarquia se manifestó a los 11,18 y 10,36 años en el área rural y urbana respectivamente. La menarquia a los 12,4 y 11,14 años, en el área rural y urbana, o sea la pubertad aparece un año antes en el área urbana. Conclusión: resultó significativa la diferencia de la edad media en el área urbana y el inicio de la pubertad. Abstract in english Introduction: the genetic factors determine a potential growth, but the environment inhibits and to speed up its expression. Objective: to determine the behavior according the urban or rural origin of the variables related to the pubertal development: telarche, pubarche and menarche. Methods: a corr [...] elation and descriptive study was conducted in urban and rural adolescents from the Holguín province from January, 2009 to January, 2010 subject to informed consent and in suitable environment they were polled in a semistructured form. A database was created with its latter statistic descriptive processing including: percentage analysis, standard deviation (SD), arithmetic mean and t-Student test; estimation necessary to obtain the results. Results: in adolescents from rural the telarche appears at the 11,36 years old and in the urban ones at 10,36 years old. The pubarche was manifested at 11,18 and 10,36 years old in the rural and urban area, respectively. The menarche appears at 12,4 and 11,14 years old in the rural and urban areas, that is, the puberty appears a year before in the urban area. Conclusion: it was significant the difference in mean age in the urban area and the onset of puberty.

  16. Age distribution of fossil landslides in the Tyrol (Austria) and its surrounding areas

    OpenAIRE

    Prager, C; Zangerl, C.; Patzelt, G.; R. Brandner

    2008-01-01

    Some of the largest mass movements in the Alps cluster spatially in the Tyrol (Austria). Fault-related valley deepening and coalescence of brittle discontinuities structurally controlled the progressive failure and the kinematics of several slopes. To evaluate the spatial and temporal landslide distribution, a first comprehensive compilation of dated mass movements in the Eastern Alps has been made. At present, more than 480 different landslides in the Tyrol and its surrounding areas, includi...

  17. Teacher Training Colleges in the Rural Areas of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsiangengo, Pedro; Diasala, Andre Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the rural areas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…

  18. Methods of employee rating in cultural institutions in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelyuk Yu. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the nature, role and importance of personnel evaluation in terms of development of modern society and economy. The authors describe aspects of the formation of staffing cultural institutions in rural areas. The possible methods of creative worker’s evaluation in cultural institutions are analyzing. The innovative method for artists estimating was considered. The form of questioning by visitors of rural cultural institution for effective evaluation of the creative workers was worked out. The main advantages of the proposed assessment method were characterized.

  19. Self medication pattern in rural areas in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Keche

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried to analyze the self medication pattern in rural areas of Pune. Method: Semi-structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Information about age, sex, name of the self medication, diagnosis for the use of self medication, source of information about the self medication and adverse effects reported to self medications was collected. Results: NSAIDs (33.33, antibiotics (10.32, vitamins (14.08 and GIT ailment drugs (13.61 are most commonly used as self medication in rural areas. Other drugs that self medicated are: drugs for upper respiratory tract infection, antibiotics, antihypertensives, anticonvulsants and diuretics. Information about the self medication was predominantly obtained from previous prescription of doctors (64.32% and from chemists (23%. Antibiotics like macrolides, fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins, antihelminthics, and furazolidine were taken as self medication in rural areas. 50% of antibiotics used as self medication was associated with development of ADRs. The adverse effects reported with antibiotics self medication were: vomiting, hyperacidity, gastrointestinal discomfort. 21.13% of persons reported adverse effects with NSAIDs self medication. Adverse effects reported with analgesic use in this study were: hyperacidity, skin rashes, nausea. Conclusions: NSAIDs, antibiotics, vitamins and GIT ailment drugs are commonly self medicated in rural areas of Pune. The self medication of antibiotics is disturbing, as these are liable for drug resistance and severe ADRs and hence should be taken under supervision only. Pharmacists, key person in rural areas, can provide information about adverse effects of self medicated drugs and also can guide about proper precautions to be taken for self medication.

  20. Summertime ozone formation in Xi'an and surrounding areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, T.; Bei, N.; Huang, R.; Cao, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhou, W.; Tie, X.; Liu, S.; Zhang, T.; Su, X.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.

    2015-11-01

    In the study, the ozone (O3) formation is investigated in Xi'an and surrounding areas, China using the WRF-CHEM model during the period from 22 to 24 August 2013 corresponding to a heavy air pollution episode with high concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 ?m). The WRF-CHEM model generally performs well in simulating the surface temperature and relative humidity compared to the observations and also reasonably reproduces the observed temporal variations of the surface wind speed and direction. The convergence formed in Xi'an and surrounding areas is favorable for the accumulation of pollutants, causing high concentrations of O3 and PM2.5. In general, the calculated spatial patterns and temporal variations of near-surface O3 and PM2.5 are consistent well with the measurement at the ambient monitoring stations. The simulated daily mass concentrations of aerosol constituents, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, elemental and organic carbon, are also in good agreement with the filter measurements. High aerosol concentrations in Xi'an and surrounding areas significantly decrease the photolysis frequencies and can reduce near-surface O3 concentrations by more than 50 ?g m-3 (around 25 ppb) on average. Sensitivity studies show that the O3 production regime in Xi'an and surrounding areas is complicated, varying from NOx to VOC-sensitive chemistry. The industry emissions contribute the most to the O3 concentrations compared to the natural and other anthropogenic sources, but still do not play a determined role in the O3 formation. The complicated O3 production regime and high aerosol levels constitute a dilemma for O3 control strategies in Xi'an and surrounding areas. In the condition with high O3 and PM2.5 concentrations, decreasing various anthropogenic emissions cannot efficiently mitigate the O3 pollution, and a 50 % reduction of all the anthropogenic emissions only decreases near-surface O3 concentrations by less than 14 % during daytime. Further studies need to be performed for O3 control strategies considering manifest changes of the emission inventory and uncertainties of meteorological field simulations.

  1. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other...

  2. Trivial Injuries In A Rural Area Of Ambala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh A.J

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the management practices of a rural community towards trivial injuries sustained by them. Objectives: To study 1. action taken by individuals in the management of trivial injuries, 2.factors related with trivial injuries. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Rural area of Haryana. Participants: individuals attending the outpatient department of Community Health Centres, Primary Health Centres, sub-centres, local registered medical practitioners (RMPs. Study variables: Trivial injuries. Outcome Variables: Management- home based or hospitals based. Results: Peripheral parts of the extremities- hands, finger, feet and toes were most commonly affected by trivial injuries. A variety of local applications like tobacco, salt, kerosene, oil, nail polish, turmeric, urine, were used for initial wound care. Conclusion: Rural people of Haryana use a variety of local applications, some not very hygienic, for the immediate management of injuries. Education is required to make them aware of hygienic practices where would care is concerned.

  3. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEJONO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the four classified areas.

  4. The Mean Difference of Religiosity between Residents of Rural Areas and Urban Areas of Mahmoudabad City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat Allah Nikkhah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the mean difference of religiosity between the residents of rural areas and urban areas of Mahmoudabad City. For the measure of religiosity, Glock and Stark's (1965 model of religiosity is used. For the analysis of the theoretical perspectives, theories of IbnKhaldun, Tonnies, Durkheim, Giddens and Martin are used. The statistical population of the research consists of samples are 400 people. Half of the sample is from rural areas and the other half are from urban areas. This research is conducted based upon survey. The data obtained from the survey is described and analyzed by using SPSS software. The statistical methods are demonstrated and analyzed in two parts of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The findings of the research show that there is a significant difference in belief and ritual dimensions of religiosity between rural residents and urban residents. The levels of belief and ritual dimensions of religiosity are higher in rural residents in comparison with urban residents. In addition, among sub-dimensions of ritual religiosity, only intellectual religiosity has no significant difference between rural and urban residents. Moreover, the level of religiosity of total urban residents and rural residents has a significant difference and the level of religiosity in rural residents is higher than urban residents.

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 ?R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation

  6. Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hude Quan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  7. Impacts of Rural Development Projects on Rural Areas in Turkey: A Study on Yozgat Rural Development Project

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Berk; Sinasi Akdemir

    2006-01-01

    This study examines economic structure and results of economic activities of farms (2001-2002 production years) in the context of Yozgat Rural Development Project (YRDP) that implemented between 1991 and 2001 in the Yozgat province in Turkey by International Fund For Agricultural Development (IFAD) and aims at disclosing economic effects of YRDP on farms in the region. For this purpose, farmers living within and outside of the project area were interviewed and a questionnaire study was carrie...

  8. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, H. [comp.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  9. Kees: a Practical Ict Solution for Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoye; Tabirca, Sabin; Lenihan, Eamon

    This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning in agricultural education appears in informal and formal methods in many developed countries and some developing areas such as Asian Pacific regions. KEES is a solution to provide education services including other services of information distribution and knowledge sharing to local farmers, local institutes or local collection of farmers. The design of KEES is made to meet the needs of knowledge capacity building, experience sharing, skill upgrading, and information exchanging in agriculture for different conditions in rural areas. The system allows the online lecture/training materials to be distributed simultaneously with all multimedia resources through different file formats across different platforms. The teaching/training content can be contextless and broad, allowing for greater participation by more small holders, commercial farmers, extension workers, agriculturists, educators, and other agriculture-related experts. The relative inconsistency in content gives farmers more localised and useful knowledge. The framework of KEES has been designed to be a three-tier architecture logic workflow, which can configure the progressive approach for KEES to pass on and respond to different requests/communications between the client side and the server.

  10. Racial/Ethnic Minorities in Rural Areas: Progress and Stagnation, 1980-90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Linda L., Ed.

    Rural minorities lag behind rural Whites and urban minorities on many crucial economic and social measures. This collection of 10 papers examines rural Black, Hispanic, Native American, and Asian and Pacific Islander populations and their economic well-being in the 1980s, an economically difficult decade for rural areas. Results show minimal…

  11. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (?41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source

  12. The identification of soil radionuclides in the area of Puspiptek and surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of PUSPIPTEK and the surrounding are potentially exposed by radionuclides, because the operation of the nuclear research plant. The PPTN Serpong was operated long than 10 years, therefore soil radioactivity need to evaluate. The determination of radioactivity in the soil samples which be taken from research location using gamma spectrometry on June-August. The result of the research identified natural radionuclides K-40; Thorium decay series Ac-228, Bi-212, Pb-212, Tl-208, Ra-224 and Rn-220; Uranium decay series Bi-214, Pa-234, Pb-214 and Actinium decay series Bi-211, Po-211. There are no identification radionuclides produce from the activation of PPTN Serpong

  13. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M?rioara Drug?

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

  14. An Aerial Gamma Ray Survey of the Surrounding Area of Sizewell Nuclear Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D.; Cresswell, A.

    1997-01-01

    An airborne gamma ray survey of the surroundings of the Sizewell nuclear power station was conducted to define the present levels of radiation background for reference purposes. A twin engine helicopter fitted with a high volume NaI detector and two semiconductor detectors was used. A 20x30km area around the site was surveyed with 500 m line spacing, with an inner zone of 6x6 km being investigated with 250 m line spacing. More than 10,000 gamma ray spectra were recorded between 1st and 3r...

  15. Water analysis from wells in Ezeiza and surrounding areas. Dissolved uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to give an answer to the different social sectors, we sampled water from previously existing wells that reaches the Puelche aquifer. The uranium concentration was determined in these samples to obtain a preliminary checkup of water quality situation. For the analysis we considered the samples obtained inside the CAE as well as those sampled in the surrounding areas as Monte Grande, Claypole and Burzaco. The results show a correlation between the amount of dissolved salts and the presence of dissolved uranium. (author)

  16. Assumption on the Reform of Social Security of Migrant Workers from Rural Areas from an Angle of Unified System in Urban and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Anmin Chen

    2009-01-01

    China is making efforts to improve the social security for migrant workers from rural areas and that for farmers in rural areas. However, due to the strong mobility of migrant workers, the efforts are hard to coordinate. To establish a unified social security system for urban and rural areas is the most reasonable objective and can be put into practice at present. This system should cover a wide and comprehensive scope. In China, no matter whether city or countryside, every citizen should pos...

  17. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas : Opportunities and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; MØller, JØrgen

    Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contributor to mitigate these challenges. This system uses ITS to plan and coordinate carpooling. A study in two Danish rural areas found that a markedly part of residents are interesting in Intelligent Carpooling, but also that they require knowledge of whom they are driving with and as well as planning the carpooling in sufficient time (2-24 hours before). Another factor that has to be fulfilled is a high level of cohesion in the local area, i.e. a high level of knowledge of any participants in the scheme. Despite of these requirements being met, it is still a challenge to change car owners’ habit in order to make carpooling work.

  18. The Problem Of Youth Unemployment in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grigoryeva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of Czech agricultural labour market has been continuously predominantly negative since 1989 and recently, the problem of youth unemployment is acute in many countries, not only in the Czech Republic, but also in the Russian Federation, where most of graduates of agricultural universities work in non-agricultural sphere and in urban area. The present paper tries to consider the problems faced by youth in the labour market after graduating from the university, the reasons for working in any sphere but not in agriculture and not in rural area. It identifies the factors influencing the profession choice by young people. It considers the opportunities for attracting young people to work in agriculture and rural aria.

  19. Rolling Medical Practice: Ambulant Mobile Medical Care for Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartze, Jonas; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Schulz, Sebastian; Rochon, Maike; Wagner, Markus; Bannenberg, Uwe; Drews, Markus; Fischer, Thomas; Hellwig, Torben; Hofmann, Stefan; Höft-Budde, Petra; Jäger, Ralf; Lorenz, Stefan; Naumann, Ruth; Plischke, Maik; Reytarowski, Jörg; Richter, Constanze; Steinbrügge, Christiana; Ziegenspeck, Anja; von Ingelheim, Julius; Haux, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    We designed, constructed, and evaluated a mobile medical care vehicle called "Rollende Arztpraxis" (rolling medical practice, RMP) that delivers the full medical care of a general practitioner to increase medical care supply in rural areas. Six communities have been identified, where the RMP has been visited 501 times in 14 months. Two different schedules of stops and treatment times have been tested. We show that the RMP treated mainly elderly and multimorbid patients. An accompanying study showed high acceptance and satisfaction of treated patients and treating doctors. An economic evaluation of three different utilization models with three treatment modes each showed no financial sustainability. We show that ambulatory care in rural areas can be complemented by a mobile care unit, if legal and financial barriers can be overcome. PMID:26262211

  20. SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a net exporter of organic production.

  1. Urbanization of Rural Areas in the Case of Velenje Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Ostruh, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the master thesis was to find out the character of the settlements in the Velenje municipality due to urbanization. The main questions were the presence of suburbanization, its intensity, trends and correlation with the distance of settlements from the town. Groups of indicators for rural areas urbanization monitoring were defined through environmental, social and economic point of view, which ensure the use of sustainable development approach by development assesment. The analysi...

  2. Agrotourism - A Sustainable Development for Rural Area of Korca

    OpenAIRE

    STELA ZOTO; ELEINA QIRICI; ESMERALDA POLENA

    2013-01-01

    The term agro-tourism emerged in the late twentieth century. It includes agricultural farms that are related to tourism. This notion represents all activities related not only to tourists but also to the organizers of the holidays in general. Agro tourism is very important for rural communities as well as urban areas. It can provide several advantages: income, employment, use accommodation, activities, natural resource conservation, recreation and education. But the main problem for many coun...

  3. Agrotourism - A Sustainable Development for Rural Area of Korca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STELA ZOTO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The term agro-tourism emerged in the late twentieth century. It includes agricultural farms that are related to tourism. This notion represents all activities related not only to tourists but also to the organizers of the holidays in general. Agro tourism is very important for rural communities as well as urban areas. It can provide several advantages: income, employment, use accommodation, activities, natural resource conservation, recreation and education. But the main problem for many countries is the low level of farm income. Agro tourism intends to obtain higher standards of living for rural communities especially through increased income for people who work in agriculture.There are five main forms of rural tourism which bring benefits both for tourists and for the local community.• Natural tourism, which is mainly preferred for its recreational value.• Cultural tourism, which is mainly related to culture, history and archeology of the area destination.• Ecotourism, as a form of tourism that presents natural resources while maintaining the values and local population welfare.• Village tourism, where visitors live and enjoy the various activities of peasant life.• Agro tourism, in which tourists see and participate in traditional agricultural practices without destroying the ecosystems, the host bases. Development in Korca region is one of the main priorities of the regional strategy. The study will be focused on four villages: Dardhe, Voskopoja, Vithkuq and Prespa. We will see the advantages and weaknesses of rural tourism development in these areas, as well as their benefits. We will also see a study about the residents’ perceptions of the tourism development in the area and of the agro- touristic behavior of the tourists there.

  4. Poverty in China's rural areas: Temporary or chronic?

    OpenAIRE

    Glauben, Thomas; Herzfeld, Thomas; Rozelle, Scott; Wang, Xiaobing

    2012-01-01

    Curbing poverty can surely be deemed to be one of the most eminent objectives on socio-political agendas. Progress in reducing worldwide poverty achieved in to date, however, makes rather sobering reading. China has considerably reduced the number of poor since commencement of economic reforms in the late 1970s. Still, there are ca. 170 million people affected by poverty. This paper investigates the issue whether poverty in China's rural areas is rather of a chronic or temporary nature and wh...

  5. Transmission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from broiler chicken farms to surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Rösler, U

    2014-08-27

    Although previous studies have demonstrated high carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock, especially in broiler chickens, data on emission sources of these bacteria into the environment are still rare. Therefore, this study was designed to systematically investigate the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in slurry, air (inside animal houses), ambient air (outside animal houses) and on soil surfaces in the areas surrounding of seven ESBL/AmpC-positive broiler chicken fattening farms, including investigation of the possible spread of these bacteria via the faecal route and/or exhaust air into the environment. Seven German broiler fattening farms were each investigated at three points in time (3-36 h after restocking, 14-18 and 26-35 days after housing) during one fattening period. The occurrence of ESBL/AmpC genes in the investigated samples was confirmed by PCR, detecting blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCMY-genes, and, if necessary, by sequencing and/or the disc diffusion method. The results showed a wide spread of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in broiler farms, as well as emissions into the surroundings. 12 out of 14 (86%) slurry samples were positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Additionally, 28.8% (n=23/80) of boot swabs taken from various surfaces in the areas surrounding of the farms as well as 7.5% (n=3/40) of the exhaust air samples turned out to be positive for these microorganisms. Moreover, a small proportion of air samples from inside the barns were ESBL/AmpC-positive. By comparing selected isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we proved that faecal and airborne transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing microorganisms from broiler fattening farms to the surrounding areas is possible. Two isolates from farm G2 (slurry and boot swab 50 m downwind), two isolates from farm G3 (slurry and individual animal swab) as well as two isolates from farm G6 (air sample in the barn and air sample 50 m downwind) showed 100% similarity in PFGE analysis. PMID:25035165

  6. COASTAL PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY OF SURABAYA AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA TO SEA LEVEL RISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayidah Sulma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for coastal vulnerability to sea level rise was carried out in Surabaya and its surrounding area, it has focused on calculations of the physical vulnerability index were used coastal vulnerability index (CVI methods. It was standardized by the multi criteria analysis (MCA approach according to the study area.The score of each physical variable derived from remote sensing satellite data and the results of studies that have been done, such as modeling results and thematic maps, and then integrated into geographic information systems (GIS. Result of this study showsthat the coastal areas of Gresik, Surabaya, and Sidoarjo in the very low to very high vulnerability level. Physically, the low land areas with open and slightly open coastal have a high vulnerability category. The high level vulnerability was found located in the northern of Madura Strait (Gresik Regency that overlooks to the Java Sea is about 28.81% from the entire of study areas. Meanwhile, the moderate, low and very low levels of vulnerability were located on Surabaya and Sidoarjo Regency that have more protected coastal area,relatively. According to the physical condition, the coastal elevation is the most variable that contributes to the high of vulnerability index in the coastal of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo Regency.

  7. A procura do turismo em espaço rural / The demand for tourism in rural areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Silva.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER) em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quot [...] idiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas. Abstract in english This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA) in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break [...] free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  9. Impacts of Rural Development Projects on Rural Areas in Turkey: A Study on Yozgat Rural Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Berk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines economic structure and results of economic activities of farms (2001-2002 production years in the context of Yozgat Rural Development Project (YRDP that implemented between 1991 and 2001 in the Yozgat province in Turkey by International Fund For Agricultural Development (IFAD and aims at disclosing economic effects of YRDP on farms in the region. For this purpose, farmers living within and outside of the project area were interviewed and a questionnaire study was carried out.Comparative evaluation and factorial analysis methods were employed in the analyses. It was observed that the farmers are not well informed of the objectives of YRDP, project related activities, project implementation agencies and relationships between them. It was also found out that the farmers did not actively participate to several stages of the project (such as planning, implementation and control. YRDP achieved its objectives in some areas (such as road construction, irrigation and domestic water supply, however it could not reach that level in other activities. Yozgat Rural Development Project could not meet the expectations in terms of regional development and several activities (animal husbandry, forestry, women programs, creating additional income sources etc. The main deficiencies of the Project were as follows: insufficient cooperation between implementing agencies, selection of improper tools for creating additional income, selecting region based on unsatisfactory data, inadequate activities towards the old people and the children. Taking into consideration of the factors affecting farm activities and adoption of new rural development approaches such as organic farming, micro-credit applications and rural tourism and also establishing new farmers` associations/unions that utilize Information and Communication Technologies (ICT will lead to a new understanding for the improvement of individuals living in the region.

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1994-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co)-the manufacture of commercial {sup 60}Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two {sup 60}Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as {sup 60}Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of {sup 60}Co or any other man-made radionuclide.

  11. Migration to Less-Popular Rural Areas in the Netherlands: Exploring the Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, Rixt A.; Haartsen, Tialda; Strijker, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Migration into rural areas is often explained in terms of the rural idyll, the attraction of the countryside with its less hurried way of life in a quiet, spacious and green environment. However, this migration phenomenon has mostly been researched in attractive, amenity-rich, popular rural areas. This paper investigates the characteristics and…

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 (60Co) and cesium-137 (137Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 (235U). Protactinium-234m (234mPa) and 60Co Were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data

  13. Aerial radiological survey of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area Brookhaven, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station during 5 to 9 June 1983. The survey, which covered an area of 338 square kilometers (131 square miles), also encompassed the entire Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) facility. The highest radiation exposure rate, over 1 milliroentgen per hour (mR/h), was inferred from data measured directly over the BNL facility. This detected activity was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60 and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal BNL operations. With the exception of the BNL facility, the only detected man-made radioactivity was found near a cottage in Moriches, New York and was due to the presence of cobalt-60. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied generally from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 ?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted concurrently with the aerial survey, were compared to the inferred aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired from five locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were consistent with those inferred from the aerial results. 11 references, 12 figures, 3 tables

  14. Automation of radiation exposure dose calculation in the area surrounding reactor of Musashi Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop a system, by which the data on wind direction, wind velocity, temperature, humidity, sunshine, radiation balance, rain fall and others in the vicinity of the stack of the nuclear facility are collected every moment and analyzed, the information not measured so far is extracted, those are continuously digitally recorded, and if the release of radioactive materials out of the stack is assumed, its effects on the surrounding environment are immediately computed and indicated on a graphic display. The system to detect abnormality for the back up of reactor operators and to issue the appropriate instruction is also to be developed in parallel by collecting data on the operating status of the reactor and from the monitors watching the surrounding area. It is considered to unify the data format for carrying out easily mutual comparison of such data and their evaluation in future and to connect the reactor facilities of universities in Japan on-line if possible, by co-developing this system together with these universities making the reactor of Musashi Institute of Technology as a model. In this report, the system configuration and block diagrams and respective satellite functions and operations are described. These satellites include new MK system, reactor-related data collection, weather data collection, colored CRT display, operator console, and packet type data exchanger. Most noteworthy is the data collection with an ultrasonic anemometer, and its construction is illustrated. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (??czna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (?uszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas.The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in ?uszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in ?uszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek.Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in ?uszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and 7.2% in Lublin – Kalina, whereas that of kenophytes was between 15.1% in Ostrówek and 8.2% in ??czna. In the case of spontaneophytes, the percentage varied between 8.8% in Lublin – Majdanek and 2.7% in ?uszczów. The majority, 299 of the taxa found, proved invaluable to insects (polleniferous and nectariferous. Among the plants growing spontaneously in the analysed cemeteries, there were also 11 legally protected species..

  16. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of intense conflict. PMID:26136238

  17. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C, Aprilia Puspita [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) of Indonesian, Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  18. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-01

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  19. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study

  20. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 ?g/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 ?g/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 ?g/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  1. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagangatharathilagar, M. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India); Swarup, D. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India); Patra, R.C. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: patra@ivri.up.nic.in; Dwivedi, S.K. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2006-04-15

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs.

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Cordova, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station in Cordova, Illinois, during the period May 9 through May 18, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) over a 65-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the Quad Cities Power Station and surrounding area and to determine any radiological impact on the area over the past twenty years. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 5 and 15 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based ''benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assay of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Salmon Site and surrounding area, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former Atomic Energy Commission Test Site at the Salmon Site and surrounding area between April 20 and May 1, 1992. The Salmon Site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 20 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma-ray environment of the Salmon Site and adjacent lands. A contour map showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a rectified aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates within the area are between 5 and 8 ?R/h. The reported exposure rates include a cosmic-ray contribution estimated to be 3.7 ?R/h. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and in situ measurements, taken with a pressurized ion chamber and a high-purity germanium detector, were obtained at 4 locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of and are in agreement with the aerial data

  5. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizeus, Rutebemberwa; Sheila K., Katureebe; Sheba N., Gitta; Amos D., Mwaka; Lynn, Atuyambe.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. METHOD: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive stud [...] y in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. RESULTS: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people's thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  6. The Geology and Petrography of Yücebelen and Surrounding Area, Torul-Gümü?hane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do?acan, Özcan; Özp?nar, Yahya

    2013-04-01

    The study area is located in the tectono-stratigraphic zone named "Eastern Pontide Zone" from the northeastern part of Turkey. Eastern Pontides were formed by the subduction of Tethys Ocean under the Eurasian plate, during the Early Cretaceous - Late Eocene. Eastern Pontide orogenic zone can be divided in two tectono-stratigraphic subgroups as the northern and southern zones. The study area is located very close to border of these two subgroups but located in northern zone. In this project, the first geological map of the study area at the scale 1:5000 was made. Subsequently, detailed geological maps at the scale 1:2000 were made for the areas rich in ores. In the study area, Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks consisting of basalts and basaltic andesites take place at the bottom of the rock sequence. Basalts and basaltic andesites with hyaloophitic, vitrophiric and microporphyric texture comprise plagioclase +pyroxene +chlorite +calcite ±epidote ±chalcedony ±opaque minerals. They are overlain by concordant pyroclastic and dacitic-rhyodacitic rocks. Quarts + K-feldispar ±plagioclase? ±biotite ±chlorite ±calcite ±chalcedony minerals are determined as a result of microscope investigation on samples taken from these rocks. These rocks are overlain by sedimentary rocks intercalated with pyroclastic rocks. All those units mentioned above, were intruded by granitoids of supposed Upper Cretaceous-Eocene age. Granitoids that crop out in the area were classified in terms of Q-ANOR parameters as granodiorites (Adile Hamlet occurrence - investigated in detail), diorites (Tuzlak Hill occurrence- eastern-part of study area) and quartz monzodiorites (?stavroma Hill occurrence- northern part of study area). Adile Hamlet granodiorites comprise plagioclase +pyroxene +chlorite +calcite ±quarts ±epidote +opaque minerals. A sequence of quarts +orthoclase +plagioclase ±chlorite ±epidote ±calcite ±opaque minerals have been determined after investigation of the rock samples collected from Tuzlak Hill surrounding area. Also, petrographic investigation gave us plagioclase +hornblende ±biotite ±chlorite ±calcite ±quarts ±opaque minerals mineral sequence for the occurrences seen around ?stavroma Hill. All of these units are intruded Late Eocene andesitic and dacitic dykes. It was determined that Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization depends on the quartz veins developed in the fracture zones of the granitoid body and its contacts with sedimentary rocks. These veins revealed a paragenesis consisting Cu-Pb-Zn minerals. Key words: Eastern Pontides, Gümü?hane-Torul, Granitoid, Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization, Gümü?hane-Torul

  7. Geo electric resistivity survey in Aloban area and its surroundings, Sibolga, North Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research was carried out geophysical investigation using geo electric resistivity measurements and geological mapping conducted in purpose to know form, distribution and depth of basement in Aloban Basin include its level of uranium mineralization. Methodologies which used in this survey are topographical mapping, geological mapping, geo electrical measurement and radiometric mapping. Topographical mapping conducted in a coverage area of 2 km2 include 126 location of geo electric measurements and 5 existing borehole, which is WK 17, WK 9, WK 42, WK 29 and WK 30. Geological setting of Aloban area and its surroundings consist of granite unit, base conglomerate, conglomerate sandstone, and alluvium deposit. Radiometric value start from 48 c/s to 3000 c/s and grouped into two value groups which is 700 c/s to 3000 c/s distributed in east part and <700 c/s distributed in west of working area. Uranium accumulation occurred in a fine fraction of fine sandstone to silt in the end of base conglomerate unit sedimentation. Geo electric survey conducted using profiling method in Wenner configuration at 6 lines which is line A, B, C, D, E and F with total line length is 6 km. From geo electric data processing, anomaly resistivity value has been recognized, with the value of 278 ohm-m to 2274 ohm-m from surface to more than 100 m depth which is occurred in each lines, interpreted as basement. Generally, basement in eastern area is shallower than others and becoming deeper in the center and south-west area, at the elevation of -121.01 m to 170.72 m from sea level. Information of granite depth will be considered in drilling plan especially for drilling depth and drilling machine selection. (author)

  8. A Study on Water Utilization in Chinese Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong TAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available
    In China, because rural population is great and agriculture is very important in national economy, rural areas have becomes a main sphere of water consume. There exist the problems of water shortage and water waste in the countryside. The conflicts of water resource supply and demand between industry and agriculture are very conspicuous. Various factors that include ideology, finance, technology, management and policy restrict the rational and effective use of water resource. The survey on the villages of Jia Ge Zhuang and Yao Bai Zhuang in Ji County, Tianjin reflects these problems. The government tries to solve the problems by making laws and policies, as well as affording financial and technology support to towns and villages. At the same time, it is necessary for the government to make officials and farmers realize the importance of rational water usage and saving by doing propaganda, coordinating the inter-governments relations, and defining the departments’ duties. For realizing the objective of rational water usage, it is necessary to take measures to construct and perfect irrigation installations by both superior and local governments’ investment and farmers’ labor force.
    Key Words: Chinese Rural Areas, Water Resource, Rational Use, Farmland, Irrigation System
    Résumé: En Chine,la population est grande et l’agriculture est très importante dans l’économie nationale. Les régions rurales sont devenues un sphère principal de la consommation d’eau. Il existe les problèmes d’insuffisance d’eau et le gaspillage d’eau dans la campagne. Les conflits sur les resources d’eau fournie et demandée entre industrie and agriculture sont très fréquents. Les facteurs variés tels qu’idéologie, finance, technologie, management et politique limitent l’usage rationel et effectif de ressources d’eau. L’enquête sur les villages de Jia Ge Zhuang et Yao Bai Zhuang dans le pays Ji, Tianjin reflète ces problèmes. Le government tente de résoudres les problèmes par l’élabortion des lois et les poliques, ainsi que le support financierl et technologique aux bourgs et villages. Au meme temps, il est nécessaire pour le government à render conscients les officiels et les paysans l’ importance de l’usage rationel en économisant par la publicité, en coordonnant les relations inter-governmentaux, et en déterminant les tâches des départments. Pour la realiser l’objectif de l’usage d’eau rational, il est nécessaire de prendre des mesures pour construire et perfectionner l’ installations d’irrigation par l’investissement des governements supérieurs et locaux ainsi que les forces des labeurs.
    Mots clés: Les régions rurales chionoises, Ressource d’eau, usage rationel, fermier, Système d’ Irrigation

  9. E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Rimmi Anand; Sharad Saxena; Shilpi Saxena

    2012-01-01

    E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. This methodology supports the use of networking and communications technology in teaching and learning. E-Learning is generally meant for remote learning or distance learning, but can also be used in face-to-face mode. In this paper we have made study about the awareness and impact of E-Learning in selected rural areas in India, the providers and learners ratio and an analysis on the collected data has been made to...

  10. NEUTRALIZING WASTEWATER FROM PUBLIC UTILITIES ON RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bugajski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at determining a potential use of domestic sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge for the disposal of wastes drained from schools in rural areas. Selected pollutant indicators, such as: BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and phosphates were the basis for determining the composition of raw sewage discharged by public utility objects and the quality of treated sewage considering the days when lessons were taking place at school and days free from classes. The analysis of the results revealed that household sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge may be used for waste disposal from public facilities, such as schools.

  11. Locating police service points in rural areas of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    A total count of 2,178,700 crimes was committed in South Africa during the year 2012 (Crime Stats SA, 2012). 15,940 murders were committed, resulting in a murder rate of 31.8 per 100,000 inhabitants, and ranking South Africa at the 12th highest murder rate in the world (Crime Stats SA, 2012). These alarming crime rates need to be reduced. Consequently, the need for safety and security is growing among South Africans. This is especially true for the communities living in the rural areas of Sou...

  12. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 ?g/m3, respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  13. Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnykh, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was developed. It reflects a modern system of relationships to the land in the laws and regulations on the federal, regional and local levels. It is a tool for informational and legal support in the decision-making process in the field of the wildlife management. The federal laws regulate the situation in general, and the departmental regulations govern its adjustment by components. The analysis of legal acts' dynamics in the sphere of wildlife management and environmental protection was conducted in order to monitoring the situation and evaluate the changes of relationships to the territory for 10 years (2001-2011 years). As the result with the use of GIS-technology a map of legal zoning was created. This electronic map has become a GIS model of the legal zoning, besides the informational content each contour includes cadastral data and information about its legal status. The model is created as a form of refraction of legislative base through a natural and economic basis of the territory. It allows shifting to the analysis of strategy of the territorial use, choice of optimal strategy of regional development, and decision-making and its realization.

  14. Chldren's rights and corporal punishment in Assendabo town and the surrounding area, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu, Fisseha; Nida, Hailu; Belachew, Tefera; Haileamlak, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    Corporal punishment of children has been used as a disciplinary measure to modify undesirable behavior of children worldwide. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the knowledge, attitudes and the extent that corporal punishment is practiced in the study area. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the residents of Assendabo town and its surroundings area form January 8-12, 2003. A total of 368 residents with at least one child living with them were selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 11.0. The study revealed 310 (87.6%) of the parents employed child corporal punishment as a method of disciplining out of which nearly half of them claimed their action was for the ultimate benefit of their children. Only 12 (3.5%) of the parents reported infliction of trauma while punishing their children. There was no significant parental difference both in attitude and practice of child corporal punishment. Family income is found to affect both attitude and practice of corporal punishment. From this study it is concluded that the knowledge about the existence of a legal framework which protects a child from any form of abuse is low. The attitude towards avoidance of child corporal punishment is unfavorable and there is a high prevalence of child corporal punishment practiced. PMID:17447358

  15. Determination of the pollution with lead in the batteries factory in Al-Saffera (Aleppo) and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed to determine the lead concentrations in the ecosystem surrounding the batteries factory in Al-Saffera. The results showed that the lead levels were very high in both factory area and the surrounding agricultural area. Lead levels in air varied between 12 and 34 ?g/m3 in the area outside the factory. The same trends were in both soil and plant samples, and normal washing does not decrease the lead level in plant samples to acceptable levels. Mean lead levels in blood was also high and ranged between 55 and 28 ?g /dl for factory workers and village inhabitants respectively. In conclusion the authorities administration must take all necessary procedures to reduce the lead levels in the factory area and in the surrounding area.(Author)

  16. Lightning flash densities in urban and rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Y.; Binshtok, G.; Price, C.

    2009-09-01

    Lightning flash densities near Tel-Aviv and Haifa, the two largest metropolitan areas in Israel, are compared to rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline. The average flash density in the Tel-Aviv area is ~1.2 flashes/km2/year, increasing from south to north and reaching a maximum in Haifa-bay and the near-by Mt. Carmel. Based on 4 years of lightning data obtained from the Israeli Electrical Company LPATS system (2004/5-2006/7 and 2008/9), we mapped flash densities by using high-resolution Google-earth visualization tools. The maximum lightning flash density is typically found to occur just west of the coastline above the Mediterranean Sea and to decrease eastward over land. The urban complex of the metropolitan Tel-Aviv area shows a clear increase in total lightning density compared to more rural regions to its north and south. An increase in positive-cloud-to-ground (+CG) flash density is present downwind from the Tel-Aviv urban area. A clear mid-week effect is also apparent in +CG densities with peak currents >50 kA north-east of the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area. The second maximum in flash density is found north of Haifa and its surrounding industrial complex, where it is probably dominated by the orographic effect of Mt. Carmel. A possible explanation for the lightning density anomaly in the Tel-Aviv area may be the Urban-Heat Island (UHI) effect, which alters the storm dynamics by enhancing convection and invigorating lightning activity downwind. Alternatively, aerosols emitted from industrial and vehicle activities may be ingested by the passing thunderclouds, modifying the microphysical processes within them and enhancing the ice mass flux, known to be directly related to the flash rate.

  17. The Impact Of Shopping Centers In Rural Areas And Small Towns In The Outer Metropolitan Zone (The Example Of The Silesian Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffner Krystian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shopping centers in the Silesian Voivodeship have a significant impact on smaller settlement units located in outer areas of agglomerations. It consists mainly in changes related to social, economic, as well as functional and spatial spheres. Studies shows that shopping centers take over more and more functions of higher order (services, public culture, administration and restrict the economic activity in rural areas outer areas of agglomerations. At the stage of the irrepressible process of suburbanisation of rural areas surrounding large urban agglomerations and structural changes in towns, it is difficult to conclusively assess the consequences of the operation of shopping centers in outer metropolitan areas. The impact of shopping centers on small towns and rural areas is a very dynamic process and requires systematic research.

  18. Impacts of soil moisture on precipitation over Bangladesh and its surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Shiori; Takahashi, Hiroshi G.

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important contributor for regional-scale precipitation. Over Bangladesh and its surrounding area, we can clearly find seasonal variations of wetness in land surface and atmosphere depending on a transition of summer Asian monsoon. Under this atmospheric condition, sensitivities of precipitation to soil moisture are expected to differ with the season. Hence, in this study, a seasonal variation in effects of soil moisture on precipitation are investigated using a regional climate model; Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5.1. Horizontal mesh size is 20 km for outer domain and 5 km for inner domain without cumulus convective scheme. The numerical experiment is conducted from 20 March through 1 October for each year during 2003-2007 to analyze the seasonal transition of soil moisture impacts on precipitation from April to September. Under the same conditions of atmospheric and SST forcing by reanalysis datasets, three kinds of simulations were performed to examine the precipitation sensitivity to soil moisture; (1) A land surface condition including soil moisture was calculated by a land surface scheme coupled with the WRF (control; CTL run), (2) and (3) soil moisture was fixed for 0.1 or 0.6 kg/kg over Bangladesh and its surrounding area (22-27N, 88-93E) for sensitivity experiments (DRY or WET run). The CTL run could successfully simulate diurnal variations of intensity and frequency of precipitation for each month. In April and May, i.e., pre-monsoon season, differences of three-hourly precipitation between WET and DRY runs indicated precipitation decrease during afternoon and evening and its increase from night to next morning in the WET run. This diurnal variation in differences of precipitation amount was strongly controlled by differences in precipitation frequency. Precipitation intensity also weakened during daytime in pre-monsoon season without significant changes during nighttime. On the other hand, in July, August, and September, i.e., mature monsoon season, only daytime increases in precipitation amount and frequency were recognized in the WET run. We need to examine a relationship between seasonal transition of atmospheric wetness and seasonal variations in soil moisture impacts on precipitation.

  19. ANALYSIS OF TRANSPORT ACCESSIBILITY IN RURAL AREAS OF OLSZTYN COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Koz?owski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant impact on the multifunctional development of rural areas is the so-called transport accessibility. This applies mainly to the capabilities and reach the pace of the in-habitants of the so-called areas peripheral to the main economic centers of the province. The research includes analysis of the availability of transport in quantitative and qualitative as-pects, which was defined for the purposes of research. Quantity and quality of transport in-frastructure, the number of connections, length and travel time to the most important eco-nomic centers were taken into consideration. Analysis of transport availability sets the target application development, which is to determine the key investment priorities for the next programming periods of transport infrastructure development of the Warmia and Mazury province.

  20. Ecology of small mammals in a Brazilian rural area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Sergio, D' Andrea; Rosana, Gentile; Rui, Cerqueira; Carlos Eduardo V, Grelle; Claudia, Horta; Luis, Rey.

    Full Text Available A small mammal study was carried out in Pamparrão valley, Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 1991 to July 1996. The area was characterised by small rural properties with vegetable plantations, pasture lands and small forest fragments. Small mammals were captured in seven line tran [...] sects along the valley. Eleven small mammal species were captured: the didelphid marsupials Didelphis aurita, Philander frenata and Monodelphis americana, and the rodents Nectomys squamipes, Akodon cursor, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Bolomys lasiurus, Oecomys concolor (Sigmodontinae), Rattus ratlus (Murinae), Proechimys iheringi and Euryzygo-matomys guiara (Echimyidae). The heterogeneous habitat configuration probably allowed the occurrence of marsupials and more rodent species when compared to studies in monoculture areas.

  1. Environmental education in rural areas - a real support for sustainable development,

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiurca, Ana-Andreea; Lamasanu, Andreea; Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development represents the future for Romanian rural areas and a viable solution to solve the environmental problems. This concept can be put into practice through the interaction between economic, sociocultural, environmental and political-institutional dimension. In this interaction an important role has the ecological education of citizens from rural areas and their involvement in environmental policy decisions. So, a low level of ecological education in rural areas leads to a ...

  2. Multi-service terminal adapter based on IP technology applications in rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Li, Xiaobo; Yan, Juntao; Ren, Xupeng

    Take advantage of ample modern existing telecom network resources to rural areas may achieve it's information society gradually. This includes the establishment of integrated rural information service platform, modern remote education center and electronic administration management platform for rural areas. The geographical and economic constraints must be overcome for structuring the rural service support system, in order to provide technical support, information products and information services to modern rural information service system. It is important that development an access platform based IP technology, which supports multi-service access in order to implement a variety of types of mobile terminal equipment adapter access and to reduce restrictions on mobile terminal equipment.

  3. Process dynamics in the recently deglaciated area surrounding the Findelengletscher (Valais, Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Ruff, Alexander; Jörg, Philip Claudio; Vieli, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Enlarging alpine glacier forefields and "sidefields" are not only important indicators for the vanishing ice, but also often highly dynamic regarding sediment transfer by different processes. Typically glacio-fluvial, gravitational, and periglacial processes occur in close vicinity and on different temporal scales (continuous, sporadic). We investigate the area surrounding the Findelengletscher by a unique dataset of digital elevation models (DEMs) with high-resolution (1m) from multi-temporal LiDAR (Light detection and ranging) campaigns (2005, 2009, 2010) and an additional survey in 2014 using a fixed-wing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle) deriving a DEM using structure from motion (SfM). Based on these data, landforms as well as the corresponding forming processes are mapped. For the nine year time series, landform changes are described and analysed in a spatio-temporal context. In addition, sediment transfer is quantified for most of the process domains; uncertainties concerning the differentiation of dead-ice melt and glacio-fluvial erosion are addressed.

  4. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  5. Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitiro Suguio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

  6. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeus Rutebemberwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  7. The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wimberley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

  8. Air Pollution by Gases and PM in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janda?ka D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of the air by gases (nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter is a matter of everyday life. Particulate matter (PM is one of hazardous pollutants causing deterioration of the environment and thus quality of life of the population. Long-term exposure to effects of increased concentrations of gaseous pollutants can also cause deterioration of the environment and human health. Particulate matter and gases production by road transport is a burning issue, particularly for larger urban areas. However, pollution also occurs outside urban areas from different sources (road transport that primarily affect vegetation and animals living in the given areas. The environment in urban areas can be affected secondarily by a long-range transfer of pollutants. Due to the dominant use of combustion engines, exhaust gases contain large amounts of gaseous pollutants as well as particulate matter. They particularly include a large amount of the finest PM fractions, which can remain in the air for a long time, easily enter respiratory tracks, and damage human health. The other part includes particulate matter produced by the friction of different parts of roads and vehicle fleets, which concerns matter of larger aerodynamic diameters. The aim of the presented part of the work is to monitor production of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants along roads in rural areas and evaluate their inter-relations, while taking into account the monitored meteorological characteristics and traffic volume.

  9. Providing cancer services to remote and rural areas: consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, L; Campbell, N C; Kiehlmann, P A

    2003-09-01

    There is controversy about how cancer care should be provided to patients in remote and rural areas. The aim of this project was to measure consensus among health professionals who treat rural patients with cancer about priorities for cancer care. A modified Delphi process was used. Of 78 health professionals in Grampian, 62 responded (79%). Of 49 items suggested, there was agreement on 26 (53%), encompassing fast access to diagnosis, high-quality specialist treatment, and well-coordinated delivery of care with good and fast communication and effective team working between all health professionals involved. Specialist oncology nurses in local hospitals were considered a priority along with good facilities, accommodation, and transport for patients. There was no agreement on the best location for chemotherapy (local or central). The only large difference of opinion between participants based in primary and secondary care concerned chemotherapy provision at local community hospitals (primary care was in favour, hospital practitioners against, P&service. Our findings show that more evidence is needed regarding the balance of risks and benefits of local chemotherapy provision. Overall, however, there is agreement on many principles for cancer care that could be translated into practice. PMID:12942111

  10. European Union Membership Process of Turkey: Perspective of Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema GÜN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the knowledge level and the perceptions of rural society that would be affected from the EU membership in many ways, basically as the practitioners and beneficiaries, and constitute 30% of the population of the country are investigated. The standpoint of individuals living in rural areas, their expectations from membership and their opinions about the membership are analysed. The study encloses the results of questionnaires administered between the last quarter of 2005 and the first quarter of 2006 with 795 women and 795 men in 18 provinces. In the study 55% of the 1590 individuals surveyed know what the EU means and 67% of these individuals lean towards the membership. It is determined that the level of consciousness of men is higher than for women. The quality enhancement in agricultural production appears to be the most remarkable expectations of both women and men from the membership. Besides it is also determined that the expectations of better employment opportunities and the attainment of an increase in income are higher among women.

  11. The Effects of Non-Farm Business in Rural Sustainable Development: A Case Study in Sanandaj's Rural Areas, Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Movahedi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural economy has an important role in rural sustainabledevelopment in every region or country. However, therural economy in Iran is too much depending on agricultureand development of other rural economy in particular nonfarmactivities, has been neglected by Iranian rural communities.Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the role ofnon-farm business on rural sustainable development in SanandajTownship. This study was a type of surveying research andemployed both questionnaire and interview tools. A four-partquestionnaire (with 48 questions was developed in order tocollect data from the respondents. Likert-type responses withfive scales were used to assess different sections of the questionnaires.The questionnaires’ reliability was tested by Cronbach’sAlpha technique and it was 76% (?= 0.76. A numberof 279 families, 181 families with and 98 without non-farmbusiness were selected randomly in 2011. Results of the studyshowed that non-farm business can contribute to employmentgrowth, income generating, and prevent seasonal and permanentmigration from rural areas. Based on the results, non-farmbusiness and non-farm industries need to be strongly investedby financial facilities through rural cooperatives and unions.Additionally, encouraging rural participation is essential innon-farms and industrial activities.

  12. Brazilian university technology transfer to rural areas / Transferência de tecnologia de universidades brasileiras na área rural

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Enio, Marchesan; Scott Allen, Senseman.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Em agricultura, há diferenças entre a produtividade média obtida pelos produtores e o potencial produtivo dos cultivos. Há informação tecnológica disponível para aumentar a produtividade, mas nem todos os produtores têm acesso e/ou usam a informação. Isso caracteriza claramente um problema de extens [...] ão e transferência de tecnologia. Há vários sistemas de transferência de tecnologia, mas, como não há sistema que se ajuste a todas as condições, é necessário criar alternativas adequadas às condições de cada local. Outro desafio da extensão rural é ser eficiente, apesar da contínua redução de recursos. Uma proposta advinda das constantes reformas na extensão verificada ao redor do mundo é o trabalho integrado entre a iniciativa privada e o poder público. A universidade pública contribuiria para o treinamento e a atualização dos recursos humanos envolvidos com assistência técnica, apontado como um dos aspectos limitantes na transferência de tecnologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar, por meio de revisão bibliográfica, alternativas de promover a transferência de tecnologias geradas nas universidades públicas brasileiras para a área rural. Assim, é apresentada uma proposta de transferência de tecnologia a ser gerenciada pelas Pró-reitorias de extensão das universidades brasileiras, tendo como base os grupos consolidados de pesquisa, nos quais poderiam ser incorporados outros profissionais de acordo com a necessidade. Dessa forma, a universidade pública recuperaria parte da sua função social, integrando ensino, pesquisa e extensão. Abstract in english In agriculture, there is a difference between average yield obtained by farmers and crop potential. There is technology available to increase yields, but not all farmers have access to it and/or use this information. This clearly characterizes an extension and technology transference problem. There [...] are several technology transfer systems, but there is no system to fit all conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to create extension solutions according to local conditions. Another rural extension challenge is efficiency, despite continuous funding reductions. One proposal that has resulted from extension reform worldwide has suggested integration between the public and private sectors. The public universities could play the role of training and updating technical assistance of human resources, which is the one of the main aspects that has limited technology transfer. The objective of this study was to identify approaches to promote technology transfer generated in Brazilian public universities to rural areas through literature review. An experimental approach of technology transfer is presented here where a Brazilian university extension Vice-chancellor incorporates professionals from consolidated research groups according to demand. In this way, public universities take part of their social functions, by integrating teaching, research, and extension.

  13. HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL AREA - AS A RURAL DEVELOPMENT COMPONENT - IN THE BUCHAREST-ILFOV REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina STOICESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the rural human resources development during the period 2007-2013 in the Bucharest –Ilfov Region of Romania, as a rural development component. It is based on the statistical data provided by our studies regarding HRD projects implemented in this area, financed from structural founds (European Social Found. The data have been processed into the following indicators: number of projects implemented in the Bucharest-Ilfov region promoting long term sustainability of rural areas in terms of human resources development and employment, number of participants from rural areas in the integrated programs, employment rate, HR development, Bucharest-Ilfov region, rural area. During the analyzed period, the number of projects implemented for the human resources development has continuously increased, thanks to the structural founds financing in the first programming period in Romania. As a conclusion, the Bucharest-Ilfov region has an important rural human resources, suitable for structural projects and structural fundraising, for the next programming period 2014-2020.

  14. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (pHotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies. PMID:26382763

  15. Study of Indoor Air Quality of Kitchens of Rural Area’s in Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakanksha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Study deals with the assessment of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ in terms of Particulate matter, Gaseous pollutants, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH during domestic combustions of biofuels (i.e. Fire wood, animal dung and Crop residues in the cooking and non-cooking area of rural kitchens of the rural suburbs of Lucknow (North India. The indoor air samples of kitchens when analyzed for various pollutants, revealed very high concentrations of CO, CO2, NO2 and SO2 in cooking area (kitchen area as compared to non-cooking area (living area. Burning of biofuels (Fire wood, animal dung and Crop residues produced highest emission of PAH. Increment in PAH level was found in the cooking area (kitchen area as compared to PAH level in the non-cooking area. The concentration of PM10 in the indoor air sample was 3.7 times more than that found in the living area. Similarly, the concentration of PM2.5 was four times higher in kitchens using biomass during cooking hours.

  16. Biorefineries: Relocating Biomass Refineries to the Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Papendiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The field for application of biomass is rising. The demand for food and feeding stuff rises while at the same time energy, chemicals and other materials also need to be produced from biomass because of decreasing fossil resources. However, the biorefinery ideas and concepts can help to use the limited renewable raw materials more efficiently than today. With biorefineries, valuable products, such as platform chemicals, can be produced from agricultural feedstock, which can subsequently be further processed into a variety of substances by the chemical industry. Due to the role they play as producers of biomass, rural areas will grow in importance in the decades to come. Parts of the biorefinery process can be relocated to the rural areas to bring a high added value to these regions. By refining biomass at the place of production, new economic opportunities may arise for agriculturists, and the industry gets high-grade pre-products. Additionally, an on-farm refining can increase the quality of the products because of the instant processing. To reduce competition with the food production and to find new possibilities of utilisation for these habitats, the focus for new agricultural biomass should be on grasslands. But also croplands can provide more renewable raw materials without endangering a sustainable agriculture, e.g. by implementing legumes in the crop rotation. To decide if a region can provide adequate amounts of raw material for a biorefinery, new raw material assessment procedures have to be developed. In doing so, involvement of farmers is inevitable to generate a reliable study of the biomass refinery potentials.

  17. Age distribution of fossil landslides in the Tyrol (Austria and its surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prager

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the largest mass movements in the Alps cluster spatially in the Tyrol (Austria. Fault-related valley deepening and coalescence of brittle discontinuities structurally controlled the progressive failure and the kinematics of several slopes. To evaluate the spatial and temporal landslide distribution, a first comprehensive compilation of dated mass movements in the Eastern Alps has been made. At present, more than 480 different landslides in the Tyrol and its surrounding areas, including some 120 fossil events, are recorded in a GIS-linked geodatabase. These compiled data show a rather continuous temporal distribution of landslide activities, with (i some peaks of activity in the early Holocene at about 10 500–9400 cal BP and (ii in the Tyrol a significant increase of deep-seated rockslides in the Subboreal at about 4200–3000 cal BP. The majority of Holocene mass movements were not directly triggered by deglaciation processes, but clearly took a preparation of some 1000 years, after ice withdrawal, until slopes collapsed. In view of this, several processes that may promote rock strength degradation are discussed. After the Late-Glacial, slope stabilities were affected by stress redistribution and by subcritical crack growth. Fracture propagating processes may have been favoured by glacial loading and unloading, by earthquakes and by pore pressure fluctuations. Repeated dynamic loading, even if at subcritical energy levels, initiates brittle fracture propagation and thus substantially promotes slope instabilities. Compiled age dating shows that several landslides in the Tyrol coincide temporally with the progradation of some larger debris flows in the nearby main valleys and, partially, with glacier advances in the Austrian Central Alps, indicating climatic phases of increased water supply. This gives evidence of elevated pore pressures within the intensely fractured rock masses. As a result, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations are induced by complex and polyphase interactions of lithological and structural parameters, morphological changes, subcritical fracture propagation, variable seismic activity and climatically controlled groundwater flows.

  18. “A STUDY OF BRAND AWARENESS & CONSUMER BEHAVIOR TOWARDS FMCG PRODUCTS IN RURAL AREA OF SOLAPUR DISTRICT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatray P. More

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In papers is researcher has made effort to know the basic characteristics of consumer behavior in rural market about FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods products. While arriving at any purchasing decision, the rural customers are depends upon certain factors. In present study researcher wants to understand the characteristics buying pattern, brand awareness, and factor involved in decision making in case of FMCG products in rural market. With rising awareness level and mass availability of information rural demand is increasing significantly hence, rural market offers tremendous potential for growth and expansion for all the companies merely they have to overcome the challenge of consumer expectations, brand awareness, and their behavior. FMCG products have tremendous demand in rural area as mass population is resides in rural area they are contributing significantly towards the total demand of all the companies.

  19. THE RURAL TERRITORIAL INFRASTRUCTURE, THE SUPPORT FOR RURAL TOURISM ECONOMY IN THE DANUBIAN AREA OF THE SOUTH MUNTENIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Iulian DR?GHICI; Ioana ?UGUI

    2012-01-01

    The scope of agritourism activities is related to the existent territorial infrastructure. For this reason there is a pronounced differentiation and diversification of rural tourism and agritourism types in the South-Muntenia Region which sometimes generate confusion. Meaning that, according to the economic character, the Danubian rural area can delimitate villages with agricultural functions (based on the production of cereals, as well as the viticultural and zootechnical productions), those...

  20. Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area

    OpenAIRE

    Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e...

  1. Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e. 12 and 20 mm for coronary and peripheral sizing, respectively) for different vessel–tissue configurations: (i) blood vessel fully embedded in muscle tissue, (ii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue, and (iii) blood vessel superficially embedded in muscle tissue with fat covering half of the arterial vessel (anterior portion). The simulations suggest that the parallel conductance and accuracy of measurement is dependent on the inhomogeneous/anisotropic configuration of surrounding tissue, including the asymmetric dimension and anisotropy in electrical conductivity of surrounding tissue. Specifically, the measurement was shown to be accurate as long as the vessel was superficial, regardless of the considerable total surrounding tissue dimension for coronary or peripheral arteries. Moreover, it was shown that the unfavourable impact of parallel conductance on the accuracy of conductance catheter measurement is decreased by the combination of a lower transverse electrical conductivity of surrounding muscle tissue, a smaller electrode spacing and a larger lumen diameter. The present findings confirm that the conductance catheter technique provides an accurate platform for sizing of clinically relevant (i.e. superficial and diseased) arteries. PMID:22718991

  2. Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayaraghavan Prathiba; Mohan Rema

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tami...

  3. Benefits of donkeys in rural and urban areas in northwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, M. R.; Steenstra, F.A.; Udo, H. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the benefits of donkeys for rural and urban smallholder farmers in northwest Nigeria. We visited 112 smallholder donkey farmers located in rural and urban areas from four states in northwest Nigeriathrough four focus group meetings, interviews with individual farmers and in depth interview with 12 key informants. In addition, 80 citizens were interviewed about their perception on donkeys. Donkeys were used more intensively in urban than in rural areas...

  4. The Perceptions to Climate Change among Rural Farming Households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Emaziye, P. O.

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on the perceptions to climate change among rural farming households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. The basic objective was to determine the rural farming household’s perception to climate change in the Area and the specific objective was to determine the direction of change of the climate change indicators (whether increasing, decreasing or constant). Multistage sampling procedure was sampled 739 rural farming households (respondents) for the study. Data were analyzed us...

  5. Turism planning in rural areas in the case of the municipality of Brda

    OpenAIRE

    Jakin, Uroš

    2012-01-01

    This graduation thesis addresses tourism and tourism planning in rural areas on the example of the organization of tourism in the Slovenian rural region Goriška brda. Rural areas are affected by different problems, such as aging population, emigration, lack of employment opportunities, and dependence on agriculture and forestry. The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate how tourism and given spatial potentials can help revive the countryside. The thesis is divided into a theoret...

  6. LO RURAL. UN CAMPO INACABADO / THE RURAL AREA: AN UNFINISHED “FIELD”

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nelly del Carmen, Suárez Restrepo; Isaías, Tobasura Acuña.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El surgimiento de nuevas lecturas de la realidad social rural latinoamericana, e incluso europea, y los efectos de las políticas internacionales sobre qué producir, cuánto, cómo y dónde, han puesto en la agenda académica el debate entorno al significado y contenido de lo rural y del desarrollo rural [...] . En el centro de esta controversia está la superación o ruptura entre lo rural y lo agrario, dos términos otrora considerados como sinónimos. Trascender esta dicotomía reduccionista abre la posibilidad de repensar los caminos y las estrategias mediante las cuales las sociedades en general, en sus esfuerzos por autoproducirse crean condiciones de vida, proveen recursos necesarios y pertinentes y movilizan las capacidades y las libertades de los pobladores rurales. Este documento recoge los elementos más sobresalientes de la investigación “Repensando lo rural y el desarrollo rural” en la que se hizo una revisión de literatura sobre el tema y se buscó, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas³, la participación de funcionarios institucionales, representantes gremiales y académicos. En términos generales se pretendía identificar los significados y los contenidos que se atribuyen a lo rural y al desarrollo rural. El texto se organiza en tres partes: En la primera parte, Reiteración o resignificación, se analizan los posibles avances y permanencias en los significados y contenidos de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En la segunda, denominada Elementos constitutivos del desarrollo rural, se hace referencia a las dimensiones, los indicadores y los actores identificados mediante la información obtenida. En la tercera parte, se establece una relación entre el discurso y las prácticas de desarrollo en Colombia y sus implicaciones en el diseño de políticas públicas. Finalmente se concluye que el desarrollo rural ha tenido como trasfondo una orientación modernizadora de la sociedad rural en general y del sector agrario en particular. Abstract in english The emergence of new readings about the Latin American and European rural social reality and the effects of international policies on what to produce, how much, how and where, has placed a debate around the significance and contents of the rural and the rural development. The core of this controvers [...] y is the improvement or breaking between the rural and the agrarian, two terms that were before considered to be synonyms. Going beyond this reductive dichotomy opens the possibility of rethinking the ways and the strategies through which societies in general, in their efforts to self-produce, create conditions of life, supply the necessary resources and move the capacities and freedom of the rural workers. This document collects the most outstanding elements of the research “Rethinking the rural and the rural development” in which an extensive revision of literature about the topic was made. This was made also through semi-structured interviews, participation of institutional officers, academic and association representatives. In general, it was sought to identify the meanings of the contents attributed to the rural and the rural development. The text is organized in three sections: In the first section, Reiteration, possible advances and continuance in the meanings and contents of the rural and the rural development are analyzed. In second, called Constitutive elements of the rural development, reference to dimensions, indicators and identified actors is made through the information obtained. In the third, Implications in the design of public policies are articulation between discourse and development practices in the country is established. Finally, it is concluded that the rural development has had an undercurrent modern orientation in rural society in general and the agrarian sector in particular.

  7. LO RURAL. UN CAMPO INACABADO THE RURAL AREA: AN UNFINISHED “FIELD”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly del Carmen Suárez Restrepo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El surgimiento de nuevas lecturas de la realidad social rural latinoamericana, e incluso europea, y los efectos de las políticas internacionales sobre qué producir, cuánto, cómo y dónde, han puesto en la agenda académica el debate entorno al significado y contenido de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En el centro de esta controversia está la superación o ruptura entre lo rural y lo agrario, dos términos otrora considerados como sinónimos. Trascender esta dicotomía reduccionista abre la posibilidad de repensar los caminos y las estrategias mediante las cuales las sociedades en general, en sus esfuerzos por autoproducirse crean condiciones de vida, proveen recursos necesarios y pertinentes y movilizan las capacidades y las libertades de los pobladores rurales. Este documento recoge los elementos más sobresalientes de la investigación “Repensando lo rural y el desarrollo rural” en la que se hizo una revisión de literatura sobre el tema y se buscó, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas³, la participación de funcionarios institucionales, representantes gremiales y académicos. En términos generales se pretendía identificar los significados y los contenidos que se atribuyen a lo rural y al desarrollo rural. El texto se organiza en tres partes: En la primera parte, Reiteración o resignificación, se analizan los posibles avances y permanencias en los significados y contenidos de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En la segunda, denominada Elementos constitutivos del desarrollo rural, se hace referencia a las dimensiones, los indicadores y los actores identificados mediante la información obtenida. En la tercera parte, se establece una relación entre el discurso y las prácticas de desarrollo en Colombia y sus implicaciones en el diseño de políticas públicas. Finalmente se concluye que el desarrollo rural ha tenido como trasfondo una orientación modernizadora de la sociedad rural en general y del sector agrario en particular.The emergence of new readings about the Latin American and European rural social reality and the effects of international policies on what to produce, how much, how and where, has placed a debate around the significance and contents of the rural and the rural development. The core of this controversy is the improvement or breaking between the rural and the agrarian, two terms that were before considered to be synonyms. Going beyond this reductive dichotomy opens the possibility of rethinking the ways and the strategies through which societies in general, in their efforts to self-produce, create conditions of life, supply the necessary resources and move the capacities and freedom of the rural workers. This document collects the most outstanding elements of the research “Rethinking the rural and the rural development” in which an extensive revision of literature about the topic was made. This was made also through semi-structured interviews, participation of institutional officers, academic and association representatives. In general, it was sought to identify the meanings of the contents attributed to the rural and the rural development. The text is organized in three sections: In the first section, Reiteration, possible advances and continuance in the meanings and contents of the rural and the rural development are analyzed. In second, called Constitutive elements of the rural development, reference to dimensions, indicators and identified actors is made through the information obtained. In the third, Implications in the design of public policies are articulation between discourse and development practices in the country is established. Finally, it is concluded that the rural development has had an undercurrent modern orientation in rural society in general and the agrarian sector in particular.

  8. The Effect of Clouds and Wind on the Difference in Nocturnal Cooling Rates between Urban and Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, Stanley Q.; Essenwanger, Oskar M.

    1995-11-01

    The urban warming effect is interesting in its own right and is important for understanding global warming. The aim of this study is to determine how the urban warming effect changes with cloud conditions and with wind speed. Studies of the urban warming effect have mostly concentrated on the urban rural difference in daily maximum or minimum temperatures. The problem was approached using a new technique. Instead of comparing a city, represented by a first-order weather station, with the surrounding rural area, represented by data collected by cooperative observers; pairs of cities, each with a first-order weather station, were studied. One city was large. The other city was small enough to have a minimal warming effect and was close enough to the larger city to approximately represent the rural area. In this way, hourly temperatures, cloud cover, and wind data could be studied rather than only the differences between the daily maxima or minima. Results show that wind disrupts the normal nocturnal cooling pattern in which the smaller city, with lower thermal inertia, cools more quickly than the larger city. Clouds also disrupt this pattern, at least to the extent that one must be careful about extrapolating either magnitudes or patterns of urban rural temperature difference observed by satellites under clear sky conditions to partly cloudy or cloudy conditions.

  9. The effects of clouds and wind on the difference in nocturnal cooling rates between urban and rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidder, S.Q.; Essenwanger, O.M. [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The urban warming effect is interesting in its own right and is important for understanding global warming. The aim of this study is to determine how the urban warming effect changes with cloud conditions and with wind speed. Studies of the urban warming effect have mostly concentrated on the urban-rural difference in daily maximum or minimum temperatures. The problem was approached using a new technique, instead of comparing a city, represented by a first-order weather station, with the surrounding rural area, represented by data collected by cooperative observers; pairs of cities, each with a first-order weather station, were studied. One city was large. The other city was small enough to have a minimal warming effect and was close enough to the larger city to approximately represent the rural area. In this way, hourly temperatures, cloud cover, and wind data could be studied rather than only the differences between the daily maxima or minima. Results show that wind disrupts the normal nocturnal cooling pattern in which the smaller city, with lower thermal inertia, cools more quickly than the larger city. Clouds also disrupt this pattern, at least to the extent that one must be careful about extrapolating either magnitudes or patterns of urban-rural temperature difference observed by satellites under clear sky conditions to partly cloudy or cloudy conditions. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. DIVERSIFICATION OF ECONOMY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE: VECTORS OF DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RURAL AREA AND FOR IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF RURAL POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is the analysis of socio-economical structures which are: rural economy and rural infrastructure, regarding their contribution to the development of the rural area and to the improvement of the quality of life for the rural population.We emphasize the diversification and the economical development in the Romanian and European rural area, by analyzing employment and gross value added. Also, we emphasize the development of rural infrastructure through the analysis of tourism and Internet infrastructures, as well as social infrastructure (through education.

  11. Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

    2014-01-01

    The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, and…

  12. Climate Adaptation for Rural arEas (CARE); Midterm review report; Knowledge for Climate Theme 3

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, A.; Bakker, M. M.; Vos, C.C.; Witte, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This midterm review report presents the structure, progress and first results of the Knowledge for Climate Theme 3 research programme Climate Adaptation for Rural arEas (CARE). This research programme aims to generate the fundamental knowledge that is necessary to design and evaluate adaptation strategies to cope with the impacts of climate change on rural areas in the Netherlands.

  13. Issues in Vocational Education for Special Populations in Rural Areas. TASPP Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Jay W.

    1990-01-01

    Students with special needs living in rural areas face a difficult challenge as they prepare for employment and adult life. Access to vocational education in rural areas may be limited by isolation, problems in teacher recruitment and retention, curriculum and instructional deficiencies, and weak financial support. In addition, program relevance…

  14. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  15. Context counts: training health workers in and for rural and remote areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Strasser

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Access to well trained and motivated health workers is the major rural health issue. Without local access, it is unlikely that people in rural and remote communities will be able to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Studies in many countries have shown that the three factors most strongly associated with entering rural practice are: (i a rural background; (ii positive clinical and educational experiences in rural settings as part of undergraduate medical education; and (iii targeted training for rural practice at the postgraduate level. This paper presents evidence for policy initiatives involving the training of medical students from, in and for rural and remote areas. We give examples of medical schools in different regions of the world that are using an evidence-based and context-driven educational approach to producing skilled and motivated health workers. We demonstrate how context influences the design and implementation of different rural education programmes. Successful programmes have overcome major obstacles including negative assumptions and attitudes, and limitations of human, physical, educational and financial resources. Training rural health workers in the rural setting is likely to result in greatly improved recruitment and retention of skilled health-care providers in rural underserved areas with consequent improvement in access to health care for the local communities.

  16. Migrant Integration in Rural and Urban Areas of New Settlement Countries: Thematic Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Jentsch

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A relatively new feature in European migration is the significant and growing impact it has had on peripheral and rural areas. In southern Europe there has been a relatively steady stream of migrants to rural areas since the 1990s, in part connected with their relatively large, labour-intensive agricultural sector (Kasimis 2005. In some northern European countries, such as Ireland and Scotland, rural areas have particularly benefited from the 2004 EU enlargement: increasing evidence suggests that the majority of migrant workers from the 2004 accession states have found employment in rural areas rather than the traditional migration centres (TUC 2004. Migration to rural and remote areas can counter depopulation trends that have afflicted those areas for decades, and can contribute to the sustainability of public and private services in rural communities. This can result in a virtuous cycle where well-serviced rural areas may be attractive to both groups, those who once left them as well as migrants. The current thematic issue of UNESCO’s International Journal on Multicultural Societies (IJMS addresses these issues by exploring integration approaches and processes for different groups of migrants in new settlement countries at macro and micro levels. It pays particular attention to the geographical dimension of migrant integration by examining both urban and peripheral/rural contexts.

  17. Role of tourism in development of rural marginal areas (region of Šumava Mts. in Czech Republic).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    T?šitel, Jan; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    Polsko : Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics, 2003 - (Banski, J.; Owsinski, J.), s. 10 ISBN 83-86815-98-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : marginality * marginal area * rural areas Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  18. Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Rixt A. Bijker; Nora Mehnen; Sijtsma, Frans J.,; Michiel N. Daams

    2014-01-01

    The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbei...

  19. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima; Experiencias durante el proceso de descontaminacion de areas aledanas a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, G., E-mail: gustavo.molina@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  20. 3D Analysis and Investigation of Traffic Noise Impact from Hemmat Highway Located in Tehran on Buildings and Surrounding Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Reza Ranjbar 2; Ali Reza Gharagozlou; Ali Reza Vafaei Nejad

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes and investigates the impact of traffic noise on high rise buildings and surrounding areas by the side of Hemmat Highway that links west of Tehran to the east. In this study, a 3D traffic noise simulation model is applied on a GIS system. Visualized noise levels are formulated by the proposed model for noise mapping on all surfaces of the buildings and surrounding ground in a 3D platform. The investigation shows that there is a high traffic noise impact on the foreground an...

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  2. Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

    2013-06-01

    Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

  3. Sustainable development of the Romanian rural areas within the present European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present concept of rural sustainable development is based on the European model and implies a multifunctional agriculture. The LEADER programme (a part of NRDP represents an approach that offers new development opportunities for the rural areas. The rural development objectives can be fulfilled both by the locally available financing, and by accessing national and European non-refundable financing, on the basis of real projects.

  4. Population access to waste collection services: urban vs rural areas in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims a comparative analysis at county level concerning urban and rural population access to sanitation services in the context of EU accession. Partially coverage of population to such services contributes to illegal dumping of waste generated and uncollected.Furthermore, waste management facilities are inappropriate, particularly in small cities or rural areas. Comparative analysis of urban vs. rural population served by waste collection services using thematic cartography highlig...

  5. The Study of Cultural Soft Power under the Construction of New Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie LI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Culture is the core element of soft power, and it is also closely related to the construction of new rural areas. To achieve the overall goal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the developing of country is not only the key point but also the difficult one. In this article, the authors firstly do a brief overview of the concept and meaning of soft power, and then show the importance and necessity of the cultural soft power to make a new sustainable development of country. But today the construction of rural cultural soft power is not optimistic, and the four key problems are as follows: the public cultural projects can not meet the demands of new rural construction, and the government show less attention to the cultural construction of rural areas .Besides, the defective management of rural culture and the insufficient quality of the peasants do exist in rural areas .Therefore, addressed the above issues, authors put forward several suggestions. At first, build and improve the new rural cultural soft power system. Furthermore, make the grassroots government work in the construction of cultural soft power. What’s more, increase the cultural resources and enhance the services of rural public culture. Finally, improve the overall quality of the peasants and cultivate new peasants.

    Key Words: New rural construction; Cultural soft power; Rural cultural construction.

    Résumé: La culture est l’élément central de la puissance douce, et de la culture et le développement rural sont étroitement liés atteindre l’objectif global du socialisme aux caractéristiques chinoises, en mettant l’accent sur les zones rurales, les zones rurales est également difficile dans le présent document, le concept. de la puissance douce et pour un bref aperçu du contenu, l’analyse de la puissance culturelle douce de la nouvelle importance du développement durable dans les zones rurales et la nécessité. Mais aujourd’hui, la construction des régions rurales du soft power culturel n’est pas optimiste, il ya un manque de public rural projets culturels ne peuvent pas répondre aux exigences strictes de la construction rurale nouvelle, la construction culturelle des cadres de base en milieu rural à l’attention et le niveau de sensibilisation ne suffit pas, la gestion de la culture en milieu rural doit être renforcée, la qualité globale en milieu rural la science retard scolaire, l’agriculteur n’est pas élevés quatre questions, afin d'aborder les questions ci-dessus pour construire et améliorer la nouvelle rurale système culturel soft power, à renforcer la capacité des ruraux aux services publics culturels, de changer leur façon de penser, faire jouer pleinement la population rurale du gouvernement local qui est de nourrir douce culturelle la construction de centrales de l'ordinaire, d'augmenter les ressources culturelles de la puissance douce pour les zones rurales de la force, d'accélérer la promotion des aspects culturels de la consommation rurale, améliorer la qualité globale des agriculteurs, la formation des nouveaux agriculteurs un total de quatre propositions visant à promouvoir vigoureusement la construction de la culture rurale et la puissance douce.

    Mots-clés: Nouvelle construction en milieu rural; Culturel de la puissance; la Construction culturelle en milieu rural.

  6. Rural flour mills. farmer promotion tool m the Sahel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audroing, M.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grameen Bank is a specialized financial institution in Bangladesh that was established to provide credit to the rural poor for the purpose of improving their economic conditions with the hypothesis that if the poor are supplied with working capital they can generate productive self-employment without external assistance. Loans from the Grameen Bank are used primarily for undertaking noncrop activities. The loan repayment performance is excellent. Only 0.5 percent of loans to 975 borrowers surveyed were overdue beyond one year, and overdue weekly installments (before the expiration of the one-year repayment period were only 3.3 percent of the total amount borrowed. The Grameen Bank concept of credit without collateral should work in other countries with widespread poverty and underemployment. But elements like taking the bank to the people and intensive interaction of bank staff with borrowers may be inappropriate and highly expensive for sparsely settled areas with underdeveloped transport systems. For such environments, an appropriate delivery mechanism has to be worked out.

  7. Drinking water quality assessment of rural wells from Aiud Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ro?u

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the assessment of physico-chemical quality of drinking watercoming from rural wells of Aiud area (villages: M?gina, Livezile, Poiana Aiudului, V?li?oara. Water qualitywas evaluated through a research project conducted over a period of eight months (October 2009 - May2010. It consisted of a monthly monitoring of water physico-chemical characteristics of 27 drinking wellsfrom the villages mentioned above. There were monitored monthly in the laboratory the followingparameters: pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids,salinity, using WTW Multi-parameter inolab 720. In April and May, at the parameters mentioned abovewere added chemical measurements for the following indicators: Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2->, NO3 -, PO4 3-,HCO3 -, which analysis were performed with Dionex Ion Chromatograph System 2100. The results of thechemical analysis were processed using the following methods: linear regression, Pearson correlationcoefficient (r and water quality index (WQI. This monitoring project was initiated from the premise of aproblematic quality of well waters, based on the well known contamination vulnerability of the drinkingwater in Romania, but the results of this study proved the opposite: the water from the monitored wellshad a proper quality for drinking

  8. THE KNOWLEDGE USER PROFILE IN THE RURAL AREA OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia PREDA (DIACONEASA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic entities today are struggling to find the most effective way of combining the resources they have, tangible or intangible, in order to produce and sale the most wanted products, their purpose is to gain and keep the highest share of the market. These intangible resources, in our era, which is changing from industry based to knowledge based, are represented by knowledge, brain capacity and the power to use it at the highest rate. Knowledge has started to be considered a primordial factor, along with energy and matter, factors that hold the origin of the universe. The economic agents have realized that holding the latest information, in any domain or activity, and its proper use, also means holding a greater share of the market for a longer time, which leads to the final purpose of every economic unit, the profit. They can be called knowledge consumers. In Romania’s rural area things are not the same, the knowledge consumer is theoretically represented by any economical unit activating here, but, as shall be presented further in this paper, things are far from theory. Those who should be knowledge consumers are using old methods and technologies, they are based on their own experience and do not know how to use the information that regards them directly, things that have to be changed in order to be an active and competitive member of the E.U.

  9. Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana School performance of rural area students in urban school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Cortez Bacha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural, turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno, tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas.PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of residence (urban/rural, period of study (day / night, type of school (municipal/state and gender. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in the performances of the students from series 1 to 4, in none of the disciplines. From series 5 to 8 we found a slightly better performance in the students who lived in the urban area, measured by t-Student test. However, if upon jointly analyzing all the variable, none of them was preponderant in explaining the performance of the student, measured by multiple lineal regression. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were found in the school performance between students in the urban and rural area.

  10. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P 10, SO2, and NO2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM10, SO2 and NO2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM10, SO2, and NO2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  11. Comparing supports for LGBT aging in rural versus urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael G; Quam, Jean K

    2013-01-01

    Studies of rural populations typically underrepresent lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. This secondary analysis examined data from a nationwide sample of LGBT baby boomers (n = 1201). Geographic differences with respect to self-reported outness, acceptance of sexual identity, social and familial support, and household income were assessed with one-way analyses of variance. Guardedness about one's sexual identity and household asset levels were assessed with chi-square analyses. Rural individuals reported lower levels of outness, guardedness with people including siblings and close friends, and lower levels of household income. Providers should consider strategies for connecting older rural LGBT adults for potential care and support. PMID:23350566

  12. Activities of Youth Restiveness and Militancy in the Development of Rural Areas in Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    S.N. Ozuruoke; F.E. Nlerum; C. O. Albert

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effects of youth restiveness and militancy in the development of the rural areas in Rivers State. Data obtained from 100 randomly sampled respondents in two local government areas were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed poverty (87.7%), unemployment (88%), use of youths for election purposes by politicians (69.4%) and cultism (60%) were the main causes of militancy and youth restiveness in the study area. The effects of this in rural development w...

  13. Diagnóstico ambiental e delimitação de Áreas de Preservação Permanente em um assentamento rural = Environmental diagnosis and delimitation of PPAs (Permanent Preservation Areas in a rural settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Alexandre Fagundes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leia-se neste artigo a tentativa de diagnosticar, delimitar e situar as Áreas de Preservação Permanentes e de Reserva Legal dentro de um assentamento rural, do Incra; visando à experimentação de ferramentas de geoprocessamento para a restauração das matas ribeirinhas, pela delimitação destas áreas, respeitando a legislação ambiental vigente, e partindo de uma ampla avaliação ambiental descritiva da paisagem, encontrada no Projeto de Assentamento Federal Capela. Um diagnóstico da paisagem local é apresentado na forma de um memorial fotográfico. Neste trabalho, serão delimitadas e quantificadas somente asAPP’s de entorno de corpos d’água.This article aims to diagnose, demarcate and situate Permanent Preservation Areas and Legal Reserves within an Incra Rural Settlement. This effort was conducted while testing the effective application of geoprocessing tools in the restoration of riparian forests and the delimitation of these areas, in accordance withexisting environmental legislation, and based on a broad descriptive environmental evaluation of the local landscape, located at the Capela Federal Settlement Project. A landscape diagnosis is shown in a photographic memorial as well. For this study, only the PPAs surrounding water bodies will be delimited and quantified.

  14. Population Migration in Rural Areas, January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

    This bibliography consists of 87 entries of materials related to population trends in rural and nonmetropolitan areas. This collection is the result of a computerized search of the AGRICOLA database. The bibliography covers topics of rural population change, migration and migrants, farm labor supplies and social conditions, and different patterns…

  15. Menarchial Age of Secondary School Girls in Urban and Rural Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaraoha CI

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The menarchial age of 859 secondary school girls consisting of 508 from urban and 351 from rural area of Rivers State, Nigeria were determined, using questionnaires and interview method. Data collation revealed that 69.2% (243 of the rural population were menstruating, while 70.1% (356 of the urban population were menstruating. Mean ages of menarche were 13.19±1.32 years and 14.22±1.47 years for urban and rural areas respectively .A statistically significant lower mean menarchial age was observed in urban area girls, compared to their rural counterparts. Girls from families of high socio-economic class has significantly lower mean menarchial age in both urban and rural area. The mean age of menarche was significantly higher in girls involved in vigorous sporting activity in rural areas compared to their non-sporting counterparts. Urban school girls attain menarche earlier than those in rural area. High socio-economic class and vigorous sporting activity can be predisposing factors to low and high age of menarche respectively. There is need for redefinition of high socio-economic class in Nigeria.

  16. Electric distribution infrastructures for rural areas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally defined. Chapter II describes the design method developed to compare the costs of different architectures and choose the most suitable. Chapter III shows a method of sizing systems Decentralized Rural Electrification including generators, batteries and windmills. Chapter IV describes the results of a reliability study was carried out on different solutions. Chapter V describes the work done to analyze the operation of a production center consists of a generator and a wind turbine. (author)

  17. Built Environments and Active Living in Rural and Remote Areas: a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anush Yousefian; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Lenardson, Jennifer D; Hartley, David

    2015-12-01

    Rural children and adults are more likely to have obesity than their urban counterparts even after adjustment for individual-level behaviors, suggesting that rural environments may promote obesity. The rural built environment may be an important area of research that can help us understand rural-urban disparities in obesity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the rural built environment and active living literature, and to address key issues, gaps, and observations in the field. A literature review was conducted in spring 2015 to identify research published from 2000 to 2015. Our review suggests that limited active living built environments in rural communities and unique rural barriers to physical activity may contribute to a higher prevalence of obesity compared to urban populations. More empirical research is needed to build the evidence-base for the association between rural built environments, active living, and obesity. School- and community-based policies that expand active living opportunities in rural areas should also be closely examined. PMID:26364307

  18. RURAL AREAS – THE PREMISE OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia LEPADATU

    2012-01-01

    Year 2007 when Romania joins the European Union marked a new era in development and agricultural economy of our country. In this context Romania has had to quickly adapt its economy to take part in the EU internal market and to benefit fully from the positive effects of adopting the CAP. EU membership is perhaps the strongest factor of pressure for reform of agriculture and rapid rural Romanian economy given the necessity to integrate successfully in European rural economy. European model of ...

  19. Assumption on the Reform of Social Security of Migrant Workers from Rural Areas from an Angle of Unified System in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmin Chen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available China is making efforts to improve the social security for migrant workers from rural areas and that for farmers in rural areas. However, due to the strong mobility of migrant workers, the efforts are hard to coordinate. To establish a unified social security system for urban and rural areas is the most reasonable objective and can be put into practice at present. This system should cover a wide and comprehensive scope. In China, no matter whether city or countryside, every citizen should possess an only integrated account for social security. The account must move together with the citizen. The initial account of a migrant worker can be established in either city or countryside.

  20. The Contribution of Rural Tourism to the Sustainable Development of the Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Turtureanu, Anca Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    There are some elements related to the concept of rural tourism which has nowadays become very important around the world. The rural tourism can revitalize the conventional concepts and views on tourism, and bring in a new dimension to the sustainable development of tourism. It has been realized that tourism can play a major role in many countries economies, especially in developing ones, where it can substantially contribute to the increase of the national income. In this respect, mention sh...

  1. CLIMACTERIC SYMPTOMS AMONG WOMEN IN A RURAL AREA IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Bindhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Every woman who lives beyond 50 years goes through a period of transition from reproductive to non-reproductive stages of life. Meno pause is considered as a clinical marker of declining ovarian function. The common climacteric symptoms experienced by women during this period can be group into: vasomotor, somatic, psy chological and sexual complaints. The aim of the study was to compare the climacteric symptoms among rural women who attained menopause and those who did not attaine d menopause in the age group of 43-55 years. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted in a r ural area in Kerala. Data were collected from 320 women by interviewing with the help of a structured questionnaire consisting of a socio-demo graphic data, and the Greene’s Climacteric Scale. The Statistical Package for the Social Scien ces software Version 16.0 was used for statistical analyses. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the total score of climacteric symptoms and each sub-scale symptom scores (psycholo gical, somatic, and sexual scores among women who attained and not attained menopause. The X² test was applied to compare the proportion of the different grades of symptoms bet ween the different menopausal statuses. The level P < 0.05 was considered as the cut-off va lue for significance RESULTS: The total Greene’s climacteric scale score (p: 0.001, the psyc hological subscale scores (p: 0.007, the somatic subscale scores (p : 0.022 , the vasomotor subscale scores (p: 0.011 and the sexual subscale scores (p: 0.001 were significantly higher in women who attained menopause compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: The climacteric symptoms vary significantly between women who attained menopause and women who d id not attained menopause

  2. International cooperation on wind energy for rural areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the recent wind energy activities in China is given. China has a long history in harnessing the wind; modern development started during the late seventies. The Chinese wind potential is mainly in the coastal regions (North East and South East) and in Inner Mongolia. The actual total installed wind power is estimated to be 15 MW. For low lift (within 2 meters), high volume applications, e.g. salt making in salt pans along the coast, of mechanical windmills coupled to screw pumps have been developed. In Inner Mongolia, small portable wind generators (50-200 MW) charging car batteries are supplying some 100,000 farmer and herdsman families with electricity for television and lighting. The average energy consumption is between 200 and 300 kWh per year and the corresponding kWh price 0.40 to 0.50 US$. Since 1988 the demand for small wind generators declined due to the lower wool prices on the world market, affecting the income of the herdsman, and due to the fact that the machines have to be marketed in remote, less accesible rural areas. Various demonstration projects have been set up, f.e. a decentralized energy system on Dachen Island, including a wind diesel hybrid system. On Kongdon Island a 60 kW wind turbine and a 60 kW diesel generator were installed. With several foreign wind turbine manufacturers cooperations have been set up for licensed production in China. Also wind farms have been installed. The largest Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 meter diameter, 200 kW machine. Western organizations or manufacturers are involved in most of the cooperatives. For the next five years the focus is on development of a large 150 and 200 kW machine and a windmill coupled to a centrifugal pump for lifting heads between 2 and 5 meter. 1 fig., 3 refs

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and surrounding area, Fairborn, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over areas of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) and the immediate surrounding area, during the period July 7 through 20, 1994. The survey was conducted to measure and map the gamma radiation in the area. This mission was the first aerial radiation survey conducted at WPAFB. In the surveyed area, five small localized sources of gamma radiation were detected which were atypical of naturally-occurring radionuclides. On WPAFB property, these sources included a radiation storage facility in Area B (krypton-85) and an ash pile near the Area C flight line (low energy gamma activity). In the area covered outside WPAFB boundaries, sources included cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout over a landfill in a northern Dayton industrial area, an X-ray radiography source over a steel plant in the same industrial area, and a mixture of cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout and possibly iridium-192 in an area near Crystal Lakes, Ohio. The naturally-occurring gamma emitters (uranium-238 and progeny, thorium and progeny, and potassium-40) were detected in the remaining area with a total exposure rate range of 4 to 16 {mu}R/h; this range is typical of that found in the United States, 1 to 20 {mu}R/h.

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and surrounding area, Fairborn, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over areas of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) and the immediate surrounding area, during the period July 7 through 20, 1994. The survey was conducted to measure and map the gamma radiation in the area. This mission was the first aerial radiation survey conducted at WPAFB. In the surveyed area, five small localized sources of gamma radiation were detected which were atypical of naturally-occurring radionuclides. On WPAFB property, these sources included a radiation storage facility in Area B (krypton-85) and an ash pile near the Area C flight line (low energy gamma activity). In the area covered outside WPAFB boundaries, sources included cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout over a landfill in a northern Dayton industrial area, an X-ray radiography source over a steel plant in the same industrial area, and a mixture of cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout and possibly iridium-192 in an area near Crystal Lakes, Ohio. The naturally-occurring gamma emitters (uranium-238 and progeny, thorium and progeny, and potassium-40) were detected in the remaining area with a total exposure rate range of 4 to 16 ?R/h; this range is typical of that found in the United States, 1 to 20 ?R/h

  5. Rural settlement within the hinterland of conurbations

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Sarah.

    1985-01-01

    The post war years have seen a steady flow of inmigration into the rural hinterlands of conurbations, eminating both from the surrounding rural areas and from the urban complexes themselves. By 1981 over one fifth of Britain's population was resident in a rural district, the majority falling within zones close to urban centres. This study, based on one year's participant observation in seven settlements within southern Staffordshire, part of the rural hinterland of the We...

  6. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  7. The importance of social capital in rural development, networking and decision-making in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Wiesinger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural decline is frequently explained in economic terms by unfavourable conditions and by missing resources or support. But this link is not entirely clear and does not apply in all regions. Some particularly remote rural regions with a very sparse population, a lack of policy support, poor economic performance and unfavourable climatic conditions prove more viable than some regions with more plentiful economic resources and support. The presentation will discuss the issue whether the concept of social capital could lead to a better understanding of these patterns. The role of social capital will be demonstrated by means of a model connecting it with rural development, multifunctionality, local governance and environmental perception and national policies. The findings of several case studies within the EUROLAN project (Strengthening the Multifunctional Use of Land: Coping with marginalisation, suggest that social capital should be more recognized by policy makers as a key issue in the rural development process, hampering (when weak or supporting (when strong and well-rooted the implementation of rural development policies.La marginalisation rurale peut en grande partie s’expliquer par les conditions peu favorables et un manque de ressources, mais pas uniquement et pas dans toutes les régions. Certaines régions de faible densité, aux conditions économiques et climatiques peu favorables, et qui ne font pas l’objet de politiques locales d’envergure, s’avèrent plus viables que certaines régions bien plus aisées. Dans le présent article, nous nous demanderons si le capital social peut aider à combler ce fossé, et si tel est le cas, dans quelle mesure. Le rôle du capital social sera démontré en tant que vecteur d’un modèle le reliant avec le développement rural, la plurifonctionnalité, la gouvernance locale, la perception environnementale et les politiques nationales. Les résultats de certaines études de cas inclues dans le projet EUROLAN (Renforcement de l’usage multifonctionnel du Sol, prendre en charge la marginalisation laissent entendre que le capital social devrait être mieux pris en compte par les acteurs politiques comme une question clé dans le processus de développement rural, freinant (lorsqu’elles sont faibles ou encourageant (lorsqu’elles sont fortes et bien enracinées la mise en œuvre de politiques de développement rural.

  8. Availability of ground water in the area surrounding the Trident submarine construction facility, Kitsap County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Molenaar, Dee

    1976-01-01

    General information is presented on water resources--with emphasis on ground-water occurrence and availability--in that part of Kitsap County (referred to as Trident Impact Area) that would be most affected by the development of the Trident submarine construction facility at Bangor, Washington. The estimated 1970 water use in the study area averaged about 13 million gallons per day (mgd); of this amount about 9 mgd came from surface-water sources--from a large reservoir outside the study area--and about 4 mgd came from ground water pumped from two aquifers in the area. Anticipated water use soon will be about 18 to 21 mgd; virtually all the additional quantity required (about 5 to 8 mgd) above present use must come from ground-water sources. Preliminary evaluation of the aquifers suggests that an additional 1.5 mgd can be developed from the upper aquifer and 7 mgd from the lower aquifer. Existing wells tapping the lower aquifer might yield additional water and increase the total yield in the area by 3.5 mgd, and new wells drilled in selected areas could produce an additional 3.5 mgd from this aquifer. However, additional, large-scale ground-water withdrawal from the lower aquifer could induce saltwater intrusion into wells situated in coastal areas. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Survey of Microbial Quality of Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Kashan-Iran in Second Half of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heidari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is surveying microbial quality of drinking water in Kashan rural areas and determining the rural population that using safe water in terms of microbial quality in second-half of 2008. In this cross-sectional study, microbial quality of water in all rural areas was determined in 3 stages based on 3 parameters as Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC. The results of this study illustrates that 100.0, 47.71 and 92.99% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of Kashan Rural Water and Wastewater Company (KRWWC and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Fecal Coliforms and 98.4, 21.2 and 88.00% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of KRWWC rural areas and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Total Coliforms. There is also a meaningful difference in microbial quality between under coverage and non-under coverage rural areas. The results of this study express that the fecal contamination in under coverage rural areas is excellent, but there is a bad condition in non-under coverage areas. Generally, the microbial quality in all Kashan rural areas is approximately equal to national microbial criteria. Its been also illustrated that the role of KRWWC in supplying safe drinking water in terms of microbial quality for rural population is very important.

  10. Areas of rural reservation in Bolivar's South: a proposal of rural territorial reordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes by means of a methodological process and inside an analysis mark that picks up aspects tried from the perspective of agrarian economy and the human geography, the effects of the public politics of the rural reservations in Bolivar's south, as well as its advances and challenges in the territorial reorganization of the territory. In this context, the document evidences the process of the new territorial configurations, in Bolivar's south, result of a social construction exercised by its own rural communities. In a same way the document presents a brief analysis of the agrarian structure of the rural reservations, and it illustrates the new underlying classification, product of the territorial control that develop the illegal armed groups at the moment. The advances, difficulties and challenges of the rural reservations, are the central axis of the present text, since the figure is presents as an interesting project of public politics, not alone of colonization and of agrarian reformation, but of territorial rural ordination, stiller, when in the country it has not been possible to approve an organic law of territorial classification that involves in an integral way the territorial aspects with the agrarian ones, going outside of the conception of the agrarian things of the strictly agricultural thing

  11. Dyslipidemias and Related Factors in Brazilian Adolescents from Rural and Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Alves Silva; Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini; Juliana Faria de Novaes; Ricardo Henrique Silva Santos; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of dyslipidemias and related factors, in Brazilian adolescents from rural and urban areas. This is a cross-sectional study with 182 adolescents aged 10 to 13 years, students, residing in the rural and urban area of Brazil; grouped according to age, gender and socioeconomic class. Sexual maturation, physical activity, blood pressure, nutritional status and body composition were evaluated. Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and serum triglycerides were dosed...

  12. Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gandotra V.K; Gupta Satish; Kaur P

    1998-01-01

    Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasi...

  13. The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed J. F. Hosseini; Zahra Soltani

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questio...

  14. Challenges for Resuming Normal Life After Earthquake: A Qualitative Study on Rural Areas of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alipour, Fardin; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Fekrazad, Hussain; Kamali, Mohammad; Rafiey, Hassan; Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Rowell, Kevin; Ahmadi, Shokoufeh

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Growing evidence is indicating that some of disaster affected people face challenges to resume normal life several months after an earthquake. However, there is no sufficient in-depth understanding of complex process of resuming normal life after an earthquake in Iran, as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, and in rural areas as a particular setting. This study aimed to explore challenges of return to normalcy in rural earthquake-stricken areas...

  15. Changing European farming systems for a better future. New visions for rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Langeveld, J.W.A.; Röling, N.G.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in market organisation, climatic conditions and societal demands on food quality, animal welfare and environmental quality have created new conditions for farming families as well as for researchers and policy makers. New social, technical and economic solutions are needed for farming and rural areas. This book presents new perspectives for farms, farm products and rural areas, many of which were collectively developed by coalitions of farmers, farmer representatives, researchers, civ...

  16. General Population Survey In Rural Area To Generate Prevention Indicators For HIV/AIDS Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lal Sunder; Malik J.S; Vashisht B.M.Singh; Punia M.S.; Jain R.B

    1998-01-01

    Research question: What has been the impact of massive educational campaign of AIDS/HIV in general population in rural areas? Objectives :1.To ascertain the level of awareness of preventive practices relating to HIV/AIDS.2.To know the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour.3.To ascertain condom availability and accessibility. Study design: Cross-sectional. Participants: Men and women in age group 15-49 years. Sample size: 1737 individuals. Settings: Rural areas of Distt.Rohtak. Outcome variables...

  17. Menarchial Age of Secondary School Girls in Urban and Rural Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ikaraoha CI; Mbadiwe IC; Igwe CU; Allagua DO; Mezie O; Iwo GTO; Ofori PI

    2005-01-01

    The menarchial age of 859 secondary school girls consisting of 508 from urban and 351 from rural area of Rivers State, Nigeria were determined, using questionnaires and interview method. Data collation revealed that 69.2% (243) of the rural population were menstruating, while 70.1% (356) of the urban population were menstruating. Mean ages of menarche were 13.19±1.32 years and 14.22±1.47 years for urban and rural areas respectively .A statistically significant lower mean menarchial age was ob...

  18. STUDY REGARDING THE ROMANIAN RURAL TOURISM FINANCING AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae BALTE?; Alina-Teodora CIUHUREANU

    2009-01-01

    Rural tourism and agricultural tourism are activities, which generate alternative incomes, a fact that offers development possibilities to the rural space, due to the unique landscapes, large semi-natural areas, the inhabitants' born hospitality in the rural surroundings. From this perspective, a modernization, development and innovation process for the Romanian rural tourism is required. All these aspects, however, require financing. Therefore, a pre-accession financing source of the rural t...

  19. Side Activities of Non-Farmers in Rural Areas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Markantoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural areas, not only in The Netherlands but also elsewhere in Europe, has been observed a variety of employment opportunities for rural populations, following the decline in traditional agricultural employment. This contributes to the fact that the countryside is changing and rural areas can be viewed as new spaces of work. As a result, rural economy is no longer dominated by agricultural activities, but by activities such as small scale industrial production, service provision, landscape management, and residential use. To a certain extent these activities have the form of side-activities next to primary income sources. Most attention in both scientific literature and policies is focused on side-activities by farmers, such as agro-tourism and direct marketing. However, according to empirical data from The Netherlands, most side-activities are developed by non-farmers. In this paper the focus is on this last group. The amounts and types of non-farmers’ and farmers side-activities will be deployed, together with their motives to start new entrepreneurship endeavors and the impact on the local community. It will be argued that this type of activities will stimulate rural economic development offering new job opportunities for income generation to the rural inhabitants and create new economic spaces in rural geographical contexts transforming the rural economy.

  20. Aerial radiological survey of the areas surrounding the Big Rock Point nuclear plant, Big Rock Point, Michigan. September 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne radiological survey of a 1080 km2 area surrounding the Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant was made on 6 September 1975. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. The plant stack release plume was encountered; radionuclides found were typical of the fission products of such releases. Aerial average exposure rates equivalent to one meter above the ground are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Exposure rates measured with small portable instruments and soil sample analysis differed somewhat from the airborne data due to soil moisture differences between the time aerial and ground measurements were taken. Geological data are presented in an isopleth map of rock and soil types; a brief description of the vegetation and terrain surrounding the site is also attached

  1. Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carmisciano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

  2. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. Keywords: prevalence, perception, domestic violence, rural, urban 

  3. Regional water balance for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WIPP water-balance study area defined here comprises approx.2000 mi2 in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico. Inflows to the study area are precipitation (roughly 1.47 x 106 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.1 x 105 ac-ft/y), water imported by municipalities and industries (roughly 3 x 104 ac-ft/y), and ground water (volume not estimated). Outflows from the area are evapotranspiration (roughly 1.5 x 106 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.2 x 105 ac-ft/y), and possibly some ground water. The volume of surface and ground water in storage in Nash Draw has increased since the beginning of potash refining. Regional ground-water flow in aquifers above the Salado Formation is from the northeast to the southwest, although this pattern is interrupted by Clayton Basin, Nash Draw, and San Simon Swale. The Pecos River is the only important perennial stream. Most of the area has no integrated surface-water drainage. The available data suggest that approx.1600 mi2 of the study area are hydrologically separate from Nash Draw and the WIPP site. Ground water north of Highway 180 apparently discharges into Clayton Basin and evaporates. Water in San Simon Swale apparently percolates downward and flows to the southeast. Data are inadequate to create a water budget for the Nash Draw-WIPP site hydrologic system alone, although an attempt to do so can provide guidance for further study

  4. GEOLOGY OF GEZ?N (MADEN-ELAZI? AND SURROUNDING AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali KAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The studied area is located at the east of the Hazar Lake, approximately 30 kilometers at SE of Elaz?? city and covers an area of 95 km 2 . Magmatic, sedimentary and volcano-sedimentary units which are aged from Jurassic to Middle Eocene outcrops in the area. The Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous aged Guleman Ophiolite forms the base rocks. Maastrichtian-Early Eocene aged Hazar Group overlies with an unconformity on the ophiolitic rocks and consists of three formations. These are, from bottom to top the Ceffan formation which includes reddish conglomerates, the Simaki formation which has flysch character and the Gehroz formation which comprises limestone. Maden Complex is Middle Eocene in age and lies unconformably on the Guleman Ophiolites in the north of the investigation area Volcanosedimantary unit that is associated with basaltic-andesitic volcanics begin with conglomerates and sandstones on the base,and basses into mudstone-marl and limestone upward. The Guleman Ophiolite and the Hazar Group overthrusted onto the Middle Eocene aged Maden Complex after Middle Eocene from south to north. East Anatolian Fault which is a left lateral strike-slip fault crosses the investigation area and it forms a zone which has 5-6 km width. It includes some faults paralel to each other and aligned to NE-SW. It includes few main faults which are paralel to eacher other and have high dip-slip components with strikes to NE-SW (N 60° E.

  5. A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site and surrounding area. Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, T.J.

    1995-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site was conducted in December 1993. An interim report was issued. That report described survey procedures and presented terrestrial exposure rate and wide-area-averaged plutonium isopleth plots. This letter report presents additional plutonium plots and some ``rule-of-thumb`` calculations which should help the reader to properly interpret the data presented. Attached to this report are three isopleth plots produced from the Double Track data. No one processing method provides all the answers regarding a particular surveyed area. Where peak values are most important, isopleth {number_sign}1, created from the original unsmoothed data, is the presentation of choice. Isopleth {number_sign}2, from smoothed data, is superior for the detection of areas of widespread low-level contamination. Isopleth {number_sign}3, also smoothed data, satisfied a particular early mission goal but is not as useful for cleanup operations as the other two.

  7. Preparation of Potentially Site Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Java Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)

  8. Hepatitis C in rural areas of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis is recognized as significant public health problem worldwide. There are one hundred and seventy five million Hepatitis C virus carriers around the world. Global prevalence ranges from 0.1 to 5 % with an average of 3 %. There are very few studies done at national and international levels to find the prevalence of HCV in our population. It is a Picorna virus that may invade the body usually through, intra venous devices and contaminated instruments. It may remain silent for years or cause acute hepatitis to chronic liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma is well known complication. Most of the epidemiological studies have so far been carried out on the population with high socio-economic status attending tertiary care hospitals in the cities that have good sterilization techniques. Whereas rural dispensaries are the drainage zones for HCV due to unqualified and untrained technical staff and lack of sterilization procedures. We, therefore, selected some villages (Chirah, Tumair, Thanda pani and Alipur) around Islamabad to assess the prevalence of HCV and tried to compare different epidemiological factors with urban areas in this randomized cross-sectional study conducted from May to August 2009. Two hundred asymptomatic volunteers were randomly selected from patients attending local dispensaries in this study zone. The subjects were given a detailed questionnaire to study and fill accordingly. Details of study were explained to them. Patients included in the study were between 20-50 years of age, having gastrointestinal symptoms. Excluded subjects were pregnant women, patients on ant-viral therapy and known cases of HCV. 5 cc blood samples were taken and transported in ice containers to PINSTECH Complex Hospital laboratory within two hours for chromatographic analysis. We observed that 16.5% of the individuals were infected with HCV. Invasive procedures like D and C by dais and ear piercing were the major transmitting factors in females, whereas I/V devices, dental treatments and barber cutting in males was the dominant risk factors. The use of non disposable glass syringes for injection was also an important mode of transmission. (author)

  9. Peer Influence and Drug Use among Adolescents in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, B. E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Sampled 1,004 eighth and tenth graders in 23 rural communities to examine peer influence and drug use. Students who perceived higher degree of drug use among friends and who received more information about drugs from friends used drugs more frequently. Findings support theory that peer pressure is related to drug abuse. (Author/NB)

  10. ENTERTAINMENT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS – PART OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisie Marian TURCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to highlight the niche forms of tourism (active tourism and ecotourism, showing similarities and differences between them. However it argues the need to introduce the occupation of rural tourism entertainer, showing the main tasks incumbent upon it to organize leisure tourists. The research was conducted by studying the latest articles in the field and by consulting specific websites.

  11. Chapter 3 - Understanding the diversity of European rural areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Slee, B.; PInto-Correia, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on understanding farming transition pathways towards sustainability, using case studies from Europe. It assesses the utility of the multi-level perspective in transition theory for addressing contemporary issues and identifies future research needs, making it an essential read for researchers of rural or agricultural change.

  12. Emission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from pig fattening farms to surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Salviati, Christina; Laube, Henriette; Guerra, Beatriz; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

    2015-01-30

    The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock such as pigs has been known for some time. However, to date there is little information about the transmission of these resistant bacteria between pig farms and their surroundings. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore this topic by investigating seven German pig fattening farms. Samples from outside (including ground surfaces, ambient air, slurry and digestate from biogas plants) and, in parallel, from inside the pig barns (including pig feces, dust, barn air, flies and mice feces) were examined for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli and selected isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. 14/17 (82.4%) slurry samples and three of four samples of digestate from biogas plants tested positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. In the vicinity of the pig barns these resistant bacteria were detected in 14/87 (16.1%) boot swabs taken from various ground surfaces and in 2/36 (6%) ambient air samples. Inside the pig barns, 6/63 (9.5%) barn air samples and a small proportion of flies and mice feces samples were ESBL/AmpC-positive. PFGE analysis proved fecal emission as well as a possible spread via flies, as identical ESBL-E. coli isolates were detected in slurry and on fertilized fields, as well as in flies and pooled feces from inside the barn and slurry. Contaminated slurry presented the major emission source for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the pig fattening farms, but a spread via the airborne route or via different vectors also seems possible. PMID:25465658

  13. Research on Rural Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Process of Urban-Rural Integration in the Economically-Developed Area in China Based on the Improved STIRPAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Dai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of urban-rural integration has led to severe ecological environmental pollution in rural areas of China, particularly in the economically-developed areas. This is an urgent issue to be solved. We select Jiangsu Province as a case study. From the perspective of the population, economic scale, energy consumption and financial support, we perform an empirical study of rural non-point source pollution problems in the process of urbanization based on the improved STIRPAT model. We apply the ridge regression method to avoid the multicollinearity of the variables in the STIRPAT model. The results show that the technological level, the size of the population and financial support are important factors affecting rural non-point source pollution. Therefore, we believe that technical progress, transformation of the mode of production and increasing the scale of financial support in rural areas are effective measures to solve the current rural nonpoint source pollution.

  14. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station was conducted during September 18 to 21, 1998, and encompassed a 53.1-square-kilometer area. The survey was conducted by the U. S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The purpose of the survey was to measure and map the general exposure-rate levels that existed within the survey area and to define the areas of man-made radionuclide activity. The inferred exposure rates were generally uniform and typical of the natural background radiation, which varied from less than 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour. Enhanced exposure rates, not attributable to natural background, and activity from man-made radionuclides were detected over the power station. The detected man-made radionuclide activity was due to the presence of cobalt-60, which is a nuclear activation product, and cesium-137, which is a long-lived fission product. The detected man-made radionuclides were generally consistent with those expected from routine plant operations. Areas outside of the power station boundaries were found to be free of any detectable man-made radionuclides. A series of ground-based, pressurized ionization chamber exposure-rate measurements were acquired at four locations within the survey boundaries. The results of these measurements were compared and found to be within 5 to 30 percent of the corresponding 1998 inferred aerial exposure-rate data

  15. Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

  16. Agriculture Environment Influence on Urban and Rural Areas Teachers Balanced Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available External agricultural environment is playing an important role in the balanced development of urban and rural teachers, including comprehensive effects of multiple factors, such agricultural environment, agricultural policy, agricultural system, etc. We have conducted a random questionnaire survey on urban and rural compulsory teachers in Chongqing City, issued 2400 questionnaires and received 1700 effective questionnaires. We employed SPSS statistical software to analyze the influence of external agricultural environment on dualized social security system, training system, personnel system reform and management system, etc, investigate the cause of an unbalanced allocation of urban and rural teachers from the perspective of external agricultural environment. Establish dualized social security system form the external agricultural environment, in order to solve the problem of the balanced development of urban and rural teachers and guarantee a balanced development of school education in urban and rural areas.

  17. Biological studies in the sea area surrounding the Loviisa nuclear power plant in the year 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of rise in water temperature caused by the plant's cooling water were made in a large area of Haestholmsfjaerden. The mean temperatures during the growth period and summer months were on average of the same magnitude as those in the 1970s, except very close to the outlet, where the mean temperatures were clearly increased by the cooling water. The salinity of the water increased to exceptionally high values in September in the whole study area. Salinities even exceeding 0.6% were measured in the surface water of Haestholmsfjaerden. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were clearly above the level found earlier in the area, but the increase in the nutrient level was similar at all stations (including the reference station at Pernajanlahti). The amount of oxygen in the bottom water of the deep part of Haestholmsfjaerden in late summer was lower than in previous years (1.2 ml/l, 14% of the saturation level). The phytoplankton biomass spring maximum was greater at all stations than in 1974-76. Differences in species composition were small compared with earlier years. The amounts of chlorophyll a during the spring maximum were higher in 1977 than in 1975-76. The level of phytoplankton primary production in the whole study area was lower in 1977 than in the 1970s on average. The annual production at station nearest the outlet, was about 10% greater than at station situated in the middle of Haestholmsfjaerden, owing to higher production in the middle of summer. No important differences in 'in vitro' primary production were observed between sampling places near the water intake and the outlet and the values were of the same magnitude as in 1976. (T.V.)

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa. Date of survey: July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of {+-}15%.

  19. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  20. Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095?Sv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

  1. Methodology of seismotectonic zoning in an intraplate low seismicity domain. Examples of France surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until now, the dominant factor in seismic hazard assessments has been historical seismicity. This approach is justified if the data derived from historical seismicity in a region are representative of its seismic activity and if we consider that in areas where damaging earthquakes have happened, they may happen again. This can be seen when seismotectonic relationships are well established in areas such as well localised plate boundaries (subduction zones, transform faults) and/or with a high rate of deformation. In these cases, the areas where future earthquakes might occur are usually well determined and the recurrences short enough on the time scale of historical observations. However, in areas where recent tectonic deformations are diffused and moderate, the historical period of seismicity data (a few centuries) is not long enough to observe a sample of historical seismicity representative of the present-day tectonic activity of the area. The studies on the most recent damaging earthquakes (El Asnam 1980, Spitak 1988, Cherchell Tipasa 1989) show that it would have been extremely difficult to predict the magnitude and the localisation of these events considering historical seismicity alone. It is the same in Provence (south of France) where the risk of occurrence of a damaging earthquake would have been underestimated before the June 1909 event. In all these cases, seismotectonic studies 'a posteriori' show that the geometry and kinematic of the faults responsible for these earthquakes can be identified and that all of them have presented seismic activity in the last thousand years. So it is necessary to emphasis a global approach of the problem through specific studies such as neotectonics, teledetection, geodesy, present-day stress field, strain field, paleoseismology etc. These studies will enlarge the period of observation compared with the data derived only from historical and present-day seismicity. In France seismicity is moderate and recent tectonic deformations are slight in comparison to neighbouring countries (Italy, Greece, Turkey). Only a few important earthquakes have been studied and the relationship between quakes and faults are still unknown. So it seems necessary to 'regionalise' the seismic hazard and to introduce concepts like 'seismotectonic domains' more than 'active faults'

  2. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas : Creative People and Social Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire, utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited.

  3. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ykateryna D. Duka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

  4. A Development of the dust deposition in the area surrounding the SMZ, a.s., Jel?ava plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanèu¾ák Jozef

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The area of Jel?ava ? Lubeník ranks among the eight excessively polluted areas registered in Slovakia. The main cause of this situation is a hundred years of existence of the exploitation and processing of magnesite. The SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava is currently the biggest Slovak producer of brick and steel magnesite-based clinkers. The technological procedures used to process the raw material represent the main source of solid polluting substances as well as the primary dustiness in the area surrounding the plant. The negative visual look of the surrounding country has its origin in the past, when a 25-times higher quantity of the currently produced solid emissions was released into the air in some years, while the current value of the pollution does not exceed 200 tons per year. The devastated, deforested and degrassed surfaces of the area surrounding the plant and roads became a significant source of secondary dustiness in the given area.Since 1994 ÚGt SAV Ko?ice in co-operation with SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava has been focusing on the monitoring of solid emissions in the form of dust deposition. 18 sampling points situated in the vicinity of the plant, mainly in surrounding villages and city Jel?ava were originally built for the purpose of sampling the dust deposition. The samples were taken monthly , analysed by the gravimetric method and the samples of dust deposition was determined in g.m-2.(30 days-1. To analyse all samples, they were cumulated for a certain period and then the selected elements were analysed using the AAS method. The results of the dust deposition were averaged for each individual year of the period from 1996 to 1999 to make a better interpretation of the results. The results of the chemical analysis represent an average for a given period. The main component of the dust deposition, i.e. MgO is stated as an average value in individual years.The processed results from 1996 to 1999 show a decreasing trend in the total dust deposition in all localities, except for 1999, when a slight increase was observed in some localities. This increase observed in the most exposed sampling points in the vicinity of the main primary sources did not achieve the value recorded in 1996. In addition to the localities in the vicinity of the plant, the highest hygienic admissible dust deposition [12.5 g.m-2.(30 days-1] was sporadically exceeded on the places located in the populated zone of Jel?ava, especially during summer dry seasons. The decrease observed in 1999 in the case of the most exposed places in the vicinity of the plant can be caused by an increase in the secondary dust deposition in the given area. The average yearly dust deposition in Jel?ava, representing ca. 10 g.m-2.(30 days-1 was 2-3 times lower than the stated values of the dust deposition measured in the 80-ties. The MgO deposition follows the development in the total dust deposition. The average content of heavy metals in the dust deposition is relatively small and it increases proportionally with the distance from the main source confirming that SMZ, a.s. is not a big producer of these elements, the content of which has a decreasing trend probably due to a change in the fuel used in the plant. In spite of an increasing production, the plant implements measures to reduce a negative influence of the dust pollution on the surrounding area.

  5. Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

  6. Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Pedrini; Claudio Prigioni; Gilberto Volcan

    1995-01-01

    Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 19...

  7. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar: Herbert Hoover Dike Project Area (Southeastern Florida, Lake Okeechobee Surrounding Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was collected by Merrick & Company from September through December of 2007 for the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM). The project area...

  8. Factors Associated with Recidivism among Corrections-Based Treatment Participants in Rural and Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; Harp, Kathi L H; Winston, Erin; Webster, J Matthew; Pangburn, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of corrections-based treatment outcome studies focus on individuals paroling to urban areas; thus there is a significant gap in the literature on outcomes, including recidivism, among individuals paroling to non-urban and rural communities. This study examines differences in factors associated with recidivism among former corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural communities following release. Analyses focused on secondary data collected from treatment participants in one southeastern state over a four year period between July 2006 and June 2010 including both baseline (treatment intake) and follow-up data (12-months post-release). Findings indicated that individuals in urban areas were 2.4 times more likely to recidivate than rural individuals. Other factors identified in separate rural and urban analyses also emerged as significant predictors in the overall model including age, gender, race, employment and drug use. Overall, these findings suggest that corrections-based treatment participants living in urban and rural areas following release may share similar risk factors for recidivism. However, rural areas may be protective for returning to custody despite the presence of some of these risks. PMID:25858761

  9. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF RURAL AREAS IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICATION OF LEADER PROGRAM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural development policy is an important component of the Common Agricultural Policy. LEADER is an innovative approach to rural development policy in the European Union to improve the quality of life in rural areas. LEADER is a very effective way to support "smart" and to increase "sustainable" and "inclusive" rural areas, encouraging rural territories to explore new ways to become competitive, to capitalize at maximum their assets and overcome difficulties encountered, encouraging the socio-economic factors to collaborate in order to produce quality goods and services in their local area

  10. An exploration of revitalization strategies for rural areas : the case of the Northern Free State / Daniel Francois Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Daniel Francois

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas, globally, are characterized as poor regions, with two-thirds of the world’s poor people residing in rural areas. In South Africa, 70 percent of the poor population or 3.6 million households, live in rural areas. In the last three State of the Nation Addresses (SONA) in South Africa by President Zuma since 2011, rural development has been placed high on government’s developmental agenda. The formulation of a comprehensive rural development policy, with coordinated implementation b...

  11. MASS VACCINTION IN RURAL AREA OF IRAN: A SEROEVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nasseri

    1983-08-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to convert mass vaccination practices to the Extended Programme on Immunization, a sero-evaluation study was carried out in rural Iran in 1976. A total of 22 246 rural children of 2-12 years of age were sampled. Blood samples taken on filter paper were tested by indirect hemagglutination technique to determine the level of circulating antibodies against tetanus toxoid. Tetanus was selected as an index not only because natural antibody against it is practically non existent, but also because protective levels of this antibody can reveal vaccination status of the individuals. Results show that except for few districts where complete protection reaches over 70%, the immunization status is not commendable. Moreover, no specific pattern for immunization could be detected. These and other results are discussed.

  12. Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pedrini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 1970 respectively, were not checked. From the analysis of 201 records (sightings, signs of presence, animals found dead and skins, we found that the badger, weasel and stone marten selected middle-low altitude (since 1000 m a.s.l., the pine marten and stoat the middle-high altitude. The former species frequented mainly agricultural lands of bottom of the valley with built-up areas, the latter ones occurred mainly in forest habitat of secluded valleys (the pine marten, and in stony ground and alpine prairies (the stoat. The badger was the most diffuse species, the pine marten the least one. On a total of 46 grids of the study area, 32.6% presented three mustelid species, 17.4% five species. The badger and the stone marten were the species with the greatest overlapping range (61.7% of the grids, the weasel and the stoat with the smallest one (23.4% of the grids. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mustelidi nel Parco Adamello-Brenta e aree limitrofe (Trentino, Alpi centrali - L'indagine, condotta nel 1991-93, ha interessato un'area di 1085 km² e ha permesso di definire le mappe di distribuzione, secondo una griglia di 6,4x5,5 km desunta dalla Carta Topografica generale (scala 1:10000 edita dalla Provincia Autonoma di Trento, di cinque specie: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina e Martes martes. La presenza di Mustela putorius e di Lutra lutra, accertata fino intorno agli anni '60 e '70 rispettivamente, non è stata invece confermata. Dall'analisi di 201 segnalazioni (osservazioni dirette, segni di presenza, animali trovati morti o imbalsamati è stato rilevato che le fasce altitudinali medio-basse (fino a 1000 m sono selezionate da tasso, donnola e faina che frequentano soprattutto ambienti coltivati di fondovalle con presenza di centri abitati, quelle medio-alte da martora e ermellino che utilizzano rispettivamente comprensori forestali delle vallate interne e ambienti con presenza di versanti detritici, praterie alpine e malghe. La specie più diffusa è risultata il tasso, quella meno diffusa la martora. Il 32,6% delle 46 griglie, in cui è stata suddivisa l'area di studio, mostra la presenza di 3 specie, il 17,4% di 5 specie. I1 tasso e la faina sono risultate le specie con maggior sovrapposizione di areale di distribuzione (61,7% delle griglie, la donnola e l'ermellino quelle con minor sovrapposizione (23,4% delle griglie.

  13. Financing and disseminating small energy systems in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of small energy systems, primarily photovoltaic systems, is discussed as an alternative for rural electrification via traditional grid extension. A dissemination model that incorporates financing to allow access to a much larger population of users and technology support (e.g. training for sales and service and small business development) is described. The experience of two successful programs is presented to illustrate the keys to effective program development and implementation. (author)

  14. Semi-arid savanna of the Potlake Nature Reserve and surrounding areas in Sekhukhuneland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Siebert

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical classification, description, and ecological and floristic interpretations are presented on the vegetation types of the semi-arid northern savanna of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism. Relevés were compiled in 47 stratified random plots. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed eight plant communities, classified as four associations, one of which is subdivided into five sub-associations. For each plant community, the floristic richness, endemism and conservation status was determined. Much of the plant community distribution can be ascribed to environmental factors and anthropogenic disturbance. An ordination (DECORANA, based on floristic data, showed environmental gradients that possibly exist between plant communities and associated habitats. The floristic information, proposed classification, general description and vegetation key, can be used for the identification and monitoring of protected areas, land-use planning, and further conservation research.

  15. The devil is in the detail: Prevention of diabetic foot ulceration in rural area is possible

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Mou Lee; Chang-Cheng Chang; Chien-Ming Chen; Li-Ju Lai; Chyong-Fang Chang; Mei-Yen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Foot self-care capability is an important factor in diabetic foot ulceration, especially in disadvantaged rural areas. Aim: To explore the causes of foot ulceration and practice foot self-care behaviors before and after diabetic foot ulceration. Method: A descriptive, retrospective design was conducted in a rural hospital in southern Taiwan. Results: A total of 49 participants with diabetic foot ulcers participated in this study. More than half were male (63.3%), still working in...

  16. Land Policy and Systematic Transformation in Chinese Rural Areas?1950—1978?

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Rong; Hua-ke GAO; CUI, JIE

    2009-01-01


    Based on historical review of the Chinese rural land policy from 1950 to 1978, we looked back the devious journey undergone in Chinese rural areas during this period. At first, the landlord’s ownership was transferred into the peasant’s ownership; and then private ownership was transferred into public ownership. The radical transformation of property right and process of agricultural cooperation went against the economic law and the wills of the mass peasants, ...

  17. Management of Covariant Risk in Rural Areas of Developing Economies: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    VIGANO', LAURA; BONOMO, LUCIANO

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the possibilities to increase the satisfaction of the demand for financial services in rural areas through market based financial products allowing farmers to protect against major sources of risk. The focus is on developing economies, where farm specific and covariant risks, such as natural and weather risks and agricultural commodity price volatility, are seriously hitting the rural population and few instruments are currently available to support farmers’ prot...

  18. High maternal mortality estimated by the sisterhood method in a rural area of Mali

    OpenAIRE

    Haugsjå Anita H; Grove Mari A; Aa Ingvill; Hinderaker Sven G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal mortality is high in Mali. Nevertheless, there are few studies on this topic from rural areas, and current estimates are mostly based on studies from urban settings. Our objective was to estimate the maternal mortality ratio in Kita, rural Mali. Methods Using the "sisterhood method", we interviewed participants aged 15-50 years from 20 villages in Kita, Mali, and thereby created a retrospective cohort of their sisters in reproductive age. Based on population and f...

  19. PROFILE OF CERVICAL SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN WOMEN ATTENDING HEALTH CENTER IN RURAL AREA OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA

    OpenAIRE

    Vaishali D Phalke; Phalke, Deepak B.; Deshpande, Jayant D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer caused by infection with a sexually transmitted agent human papillomavirus (HPV), can be readily prevented by identifying and treating women with HPV-induced precancerous lesions of the cervix.Objective: To study the profile of cervical smear cytology in rural women in western Maharashtra.Methods: The study was designed to look at the previous reports of the Pap smear present at the health center Pravaranagar in rural area of Western Maharashtra. The reports of 186...

  20. Resource-based Economic Growth on Poverty Reduction Role-in Rural Areas of Shanxi

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan-ju Cui; Jian-ping Ge

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the income of rural residents per capita income grouping and panel data of 2001-2010 from "Shanxi Statistical Yearbook". The study uses the World Bank's software Povcal and the purchasing power of $ 1.25 per person per day as the poverty line to measure the index of the extent of poverty in rural areas in Shanxi Province. It was found that the poverty rate decreases exponentially significant effect, but the poverty gap index decreased to a l...

  1. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DORNA BASIN, BY PROMOTING TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Lucian VINTIL?; Mioara BOC?NICI

    2013-01-01

    Any strategy of diversification of non-agricultural economic activities and development of micro-enterprises in rural areas, aims to increase farms’ side incomes from non-agricultural activities, to create new job opportunities, new services for local people, to promote entrepreneurship and development of rural tourism. Sustainable developmentby promoting tourism should have as objective, besides recovery and sustainable promotion of cultural heritage the natural resources with tourism potent...

  2. Robust, multifunctional flood protection zones in the Dutch Rural Riverine area

    OpenAIRE

    van Loon-Steensma, J.M.; Vellinga, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible functions of robust dikes in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands. It furthermore reviews and analyses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with robust, multifunctional flood defense zones in rural riverine zones. The study focused on recent plans and ideas for innovative dike reinforcement at five locations in the Netherlands, supplemented with information obtained in semi-structured interviews with experts a...

  3. Prevalence of Food Insecurity among Women in Rural Area of North West Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Azizur Rahman; Rezaul Karim

    2013-01-01

    Food insecurity is a public health concern among rural poor in Bangladesh. Food insecurity is the insufficiency of good quality foods, reduced access to foods and inadequate intake of foods to meet ones physiological demands. Food insecurity is inversely associated with health and nutritional status of rural women of Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted using an interview-based pre tested questionnaire. Data were collected from 500 women in low-income areas of Nageswari and Ph...

  4. Quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroševi? Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The number of elderly people in the world is growing, in Serbia as well. Serbia is already among the top ten countries with the oldest population, it is the fact. Aging influences the quality of life in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia. Methods. The study included 100 elderly people aged 65 years and above in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The next questionnaires were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire and a Serbian version of standardized European Euro-QoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L, as a basic index for the assessment and description of the quality of life. Results. In the structure of the respondents, according to the achieved social contacts (p = 0.012, the life of those with family members (p = 0.009, and health status (p = 0.000, in relation to the place of residence there was a statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference (p = 0.040, predominantly poor score for anxiety/depression within the rural population. The average value of quality of life in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.720. For those living in rural areas there was a statistically significant positive correlation between anxiety/depression and age, wealth status, marital status, living with family members and achieving social contacts, while a negative correlation was observed between anxiety/depression and education. Conclusion. On the basis of the data of our study, we can say that the presence of anxiety/depression among older people is greater in rural than in urban areas. The results of this study show that the perception of anxiety/depression among older in rural areas is bigger with the age and poverty increasing, the loss of a spouse, life without family members, lack of achievement of social contacts and lower education.

  5. The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindriany Syafila

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

  6. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps

  7. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

  8. Thermal maturation in the Ellef Ringnes Island and surrounding area, Sverdrup Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentzis, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, Alberta (Canada); Goodarzi, F. [National Resources Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

    1998-12-01

    Determining thermal maturity studies in the Ellef Ringnes Island area was complicated by numerous factors, such as the presence of cavings, bitumen staining, and igneous intrusions. Cavings are a problem in certain intervals in Hoodoo H-37, Dome Bay P-36, and Helicopter J-12. Bitumen staining resulting in suppression of reflectance has occurred in the lower part of the Jameson Bay shales in Elve M-40. Thick sills resulted in increase of Ro to 4.0%, whereas thin sills had a minimal impact on reflectance increase. Other features observed include overpressuring caused by hydrocarbon generation in the Schei Point source rocks as well as in the Jameson and Ringnes Shales, and a kinky Ro profile caused by the presence of low-permeability gas-bearing reservoirs in the Heiberg sandstones in Jackson Bay G-16A. The presence of sapropelic coals with HI up to 329 mg HC/gTOC in Heiberg sandstones in Elve M-40 containing Botryococcus algae should also be noted.

  9. Measurements and statistical analyses of indoor radon concentrations in Tokyo and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the UNSCEAR report published in 1982, radiation exposure to the respiratory tract due to radon and its progeny has been regarded as the single largest contributor to the natural radiation exposure of the general public. In Japan, the measurement of radon gas concentrations in many types of buildings have been surveyed by national and private institutes. We also carried out the measurement of radon gas concentrations in different types of residential buildings in Tokyo and its adjoining prefectures from October 1988 to September 1991, to evaluate the potential radiation risk of the people living there. One or two simplified passive radon monitors were set up in each of the 34 residential buildings located in the above-mentioned area for an exposure period of 3 months each. Comparing the average concentrations in the buildings of different materials and structures, those in the concrete steel buildings were always higher than those in the wooden and the prefabricated mortared buildings. The radon concentrations were proved to become higher in autumn and winter, and lower in spring and summer. Radon concentrations in an underground room of a concrete steel building showed the highest value throughout our investigation, and statistically significant seasonal variation was detected by the X-11 method developed by the U.S. Bureau of Census. The values measured in a room at the first floor of the same concrete steel building also showed seasonal variation, but the phase of variation was different. Another multivariate analysis suggested that the building material and structure are the most important factors concerning the levels of radon concentration among other factors such as the age of the building and the use of ventilators. (author)

  10. Construcción de tipologías para el turismo en áreas rurales / Development of Categories for Tourism in Rural Areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Carlos, Leonardi Bricalli.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años han surgido en Brasil diversos emprendimientos en áreas rurales como contraoferta del turismo tradicional basado en el modelo sol y playa. Este nuevo tipo de turismo ha recibido diversas denominaciones en función de las distintas realidades de cada región geográfica en la cu [...] al se ubican y de los productos ofrecidos. Intentando profundizar el conocimiento de las tipologías, se consideró oportuno comprender mejor esta temática a partir de un caso concreto. Abstract in english Over the last few years a number of initiatives in Brazil have been developed in rural areas as a counterweight to traditional tourism based on the sun and beach paradigm. This new form of tourism has been variously designated, reflecting the different realities of distinct geographical locations an [...] d the products on offer. In an effort to achieve a more thorough understanding of categories, this subject is presented as a case study.

  11. Comparison of Bone Mineral Density between Urban and Rural Areas: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Mika; Pant, Rashmi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies from high income countries (HIC) have generally shown higher osteoporotic fracture rates in urban areas than rural areas. Low bone mineral density (BMD) increases susceptibility to fractures. This review aimed to assess whether urbanicity is consistently associated with lower BMD globally. Method Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Global Health (-April 2013) were searched for articles investigating differences in bone mineral content (BMC) or BMD between urban and rural areas. Ratio of means (RoM) of BMD were used to estimate effect sizes in meta-analysis, with an exception for one study that only presented BMC data. Results Fifteen articles from eleven distinct populations were included in the review; seven populations from four high income countries and four from three low and middle income countries (LMIC). Meta-analysis showed conflicting evidence for urban-rural difference in BMD; studies from high income countries generally showed higher BMD in rural areas while the results were more mixed in studies from low and middle income countries (HIC RoM = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.06; LMIC RoM = -0.04: 95% CI: -0.1 to 0.01). Conclusions Urban-rural differences of bone mineral density may be context-specific. BMD may be higher in urban areas in some lower income countries. More studies with robust designs and analytical techniques are needed to understand mechanisms underlying the effects of urbanization on bone mass accrual and loss. PMID:26162093

  12. Determining rural areas vulnerable to illegal dumping using GIS techniques. Case study: Neam? county, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constantin; Ursu, Adrian; Ichim, Pavel; Chelaru, Dan-Adrian

    2013-01-01

    "The paper aims to mapping the potential vulnerable areas to illegal dumping of household waste from rural areas in the extra-Carpathian region of Neam? County. These areas are ordinary in the proximity of built-up areas and buffers areas of 1km were delimited for every locality. Based on various map layers in vector formats (land use, rivers, buil-up areas, roads etc) an assessment method is performed to highlight the potential areas vulnerable to illegal dumping inside these buffer areas at...

  13. Economics of shaft power application in rural areas of Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijal, K.; Bansal, N.K.; Grover, P.D. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies

    1995-06-01

    The authors examine the economic and financial viability of low capacity (5-20 hp) shaft power application technologies utilizing various energy sources in three villages of Nepal, each from different physiographic zone. In general, the economic and financial supply price of shaft power is sensitive to changes in variables such as capital cost, annual operating hours, diesel price, labour cost and discount rate. However, the degree of sensitivity of each variable to the supply price of shaft power delivered from different technologies varies significantly, thereby changing the relative attractiveness of technologies based on the assumed conditions. Site specific analysis of each technology is therefore imperative for rural energy planning. (author)

  14. Business Incubators Give New Firms in Rural Areas a Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Mark L.

    1987-01-01

    Business incubators can help fledgling firms get off the ground by providing business services and rental space, at below-market costs, for a business's first few years. The payoff for the community is more jobs. Concentrated until recently in urban areas, incubators are now succeeding in rural areas too. (JHZ)

  15. Imaging the crustal and lithospheric structures beneath the Alboran Domain and its surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Süleyman; Kind, Rainer; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of the crustal and lithospheric structures plays an important role in understanding the geodynamic evolution of the Earth's interiors within the framework of plate tectonics. The receiver function method is used to resolve the seismic discontinuity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath a recording station and to infer possible geodynamic processes within the Earth. The methodology is developed based on the conversion of elastic body waves (P and S) at an interface which represents a boundary between different elastic properties. In this study, we analyze the P- and S-wave receiver functions in order to investigate seismic deep structures beneath the Alboran Domain which is still in debate despite a large amount of research effort conducted along the region of interest. The Alboran Domain is located at the western end of the Mediterranean and Betic-Rif orogenic system. The study area is on the edge of a prominent plate boundary, which is dominated by the tectonic interaction between the Africa and Iberian plates. Thus, it represents a complex tectonic process consisting of composite compressional and extensional regimes. The teleseismic recordings are extracted from the database of IRIS and GEOFON data centers according to the earthquake catalog obtained from U.S. Geological Survey. We analyzed totally 4976 P- and 12673 S- receiver functions.To achieve the sufficient energy in waveforms, we analyze events greater than M5.7, located at epicentral distance ranging from 35° to 90°, from 60° to 85° and from 85° to 120° for P-, S- and SKS phases, respectively. The data quality is manually checked to restrict the event database to the clear P-, S and SKS- onsets. The seismograms are rotated into P-, SH- and SV components of local ray coordinate system in order to get the highest energy of converted phases. We perform a time-domain deconvolution approach to derive the receiver functions in order to eliminate the source and path effects. Move-out correction is applied prior to stacking the individual traces in order to compare and then to better identify the coherent phases. We alternatively use piercing-point approach for stacking process subdividing the region into the grids with a size of 1°x1° and stack the individual traces based on their corresponding grids (piercing-points). The S-receiver function is used to avoid complications due to the crustal-reverberations and thus to better resolve the variation of lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). The variation of crustal thickness derived from P-wave receiver functions is well-correlated with the pattern obtained from S-wave receiver functions.The results suggest that the thickness of the crust as well as the depth of LAB systematically decreases towards the east. The greatest crustal thickness is observed along the Betic and Rift mountains. The relatively shallow Moho as well as the shallow LAB beneath the Alboran Sea are consistent with the extensional nature of the boundary between Iberian and African plates.

  16. Strategies for solid waste prevention in rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahab, M.F.; Woldt, W.E. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    This paper examines pollution prevention and waste minimization alternatives and strategies available to rural communities, with a specific focus on commercial waste generation. The paper is based on two primary efforts. The first uses results of a voluntary waste prevention and minimization assessment program whereby rural businesses underwent a series of waste stream assessments. The second is associated with transfer of information and technology to target audiences using the Cooperative Extension system. To achieve significant waste stream reductions, focused and site-specific approaches are needed to insure that businesses realize true multimedia pollution prevention gains and associated cost savings. The approaches must be tailored to suit the needs of facilities, with emphasis on systematic approaches to establishing prevention programs. While prevention programs are preferred, minimization practices such as source separation, efficient recyclable collection, and procurement of recycled materials are needed. Pollution prevention and waste minimization education requires a well-developed delivery system. Cooperative Extension has the capacity to deliver focused, highly specialized educational programs on pollution prevention and waste minimization.

  17. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

  18. Solar lighting system delivery models for rural areas in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ortiz, Brisa [Freiburg Univ. (DE). Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Modi, Anish [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Kafle, Nashib [Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2011-07-01

    Many rural areas in developing countries will not have electricity access from the central grid for several years to come. Autonomous Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) are attractive and enviromentally friendly options for replacing kerosene lamps and providing basic lighting services to such areas. In order to highlight the benefits of these technologies, analysis of reduction in indoor air pollution due to replacement of kerosene lamp by SLS has been carried out. Use of SLS in place of kerosene lamps saves an equivalent of 1341 kg CO{sub 2} emissions per annum from each household. If a suitable mechanism is created, this amount of GHG emissions saving could alone be sufficient to finance solar lighting system for rural households. However, these technologies have not reached most of the poor population. In order to guarantee the access of solar lighting to the people at the Base of the Pyramid (BOP), strengths of different organizations working in the rural areas should be combined together to form successful business models. This paper will discuss business models to disseminate such services to needy people. A comparative study of SLS delivery models based on cash, credit, leasing, subsidy and service is performed. In addition, SWOT analysis for each model is employed. Further, Case studies of few projects to elaborate different models are also presented. If suitable business models for its delivery to rural people are considered, solar lighting systems are viable for providing basic lighting needs of rural areas in developing countries. (orig.)

  19. Land Policy and Systematic Transformation in Chinese Rural Areas ?1950—1978?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong TAN

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on historical review of the Chinese rural land policy from 1950 to 1978, we looked back the devious journey undergone in Chinese rural areas during this period. At first, the landlord’s ownership was transferred into the peasant’s ownership; and then private ownership was transferred into public ownership. The radical transformation of property right and process of agricultural cooperation went against the economic law and the wills of the mass peasants, which led to laggard rural productive forces and long-term low peasants’ income level. During the policy transformation process, political and ideological factors played the predominant role, which led to harmful results. The experiences in this period demonstrated that the economic developmental model and systematic arrangement in Chinese rural areas should satisfy the peasants’ free wills and protect the peasants’ essential interests. Only in this way could the Chinese rural economy gain fast development. Key Words: Chinese Rural Areas, Land Policy, System Arrangement, Ideology, Interests. Abstrait: Basés sur une révision historique de la politique de terre dans les régions rurales de Chine de 1950 à 1978, nous avons mené un examen rétrospectif sur le parcours détourné qu’avaient traversé ces régions pendant cette période. Au début, les terres des propriétaires fonciers avaient été transférées comme propriétés des paysans ; et puis, les propriétés privées avaient été transféré comme propriétés publiques. La transformation radicale du droit de propriété et le processus de la coopération agricole après la réforme de terre allaient à l’encontre de la loi économique et de la volonté des paysans, ce qui avait conduit à un retard des forces productives dans les régions rurales et à un niveau de revenu très inférieur pour les paysans chinois. Dans ce processus de transformation de politiques, les facteurs politiques et idéologiques avaient joué un rôle prédominant, d’où des résultats défavorables. Les expériences que nous avons tirées pendant cette période montrent bien que le modèle du développement économique et l’arrangement systématique dans les régions rurales de Chine doivent satisfaire la volonté des paysans et protéger leurs intérêts fondamentaux. C’est aussi le seul moyen qui permette aux régions rurales de Chine de réaliser un développement rapide. Mots Clés: Régions Rurales de Chine, Politique de Terre, Transformation Systématique, Idéologie, Intérêts. ???????????? 1950?? 1978???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????

  20. Land Policy and Systematic Transformation in Chinese Rural Areas?1950—1978?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong TAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available
    Based on historical review of the Chinese rural land policy from 1950 to 1978, we looked back the devious journey undergone in Chinese rural areas during this period. At first, the landlord’s ownership was transferred into the peasant’s ownership; and then private ownership was transferred into public ownership. The radical transformation of property right and process of agricultural cooperation went against the economic law and the wills of the mass peasants, which led to laggard rural productive forces and long-term low peasants’ income level. During the policy transformation process, political and ideological factors played the predominant role, which led to harmful results. The experiences in this period demonstrated that the economic developmental model and systematic arrangement in Chinese rural areas should satisfy the peasants’ free wills and protect the peasants’ essential interests. Only in this way could the Chinese rural economy gain fast development.
    Key Words: Chinese Rural Areas, Land Policy, System Arrangement, Ideology, Interests
    Abstrait: Basés sur une révision historique de la politique de terre dans les régions rurales de Chine de 1950 à 1978, nous avons mené un examen rétrospectif sur le parcours détourné qu’avaient traversé ces régions pendant cette période. Au début, les terres des propriétaires fonciers avaient été transférées comme propriétés des paysans ; et puis, les propriétés privées avaient été transféré comme propriétés publiques. La transformation radicale du droit de propriété et le processus de la coopération agricole après la réforme de terre allaient à l’encontre de la loi économique et de la volonté des paysans, ce qui avait conduit à un retard des forces productives dans les régions rurales et à un niveau de revenu très inférieur pour les paysans chinois. Dans ce processus de transformation de politiques, les facteurs politiques et idéologiques avaient joué un rôle prédominant, d’où des résultats défavorables. Les expériences que nous avons tirées pendant cette période montrent bien que le modèle du développement économique et l’arrangement systématique dans les régions rurales de Chine doivent satisfaire la volonté des paysans et protéger leurs intérêts fondamentaux. C’est aussi le seul moyen qui permette aux régions rurales de Chine de réaliser un développement rapide.
    Mots Clés: Régions Rurales de Chine, Politique de Terre, Transformation Systématique, Idéologie,Intérêts

  1. The scale and the dynamics of permanent migration in rural and peri-urban areas in Poland–some problems

    OpenAIRE

    Biega?ska, Jadwiga; Szyma?ska, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This article refers to the analysis and the evaluation of permanent migration as observed in rural areas of Poland, especially in peri-urban areas of the Polish cities between the years 1995 and 2011. The article covered all 2,173 rural and rural-urban (excluding urban parts) gminas in the country. In the article there were shown what are the migration volumes and dynamics in rural areas and what is the situation of large cities’ peri-urban areas in terms of permanent migration.

  2. Life-cycle position and migration to urban and rural areas: estimations of a mixed logit model on French data

    OpenAIRE

    Détang-Dessendre, Cécile; Goffette-Nagot, Florence; Piguet, Virginie

    2004-01-01

    Migration flows between urban and rural areas in developed countries show a strong difference in migration destinations with regard to age. Our paper analyses, in the French case, who rural areas attract or repel and what their so-called “pull-factors” are. Our goal is to explain the propensity to migrate and the destination choice among four categories of area (urban centres, suburbs, rural areas under urban influence, rural LMAs), for three age groups. Mixed logit models, that do not rely o...

  3. Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nlerum, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

  4. Studies on dengue in rural areas of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, N; Murty, U Suryanarayana; Kabilan, Lalitha; Balasubramanian, A; Thenmozhi, V; Narahari, D; Ravi, Alaham; Satyanarayana, K

    2004-03-01

    A dengue case was reported for the 1st time in a rural area of Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Entomological and serological investigations were carried out to determine the prevalence of dengue vectors and dengue virus. Aedes aegypti was recorded for the 1st time in rural areas of Andhra Pradesh. Breeding of Ae. aegypti was observed only in containers with nonpotable water. Cement cisterns and tanks, stone tubs, and clay pots were the major breeding habitats of Ae. aegypti. Larval indices for Ae. aegypti ranged as follows: house index 28-40%, container index 13-37%, and Breteau index 32-60. A serological survey indicated that humans in Kurnool District have been exposed to dengue virus infections. The potential threat of an outbreak of dengue fever in rural areas because of the prevalence of the vector (Ae. aegypti) and dengue virus is discussed. PMID:15088710

  5. Assessment of government housing program for young professionals in rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafurova Gulnara Talgatovna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Support of young professionals in rural areas, in particular help to ensure their housing is a priority for the state in the agricultural sector. The solution to this problem provides not only the influx of young professionals in agriculture in Tatarstan, but also the consolidation of the village, which is associated with socialization. The outflow of young people from rural areas led to the deterioration of the demographic and professional characteristics of the staff of the agricultural organizations, and therefore providing housing for young professionals in many ways is a priority in the strategic plan, as it is connected with the stabilization of employment in the long run. It is necessary to apply a new approach to social development of the village, as the existing forms of support do not make substantial changes. Some results of the program to provide affordable housing for young families and young professionals in rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan are examined.

  6. Study of Effective Factors on Income Inequality Decrease in Rural Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ahlowalia hypothesis (1995, the growth oftotal factor productivity (TFP beside infrastructure investmentsof government lead to income inequality decrease in ruralareas of countries. The main objective of this study is toinvestigate the effects of public investments such as agriculturalR&E, road, education and irrigation on income inequality inrural areas of Iran. In order to get results, we used ARDLmethod and time series data of 1980 to 2008. However, thisresearch attempts to survey the direction of causality betweenthe income inequality and total factor productivity (TFP inIran. Empirical results show there is a negative relation betweenincome inequality and agricultural TFP in rural areas of Iran.Hence, additional investments on rural education and agriculturalR&E have significance and different impacts on income inequality.Findings showed Ahlowalia hypothesis developed forthe relation among income inequality, TFP and investment inelectricity is not rejected in case of Iran`s rural areas.

  7. Multifunctional centers in rural areas : Fabrics of social and human capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually being abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces such a model: Multifunctional centers. Such a model reflects a long tradition of local centralization in rural areas, that is, a golden compromise between ruralization and urbanization. First, I argue that governments should actively invest in rural areas rather than practicing laissez-faire. Second, I trace ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnationalGarden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks, and facilities for local associations as theatre scenes and sports halls. The centers should be designed to secure both economies of scale and geographic proximity. Empirical evidence indicates that such large meeting places in fact foster physical and social cohesion, as well as human capital and informal learning. Also that the stock of beneficial bridging social capital thus created actually contributes to attract newcomers and counteract depopulation.

  8. An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  9. History and development of land lease operations in Latvian rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Svarinska, Anastasija

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important economic sectors, it is also the largest exploiter of rural land, so lease of the used agricultural areas is essential for farmers willing to expand production and develop farming. Consequently land lease is the most common type of lease in Latvian rural areas, since the purchase of a land plot or production buildings is sometimes not only fi­nancially impossible, but also unnecessary or unprofi­table. Thus the article studies the history of land lease...

  10. LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosora Liviu - Cosmin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009, which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education and training (leading to the underutilization of labor in rural areas, while major shortages in the labor market and increased migration phenomenon manifests.\\r\

  11. Fluoride Concentration in Potable Groundwater in Rural Areas of Khaf City, Razavi Khorasan Province, Northeastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    AA Khafajeh; SH Fallah; HA Asgharnia; AA Mohammadi; AH Mahvi; AI Amouei

    2012-01-01

    Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in rural areas the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.11 to 3.59 ppm—the level was less than the permissible limit in 31% of ...

  12. Effects of human activities on karst groundwater geochemistry in a rural area in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemistry of three drinking water sources (wells, springs, and tap) in the Vratza region of northern Bulgaria was investigated to gain an understanding of how human activities influence natural geochemical processes in a carbonate aquifer system. Numerous villages have been identified within this highly agricultural area as endemic for the environmental disease Balkan endemic nephropathy, with some suggesting a link to the geochemistry of the region. We observe that water quality varies significantly as a function of source. Hydrochemical facies analysis reveals trends not typical for limestone systems, with cation trajectories falling along the Ca2+–Mg2+ axis and the anion trajectories lying along the HCO3-–SO42- axis. R-mode factor analysis reveals: (i) an increasing dominance of a Cl?–Na+–SO42-–NO3- association from tap to spring to well waters, (ii) a strong association between Mg2+ and U, and (iii) a lack of associations between Ca2+ and Mg2+ and between Ca2+ and HCO3- that is atypical for limestone systems. These observations are interpreted to indicate that human activities have influenced all sources across the Vratza region and that Mg and U concentrations result from the dissolution of limestone, which is enhanced due to the input of anthropogenic chemicals. Geochemical modeling indicates that Ca2+ concentrations are in equilibrium with calcite, but that Mg2+ concentrations remain conservative, resulting in the decoupling of a Ca2+ and Mg2+, association. Uranium concentrations also appear to be conservative, aided by a poised redox state due to high concentrations of NO3- and the formation of CO32- and PO43- ion pairs. The similar source and conservative nature of both Mg2+ and U can account for their association. Finally, cluster analysis indicates that the pattern of water geochemistry in the endemic area differs from the surrounding non-endemic area, may be explained by differences in the underlying geology. This study has shown that the general water quality in this rural area, whether in endemic or non-endemic villages, is poor and that agricultural activities have not only added chemicals to the groundwater system, but that these chemicals have likely disrupted geochemical processes. More work is required to understand the specific details of anthropogenic influences on geochemical processes on water quality in karstic terrains.

  13. European Union funds as a stimulus of rural areas proenvironmental development – an example of rural communities in the wielkopolska voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Pondel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the opinion of rural communes of the Wielkopolskie voivodeship, about their participation in the EU funds for proenvironmental action development, scale and barriers of this phenomenon. Lack of financial resources has been recognised by the target communities as a major barrier to implementation of environmental protection activities, EU funds, in turn, an important source of support for this type of investment – up to 83% of the population has tried to obtain funds from the European Union for the environmental objectives. Funds from the European Union first of all served respondents to improve the area infrastructure of water and wastewater management.

  14. Evolution of Tourism in the Rural Area of the Southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurico de Oliveira Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rural property owners open their doors to tourism for several reasons. In part it is due to the failure in achieving agricultural profits. Thus, receiving tourists can increase income, add value to the property, and diversify economic activity. On the other hand, agritourism and rural tourism create new opportunity which does not depend exclusively on agricultural production. Furthermore, this reflects a new agrarian reality, a transition from an ‘agricultural’ to a ‘rural’ economy.  The goal of this study is to identify the potential of rural properties in the southern of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to develop agritourism and rural tourism as an economic alternative. More specifically, we propose to identify the characteristics of tourism activities at several properties and evaluate the economic viability, employment opportunities and salary growth between 1997 and 2006. There has been ongoing research in this area since 2006 and new studies are being carried out, especially regarding rural tourism property turnover, although they are not the object of the current study. The results of this study infer that the southern of the state presented unfavorable outcomes regarding income and job creation on the farms that practiced agritourism and rural tourism. Current trends emphatically focus on these kinds of tourism as alternatives for developing the services sector in the Southern Half rural areas and, while there is visible potential, it is necessary to develop projects and procure the participation of the government and private sector in order to make tourism in rural areas more effective. There are many activities that can be carried out, such as promoting events and attempting to change the mentality related to living in the rural areas as well as the good use of the properties in order to create a new framework. Evolução do Turismo na Área Rural do Sul do Rio Grande do Sul - Os proprietários rurais abrem suas portas ao turismo por vários motivos.  Em parte, se deve ao fracasso em alcançar lucro através da agricultura. Portanto, receber turistas pode aumentar a renda, o valor da propriedade e diversificar a atividade econômica. Por outro lado, o agro-turismo e o turismo rural podem criar novas oportunidades que não dependeriam exclusivamente da produção agrícola.  Além do mais, isto reflete uma nova realidade agrária, uma transição de uma economia ‘agrícola’ para uma ‘rural. O objetivo deste estudo é o de identificar o potencial das propriedades rurais na região sul do Rio Grande do Sul, com a finalidade de desenvolver o agro-turismo e o turismo rural como uma alternativa econômica.  Mais especificamente, propomos identificar as características das atividades turísticas em diferentes propriedades, para avaliar a viabilidade econômica, as oportunidades de emprego, e o crescimento salarial entre 1997 e 2006. É importante notar que este estudo está em constante modificação. Há nova pesquisa desde 2006, principalmente no que se refere à entrada e saída de propriedades que recebem turistas, mas não é o objeto do presente estudo. Os resultados do estudo sugerem que o sul do Estado apresenta uma produção desfavorável quanto à renda e criação de emprego nas propriedades que praticaram o agro-turismo e o turismo rural. As tendências atuais se concentram de forma destacada nestas variedades de turismo como alternativas para desenvolver o setor de serviços nas zonas rurais da região e, ao mesmo tempo em que há um potencial visível, é necessário criar projetos e assegurar a participação dos setores públicos e privado para tornar o turismo mais produtivo nas áreas rurais.  Existe atividades que se p

  15. Geological mapping and fault identification in nuclear power plant site candidate at Ketapang area and its surroundings, Madura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of economical study about demand of water supply and electric in Madura Island concludes that in 2016 Madura Island will need nuclear desalination plant to process sea water becomes fresh water. In order to support the installation of nuclear desalination plant, it is required site free from active fault, because active fault is mainly rejection factor criteria on site selection process. Aim of the research is to get geological information and identify of active fault in the site candidate of nuclear desalination plant at Ketapang area and its surrounding by interpretation of aerial photograph and land sat imagery, geological and structure geological mapping as well as trenching. The lithology of Ketapang (Md.01) and Sokobana (Md.02) site candidate consists of reef and chalky limestone forming undulating hills morphology. Structurally, research area forms a monocline with East-West trending axis, plunging 10° to East, the direction of strike is West-East, dip 10° - 30° to North. Geological structure analysis show that research area is free from active fault. (author)

  16. Electrification of rural areas using solar PV system - The Kiribati experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngalu, F. [Ministry of Works and Energy (Kiribati)

    1999-11-01

    From the electrification programs which have been carried out by the Solar Energy Company, it can be concluded that to electrify the rural area of Kiribati, where income generating activities are limited and energy demand is low the PV solar system using the utility concept is the best approach. A monthly fee of $15, is at this time, affordable by the majority of the rural population. However, only those who can afford a fee of more than $15 a month must be allowed the connection of additional appliances. To address the energy demand of higher economic activities in the rural area the PV system in its present design stage from Kiribati experience is not cost effective and alternative source is required to promote the activity. In addition the PV solar system program will continue to rely on external funding assistance for its expansion until at least 1500 systems have been installed. The purchasing of additional appliances to be connected must be the responsibility of the user, however, it is important that additional appliances are limited to a level that will yield a fee of not more than the level affordable by the user, in the rural area. The sustainability approach to rural electrification through solar energy based on the utility concept to address social and minimal economic activities could prove a positive model for other countries and with minor modifications to fit local conditions and culture for the system to work. (EHS)

  17. Turismo rural y expansion urbanística en areas de interior. Análisis socioespacial de riesgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is generally recognized as a booster for sustainable development of inland areas, but two researchactions would be necessary in advance: a local diagnosis of touristic processes and a risk assessment for those processes in affected areas. This article concerns the sociological and spatial risk analysis of urban sprawl in rural areas. As a case study, 29 municipalities in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (formed as a “comarca”, North of Huelva province are considered. Urban sprawl has been identified by specific literature as a threat for sustainable development in touristic areas, in coastal zones and in rural areas too. Based on the results of previous diagnosis, and the literature on socioenvironmental risks and impacts of residential tourism, two specific risk indicators are selected and analysed, in relation to local touristic models.El turismo rural es reconocido en Europa como un factor de desarrollo sostenible para las áreas de interior, secularmente deprimidas. Su éxito como tal va a depender de un diagnóstico a tiempo de sus procesos y de la evaluación de los riesgos que afectan a las áreas en las que aquellos se manifiesten. Este trabajo se centra en el análisis sociológico y espacial de los riesgos que la expansión urbanística en áreas de interior puede suponer para su desarrollo sostenible por medio del turismo rural. Como estudio de caso, se toman 29 municipios del suroeste de la península ibérica, conformados como comarca en el borde norte de la provincia de Huelva. A partir de los resultados de diagnósticos previos, y de la literatura sobre riesgos e impactos socioambientales del turismo residencial, se seleccionan dos indicadores de riesgo y se analiza su comportamiento en los modelos turístico-rurales existentes en la zona.

  18. SUSTAINABLE POLICY FOR A RURAL MOINTAIN VILLAGE IN THE PERIPHERY OF THE BARCELONA'S METROPOLITAN AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Balanzo, Rafael; Borras, Agapit

    2010-01-01

    Spain had build more houses in 2006 than France, Germany and the United Kingdom together. Actually, this urban growth is unsustainable and damage the resources the territory. 'People becomes rich, but the territory becomes poor'. The metropolitan area of Barcelona has growth hard but the rural areas lost there identity and his natural resources. Is not possible an unlimited growth in a limited territory. Montseny is a municipality in the periphery of metropolitan area and inside Natural Park ...

  19. Características de los suicidios de áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia, Colombia / Characteristics of Suicides in Rural and Urban Areas in Antioquia, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jenny, García Valencia; Gabriel Jaime, Montoya Montoya; Carlos Alberto, López Jaramillo; María Cecilia, López Tobón; Patricia, Montoya Guerra; Juan Carlos, Arango Viana; Carlos Alberto, Palacio Acosta.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si existen diferencias entre áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia en las características asociadas con el suicidio. Método: Se compararon 79 sujetos provenientes de áreas rurales y 75 de áreas urbanas de Antioquia. Se hizo autopsia psicológica y se calcularon razones de prevalen [...] cia (RP) (frecuencia de la característica en zona rural/frecuencia de la característica en zona urbana). Resultados: Las características asociadas de manera independiente con provenir de área rural y urbana fueron: “momento del suicidio durante la noche” (RP = 0,65; IC 95%: 0,48-0,89) y “vivir solo” (RP = 0,40; IC 95%: 0,17-0,98), que fueron más frecuentes en zona urbana, y “envenenamiento con pesticidas”, que ocurrió más en zona rural (RP = 1,80; IC 95%: 1,39-2,34). Conclusiones: Los individuos suicidas provenientes de zonas rurales y urbanas tenían características diferentes. Ello puede tener implicaciones para el diseño de las estrategias de prevención del suicidio en cada una de las zonas. Se requieren otros estudios para determinar los factores de riesgo propios de cada área. Abstract in english Objective: To determine differences in characteristics associated with suicide between rural and urban populations from Antioquia. Method: 79 subjects from rural areas and 75 subjects from urban areas were compared. Psychological autopsy was done and prevalence ratios (PR) (frequency of characterist [...] ic in rural zone/frequency of characteristic in urban zone) were calculated. Results: The characteristics that associated independently with coming from rural or urban areas were: “suicide during the night” (PR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.89) and “living alone” (PR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.98), which were more frequent in urban areas, and “pesticide poisoning” which was more frequent in rural areas (PR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.39-2.34). Conclusions: Individuals who committed suicide from rural and urban areas have different characteristics. This finding might have implications for the design of preventive strategies in each zone. Additional studies are required to determine specific risk factors in urban and rural areas.

  20. Marsupiales (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) de Iquitos y sus alrededores (Loreto, Perú) / Marsupials (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Mónica, Díaz.

    Full Text Available Se presenta el resultado de un estudio realizado en la localidad de Iquitos y sus alrededores, un área ubicada en la Amazonia del noreste de Perú. Se ofrece una lista de especies de marsupiales registrados mediante colectas realizadas personalmente, información obtenida de la literatura y registros [...] confiables. Para cada especie se mencionan las localidades de colecta y presentan comentarios sobre su sistemática e historia natural. Se citan 19 especies para Iquitos, 14 fueron colectadas en este estudio, de las cuales una se confirma para el país (Marmosops neblina). Los resultados muestran que esta zona es una de la más diversa en marsupiales en Sudamérica. Abstract in english Introduction: Amazonia has a high diversity of marsupials, and while Emmons and Feer (1990) have cited 14 species for the area, 18 years later this number was increased to 28 by Gardner (2008a), a difference related to descriptions and revalidation of several species in recent years. Northeastern Pe [...] ru is one of the areas with high biodiversity, a "hotspot". The high diversity of small mammals can be explained by several factors: latitudinal gradient, size of the area, and lack of seasonal precipitations, among others. In this contribution 19 species are cited for the region of Iquitos, 14 collected through field trips and five recorded from the literature. These results confirm the presence of a species that was not known for the country (Marmosops neblina), and two species (Marmosa regina and Marmosops bishopi) with new records for the area. The results show that the study area is one of the most diverse in South America with respect to marsupials. Material and methods: The specimens were collected between December 2002 and December 2005, at 41 collecting sites along the Iquitos-Nauta Highway. The study was carried out in undisturbed primary and secondary forests, and other rural areas. In total, 18,081 Sherman trap-nights, 19,271 Tomahawk trap-nights, and 591 pitfall trap-nights were recorded. External and cranial morphometric data, body mass, sex, and reproductive condition were recorded for all specimens. A key to species is provided including the confirmed and probable species of the area. Species accumulation curves were calculated and plotted using Estimates 8.2.0. Results: Three hundred and seventy three records were obtained belonging to 14 out of 27 species cited for the area; eight species were collected outside the Iquitos area. Most specimens were collected in primary and secondary forests (123 and 199 specimens respectively), only 49 were captured in other areas. Pitfall traps were the most successful (1.69% capture success), followed by Tomahawk traps (1.29%), and Sherman traps (0.55%). Arboreal traps were more successful than the ground traps, with 4.18% and 0.89% capture success respectively. The species accumulation curve did not reach stability and the estimates calculated are greater than the recorded species. Discussion: During three years of sampling, 14 species were collected, a number that rises to 19 when literature citations for the specific area of Iquitos are considered (and increases to 27 if the area is extended to a 200 km radius around Iquitos). Some species were very abundant (P. opossum, M. nudicaudatus, D. marsupialis, and M. regina), while others were documented by only 1 or 2 records (G. venusta, M. adusta, and P. olrogi). It is evident that the Peruvian Amazon is one of the areas with the highest diversity of marsupials, but further surveys and studies are necessary in order to determine with greater precision the distribution of many species, and to acquire a better understanding of their natural history. More extensive studies of the fauna of the region are required to obtain informational bases that will provide a strong management policy, in order to preserve the species in such a highly fragmented region.

  1. Evaluation of rural areas in terms of landscape quality: Salacik Village (Trabzon/Turkey) example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzgüne?, Ertan; Demirel, Öner

    2015-06-01

    As a result of the increasing urbanization and fast pace of work life, people started to turn to rural areas so as to regenerate both socially and psychologically. Increasing interest in the rural areas made the importance of landscape quality of these areas more significant. This improvement gave way to the idea of the necessity of preserving the resourceful landscape areas in terms of visual characteristics and bringing them under the spotlight, and it became the driving power in reconciling the planners and administrators. From this point of view, a study was conducted in Salac?k Village of Akçaabat district of Trabzon (Turkey) in order to identify the visually resourceful landscape areas and maintain the sustainability of the resource values by preserving them. In this respect, the area was divided into seven individual landscape types, visual landscape evaluation including the opinions of the experts, and a survey that is used in planning of the rural areas was implemented. It is thought that the results attained with the evaluations made taking the principles of Gestalt theory into consideration will constitute an essential fundamental for urban and regional planners, natural resource administrators, and other planning parties in their planning decisions relating the specific area. Apart from that, among the goals of this study are contributing in the preservation of visually resourceful landscapes, maintaining their sustainability, and integration of these areas into the development strategies. PMID:25934050

  2. Beyond urban places: responding to intimate partner violence in rural and remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Karen S; Hammatt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a recognized public health problem impacting the lives of women, families, and communities. Women in rural and more remote areas who experience IPV face unique barriers and challenges to accessing healthcare services to support healthy outcomes. Resources, access to services, presence of compassionate and informed healthcare providers, and environmental circumstances influence effective responses to this issue in rural and more remote areas. In a public health approach to this problem, prevention efforts, victim-centered responses, and the support of safety are imperative to improve outcomes for women. Forensic nurses play an important role in effective response by building linkages across health, human, and social systems through collaboration, partnership, activism, advocacy, and sensitivity to the issue across the rural landscape. PMID:25996433

  3. The potential for creating additional rural livelihoods in agriculture and the rural non-farm sector in semi-arid areas : a case study in the Northern Province

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten, Johann F.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to estimate the potential for creating additional livelihoods in a typical semi-arid area under various assumptions about farm activities, farm size and technology. The perception that agriculture in semi-arid areas has limited potential to create additional livelihoods was confirmed by the results of the research. In acknowledging that rural households earn income from other sources than agriculture, attention was paid to the important contribution of rural non-farm...

  4. Hábitos de salud en escolares en ámbito urbano y rural / Health habits in schoolchildren in urban and rural areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Martínez Sabater; Asunción, Marzá Gascón; Julia, Llorca Tauste; Cristina, Martínez Puig; Gema, Escrivá Aznar; Mercedes, Blasco Roque.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En los primeros años de vida se produce la asimilación e interiorización de los hábitos de salud que van a condicionar la vida adulta, siendo fundamentales las características socioambientales para la adquisición de los mismos. Objetivos Nos planteamos conocer los hábitos de salud que [...] presentan los escolares de dos zonas geográficas contrapuestas: la urbana y la rural. Metodología. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo con alumnos de 10 y 11 años de una zona urbana y de una rural, llevándose a cabo una prueba de comparación de dos proporciones de muestras independientes. Resultados. Se han recogido 104 encuestas (21.2% de ámbito rural) en las cuales se observa la existencia de un porcentaje importante en cuanto a la falta de hábito de lavado de manos e higiene dental se refiere. Respecto a la alimentación, existe un pequeño número de niños que acuden al colegio sin desayunar y, en caso de hacerlo, es considerable el porcentaje obtenido en el consumo de bollería y zumos envasados, apreciándose un déficit en el de verduras y pescados. Aunque mayoritariamente realizan actividad física, el 10% no la hacen nunca. Asimismo se aprecia un excesivo uso del televisor preferido frente a otros hábitos. En lo relacionado con el tabaquismo, cabe destacar que un 30% conviven con fumadores, y un 6% han probado el tabaco. En lo referente al alcohol un porcentaje importante (4.8%-19.5%) ya lo ha probado mayoritariamente en el ámbito familiar. Conclusiones. La finalidad del estudio es el de servir como punto de partida para la planificación de futuras actuaciones, ya que indica la existencia de situaciones de riesgo: alteraciones en la salud bucodental por déficit de cuidados e higiene, hábitos alimenticios incorrectos, hábitos sedentarios e inicio temprano de consumo o contacto con sustancias tóxicas. Abstract in english Introduction. ln the first years of life assimilation occurs and the understanding of health habits that will shape adult life, and these socio-environmental characteristics are fundamental for the acquisition of health habits. Objectives. This study is aimed at ascertaining the health habits of sch [...] oolchildren from two opposing geographical areas (urban and rural). Methodology. We performed a descriptive study of students aged 10/11 years old from urban and rural areas, performing a comparison test of two proportions from independent samples. Results. 104 surveys were obtained (21.2% from rural areas). There is a significant percentage which refers to a lack of hand washing and dental hygiene habits. With regard to food there is a small percentage of children who come to school without breakfast, among those who did, it was found that a significant percentage have pastries and packaged juices showing a lack in consumption of vegetables and fish. Although largely physically inactive, 10% never take exercise. There is high television consumption and other habits are that, 30% live with smokers and 6% have tried snuff. A significant percentage (4.8% -19.5%) have tried alcohol, mostly in the family. Conclusions. The study should serve as a starting point for planning future actions, and indicates the existence of risk: changes in oral health due to a lack of care and hygiene, bad eating habits, sedentary habits and the early onset of contact with consumption, or with toxic substances.

  5. Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 11–12 km. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in Northwest India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar. Comparisons with the OMI and MODIS measurements show the unique capability of the CALIPSO lidar to provide unambiguous, altitude-resolved dust measurements.

  6. Differences in Employee Motivation at Slovak Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitka, Miloš; Stachová, Katarína; Balážová, Žaneta; Stacho, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are…

  7. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALNUTRITION (UNDER NUTRITION) AMONG UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN A SECTION OF RURAL AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak B. Phalke; Vaishali D Phalke; Avachat, Shubhada S

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence of malnutrition is very high in India; especially in rural area. A cross sectional study was done in randomly selected six villages to estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomicfactors associated with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the under five children was 50.46%.Children from lower socioeconomic status, with low birth weight were significantly malnourished.

  8. Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

  9. Air quality in urban, industrialized and rural french areas in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality measurements in urban, industrial and rural areas in 1991 have shown different trends. It turned out that lead and carbon monoxide concentrations have recently decreased. The concentrations of black smoke and sulphur dioxide have however remained constant since 1988, whereas nitrogen oxide and ozone have decreased in most sites. (TEC). 23 figs., 34 tabs., 40 refs

  10. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... cities with large concentrations of poverty? (a) Competitive grant awards will be targeted to geographic... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  11. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

  12. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas : Individual Creativity and Social Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    The entrepreneurial dynamics within urban and rural areas are often assumed to be very different. This study explores the importance of individual creativity and the social network in both places regarding the probability of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving the crucial three years after start-up. The results are based on longitudinal register data combined with a questionnaire survey from 2008, utilizing responses from 1,108 first-time entrepreneurs (out of which 670 survived) and 420 non-entrepreneurs (without previous entrepreneurial experience). Creativity is only found to lead to start-up in urban areas but it does not influence the chances of survival in any of the two areas. On the contrary, the social network matters particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment in the research design, common entrepreneurship beliefs are questioned which opens up for region specific policy initiatives..

  13. QUALITY OF LIFE AND HUMAN ISOLATION: THE CASE OF RURAL AREA OF PUGLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Contò

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research explores the socio-economic problems arising in a typical peripheral rural area - the Wide Area of Daunian Mountains (WADM- in Southern Italy in order to analyse the concept of ‘well being’ through the analysis of the ‘quality of life’. For these purposes, we will develop an ‘Index of Human Isolation’ (UNDP, 1997, in order to take into account the multiple dimensions of isolation, that is a constant characteristic of rural areas, particularly the inter-generational, sociostructural, and geographical ones. This index will be employed to analyse the relationship between a set of variables representing the main economic, structural and social aspects of the area and the dynamics of the Value Added. The expected results are twofold; (a the creation of VA should be decreasing at high levels of IHI; (b the implementation of social-assistance network may actively contribute to the reduction of isolation.

  14. Critical Socio-Cultural Elements of the Intercultural Endeavour of English Teaching in Colombian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ximena Bonilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study done with five English language teachers in Colombian rural areas. Questionnaires and interviews were used to see how these teachers understand their professional practice considering the contextual features of their regional workplaces. Amongst the findings, we noticed that these teachers have to mediate between local and global tensions and also deal with socio-cultural matches and mismatches in their labours. It is hoped this work raises awareness of critical socio-cultural factors involved in the teaching of English in rural settings and of the complexity of its intercultural dimension.

  15. Techno-economic evaluation of various electric energy supply for rural areas Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic study was carried out to evaluate the techno-economic viability of various electric supply sources for electrification of rural areas in Pakistan in present socio-economic conditions. The important influencing factors considered were: social needs, electric requirement and availability of energy resources. The electric requirements of model rural village were established at 20431 kw h per year. Prudent evaluations reveal that hydroelectric, photovoltaic and diesel systems are better options than an electric grid extension of more than 2 km. In order to become an economically meritorious energy source, photovoltaic system should attain cost level Rs. 100 per watt-peak of installed system. (author)

  16. Prevalence of Brucellozis in The Rural Area of Kayseri, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Fevziye ÇET?NKAYA; Melis NAÇAR; Koç, Ay?e Nedret; GÖKAHMETO?LU, Selma; AYDIN, Tülay

    2005-01-01

    This study was planned in order to make good the lack of information about population-based data on the prevalence of brucellosis in the Kayseri region. This cross-sectional research was performed on 1850 individuals living in the rural regionaround Kayseri. People aged 15-85 in 9 districts in this rural areas were interviewed and blood samples were screened using the Rose Bengal Agglutination test. The overall prevalence of brucellosis was 3.4%. Although the rate was higher in females (3....

  17. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  18. Qualidade de água de uma lagoa rasa em meio rural no sul do Brasil Water quality of a shallow lagoon in rural area in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel W. Cunha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available No seu entorno, a lagoa Caiubá apresenta regiões preservadas e áreas com cultura de arroz e de pecuária. Esta pesquisa descreve o padrão de variação sazonal e espacial das variáveis fisico-químicas e biológicas durante os anos de 2009 e 2010, em nove pontos distribuídos espacialmente na lagoa, representando suas partes norte, central e sul. A qualidade da água foi avaliada através da aplicação do índice de estado trófico (IET, do índice de qualidade de água (IQA e das classes da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005. Foram coletadas amostras de invertebrados bentônicos e determinados os Índices Bióticos (IB de acordo com os modelos da Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA e a adaptação do Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP. Os resultados evidenciaram um sistema com alta turbidez e conteúdo de fósforo, além de baixa razão N:P, e com poucas alterações sazonais e espaciais nas variáveis medidas. Embora os resultados do IQA e CONAMA tenham classificado a lagoa Caiubá como águas de excelente a boa qualidade, os resultados do IET e dos IB foram opostos classificando a lagoa como sistema alterado e poluído. Conclui-se que esses índices devam ser readequados através de avaliações sistemáticas visando refletir as condições de qualidade de ecossistemas aquáticos em meio rural, na região subtropical do Brasil.The Caiubá lagoon has its surroundings with preserved areas and areas with rice cultivation and livestock. This study describes the pattern of seasonal and spatial variation of physico-chemical and biological variables during the years 2009 and 2010 at nine points, representing part of northern, central and southern regions. Water quality was evaluated by applying the trophic state index (TSI and the water quality index (WQI, and classes according to CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Samples of benthic invertebrates were collected and determined the biotic index (BI, following the models of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA, and adaptation of Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP. The results demonstrated a system with high turbidity and phosphorus content, and low N:P ratio, and with little seasonal and spatial changes in the measured variables. Although the results of WQI and the CONAMA have classified the lagoon waters with excellent to good quality, the results of the TSI and the BI were opposites, classifying the ecosystem as amended and polluted system. It is concluded that these indices should be readjusted through systematic evaluations in order to reflect the quality condition of aquatic ecosystems in rural areas in the subtropical region of Brazil.

  19. Qualidade de água de uma lagoa rasa em meio rural no sul do Brasil / Water quality of a shallow lagoon in rural area in Southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel W., Cunha; Manoel D. N., Garcia Jr.; Edélti F., Albertoni; Cleber, Palma-Silva.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available No seu entorno, a lagoa Caiubá apresenta regiões preservadas e áreas com cultura de arroz e de pecuária. Esta pesquisa descreve o padrão de variação sazonal e espacial das variáveis fisico-químicas e biológicas durante os anos de 2009 e 2010, em nove pontos distribuídos espacialmente na lagoa, repre [...] sentando suas partes norte, central e sul. A qualidade da água foi avaliada através da aplicação do índice de estado trófico (IET), do índice de qualidade de água (IQA) e das classes da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005. Foram coletadas amostras de invertebrados bentônicos e determinados os Índices Bióticos (IB) de acordo com os modelos da Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA) e a adaptação do Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). Os resultados evidenciaram um sistema com alta turbidez e conteúdo de fósforo, além de baixa razão N:P, e com poucas alterações sazonais e espaciais nas variáveis medidas. Embora os resultados do IQA e CONAMA tenham classificado a lagoa Caiubá como águas de excelente a boa qualidade, os resultados do IET e dos IB foram opostos classificando a lagoa como sistema alterado e poluído. Conclui-se que esses índices devam ser readequados através de avaliações sistemáticas visando refletir as condições de qualidade de ecossistemas aquáticos em meio rural, na região subtropical do Brasil. Abstract in english The Caiubá lagoon has its surroundings with preserved areas and areas with rice cultivation and livestock. This study describes the pattern of seasonal and spatial variation of physico-chemical and biological variables during the years 2009 and 2010 at nine points, representing part of northern, cen [...] tral and southern regions. Water quality was evaluated by applying the trophic state index (TSI) and the water quality index (WQI), and classes according to CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Samples of benthic invertebrates were collected and determined the biotic index (BI), following the models of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA), and adaptation of Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). The results demonstrated a system with high turbidity and phosphorus content, and low N:P ratio, and with little seasonal and spatial changes in the measured variables. Although the results of WQI and the CONAMA have classified the lagoon waters with excellent to good quality, the results of the TSI and the BI were opposites, classifying the ecosystem as amended and polluted system. It is concluded that these indices should be readjusted through systematic evaluations in order to reflect the quality condition of aquatic ecosystems in rural areas in the subtropical region of Brazil.

  20. Analysis of migration and commuting in urban and rural areas in Slovenia in 2000 - 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Mateja

    2014-01-01

    In this graduation thesis the migration and commuting flows to predominantly urban, intermediate and predominantly rural areas of Slovenia were analysed. The definition of the population density level was extracted from the Eurostat concept "Levels of urbanisation". We analysed several factors and researched their influences on migration and commuting flows: population, labour market, residential areas, real estate prices, municipal revenues and travel time. The analysis was carried out in an...

  1. INTESTINAL PARASITIC PREVALENCE IN RURAL AREA CHILDREN MOBARAKEH-ISFAHAN -1997

    OpenAIRE

    M Baghaei; P DANESHVAR FARZANEGAN; M MIRLOUHI; Mahmoudi, M

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: intestinal parasitic infection is considered as one of the important health indices and the differences in it"s prevalence in different communities, explain the need for the periodical study of the prevalence inorder to organize, convenient preventative programs. previous studies have shown that prevalence of parasitic infection in rural areas is higher than urban areas. Therefore in this survey for the first time, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to...

  2. Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manuel, Celie; Gunnell, David J; van der Hoek, Wim; Dawson, Andrew; Wijeratne, Ishika K; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. METHODS: Ecological analysis o...

  3. Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson Andrew; Hoek Wim; Gunnell David J; Manuel Celie; Wijeratne Ishika K; Konradsen Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological ...

  4. Potential market for small-scale gasifiers in rural areas of developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kieffer, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This thesis report assesses the potential market for small-scale gasifiers in rural areas of developing countries and regions. Biomass is already widely used in these areas for energetic purpose, giving gasification an interesting niche market for remote electricity production. Success factors include a high reliability, an efficient biomass supply chain and sufficient local electricity needs. Suitable fuel for a gasifier must be available at low cost, which could be wood harvested locally or...

  5. Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandotra V.K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t� test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

  6. Evaluation of Nickel in Paints Scrapings Obtained from Selected Rural Areas in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obidi Olayide Folashade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and concentrations of nickel in painted walls of selected rural residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria with a view to determine the health risk of the occupants. Microorganisms isolated were Bacillus subtilis, B. brevis, B. megaterium, B. circulans and Enterobacter gergoviae with population density ranging from 1.0 - 2.1 and 0.5 -1.9 x 105 cfu/g in the outdoor and indoor samples respectively. Nickel concentration was determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Here we reported the detection of nickel in all samples obtained from thirteen rural locations with concentrations ranging from 2.240 to 11.353 and from 1.241 to 13.309 mg/l in outdoor and indoor samples respectively. Nickel concentrations showed the levels were above the maximum permissible limits recommended by USEPA. The rural populace in these areas may be at risk.

  7. The concentration of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from tin mining and its surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research has been conducted to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides (Uranium 238 and Thorium 232) and heavy metals (plumbum, zink, and cuprum) in soil samples collected from tin mining and amang processing areas and its surrounding in Dengkil, Selangor. The radionuclides were measured using gamma spectroscopy whilst heavy metals were extracted using various extracting solution before measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the pH of the soil was in the range of pH 4.28 - 5.53, whilst for amang the pH value was 2.65. The activity of U-238 and Th-232 were between 3.37 - 7.88 Bq/kg and 10.51 - 45.24 Bq/kg, respectively. For amang and reference IAEA-375 soil samples the values were 246.36 Bq/kg (U-238); 12452.18 Bq/kg (Th-232) and 24.4 Bq/kg (U-238); 20.5 Bq/kg (Th-232) respectively. Plumbum (5416.56 ?g/g) was the dominant heavy metal extracted from the soil followed by Cu (158.9 ?g/g) and Zn (6.23 ?g/g). Concentrated nitric acid was very efficient in extracting heavy metal (52.8%) followed by Na2EDTA (20.01%), NaOH (18.18%) and KNO3 (9.09%). (Author)

  8. The Analysis Of The Heavy Metals Pollution In The River Water For Fishing Accusative The Surrounding UJUNG LEMAH ABANG Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals are introduced into aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils or rocks, from volcanic eruptions and from a variety of human activities involving the mining, processing, or use of metals and/or substances that contain metal contaminants. The metal natural contents will changeable depends on the pollutant which is proportionally occurred in the environment. The extremely heavy metals absorption by organisms Directly or indirectly through the food chain will give the significant impact to the human lives. For this purpose an investigation was carried out to take samples of heavy metals from the river (Doplang, Balong, and Pacitran) surrounding the Ujung Lemah abang area, and to see how far was the impact of pollutants to the community who live nearby from the food-chain point of view. Results showed that the heavy metals content of Cd, Fe, Cu and Hg in the water and sediment are higher than the permissible concentration for fish nursery. It is found that the concentration of Cd between 0.91 - 1.85 ?g/ml, Cu: 0.03 ?g/ml, and Fe: 0.16 - 2.51 ?g/ml, whereas concentration of Hg in sediment between 0.036 - 0.118 mg/g. Up to now there are no report yet to the death fish caused by the more content of heavy metals in their body or the sickness related to it in the community around the location, but nevertheless this condition need to be took attention

  9. Analysis of the effects of aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport [paper in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mendonça Maroja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the perception of discomfort caused by aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport (SBBR. The study was divided into two parts. At first, noise measurements were conducted in four residentials zones and the sound pressure level determined by the parameters: Leq, Lmax, Lmin, RF, SEL and IPR. In the second part, we applied a questionnaire adapted from the project Eurocontrol (European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation. The results of field measurements indicate regions with soundscape compromised and with potential of nuisance, especially at night. Was obtained, from analysis of questionnaires, that the respondents female sex if showed more sensitive by the noise of cars and planes and realize more intensity the noise from road and air traffic. It was found dissatisfaction with the interference caused by the noise of aircraft in daily activities and indicated as reactions noise-related: headaches, sleep disorders, stress and difficulty concentrating. It is noteworthy, that in the region with lower noise, the respondents are more sensitive to the noise of airplanes and the values of acoustic parameters measured would justify the negative reactions of respondents to the air transportation noise. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between the perception of annoyance and discomfort with the sound pressure levels measured.

  10. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the oral health status of children and adults in rural and urban areas of Burkina Faso; to provide epidemiological data for planning and evaluation of oral health care programmes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey including different ethnic and socio-economic groups. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling of households in urban areas and random samples of participants selected based on the recent population census in rural areas. The final study population covered four age groups: 6 years (n = 424), 12 years (n = 505), 18 years (n = 492) and 35-44 years (n = 493). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year-olds and 6.3 in 35-44-year-olds and figures were higher for women than men. In adults, no differences in caries experience were found by location whereas the caries index was significantly affected by ethnic group and occupation. CPI score 2 (gingivitis and calculus) was dominant for all ages: 6 years (58%), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes rather than traditional curative care.

  11. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  12. Mothers? Perceptions & Ambitions About Their Daughters in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Lal Sunder

    1997-01-01

    Research question: What are the perceptions and ambitions of mothers about their daughters in relation to critical areas like literacy, age of marriage & child bearing, health risk due to early marriage etc. Objectives: To raise the level of awareness of mothers through ongoing programmes focused on women. Design: Before and after study in population. Participants: Mothers of girls aged 7-19 years. Study variables: Literacy, caste, communication, menstruation, food distribution in the fa...

  13. Rural settlement policies in Turkey and the Kurdish areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The adament refusal of Turkey to admit to a Kurdish question is a major source of human rights violations, social tension, political and economic instability, and an irritant in Turkey's relations with neighboring countries and the European Union. In the 1980s and 1990s Turkey, and in particular the areas predominantly populated by Kurds, was the scene of an increasingly bitter war between Turkish armed forces and the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK; Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan). As a strategy fo...

  14. Analysis of the Radiopollution of the City of Sarajevo and its Surrounding Area with Regard to Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huremovi?, J.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great attention has been focused on the research of problems related to the environment and processes occurring within it. The accident that occurred at Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl (1986 unquestionably warned that global pollution with radioactive substances on a continent scale may be expected. The past twenty years have been marked with the utilization of metal uranium – a depleted isotope of uranium-235 for various purposes. Today, depleted uranium has found its use in modern armies and it is used as efficient ammunition against armored military systems.There are estimates about the usage of ammunition with depleted uranium deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war (1992–1995. The region of Bosnia and Herzegovina was exposed to the direct influence of the global dispersion processes that had occurred in May 1986 as a consequence of emissions originating from Nuclear Power Plant “Lenin” in Chernobyl. In thiswork the radionuclides fraction analysis (238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K i 137Cs of surface samples (0–5 cm originating from the City of Sarajevo and its surroundings has been presented. The soil samples were taken from nine locations in the city and the surrounding area: Blekin potok, Kobilja glava, Bentbaša, Vraca, Prirodno-matematieki fakultet (PMF, Aziai, Hrasnica, Butmir, and Blažuj. The analyses were performed at the Department for Environment of Jo?ef Štefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Ge HP detector connected to Ortec MCA Gamma Vision 32 Software was used in addition to the Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique (INAA.The results of the analysis were compared with data available for the City of Sarajevo (years 1986, 1987 and 1988 and Slovenia. Analyses were made after Chernobyl catastrophe. Almost all of radionuclides analysed have shown to have a slightly higher specific radioactivity when compared to the data obtained in 1986, 1987 and 1989 for the City of Sarajevo. Our results are in accordance with the values obtained in Slovenia except in the case of 137Cs at location Vraca, where a significantly higher concentration has been observed and reaching ? = 460 ± 20 Bq kg–1.

  15. Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

  16. EMPLOYMENT DIFFICULTIES EXPERIENCED BY YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica PRIS?CARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of our investigation was to elucidate the problems of young people as part of the human potential ofrural areas. As a result of processing statistical data related to the evolution of the labour market in the Republic ofMoldova, there were highlighted the differences between the average indicators of the labour market in the country,both in urban and rural areas, putting a particular emphasis on young people. Also, according to the generalizationof a survey data there were found the causes that repress the desire of graduates of agricultural educationinstitutions to find jobs in rural areas. The final conclusion is that even if in the country at governmental level,certain attempts are made to attract young people to work in villages, their efficiency is still insufficient.

  17. Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

  18. Anti-urbanisation as development chance for rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Anti-urbanisation is a form of counter-urbanisation, which means migration from the city to the countryside. Three variants can be distinguished by the motives of the migrants: A search for a radical often self-sufficient lifestyle, a relocation to enhance one’s quality of life and amenity driven retirement migration. In the region around Copenhagen such life style related migration to more peripheral areas can be detected counting especially the middle-aged and retired groups. Their migration i...

  19. Participation of Youth in Rural Leadership Development Activities in Yewa South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyanju Agbelemoge; S.A Adebanjo

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the study was to assess the levels of participation of youth in rural leadership development activities in Yewa South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive and systematic random sampling techniques were adopted for the study. This study considered the socio-economic characteristics of the rural youth, stages of participation in rural leadership development activities, motivational factors influencing youth`s participation and constraints to participation in rur...

  20. Risk factors for dementia in a rural area of Northeastern Brazil Fatores de risco para demência em uma área rural do nordeste do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Oliveira de Cerqueira Magalhães; Josecy Maria de Souza Peixoto; Mônica Hupsel Frank; Irênio Gomes; Bernardo Mota Rodrigues; Carla Menezes; Eduardo Cardoso; Fernando Carvalho; Roque Aras; Ailton Melo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for dementia among the elderly in a rural area of Northeastern Brazil. METHOD: The subjects assessed were all 60 years old or older, and lived in a rural region of Bahia, a Northeastern State of Brazil. CAMDEX, a structured clinical evaluation protocol, was used for diagnosis, and applied at the home of the subjects. RESULTS: The risk factors identified were divided in accordance with socio-demographic characteristics, the presence of co-morbid conditions, ...

  1. Mothers? Perceptions & Ambitions About Their Daughters in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Sunder

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the perceptions and ambitions of mothers about their daughters in relation to critical areas like literacy, age of marriage & child bearing, health risk due to early marriage etc. Objectives: To raise the level of awareness of mothers through ongoing programmes focused on women. Design: Before and after study in population. Participants: Mothers of girls aged 7-19 years. Study variables: Literacy, caste, communication, menstruation, food distribution in the family, age of marriage & childbirth, health risks, sources of information. Outcome variables: Raised level of awareness on critical areas as mentioned above. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions. Results: A little less than half (48% of mother�s felt that their daughters could study as long as they desired. Though 73-82% of mothers knew the health risk of early marriage yet 67% of girls were married below the age of 18 years. Only 15% of mothers educated their daughters on the subject of menstruation. Female children were considered the last priority for nutritious food. The results of this study necessitate strengthening of women programmes for better awareness; favorable attitudes and sound practices.

  2. Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales / Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Valle, Coronado Vázquez; David, Odero Sobrado; David, Canalejo González; Jesús, Cidoncha Pérez.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios [...] para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8) y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3), mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9) tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4) obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2) de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6) de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños ( Abstract in english Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. [...] We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8) were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3) were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9) were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4) were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2) were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6) were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (

  3. Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 ?g m(-3) in the mining area; 48 ?g m(-3) in the rural area and 45 ?g m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 ?g m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921

  4. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  5. Considerations for decision-making on distributed power generation in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy resources for rural electrification are variable and widely dispersed, such that a solution for one region might not be appropriate for another. This study evaluates the feasibility of renewable energy technologies, centralized grid extension and local coal-fired power for rural areas that currently do not have sufficient access to electricity. The renewable power generation options considered are solar photovoltaic and wind power, with battery storage or fossil fuel generator backup. New local coal-fired power, as well as extension of the grid from an existing centralized power system, are considered to compare the impacts of scale and traditional approaches to power generation. A case study for a rural area in Northwestern China demonstrates the complexity of energy decision-making when faced with low peak demands and non-ideal renewable resource availability. Economic factors, including cost of electricity generation, breakeven grid extension distance, capacity shortage fraction (the ratio of the annual capacity shortage to the annual electric load) and land use are evaluated. - Highlights: • Considerations include technical and non-technical factors for energy decisions. • Coal and renewable power are compared based on cost and availability of resources. • Key factors for renewable power generation are capacity shortage and availability of resources. • Rural China case study evaluates the viability of distributed wind or solar power relative to coal

  6. Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Coronado Vázquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8 y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3, mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9 tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4 obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2 de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6 de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños (Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8 were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3 were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9 were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4 were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2 were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6 were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (<5,000 people, with OR = 1.49 (95%CI: 1.13-1.95 and OR = 1.33 (95%CI: 1.06-1.67, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas is very high and is even higher in towns with less than 5,000 inhabitants.

  7. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas. New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks. (author)

  8. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas: New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks.

  9. A Smart Teaching System for Autistic Children in Rural Area using MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available These The most challenging and stressful issue faced by schools and parents in efforts to provide appropriate education for autistic children .The purpose of this research work was to contribute to the knowledge and implementation of best practices for children with autism and normal children in rural area using manet. Autism is development disability that affects the normal functioning of brain. It means that children with autism think differently because brains work differently. They may have different talking, learning or playing ability. Many software systems are good enough for a class for normal children, but the autistic fail to understand the teaching methodology. Hence the autistic children face various challenges in combining with normal children in the same class. We implement the novel web based teaching system which takes care of the field of interest and taste among the autistic children of a class and helps the teacher to teach in a class in a effective way to understand the concept for normal and autistic children in rural area using manet .Every village will be connected to mobile access point, were MAP will connect the rural area with the central database server which is located in urban area to provide e-learning.

  10. Hypertension, a Neglected Disease in Rural and Urban Areas in Moramanga, Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratovoson, Rila; Rasetarinera, Ony Rabarisoa; Andrianantenaina, Ionimalala; Rogier, Christophe; Piola, Patrice; Pacaud, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In Madagascar, studies on hypertension in urban and rural communities are scarce. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and identify associated risk factors in adults living in a health and demographic system in Moramanga, Madagascar. Methods The study included people aged 15 years old and above living in a health and demographic system in Moramanga. A household census was performed in 2012 to enumerate the population in 3 communities in Moramanga. In addition to the questionnaire used in the initial census, a standardized questionnaire and blood pressure were taken twice after 5 and 10 minutes of rest. In urban areas, heights and weights were also measured to calculate the body mass index. Results There were 3621 and 4010 participants respectively in rural and urban areas. Prevalence of hypertension in rural population was 27.0% (IC95% [25.6–28.5]) and 29.7% (IC95% [28.3–31.1]) in urban population. Among hypertensive subjects, 1.7% (17/979) and 5.3% (64/1191) were on antihypertensive treatment for at least 1 month before the survey in rural and urban population, respectively. In rural areas, increasing age (65 years and older vs 18–25 years OR = 11.81, IC95% [7.79–18.07]), giving more than 3 positive responses to the usual risks factors of hypertension (OR = 1.67, IC95% [1.14–2.42]) and singles in comparison with married people (OR = 1.61, IC95% [1.20–2.17]) were associated to hypertension in a logistic regression model. In urban areas, increasing age (65 years and older vs 18–25 years OR = 37.54, IC95% [24.81–57.92]), more than 3 positive responses to the usual risks of hypertension (OR = 3.47, IC95% [2.58–4.67]) and obesity (OR = 2.45, IC95% [1.56–3.87]) were found as risk factors. Conclusion Hypertension is highly prevalent in rural areas although it is significantly less treated. As a result, a major epidemic of cardiovascular diseases is at risk in Madagascar’s progressively aging society. PMID:26355997

  11. Analysis of lifestyle of young adults in the rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; G?ód-Nawrocka, Marta; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek

    2012-03-23

    An unhealthy lifestyle among young people is a serious and often unnoticed problem. It seems that there are differences in the lifestyle of young people from rural and urban areas. The objective of this study was to compare eating habits and physical activity of young adults according to their body weight, gender and place of residence. The study involved a group of 18-year-olds from rural and urban environments. The study included 50% girls and 50% of boys in each group, selected by simple random sampling (SRS). The author-designed questionnaire evaluating the nutrition habits and physical activity was provided. It was found that in the group of boys the value of BMI was markedly higher than in girls. Compared to the normal weight, young overweight adults ate meals more frequency, the majority preferred meat dishes, more often ate under the stress, and had lower physical activity. It was found that gender had a significant impact on the studied parameters. The girls ate meals more frequent during the day, the majority preferred fruit and vegetable, but had lower physical activity than the boys. It was found that the young adults from the rural area preferred fast food and frequently ate sweets. Compared to the subjects from the urban environment, the young adults living in the countryside consumed fewer meals daily and were more physical active. About a half of the studied adults were not satisfied with their weight, and nearly 40% of the subjects in both groups admitted that they had made effective or ineffective attempts to lose weight. The lifestyles of young people in rural and urban areas were slightly different; however, dietary factors which predispose to weight gain were comparable in both groups. In the rural areas, the most frequent nutritional faults were a preference for fast food, frequent consumption of sweets, and few meals during the day. A positive aspect of the lifestyle of young people in the rural areas was a relatively high level of physical activity and the small effect of stress on excessive consumption. PMID:22462458

  12. Surveillance of Dengue Vectors Mosquito in Some Rural Areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabirul Bashar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24 week survey was conducted in some rural areas of Bangladesh and found a total of 256 positive containers and a total of 9415 larvae. In an average a 25.80% larvae positive containers were found in Malikanda and 8.00% in Dohar sadar. Aedes albopictus (Skuse were found in all the study areas, but Aedes aegypti were found only in Jahangirnagar campus (Savar and Zingera (Keranigonj areas. Percentage of positive houses was highest in Pachimde (35% and lowest in Jahangirnagar (6%. Aedes aegypti (L. larvae were found mainly in tyres, bamboo stumps earthen pots and coconut shells, whereas Aedes albopictus in all types of containers.

  13. Improving Women and Family’s Health through Integrated Microfinance, Health Education and Promotion in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Kahabi Ganka Isangula

    2012-01-01

    While increasing number of women enjoys more freedom and power in urban areas, women in rural areas are at a disadvantage in almost all aspects of life when compared to men. Investing in economic empowerment of women particularly in rural areas by supporting them to implement local context based business ideas and basic finance capacity and skills development may reverse these trends, however, when combined with heath education and promotion through trainings focusing on preventive health yie...

  14. From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Fjellheim

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer very difficult in the Røros area around 1867. Reindeer calves died as a result of the long and cold springs, and her father had to borrow money in order to buy more animals. When climatic conditions during the 1860s had such a dramatic impact on the population of wild reindeer, it must have had at least as great consequences in the Røros area during the 16th and 17th century. Even though the reindeer in nomadic times were very tame and under continuous supervision, the herds were left to graze freely on open lands. With the presence of a large population of wild reindeer close to the tame herds, the risk of losing reindeer would be great, especially during winter and in the mating season. The wild reindeer population in Røros would therefore have to be reduced, either before or in parallel to an increase in the number of tame reindeer. The climate contributed to this reduction, and the Sami took care of the rest as far as it was necessary. This could take place in parallel to the building up of herds of tame reindeer. According to the sources there were at least 6 Sami villages in the 17th century, from Tydal in the north to Østerdalen in the south, which kept herds of tame reindeer, and at the same time the Sami population was accused of extinguishing the wild reindeer. A picture emerges. In sum, we can see that circumstances at the time were in favour of a change in strategy, from a hunting-based economy to nomadic reindeer herding.

  15. Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinhas, Denise Martins

    2004-07-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

  16. Differentiating Countryside: Social Representations and Governance Patterns in Rural Areas with High Social Density--The Case of Chianti, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Gianluca; Rossi, Adanella

    2007-01-01

    One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt to…

  17. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anti? Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  18. Robust, multifunctional flood protection zones in the Dutch Rural Riverine area

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon-Steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews the possible functions of robust dikes in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands. It furthermore reviews and analyses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with robust, multifunctional flood defense zones in rural riverine zones. The study focused on recent plans and ideas for innovative dike reinforcement at five locations in the Netherlands, supplemented with information obtained in semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of the robust, multifunctional approach were identified as combined uses of limited space, a longer-term focus, and greater safety. The new approach offers opportunities as well, in particular, with regard to tasks, problems, and objectives related to infrastructure, land-use planning, nature and landscape protection, and development. These provide possibilities for co-financing as well.

  19. Chances of the new EU regional policy for rural (peripherical) areas : the case study of Leader

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Madalena Pires da; Maier, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The new tendencies on the EU regional policy, since the late nineties may represent a threat to the rural peripherical areas. The traditional integrated approaches of the development programmes are giving place to a project-support oriented policy. The financing plans result more and more from the total of the projects budgets. Under the "regional competitiveness" umbrella, this approach overemphasises though the economic vertices of the sustainability concept and a short term planning practi...

  20. A Tele-Health Communication and Information System for Underserved Children in Rural Areas of Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo Lasprilla, Sury; Valero Duboy, Miguel Ángel; Pau de la Cruz, Iván; Duarte de Villa, Jimena; Carrillo, Montserrat; Blandino, José R.

    2012-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals point out the necessity of actively promoting maternal-child health care status, especially in underserved areas. This article details the development actions carried out between 2008 and 2011 in some rural communities of Nicaragua with the aim to provide a low-cost tele-health communication service. The service is managed by the health care center of Cusmapa, which leads the program and maintains a communication link between its health staff and the health brigad...

  1. Determinants of contraceptive use among married women residing in rural areas of Belgaum

    OpenAIRE

    Padmaja Ravindra Walvekar

    2012-01-01

    Today the world population is around 7 billion and India harbours 1.2 billion. One of the reasons for uncontrolled growth of the population is unregulated fertility. Unregulated fertility many a times leads to unintended pregnancies leading to many unwanted or mistimed births. It is important to know the determinants of contraceptive use among married women. This cross sectional study was conducted from May 2008-May 2009, involving 2106 married women from rural area of Belgaum. Chi square tes...

  2. Using e-Health to Enable Culturally Appropriate Mental Healthcare in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Yellowlees, Peter; Marks, Shayna; Hilty, Don; Shore, Jay H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review relevant research issues in the provision of culturally appropriate e-mental healthcare and make recommendations for expanding and prioritizing research efforts in this area. A workshop was convened by the Office of Rural Mental Health Research (ORMHR) at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the Center for Reducing Health Disparities at the University of California, Davis, the California Telemedicine and e-Health Center, and the California ...

  3. Peculiarities of the New Architectural Interventions in Rural Area. Case Study: Trascau Depression, Alba County, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Viorel PUIU; Ana-Maria POP

    2010-01-01

    The new construction trends have manifested in the rural area, as well. The perpetuation of certain traditional elements represents a challenge for the beneficiaries of these houses. The new architectural adjustments introduced in the local architecture of the Trascau Depression have built the central idea of this paper. First of all, one distinguished an inventory of the building types and the applied changes according to the partial or complete restoration works, respecting the local urban ...

  4. Rural livelihood diversification and income inequality in local government area Akinyele, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adepoju Abimbola O.; Oyewole Olaniyi O.

    2014-01-01

    The pattern of income distribution has been a major concern in the developing world. This is because high levels of income inequality are likely to create a hostile atmosphere for economic growth and development. This study examined rural livelihood strategies and their contribution to the overall income inequality of households in Akinyele local government area of Oyo state. Primary data employed in the study were obtained from 105 respondents selected thr...

  5. Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JJ, Schoeman.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in [...] children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The activated alumina and reverse osmosis processes are both processes that can be very effectively applied for water defluoridation. The activated alumina process, however, is considered to be a more simple and robust process for water defluoridation, especially in a rural area. Therefore, the activated alumina process was selected for water defluoridation. An activated alumina plant was designed, constructed and commissioned in the rural area. Fluoride in the feed water is removed from 6 to 8 mg/? to less than 1.5 mg/?. No reduction in plant output was experienced over 6 service cycles. Therefore, it appears that fouling of the activated alumina should not be a problem. Plant output varied between 940 and 1 296 m³ to a fluoride breakthrough of approximately 2.0 mg/?. No significant operational problems were experienced during commissioning and the plant is performing satisfactorily. Spent regenerant is disposed of into evaporation ponds. It was demonstrated that a 1st world technology could be effectively applied in a rural area with proper training and supervision of the operators. The capital and operational costs of the 200 m³/d defluoridation plant are estimated at approximately R1.2m. and R0.7/m³ treated water.

  6. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; de Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues; Maria Anice Mureb SALLUM

    2014-01-01

    Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern sta...

  7. Applications of biomass Stirling engines for electrification -A case study of rural areas in Bolivia.

    OpenAIRE

    Arco Sola, Javier; Nelson, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a study and a simulation of a feasible system configuration for the implementation of a Stirling engine for electrification of rural areas in Bolivia. The aim of the review is to determine if a hybrid system combining a biomass-fired Stirling engine and photovoltaic technology may respond to a basic electricity need. An introductory literature study about the Stirling engine technology and the energy resources and characteristics of Bolivia leads to a further proposal of ...

  8. Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, R.

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important source of support for the social integration of new immigrant groups. Although the bonding social capital associated with evangelical communities is arg...

  9. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREA IN ROMANIA XXI

    OpenAIRE

    P. I. OTIMAN

    2008-01-01

    The present paper intends to design a strategy for the sustainable development of the Romanian agriculture and rural area, to identify the main modalities to reach the strategic objectives for the years 2013, 2020 and 2030. Romania needs a multifunctional and competitive agriculture, which is also complementary to the agriculture of the other European Union countries. Main decisions have to be taken with regard to the support to the different agricultural systems under competition, among whic...

  10. A comparative study between met & unmet need groups of contraception in rural area of Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha M Solanki; Chavan Mansi K. Chavan; Velhal Gajanan D; Mehul T. Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare met & unmet need groups of contraception with socio-economic, demographic, accessibility & family Planning (FP) related factors. Methods Community based cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among 363 married women of reproductive age groups in rural area selected by stratified simple random technique. After collecting preliminary information, the study population then divided into two groups based on their contraceptive use i.e. MET Group & UNMET NEED Groups...

  11. Framework for utilizing angling as a tourism development tool in rural areas.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 55, ?. 10 (2009), s. 508-518. ISSN 0139-570X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB300860902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rural areas * development * angling Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-72349089553&origin=resultslist&sort

  12. Assessment of welfare living and public law with an emphasis on rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Ehrami; Hassan Houshyar

    2013-01-01

    Today, the quality of life is the main objective of all planning which is produced by the thinkers and planners. Problems is faced our rural areas challenges such as, weak sources of income, loss of opportunity and good job opportunities and housing instability. Present study seeks to answer the question how is the quality of life of the sample? How been it spatial distribution the quality of the sample villages? Research method is descriptive - analytical with an emphasis on the questionnair...

  13. CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL SUBSISTENCE SMALL HOLDER LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF NWFP, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    R. N. Khan and R. H. Usmani

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted in the rural mountainous areas of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan to characterize small holder’s subsistence livestock production system. Livestock farmers (n=82) were interviewed in 16 villages of Batagram and Mansehra districts. The farmers were keeping on an average 4 buffalos, 1 cattle, 12 sheep or 13 goats per household. More than 94% farmers were keeping 4 buffaloes per household as compared to only 40% keeping 1 or 2 cattle. Buffaloes were main dairy anim...

  14. Prevalence and clinical manifestations of rotavirus diarrhea in children of rural area of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol; Lakkana Rerksuppaphol

    2011-01-01

    Introduction/ Background: Rotavirus diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death. It is a major concern in emerging nations. Many studies and analysis were executed for genetic assessment of rotavirus, however, very few studies from Thailand focused on clinical manifestation.Aim: To estimate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of rotavirus diarrhoea among children of Ongkaluck district, Nakorn Nayok rural area of Thailand.Method: Children aged ? 7 with acute diarrhoea as presenting symp...

  15. Risk factors for preterm birth: a case-control study in rural area of western China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhou, Min; Chen, Lijun; Hao, Bo; Zhao, Gengli

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in China, the study is to learn risk factors for preterm birth in rural area of western China. A 1:1 case-control study in which cases included the pregnant women of preterm birth and controls included the matched pregnant women of normal deliver was conducted in 5 counties in western China. Data about the general situation, pregnancy history, reproductive health infection (RTI) symptoms, pregnancy complications, et al we...

  16. The Illegal Dumping of Waste in Forest Areas - Evidence from Rural Territory

    OpenAIRE

    Lamasanu, Andreea; Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2012-01-01

    Household waste generated is often uncolleted in rural areas causing various types of pollution like: air and water pollution, soil pollution and the aesthetic degradation of the landscape. The environmental legislation proposed by the European Union was transposed on the national legislation but the implementation process was difficult because of particular situations encountered in practice. Rudimentary infrastructure of waste management and limited access to waste collection services lead ...

  17. A method for water disinfection with solar pasteurisation for rural areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Erika

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the water situation in rural areas of Bangladesh, a research group at the University of Dhaka has been developing low cost domestic methods to remove pathogens from surface water through pasteurisation using free solar energy. Pasteurisation is a process in which water is heated to approximately 60 °C and maintained for about 30 minutes to destroy pathogens. In these methods, the water is also exposed to UV-light from the sunshine, which causes destruction of diarrhoeal pa...

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF UNDER - NUTRITION IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS FROM RURAL AREAS OF DEHRADUN

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Luthra; Surekha Kishore; Kajal Jain

    2010-01-01

    Background: Under nutrition is a major problem in India. This is a study conducted in rural catchment areas of Department of Community Medicine, SGRRMC, Dehradun to asses the same. Objectives: To find out prevalence of under nutrition in children in the age group of 0-5 years and also to study its epidemiological correlates. Methods :All registered children of RHTC Mothrowala during October to December2009 were studied. Detailed histories were taken & growth chartingwas done using growth ...

  19. A roadmap for rural area ICT solution deployment : a case of Kgautswane community in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ngassam, Ernest Ketcha; Ntawanga, Felix; Eloff, Jan H.P.

    2013-01-01

    The need to introduce technologies in rural areas so as to capacitate communities towards overcoming various socio-economic challenges remains a priority in emerging economies. We rely on the foregoing for the investigation in the Kgautswane community in South Africa, of a range of socio-economic challenges that can be addressed through ICT. Identified challenges are further filtered for the selection of an appropriate intervention based on previous experience in the community. Th...

  20. Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeman, J.J. (Jakob Johannes)

    2009-01-01

    The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The activated alumina and reverse ...

  1. Nature and landscape sustainability in Portuguese rural areas: Which role for farming external benefits valorisation?

    OpenAIRE

    Madureira, Lívia

    2004-01-01

    Traditional farming systems are declining rapidly in Portugal. These labour intensive and low productivity systems are incompatible with depopulation and ageing of rural areas. This lack of socio-economic sustainability endangers nature and landscape conservation. Agri-environmental measures, applied in European Union since 1994, can be seen as potential answer to that problem in the Portuguese case. But to be effective, these measures need to be part of an integrated strategy directed to mit...

  2. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number ...

  3. The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. M. Hossain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

  4. Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility.

  5. Study of the radioactivity of drinking water in rural uraniferous area : Cases of Vinaninkarena and its surrounding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to determine the radioactivity by using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) and to study the distrubition of radionuclides in drinking water from the Vinaninkarena region. The activities of radium and radon, the excess of short half life radionuclides with regard to radon are obtained from Maxilight cocktail. The alpha/beta total radioactivity is measured with OptiPhase Hisafe cocktail. The values obtained vary from (10±3)Bq.l-1 to (69+-3)Bq.l-1 for the 226Ra, from (24±5)Bq.l-1 to (183±5)Bq.l-1 for the excess of radon, from (134±5)Bq.l-1 to (1442±9)Bq.l-1 for the short half life radionuclides and from (106±26) Bq.l-1 to (479±29)Bq.l-1 for the long half life total alpha/beta activities. These results show that radioactivities in drinking waters from the region are high, especially for the short half life radionuclides. Drinking the waters immediately after the collect from well or natural sources may increase the ionising radiation exposure.

  6. Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were 137Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

  7. Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613 of Sri Lanka in 2002. The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN, median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. Results The overall incidence of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 – 2168 per 100,000 across GNs. Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003 and low levels of education (p Conclusion Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data.

  8. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities between the poor and the non-poor in urban areas of SSA. Specific policies geared at preferentially improving the health and nutrition of the urban poor should be implemented, so that while targeting the best attainable average level of health, reducing gaps between population groups is also on target. To successfully monitor the gaps between urban poor and non-poor, existing data collection programs such as the DHS and other nationally representative surveys should be re-designed to capture the changing patterns of the spatial distribution of population.

  9. Self-Interest in Innovation Diffusion Decision Process : The Case of Extending Broadband Internet Services to Rural Areas of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit; Gyaase, Patrick Ohemeng Kwadwo

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the factors that would facilitate the diffusion and adoption of broadband internet services in rural areas using the internet café business model. The rural areas of developing countries are predominantly ignored or underserved with broadband Internet connectivity. However in the cities, the internet café business model has been a major driver in the diffusion of the internet services. This paper adopts an exploratory approach to investigate why Internet café entrepreneurs do not supply internet services to rural areas. It also explores the factors that would stimulate investments from the same who are currently investing in internet services provisioning in the cities. Ghana is used as a case study by surveying 25 Internet Café operators. The analysis of the data collected facilitated self-interest assessment and its influences on the decision for broadband service diffusion and adoption in the rural areas using the internet café business model.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC CULTURE IN TERMS OF REGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gra?yna Krzyminiewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article Development of Economic Culture in terms of regional differentiation of rural areas relates to the issue of individualisation of development policies in the area of creating economic culture. Pointing to the nature and significance of economic culture as a factor of economic development, the author advocates a focus on some of the support instruments in order to influence its shape, taking into account Polish regional differences. The article uses the achievements of economic and sociological research based on the methodology of desk research and the use of its own research achievements.

  11. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

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    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  12. Analysis on Imbalance of Family Intergenerational Exchange in China Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In China rural area, intergenerational exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring is uneven. Parents pay much more than the return they’ll get when they’re old, which mainly relates to the utilities of children. In countryside, the utilities of children (especially sons manifest in following aspects: continuing the family line, emotional comfort, laborer and supporting for old age. To some extent, these factors influence the rural intergenerational injustice respectively and together. From the prospective of trend of social and economic development, the caring of the retired will be taken by social insurance system; the intergeneration exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring will no longer be a social issue, but in the vast rural areas, the influence of traditional culture family lineage is still powerful. The need of caring of the old becomes so weak that emotional effect becomes much more urgent. The weak status of the old generation bring the fathers’ generation in a weak social status, which seriously affect the living conditions of the old generations. Therefore, when focusing the caring issue in the country, besides that we should ensure the old be cared materially, what matters most is keep the balance between the exchanging two sides

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG THE WOMEN OF RURAL AND URBAN AREAS OF RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Rehman; HumeraIshaq; Ammar Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to document the prevalence of use of Contraceptives among the rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Specific objectives were to identify the percentage of women using contraceptive, to document different methods used for contraception, to assess the knowledge regarding contraception and to identify the reasons of use and non-use between rural and urban areas of the Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 200females were recruited to assess the use of contraceptives from different ...

  14. A Comparative Study of Language Instructional Delivery System between Nursery Schools in Rural and Urban Areas in Osun State

    OpenAIRE

    Odejobi, Cecilia Omobola

    2014-01-01

    The study compared the language instructional delivery system between the nursery schools in rural and urban areasin Osun state. The population consisted of all the nursery school teachers in Osun state. Proportionate randomsampling was used to prune down the population. In all 130 nursery school teachers, 68 in urban areas and 62 in ruralareas served as respondents of the study selected from 30 nursery schools located in rural and urban areas. Aresearcher made instrument named Teachers’ Ques...

  15. Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixt A. Bijker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbeing. We provide empirical evidence for this urban–rural interconnection, using results from a survey in the Netherlands. In addition to their attachment to local and regional green places, survey results show that residents of the capital city of Amsterdam have a high appreciation of a wide range of natural, rural places throughout the country. We argue that these (until now invisible urban–rural ties should be made more visible because these natural areas enjoyed by urban residents can no longer be taken for granted. Financial and other support for nature conservation are therefore needed. However, to organise support for nature can often be problematic because nature is a public good and collective action is often difficult to launch. The invisible and distant ties of urban dwellers for rural areas complicate the task even more. Nevertheless, it is increasingly recognised that the Internet opens many doors for community building and may help to overcome the “illogic” of collective action. In the research project “Sympathy for the Commons”, we aim to investigate the possibilities provided by the internet by building online communities around nature areas and enquiring into the available support and funding that these communities can provide.

  16. TRADE AND RESTAURANT BUSINESS SPHERE IN RURAL AREAS OF UKRAINE: STATE, PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bulakh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural social infrastructure is the material and organizational basis for satisfaction of vital needs of population. However, unsatisfactory economic and social conditions influence the extinction of village, extend the continuous unsettled zones of rural territories, scatter and reduce the level of provision of social infrastructure objects. In order to stop the negative processes in social infrastructures of village, the complex of measures in relation to the improvement of maintenance of villagers should be taken, the practical steps for saving and increasing the material base of social infrastructure should be worked out, in particular trade and restaurant economy.The article is concerned with research of the current situation in trade and restaurant economy in rural areas of Ukraine and determination of the problems of their development. The statistical analysis of data from the State committee of statistics was conducted, the indexes of development were calculated, a structural analysis was performed and basic progress of trade and restaurant economy trends in rural areas was determined.It is educed that the consumption market of rural locality in Ukraine is characterized by a limit of goods assortment, by in-depth tendency in relation to the problem of goods’ quality and its correspondence to the standards of food safety, by low purchasing power of villagers, and also by closing of retails’ networks.As for restaurant economy, it is well-proven that the change of the system of administrative management resulted in the redistribution of rights and duties of regional administrations and their vertical relations with central government bodies and enterprise structures. In the past the chain development, providing separate contingents of employees and students, was centrally planned. At present, when considerable amount of industrial enterprises has stopped working and the objects of social infrastructure became the communal property, regulation of food supply is controlled neither by the management of industrial enterprises nor by local authorities. Therefore, the development of restaurant economy under the new conditions requires the modernization of control system both on nation-wide and regional levels and at the level of separate enterprises and organizations.Thus, use of new approaches to management of trade and restaurant economy development, improving the state regulation methods will allow to renew and strengthen infrastructural potential, optimize financial flows, increase the level of satisfaction of respective necessities of rural population on this basis, promote the role of industries in providing the complex of social development of regions, to create background for attracting the investments.

  17. The Sensing Internet : A Discussion on Its Impact on Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of introducing wireless sensor networks (WSNs) into the building industry in Denmark and in a rural area of Greenland. There are very real advantages in the application of the technology and its consequences for the life cycle operation of the building sector. Sensor networks can be seen as an important part of the Internet of Things and may even constitute an Internet of Sensors, since the communication layers can differ from the Internet standards. The current paper describes the case for application, followed by a discussion of the observed adaptive advantages and consequences of the technology. Essentially, WSNs constitute a highly sophisticated technology that is more robust in a rural context due to its extremely simple installation procedures (plug and play) allowing the use of local less-skilled labour, and the possibility of reconfiguring and repurposing its use remotely.

  18. A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON CHOICE OF HEALTH CARE FACILITY IN RURAL AREAS OF KRISHNA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Government is trying to deliver health services to as many numbers of people as possible. The extent to which these health services are utilized by the public is to be estimated. OBJECTIVES: 1. to study the extent of utilization of health services in rural areas of Krishna district. 2. To study the factors influencing the utilization of health services in Krishna district. SAMPLE SIZE: 600, calculated by the formula, 4pq/ L.2 STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional, descriptive. METHODOLOGY: thirty rural clusters are randomly selected and 20 adults from each cluster are interviewed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: percentages. RESULTS: 1. Utilization of services from private health care facility is more. 2. People are utilizing services from private health care facility due to belief in doctor.

  19. Design for renewable energy systems with application to rural areas in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study uses optimization modeling to study efficient ways to integrate renewable energy systems to provide electricity and heat in rural Japan. The model provides minimum cost system configuration and operation taking into account hour-by-hour energy availability and demand. Grid electricity is available to rural areas of Japan, but it is relatively expensive. Local renewable energy generation can be economic while using grid electricity to compensate for the intermittency of the renewable generation. In the model, renewable electricity can be provided by a combination of wind, photovoltaic, and biomass. Heat can be provided by petroleum, LPG, and geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). We find that due to the relatively high cost of grid electricity, there is significant penetration of wind generation. In turn, the penetration of wind creates economic conditions that encourage GHP penetration. The integrated renewable system reduces the annual cost of the entire system by 31%, and reduces the carbon emissions by 50%. (author)

  20. RURAL AREA OF MARAMURE? SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND PRACTICE OF VARIOUS FORMS OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA SIMONA SIMION

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rural Area of Maramure? Support for the Development and Practice of Various Forms of Tourism. In Maramure? the tourist can find a comprehensive tourist offer based on the diversity of tourism potential, natural and anthropogenic, which can be exploited throughout the year regardless of the season for all age groups. Here are all types of tourism (recreational, cultural, curative and mixed, conducted under various forms, the importance of this is variable spatial and temporal through the volume of tourists and socio-economic effects induced. The predominant types of tourism are cultural and recreeativ tourism, this are associated with most forms of tourism (rural tourism, sports tourism, religious tourism, school, etc..

  1. Utility of a thematic network in primary health care: a controlled interventional study in a rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coma del Corral, Maria Jesús; Abaigar Luquín, Pedro; Cordero Guevara, José; Olea Movilla, Angel; Torres Torres, Gerardo; Lozano Garcia, Javier

    2005-01-01

    Background UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU). It supports a virtual multidisciplinary community for physicians, focused on the improvement of clinical practice. This is a study of the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, specifically as a platform of communication between specialists at the hospital and doctors in the rural area. Methods In order to study the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, we designed an interventional study that included a control group. The measurements included the number of patient displacements due to disease, number of patient hospital stays and the number of prescriptions of drugs of low therapeutic utility and generic drug prescriptions by doctors. These data were analysed and compared with those of the control center. Results Our study showed positive changes in medical practice, reflected in the improvement of the evaluated parameters in the rural health area where the interventional study was carried out, compared with the control area. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of UniNet as a potential medium to improve the quality of medical care in rural areas. Conclusion The rural doctors had an effective, useful, user-friendly and cheap source of medical information that may have contributed to the improvement observed in the medical quality indices. PMID:16042778

  2. Utility of a thematic network in primary health care: a controlled interventional study in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Torres Gerardo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU. It supports a virtual multidisciplinary community for physicians, focused on the improvement of clinical practice. This is a study of the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, specifically as a platform of communication between specialists at the hospital and doctors in the rural area. Methods In order to study the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, we designed an interventional study that included a control group. The measurements included the number of patient displacements due to disease, number of patient hospital stays and the number of prescriptions of drugs of low therapeutic utility and generic drug prescriptions by doctors. These data were analysed and compared with those of the control center. Results Our study showed positive changes in medical practice, reflected in the improvement of the evaluated parameters in the rural health area where the interventional study was carried out, compared with the control area. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of UniNet as a potential medium to improve the quality of medical care in rural areas. Conclusion The rural doctors had an effective, useful, user-friendly and cheap source of medical information that may have contributed to the improvement observed in the medical quality indices.

  3. Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Olivier; M, Urban; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; D, Viljoen.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is common in parts of South Africa; rural residence is a frequently cited risk factor. We conducted a FAS school prevalence survey of an isolated rural community in a West Coast village of Western Cape Province, so obtaining the first directly measured rate, [...] focusing specifically on a South African rural area, of FAS and partial FAS (PFAS). METHODS: The study area (Aurora village), a community of about 2 500 people in a grain-producing region, has one primary school. All learners were eligible for study inclusion. Initial anthropometry screening was followed by a diagnostic stage entailing examination by a dysmorphologist for features of FAS, neurodevelopmental assessment, and an interview assessing maternal alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Of 160 learners screened, 78 (49%) were screen-positive, of whom 63 (81%) were clinically assessed for FAS. The overall FAS/PFAS rate among the screened learners was 17.5% (95% confidence interval 12.0 - 24.2%), with 16 (10.0%) children having FAS and 12 (7.5%) PFAS. High rates of stunting, underweight and microcephaly were noted in all learners, especially those with FAS or PFAS. Five (18%) mothers of affected children were deceased by the time of assessment. CONCLUSION: We describe very high rates of FAS/PFAS in an isolated rural part of the Western Cape that is not located in a viticultural region. Our study suggests that the prevalence of FAS may be very high in isolated communities, or in particular hot-spots. It adds to the growing evidence that FAS/PFAS is a significant, and underestimated, health problem in South Africa. Expanded screening and surveillance programmes, and preventive interventions, are urgently needed

  4. Analysis of airborne particulate matter collected in urban and rural area by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED IN URBAND AND RURAL AREA BY INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. This report presents the work of monitoring study on air particulate matter (PMs) in Indonesia on the period of 2002 to 2004. The PMs were collected at two sampling site that represented an urban and rural area using Gent stacked air sampler for 24 hours, once a month for each sampling point. Fine and coarse fractions of PMs were collected. The PMs deposited on a filter were measured for mass concentration and were analyzed for elemental concentration by using INAA. Irradiation of filters were carried out at GA. Siwabessy reactor and were counted by high-resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The PM10 analysis resulted shows that the range of PM10 for rural site was 5.5 ?g.m-3 to 46.9 ?g.m-3 while PM10 for urban site was 12.0 ?g.m-3 to 93.1 ?g.m-3. About 17 elements of Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, I, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, V and Zn were analyzed through short and long irradiation of INAA. Among, the elements of Al, Br, Cl, Fe and Na were found at mayor component. The pollutants of Fe, V, Sb, Cr, Zn and Co were higher at urban site compare to the rural site. It could be conclude that the mean of 24 hours PM10 and mean annual of fine fraction were still below the PMs National Standard for both sampling sites. The INAA technique could be used to control the pollutant concentration on environmental sample. (author)

  5. Chapter D. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems in the Willamette River Basin and Surrounding Area, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Johnson, Henry M.; Hughes, Curt A.; Sarantou, Michael J.; Rinella, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 watersheds along a gradient of urbanization in the Willamette River basin and surrounding area, Oregon and Washington, from 2003 through 2005. The study that generated the report is one of several urban-effects studies completed nationally by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural variability caused by factors such as geology, elevation, and climate, and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among watersheds. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, a combination of land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated into a multimetric urban intensity index (UII) to represent the degree of urban development in each watershed. Physical characteristics studied include stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied include sulfate, chloride, nutrients, pesticides, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, and suspended sediment; and biological characteristics studied include algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages. Semipermeable membrane devices, passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization and (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities. Common effects documented in the literature of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased contaminants, increased streamflow flashiness, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure toward a more tolerant community associated with organically enriched conditions, generally were observed in this study. The strongest correlations to the UII and to many of the algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage metrics and community ordination involved water-chemistry metrics including the total pesticide concentration, toxic equivalents (extract assay from semipermeable membrane devices), and dissolved oxygen. Hydrologic variability metrics, such as flashiness, that normally are considered to be one of the main processes of urban disturbance had a strong association to the algal and fish assemblages in this study; however, the hydrologic variables for macroinvertebrates were secondary to the water-chemistry metrics mentioned above. Generally, the high urban intensity sites had high abundances of eutrophic and lower dissolved oxygen-indicating diatoms, high abundances of noninsects and tolerant insects, and high abundances of nonnative fish species. On the other hand, the low urban intensity sites had higher abundances of pollution sensitive diatoms, larger numbers of the sensitive macroinvertebrate EPT taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera Orders), and fish assemblages with higher abundances of sensitive salmonids. The percent salmonid and macroinvertebrate EPT richness metrics plotted against the UII indicated a possible threshold response at about 25 on the UII, which is equivalent to an impervious surface value of about 5 percent. However, due to the added agricultural land use at sites within the 25 to 60 UII range, this possible threshold probably is not solely due to urbanization, but a combination of urban and agricultural land use. The effects of agricultural and urban land use could not be distinguished from each other, yet combined they provide a good assessment of overall watershed disturbance.

  6. A Framework for Providing E-Services to the Rural Areas using Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Sayeed, Sabit Anjum; Ahmed, Farruk; Hong, Choong Seon

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the proliferation of mobile computing devices has driven a revolutionary change in the computing world. The nature of ubiquitous devices makes wireless networks the easiest solution for their interconnection. This has led to the rapid growth of several wireless systems like wireless ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks etc. In this paper we have proposed a framework for rural development by providing various e-services to the rural areas with the help of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We have discussed how timely and accurate information could be collected from the rural areas using wireless technologies. In addition to this, we have also mentioned the technical and operational challenges that could hinder the implementation of such a framework in the rural areas in the developing countries.

  7. Agente comunitário de saúde: desafios do trabalho na zona rural / Community health agents: the challenges of working in the rural area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renan Almeida, Baptistini; Tulio Alberto Martins de, Figueiredo.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de abordagem qualitativa objetivando conhecer os desafios do trabalho dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde na zona rural de Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar se estes ACS, no atendimento das demandas dos usuários rurais, além de suas atividades instituídas, buscam formas diferenciadas de prod [...] uzir a sua prática. A produção do material do estudo se deu através de entrevistas e da observação. A Análise Institucional norteou a análise deste estudo. O extenso território de abrangência das USF, a grande dispersão demográfica, os acessos distantes e difíceis aos domicílios, as formas de locomoção, os animais e as visitas domiciliares no período da colheita do café foram os principais desafios do cotidiano laboral do ACS rural. Diante destes desafios e na obrigação de cumprir as ações instituídas, os ACS rurais de Jerônimo Monteiro inovam e buscam formas diferenciadas de produzir a sua prática. Abstract in spanish Este estudio cualitativo busca identificar los retos de la labor de los trabajadores de salud comunitarios en las zonas rurales Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar si estos ACS, para satisfacer las demandas de los usuarios rurales y sus actividades instituyó, buscando diferentes maneras de producir [...] su práctica. La producción del material de estudio se recogió a través de entrevistas y observación. El Análisis Institucional guiado el análisis de este estudio. La amplia cobertura de la USF territorio, la gran dispersión demográfica, la distante y difícil de acceder a viviendas, formas de locomoción, los animales y las visitas domiciliarias durante la cosecha de café fueron los principales desafíos de la labor diaria de la campo ACS. Ante estos retos y la obligación de cumplir con las medidas impuestas, la ACS rural Jerônimo Monteiro innovar y buscar diferentes maneras de producir su práctica. Abstract in english The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify the challenges Community Health Workers (CHW) face in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro - ES and assess whether in the course of meeting the demands of rural health service users, CHWs seek different ways of carrying out their activities, over [...] and above institutionalized practice. The study material was collected through interviews and observation, following an Institutional Analysis perspective. The extension of the Family Health Unit (FHU), its large demographic dispersion, the fact that homes are distant and difficult to access, forms of locomotion, animals, and home visits during the coffee harvest constituted the main challenges of the daily work of CHWs in rural areas. Given these challenges and the need to fulfil with their assigned activities, CHWs working in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro innovate and seek different ways to develop their practice.

  8. Urinary iodine concentrations in urban and rural areas around Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2007, we screened urinary iodine (UI) concentrations in urban (Gomel city) and in rural areas (Hoiniki city) of the Gomel Region, Republic of Belarus, which was heavily contaminated by the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in order to evaluate the current state of iodine supplementation in these areas. Median levels of UI were 220.5 ?g/L (151.5-358.5) ?g/L in Gomel city, and 228.0 ?g/L (130.0-337.5) ?g/L in Hoiniki city. Urinary concentrations in Gomel city were significantly improved, as compared to our previous results in 2000 (p<0.001). There were no differences of UI concentrations between Gomel city and Hoiniki city (p=0.39), and none of the samples showed moderate (<50 ?g/L) or severe (<20 ?g/L) iodine deficiency in either city. These results suggest that the state of iodine supplementation has improved in rural areas, as well as in urban areas in the Republic of Belarus, probably due to appropriate fortification of iodized salt in this region. (author)

  9. Is Tourism in Zimbabwe Developing with the Poor in Mind? Assessing the Pro-poor Involvement of Tourism Operators Located Near Rural Areas in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarudzai Mutana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the contribution of tourism industry operators to pro-poor tourism development in Zimbabwe. This research investigates a possible nexus between the aforementioned tourism growth and its potential for poverty reduction in communities surrounding Victoria Falls and Hwange. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with tourism industry businesses that exhibited their products and services at the International Travel Expo held on the 18th- 21st of October 2012 at the Harare International Conference Centre in Zimbabwe. Findings indicate that the tourism industry is keen to engage in pro-poor tourism initiatives for the rural people despite the political and economic turmoil that the industry has suffered over the past years. In Zimbabwe, 80% of the population resides in rural areas and a sizable fraction of these are near National Parks and Tourism Resorts, for example, Hwange National Park, the biggest Park in Zimbabwe and Victoria Falls, respectively. The findings point to the fact that tourism operators appreciate the need to incorporate pro-poor initiatives in their operations as evidenced by their commitment towards education funding initiatives, employment of the poor and generation of income from village tours. However more could be done to enhance the pro-poor tourism benefits that accrue to the rural poor by establishing close linkages between tourism operators and local communities.

  10. CRIMES AND DISTRIBUTION OF CRIMES IN THE RURAL AREAS OF TURKEY (1997

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    Kadir TEMURÇ?N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Crime is a phenomenon which results from the interaction between social, political, economic, physical, psychological conditions and geographical agents. Geographical site is important in the event of crime. Security forces should first know the geographical sites in order to protect people and then know the socio-economic aspects of the site in which crime occurs. This article aims at studying crimes, types of crimes, spatial analysis of crimes, the geographical factors which affect the crimes in rural areas (areas that are out of provinces and municipalities which account for 92% of Turkey. The study of “1997 Rural Envantery” which presents the problems of rural settlements and population is the data base of this article. In this study, crimes and their aspects have been examined in 37.368 villages and 922 towns which are affiliated with 80 provinces in 1997. 31.430 crimes occured in the rural areas of Turkey in that period. As a result of these events, 990 people were killed and 2.145 people were injured. Crime rate in coastal areas is higher than that in inner areas. In terms of the number of crimes and injures, Black Sea Region has the highest rate whereas Eastern Anatolia has the highest rate in terms of death rates. In terms of the number of events in every 100.000 people, Eastern Anatolia has the highest crime and death rates while Black Sea Region has the highest rate of injury. There are regional differences both when crimes are propotioned to the population and when types of crimes are taken into consideration. In terms of the types of crimes, abduction of girls, land conflicts and forestry crimes are the highest in Black Sea Region, while water conflicts in the Mediterranean Region and blood feud in Eastern Anatolia are common. In terms of crimes for per 100.000, the highest rates are: land conlicts and forestry crimes in Black Sea Region, abduction of girls in Marmara Region, water conflicts in Mediterranean Region, blood feud in Eastern Anatolia.

  11. Biodiversity conservation, ecotourism and rural liverlihoods in protected areas. Case study :the Mount Cameroon National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Nkengfack, Susan Nkendem

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in the South West Province of Cameroon, specifically in the Mount Cameroon Region which encompasses the Mount Cameroon National park and its surrounding villages. The aim of the study was to assess how ecotourism is used as a tool to conserve the rich biodiversity of this area while improving the livelihoods of the local people and fostering development in the local communities. Focus was on the activities of the Mount Cameroon Inter-communal Ecotourism Board (Mt. C...

  12. Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

  13. Relationships Between Agritourism and Certified Quality Food in Italian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLA GALLUZZO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 1960, farms are one of the alternatively forms of hospitality in few Italian regions located predominately in the north and in the centre of peninsula. In 1985, Italian government promulgated a law in order to regulate this non-conventional form of tourism, by delegating to the regions the direct management of administrative procedures and inspections in farms. Nowadays, Italian agritourist farms represent a good chance to give value in favour of farm by the diversification of agrarian activities and also by holistically promoting local food in a direct connection to local gastronomy, rural heritage and tradition, with positive effects on the endogenous development in rural areas. The aim of the paper was to assess the role of agritourism in raising the socio-economic development of rural space by the diffusion of certified quality food using a quantitative approach and to assess if agritourist and certified quality food were tools able to implement the living conditions in the countryside. The findings have disclosed that tourists from abroad have increased the level of farmer income giving value towards high quality food and farm holidays farms. Instead, the impact of Italian agritourists has been relatively poor because of the economic crisis.

  14. Formação dos profissionais das áreas de ciências agrárias em segurança do trabalho rural / Preparation of professionals in the area of agrarian sciences regarding safety in rural work

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adilson Luiz, Seifert; Débora Cristina, Santiago.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar se os futuros profissionais que serão engajados ao mercado de trabalho têm recebido orientações e treinamentos para atuar na questão da segurança no trabalho rural e estabelecer relações entre a formação profissional e a informação levada aos produtores rurais. [...] Foi utilizado como instrumento de pesquisa um questionário aplicado a 209 produtores/trabalhadores rurais, 156 discentes formandos, da área de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina e 75 discentes do Colégio Agrícola Estadual Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR). A coleta dos dados foi realizada nos meses de junho, julho e agosto de 2006. Os resultados mostraram que tanto os produtores/trabalhadores rurais como os futuros profissionais não estão conscientizados com relação à segurança no trabalho rural. Portanto, tornar a disciplina Segurança e Higiene do Trabalho Rural obrigatória nos currículos dos cursos da área de Ciências Agrárias, colocar em prática a prevenção de acidentes ocupacionais no meio rural e realizar uma reciclagem contínua dos profissionais que atuam na área, por meio de treinamentos e do acesso a informações atualizadas que poderiam se apresentar como alternativas para a prevenção de acidentes na área rural. Abstract in english The present paper had the objective of checking if the professional who will be engaged in the job market had received proper orientation and training to act in rural working safety, to establish relations between professional orientation and the information which will be given to rural growers. As [...] research instrument, a questionnaire was used and applied to 209 growers and farm works, 156 graduated students of crop science at the Londrina State University and 75 students of the Agriculture High School Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR). The data were collected during the months of June, July, and August 2006. The results showed that neither the farm works and growers nor the students were conscious of safety in rural labor. Therefore, we suggest the inclusion of the course Safety and Hygiene in Rural Labor in the core curriculum for the preparation of crop science students. It is also necessary to put into practice the rules of occupation accident prevention for rural labor and a permanent recycling of professionals working in this area through training program and access to current information to be alternatives in preventing accidents become a necessity.

  15. INTESTINAL PARASITIC PREVALENCE IN RURAL AREA CHILDREN MOBARAKEH-ISFAHAN -1997

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    M BAGHAEI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: intestinal parasitic infection is considered as one of the important health indices and the differences in it"s prevalence in different communities, explain the need for the periodical study of the prevalence inorder to organize, convenient preventative programs. previous studies have shown that prevalence of parasitic infection in rural areas is higher than urban areas. Therefore in this survey for the first time, the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to some of the demographic parameters was studied in rural areas of the city of mobarakeh of Isfahan province in 1997. Methods: Two methods were used to detect the presence of intestinal parasites; direct exam and fecalcontrate system: formalin ethyl acetate method. The scotch tape method was used to examin for Enterobius vermicularis. Results: 51.9 percent of the studied children were infected by one or several intestinal parasites. The most prevalent intestinal parasite was Giardia lamblia (29.8 percent, Entamoeba coli (17.1 percent and Enterobius vermicularis(16.3 percent respectively. A significant relation was found between age, level of education of mother and father, weight at birth, number of children in the family, and parasitic infections (P< percentS. No significant relationship was observed between sex and parasitic infections (P> percentS. Discussion: A comparison between the present results and those reported previously indicates that there is not a significant differences between the prevalence of parasitic infection in rural and urban parts of Isfahan province. Intestinal parasitic infections is still an important health problem in the region and the control and prevention demands more consideration of authorities.

  16. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors influenced diurnal periodicity of airborne fungal spores.

  17. Las dinámicas de dominación capitalista en el espacio rural: la configuración de paisajes turísticos / Les dynamiques de domination capitaliste dans le milieu rural: la configuration des paysages touristiques / Capitalist Domination Dynamics in Rural Areas: the Configuration of Touristic Farmlands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erika, Cruz-Coria; Lilia, Zizumbo-Villarreal; Graciela, Cruz-Jiménez; Ana Luz, Quintanilla-Montoya.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida de significación económica de las actividades primarias en el ámbito rural mexicano ha venido acompañada de una marcada terciarización de las actividades productivas, el campo ha comenzado a ser vinculado a actividades no agrícolas como el turismo que, además de deteriorar los ecosistemas [...] , ha transformado el espacio rural en un tejido denso y tupido de infraestructuras o equipamientos destinados al ofrecimiento de servicios turísticos. El objetivo es reflexionar teóricamente sobre la configuración paisajística de los espacios rurales como resultado del proceso de dominación capitalista a través del turismo, lo cual no es más que un proceso histórico conformado por dos dinámicas fundamentales: la apropiación de los espacios y recursos estratégicos para el turismo y, la valorización del espacio. Abstract in english The economic downturn of primary activities in rural Mexico has brought about a shift of productive activities into a service economy, and the land is now the place for non-agricultural activities such as tourism which not only affects ecosystems but has transformed rural areas into a dense fabric f [...] ull of infrastructures and equipment for providing services to tourists. The aim of this paper is to conduct a theoretical reflection on the configuration of rural areas as a result of the process of capitalist domination through tourism, a historic process formed by two main dynamics: the appropriation of space and strategic resources for tourism, and the increase in value of such space.

  18. Problemas en la extensión rural paraguaya: modelos de extensión en la encrucijada / Problèmes à l'intérieur de la vulgarisation rurale paraguayenne: modèles de vulgarisation au carrefour / Problems in Paraguayan Rural Areas: Extension Models at a Crossroads

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Landini.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La extensión rural constituye un factor clave en la mejora de la calidad de vida de los pequeños productores. Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo de la problemática de extensión rural en Paraguay, con particular énfasis en el departamento de Caazapá. Para esto se realizaron entrevistas a pequeños [...] productores, extensionistas y referentes institucionales, las cuales fueron desgrabadas y su contenido categorizado. Se concluye que las dinámicas político-institucionales poseen un rol estructurante de la problemática en estudio; que la pobreza, la pérdida de fertilidad de los suelos y la escasa productividad de la agricultura campesina son fenómenos emergentes de un sistema complejo, y que la implementación de metodologías de extensión rural transferencistas constituye un elemento nodal del entramado problemático. Abstract in english The rural area constitutes a key factor for improving the quality of life of small producers. We conducted a qualitative study on the problems of the Paraguayan rural area, focusing particularly on the department of Caazapâ. To this purpose we conducted interviews with small producers, extension age [...] nts and institutions, which were transcribed and categorised according to contents. It was concluded that political-institutional dynamics play a leading role in the problem at hand; that poverty, the lack of fertility of the land and low agricultural productivity are phenomena that are part of a complex system, and that the implementation of transfer methods of rural extension constitute a key element in the problem under discussion.

  19. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampi?

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  20. Rural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. Radiation exposure and remediation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main objectives of the present work were to develop an internationally agreed methodology for deriving optimized remediation strategies in rural areas that are still affected by the Chernobyl accident, and to give an overview of the radiological situation in the three affected countries, Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Study settlements had in 2004 less than 10 000 inhabitants and official dose estimates exceeding 1 mSv. Extensive radioecological data were collected for the in total 545 study settlements. Based on ReSCA calculations (a special developed software tool) an overview of the radiological situation was generated and exemplary remediation strategies were derived for 2010. (orig.)

  1. Prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children in a rural area of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Wedner, S.; ROSS, D; Balira, R; Kaji, L.; Foster, A

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—The study measured the prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children between 7 and 19 years of age in a rural area of Tanzania, and investigated whether teachers could successfully provide the first component of a school eye screening service.?METHODS—Teachers from each of three primary schools in Mwanza Region tested visual acuity using a Snellen's E chart in 1438 pupils. 1386 of these pupils were then interviewed and underwent a full eye examination by an eye team.?RESULTS—10 p...

  2. Current Trends in Unlocking the Potential of Rural Tourism in Romania. Case Study: Snagov Area

    OpenAIRE

    Petronela NOV?CESCU; Florentina ION; Lauren?iu DINU

    2010-01-01

    This paper is aimed at demonstrating that rural tourism is a viable source of income for all Romanian communes. To prove this point, we will refer to the circumstances of the Snagov area. Snagov’s tourism resources are not used to their full potential and tourism, as currently managed, has detrimental effects on the environment, which is deteriorating by the year. Therefore, the paper is also a warning to those who are in the position to improve the technologies for the transformation and pre...

  3. A case report of Linguatula serrata infestation from rural area of Isfahan city, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabibian Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguatulosis occurs accidentally in human by ingestion of raw or undercooked visceral tissues of sheep, goat, camel, and other herbivores. In this case report, 2 patients from an Afghan family infested with this parasite in rural area of Isfahan, Iran are presented. Clinical signs and symptoms including pricking sensation in throat, coughing, sneezing, yellow nasal and ears discharges, which started 2-3 hours after eating raw goat liver. Nymphs of Linguatula serrata were isolated from their tongues and later, several more parasites were discharged by coughing and sneezing. An ancient belief about nutritional benefits of eating raw liver may causes more Halzoun syndrome in future.

  4. The Study of Cultural Soft Power under the Construction of New Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Junjie LI; Konglai ZHU; Wang, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Culture is the core element of soft power, and it is also closely related to the construction of new rural areas. To achieve the overall goal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the developing of country is not only the key point but also the difficult one. In this article, the authors firstly do a brief overview of the concept and meaning of soft power, and then show the importance and necessity of the cultural soft power to make a new sustainable development of country. But ...

  5. Off-Grid Energy Technologies used in Rural Areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Arora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy scenario in India is changing with a greater pace. Growth rate of villages has increased, likewise their energy demand. With the awareness of the decreasing natural resources, non conventional energy resources are gaining lots of interest in sparsely separated areas. The rural areas of India are having the huge scarcity of energy because of limited energy resources and Grid connectivity is not feasible due to economic factors and geographical situations. So we require to establish the off grid system for the benefit of the mass. Off-grid System’s commissioning and operation done as indigenous unit, and free from grid related problems like frequency and voltage regulations and they provides flexible operation because their emphasis is on extraction of energy and conversion into useful work. This paper discusses the potential use of off-grid energy technologies as an alternative for grid extension. Off-grid Energy systems provide the solutions to the basic energy needs in the rural areas of India. These indigenously build plants are not connected to any electrical utility and can be connected with the micro grid for the better reliable operation. Due to small size their demand and load management would be easy. Off-grid system utilizes the solar thermal radiation, wind energy, geothermal energy, tidal wave, Biomass etc. There is numerous numbers of applications where we can use this energy and decrease the dependence on conventional grid.

  6. Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil

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    Sabrina Nunes do Nascimento

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb levels (BLLs. Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni in blood and increase of aluminum (Al levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05. Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05. Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure.

  7. On the fringe: tracking and evaluating changes in land use in the areas surrounding three national parks in Spain and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Prados, M.J.; Barral, M. A.; Hurtado, C.; Lourenço, Júlia

    2014-01-01

    Naturbanization analyses territorial changes in the surroundings of national parks brought about by the arrival of new settlers and economic activities, both of which are attracted by the value of the environment and landscape. This paper presents a comparison of the naturbanization processes in three national parks in Spain and Portugal (Doñana and Sierra Nevada National Parks, and Peneda-Gêres National Park, respectively) and in their areas of influence. Data is taken from Corine-Land Cover...

  8. The Importance of Complementarity in the Territorial Cohesion and Sustainability of Rural Areas: The Case of Cambres, a Douro Winegrowing Area, and Magueija, a Mountainous Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pina, Ph.D., Assistant Professor

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the rural world reveals several troubling trends, such as demographic decline and stagnation/deterioration of the economic framework, there are multiple potentialities requiring urgent vitalization. Furthermore, heterogeneity predominates, a fact that becomes very clearwhen comparing the territorial setting of Cambres, a parish located in the Lamego municipality, part of the Douro winegrowing area and the area classified as World Heritage by UNESCO, with another parish set within mountainous terrain, Magueija, also located in the Lamego municipality, whose endogenous potential is completely neglected. As such, manychallenges compromise its development and conformance with one of the main strategic vectors for the region, which is territorial cohesion.

  9. Dust Full Study In The Surrounding Area Of A Cement Factory And Determination Of The Major Elements Of The Dust Fall Using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust fall of the Tartous cement factory and the surrounding area at the Syrian coast were measured. The results show that the dust fall concentrations were higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) Standard in the factory site as well as in the surrounding area within 5 to 6 km in the diameter. The value of the dust fall at the Reference sites was abut 4.5 t/km2/month and in the surrounding area of the factory values reached between 18 and 120 t/km2/month. This means the values exceed the standard around 3 and 13 times. The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of cement dust showed a percentage of 27.5% ± 1.6 of calcium. By the presence of humidity calcium silicate occurs, which immediately dries and becomes a hard salt crust. Therefore in the regions near by the factory cement dust formed this kind of salt coat on the surface of the leaves. (Authors)

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Nine Mile Point and James Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plants and surrounding areas, Lycoming, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Nine Mile Point and James FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plants was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plants and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant sites. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant sites varied from below 5.5 to 9 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant sites. Radiation due to nitrogen-16, which is produced in the steam cycle of boiling-water reactors, was the primary source of activity found at the plant sites. Areas away from the plant sites were free of detectable man-made radioactivity

  11. Uranium statistical and geological evaluation of airborne spectrometric data in the Al-Awabed region and its surroundings (Area-3), Northern Palmyrides, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis have been applied to the Airborne spectrometric data from the Al-Awabed region and its surroundings (Area-3), Northern Palmyrides, Syria. It was shown that equivalent uranium eU values vary between a minimum of 0.01 and a maximum of 22.33 ppm. The probability graph has been used to compute the threshold level of uranium in the study area. It was found that this threshold level of 5.54 ppm agrees well with that obtained by traditional statistical computation (X-bar+2 sigma). Uranium prospecting methodology is proposed in order to explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies related to the Al-Awabed region and its surroundings in Area-3, and to determine the dominant geological conditions that effectively contribute to the radioactive anomalies occurring in the study area. Four radioactive-geological profiles have been established in Area-3, where their analysis and study reveal that lowlands and basins, the unconformity between Palaeogene and Neogene, the contact between Cretaceous and Palaeogene and the phosphate beds themselves are considered favorable environments for uranium deposits. The proposed methodology is proven and field verified and can be therefore applied in other areas considered as promising for uranium deposits. (author)

  12. Participation of Rural Women Groups in Community Self-help Development Projects in Etche Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.U. Nnodim; Isife, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the involvement of women groups in self-help development projects in Etche rural communities of Rivers State, Southern Nigeria. Fifteen women organizations were purposively selected for the study because of their domicility in the rural area and participation in their community development projects. Ten executives/ex-officio members were randomly selected from each of the fifteen women groups making a total of 150 respondents. Structured interview schedules were utilized fo...

  13. Perceived Need for Substance Abuse Treatment among Illicit Stimulant Drug Users in Rural Areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.; Krishnan, Laura L.; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M

    2007-01-01

    Non-medical drug use in rural communities in the United States is a significant and growing public health threat. Understanding what motivates drug users in rural areas to seek substance abuse treatment may help in addressing the problem. Perceived need for treatment, a construct indicative of problem recognition and belief in problem solution, has been identified as an important predictor of help-seeking behavior. This cross-sectional study used data collected through face-to-face interviews...

  14. Assessing the Elasticities of Electricity Consumption for Rural and Urban Areas in Malaysia: A Non-linear Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Ali Bekhet; Nor Salwati bt Othman

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates and estimates the price and income elasticity of electricity consumption and then compares the level of sensitivity of demand for electricity in the rural and urban areas in Malaysia. The non linear model was employed to estimate the elasticity of electricity consumption. The electricity demand has been estimated as a function of tariff, real GDP, gas price and population in the rural and urban population. The gas price has been used as a proxy to measure the level of ...

  15. Change and Dilemma of School Feature Development of Three Junior High Schools in the Remote and Rural Areas of Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Shan-Hua Chen; Hsuan-Fu Ho; Cheng-Cheng Yang

    2012-01-01

    This research is based on qualitative approach and applies in-depth interview with three principals and administrators in three junior high schools located in the remote and rural areas of Taiwan. The aim of this paper was to explore the school feature development process in these three schools. The findings of this study were as follows: most of students’ parents in these three remote and rural schools are labors and have relatively lower social and economic status in the Taiwanese society. ...

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) survey in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Elasy Tom A; Miller Stephania T

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131) ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern communit...

  17. A Comparative Evaluation of Stress Factors In Different Study Groups in Rural Area of Loni, Pravaranagar and PIMS

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, B. N.; Mudit Kumar Gupta.; Shukla, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Comparative study of mental health status over a varying strata are lacking in Rural India. The aim of the present study was to enumerate and compare different stress factors among teachers, students,clerical staffs and local residents in a rural medical university and its field practice area. This point prevalence estimation was conducted from July 2008 to September 2008 as an ICMR student researchproject. For the total study population irrespective of different groups; more than 50% i.e. 22...

  18. Biogas in Burkina Faso. Influential factors of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschaber, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Burkina Faso is among the poorest countries in the world. The energy situation in Burkina Faso is among the most critical issues which need to be addressed in the country. The electrical power grid is insufficient and only available in urban centers. Consequently wood and charcoal is used in order to meet the basic needs for heating, cooking, and lightning by the majority of the population. The resulting overuse of natural energy resources in Burkina Faso has been causing massive deforestation and desertification on the one hand and on the other hand scarcity in fuel wood availability. According to a recent feasibility study of the GTZ, biogas is thought to be one of the most sustainable solutions for developing energy self sufficiency in rural areas of Burkina Faso. Biogas is not a new concept in Burkina Faso, as the first biogas plants were already installed in the 70's. Recently a national biogas program and the activity of various NGOs lead to a rejuvenation of attempts to establish biogas in Burkina Faso. Although biogas has a long history in Burkina Faso, no significant breakthrough of this technology has happened so far. None of the biogas plants built during the last 40 years have been operational for a long time. This contribution presents a study aimed to analyze the partial success and failures of the attempts to install biogas plants so far. The study was conducted in May 2009 as part of a project for a model application of the technology in the frame of University cooperation between Austria (University of Innsbruck) and Burkina Faso (Universite Polytechnique du Bobo Dioulasso). During the field study four sites of existing biogas plants were visited, five interviews with experts conducted and two focus groups with potential users in a rural setting were conducted. The systemic approach, including technical as well as socioeconomic aspects, yielded a wealth of factors which can potentially influence the success of biogas projects in rural areas of Burkina Faso. The material was processed according to the content analyses of Mayring. The study identified altogether 38 factors which were grouped into different categories - socio-cultural, technology, economic, institutional, infrastructure, operational, substrate and competitive energies. The results are thought to provide a sound base for better management of future biogas projects in the rural area of Burkina Faso. (Author)

  19. Assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas: the case of Changzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yumin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xu, Yingbi; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Xian; Li, Yangfan; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Changzhou is a typical waterside municipality with approximately 2,500 years of history located south of the Yangtze River. It was an agriculturally oriented region but is becoming an industrialized region. Rural green landscaping in this region possesses characteristics of traditional Chinese gardens. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas through public perception-based and expert/design approaches. The former approach enables us to rank green landscaping based on a survey of public preference; the latter weighs the contributions of the attributes contained in a photograph to its overall scenic beauty via correlation, regression, and factor analyses. The photographs used in the survey included road greenways, riparian greenways, residential public gardens and green landscaping around houses, with each type of landscape represented by seven photographs. In total, 141 college students and 41 other participants ranked photographs of each landscaping type from highest to lowest preference. The results indicate that the preferences of students are similar to those of the general public. Examples of green landscaping depicted in the "best" four photographs possessed more attractive qualities regarding the variety of vegetation, richness of colors and a selection of human additions compared to those depicted in the "worst" photographs. The perceived visual quality was positively influenced by, in decreasing order of importance, the variety of vegetation, color contrast, the openness of green spaces, the area of vegetation, and positive man-made elements; conversely, it was negatively influenced by the type of topography. Moreover, some suggestions were offered for future rural greening regarding perceived visual beauty. PMID:21479559

  20. Integrated energy planning for sustainable development in rural areas: A case study from Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Singh, Usha Bajpai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy is required for every aspect of our daily life. At present, commercial energy consumption makes up about 65% of the total energy consumed in India. This includes coal with the largest share of 55%, followed by oil at 31%, natural gas at 11% and hydro energy at 3%. Non-commercial energy sources consisting of firewood, cow dung and agriculture wastes account for over 30% of the total energy consumption. The critical feature of India’s energy sector and linkages to economy is the import dependence on crude and petroleum products. Import bill is likely to grow to more than 100% in the near future because of population explosion and improved living standard in the country. Being a tropical country India has unlimited potential for producing renewable energy sources. These sources of energy can play an important role in the sustainable development by providing basic energy needs of rural and remote areas. A survey of energy consumption pattern has been carried out in different sector domestic, agricultural, transport, rural industries and miscellaneous uses in a cluster of 3 villages, district Ballia, Uttar Pradesh India during 2008. The questionnaires have been filled by gram pradhan, respective old persons and head of the family of the surveyed households. This paper discusses the current energy status, choice of energy options and potential of renewable energy systems for creating sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. The outline plan at decentralized level was prepared with the objective of providing energy security in villages by meeting total energy needs for cooking, lighting and motive power through various forms of available renewable energy sources.

  1. Context counts: training health workers in and for rural and remote areas

    OpenAIRE

    Strasser, Roger; Neusy, Andre-Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Access to well trained and motivated health workers is the major rural health issue. Without local access, it is unlikely that people in rural and remote communities will be able to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Studies in many countries have shown that the three factors most strongly associated with entering rural practice are: (i) a rural background; (ii) positive clinical and educational experiences in rural settings as part of undergraduate medical education; and (iii) targete...

  2. Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugumisirize Joshua

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented. During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from family and friends, availability of continuing professional training for career development and support of co-workers and the community. Conclusion Many first year students at Makerere University have limited exposure to health facilities in rural areas and have concerns about eventually working there.

  3. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

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    Podstawski Robert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in ?wi?tajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  4. THE PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITIC INFECTION IN RURAL AREAS OF TONEKABON, IRAN

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    M. Rezaiian

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal parasitic infection is one of the major health problems in northern parts of Iran, especially in rural areas. In order to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and the effect of some factors such as age, sex, region on the prevalence of intestinal parasites, a study was carried out in rural areas of Tonekabon, Caspian littoral, from Jul. 1991 to Feb. 1992. A total of 2368 stool samples were randomly collected from different age groups in 27 plain and mountain village. The samples wee examined by direct and formalin – ether concentration methods. 74.6% of samples wee positive for at least one species of intestinal parasites. The prevalence of intestinal helminthes was: Trichuris trichiura 22.5%. Ascaris lumbricoides 16.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis 10.3%, Hook Worms 4.6%, Trichostrongulus. spp. 3.7% and Hymenolepis nana 3%. The prevalence on intestinal protozoa was: Giardia lamblia 29.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 9.6%, Dientamoeba fragilis 2.5%. The rates for Taenia saginata and Enterobius vermicularis (non specific method were 0.5% and 2.1%, respectively.

  5. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  6. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Tominaga, Kazumichi; Takeda, Miwako; Sundquist, Kristina; Nabika, Toru

    2015-07-01

    Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant's address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271) were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (?313 m) in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations. PMID:26132474

  7. General Population Survey In Rural Area To Generate Prevention Indicators For HIV/AIDS Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Sunder

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What has been the impact of massive educational campaign of AIDS/HIV in general population in rural areas? Objectives :1.To ascertain the level of awareness of preventive practices relating to HIV/AIDS.2.To know the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour.3.To ascertain condom availability and accessibility. Study design: Cross-sectional. Participants: Men and women in age group 15-49 years. Sample size: 1737 individuals. Settings: Rural areas of Distt.Rohtak. Outcome variables: Awareness of preventive practices, martial relations, risk behaviour. Statistical methods: simple proportions. Results: A little less than half of the persons (49.5% in age bracket 15-49 years had heard about AIDS. 43% of individuals had knowledge of atleast two acceptable methods of protection from HIV infection. Men were better informed as compared to women. Effective preventive practices were known to 35% of individuals. 5.47% of sexually active individuals reported having sex with non-regular sex partners and only one fourth of individuals having risky sexual partnership used condoms. 78% of the population had access to uninterrupted supply of condoms.

  8. Rural youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiji Gbolagade B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the level of youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and five youths were randomly selected from seven rural communities, fifteen youths from each village. Data were collected with the aid of a questionnaire, which was analysed using frequency count and percentages. Chi-square analysis was used to test the hypothesis of significance between the socio-economic characteristics and the level of participation in infrastructural development. Findings revealed that 56.2% of respondents were within the age category of 21-30 years, 62.9% were male, and 60% were single, while 56.2% of the respondents had secondary school level education. The study revealed the various roles played by youths in participating in infrastructural development as well as the associated constraints which include finance, availability of materials, technical knowledge and time. Age, marital status, educational level and years of residence were found to be significantly related to the level of participation of youths in infrastructural development. The study recommended the adequate budget allocation to rural areas as well as intensive training and educative programmes for effective participative development.

  9. Integration of PV modules in existing Romanian buildings from rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, S.; Finta, D. [IPA SA Research Development, Engineering and Manufacturing for Automation Equipment and Systems, Bucharest (Romania); Fara, L.; Comaneci, D. [Polytechnic Univ. of Bucharest (Romania); Dabija, A.M. [Univ. of Architecture and Urbanism Ion Mincu, Bucharest (Romania); Tulcan-Paulescu, E. [West Univ. of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2010-07-01

    Romania has launched a national research project to promote the use of distributed solar architecture and the use of BIPV systems. These systems include solar tunnels and active solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on the roofs and facades of buildings in rural areas. In contrast to other EU states, Romania does not have a photovoltaic building construction branch. The number of isolated cases are insufficient to identify a starting point regarding the PV market in the building industry. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate the efficiency of integrating various PV elements in buildings from rural areas, to test them and to make them known so that they can be used on a large scale. This will be accomplished by installing new products on 2 buildings in Bucharest and in 1 building in Timisoara. The PV modules will be integrated with the architecture. One of the buildings will be a historical building while the other 2 will be new buildings with different typologies. The installed power for each building will be of about 1.000 Wp, including some technologies with PV modules.

  10. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271 were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (?313 m in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  11. Design of telemedicine systems for rural and urban areas in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabir S. Aziz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine is the use of information technology to deliver medical services and information from one location to another. The evolution and growth of telemedicine is highly correlated with the developments in communication technology and IT software development. In Iraq health services was degraded not only in rural areas, but also, in the big cities because of the migration of doctors, especially, specialist doctors. There is a great shortage in the advance medical equipments so that there is a great need for telemedicine. This paper introduces two issues related to the telemedicine; the first issue is to introduce and discusses the possibilities of all available technologies that can be used to implement telemedicine facility in Iraq. Three scenarios of different levels and requirements were analyzed to cover the possible cases (big city, small town and mobile unit in a rural area. The second issue is to introduce the design and implementation of E-Hospitals to facilitate the process of medical data exchange.

  12. Consequence of Indoor Air Pollution in Rural Area of Nepal: A Simplified Measurement Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Jha, Nilambar; Deepak, K. C.; Connel, Fredric A.

    2015-01-01

    People of developing countries especially from rural area are commonly exposed to high levels of household pollution for 3–7?h daily using biomass in their kitchen. Such biomass produces harmful smoke and makes indoor air pollution (IAP). Community-based cross-sectional study was performed to identify effects of IAP by simplified measurement approach in Sunsari District of Nepal. Representative samples of 157 housewives from household, involving more than 5?years in kitchen were included by cluster sampling. Data were analyzed by SPSS and logistic regression was applied for the statistical test. Most (87.3%) housewives used biomass as a cooking fuel. Tearing of eyes, difficulty in breathing, and productive cough were the main reported health problems and traditional mud stoves and use of unrefined biomass were statistically significant (p??2) with health problems related to IAP. The treatment cost and episodes of acute respiratory infection was >2 folders higher in severe IAP than mild IAP. Simplified measurement approach could be helpful to measure IAP in rural area. Some effective intervention is suggested to reduce the severe level of IAP considering women and children. PMID:25674557

  13. Determinants of Savings and Capital Formation among Rural Farmers in Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria

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    P.C. IKE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the determinants of savings and capital accumulation in Isoko north local government area of Delta state, Nigeria. It specifically sought to identify the socioeconomic/demographic variables of the rural dwellers that affect their savings and capital accumulation. It also examined the strategies and motives for saving and the various constraints to savings and capital accumulation in the study area. A total of 150 households were randomly sampled from seven communities out of the 13 that make up the local government area. Data for the study were collected using structured questionnaire and analysed through the use of descriptive statistics such as means, percentages and frequency distribution as well as inferential statistics such as multiple regression analysis. Results from findings revealed that volume of savings is based on the rural farmers’ farm income, nonfarm income, years of experience in a saving programme, age of the farmers and the distance to formal financial institution. The result also showed that majority of the rural farmers save or accumulate capital in non-monetary form as a strategy of saving and are motivated to save in order to increase production. The main constraints to accumulation of savings were low productivity and lack of access to financial credit. It is therefore the recommendation of the study that to further improve on rural farmers savings in the study area, the government should make credit available by empowering formal and informal financial institutions activities in rural areas.

  14. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Mariza Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Eunice A Bianchi, Galati.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07: [...] 00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  15. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  16. Investigation of low-level-jets over rural and urban areas using two sodars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallistratova, M A [Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS, 3 Pyzhevskii, Moscow 119017 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: margo@ifaran.ru

    2008-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the experimental study of jet streams at heights up to 400 m agl (the so called Low-Level Jet, or LLJ) with the help of sodars. These LLJs, which are not connected either to catabatic winds or to synoptic front passing, but are regularly observed in the mid-latitudes over a flat terrain under nocturnal inversion conditions, are investigated. Preliminary results of simultaneous investigations of LLJs over the center of the Moscow megalopolis and over a nearby rural area are presented. Continuous sodar data on wind speed profiles collected during 27 days in July 2005 were analyzed together with in situ data from a meteorological mast. Empirical distributions of the maximum jet speed and the height of jet axis were obtained. The relationships between the LLJ parameters and some characteristics of the surface layer were found. Over the urban area, the jets appear less frequently and at greater heights than over the countryside.

  17. Environmental Attitudes of the 6th Grade Students from Rural and Urban Areas: A Case Study for Ankara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Gaye; Sungur, Semra; Tekkaya, Ceren; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated environmental attitude of 6th grade students living in rural and urban areas in Ankara. Hundred and thirty-eight students were selected from four schools located in these areas. A 45-item questionnaire consisting of four dimensions was used to measure students' environmental attitude. Results of the study revealed that,…

  18. The Relevance of Cluster Initiatives in Rural Areas: Regional Policy in Sweden

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    Linda Lundmark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively weak performance of sparsely populated areas has been given substantial attention in many regional, national and European Union initiatives. Many rural areas are struggling with development problems such as depopulation, advanced ageing, industrial restructuring and high levels of structural unemployment. In Sweden these issues are mainly associated with the difficulties in the non-metropolitan sparsely populated areas in the northern and southeastern parts. Here, the issue of implementing general cluster policies in sparsely populated regions in order to enhance their economic development is in focus. This research includes an overview of existing Swedish regional growth and development programmes that exemplify the current regional policies. It is found that the concepts of clusters and innovation systems have become important for policy on national and regional levels of government, but the understanding of the concepts is poor. In spite of regional variations in preconditions for cluster development, there are no clear regional modifications in the interpretation of clusters as described in the documents. One conclusion is that regional and local strategies to develop businesses in sparsely populated areas would benefit from using examples from non-metropolitan regions as a point of departure rather than using experiences drawn from high-tech industries located in metropolitan areas usually referenced in the international literature. The routine use of cluster and innovation systems in policy on the regional level underlines the need for more empirically based research on the preconditions for cluster development in sparsely populated areas.

  19. Current Trends in Unlocking the Potential of Rural Tourism in Romania. Case Study: Snagov Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela NOV?CESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at demonstrating that rural tourism is a viable source of income for all Romanian communes. To prove this point, we will refer to the circumstances of the Snagov area. Snagov’s tourism resources are not used to their full potential and tourism, as currently managed, has detrimental effects on the environment, which is deteriorating by the year. Therefore, the paper is also a warning to those who are in the position to improve the technologies for the transformation and preservation of the environment - particularly of the man-made one - and who should be aware that tourist sights of great historical, architectural and cultural value need conservation and restoration. When properly used, the natural and the man-made environments are likely to generate important income for local communities, as they are a source of new jobs and can thus lead to better living standards and lower levels of commuting and final migration, respectively. Besides, our study is a warning to the tourists that go to the area. They must be aware that any alteration of the natural environment is irreversible, and that the attractions enticing them now to visit Snagov could turn into their very opposite and end up being repulsive, if the natural environment is affected beyond its regenerative capabilities. The Snagov lacustrine complex gives physical specificity to the area and impacts the economic landscape and the human personality. The Snagov fluvial liman is part of the locals’ life and has significant bearing on the development of rural tourism in this area.

  20. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Paw?owska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI designed by Paw?owska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation.

  1. Transforming trauma healthcare delivery in rural areas by use of an integrated call center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is poor penetration of trauma healthcare delivery in rural areas. On the other hand, mobile penetration in India is now averaging 80% with most families having access to mobile phone. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the implementation and socioeconomic impact of a call center in providing healthcare delivery for patients with head and spinal injuries. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study carried out over a 6-month period at a level I trauma Center in New Delhi, India. A nine-seater call center was outsourced to a private company and the hospital?s electronic medical records were integrated with the call-center operations. The call center was given responsibility of maintaining appointments and scheduling clinics for the whole hospital as well as ensuring follow-up visits. Trained call-center staff handled simple patient queries and referred the rest via email to concerned doctors. A telephonic survey was done prior to the start of call-center operations and after 3 months to assess for user satisfaction. Results: The initial cost of outsourcing the call center was Rs 1.6 lakhs (US$ 4000, with a recurring cost of Rs 80,000 (US$ 2000 per month. A total of 484 patients were admitted in the department of Neurosurgery during the study period. Of these, 63% (n=305 were from rural areas. Patients? overall experience for clinic visits improved markedly following implementation of call center. Patient satisfaction for follow-up visits increased from a mean of 32-96%. Ninety-five percent patients reported a significant decrease in waiting time in clinics 80.4% reporting improved doctor-patient interaction. A total of 52 visits could be postponed/cancelled for patients living in far flung areas resulting in major socioeconomic benefits to these families. Conclusions: As shown by our case study, call centers have the potential to revolutionize delivery of trauma healthcare to rural areas in an extremely cost-effective manner.

  2. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs.

  3. Compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data, Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas of southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T.

    1994-12-31

    This document is a compilation of available radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data for volcanic rocks and episodes of hydrothermal activity in Yucca Mountain and the surrounding region of southwestern Nevada. Only the age determinations considered to be geologically reasonable (consistent with stratigraphic relations) are listed below. A number of the potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages of volcanic rocks given by Kistler, Marvin et al., Noble et al., Weiss et al., and Noble et al. are not included as these ages have been shown to be incorrect or disturbed by hydrothermal alteration based on subsequent stratigraphic and/or petrographic data and the recognition of errors in K-Ar age determinations related to incomplete extraction of argon. In cases where absolute ages are tightly constrained by high precision {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages and unequivocal stratigraphic relations, we have omitted the less precise K-Ar age data. Similarly, the more precise single-crystal laser-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age determinations of certain units are reported and less precise ages by multi-grain bulk-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are not included. This compilation does not include age data for basaltic rocks of Pliocene and Quaternary age in the Yucca Mountain region.

  4. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs

  5. Oestrogenic activity in drinking waters from a rural area in the Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NH, Aneck-Hahn; MS, Bornman; C de, Jager.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, limited data are available regarding possible oestrogenic activity in the aquatic systems and especially drinking water. Water in the rural areas is often contaminated with a complex mixture of toxic compounds originating from nearby industries, agriculture and households. In these [...] rural areas the only access to drinking water is boreholes, natural springs and rivers. Thus human exposure to environmental contaminants in drinking water is potentially high. Two rural communities near Mokopane in the Waterberg district of the Limpopo Province were selected in order to screen for oestrogenic activity in drinking water sources in a rural area. Eleven 1 ? water samples (Molekane n= 4; Sekuruwe n= 7), were collected in prepared glass bottles and extracted on a SPE C18 cartridge and reconstituted into ethanol. The recombinant yeast oestrogen screen was used to determine the oestrogenic activity in the extracts. 17?-estradiol (E2) was used as a positive control and the results were expressed as estradiol equivalents (EEq). The EEq of the water from both the communities ranged between 0.63 - 2.48 x10-9 g/?. These concentrations are similar to other studies conducted in Korean river waters in rural and city areas and Flemish surface waters. The recombinant yeast screen confirmed oestrogenic activity in the drinking water samples; further investigation is necessary to determine the source of the contamination and association with impaired growth.

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site and surrounding area, Central Nevada. Date of survey: December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site was conducted in December 1993. An interim report described survey procedures and presented terrestrial exposure rate and wide-area-averaged plutonium isopleth plots. This letter report presents additional plutonium plots and some rule-of-thumb calculations which should help the reader to properly interpret the data presented. Attached to this report are three isopleth plots produced from the Double Track data. No one processing method provides all the answers regarding a particular surveyed area. Where peak vales are most important, a figure created from the original unsmoothed data is the presentation of choice. A figure from smoothed data is superior for the detection of areas of widespread low-level contamination. A figure , also smoothed data, satisfied a particular early mission goal but is not as useful for cleanup operations as the other two. This last figure is presented for historical completeness only.

  7. Pilot solar hybrid power station in rural area, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has considerable number of widely deployed small rural area. These hamlets are very much associated with Orang Asli residents. They get their source of energy by candle or kerosene light while some richer community can afford a generator set. The usual or normal system using solar as a source for electricity at rural area is standalone system for each house. As for this project, a pilot centralized solar power station will be the source of electricity to light up the fifteen houses at Kampung Denai, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia. This system will be the first ever built for the orang asli settlement at Pahang. The objectives of this project are to design and install the solar power station at remote location and to develop standard design of stand-alone solar power station suitable for Malaysia. Orang Asli residents at Kampung Denai was chosen because there is a school for the Orang Asli children. Moreover, the remote communities are living in stratification, which makes electrical wiring easier. Furthermore, the remote area is far from the last transmission line and cumbersome to bring diesel through the rough and unpredictable land road. The main domestic energy is for residential purposes (e.g. small lighting unit, radio, television, video, etc). The generator capacity is 18.6 kW. The solar sizing was done both for the home and school appliances at Kampung Denai. The maximum demand measured was 4195.35 kW. The pilot centralized solar power station consists of 10 kW photovoltaic panels, 10 kW inverter, 150 kWh battery and other balance of system. A generator set with capacity of 12.5 kVA is installed for back up and during monsoon season. This paper will present status of the system, operational and maintenance issues, load profile of the solar power station and economics and system design of the whole system

  8. Assessment of potential migration of radionuclides and trace elements from the White Mesa uranium mill to the Ute Mountain Ute Reservation and surrounding areas, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Marston, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent evaluation of potential offsite migration of radionuclides and selected trace elements associated with the ore storage and milling process at an active uranium mill site near White Mesa, Utah. Specific objectives of this study were (1) to determine recharge sources and residence times of groundwater surrounding the mill site, (2) to determine the current concentrations of uranium and associated trace elements in groundwater surrounding the mill site, (3) to differentiate natural and anthropogenic contaminant sources to groundwater resources surrounding the mill site, (4) to assess the solubility and potential for offsite transport of uranium-bearing minerals in groundwater surrounding the mill site, and (5) to use stream sediment and plant material samples from areas surrounding the mill site to identify potential areas of offsite contamination and likely contaminant sources. The results of age-dating methods and an evaluation of groundwater recharge temperatures using dissolved-gas samples indicate that groundwater sampled in wells in the surficial aquifer in the vicinity of the mill is recharged locally by precipitation. Tritium/helium age dating methods found a "modern day" apparent age in water samples collected from springs in the study area surrounding the mill. This apparent age indicates localized recharge sources that potentially include artificial recharge of seepage from constructed wildlife refuge ponds near the mill. The stable oxygen isotope-ratio, delta oxygen-18, or ?(18O/16O), known as ?18O, and hydrogen isotope-ratio, delta deuterium, or ?(2H/1H), known as ?D, data indicate that water discharging from Entrance Spring is isotopically enriched by evaporation and has a similar isotopic fingerprint as water from Recapture Reservoir, which is used as facilities water on the mill site. Water from Recapture Reservoir also is used to irrigate fields surrounding the town of Blanding and infiltration of this irrigated water also could contribute to the enriched isotopic fingerprint observed for Entrance Spring. Similarities in the delta sulfur-34sulfate values in water samples from the wildlife ponds and tailings cells indicate a potential contaminant linkage between the tailings cells and the refuge ponds that could be related to wind carried (eolian) transport of aerosols from the tailings cells. To date (2010), neither the delta sulfur-34sulfate nor the delta oxygen-18sulfate values measured in the wells and springs surrounding the uranium mill site have an isotopic signature characteristic of water from the tailings cells. Except for Entrance Spring and Mill Spring, all groundwater samples collected at down-gradient sample sites during this study had dissolved-uranium concentrations in the range expected for naturally-occurring uranium. The uranium-isotope data indicate that the mill is not a source of uranium in the groundwater in the unconfined-aquifer at any site monitored during the study, with the possible exception of Entrance Spring. The uranium-234 to uranium-238 concentration activity ratios measured in water samples collected at Entrance Spring, and the decrease in this ratio associated with an increase in the concentration of dissolved uranium indicate potential mixing of uranium ore with groundwater at the spring through eolian transport of small particles from ore-storage pads and uncovered ore trucks, with subsequent deposition in the Entrance Spring drainage, followed by dissolution in the unconfined groundwater. The isotopic values of uranium found in other water samples collected during the study do not appear to be related to uranium ore deposits. Water samples collected from Entrance Spring contained the highest median uranium concentrations relative to water samples collected from the other wells and springs monitored during the study. Water samples collected from Entrance Spring also contained elevated concentrations of selen

  9. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in a rural area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Geórgia G; Dutra, Míriam Santos; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ?18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ?g = 0.48), WC (?g = 0.47) and HDLc (?g = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g = 0.53) and HDLc (?g = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

  10. PROFILE OF CERVICAL SMEAR CYTOLOGY IN WOMEN ATTENDING HEALTH CENTER IN RURAL AREA OF WESTERN MAHARASHTRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant D Deshpande

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer caused by infection with a sexually transmitted agent human papillomavirus (HPV, can be readily prevented by identifying and treating women with HPV-induced precancerous lesions of the cervix.Objective: To study the profile of cervical smear cytology in rural women in western Maharashtra.Methods: The study was designed to look at the previous reports of the Pap smear present at the health center Pravaranagar in rural area of Western Maharashtra. The reports of 186 smears were analyzed.Results: Maximum numbers of the women (70.43% were less than 40 years of age.  Majority of the women were from lower socio-economic status. There were 29.03 % Pap smears, negative for intraepithelial lesion. Intraepithelial neoplasia of various grade and invasive cervical carcinoma were diagnosed in some cases. Other infections were also detected on Pap smear like bacterial vaginosis, candidial infection and trichomonas vaginalis infestation. Conclusion: An Awareness and education program needs to be implemented to target women about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening. The goal of any screening programme should be to pick up majority of the precursor lesions and not frank cancers; it is desirable to initiate Pap smear screening in women from lower socio-economic status before the 40 years of age.

  11. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cristina Sant’Ana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT. Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43% and CDC-LT (19.73%. Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (?2 showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27% of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82% or the CDC-A traps (20.91%. Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest.

  12. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Denise Cristina; Sá, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues de; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2014-12-01

    Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (?2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest. PMID:25424445

  13. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise Cristina, Sant& #8217; Ana; Ivy Luizi Rodrigues de, Sá; Maria Anice Mureb, Sallum.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in [...] comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (?2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest.

  14. Etiological Profile and Clinical Presentation of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation from a Rural Area of Bihar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nand Vidya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. This study was conducted to find the etiological and clinical profile of persistent and permanent AF patients from rural Bihar. Methods: This observational hospital based study was carried amongst indoor patients of AF of Department of Medicine, Darbhanga Medical College, Bihar. Data analysis was done using SPSS 14.0 version software. Results were presented using percentages Results: Out of 66 patients of AF, majority of patients were aged between 51-60 years and were males. Valvular heart disease was found to be the most common cause of atrial fibrillation while palpitation was the most common presenting complaint encountered. Nearly 62.1% patients had their left atrial size more than 3.5 cm. Mitral stenosis was noted as most common cause of enlarged left atrium in 47% cases. About half of patients had their left ventricular ejection fraction < 50%. Conclusions: This article has provided many insights on potential risk factors for the occurrence of atrial fibrillation and various presenting features of patients with atrial fibrillation. This would help in early diagnosis and prompt treatment of patients with AF especially in rural areas which remains a challenging problem. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 124-127

  15. EVALUATION OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS AMONG ELDERLY AT RURAL AREA IN INDORE DISTRICT, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Elderly are the senior citizens of the nation leading their lives in a transitional phase. The mortality rate in India has come down due to an increase in the life expectancy, which ultimately leads to the increase in elderly population. This has led to the growing number of the aged. OBJECTIVE: To study the demographic profile and socio status of the elderly people in rural area & know the psycho-social and various health problems faced by the rural elderly MATERIAL & METHOD: A cross sectional study conducted over a period of six month, by using simple random sampling technique, with sample size of 340. RESULT: major fraction of the population belongs to age group of 60-69 years old; that is 70.0%. A majority of the respondents were Hindus that is 89.7%. All the respondents had a chronic health problems, the most common being hypertension that is 35.5% coming next as a Osteoarthritis that is 26.1%.91.4% of the respondents felt that old age had affected their day-to-day life, out of which 32.4% claims to be in all manner

  16. Learning from the energetic rural area. Background report; Leren van het energieke platteland. Achtergrondrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnouts, R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Daalhuizen, F.; Farjon, H.; Pols, L.; Tekelenburg, T.; Tisma, S.; Van Veen, M. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Gerritsen, A.; Verburg, R. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wiering, M. [Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Roovers, G. [Oranjewoud, Heerenveen (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Citizens and businesses start on a regular basis, and in cooperation with the Dutch government, initiatives to improve the living environment in rural areas. In this study, 32 examples are discussed to detect issues that can be improved. The examples concern more or less successful partnerships for sustainable rural development, in which the market, citizens and civil society play a prominent role. Four issues for improvement are identified: (1) Other accents are required in laws and regulations for the living environment; (2) The Dutch government must give smart directions by means of levies and incentives; (3) A vision of the governments is essential; and (4) Towards a proactive, facilitating government [Dutch] Burgers en bedrijven nemen regelmatig samen met overheden initiatieven om de leefomgeving op het platteland te verbeteren. In deze studie zijn 32 praktijkvoorbeelden onder de loep genomen om die verbeterpunten op te sporen. Het gaat om meer of minder succesvolle samenwerkingsverbanden voor duurzame plattelandsontwikkeling, waarin marktpartijen, burgers en het maatschappelijk middenveld een vooraanstaande rol spelen. Hierbij worden vier verbeterpunten gesignaleerd: (1) Andere accenten gewenst in wet- en regelgeving voor de leefomgeving; (2) Slimmer sturen met heffingen en vergoedingen door de overheid; (3) Visie van overheden is onontbeerlijk; en (4) Naar een proactieve, faciliterende overheid.

  17. Spatial and temporal trends of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in a rural area of northern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 40 rural sampling points in Navarre (northern Spain). Air samples were collected by means of sorbent passive sampling and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography/mass-selective detector (GC/MSD). A total of 140 VOCs were identified during the study, which was carried out between May to October 2004 for a total of a 10 biweekly sampling campaigns. Concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylenes, o-xylene (BTEX) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were determined in order to investigate their temporal and spatial distributions. Geostatistical analysis pointed to traffic as the main emission source of these compounds. Supporting this idea, BTEX and nitrogen oxides concentrations were found to be highly significantly correlated (r=0.495, P=0.001), whereas a strong negative correlation between BTEX and ozone was also observed (r=-0.355, P=0.025). The concentrations for the BTEX group were similar to the values that have been previously reported for other rural areas. (author)

  18. Spatial and temporal trends of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in a rural area of northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, M.A.; Gonzalez, L.; Elustondo, D.; Garrigo, J.; Bermejo, R.; Santamaria, J.M. [Laboratorio Integrado de Calidad Ambiental (LICA), Departamento de Quimica y Edafologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Navarra, Irunlarrea s/n, 31080, Pamplona, Navarra (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 40 rural sampling points in Navarre (northern Spain). Air samples were collected by means of sorbent passive sampling and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography/mass-selective detector (GC/MSD). A total of 140 VOCs were identified during the study, which was carried out between May to October 2004 for a total of a 10 biweekly sampling campaigns. Concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylenes, o-xylene (BTEX) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were determined in order to investigate their temporal and spatial distributions. Geostatistical analysis pointed to traffic as the main emission source of these compounds. Supporting this idea, BTEX and nitrogen oxides concentrations were found to be highly significantly correlated (r=0.495, P=0.001), whereas a strong negative correlation between BTEX and ozone was also observed (r=-0.355, P=0.025). The concentrations for the BTEX group were similar to the values that have been previously reported for other rural areas. (author)

  19. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in rural area in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENA, GEÓRGIA G.; DUTRA, MÍRIAM SANTOS; GAZZINELLI, ANDREA; CORRÊA-OLIVEIRA, RODRIGO; VELASQUEZ-MELENDEZ, GUSTAVO

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective To estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. Methods The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ? 18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index, body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. Results The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h2=52%), glucose (h2=51%), high-density lipoprotein (HDLc; h2=58%), and waist circumference (WC; h2=49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin with body mass index (BMI;?g=0.48), WC (?g=0.47) and HDLc (?g= ?0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g=0.53) and HDLc (?g=?0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. Conclusions Glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

  20. Domestic use of biomass fuel in the rural Meghna floodplain areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akther S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rural households in the developing countries constitute the largest share of the biomass fuel consumption. It is also a major source of energy in the low income country. However, this energy consumption pattern varies from region to region. Different case studies on the biomass fuel consumption will certainly contribute to the understanding on the energy uses of a nation. The present study was conducted in the rural areas of the Meghna floodplain zone in Bangladesh, with a total of 80 sampled households, using the stratified random sampling technique through the semi-structured questionnaires from November 2008 through February 2009. Firewood, cowdung, leaves and twigs, branches, rice straw and rice husk were used as the biomass fuels mainly for the cooking purpose. Leaves and twigs were found as the dominant biomass fuel as 187 ± 25.69 (SE kg month-1 household-1. The major source of biomass fuel collection was identified as the own homestead and agricultural lands, 74%. The households spent 14.56 ± 8.94 US$ month-1 household-1 for biomass fuels. The ratio of the total energy expenditure to the total income of the household was around 11%. But, the ratio of the biomass expenditure to the total energy expenditure of the households was 68%. Monthly income, land ownership and family size were found significantly influencing to the biomass energy expenditure. The study will be useful for the policy makers in the renewable energy, forestry and agriculture sector in Bangladesh.

  1. Using P-wave Triplications to Constrain the Mantle Transition Zone beneath Central Iranian Plateau and Surrounding Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, H. C.; Tseng, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Iranian Plateau is a tectonically complex region resulting from the continental collision between the African and Eurasian plates. The convergence of the two continents created the Zagros Mountains, the high topography southwest of Iran, and active seismicity along the Zagros-Bitlis suture. Tomographic studies in Iran reveal low seismic speeds and high attenuation of Sn wave in the uppermost mantle beneath the Iranian Plateau relative to adjacent regions. The deeper structure, however, remains curiously inconclusive. By contrast, a prominent fast seismic anomaly is found under central Tibet near depth of 600 km in the mantle transition zone (TZ), and it is speculated to be the remnant of lithosphere detached during the continental collision. We conduct a comparative study that utilizes triplicate arrivals of high-resolution P waveforms to investigate the velocity structure of mantle beneath the central Iranian Plateau and surroundings. Due to the abrupt increase in seismic wave speeds and density across the 410- and 660-km discontinuities, seismic waves at epicentral distances of 15-30 degrees would form multiple arrivals and the relative times and amplitudes between them are most sensitive to the variations in seismic speeds near the TZ. We combine several broadband arrays to construct 8 seismic profiles, each about 800 km long, that mainly sample the TZ under central Iranian Plateau, Turan shield and part of South Caspian basin. Move-outs between arrivals are clear in the profiles. Relative timings suggest a slightly smaller 660-km contrast under stable Turan shield. In the next stage, it is necessary to model waveforms after the source effect being removed properly. Our preliminary tests show that the F-K method can efficiently calculate the synthetic seismograms. We will determine the 1D velocity model for each sampled sector by minimizing the overall misfits between observed and predicted waveforms. The lateral variations may be further explored by comparing adjacent sectors. The results are important for understanding the lithosphere-mantle interaction during the process of continental collision.

  2. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

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    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more prevalent among males (12.6% than females (4.4%; P Conclusions HIV positive individuals are more susceptible to co-infections with Cryptosporidium spp. than HIV negative people, particularly younger males with poor personal hygiene habits, indicating a need for targeted hygiene promotion, IPI surveillance and treatment.

  3. Aerial radiological survey of the La Salle County Station and surrounding area, Seneca, Illinois. Date of survey: July 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 14 to 31 July 1981 over a 270-square-kilometer area centered on the La Salle County Station near Seneca, Illinois. The survey was conducted by EG and G for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. All gamma ray data were collected by flying lines spaced 152 meters (500 ft) apart at an altitude of 91 meters (300 ft) above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates for the survey area were between 5 and 14 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), with most of the area ranging from 8 to 14 ?R/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken from within the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

  4. Utility of a thematic network in primary health care: a controlled interventional study in a rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Torres Gerardo; Olea Movilla Angel; Cordero Guevara José; Abaigar Luquín Pedro; Coma del Corral Maria Jesús; Lozano Garcia Javier

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU). It supports a virtual multidisciplinary community for physicians, focused on the improvement of clinical practice. This is a study of the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, specifically as a platform of communication between specialists at the hospital and doctors in the rural area. Methods In order to study the effects of a thematic netw...

  5. Does Urbanization Help Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas? Evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Ben Youssef, Adel; Nguyen-Viet, Cuong

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and poverty have a two-way relationship. Using fixed-effects regression andpanel data from household surveys, we estimate the effect of urbanization on welfare andpoverty of rural households in Vietnam. We find that urbanization tends to increaselandlessness of rural households and to reduce their farm income. However, urbanizationhelps rural households increase their wages and non-farm incomes. As a result, totalincome and consumption expenditure of rural households tend to be i...

  6. EVENT TOURISM: STATEMENTS AND QUESTIONS ABOUT ITS IMPACTS ON RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Sofoklis G. Skoultsos; Paris Tsartas

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on event tourism sector and its affection on the economy and the society of the rural community. The significance of events for rural development is argued by various researchers. In the current paper several cases from the event tourism literature and their results are studied. A general conclusion is that rural events affect host communities mainly by building community commitment. Cash injection is significant but not at a level that can lead to rural development. So, im...

  7. How Rural Labors in Less Developing Areas of Northwest China Migrate? ----- Evidence from Pingliang, Gansu Province

    OpenAIRE

    Haiying Ma; Lina Lian

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role of local context on the effectiveness of overall employment strategy in reducingrural labor forces through non-agricultural rural employment. Compared to other regions in China, rural labormigration in Pingliang city, Gansu has owned unique characteristics. In the light of rural labor resource status,local government adjusts measures to particular conditions and seeks after the way for its rural labor migrationsthat is propitious to current situation. As a result,...

  8. Defining "Rural" Areas: Impact on Health Care Policy and Research. Staff Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Maria

    The 'rural' definitions applied by the Federal Government, especially by two data-gathering agencies, the Bureau of the Census and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), emphasize different dimensions of the concept, and delineate the rural-urban continuum in different ways. This report discusses the inconsistency of curent "rural" definitions…

  9. A study on immigration from rural to urban areas and the adaptation process of immigrants: Van example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Etlan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, events terror which occurred in the region after 1980 and the migrations due to the effects of these events the socio-cultural and economic conditions of immigrants their adaptation to the city other problems was analyzed. Acceleration in the migrations from rural to urban areas in Van coincides with the years after 1980. The insecure environment and the broken economic balance has made rural are completely unpopular and repulsive. In this process, one of the cities which people leaving from rural areas chose to live first was Van.Screening method was used in the study. For this purpose a poll of 50 questions was prepared. The poll constituted with 4 parts for measuring the immigrants demographic, social-cultural and economic aspects and their adaptation process. The poll was applied to 290 subjects from 7 quarters where immigrants live intensely, and SPSS program was used in their evaluation.Immigrants usually come from the rural areas of Hakkari, Siirt, Bitlis and Van and are settled in sub-urban neighborhoods. The urban infrastructure problems which had already existed previously became much more complicated in the city with migrations. In addition, migrations caused many social-cultural an economic problem in the city. The immigrants who brought with themselves their own culture and lifestyles transformed the city into a village with the slums they constructed. Though they got rid of their rural habits, they still could not become accustomed to the civic environment.

  10. Population Growth in High-Amenity Rural Areas: Does it Bring Socioeconomic Benefits for Long-Term Residents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onge, Jarron M Saint; Hunter, Lori M; Boardman, Jason D

    2007-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: A widely noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to yield only low-wage service-sector employment for long-term residents, while raising local costs of living. This research examines change in socioeconomic status during the 1990s for long-term residents of high-amenity, high-growth rural counties in the United States. METHODS: Using longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, in combination with county-level information, we estimate growth-curve models to examine the extent to which the socioeconomic status of long-term residents is associated with amenity-related in-migration. RESULTS: We find that, on average, residents in high-growth, amenity-rich rural areas have higher income growth over time and higher levels of initial occupational prestige compared to those from other rural areas, but that socioeconomic gains are primarily for individuals with low baseline prestige. CONCLUSIONS: The socioeconomic gains made by long-term residents of high-growth, amenity-rich rural areas associated with net in-migration may be limited to individuals with low initial prestige and growth may be due to low-skill service-sector jobs. PMID:21892234

  11. Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses

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    S. E. Seidaiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionNowadays housing and its related issues are considered as a global issue and planners and policy makers in different countries are trying to solve its problems (Buckley, et al., 2005:237. Among different factors involved in rural settlement structures housing is one of the most important ones (Sartipipor, 2010:125. In Iran, the issue of rural housing, on different aspects, has been affected by urban housing. Despite the efforts made to improve it, and giving priority to it in rural development programs, housing provision has always been one of the problems of many people, especially low-income families in rural areas.Non-availability of suitable and standard housing, which is an index of rural development, causes psychological and social damage in rural people's lives, interruption and irregularity in rural housing structures, and ultimately social and economic crises in national level. Therefore, the issue of appropriate planning and policy making for housing and access to a desirable model for rural residents is a major concern of rural planners (Lotfi, 2010:105. One of the important ways of having knowledge of rural condition in the process of rural planning is the use of rural housing indicators (Azizi, 2006:26.2- Theoretical basesRural housing is a coordinated structure consistent with economic, social and cultural structure of rural area that has essential differences with urban housing. In fact, the expectations of two urban and rural societies from housing are not the same. In cities, nowadays, houses mostly have the role of dormitory or resort, while in rural areas people expect more from the housing. For a rural person, housing, besides being a resort unit, is also considered as an economic functional unit (Papoliyazdi, 1994:490. Based on the policies enforced and the amount of government intervention in the housing issue, there are two distinct lines of thought among housing scholars and researchers: market economy and planned economy. In view of market economy, housing problems are solved through the market mechanisms and housing needs are provided by private sector (Chadwick, 1987:88, Ziyari, et al., 210:4. In planned economy government has the role of planner, designer and manager (Aghasi, 1996:201, Chadwick, 1987:88, Shucksmith, 2003:213. In Islam's ideological system the importance of housing is as far as that the housing provision is considered as one of the bases of economic independency, and eradication of poverty in the society.3– DiscussionTo evaluate and analyze the housing indicators in the rural areas of Isfahan province, first data and the related variables are collected and based on them the desired indicators are obtained (Table-1; then, in line with goals of research, we will go through the following steps:Analysis of housing situation in rural areas of Isfahan province by using housing indicators,Determining effective factors in improving housing indicators,And stratification of rural areas based on these indicators.Applying statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster analysis, analysis of indicators and prioritization of rural areas of the province are performed. Table 1: Housing IndicatorsROWindicatorsROWindicators1The population of rural areas12The average of infrastructure lifetime2The number of households13The share of households that have a minimum electricity4The family size14The share of households that have a minimum telephone4The number of residential units,15The share of households that have a minimum water piping5The household density in residential units16The share of households that have a minimum gas piping6The density of people in residential units17The share of households that have a minimum central heating and cooling system7The housing shortages18The share of households that have a minimum kitchen8The average of number of rooms in the household19The share of households that have a minimum bathroom9The average of number of rooms per household member20The share of residential units from durable materials10The share

  12. Degradation of mangroves adversely affected ecosystem and rural inhabitant in the Sindh's coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangroves the ecological treasure of Sindh, are facing a steady decline due to in active Government policies and lack of interest of local people. Mangroves provide important breeding Zone of to the marine biodiversity because of the reduction of silt flows, the area of active growth of delta, has been reduced from an original estimate of 2600 sq km to about 260 sq km. Similarly, the area of Mangroves from 345,000 hectares, the area is now only 205000 hectares. Pakistani Mangroves rank 6th among the mangroves spread in 92 countries. Mangroves forests act as inter face b/w land and sea. It provides nutrients to marine fisheries and is vital healthy Ecosystem. During past 50 years, nearly 100,000 hectares have been destroyed. The destruction is quite high from 1975 to 1992. It is due to water shortage in the river Indus. Degradation of mangroves adversely affected ecosystem and rural inhabitant in the coastal area. Thus to find root causes of degradation and its effects this study was made. (author)

  13. Study of air pollution with cement dust and its effect on plants cover in the surrounding area of Tartous cement factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cement dust fall, concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and particulate less than 10 micron (PM10), were measured in different sites in the surrounding area of Tartus cement factory. The effects of cement dust emission on the growth of olive trees have been investigated. The results show that the dust fall, TSP and PM10 concentration were higher than The World Health Organization (WHO) standard at the factory site as well as in the surrounding area within 3 to 4 km in the diameter.The study shows that, the cement dust fall decreases the growth of olive trees by 34.5, 33 and 21% regarding the I, II, III sites respectively in comparison with the reference site. The branch length, branch weight, amount of chlorophyll and leaves quantity were decreased significantly. The mean weight of dust fall were 34.5, 26.4 and 10.9 g/m2 on the leaves area at the site I, II, III respectively while the reference site has a value of 1.9 g/m2.(Author)

  14. A comparison of four aerial radiological surveys of Par Pond and the surrounding area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of gamma radiation surveys was conducted over Par Pond at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in August 1993, October 1991, and August 1992 as part of an effort to monitor the radiological changes around Par Pond as its water level was lowered. The results of an April 1989 survey, which was about one-half the area of those surveys listed above, were used as baseline data for the comparison. Gamma energy spectrum analysis revealed that the only man-made gamma ray emitter detected during the four surveys in the Par Pond area was cesium-137. The comparisons revealed that: (1) significant change in the radiological environment occurred along the Par Pond shoreline as the water levels were lowered, (2) the activity in Lower Three Runs Creek varied slightly as the level/flow rate changed during the pumping process, (3) minor changes occurred in areas adjacent to the Par Pond, and (4) little or no change occurred between surveys in the spatial distribution or kind of sources detected. All changes were directly related to the moisture variations (Par Pond water lowering, rainfall, waterway flow rates) between the survey periods. The distribution, kind, and activity of sources detected beyond the pond bed were consistent between surveys. 60 figs., 14 tabs

  15. Study of uncorrected refractory error, cataract and selected diseases of eye in urban and rural area near Chennai, Tamil Nadu

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    Ashrof Raja

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncorrected refractory error and cataract are leading causes of preventable blindness in India. Objectives: To estimate prevalence and risk factors associated with uncorrected refractory error, cataract and selected eye diseases in urban and rural area near Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural areas near Chennai during May–August 2009. EPI 30-cluster sampling method was used and individuals in age group 5–70 years were selected with 450 subjects in both areas. Detail ophthalmic examination was done and socio-economic history for risk factors was obtained by trained interviewer. Data was analysed using SPSS version 15.0 software. To compare data sets chi-square test was used and Odds ratios calculated to assess association of risk factor. Results: 33.3% of the rural population had uncorrected refractory error as compared to 22.2% urban population (p<0.001; 24.2% rural population were having cataract compared to 13.1% urban population (p<0.001. Prevalence of pterygium and external hordeolum were 3% and 1% among total study population. Prevalence of internal hordeolum, corneal opacity and blepharitis were less than 1%. Subjects residing in rural area with low standard of living and using wood or cow-dung as cooking fuel were at significant higher risk of developing cataract (OR:2.43 and 2.88 respectively. They were also at significant higher risk of having refractory error (OR: 2.35 for low standard of living and 2.08 for wood or cow-dung as cooking fuel. Conclusion: Prevalence of uncorrected refractory error and cataract was high especially in rural area in the present study.

  16. Application of Healthy Heart program in the two semi-rural areas in Eski?ehir

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    ?nci Ar?kan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to raise awareness of people in two semi-rural regions of Eski?ehir in terms of cardiovascular diseases (CVD risk factors and to promote related heart-healthy behaviors.Methods: The study was a semi-experimental intervention and featured as a two-phase design. In the first phase of the study, participants received visits at home. Individuals in intervention and control areas were given a participation form that indicated the Framingham Risk Score (FRS. Other training materials were distributed throughout the intervention area. The second phase was planned as a nested case- control study. The first phase included 2.766 persons and the second phase included 778 persons. In the evaluation of the data the Pearson Chi-square and Student’s t-test for independent samples, Mc-Nemar Chi-square and the paired t-test for dependent samples were applied. Results: During the first phase, the frequency of FRS metrics above 10% was 26.2% for males, 18.1% for females in the intervention area, 22.9% for males, and 14.9% for females in the control area. There was no difference between males and females in terms of scoring for control and intervention areas (p>0.05. Based on the FRS data, the second phase revealed a decrease of 15.4% in males (p<0.001 and 10.2% in females (p<0.001 in the intervention area and an increase of 8.2% in males (p=0.011 and 3.8% in females (p=0.078 in the control area.Conclusion: In this study, teaching individuals who were older than twenty years of age about cardiac health seemed to be an effective method for decreasing CVD risk factors.

  17. Characterization of PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of Spanish urban and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Callén Romero, Mª Soledad; López Sebastián, José Manuel; Mastral Lamarca, Ana María

    2011-01-01

    Urban areas constitute major pollution sources due to anthropogenic activities located in these areas. Among the legislated air pollutants, the particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microns (PM10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are controlled under Directive 2008/50/EC and Directive 2004/107/EC, respectively due to their adverse health effects. A study was carried out at four urban and rural Spanish areas during the warm and cold seasons in 2008-...

  18. The use of herbal remedies in urban and rural areas of the Setúbal Peninsula (Portugal): A study among elders

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, S.; Correia, A.I.D.; Figueiredo, A. C.; Dias, L.S.; Dias, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    The Setúbal Peninsula is a highly diverse area where some large-medium and small cities are concentrated and where well preserved areas integrating a natural park or reserved and protected zones can also be found. The main goals of this study were the characterization of the herbal remedies used by different populations, namely that of urban and rural areas, to compare and understand these practices, namely how they were acquired and transmitted, and to evaluate the influence of the involving...

  19. Presence and viability of V. Cholerae in the waters of rural Bangladesh (Matlab area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righetto, L.; Islam, S.; Mahmud, Z. H.; Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Casagrandi, R.; Gatto, M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Blokesch, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-04-01

    We utilize a portable flow cytometer, which allows for absolute counts of particle concentration, along with specific staining to analyze the waters of the rural area of Matlab, Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic, in the month of January 2012. Such period is interepidemic, as conditions for V. cholerae survival are less apt, because of low temperature; the presence of the bacterium in surface waters of inland reservoirs is debated and has been acknowledged rarely in literature. The hydrologic system is composed by a river and a succession of ponds; the latter constitute the basic water reservoir of each human community. We run a survey of each possible habitat to understand whether local reservoirs can host V. cholerae populations in interepidemic periods, which contrasts the common hypothesis which assumes that bacteria are brought inland by coastal water intrusion. We also analyze the relation of bacteria survival with environmental quantities and the variations in bacterial community structure in different samples.

  20. GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

    2010-01-01

    The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

  1. Determination of the Presence of Three Antimicrobials in Surface Water Collected from Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cepeda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous release of antimicrobials into the environment, the aim of this study was to compare the frequency of detection of sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine and trimethoprim in surface water collected from urban and rural areas in Northwestern Spain. A monitoring study was conducted with 314 river water samples analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results indicated that 37% of the samples contained residues of at least one of the investigated antimicrobials, and every sampling site yielded positive samples. At sites located near the discharge points of wastewater treatment plants and near the collection point of a drinking-water treatment plant, more than 6% of the samples were positive for the presence of antimicrobial residues.

  2. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  3. Project evaluation for energy supply in rural areas of developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Christensen, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the methodological experiences of the project: Energy Supply Technologies in Developing Countries, carried out in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Zambia. Existing methods for project evaluation, based on cost-benefit analysis, will be briefly presented, particularly as regards their inadequacy for assessing energy projects in rural areas.An alternative practical and PC-based approach will be presented in which emphasis is placed on the problem formulation phase, including the socio-economic, cultural and political aspects of the problem. This approach has been prepared for training purposes.Finally, some methodological thoughts based on our practical experiences will be presented and our future work will be briefly discussed.

  4. THE TERRITORIAL DIMENSION IN NEW COHESION POLICY ACCORDING TO RURAL AREAS – CASE STUDY OF LOWER SILESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kazak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary and evaluation of implemented, in the last financial perspective of EU, policies should be the basis for development of new directions and principles of European spending. This article presents an issue of implementation of the territorial dimension in cohesion policy. The spatial concentration of resources allocated to rural development under the Regional Operational Programme for the Lower Silesia 2007-2013 was analysed. Furthermore, the documents’ analysis to determine development opportunities for these areas in the new financial perspective were undertaken. The research shows inadequate recognition of the territorial dimension in the current implementation of EU policies. However, the results highlights the possibility of using a new instrument, which are Integrated Territorial Investments, in order to strengthen the geographical factors in the allocation of support.

  5. PREVALENCE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD CARIES AMONG ANGANWADI SCHOOL CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS OF THIRUVALLUR DISTRICT

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    Sriram Chandramohan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC among Anganwadi school children in rural areas of Thiruvallur district. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carries out among 75, 24-72 months old children attending various Anganwadi centers in Thiruvallur district were selected. Caries experience was recorded using DMFT index & crude odds ratio has been reported and considered null hypothesis to be significant if P- Value is < 0.05 which is level of significance. Results: Prevalence of Early childhood caries (ECC was 45.33% and other factors such as jam, cola in their diet history was also found statistically significant with P-value<0.05. Conclusions: The present study shows a 45.33% prevalence of ECC. There is a need for preventive and curative oral health program in this section of society.

  6. Ende Diabetes Study: diabetes and its characteristics in rural area of East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Waspadji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are only few studies about diabetes in rural area in Indonesia. Epidemiological study are needed to formulate health policy of disease management in specific area. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of diabetes and knowledge of diabetes among the community in Nangapanda Village, Ende District, East Nusa Tenggara.Methods: A cross-sectional study “Ende Diabetes Study” was conducted in Nangapanda Village. This study use cluster random sampling method to a total number of 19756 residents in Nangapanda village. From the sampling frame of 1800 adult subjects who underwent screening with glucometer in 2008 and 2009, 125 subjects have been diagnosed as diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG. All of the subjects who were diagnosed as diabetes or IFG from the previous screening and 218 subjects from control (normal subjects in the 2008 and 2009 screening were included in the present study. Each subject underwent general anamnesis, nutritional interview, complete physical examinations, and laboratory test (blood and urine. The data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0.Ressult: There were 343 subjects in this study. The prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda using blood glucose criteria (using fasting and post-glucose load values was 2%; using post glucose load criteria, the prevalence of DM was 1.56%; while with HbA1c criteria, the prevalence was 2.83%. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 2.2%, and IFG was 6.2%. A number of 71.1% Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes.Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda (using fasting and post-glucose load criteria was 2% and 1.56% (using post-glucose load values. As much as 71.1% of Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:30-8Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Ende Diabetes Study, prevalence, rural Indonesia

  7. Functional disability among elderly persons in a rural area of Haryana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number and proportion of elderly persons is increasing, in India, as well as the world. Disability is an important indicator to measure disease burden in this group. While some chronic conditions may not be amenable to complete cure, their functional disabilities can be improved with timely and appropriate management. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to estimate the prevalence of functional disability and study its association with socio-demographic variables and self-reported chronic conditions among elderly persons in a rural area of Haryana. Materials and Methods: All persons aged 60 years and above in the randomly selected six clusters were included in this community-based cross-sectional study. Information was collected on socio-demographic variables and self-reported chronic conditions. Functional disability was defined as having disability in activities of daily living, or blindness or hearing impairment, or a combination of these. In multivariate analysis, backward stepwise logistic regression was carried out to study the association between the independent and dependent variables, after adjusting for confounding variables. Results: Among the 836 participants studied, the prevalence of functional disability was estimated to be 37.4% (95% confidence interval: 34.2, 40.7. The prevalence was less among men (35.9% than women (38.8%. The prevalence increased with age, was more common among persons who were not currently married, had diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion: Functional disability is common among elderly persons in the rural area. Community-based interventions are needed to address them. Management of chronic conditions should include prevention and control of associated disability.

  8. Rural livelihood diversification and income inequality in local government area Akinyele, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepoju Abimbola O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of income distribution has been a major concern in the developing world. This is because high levels of income inequality are likely to create a hostile atmosphere for economic growth and development. This study examined rural livelihood strategies and their contribution to the overall income inequality of households in Akinyele local government area of Oyo state. Primary data employed in the study were obtained from 105 respondents selected through a multi-stage sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multinomial logit and the generalized entropy inequality indices as a measure of inequality. The distribution of respondents by type of livelihood strategy adopted revealed that almost half of the respondents adopted the combination of farm and non-farm strategy while 14.3% and 40.0% adopted only farm and non-farm strategy respectively. Income inequality was the highest among non-farming households and the lowest among farming households, implying that income from non-farm activities contributed most to income inequality in the study area. The study revealed that the major factor which negatively influenced the choice of farming as a livelihood strategy was household size while factors such as age and land ownership had positive and negative effects on the adoption of the non-farm strategy respectively. The study recommends that policies targeted at rural dwellers should centre on improved access to productive assets such as land for the landless farmers as well as the provision of improved technology, which could encourage the ageing farming population to engage in farming activities.

  9. Oral health behaviour of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of dental knowledge and attitudes among 12 year-old children and 35-44 year-olds in Burkina Faso; to evaluate the pattern of oral health behaviour among these cohorts in relation to location, gender and social characteristics and; to evaluate the relative effect of social-behavioural risk factors on caries experience. DESIGN: Across sectional study including urban and rural subgroups of population. Sample and methods: Multistage cluster sampling of households in urban areas; in rural areas random samples of participants were based on the recent population census. The final study population covered two age groups: 12 years (n = 505) and 35-44 years (n = 493). RESULTS: For both children and adults, levels of oral health knowledge, attitudes and self-care were low; 36% of 12-year-olds and 57% of 35-44-year-olds carried out toothcleaning on a daily basis. Pain and discomfort from teeth were common while dental visits were infrequent. Tooth cleaning was mostly performed by use of chewsticks. Use of toothpaste was rare, particularly fluoridated toothpaste was seldom; 9% of 12-year-olds and 18% of 35-44-year-olds reported use of fluoride toothpaste. Significant differences were found in oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices according to location and gender. At age 12, important factors of high caries experience were location (urban), and consumption of soft drinks and fresh fruits. In 35-44-year-olds, gender (female), high education level, dental visit and occupation (government employee) were the significant factors of high dental caries experience whereas adults using traditional chewing sticks had lower DMFT. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes rather than traditional curative care. Community-oriented essential care and affordable fluoride toothpaste should be encouraged.

  10. Metal identification in small rural areas of bovine creations by EDXRF methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of metal pollution in the environment, from rural areas of bovine creation in the Rio das Pedras area in Serra da Esperanca, municipal district of Guarapuava - Parana. The analytical technique employed was Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Methodology with a portable equipment. Water, grass, soil, sediment and feed samples were collected from three small rural properties. Water samples were filtered for particulate matter retention and precipitation with APDC chelating agent was used for pre-concentration. For solid samples, between 0.3 g and 3 g, were placed in a cell covered with mylar film for irradiation and EDXRF direct analysis. Feed samples were analyzed without preparation. Soil and sediment samples were dried, ground and sieved for in natura EDXRF analysis. Grass samples were dried, crushed and ground up to powder form and then submitted to the same preparation as soil samples. The measurement system, from Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of UEL, consists in a Si-PIN X-ray detector (221 eV resolution for 5,9 keV line, 25 mum Be window) and a mini X-ray tube (4W, Ag target, 50 mum Ag filter). Sensitivity values were obtained from MicroMatter Standards and used for water and grass quantification. Calcium, Fe and Cu were found on water and K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Rb, Zr and Pb on grass samples. Potassium, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb,Sr, Y, Zr, Pb were identified on soil and sediment samples. In this case just Ti, Fe and Zr were quantified due to the standards available for sensitivity determination. Noting that the presence of lead was found in one of the analyzed places. (author)

  11. Metal identification in small rural areas of bovine creations by EDXRF methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouk, Luana C.; Melquiades, Fabio L.; Biase, Gabriel E.V.; Antunes Junior, Osmar R. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Peres, Jayme A. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of metal pollution in the environment, from rural areas of bovine creation in the Rio das Pedras area in Serra da Esperanca, municipal district of Guarapuava - Parana. The analytical technique employed was Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Methodology with a portable equipment. Water, grass, soil, sediment and feed samples were collected from three small rural properties. Water samples were filtered for particulate matter retention and precipitation with APDC chelating agent was used for pre-concentration. For solid samples, between 0.3 g and 3 g, were placed in a cell covered with mylar film for irradiation and EDXRF direct analysis. Feed samples were analyzed without preparation. Soil and sediment samples were dried, ground and sieved for in natura EDXRF analysis. Grass samples were dried, crushed and ground up to powder form and then submitted to the same preparation as soil samples. The measurement system, from Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of UEL, consists in a Si-PIN X-ray detector (221 eV resolution for 5,9 keV line, 25 mum Be window) and a mini X-ray tube (4W, Ag target, 50 mum Ag filter). Sensitivity values were obtained from MicroMatter Standards and used for water and grass quantification. Calcium, Fe and Cu were found on water and K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Rb, Zr and Pb on grass samples. Potassium, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb,Sr, Y, Zr, Pb were identified on soil and sediment samples. In this case just Ti, Fe and Zr were quantified due to the standards available for sensitivity determination. Noting that the presence of lead was found in one of the analyzed places. (author)

  12. Diabetes screening and the distribution of blood glucose levels in rural areas of North India

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    Tomi Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Genetics and environment have both been implicated in the exponential rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus that affects 65.1 million people, and leads to a mortality of 1 million people every year in India. This study was devised to obtain the trends of the distribution of blood glucose, and sociodemographic characteristics in rural areas of a North Indian state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at eight centers in five districts. A camp-based approach was followed in the diabetes screening conducted in rural areas. Blood glucose measurements were obtained after informed consent by trained staff using a reflectance photometer instrument. Descriptive statistics, distribution curves, log transformations, and tests for bimodality were obtained. Results: 45,318 participants consisting of 44.4% males and 55.6% females were screened. Ages ranged from 18 to 98 years with the mean age of 39.9 ± 14.44 years. 86.5% were normal (random blood sugar [RBS] 200 mg/dl. The median blood glucose level steadily rose with increasing age. The prediabetic to diabetic ratio was 4:1. The distribution curve of RBS was right skewed. A log transformation was applied, and bimodality was tested using the Hartigan?s dip test. The dip statistic (D was 0.0162 with a simulated P < 0.001. Conclusion: Mass screening for diabetes provides benefits from a clinical standpoint by helping to estimate the prevalence (diabetes and the hidden burden of the disease (prediabetes. Screening programs can strengthen healthcare system initiatives and reduce the growing burden of diabetes in India.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base and surrounding area, Tucson, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey, which was conducted from March 1 to 13, 1995, covered a 51-square-mile (132-square-kilometer) area centered on the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (DMAFB) in Tucson, Arizona. The results of the survey are reported as contours of bismuth-214 ({sup 214}Bi) soil concentrations, which are characteristic of natural uranium and its progeny, and as contours of the total terrestrial exposure rates extrapolated to one meter above ground level. All data were scaled and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the DMAFB area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 9 to 20 microroentgens per hour at one meter above the ground. Elevated levels of terrestrial radiation due to increased concentrations of {sup 214}Bi (natural uranium) were observed over the Southern Pacific railroad yard and along portions of the railroad track bed areas residing both within and outside the base boundaries. No man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was observed by the aerial survey. High-purity germanium spectrometer and pressurized ionization chamber measurements at eight locations within the base boundaries were used to verify the integrity of the aerial results. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to be in agreement. However, the ground-based measurements were able to detect minute quantities of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) at six of the eight locations examined. The presence of {sup 137}Cs is a remnant of fallout from foreign and domestic atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that occurred in the 1950s and early 1960s. Cesium-137 concentrations varied from 0.1 to 0.3 picocuries per gram, which is below the minimum detectable activity of the aerial system.

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base and surrounding area, Tucson, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey, which was conducted from March 1 to 13, 1995, covered a 51-square-mile (132-square-kilometer) area centered on the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (DMAFB) in Tucson, Arizona. The results of the survey are reported as contours of bismuth-214 (214Bi) soil concentrations, which are characteristic of natural uranium and its progeny, and as contours of the total terrestrial exposure rates extrapolated to one meter above ground level. All data were scaled and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the DMAFB area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 9 to 20 microroentgens per hour at one meter above the ground. Elevated levels of terrestrial radiation due to increased concentrations of 214Bi (natural uranium) were observed over the Southern Pacific railroad yard and along portions of the railroad track bed areas residing both within and outside the base boundaries. No man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was observed by the aerial survey. High-purity germanium spectrometer and pressurized ionization chamber measurements at eight locations within the base boundaries were used to verify the integrity of the aerial results. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to be in agreement. However, the ground-based measurements were able to detect minute quantities of cesium-137 (137Cs) at six of the eight locations examined. The presence of 137Cs is a remnant of fallout from foreign and domestic atmospheric nuclear weapons testing that occurred in the 1950s and early 1960s. Cesium-137 concentrations varied from 0.1 to 0.3 picocuries per gram, which is below the minimum detectable activity of the aerial system

  15. Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

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    Yi Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is an important form of active transport and physical activity to provide substantial health benefits to the elderly. Among voluminous physical activity-related literature, few studies have investigated the correlates of active transport of the rural elderly in China. This study was the first attempt to investigate the impact of the household, personal, and environmental attributes on rural elderly’s cycling activity with data collected in 102 rural neighborhoods of Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The negative binomial regression models suggest that, all else being equal, living in a neighborhood with low proportion of elderly population (over 60, abundant bike lanes, and a compact urban form related to high density and mixed development, are associated with the increase of frequency and duration of the rural elderly’s cycling trips. The models also detect that attitude towards cycling and household bicycle and motorized vehicle ownership are strongly related to cycling trips of the rural elderly in Zhongshan. The findings provide insights for transportation and public health agencies, practitioners, and researchers into the effective design of interventions from the prospective of attitudes, social and built environment on health promotion of the rural elderly in China.

  16. Severe situation of rural nonpoint source pollution and efficient utilization of agricultural wastes in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    Rural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution caused by agricultural wastes has become increasingly serious in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA), significantly affecting the reservoir water quality. The grim situation of rural NPS pollution in the TGRA indicated that agrochemicals (chemical fertilizer and pesticide) were currently the highest contributor of rural NPS pollution (50.38 %). The harmless disposal rates of livestock excrement, crop straws, rural domestic refuse, and sewage also cause severe water pollution. More importantly, the backward agricultural economy and the poor environmental awareness of farmers in the hinterland of the TGRA contribute to high levels of rural NPS pollution. Over the past decade, researchers and the local people have carried out various successful studies and practices to realize the effective control of rural NPS pollution by efficiently utilizing agricultural wastes in the TGRA, including agricultural waste biogas-oriented utilization, crop straw gasification, decentralized land treatment of livestock excrement technology, and crop straw modification. These technologies have greatly increased the renewable resource utilization of agricultural wastes and improved water quality and ecological environment in the TGRA. PMID:26392092

  17. Child's play: exposure to household pesticide use among children in rural, urban and informal areas of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandy, Tolosana; Hanna-Andrea, Rother; Leslie, London.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As part of a larger dermatological investigation undertaken in 1999 - 2001 involving the Department of Dermatology, Groote Schuur Hospital (Cape Town, South Africa) and Nottingham University (UK), household pesticide use was investigated among Xhosa-speaking families living in three area [...] s in South Africa (a rural area, an urban township and an informal settlement). OBJECTIVES: The aim was to characterise pesticide use patterns and potential exposures through skin absorption, ingestion and inhalation for this group of South African children. METHODS: A standardised questionnaire, which included a section investigating household pesticide use, was administered by four trained fieldworkers to the parents/guardians of the 740 children (25%) aged between 3 and 11 years identified as having atopic dermatitis either by clinical examination or according to the UK criteria (rural N=387, urban N=292, informal N=61). RESULTS: Of the children with atopic dermatitis, 539 (73%) had been exposed to household pesticides. Most childhood exposure (89%) occurred in the informal settlements, followed by 78% in the urban area and 63% in the rural area. CONCLUSIONS: This research highlighted considerable home environment pesticide exposure of South African children in lower socio-economic groups in rural, urban and informal areas. As children are particularly vulnerable to the short- and long-term health effects of pesticide exposure, further indepth investigation is needed to ascertain and document the health effects associated with such exposure in the home.

  18. Lower Cretaceous Fossil Record of The Lavrasian Continental Shelf in Northwestern Turkey and Its Correlation with Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente?, Merve; Özkar Öngen, ?zver

    2015-04-01

    This study contains Zonguldak, Amasra and K?rkalerli (??neada) area in the Northwestern Turkey. In this region, The Istanbul-Zonguldak Composite Terrane consists of two Paleozoic terranes and their Mesozoic overstep sequences around Zonguldak and Amasra. However The Istranca Terrane is characterized by a complex nappe-pile that includes metamorphic assemblages unconformably overlain by Tertiary sediments of the Thrace basin around ??neada. The original purpose of this study to analyze fossil records of Kozlu-Zonguldak, Amasra and K?rklareli (??neada) in which Lower Cretaceous of shallow nautical sedimentary stacking which is regarding to The Lavrasian continental shelf in Northwestern Turkey. After analysing about 90 thin section and 30 samples we followed and associated lito-biostratigraphical similarities and contrasts, horizontal and vertical variation in facies which includes Orbitolina, Neotrocholina, megalospheric Rudists and various benthic foraminifera fossil records. Correlation between sections with detailed paleontological analyse wasn't presented until today, however there are several geological examination in these areas. In accordance with this purpose, this study tries to determine possible paleogeographic borders, which are in Northwestern Anatolian of The Lavrasian continental shelf, with benthic foraminiferal assemblages . In this examination, the other aim is to correlate with researches of Lower Cretaceous continental shelf of Iranian in East, Bulgaria, Romania, Italy and Spain in West, to present comparisons and contrasts in Western Pontids. Keywords: Lower Cretaceous, Benthic Foraminifera, Correlation.

  19. THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE NATURAL RESERVATION FROM THE INFERIOR COURSE OF THE TUR RIVER AND ITS SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severus D. COVACIU-MARCOV

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the studied area we encountered 14 species of amphibians (Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus cristatus, Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Bombina variegata, Pelobates fuscus, Hyla arborea, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae, Rana dalmatina, Rana arvalis and 9 species of reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Zootoca vivipara, Anguis fragilis, Natrix natrix, Coronella austriaca, Elaphe longissima and Vipera berus. Hybrids between Triturus cristatus and Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata and Rana kl. esculenta are also present in this region. The herpetofauna of this reservation from the inferior course of the Tur River stands out through the glacier relicts that live here, in the woody swamps from the plains (R. arvalis, Z. vivipara and V. berus. Population of Salamandra salamandra and Bombina variegata can be found here at altitudes of no more than 140 m. In this reservation, all the three forms of the Rana green complex that live in Romania are present. The most important sectors of the reservation, from what the herpetofauna is concerned, are the afforested areas. These shelter most of the species and the biggest population of the protected species. The results of our study show the necessity to include into the reservation the forests from Livada.

  20. Tourism and new governance structures, a relation with potential to develop depressed rural areas: the example of the municipality of Almeida (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Fernando Pereira da; Ramos, Rui A. R., ed. lit.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays in Portugal some rural areas are facing the challenges resulting from the reform of traditional economic activities and new markets’ characteristics. These challenges promote new local development policies that result in mobilising local resources and in expanding rural activities. In this context, tourism is considered, in many cases, a key sector for the economic growth of these territories. In rural areas tourism can include different types of tourist activiti...