WorldWideScience
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Space-time analysis of the urban-rural grafient in the metropolitan area of Madrid and ist surroundings -Guadalajara and Toledo.  

OpenAIRE

According to UN provisions in the period from 2007 to 2050 world population will grow up to 9200 million people. In fact, for the first time in history, in the year 2008 world urban population became higher than rural population. The increase of urban areas and their transport infrastructures has influenced agricultural land use due to their irreversible change, especially when they remain as periurban vacant land, losing their character and identity. In the Europe of the nineties, the tradit...

Diaz-palacios Sisternes, Susana; Ayuga Te?llez, Francisco; Garci?a Garci?a, Ana Isabel

2012-01-01

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RECREATION ISSUES IN RURAL AREAS  

OpenAIRE

In our country it is difficult to start rural tourism activity because almost all times, especially when cities have become a special category of communities, towns, urban population,, escaped "always in rural areas where he met relatives where were the so-called,, country house "and where he could find peace in the midst of unspoiled nature atmosphere. In addition, those various actions that attracts individuals to travel in rural areas. Thus there Sanziene habits when, according to traditio...

Mariana Chiril?; Claudia Sîrbulescu; Eduard Bianu

2013-01-01

3

Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

1987-01-01

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7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

...rural”. A rural area may consist...or, is an area that has...Exceptions to the definition. On a...definition of “rural” stated...regarding the area that would...exception from the definition. (c...to permit rural...

2010-01-01

5

Rurality study of restricted areas  

OpenAIRE

Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas&...

Sergio Rivaroli; Domenico Regazzi; Rino Ghelfi

2009-01-01

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EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Europe's rural areas face a common challenge: the creation of highquality, sustainable jobs. In this area, the gap between urban and rural areas continues to widen. Although rural areas make up 93% of theterritory of the European Union (EU, income per capita in these areas is little more than half that in urban areas. For this reason it is becoming increasingly difficult to attract and retain skilled individuals.

MADALINA NEACSU

2009-05-01

7

Tourism in the Portuguese Rural Areas  

OpenAIRE

The tourism in the rural areas is an important contribution to the local economies and an additional income for the traditional local activities as the agricultural sector. Some traditional rural activities, as the agriculture, sometimes and in some locations are not sufficient to provide an acceptable return to their promoters. So the different forms of tourism in rural zones, as the small industry and others sectors, are important contributions to the economic activity in the rural areas. T...

Martinho, Vi?tor Joa?o Pereira Domingues

2013-01-01

8

Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

2005-01-01

9

Hemodynamic changes in the areas surrounding arteriovenous malformations after embolization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hemodynamic changes in eleven patients with supratentorial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated by embolization were studied by means of single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine. In all the patients, the pre-embolization SPECTs showed a low perfusion in the zone adjacent to the nidus. In five patients with a 50?100% obliteration of the nidus, and with little or no new low-density area (LDA) on CT after embolization, low-perfusion area surrounding the nidus in SPECT image become smaller. In four patients who had moderate-sized new LDA on the post-embolization CT, however, the low-perfusion area was extended. In two patients with a 20% obliteration of the large AVM, no change was found in the SPECT images. The ischemic state surrounding the AVM nidus is considered to be caused mainly by the cerebral steal phenomenon; it can be improved by appropriate embolization. (author)

10

Rural Areas Perceive Policy Tilt  

Science.gov (United States)

When U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan talks about using merit pay to attract the best teachers to the classroom, he probably doesn't have in mind a place like Richmond County, North Carolina. In this rural community where the unemployment rate is nearly 14 percent and there's no movie theater for miles around, school administrators say…

McNeil, Michele

2009-01-01

11

Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants by rural communities surrounding the PARNASI, Sergipe, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

This study was carried out in the four rural communities (Pedrinhas, Ladeira, Caroba and Cajueiro) surrounding the National Park of Serra de Itabaiana - PARNASI, in order to assess which botanical species are recognized by local specialists as wild food plants. The methodology was based on stages of observation, questionnaires, performance-guided tours, and a floristic inventory. There were 31 specialties divided into three categories of emic wild food plants, those being for human consumptio...

Maroti, Paulo Se?rgio; Lima, Juliano S.; Silva-mann, Renata; Gomes, Laura Jane

2011-01-01

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Plastic surgery in rural area: A report  

OpenAIRE

Most of our rural population does not seek the expensive specialist service of distant city hospitals due to social or financial reasons. Existing health system in rural area is not efficient enough to meet the health demands of such vast population. There is only one Government Plastic surgery unit covering the population of 40 lacs leading to huge backlog of patients waiting for reconstructive surgery. To evade this situation a team of Plastic surgeons from Government Medical College Jabalp...

Agarwal Pawan; Kain R; Raina V

2005-01-01

13

Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

14

Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

Gerhard Leitner

2014-07-01

15

Integrated pollutant concentration distribution over area surrounding elevated point source  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollutant dispersion from a continuous elevated point source in the atmosphere for a combination of varying meteorological parameters is studied in the frame of a Gaussian plume model. The Gaussian basic formula for the concentration is reformulated in polar coordinates. The study derives a general formula for the annual or seasonal integrated concentration over sixteen angular sectors surrounding the source. A computer program is developed to determine the frequency occurrence of the wind velocity and direction together with the stability classes in order to evaluate the integrated pollutant concentration as a function of the distance from the source in the different angular sectors. The results have been applied to the area surrounding the reactor of the Nuclear Research Center at Inshas-Egypt.

Azzam, A.; Mayhoub, A. B.

1996-09-01

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Integrated Pollutant Concentration Distribution Over Area Surrounding Elevated Point Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollutant dispersion from a continuous elevated point source in the atmosphere for a combination of varying meteorological parameters is studied in the frame of Gaussian plume model. The gaussian basic formula for the concentration is reformulated in polar coordinates. The study derives a general formula for the annual or seasonal integrated concentration over sixteen angular sectors surrounding the source. A computer program is developed to determine the frequency of occurrence of the wind velocity and direction together with the stability classes for the sake of evaluating the integrated pollutant concentration as a function of the distance from the source in the different angular sectors. The results have been applied to the area surrounding the reactor of the Nuclear Research at Inshas-Egypt

17

Multifunctional character of rural areas in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multifunctional development of rural areas involves implementation of new non-agricultural functions, such as production, commerce or services. This strategy results from social and economic difficulties in these areas, economic underdevelopment, ineffective agricultural farms and unemployment. The research material used in the paper included analysis of the related literature, analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in the area of Poland and the author’s own observations. As results from the study, rural areas should perform the functions of food production, environmental protection, culture, tourism and providing services for municipal areas. These functions should provide the basis for development of additional non-agricultural activity. This involves the plans made by people who live in the country for starting businesses in the area of services, commerce, transport, tourism and craftsmanship and handicraft. The non- -agricultural activities which have already been performed suggest, on the one hand, opti-mistic opportunities of growth in rural areas but, on the other hand, are not conducive to the development of agricultural functions, which are inherent in rural areas.

Jan Sikora

2012-04-01

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Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

2009-07-01

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Rural areas in Poland from a demographic perspective  

OpenAIRE

The article presents an analysis and a critical assessment of rural areas in Poland in the years 1999–2011 from a demographic perspective. The analysis is based on indicators characterising population density, population structure by gender and age, migrations of population, and vital statistics. In order to classify and compare rural areas, the k-means method is employed. The sample of rural areas used in the study contains all 2,173 rural and urban-rural gminas (excluding ...

Biegan?ska, Jadwiga

2013-01-01

20

Biogeography of azooxanthellate corals in the Caribbean and surrounding areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Biogeographic patterns for azooxanthellate corals are not as well known as those of zooxanthellate (primarily reef-building) corals. I analyzed occurrences of 129 species of azooxanthellate corals in 19 geopolitical regions in the Caribbean and surrounding areas. I performed an unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis using Bray-Curtis' similarity measure on the complete data set and shallow- and deep-water subsets of the data. The results indicate two provinces, each with a widespread (tropical and subtropical distributions) component to its fauna. One province has a tropical and primarily insular component to it, while the other has a subtropical and primarily continental component. By contrast, zooxanthellate corals have a uniform faunal composition throughout the Caribbean. Moreover, zooxanthellate corals have half as many species in the Caribbean as the azooxanthellate corals even though their global diversities are equal. These differences in diversity and geographic distribution patterns should be considered when developing conservation strategies.

Dawson, J.

2002-04-01

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PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AMONG POPULATION OF SULTANPUR KUNHARI AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA, HARIDWAR, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The average prevalence of hypertension in India is 25% in urban and 10% in rural inhabitants. Prevalence of hypertension has been found to increase in traditional populations undergoing innovation. There is a strong correlation between changing lifestyle factors and increase in hypertension. Objectives: 1.To study prevalence of hypertension among population of Sultanpur Kunhari and its surrounding area, Haridwar Uttarakhand. 2. To study association between various factors and hypertension in a rural community of the study area. A community based cross sectional study was carried out in the selected area for the study. The cross sectional field study involved 500 respondents, aged 30 years and above using simple random sampling technique. A study instrument which included behavioral risk factor questionnaire (Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and type of diet and physical measurements of height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and blood pressure was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze data. The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 11%. It was higher in females (12.1% than males (10%. It was seen that prevalence of hypertension increased with age. Prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among individuals, aged 40 years and above, with high body mass index and increased waist hip ratio, (P<.05. The prevalence of hypertension is high and is associated with socio-demographic factors. Hence there is need for primordial prevention efforts on large scale.

Izharul Hasan

2012-03-01

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Biogas production in rural areas of Mexico  

OpenAIRE

Mexico is highly dependent on fossil fuels. One of the governmental initiatives proposes to investigate the possibilities for biogas production in rural areas. Agricultural producers are highly susceptible to energy price variations and in most cases the steadily growing prices of electricity and fuels are lowering the profits and income of farmers. Environmental concerns about fossil fuels give additional stimulus towards a switch to more sustainable energy sources. Literature research on di...

Koldisevs, Jevgenijs

2014-01-01

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Changes in Rural Areas and Regional Development  

OpenAIRE

The present study examines how regional development has been affected by social, economic and environmental changes in three regions located in central Greece. These regions were affected significantly by social and economic changes, because of substantial new infrastructure development that took place related to a ski resort and agritourism establishments. Sample data were collected on the characteristics of residents and land use in these three rural areas. The results of the study show tha...

Helen Theodoropoulou; Panagiotis Kaldis

2008-01-01

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CHANGING SCHOOL NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS.  

Science.gov (United States)

AS THE RURAL ECONOMY HAS BECOME MORE AFFECTED BY AUTOMATION, RURAL SOCIETY HAS BECOME MORE INDUSTRIAL. FARM POPULATION AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS HAVE DECREASED, WHILE NON-FARM RURAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED. THE CHANGING RURAL SCENE IS REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN RURAL EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES HAVE GREATLY INCREASED DUE TO SCHOOL…

RHODES, ALVIN E.

25

Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

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Surveillance Of Vital Events In Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: Which system of registration of vital events is more efficient? Objective: To ascertain the efficiency and quality of vital events registration in the rural community. Study design: Population based cross-sectional. Settings: Rural areas. Sample size: All births and deaths which occurred during the year 96-97 in the community development block were incorporated in the study. Study variables: Births, deaths, cause of death, events missed by different agencies and quality of registration. Analysis: Simple proportions Results: During the reference period of one year 2617 births and 855 deaths were reported in rural population of 96242. Anganwadi workers were most efficient as they could record 96% of births and 83.2% of deaths. Multipurpose health workers (female and village chowkidar could record 77.7% and 51.0% of births and 75% and 64%. 6% of deaths respectively. Correctness of causes of death matched to the extent of 31-36%, which was quite discouraging. Health system and system of integrated child Development Services do not use mortality data for local planning and seldom share this information with the community, whose lives.

Lal Sunder

1998-01-01

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Promoting energy conservation in the rural areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is estimated that more than 70% of the population of Ghana live in the rural areas. Cooking and heating in these areas are mainly achieved by fuelwood and other biomass. Although wood is a renewable energy resource, this is only so if it is grown faster than it is consumed. Firewood consumption exceeds forest growth in Ghana and other developing countries. Added to this, is the fact that the World's wood resource is used for such purposes as sawn timber, clearing of land and felling trees for agricultural purposes, etc. If our forests are to be preserved it is this population that has to be targeted. One method of reducing fuelwood demand is to encourage alternative supplies such as biogas (methane). Rural populations could be mobilized to construct bio-latrines in their communities to make use of the biogas generated to cook their food and also for heating purposes. Through levies, funds could be generated to undertake such projects in each community. Before this could be possible, a lot of education will have to be undertaken by the Renewable Energy unit of the Ministry of Mines and Energy. This is because many people are apprehensive of the idea of cooking with gas derived from their own feces. Some of the benefits to be derived from such a project are the use of the effluent slurry as high quality organic manure for farming. This will surely lead to increase food production and help to keep the environment clean (au)

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The Impact of Building Recreational Houses in Rural Areas. Case Study: Rânca Mountain Resort  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims at showing how the present-day rural space suffers modifications meant to produce different changes in terms of physiognomy and also at social and economic levels, focusing on the phenomenon of building recreational houses in rural areas, by population coming from urban areas. The case study we have chosen refers to the Rânca mountain resort, situated in the Southern Carpathians (in the Parâng Mountains. This place, which thirty years ago might have passed for a peripherally rural area, it is now characterized by incipient urbanization. It is interesting to observe that this process is not supported by the closest urban centre (the town of Novaci, but by the towns located at greater distances (the towns of Craiova and Târgu-Jiu, that have the social and economic power to extend their influence up to 150 km distance. Therefore, the flows caused, on the one hand by the urban population migrating during the week-ends to the rural areas and, on the other hand, by the investments made in utility infrastructures, have profound implications not only on the changing rural landscape, but also on peoples’ perception of traditional (rural versus modern (urban way of life. Hence, a new type of landscape appears in remote rural areas, which benefit from an extraordinary natural potential, as a result of town dwellers’ wish for natural surroundings and urban standards

Antoaneta-Carina POPESCU

2010-12-01

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Patterns of Health Maintenance Organization Service Areas in Rural Counties  

OpenAIRE

This study analyzes the 1993 National Directory of HMOs to determine the extent to which rural counties are included in health maintenance organization (HMO) service areas. Two specific questions are addressed: (1) How do the patterns of service areas differ across HMO model types? (2) What are the characteristics that distinguish rural counties served by HMOs from those that are not? Although a majority of rural counties are in HMO service areas, substantially fewer are served by non-individ...

Ricketts, Thomas C.; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Johnson-webb, Karen D.

1995-01-01

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On Hiring Library Staff in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a great deal said in the literature about what would be librarians can do to find a job; less has been said about what would be employers can do if they are having problems recruiting. This article gives some ideas about things that libraries, especially those in rural areas, can do to help them find the employees they need. There are many possibilities discussed, including helping spouses of new hires get jobs in the community, hiring from out of region or country, hiring older workers or new grads, reconsidering what competencies are core for the position and what tasks should be in the job description. The world has changed for job seekers, who must now show that they are more than competent to be competitive, and perhaps it needs to change for employers too. If you don’t think the job you are posting is a great opportunity, then potential applicants likely won’t either.

Sarah Sutherland

2011-11-01

31

On the future of local communities in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and emotional connection of people living there. In other words, their participation and their self-identification with these communities is a key prerequisite. Although the renewal of our rural communities is an extremely difficult task, filled with many dilemmas, inconsistencies and objective contradictions, it is not unresolvable, at least for one type of these communities. With the well-thought strategy of planning and management of rural development, these processes can be accelerated and channelled in the desired direction. This paper discusses some possible solutions and gives more concrete propositions in relation to this problem.

Maleševi? Krstan

2003-01-01

32

Logistic support in rural areas – the idea and challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agricultural activities, specific to rural areas are a sphere of interest of agrologistics. It offers the possibility of using methods and techniques proved in supply chains management to agribusiness processes. Their identification is the basis of comprehensive development of logistic support system for rural areas.

Anna Bruska

2012-09-01

33

Differences in ozone photochemical characteristics between the megacity Tianjin and its rural surroundings  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground level ozone and its precursors were measured from July 10 to September 30, 2009 within Tianjin. The data were used to analyze differences in ozone photochemical oxidant production in urban and rural areas. Results showed more pronounced risk of O3 exposure at the rural site, Wuqing. During the observation period, ozone varied monthly, peaking in Jul. and reaching a minimum in Sep. The daily maximum ozone concentration was found to exceed 80 ppb for 28 days 100 ppb for 12 days, 120 ppb for 7 days at Wuqing, while it exceeded 80 ppb for 10 days, 100 ppb for 2 days, and 120 ppb for 1 day at the urban site, Tieta. The daily maximum ozone concentrations at Wuqing and Tieta were 193.7 ppb and 130.4 ppb. The daily maximum ozone concentration occurred at noon in Tieta and at 14:00 in Wuqing. NO and NOx peaked in September and reached minimum values in Jul., CO showed little variation at both sites. NOx and CO showed similar double-peak diurnal cycles resulted from a combination of diurnal variation of emission and the Planetary Boundary Layer During the VOCs (volatile organic compounds) sampling period, the average total VOCs concentration showed considerable day to day variation, which was 87.91 ppb with a range of 27.2 ppb-437.3 ppb at Tieta, and the average total VOCs was 197.95 ppb with a range of 63.48 ppb-473.97 ppb at Wuqing. A sensitivity study performed with the NCAR-MM model showed alkenes to be the most numerous contributors to O3 production, accounting for 53.3% of the total. Aromatics and alkanes accounted for 35.1% and 9.2%, respectively.

Han, Su-qin; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Chun-sheng; Lu, Xue-qiang; Ran, Liang; Han, Meng; Li, Pei-yan; Li, Xiang-jin

2013-11-01

34

Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

35

[Detection of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in Hatay and surrounding areas].  

Science.gov (United States)

Leishmaniasis; is a disease that is transmitted by infected sand flies when they suck the blood of mammals. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which is given such names as the Antep boil in Turkey, is mostly seen on the skin and sometimes on the mucosa and heals with a recessed scar. Between June 2003 and October 2005, 55 patients with skin lesions presented at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustafa Kemal University Medical Faculty for the detection of CL. Microscopic examination showed Leishmania amastigotes in 40 patients who were given a diagnosis of CL. Thirteen patients were men (32.5%) and 27, women (67.5%). The most frequent age range was 0-20 (57.0%). The lesions were mostly found on the face in 27 (67.5%) patients and on the hands and feet in 13 (32.5%). Fourteen patients (35.0%) had 2 or more lesions. The duration of the lesions was from a minimum of 1 month to a maximum of 3 years. The patients were mostly from Iskenderun/Kirikhan, Iskenderun/Arsus Serinyol, Altinözü, Samanda? Antakya, Harbiye and they were farmers. Cutaneous leishmaniasis was more often detected during the May-June period. Some patients came to our laboratory from regions that had not reported CL before. Therefore, we think that CL has been increasing in Hatay and its surroundings. PMID:17309024

Culha, Gülnaz; Akçali, Cenk

2006-01-01

36

Catawba Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Lake Wylie, South Carolina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Catawba Nuclear Station, located near Lake Wylie, South Carolina, during the period 31 May through 7 June 1984. The survey covered a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area centered on the Station. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus cosmic exposure rate at the 1-meter level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial plus cosmic gamma exposure rate ranged from 3.7 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), the cosmic level over Lake Wylie, to 17.4 ?R/h just east of the Catawba River below the dam site. A search of the gamma data showed no man-made gamma emitters in the survey area. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations on the ground to support the aerial data. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

37

Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

38

Climatic features of Ljig municipal and its surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Territory of Ljig municipal is located in Podrinje-Colubara region and belongs to the temperate continental climate with continental rain regime. This is hilly- mountainous area with 848 m altitude (Rajac Mountain and 723 m relative height, in which are deeply incised (up to 500 m valleys of Ljig River and its tributaries. These geomorphologic features cause airstreams direction in this territory, and because of that some parts of Ljig municipal have temperate continental climate (like valleys and some of them have severe continental climate (like Rajac Mountain. The peak of precipitation is at the end of spring and beginning of summer - in May and June, and the driest months are February and October. The great influences on climatic changes in Ljig municipal and its area have north low parts of Panonian area, which are open for penetration of damp and cold air streams from north, northwest and west. This mountain area on south part of Ljig municipal is some kind of "dam" for cold air streams from south, so they are considerable colder on this territory. On the base of available data in period 1961-1990 from Meteorological Annuals of Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Serbia climatologic overview is presented.

Milanovi? Ana

2006-01-01

39

APPEARANCE MOTIVATIONS OF RURAL TOURISM IN RURAL AREA  

OpenAIRE

One of the trends developing tourism industry is returning to nature, already manifested in all countries, the current post-industrial civilization has created the need for withdrawal (for several days) of the metropolis. And for the huge tourism potential of our country, rural tourism is one of the most attractive travel packages and this from a multiple perspective: on the one hand, the tourist, Romanian or foreign, which will require increasingly more intense this tourist service, on the o...

Eduard Bianu; Claudia Sîrbulescu; Daniel Chiril?

2013-01-01

40

Quality of life in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of rural development (regardless of its theoretical perception is the improvement of quality of life for rural population. This issue is a complex one because it depends on multiple objective and subjective factors, community characteristics, but also its spatial, economic, social and cultural environment. Authors analyze the influence of socio-cultural individual characteristics and household characteristics, as well as their stay in Staniši? during evaluating quality of life of its rural population. The research confirmed a significant influence of socio-cultural (rural household characteristics on the evaluation of quality of life. The influence of spatial dimension of social structure is more obvious on socio-cultural (rural household characteristics.

Boki? Jelena

2014-01-01

41

50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

...and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to...Subpt. E, Fig. 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas...

2010-10-01

42

Final Report. [Training of Physicians for Rural Areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Southwest Alabama Medical Education Consortium (SAMEC) is to create an organization to operate a medical residency program focused on rural physician training. If successful, this program would also serve as a national model to address physician placement in other rural and underserved areas.

McLaughlin, Max, MD

2004-07-23

43

Prevalence and Predictors of Asymptomatic Malaria Parasitemia among Pregnant Women in the Rural Surroundings of Arbaminch Town, South Ethiopia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In Sub-Saharan African countries, including Ethiopia, malaria in pregnancy is a major public health threat which results in significant morbidities and mortalities among pregnant women and their fetuses. In malaria endemic areas, Plasmodium infections tend to remain asymptomatic yet causing significant problems like maternal anemia, low birth weight, premature births, and still birth. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and predictors of asymptomatic Plasmodium infection among pregnant women in the rural surroundings of Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study comprising multistage sampling was conducted between April and June, 2013. Socio-demographic data were collected by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Plasmodium infection was diagnosed by using Giemsa-stained blood smear microscopy and a rapid diagnostic test (SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag Pf/Pv POCT, standard diagnostics, inc., Korea). Results Of the total 341 pregnant women participated in this study, 9.1% (31/341) and 9.7% (33/341) were confirmed to be infected with Plasmodium species by microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), respectively. The geometric mean of parasite density was 2392 parasites per microliter (?l); 2275/ ?l for P. falciparum and 2032/ ?l for P. vivax. Parasitemia was more likely to occur in primigravidae (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 9.4, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.3–60.5), secundigravidae (AOR: 6.3, 95% CI: 2.9–27.3), using insecticide treated bed net (ITN) sometimes (AOR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8- 57.9), not using ITN at all (AOR: 4.6, 95% CI: 1.4–14.4) compared to multigravidae and using ITN always, respectively. Conclusion Asymptomatic malaria in this study is low compared to other studies’ findings. Nevertheless, given the high risk of malaria during pregnancy, pregnant women essentially be screened for asymptomatic Plasmodium infection and be treated promptly via the antenatal care (ANC) services. PMID:25849587

Nega, Desalegn; Dana, Daniel; Tefera, Tamirat; Eshetu, Teferi

2015-01-01

44

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil / Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular dos [...] parasitas através do sequenciamento dos produtos amplificados na PCR do gene SSU rRNA. Foram coletadas amostras fecais de animais domésticos criados para subsistência e estimação nas propriedades rurais do entorno de três fragmentos florestais. Amostras de bovinos (197), equinos (63), suínos (25), ovinos (11) e cães (28) foram coletadas de 98 propriedades rurais. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium para a espécie bovina foi de 3,0% (6/197); para os cães, de 10,7% (3/28); e para os demais animais os resultados foram negativos. Todas as sequências obtidas das seis amostras de bovinos apresentaram identidade molecular com Cryptosporidium andersoni, enquanto as sequências oriundas de amostras de fezes de cães revelaram-se similares ao C. canis. A ocorrência do Cryptosporidium entre os animais estudados foi baixa. Diante dos resultados do presente estudo, o ciclo zoonótico da criptosporidiose parece ter menos importância nesta região. A presença de espécies de Cryptosporidium ainda pouco relatadas em humanos pode ser, por outro lado, importante para a fauna silvestre, uma vez que estes animais podem ser considerados como uma fonte de infecção e disseminação deste protozoário. O impacto e a magnitude da infecção de C. andersoni, em ruminantes selvagens, e de C. canis, em cães silvestres, deve ser avaliado em estudos futuros, com intuito de verificar a real importância dessas espécies nesta região. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasit [...] es by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.

Anaiá da Paixão, Sevá; Mikaela Renata, Funada; Sheila de Oliveira, Souza; Alessandra, Nava; Leonardo José, Richtzenhain; Rodrigo Martins, Soares.

2010-12-01

45

Anemia among children and adolescents in a rural area  

OpenAIRE

Background Anemia in children and adolescents affects growth and development. It is a preventable disease, but unfortunately is often ignored until the symptoms occur. There have been limited reports on the prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents in Indonesia, especially from rural areas. Objective To describe the prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents in district of Malinau, a rural area in Eeast Kalimantan Province. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in J...

Ivan Riyanto Widjaja; Felix Firyanto Widjaja; Lucyana Alim Santoso; Erick Wonggokusuma,; Oktaviati

2014-01-01

46

Alternative futures of rural areas in the EU  

OpenAIRE

In this study alternative futures of rural areas in the EU are explored. For this purpose, a comparative analysis of seven scenario studies of rural areas in the EU was conducted. Often, these scenario studies constructed a baseline scenario - derived from an extrapolation of past trends and policies - and a number of alternative scenarios with different degrees of policy intervention. The time horizon in the scenario studies varies from 2020 to 2035. By focusing on a number of main drivers a...

Jansson, K. M.; Terluin, I. J.

2009-01-01

47

APPEARANCE MOTIVATIONS OF RURAL TOURISM IN RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the trends developing tourism industry is returning to nature, already manifested in all countries, the current post-industrial civilization has created the need for withdrawal (for several days of the metropolis. And for the huge tourism potential of our country, rural tourism is one of the most attractive travel packages and this from a multiple perspective: on the one hand, the tourist, Romanian or foreign, which will require increasingly more intense this tourist service, on the other hand, villagers who will use all the energy and skill to integrate into what will become the association's efforts to profile a network covering the whole country.It is no secret that beyond the obvious need to relax in nature, one that comes to rest here gladly participate in these habits. And because of its beautiful pictures plus original memories about a different way of life and a different culture, local efforts to justify open house to receive tourists, efforts will be rewarded in the future. Experience from other countries confirms most optimistic forecasts.

Eduard Bianu

2013-05-01

48

Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labour market settle in rural, peripheral areas due to low housing prices. This article explores which groups of people move to rural areas in Denmark and why they chose to do so.

Helle Nørgaard

2013-01-01

49

The Role of Rural Tourism on the Development of Rural Areas: The Case of Cyprus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural areas in the European Union are currently undergoing significant economic and social changes, mostly induced by the international trade liberalization and the strengthening of the role of rural development policy. There is an increasing awareness of the need to accompany changes in rural areas through the diversification of their economic base that seems to be the only answer to their socioeconomic survival. Rural tourism has been considered a means of achieving such economic and social development due to its capacity to generate local employment and stimulate external investment into the communities. Within this context, the objective of this paper is to investigate the economic role of tourism on the development of rural areas in Cyprus. Tourism economic impact assessment is based on a constructed input-output table for rural Cyprus followed by a tourism-centered multiplier analysis. Model results suggest that tourism creates significant backward linkages in the rural economy of Cyprus and offers great potential for improving economic activity.

Elias Giannakis

2014-06-01

50

STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS FROM RURAL AREA IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the links between rural transformations and sustainable livelihoods, looking in particular at the impact of the structural changes over the national economy. In order to achieve this, there were used the following research methods such as: analysis of the economic indicators, methods of comparative analysis, assessment of the public policies’ impact on the rural development. The agri-food sector in the Republic of Moldova is based on extensive farming and is insufficiently adapted to market economy conditions. There is a growing understanding in the country that the rural economy is not confined to the agricultural sector, but embraces the broad spectrum of needs of all rural people including living standards, economic activities and natural resources. The paper contains conclusions and proposals on diversification of agriculture and non farm activities in rural areas.

Victor MOROZ

2013-01-01

51

Structural transformations from rural area in the Republic of Moldova  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the links between rural transformations and sustainable livelihoods, looking in particular at the impact of the structural changes over the national economy. In order to achieve this, there were used the following research methods such as: analysis of the economic indicators, methods of comparative analysis, assessment of the public policies’ impact on the rural development.The agri-food sector in the Republic of Moldova is based on extensive farming and is insufficiently adapted to market economy conditions. There is a growing understanding in the country that the rural economy is not confined to the agricultural sector, but embraces the broad spectrum of needs of all rural people including living standards, economic activities and natural resources. The paper contains conclusions and proposals on diversification of agriculture and non farm activities in rural areas

Lucasenco Eugenia

2013-01-01

52

Importance of rural roads as source areas for runoff in mountainous areas of northern Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Unpaved road surfaces have extremely low infiltration rates compared with other watershed land surfaces and, therefore, are significant source areas for erosion-producing Horton overland flow. The hydrologic role of roads is an important issue in mountainous areas of the tropics where erosion control efforts are predominately focused on deforestation and agricultural practices. We report on an investigation of soil physical properties that control excess rainfall (rainfall intensity in excess of infiltration capacity) on rural roads and surrounding lands in a mountainous watershed in northern Thailand. The results of our disk permeameter measurements indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity on unpaved roads is about one order of magnitude lower than on any other land-surface type. Median saturated hydraulic conductivities were not exceeded by measured rainfall intensity on any land use except road surfaces and roadside margins. By simulating excess rainfall, we found that in contrast with other areas of the watershed, the road surface tends to generate excess rainfall early in a rain event, and on nearly all of its area. Despite the relatively small areal extent of road-related surfaces (basin area), they contribute a large portion of basin-wide total excess rainfall during frequently occurring, small rainfall events. However, during larger events, agricultural, secondary vegetation, and forested areas assume greater importance because of their larger areal extent.

Ziegler, Alan D.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

1997-09-01

53

Study on the Environmental Tritium in Surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah - Bandung Landfill Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation of environmental tritium distribution in surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah landfill areas has been carried out. The aim of this investigation was to know tritium concentration in surrounding of both landfill areas. Normally, tritium concentration in the nature is around 0-5 TU. The results of this investigation showed that the tritium concentration in both shallow groundwater of both landfill areas were still in the range of its normal limit, whereas tritium concentration in stream along both landfill areas and leached water showed higher value. Tritium concentration in deep groundwater of Bantar Gebang landfill showed about the zero value, it means is the normal condition. (author)

54

MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGE? COUNTY  

OpenAIRE

Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Arge? County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through exceptions or total qualities), methods ...

Florentina Miu

2013-01-01

55

Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

56

Quality of life in rural areas: A topic for the Rural Development policy?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary transformations of rural areas involve changes in land uses, economic perspectives, connectivity, livelihoods, but also in lifestyles, whereupon a traditional view of ‘the rural’ and, consequently, of ‘rural development’ no longer holds. Accordingly, EU’s 2007-2013 Rural Development policy (RDP is one framework to incorporate aspects labelled as quality of life (QOL alongside traditional rural tenets. With a new rendition of the RDP underway, this paper scopes the content and extent of the expired RDP regarding its incorporation of QOL, in order to better identify considerations for future policy making. Using novel methodology called topic modelling, a series of latent semantic structures within the RDP could be unravelled and re-interpreted via a dual categorization system based on RDP’s own view on QOL, and on definitions provided by independent research. Corroborated by other audits, the findings indicate a thematic overemphasis on agriculture, with the focus on QOL being largely insignificant. Such results point to a rationale different than the assumed one, at the same time reinforcing an outdated view of rurality in the face of the ostensibly fundamental turn towards viewing rural areas in a wider, more humanistic, perspective. This unexpected issue of underrepresentation is next addressed through three possible drivers: conceptual (lingering productionist view of the rural, ideological (capitalist prerogative preventing non-pecuniary values from entering policy and material (institutional lock-ins incapable of accommodating significant deviations from an agricultural focus. The paper ends with a critical discussion and some reflections on the broader concept of rurality.

Brauer René

2014-09-01

57

The Influence of Tourism on Rural Life in Minority Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, taking three ethnic minority areas as an example, through a questionnaire to obtain relevant data, according to the characteristics of the ethnic minority areas, using the factor analysis method, we analyse the tourism in ethnic areas of country life with various effects. We summarize the pros and cons, avoid or minimize the adverse impacts within the maximum limits, mitigate the conflicts between the value of resource and the development, find a balance between tourism development and rural construction, realize win-win tourism development and rural construction.

Cuiping Zhang

2013-07-01

58

Wine Tourism on Rural Areas - Polish Conditions after the Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic transformations after 1989 have brought huge changes in the administration of personal properties and made it possible to manage the private property. Centrally planned economy has been replaced by the market economy, in which single farm households became the subjects of the market. It opened a new way to realize modern ideas and plans, especially on rural areas. As a result, rural households from being solely the attribute of the national agriculture sector, have now become prominent players in the services sector, particularly in the hospitality - tourism industry. One of the means to diversify profile of rural households is to transform an agriculture household into an agro-tourism household. Nowadays, rural communities face new, market-oriented requirements, which make them respond by joining the tradition and modernity. Rural areas are not only obliged to produce and supply food for the cities. Their image is now created by a tourism product, which includes: natural environment, natural and cultural landscape and local culture. Over the last years wine tourism has become more and more popular, even in those countries, which were not traditionally considered wine countries. In Poland wine tourism is a new and dynamic phenomenon copying successfully the resolution from the West. Setting up particularly oriented agro-tourism farms (e.g. wine agro-tourism farms can be a means to transform and modernize the rural households and, equally, a great opportunity for the owners to improve their financial situation and status of life.

Magdalena KUBAL

2010-12-01

59

MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGE? COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Arge? County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through exceptions or total qualities, methods (of diagnostic analysis, foundation-optimization of decisions etc. and different management techniques can be applied, depending on the characteristics aimed.The conditions which must be met by the effective rural tourism management are: observation and appreciation of nature as well as knowledge of cultural traditions, inventory of protected natural areas and of the cultural ones in a protected area, establishment of potential market of tourists, setting of support threshold based on the compliance with the consumption norms per tourist.

Florentina Miu

2013-05-01

60

Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government. PMID:19712653

El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

2009-01-01

61

The cultural tourism in the rural areas of Westpomeranian voivodeship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of cultural tourism in the rural areas of the Westpomeranian region is conditioned by possession of distinguished natural value, as well as significant historical and cultural heritage resources. Tourists who come to the village looking for traces of the past, learn the material and immaterial elements of the regional culture, become familiar with its natural environment, interact with the farms and the local population, participate in the economic life and folk events in rural areas, and thus discover the charm and tourist appeal of the region.

Ma?gorzata Matlegiewicz

2011-01-01

62

Literature assessment of the Charlotte Harbor estuarine system and surrounding area, Southwest Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

The Governor of Florida established the Charlotte Harbor Resource Planning and Management committee to recommend the course of action Florida should take in planning for potential growth in the rapidly growing area surrounding Charlotte Harbor. In May 1981, the U.S. Geological Survey began a planning study to determine detailed hydrologic study needs of the Charlotte Harbor area. A literature search of available data and reports pertaining to the Charlotte Harbor estuarine system and surrounding area resulted in almost 1,300 references. This report contains all references collected during this search. Some of the major reference topics are altered freshwater flow, water quality of the harbor and drainage systems, circulation and tides, coastal and marine resources, fisheries, geology and hydrology of the area, impact studies, water resources, flora and fauna of the area, and water supply. Sixty-eight key words or subject identifiers are used to the index report. (USGS)

Stoker, Yvonne E.; Karavitis, George A.

1983-01-01

63

Integrated Development of Rural Areas to Increase Their Competitiveness Compared to Urban Areas  

OpenAIRE

Urbanization process in the Republic of Lithuania has formed a strong visual, cultural and economic gap between rural and urban areas. The city is identified with the manifold social progress and vitality, while rural areas are pushed into non-progressive public areas and unimportant position. Lithuanian villages face major social and cultural changes and economic difficulties, which result in increasing migration of people to cities and foreign countries. Moreover, significant decline in the...

Rimvydas Gaud?šius

2014-01-01

64

Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labor market settle in the countryside due to low housing prices. This article explores which groups of people move to rural, peripheral areas and why they chose to do so.

Andersen, Hans Skifter; NØrgaard, Helle

2012-01-01

65

The Carboniferous of the Netherlands and surrounding areas; a basin analysis  

OpenAIRE

This thesis deals with several aspects related to the Carboniferous of the Netherlands and surrounding areas. In the first part, the tectonic setting and sedimentary infill of the Northwest European Carboniferous Basin (NWECB, running from the United Kingdom to Poland) are illustrated by palaeogeographical maps and well correlation panels. As such, the reader is introduced into the other chapters which focus on more specific research questions related the Carboniferous in the study area. Due ...

Kombrink, H.

2008-01-01

66

Territorial ordering in Toay area and surroundings, La Pampa province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This present work aims to provide a territorial ordering in an area limited by the 36 grades 39 minutes and 36 grades 43 minutes Southern Parallels and the 64 grades 20 minutes and 64 grades 27 minutes. Meridians from the same hemisphere; within such area, the population from Toay and surroundings are held/contained. The empiric method employed was taken from Gomez Orea (1993). The area was divided into environmental synthesis units and through the use of different proposed tasks it was possible to reach an objective description of the area with the distribution of its varied units

67

Urbanisation of rural areas: A case study from Jutland, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The growth of urban areas is one of the most important characteristics of spatial development in Europe during the past decades and is traditionally described with a few indicators on a relatively coarse spatial scale. However, urbanisation is not only a matter of land use change, but also socio-economic changes, which may or may not manifest itself as physical changes in built-up area and land use. It is therefore useful to analyse the urbanisation patterns along an urban-rural continuum, based on a broad range of indicators. This paper analyses urbanisation patterns in rural areas of Region Midtjylland, Denmark using socio-economic data from the entire rural population aggregated at parish level to investigate if this method may contribute to existing classifications. Through multivariate analysis and GIS analysis, five types of urbanization were identified and their spatial distribution analysed. The results indicate that rural areas of Region Midtjylland are very diverse, and generally reflect the patterndescribed in the 2006 Danish National Planning Report. However, our results offer a more fine-grained analysis based on scientifically selected indicators which is an important step to improve existing classifications. This is especially relevant in a Danish context following the administrative reform in 2007 which renders the traditional classifications less suited for locally adapted planning and policy formulation.

Madsen, Mette Fabricius; Kristensen, SØren Bech Pilgaard

2010-01-01

68

Teacher Training Colleges in the Rural Areas of Angola  

Science.gov (United States)

The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the rural areas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…

Nsiangengo, Pedro; Diasala, Andre Jacinto

2008-01-01

69

SPECIFIC CONDITIONS AND FORMS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL AREA IN SOUTH MUNTENIA REGION  

OpenAIRE

The development of the rural area refers to the modifications in the rural area and the specific forms that supports these modifications, represented by the technical and social infrastructure. The rural area of the region was formed from administrative point of view of 7 counties, in 2010, containing 519 communes, with 2019 villages. The rural area, by the development potential it has, plays and important role in the economic and social life of the region, being different by the urban area b...

Lascar, Elena

2013-01-01

70

Extent of Online Communication Compatibility in Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online communication system are several way people communicate with each other over the Internet, as well as e-mail, make contact with forms on web sites ,feedback on blogs and social networking sites.3Recently efforts have been made to use the electronic modes or communication to supply information to rural development sector. Online communication system is helpful for rural development such as Technology Transfer (Persuasive and Paternalistic, Advisory work (Persuasive and Participation, Human Resource Development (Educational and Paternalistic and Facilitation for empowerment (Educational and Participatory.1,7 Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India, agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy. 5 . On the basis of Kanpur Dehat Uttar Pradesh India respondents interviewed to judge the level of satisfaction on the communication facility provided by different agencies was desired in order to measure the on line communication compatibility in rural area.

Dr. Subhash Singh Parihar

2014-02-01

71

An aerial radiological survey of the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity surrounding the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 ?R/h in areas adjacent to these fields and along roadways, and (c) below 6 ?R/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (22-52 ?R/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 and cobalt-58 were the primary sources of man-made activity found at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

72

An aerial radiological survey of the former Chemetron factory site and surrounding area, Newburgh Heights, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period April 15--27, 1991, over an area surrounding the former location of a Chemetron Corporation factory and an associated disposal site. The area surveyed is situated in Newburgh Heights, Ohio, 3 kilometers south of Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the former factory and dump site and surrounding area. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region were generally uniform and typical of natural background: 3--7 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), excluding an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 ?R/h. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over three areas within the survey region. Two areas, both within the boundary of a sewage processing plant, showed evidence of cobalt-60 (60CO). A third area, measured over a chemical factory, showed evidence of thorium-232 (232Th). Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ionization chamber measurements were obtained at seven locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements are in agreement with the aerial data

73

Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

Hude Quan

2013-03-01

74

Biogas: an energetic fuel for rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biogas is an ideal and energetic fuel for the population of remote areas of developing countries. Production cost is in the range of $1 to $1.50 per GJ, which compares very favourably with existing fuel prices. The technology is simple, and no technical skill is needed to run a biogas plant. In the past few biogas plants have been discussed along with the biogasification reactions. The author feels more studies are called for in order to reduce plant cost by increasing the rate of gas generation, making biogas a feasible alternative to wood, charcoal and kerosene. (author)

Ali, Ismat (Pakistan Council of Scientific Research, Karachi (Pakistan). Fuel Research Centre)

1993-11-01

75

Inversion of CO emissions over Beijing and its surrounding areas with ensemble Kalman filter  

Science.gov (United States)

Inversion of the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions over Beijing and surrounding areas in the summer of 2010 is carried on the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) in coupling with an ensemble Kalman filter. CO emission is estimated through integration of observations data obtained from 25 sites in Beijing and surrounding areas of which 13 sites selected as assimilation sites are used to perform a joint adjustment of both CO concentrations and emissions with hourly surface CO observations, and 12 other sites selected to validate the inversion emission inventory. As a result, estimated CO emissions (Tg year-1) for Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan and Baoding are 4.11, 3.75, 3.17 and 4.08, respectively; higher than the a priori estimates in the Regional Emission inventory in Asia Version 1.1 (REAS V1.1) by 50%, 80%, 120% and 150% respectively. Obviously, the regional CO emissions are underestimated in REAS1.1, especially over Beijing and surrounding areas. Use of the inverse emission inventory reduces the bias of CO simulation by 64% at assimilation sites and 48% at validation sites.

Tang, X.; Zhu, J.; Wang, Z. F.; Wang, M.; Gbaguidi, A.; Li, J.; Shao, M.; Tang, G. Q.; Ji, D. S.

2013-12-01

76

An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

Proctor, A.E.

1997-06-01

77

Moving to the countryside - migrants in rural areas of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denmark is undergoing a process of centralisation and concentration of economic growth, employment and people in and around its larger cities. Other more peripheral areas have been stagnating and loosing both jobs and inhabitants over a long period of time. Important social, cultural and economic changes are taken place in the countryside due to various restructuring processes and more recently some of these changes are related to in-migration. There are few Danish studies on migration into rural and peripheral areas but e.g. Andersen (2008) Ærø et al. (2005) show how those moving to rural areas have very different reasons for moving and have different expectations and needs. Other international studies e.g. Boyle & Halfacree (1998), Chavez (2005), Clooke, Goodwin & Milbourne (1998), Cuba & Hummon (1993), Hidalgo & Hernandez (2001) Mesch & Manor (1998) rather focus on processes of change from the view of the local population, migrants and relations between them. This paper reports on a study on migrants who have moved long distances to settle in rural and peripheral areas of Denmark. The study focuses on moving motives, background and expectations of migrants in relation to living in rural and peripheral areas. One important theme is the relationship between migrants or newcomers and locals stressing social change, attachment and integration from the view of migrants. Our study is based on an understanding that there are multiple reasons and motivations that influence migration decision-making thereby applying a biographical approach inspired by e.g. Giddens (1984), Boyle and Halfacree (1998) seeking to 'demonstrate the complexity of the seemingly simple act of migration and its embeddedness within the everyday context of daily life for those involved'. Our study further finds inspiration in the concept of 'elective belonging' by Savage et al. (2005) in terms of understanding peoples sense of being at home as related to 'reflexive processes in which they can satisfactory account to themselves how they come to live where they do'.

NØrgaard, Helle

78

Assumption on the Reform of Social Security of Migrant Workers from Rural Areas from an Angle of Unified System in Urban and Rural Areas  

OpenAIRE

China is making efforts to improve the social security for migrant workers from rural areas and that for farmers in rural areas. However, due to the strong mobility of migrant workers, the efforts are hard to coordinate. To establish a unified social security system for urban and rural areas is the most reasonable objective and can be put into practice at present. This system should cover a wide and comprehensive scope. In China, no matter whether city or countryside, every citizen should pos...

Anmin Chen

2009-01-01

79

Source rocks from Cuban Gulf of Mexico offshore sector and surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A regional study of source rocks from Cuban Gulf of Mexico Deep Water Zone, the Western area of Northern Cuban Petroleum Province and Southeastern Mexico Basin was made. The results of the work indicate that the Cuban Gulf of Mexico Deep Water Zone is a very promissory region with significant volumes of effective source rocks development, with high generation potential in conjunction with the favorable timing of hydrocarbon generation and entrapment. There is no risk in source rock development for petroleum systems of the Cuban Gulf of Mexico Offshore Sector and surrounding area. (author)

Lopez Quintero, Jose O; Lopez-Rivera, Juan G.; Tenreyro Perez, Rafael; Sanchez Arango, Jorge R. [Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo (CEINPET), La Habana (Cuba)

2000-07-01

80

An aerial radiological survey of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and surrounding area, Waxahachie, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) site from July 22 through August 20,1991. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 305 meters over a 1,036-square-kilometer (400-square-mile) area surrounding Waxahachie, Texas. The 70,000 terrestrial gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a United States Geological Survey (USGS) map of the area. The mean terrestrial exposure rate measured was 5.4 ?R/h at 1 meter above ground level. Comparison to ground-based measurements shows good agreement. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were detected

81

SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a net exporter of organic production.

Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

2012-07-01

82

Incidence of convulsive epilepsy in a rural area in Kenya  

OpenAIRE

Purpose There are only a few studies of incidence of epilepsy in low and middle income countries (LMICs). These are often small and conducted in specific age groups or areas where the prevalence of risk factors is high; therefore, these studies are not representative of the wider populations. We determined the incidence of convulsive epilepsy (CE) in a large rural population in Kenya. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional surveys 5 years apart within a health and demographic surveillance s...

Ngugi, Ak; Bottomley, C.; Scott, JA; Mung Ala-odera, V.; Bauni, E.; Sander, Jw; Kleinschmidt, I.; Newton, CR

2013-01-01

83

Screening impacts of EU policies on rural areas  

OpenAIRE

The report on ?Screening impacts of EU policies on rural areas? (PRIMA Deliverable 6.1.) discusses the title topic in the context of the different contex-tual and methodological aspects taken into account in PRIMA with special emphasis on the screening of policies impacts. The report starts with the definition of the terms of screening and impact assessment for EU applica-tions. Several screening approaches are differentiated and the screening re-quirements are named for the scree...

Meyer, B.; Laplana, R.; Kopeva, D.; Baqueiro, O.; Hautdidier, B.; Raley, M.

2011-01-01

84

Urbanization of Rural Areas in the Case of Velenje Municipality  

OpenAIRE

The goal of the master thesis was to find out the character of the settlements in the Velenje municipality due to urbanization. The main questions were the presence of suburbanization, its intensity, trends and correlation with the distance of settlements from the town. Groups of indicators for rural areas urbanization monitoring were defined through environmental, social and economic point of view, which ensure the use of sustainable development approach by development assesment. The analysi...

Ostruh, Katarina

2010-01-01

85

Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the four classified areas.

SOEJONO

2013-04-01

86

A procura do turismo em espaço rural / The demand for tourism in rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER) em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quot [...] idiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas. Abstract in english This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA) in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break [...] free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

Luís, Silva.

2007-05-01

87

A procura do turismo em espaço rural The demand for tourism in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quotidiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas.This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

Luís Silva

2007-05-01

88

Accessibility to and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services in a rural area of state of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present paper was to compare accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis diagnostic and treatment services in a small village and the surrounding rural area in northern part of the state of Minas Gerais Brazil. The study included 1,228 individuals: 935 central village resid [...] ents and 293 rural residents of São Pedro do Jequitinhonha. Schistosoma mansoni infection rates were significantly higher in the central village than in the rural area during a survey in 2007 (44.3% and 23.5%, respectively) and during the 2002 schistosomiasis case-finding campaign (33.1% and 26.5%, respectively) (p

Dener Carlos dos, Reis; Helmut, Kloos; Charles, King; Humberto Ferreira Oliveira, Quites; Leonardo Ferreira, Matoso; Kellen Rosa, Coelho; Andrea, Gazzinelli.

2010-07-01

89

DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AND AGRO-TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE IN ROMANIAN RURAL AREAS DURING 2000 – 2012  

OpenAIRE

Abstract: More and more tourists from around the world are passionate about the beauty that nature has created. Romania has, including and especially in rural areas many attractions, some already known, others less known. Tourism practiced in various forms in rural areas of Romania offers people who want to relax, who loves nature, culture and folk art, a treasure chest of ancient rural civilization values and can save time and money is staying in reception of rural areas, be it by: peasant f...

Mihaela Kruzslicika; Verginia Chiri?escu; Daniela Ruxandra Andrei; Manuela Rodica Gogonea; Mariana Sandu

2013-01-01

90

Deposition fluxes of PCDD/Fs in the area surrounding a steel plant in northwest Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper aims at investigating the contribution of a steel plant located in a rural area in northwestern Italy (700,000 tons of steel/year) to the deposition fluxes of Polychorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) at local level through the analysis of sampling data, literature data, and air dispersion model (AERMOD)output data. Total measured deposition fluxes of PCDD/PCDFs in three monitoring stations were consistent with other studies carried out in Italy in urban and suburban areas and in rural European areas; while these were lower than those measured in other European urban/suburban areas or in sites influenced by industrial sources. Furthermore, the measured fluxes were also compared with the pattern of PCDD/Fs in ambient air sampled at the same sites in a previous study. This comparison showed a similarity between air concentration and deposition patterns of the samples collected at the three monitoring stations and a clear distinction of these from the source. The study was completed with AERMOD simulations, conducted with a mass mean particle diameter of 0.5 ?m, according to the particle size distribution of the samples collected at the source. AERMOD calculated deposition fluxes of two to three orders of magnitude lower than those measured in two monitoring points; while in the most distant monitoring station, the deposition fluxes were too low to be calculated by the model. The simulations confirmed that the most distant monitoring station was not subject to emissions from the steel plant. The analysis highlighted the limited influence of the source in the local PCDD/F deposition fluxes. PMID:24585258

Onofrio, Maurizio; Spataro, Roberta; Botta, Serena

2014-06-01

91

An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 ?R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation

92

Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in ?ódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in ?ódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in ?ódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

2012-04-01

93

47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.  

Science.gov (United States)

...presume that the residential rates in rural areas served by non-rural incumbent local exchange carriers are reasonably...gov/wcb/iatd/lec.html . (c) Definition of “rural area.” For the purposes of this section,...

2010-10-01

94

Aerial radiological survey of the Callaway Plant and surrounding area, Fulton, Missouri  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Callaway Plant and the surrounding area in April 1982. The survey included the plant water intake and discharge location on the Missouri River. Separate ground-based ion chamber measurements and soil samples were collected in the survey area to support the aerial data. Gamma data, stored on magnetic tape, were searched for evidence of man-made gamma emitters. A contour map of the terrestral exposure rate plus the cosmic exposure rate at 1 meter was prepared and overlaid on a photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The exposure contour map is typical for farmland in the mid-western United States. Terrestrial plus cosmic exposure rates ranged from 4 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) over the Missouri River to a maximum of 12 ?R/h over the cultivated land. A 137Cs calibration source was detected at the Callaway Plant site

95

An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (?41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source

96

An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

Namdoo Moon

2007-12-01

97

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of ±15%

98

The identification of soil radionuclides in the area of Puspiptek and surrounding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of PUSPIPTEK and the surrounding are potentially exposed by radionuclides, because the operation of the nuclear research plant. The PPTN Serpong was operated long than 10 years, therefore soil radioactivity need to evaluate. The determination of radioactivity in the soil samples which be taken from research location using gamma spectrometry on June-August. The result of the research identified natural radionuclides K-40; Thorium decay series Ac-228, Bi-212, Pb-212, Tl-208, Ra-224 and Rn-220; Uranium decay series Bi-214, Pa-234, Pb-214 and Actinium decay series Bi-211, Po-211. There are no identification radionuclides produce from the activation of PPTN Serpong

99

WAP Based An Alternative Solution for Traffic Transportation Problem in Sidoarjo Surrounding Area Using AHP  

OpenAIRE

In line with the increasing interest on Lapindo mud disaster which causes several roadway covered by mud, there is a need to give an alternative solution for traffic transportation problem in surrounding area. The possible criteria for the solution of this road way are length, surface, traffic, and width of the road. Types of vehicle across the road also give a contribution to the criteria. By using Geography Information System (GIS), it is easy to all drivers to take decision which way has t...

Arna Fariza; Afrida Helen; Ardinur Mahyuzar

2009-01-01

100

Water analysis from wells in Ezeiza and surrounding areas. Dissolved uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to give an answer to the different social sectors, we sampled water from previously existing wells that reaches the Puelche aquifer. The uranium concentration was determined in these samples to obtain a preliminary checkup of water quality situation. For the analysis we considered the samples obtained inside the CAE as well as those sampled in the surrounding areas as Monte Grande, Claypole and Burzaco. The results show a correlation between the amount of dissolved salts and the presence of dissolved uranium. (author)

101

Impacts of Religious and Pilgrimage Tourism in Rural Areas: The Case of Iran  

OpenAIRE

Rural tourism has speedily developed and become an engine for economic development and plays a great role towards socio-economic changes in rural areas. However, its impact is controversial and not always obvious. To examine these issues, this research presents an empirical analysis of pilgrimage and religious tourism and the impacts of these types of travel in rural areas in Iran. The paper provides examples of these impacts and transformations in the three rural centers as Tourism Model Vil...

Mehdi Pourtaheri; Khalil Rahmani; Hassan Ahmadi

2012-01-01

102

Transmission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from broiler chicken farms to surrounding areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although previous studies have demonstrated high carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock, especially in broiler chickens, data on emission sources of these bacteria into the environment are still rare. Therefore, this study was designed to systematically investigate the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in slurry, air (inside animal houses), ambient air (outside animal houses) and on soil surfaces in the areas surrounding of seven ESBL/AmpC-positive broiler chicken fattening farms, including investigation of the possible spread of these bacteria via the faecal route and/or exhaust air into the environment. Seven German broiler fattening farms were each investigated at three points in time (3-36 h after restocking, 14-18 and 26-35 days after housing) during one fattening period. The occurrence of ESBL/AmpC genes in the investigated samples was confirmed by PCR, detecting blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCMY-genes, and, if necessary, by sequencing and/or the disc diffusion method. The results showed a wide spread of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in broiler farms, as well as emissions into the surroundings. 12 out of 14 (86%) slurry samples were positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Additionally, 28.8% (n=23/80) of boot swabs taken from various surfaces in the areas surrounding of the farms as well as 7.5% (n=3/40) of the exhaust air samples turned out to be positive for these microorganisms. Moreover, a small proportion of air samples from inside the barns were ESBL/AmpC-positive. By comparing selected isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we proved that faecal and airborne transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing microorganisms from broiler fattening farms to the surrounding areas is possible. Two isolates from farm G2 (slurry and boot swab 50 m downwind), two isolates from farm G3 (slurry and individual animal swab) as well as two isolates from farm G6 (air sample in the barn and air sample 50 m downwind) showed 100% similarity in PFGE analysis. PMID:25035165

Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Rösler, U

2014-08-27

103

COASTAL PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY OF SURABAYA AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA TO SEA LEVEL RISE  

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Full Text Available The study for coastal vulnerability to sea level rise was carried out in Surabaya and its surrounding area, it has focused on calculations of the physical vulnerability index were used coastal vulnerability index (CVI methods. It was standardized by the multi criteria analysis (MCA approach according to the study area.The score of each physical variable derived from remote sensing satellite data and the results of studies that have been done, such as modeling results and thematic maps, and then integrated into geographic information systems (GIS. Result of this study showsthat the coastal areas of Gresik, Surabaya, and Sidoarjo in the very low to very high vulnerability level. Physically, the low land areas with open and slightly open coastal have a high vulnerability category. The high level vulnerability was found located in the northern of Madura Strait (Gresik Regency that overlooks to the Java Sea is about 28.81% from the entire of study areas. Meanwhile, the moderate, low and very low levels of vulnerability were located on Surabaya and Sidoarjo Regency that have more protected coastal area,relatively. According to the physical condition, the coastal elevation is the most variable that contributes to the high of vulnerability index in the coastal of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo Regency.

Sayidah Sulma

2012-11-01

104

Assessing metal toxicity in sediments of Yellow River wetland and its surrounding coastal areas, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy one surface sediments were collected from Yellow River (YR) wetland and its surrounding coastal areas, mainly in Laizhou Bay, China. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) model and empirical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were applied to assess the potential metal toxicity in the collected sediments. The results show that, based on the EqP model, 15% of stations exhibited potential metal toxicity. Several metals (Cu, Ni and Cr) exceeded the empirical SQGs (59-100% of the time), however these guidelines may not be suitable for use in the Bohai Sea owing to the background concentrations. As a result, the EqP model is found to be a more useful method for assessing potential metal toxicity in Bohai Sea sediment than the empirical SQGs. Additionally, we have provided new insights on assessing metal toxicity in sediment of low organic carbon and acid volatile sulfide concentrations, which may be useful for other coastal areas in China.

Li, Li; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Aimei; Yang, Gang; Liu, Jihua

2014-12-01

105

An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

Singman, L.V.

1994-11-01

106

An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent

107

Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural and urban areas of northern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution in rural China has often been ignored, especially for the less developed west China. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured monthly at 11 rural sites (5 rural villages and 6 rural fields) together with 7 urban stations in northern China between April 2010 and March 2011. PAH concentrations at rural village sites were similar to those in urban areas and significantly higher than those in rural fields, indicating severe contamination in rural villages. PAH concentrations in the west were similar to those in the more developed North China Plain, and higher than those along the coast. Such a geographical distribution is mainly caused by the differences in residential energy consumption and meteorological conditions, which can explain approximately 48% of the total variation in PAH concentrations. With heavy dependence on biofuel combustion for heating, seasonality in rural areas is more profound than that in urban areas. PMID:24905256

Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Shen, Huizhong; Shen, Guofeng; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu

2014-09-01

108

Ocular Morbid Conditions in the Rural Area of Central India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular morbid conditions are responsible for partial or total blindness. Ocular morbidities by its sheer magnitude form an enormous problem, not only in human suffering, but also in terms of economical loss and social burden. Aim: The aim of present study was to find the prevalence of ocular morbidities in rural area. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study in area covered by Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC, Hingna which is under the administrative control of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College [IGGMC], Nagpur, was carried out in 194 families with 925 study subjects during February 2005-December 2005. The study focuses on ocular examination and diagnosis of ocular morbid conditions. Both eyes were examined and all the relevant clinical findings were recorded in predesigned proforma. Chi Square test was used for the analysis of data .Results: The results revealed that out of 925 study subjects 297(32.11% were had ocular morbidity. Common ocular morbidity was Myopia (13.62%, Conjunctival xerosis (12.11%, Hypermetropia (11.68%, Xerophthalmia (3.46%, Pterygium (2.92%, immature senile cataract (2.70%, Eye strain (2.49%, mature senile cataract (1.84% and Presbyopia (0.86%. Females were more affected (36.58% as compared to males (28.37%, [?2 = 7.09; d.f. =1, P< 0.05]. It was observed that as the age increases the prevalence of ocular morbidity increases [?2=318.03; d.f =7, p<0.001].Higher prevalence of ocular morbid conditions was found in Illiterates 122 (40.94% [?2 = 16.47; d.f. =3, p<0.001] Conclusion: High prevalence of ocular morbidities was found in rural areas of central India with greater predominance among women and illiterates.

Vaishali K Shrote (Brahmapurkar

2012-09-01

109

An aerial radiological survey of the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation facility and surrounding area, Saxton, Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period July 5 to 22, 1989, over an 83-square kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC) facility which is owned by General Public Utilities and located near Saxton, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) over most of the survey area. The levels over the SNEC family did not differ from the exposure rates seen over the entire survey area. Cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels typical of worldwide fallout deposition were detected throughout the surveyed area. No other trends of Cs-137 were observed. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at six locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data

110

Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 ?g/m3, respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

111

An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co)-the manufacture of commercial {sup 60}Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two {sup 60}Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as {sup 60}Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of {sup 60}Co or any other man-made radionuclide.

Vojtech, R.J.

1994-12-01

112

An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 (60Co)-the manufacture of commercial 60Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two 60Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as 60Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of 60Co or any other man-made radionuclide

113

Photovoltaic power systems for rural areas of developing countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Photovoltaic (PV) applications for rural areas of underdeveloped countries are discussed in relation to PV system technology, reliability, and present and projected cost. The information presented is derived mainly from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with PV systems deployed with a variety of users for applications relevant to LDCs. A detailed description of two village power systems is included. Energy cost comparisons are presented for PV systems versus alternative energy sources. It is concluded, based on present PV system technology, reliability and cost that photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for LDCs in both the near- and far-term.

Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

1979-01-01

114

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF HOSPITALIZED BURN PATIENTS IN RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Burns represent one of the major health problems in India.Objective: To study some of the important epidemiological factors in relation to burn cases. Methods: Present study was retrospective study of all burn injury cases admitted hospital situated in rural area. The information obtained was tabulated analyzed using the software GraphPad Instat. Results: Overall female burn patients were significantly higher than male. Majority of female patients had total burn surface area more than 35% whereas 48.70% of the male patients had a total burn surface area more than 35% (χ2= 7.99, p = 0.005. Thermal burn was the commonest cause of burn followed by scalds. In majority of the patients (91.8% burns were caused by flame occurred at home.Conclusion: Public education on safer first-aid practices and availability of good burn care facilities is necessary.

Jayant D Deshpande

2012-05-01

115

Dry deposition in rural and in urban areas in Denmark  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge of the dry deposition velocity is very useful in assessing the dose to a population in a situation where an area has been exposed to a cloud of radioactive material under dry weather conditions. The dry deposition velocities in city, suburban, and rural areas following the Chernobyl accident have been measured and compared. It is concluded that the deposition velocities of caesium on house surfaces have shown very small values of about 10-5 m.s-1. On road surfaces values were 5 times higher. They rose further by a factor of 5-10 when considering rough surfaces such as bare soil, roof and mown grass. The values for bushy and forested areas are even higher. The deposition of other isotopes is 5-10 times higher except for ruthenium. (author)

116

Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (??czna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (?uszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas.The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in ?uszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in ?uszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek.Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in ?uszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and 7.2% in Lublin – Kalina, whereas that of kenophytes was between 15.1% in Ostrówek and 8.2% in ??czna. In the case of spontaneophytes, the percentage varied between 8.8% in Lublin – Majdanek and 2.7% in ?uszczów. The majority, 299 of the taxa found, proved invaluable to insects (polleniferous and nectariferous. Among the plants growing spontaneously in the analysed cemeteries, there were also 11 legally protected species..

Ewa Trzaskowska

2013-07-01

117

Assessing flood risk for a rural detention area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flood detention areas serve the primary purpose of controlled water storage during large flood events in order to decrease the flood risk downstream along the river. These areas are often used for agricultural production. While various damage estimation methods exist for urban areas, there are only a few, most often simpler approaches for loss estimation in rural areas. The loss assessment can provide an estimate of the financial provisions required for the farmers' compensation (e.g., in the context of cost-benefit analyses of detention measures.

Flood risk is a combination of potential damage and probability of flooding. Losses in agricultural areas exhibit a strong seasonal pattern, and the flooding probability also has a seasonal variation. In the present study, flood risk is assessed for a planned detention area alongside the Elbe River in Germany based on two loss and probability estimation approaches of different time frames, namely a monthly and an annual approach. The results show that the overall potential damage in the proposed detention area amounts to approximately 40 000 € a?1, with approximately equal losses for each of the main land uses, agriculture and road infrastructure. A sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of flooding (i.e., the frequency of operation of the detention area has the largest impact on the overall flood risk.

S. Förster

2008-04-01

118

An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A team from the U.S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories/ New Mexico and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during the months of April and May 2000. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. The current survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey that was performed in 1993. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate that varies between 5 and 18 microRoentgens per hour plus an appropriate 6 microRoentgens contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human activity in the survey area. In regions away from the man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey agree well with the exposure rates inferred from the 1993 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, a series of ground-based pressurized ion chamber (PIC)measurements were acquired at four sites within the survey area. These ground-based PIC measurements ranged from 5.4 to 9.5 microRoentgens and were 13 to 21 percent lower than the inferred aerial exposure-rate results

119

An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 (60Co) and cesium-137 (137Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 (235U). Protactinium-234m (234mPa) and 60Co Were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data

120

Statistical Analysis of Broadband Wireless Links in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available

Third-generation (3G cellular systems are often considered as a promising strategy for high-speed internet deployment in rural areas. However, bandwidth in 3G systems is a limited resource and can be quite different from the advertised bandwidth. In addition, in wireless applications such as voice over IP, video-conference, remote monitoring and telemetry (e.g., for healthcare applications the Quality of Service (QoS is critical. It is therefore important to understand how different factors affect the QoS requirements of real-time applications. Focusing on the reverse link (or uplink, we performed an assessment of the bandwidth and packet loss rate in a real network environment, using test data collected with two wireless data cards from different providers, in both rural and urban locations. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of a formal statistical method – a Design of Experiments (DOE analysis - that can be used to analyze the interactions between different variables, such as packet size, location, buffer size, and wireless provider. With a better understanding of the impact of such factors and their interactions, the end-user may be able to make the best selection of certain controllable parameters, in an effort to improve the QoS of the 3G connection. This is especially important for users located in rural areas, where cellular coverage is limited.

Ana E. Goulart

2009-06-01

121

Contraceptive practices of women living in rural areas of Bihar.  

Science.gov (United States)

A prospective survey of 972 married (sexually active) women living in rural areas of Lalganj block of Vaishali district in Bihar state of India was carried out. The study was aimed at obtaining first hand information from the rural women regarding their contraceptive practices and to use the information thus gained to identify those spheres of concern where greater attention needs to be paid to make the family planning system more efficient. The population investigated consisted of women attending the combined obstetric and gynaecology clinic located at Lalganj. Tubal sterilisation was the commonest method of contraception among women surveyed ( 20.6 per cent of women). The incidence of sterilisation increased significantly as the age increased-11.6 per cent of women aged 21 to 30 had tubal sterilisation, whereas the incidence was 51 per cent in women aged 31 to 40 years. Reversible forms of contraception (IUD, oral pills and condoms) were used by only 6.8 per cent of women included in the study. Married girls aged 15 to 20 were not using any contraceptive. It was also noted that none of the women surveyed had used any contraceptive prior to her first pregnancy. Fortyper cent of women in the age group 21 to 30 years and a similar percentage (41.1 per cent) in the age group 31 to 40 years had two or more live children but did not use any contraceptive. The results reveal that tubal sterilisation is the most popular method of contraception among women living in rural areas of the state. Birth spacing, or delaying the birth of the first child by the use of reversible forms of contraception, is not the common practice among these women. PMID:9719714

Kumari, C

1998-07-01

122

Exploiting Digital Switchover for Broadband Services Access in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

The paper discuses how the imminent transition to the digital terrestrial television in UHF (DigitalSwitchover could be employed towards enabling always-on connectivity and triple-play services access even from rural and dispersed locations, i.e. in areas where no termination/connection exists between the local PSTN exchanger and the optical fibre core backbone. Exploiting the European digital video broadcasting standard in regenerative configurations, the paper introduces an architecture that utilises the television stream as a common broadband infrastructure, capable to deliver not only custom digital television bouquets, but also and most predominant, to provide access to triple-play services. Utilising this television beam in backhaul (middle-mile configurations it extends the core backbone to reach rural and dispersed locations, enabling therefore the immediate and cost-effective deployment (in these areas of technologies that provide for always-on connectivity, such as WLAN, xDSL, etc.

Charalabos Skianis

2006-09-01

123

WAP Based An Alternative Solution for Traffic Transportation Problem in Sidoarjo Surrounding Area Using AHP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In line with the increasing interest on Lapindo mud disaster which causes several roadway covered by mud, there is a need to give an alternative solution for traffic transportation problem in surrounding area. The possible criteria for the solution of this road way are length, surface, traffic, and width of the road. Types of vehicle across the road also give a contribution to the criteria. By using Geography Information System (GIS, it is easy to all drivers to take decision which way has to be chosen based on the real condition. GIS is used to visualize the alternative road, which is possible to take. Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP is a decision method which is based on many criteria and alternatives. The input of AHP can be a preference or real value. Applied AHP to decide value of each alternative is based on application of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP assessment.

Arna Fariza

2009-08-01

124

An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant

125

A regional study of the radiation environment of Greenham Common, Newbury District and surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was commissioned by Newbury District Council and Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council in response to public concern following disclosures about events at Greenham Common in the 1950s, and the suspicion that there may have been an accident involving a nuclear weapon leading to off-site contamination at the airbase. The Greenham Common airbase is at an advanced stage of decommissioning with parts of the site already re-developed for industrial and leisure purposes and material being removed for use in construction of the Newbury by-pass. The success of such developments is critically dependent on public confidence in the quality of the environment, both near the site, and more generally throughout the area. For this reason the study was commissioned with the aims of: I. defining the radiation environment of the whole district and parts of its surrounding areas. II. examining whether there is any evidence of radioactive contamination in the vicinity of the Greenham Common airbase. III. assessing the evidence that there may have been a release of nuclear material from the site. The work involved a collaboration between scientists from the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, who conducted gamma ray surveys to define the general radiation environment of the area, and Scientists from the University of Southampton who collected an extensive range of samples for high sensitivity radiochemical analyses. This report presents their findings and main coneport presents their findings and main conclusions, together with a discussion of the background to the study and its implications. (Author)

126

An aerial radiological survey of the Salmon Site and surrounding area, Lamar County, Mississippi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former Atomic Energy Commission Test Site at the Salmon Site and surrounding area between April 20 and May 1, 1992. The Salmon Site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 20 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma-ray environment of the Salmon Site and adjacent lands. A contour map showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a rectified aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates within the area are between 5 and 8 ?R/h. The reported exposure rates include a cosmic-ray contribution estimated to be 3.7 ?R/h. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and in situ measurements, taken with a pressurized ion chamber and a high-purity germanium detector, were obtained at 4 locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of and are in agreement with the aerial data

127

An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from August 10-16, 1993, over a 78-square-kilometer (30-square-mile) area of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was performed at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with a line spacing of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on a set of United States Geological Survey topographic maps of the area and an aerial photograph of the plant. The terrestrial gamma exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour at 1 meter above the ground. Protactinium-234m was observed at six sites within the boundaries of the plant. At a seventh site, only uranium-235 was observed. No other man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was present in a detectable quantity, either on or off the plant property. Soil sample and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ± 7.5%

128

Robust, multifunctional flood defenses in the Dutch rural riverine area  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the possible functions as well as strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for robust flood defenses in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands on the basis of the recent literature and case studies at five locations in the Netherlands where dike reinforcement is planned. For each of the case studies semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders were conducted. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of a robust, multifunctional dike in comparison to a traditional dike appeared to be the more efficient space use due to the combination of different functions, a longer-term focus and greater safety.

van Loon-Steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

2014-05-01

129

INTEGRATED TOOLS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF LARGE HYDROELECTRIC RESERVOIRS AND THEIR SURROUNDING AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brazil has the largest electricity market in South America and has the largest capacity for water storage in the world. However, the recent economic growth in Brazil has resulted in a strong demand for expansion and modernization of the nation's electric infrastructure. In order to meet these needs, power companies are increasingly looking for Information Technology (IT solutions that can ensure more efficiency in their business. Moreover, new regulatory rules directly impacts the way companies should acquire, maintain and report information about concession areas, and demand the modernization of companies' information systems. This paper presents a corporate IT solution developed in our Labs to the Sao Francisco's Hydroelectric Company (CHESF, a unit of Brazil’s state-run power utility that generates and transmits electric power to all of the cities in the northeast of Brazil. This project aimed to facilitate the monitoring of concession areas to meet a new normative resolution that establishes particular procedures to be followed by the concessionaires for collecting and maintaining georeferenced information in the granting areas of hydroelectric plants, including all properties around the explored reservoirs. The main aim of monitoring reservoirs and their surrounding areas is to prevent the occurrence of undesired events of land-use or water-use, such construction of buildings and aquaculture; and undesired environmental events, such as fish mortality and water contamination by waste. Our solution provides means of managing different types of information about the properties located within the monitored area; comprises a mobile application that helps collect in-loco information about events; and provides a GIS-based module to facilitate the access and management of georeferenced information.

Cláudio Elízio Calazans Campelo

2014-11-01

130

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus Rutebemberwa

2013-01-01

131

The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

Ron Wimberley

2006-11-01

132

An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky. The purposes of the survey were to (1) measure the terrestrial radiological environment within and around the PGDP in order to update previous radiological survey data from 1976 and 1990, and (2) provide information that will be used in the radiological verification for the PGDP's remedial closure effort. The survey was performed from October 28 to November 2, 2009, utilizing a large array of helicopter-mounted sodium iodide gamma ray detectors. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 150 feet (?46 meters) along a series of parallel lines spaced 250 feet (?76 meters) apart and encompassing an area of 24 square miles (62 square kilometers), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as implied exposure rate, man-made activity, and depleted uranium activity, which are presented in the form of contour maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Exposure rate measurements were acquired using a pressurized ionization chamber at 10 specific locations on the ground to validate the data derived from the aerial measurements. Throughout most of the surveyed area, the detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma-ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific locations within the PGDP, man-made activity was detected that was consistent with the operational history of the plant. In particular, protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected within the PGDP. The aerial survey data indicated no anomalies outside of the depleted uranium cylinder yards.

133

Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was developed. It reflects a modern system of relationships to the land in the laws and regulations on the federal, regional and local levels. It is a tool for informational and legal support in the decision-making process in the field of the wildlife management. The federal laws regulate the situation in general, and the departmental regulations govern its adjustment by components. The analysis of legal acts' dynamics in the sphere of wildlife management and environmental protection was conducted in order to monitoring the situation and evaluate the changes of relationships to the territory for 10 years (2001-2011 years). As the result with the use of GIS-technology a map of legal zoning was created. This electronic map has become a GIS model of the legal zoning, besides the informational content each contour includes cadastral data and information about its legal status. The model is created as a form of refraction of legislative base through a natural and economic basis of the territory. It allows shifting to the analysis of strategy of the territorial use, choice of optimal strategy of regional development, and decision-making and its realization.

Lesnykh, Svetlana

2013-04-01

134

European Union Membership Process of Turkey: Perspective of Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present research, the knowledge level and the perceptions of rural society that would be affected from the EU membership in many ways, basically as the practitioners and beneficiaries, and constitute 30% of the population of the country are investigated. The standpoint of individuals living in rural areas, their expectations from membership and their opinions about the membership are analysed. The study encloses the results of questionnaires administered between the last quarter of 2005 and the first quarter of 2006 with 795 women and 795 men in 18 provinces. In the study 55% of the 1590 individuals surveyed know what the EU means and 67% of these individuals lean towards the membership. It is determined that the level of consciousness of men is higher than for women. The quality enhancement in agricultural production appears to be the most remarkable expectations of both women and men from the membership. Besides it is also determined that the expectations of better employment opportunities and the attainment of an increase in income are higher among women.

Sema GÜN

2011-09-01

135

The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)s is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

136

Analysis of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Machida and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivity in surface soil at Kanagawa, Tokyo, Chiba and the surrounding area have been measured during the period from March to July 2011 after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant arising from the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. The soil samples were dried at 97degC for 20-24 h, and weighted. The ?-ray spectra were measured with a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector equipped with a multichannel analyzer. The radioactivity level of 137Cs was found to be a few Bq/kg to one hundred in 15 samples with the average of 43 Bq/kg on April 1 as the compassion date, and that of 134Cs to be nearly the same range (0.5-142 Bq/kg) with the average of 49 Bq/kg. The radioactivity level of 131I was 20-60 Bq/kg at lower limit and several hundred Bq/kg at upper limit, and found to be higher than that of the cesium isotopes. The radioactivity ratio of 134Cs/137Cs was found to be 0.9-1.2 for all the samples, while that of 131I/137Cs was likely to be characteristic for the sampling area. (author)

137

Study of Indoor Air Quality of Kitchens of Rural Area’s in Lucknow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Study deals with the assessment of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ in terms of Particulate matter, Gaseous pollutants, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH during domestic combustions of biofuels (i.e. Fire wood, animal dung and Crop residues in the cooking and non-cooking area of rural kitchens of the rural suburbs of Lucknow (North India. The indoor air samples of kitchens when analyzed for various pollutants, revealed very high concentrations of CO, CO2, NO2 and SO2 in cooking area (kitchen area as compared to non-cooking area (living area. Burning of biofuels (Fire wood, animal dung and Crop residues produced highest emission of PAH. Increment in PAH level was found in the cooking area (kitchen area as compared to PAH level in the non-cooking area. The concentration of PM10 in the indoor air sample was 3.7 times more than that found in the living area. Similarly, the concentration of PM2.5 was four times higher in kitchens using biomass during cooking hours.

Aakanksha

2014-08-01

138

Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3''x3'') at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminant activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of 'Marinelli' container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of 137Cs, for which maesured activities correspond, within allowed measurement error, to the conditions before the start of NPP Temelin operation

139

Holocene moisture evolution across the Mongolian Plateau and its surrounding areas: A synthesis of climatic records  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the review of 26 high-standard Holocene climatic reconstructions (mainly pollen-based) from the Mongolian Plateau and its surrounding areas, temporal and spatial patterns of the Holocene moisture evolution are synthesized. The regionally-averaged moisture history from the summer monsoon-influenced semiarid belt in China (i.e., Region A) demonstrates that the moisture index curve is broadly in agreement with the synthesized East Asian Monsoon Strength curve, both following the general trend of the West Tropical Pacific SST that is in turn the delayed response to the northern hemispheric summer solar insolation. The regionally-averaged moisture indices from the winter monsoon-dominated southern Siberia including Lake Baikal area and the Altai Mountains (i.e., Region B) exhibit a general declining trends since 10.6-9.6 cal. kyr BP, being largely consistent with the trends of the annual precipitation and the warm-season temperature in the Russian Plain. The consistency might be attributable to the Holocene declining trend of the warm-season temperature in North Atlantic region. The predominant feature of the regionally-averaged moisture index from the westerlies-affected northern Xinjiang (i.e., Region C) is a persistent increasing trend since ~ 8 cal. kyr BP. The wetting trend of northern Xinjiang during the past 8000 years might be attributable to the increasing trend of winter insolation and to the associated increasing trend of cold-season temperature in northwestern Europe. The chronological correspondences between dry phases and warm intervals in the arid areas of the Mongolian Plateau (i.e., northern Mongolian Plateau within Mongolia and southern Mongolian Plateau within China, Region D) lend a support to the proposal that the mid-Holocene dry phase was most likely the result of mid-Holocene high warm-season temperature.

Wang, Wei; Feng, Zhaodong

140

Menstrual pattern among adolescent girls in rural area of Bijapur  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a crucial period in everyone’s life. This is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood. These are formative years when maximum amount of physical, psychological and behavioral changes takes place. For girls, adolescence is period of extreme stress and strain. Menarche and menstruation are bound to elicit tremendous psychological response in them. Objectives of the study: To know the menstrual pattern among adolescent girls. Material methods: Community based cross sectional study was done in rural field practice area of department of community medicine, BLDEA’S Shri B.M.Patil medical college, Bijapur. The study subjects include all adolescent girls who have attained menarche. Results: Mean age of menarche of adolescent girls in the present study was 14 years, mean duration of blood flow 3.9±5.07 days. Mean intermenstrual period 28.7±3.26 days and dysmenorrhoea was present in 27.9% of adolescent girls.

Manjula S. Patil

2013-01-01

141

Turism planning in rural areas in the case of the municipality of Brda  

OpenAIRE

This graduation thesis addresses tourism and tourism planning in rural areas on the example of the organization of tourism in the Slovenian rural region Goriška brda. Rural areas are affected by different problems, such as aging population, emigration, lack of employment opportunities, and dependence on agriculture and forestry. The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate how tourism and given spatial potentials can help revive the countryside. The thesis is divided into a theore...

Jakin, Uros?

2012-01-01

142

Anemia among children and adolescents in a rural area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Anemia in children and adolescents affects growth and development. It is a preventable disease, but unfortunately is often ignored until the symptoms occur. There have been limited reports on the prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents in Indonesia, especially from rural areas. Objective To describe the prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents in district of Malinau, a rural area in Eeast Kalimantan Province. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in June 2010 using laboratory records between July 2009 to January 2010. Laboratory records of patients aged between 6 months and 18 years which investigated were complete blood count (CBC from ambulatory, inpatient, and emergency care of Malinau Public Hospital in Eeast Kalimantan. Mentzer and England & Fraser indices were used to differentiate iron deficiency anemia (IDA and thalassemia among microcytic hypochromic anemic patients. Results This study involved 709 laboratory records. Prevalence of anemia was 53.9% (95% CI 50.2% to 57.5%. The prevalence of IDA among age groups were as follows: 29.4% (95% CI 24.3 to 34.5% in 6–59 months group, 16% (95% CI 11 to 21% in 5–11.9 years, and 15.2% (95% CI 10.2 to 20.2% in 12–18 years. Children aged 6–59 months tended to have more anemia than those aged 5–11.9 years (OR 2.184, 95% CI 1.398 to 3.413 or aged 12-18 years (OR 2.319, 95% CI 1.464 to 3.674. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents of the Malinau Regency is 53.9% (95% CI 50.2 to 57.5%, quite similar to that of other developing countries. A government program to overcome anemia is recommended, not only for pregnant women, but also for children and adolescents.

Ivan Riyanto Widjaja

2014-03-01

143

LO RURAL. UN CAMPO INACABADO / THE RURAL AREA: AN UNFINISHED “FIELD”  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El surgimiento de nuevas lecturas de la realidad social rural latinoamericana, e incluso europea, y los efectos de las políticas internacionales sobre qué producir, cuánto, cómo y dónde, han puesto en la agenda académica el debate entorno al significado y contenido de lo rural y del desarrollo rural [...] . En el centro de esta controversia está la superación o ruptura entre lo rural y lo agrario, dos términos otrora considerados como sinónimos. Trascender esta dicotomía reduccionista abre la posibilidad de repensar los caminos y las estrategias mediante las cuales las sociedades en general, en sus esfuerzos por autoproducirse crean condiciones de vida, proveen recursos necesarios y pertinentes y movilizan las capacidades y las libertades de los pobladores rurales. Este documento recoge los elementos más sobresalientes de la investigación “Repensando lo rural y el desarrollo rural” en la que se hizo una revisión de literatura sobre el tema y se buscó, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas³, la participación de funcionarios institucionales, representantes gremiales y académicos. En términos generales se pretendía identificar los significados y los contenidos que se atribuyen a lo rural y al desarrollo rural. El texto se organiza en tres partes: En la primera parte, Reiteración o resignificación, se analizan los posibles avances y permanencias en los significados y contenidos de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En la segunda, denominada Elementos constitutivos del desarrollo rural, se hace referencia a las dimensiones, los indicadores y los actores identificados mediante la información obtenida. En la tercera parte, se establece una relación entre el discurso y las prácticas de desarrollo en Colombia y sus implicaciones en el diseño de políticas públicas. Finalmente se concluye que el desarrollo rural ha tenido como trasfondo una orientación modernizadora de la sociedad rural en general y del sector agrario en particular. Abstract in english The emergence of new readings about the Latin American and European rural social reality and the effects of international policies on what to produce, how much, how and where, has placed a debate around the significance and contents of the rural and the rural development. The core of this controvers [...] y is the improvement or breaking between the rural and the agrarian, two terms that were before considered to be synonyms. Going beyond this reductive dichotomy opens the possibility of rethinking the ways and the strategies through which societies in general, in their efforts to self-produce, create conditions of life, supply the necessary resources and move the capacities and freedom of the rural workers. This document collects the most outstanding elements of the research “Rethinking the rural and the rural development” in which an extensive revision of literature about the topic was made. This was made also through semi-structured interviews, participation of institutional officers, academic and association representatives. In general, it was sought to identify the meanings of the contents attributed to the rural and the rural development. The text is organized in three sections: In the first section, Reiteration, possible advances and continuance in the meanings and contents of the rural and the rural development are analyzed. In second, called Constitutive elements of the rural development, reference to dimensions, indicators and identified actors is made through the information obtained. In the third, Implications in the design of public policies are articulation between discourse and development practices in the country is established. Finally, it is concluded that the rural development has had an undercurrent modern orientation in rural society in general and the agrarian sector in particular.

Nelly del Carmen, Suárez Restrepo; Isaías, Tobasura Acuña.

2008-12-01

144

An exploration of revitalization strategies for rural areas : the case of the Northern Free State / Daniel Francois Meyer  

OpenAIRE

Rural areas, globally, are characterized as poor regions, with two-thirds of the world’s poor people residing in rural areas. In South Africa, 70 percent of the poor population or 3.6 million households, live in rural areas. In the last three State of the Nation Addresses (SONA) in South Africa by President Zuma since 2011, rural development has been placed high on government’s developmental agenda. The formulation of a comprehensive rural development policy, with coordinated implementati...

Meyer, Daniel Francois

2013-01-01

145

Climatological analysis of dust storms in the area surrounding the Tengger Desert during 1960-2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on dust storm records and meteorological data from six stations in the area surrounding the Tengger Desert over the period 1960-2007, the diurnal, monthly and interannual variation of dust storms and severe dust storms, as well as their relation to wind speed, precipitation and temperature, are analyzed and discussed. Statistical analyses demonstrate that such storms occur more frequently from 9:00 to 21:00 local standard time and much more frequently between March and May, especially April. Dust storm frequency (DSF) and severe dust storm frequency (SDSF) show a significant linear decreasing trend from 1960 to 2007. For monthly variability, winds (especially strong ones with speeds 10-20 m/s) are the main factor controlling both dust storm types. Precipitation and temperature have an indirect effect on DSF and SDSF by controlling vegetation growth. For interannual variability, strong wind is still the main control, with precipitation a relatively important cofactor. Temperature has an irregular but somewhat negative relationship with dust storms. Precipitation and especially temperature have likely been important in the increase of DSF since 2000.

Guan, Qingyu; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Di; Wu, Tao

2014-09-01

146

Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

Kenitiro Suguio

2012-12-01

147

The effects of clouds and wind on the difference in nocturnal cooling rates between urban and rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The urban warming effect is interesting in its own right and is important for understanding global warming. The aim of this study is to determine how the urban warming effect changes with cloud conditions and with wind speed. Studies of the urban warming effect have mostly concentrated on the urban-rural difference in daily maximum or minimum temperatures. The problem was approached using a new technique, instead of comparing a city, represented by a first-order weather station, with the surrounding rural area, represented by data collected by cooperative observers; pairs of cities, each with a first-order weather station, were studied. One city was large. The other city was small enough to have a minimal warming effect and was close enough to the larger city to approximately represent the rural area. In this way, hourly temperatures, cloud cover, and wind data could be studied rather than only the differences between the daily maxima or minima. Results show that wind disrupts the normal nocturnal cooling pattern in which the smaller city, with lower thermal inertia, cools more quickly than the larger city. Clouds also disrupt this pattern, at least to the extent that one must be careful about extrapolating either magnitudes or patterns of urban-rural temperature difference observed by satellites under clear sky conditions to partly cloudy or cloudy conditions. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Kidder, S.Q.; Essenwanger, O.M. [Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

1995-11-01

148

Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal  

OpenAIRE

Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the conseque...

Baon, J. B.; Prawoto, A. A.; Wibawa, A.; Abdoellah, S.

2014-01-01

149

Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m3) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m3) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Concentration of PBDEs at each site of the studied area. Highlights: ? High levels of PBDEs with BDE-209 domination were detected in air in northern China. ? PBDE concentrations in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in rural open fields. ? Proportions of BDE-209 in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ? PBDE concentrations were correlated to local population density and Gross Domestic Production. - In northern China, PBDEs in air in rural residential areas air in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in open fields.

150

Magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas, San Luis Obispo County, central California  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas was created as part of a cooperative research and development agreement with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and is intended to promote further understanding of the areal geology and structure by serving as a basis for geophysical interpretations and by supporting geological mapping, mineral and water resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on magnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals can be related to either lithologic or structural boundaries. Magnetic susceptibility measurements from the area indicate that bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense magnetic anomalies, but such generalizations must be applied with caution because some sedimentary units also can produce measurable magnetic anomalies. Remanent magnetization does not appear to be a significant source for magnetic anomalies because it is an order of magnitude less than the induced magnetization. The map is a mosaic of three separate surveys collected by (1) fixed-wing aircraft at a nominal height of 305 m, (2) by boat with the sensor at sea level, and (3) by helicopter. The helicopter survey was flown by New-Sense Geophysics in October 2009 along flight lines spaced 150-m apart and at a nominal terrain clearance of 50 to 100 m. Tie lines were flown 1,500-m apart. Data were adjusted for lag error and diurnal field variations. Further processing included microleveling using the tie lines and subtraction of the reference field defined by International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2005 extrapolated to August 1, 2008.

Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.; Denton, K.M.

2012-01-01

151

Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

2014-01-01

152

Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas  

OpenAIRE

The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbei...

Bijker, Rixt A.; Nora Mehnen; Sijtsma, Frans J.; Daams, Michiel N.

2014-01-01

153

Age distribution of fossil landslides in the Tyrol (Austria and its surrounding areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some of the largest mass movements in the Alps cluster spatially in the Tyrol (Austria. Fault-related valley deepening and coalescence of brittle discontinuities structurally controlled the progressive failure and the kinematics of several slopes. To evaluate the spatial and temporal landslide distribution, a first comprehensive compilation of dated mass movements in the Eastern Alps has been made. At present, more than 480 different landslides in the Tyrol and its surrounding areas, including some 120 fossil events, are recorded in a GIS-linked geodatabase. These compiled data show a rather continuous temporal distribution of landslide activities, with (i some peaks of activity in the early Holocene at about 10 500–9400 cal BP and (ii in the Tyrol a significant increase of deep-seated rockslides in the Subboreal at about 4200–3000 cal BP. The majority of Holocene mass movements were not directly triggered by deglaciation processes, but clearly took a preparation of some 1000 years, after ice withdrawal, until slopes collapsed. In view of this, several processes that may promote rock strength degradation are discussed. After the Late-Glacial, slope stabilities were affected by stress redistribution and by subcritical crack growth. Fracture propagating processes may have been favoured by glacial loading and unloading, by earthquakes and by pore pressure fluctuations. Repeated dynamic loading, even if at subcritical energy levels, initiates brittle fracture propagation and thus substantially promotes slope instabilities. Compiled age dating shows that several landslides in the Tyrol coincide temporally with the progradation of some larger debris flows in the nearby main valleys and, partially, with glacier advances in the Austrian Central Alps, indicating climatic phases of increased water supply. This gives evidence of elevated pore pressures within the intensely fractured rock masses. As a result, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations are induced by complex and polyphase interactions of lithological and structural parameters, morphological changes, subcritical fracture propagation, variable seismic activity and climatically controlled groundwater flows.

C. Prager

2008-04-01

154

Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

2013-06-01

155

The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area  

Science.gov (United States)

Located in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira are two of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Nyiragongo last erupted in January 2002 and Nyamulagira in November 2011. Even if only a small number of victims resulted directly from these eruptions (notably because they both happened in the day-time), the town of Goma (approx. 700 000 inhabitants) is directly threatened by the fluid lava flows, of which the speed can reach several tens of km/h. But this is not the only menace. Indeed, Nyiragongo hosts a permanent lava lake that produces a plume of gases rich in sulphur (SO2), carbon (CO2), and halogen compounds (HCl, HF). As for Nyamulagira, it makes a major contribution to these emissions during its frequent and regular periods of eruptive activity (approx. every two years). Although the region under study is densely populated (up to 250 inh/km2), and basic volcanic hazard mapping exists, an updated and long-term evaluation of the specific impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira semi-permanent volcanic plumes on the population health has not been done to date. It is the objective of this study. Michigan Technological University (MTU, USA) provides satellite data retrievals of volcanogenic SO2 gas columns. These remote sensing data provide insights about the spatial distribution of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira plumes, which are used to select the sampling areas for studying the human health impact of volcanic emissions. Based on the Congolese Health Information System (HIS) data provided by the CEMUBAC, our study is focused on the 1999-2010 time period. Scientific studies carried out on other active volcanoes suggest that certain pathologies could be linked to a high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. These include Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), conjunctivitis, skin diseases, and ear-nose-throat infections. Using Poisson regression analysis, we determine a Relative Risk Index (IRR) that allows us to identify the years of higher health risk for the population living under the plume. Additionally, time series analysis helps us to disregard any seasonal effect of certain pathologies and to derive a 12-year risk trend. For 2004-2010, our results are compared to SO2 gas emission rates and plume location data measured by using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopic (DOAS) sensors located around Nyiragongo volcano. Finally, the areas identified as more hazardous are highlighted through a geographical approach (using GIS tools), to generate maps and other relevant information that can be of direct use for risk assessment authorities. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the impact of SO2 emissions doesn't seem to be severe, being its most important effect an increase of ARI in the area surrounding the volcanoes (up to 50km). Our on-going study will help us to better determine the magnitude and geographical extent of the impact of volcanic plumes on the health of the population, as well as locate the areas that are most affected. This will contribute to provide the appropriate sanitation recommendations (water treatment, early warning system, etc.) and lead to a more effective volcanic impact reduction on human health.

Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

2012-04-01

156

Standard and quality of life of rural areas population in the view of new paradigm of development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main tasks of modern civilization is development according to a New Paradigm, so-called sustainable development.It involves economic and social de-velopment with respect to the state of environment. Demands of sustainable development involve the notion of intergenerational justice, which provides the possibilities of meeting the requirements of humanity in the future. A man constitutes the centre of interest and is the main subject of sustainable development. Its superior aim is to fulfill the needs and aspirations of people, especially the improvement of their standard and quality of life. The work presents analysis of theoretical and empirical issues connected with the development, as well as the standard and quality of life of rural areas population in the region of Lower Silesia, taking into account its functional regions. The analysis made use of sustainable development indexes, basing on normalization method. The mentioned indexes involved housing conditions, as well as expenses connected with housing, health, culture and sport. Areas situated in the surrounding of larger urban agglomerations with higher potential of development, proved to acquire higher standards and quality of life. From the regional point of view the lowest values featured region I of rural character. Research results clearly defined the standard and quality of life of rural areas population in Lower Silesian voivodeship, as well as the changes in these two examined parameters, which confirmed the results of the research conducted in the territory of the whole country.

Adamska Hanna

2012-09-01

157

Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana School performance of rural area students in urban school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural, turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno, tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas.PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of residence (urban/rural, period of study (day / night, type of school (municipal/state and gender. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in the performances of the students from series 1 to 4, in none of the disciplines. From series 5 to 8 we found a slightly better performance in the students who lived in the urban area, measured by t-Student test. However, if upon jointly analyzing all the variable, none of them was preponderant in explaining the performance of the student, measured by multiple lineal regression. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were found in the school performance between students in the urban and rural area.

Stella Maris Cortez Bacha

2006-12-01

158

Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana / School performance of rural area students in urban school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato [...] Grosso do Sul (MS), sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural), turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno), tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual) e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / [...] MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of residence (urban/rural), period of study (day / night), type of school (municipal/state) and gender. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in the performances of the students from series 1 to 4, in none of the disciplines. From series 5 to 8 we found a slightly better performance in the students who lived in the urban area, measured by t-Student test. However, if upon jointly analyzing all the variable, none of them was preponderant in explaining the performance of the student, measured by multiple lineal regression. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were found in the school performance between students in the urban and rural area.

Stella Maris Cortez, Bacha; Carla Castro Rezende Diniz, Brandão; Leandro, Sauer; Adriano Viana, Bednaski; Marcos Yuri, Camparoto.

2006-12-01

159

Drinking water quality assessment of rural wells from Aiud Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents the assessment of physico-chemical quality of drinking watercoming from rural wells of Aiud area (villages: M?gina, Livezile, Poiana Aiudului, V?li?oara. Water qualitywas evaluated through a research project conducted over a period of eight months (October 2009 - May2010. It consisted of a monthly monitoring of water physico-chemical characteristics of 27 drinking wellsfrom the villages mentioned above. There were monitored monthly in the laboratory the followingparameters: pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids,salinity, using WTW Multi-parameter inolab 720. In April and May, at the parameters mentioned abovewere added chemical measurements for the following indicators: Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2->, NO3 -, PO4 3-,HCO3 -, which analysis were performed with Dionex Ion Chromatograph System 2100. The results of thechemical analysis were processed using the following methods: linear regression, Pearson correlationcoefficient (r and water quality index (WQI. This monitoring project was initiated from the premise of aproblematic quality of well waters, based on the well known contamination vulnerability of the drinkingwater in Romania, but the results of this study proved the opposite: the water from the monitored wellshad a proper quality for drinking

Cristina Ro?u

2011-08-01

160

Silicone glazing for solar applications in rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Silicone glazing is a translucent glass fabric reinforced material which was produced by coating silicone resin 1-2577 on an open weave leno fabric in a coating tower constructed in Basaisa village, Al Sharkiya Governorate, Egypt. The unique feature of the tower used in this work is the utilization of solar energy for both powering its coating mechanism through the use of a photovoltaic module, and also heating its curing chamber. The optical and mechanical properties of silicone glazing were studied. Silicone glazing is found to have a solar transmission of 90%, an ultraviolet cut-off at 270 nm, and an infrared cut-off at 8.0 [mu]m. The material has a high tensile strength, particularly along the fill and the wrap directions of the reinforcing fabric. The tensile strength tested at 0.8 strain rate is 50, and 80 pli (pounds per lineal inch) at the fill and the wrap directions, respectively. Silicone glazing was found suitable for many solar applications such as greenhouse screen, space solar heating, solar food driers, and skylights in buildings, especially in rural areas. (author)

Dabbour, M.; Arafa, S. (American Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Science Dept.)

161

Rural flour mills. farmer promotion tool m the Sahel area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Grameen Bank is a specialized financial institution in Bangladesh that was established to provide credit to the rural poor for the purpose of improving their economic conditions with the hypothesis that if the poor are supplied with working capital they can generate productive self-employment without external assistance. Loans from the Grameen Bank are used primarily for undertaking noncrop activities. The loan repayment performance is excellent. Only 0.5 percent of loans to 975 borrowers surveyed were overdue beyond one year, and overdue weekly installments (before the expiration of the one-year repayment period were only 3.3 percent of the total amount borrowed. The Grameen Bank concept of credit without collateral should work in other countries with widespread poverty and underemployment. But elements like taking the bank to the people and intensive interaction of bank staff with borrowers may be inappropriate and highly expensive for sparsely settled areas with underdeveloped transport systems. For such environments, an appropriate delivery mechanism has to be worked out.

Audroing, M.

1993-01-01

162

Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P 10, SO2, and NO2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM10, SO2 and NO2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM10, SO2, and NO2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

163

Economic Planning for Multicounty Rural Areas: Application of a Linear Programming Model in Northwest Arkansas. Technical Bulletin No. 1653.  

Science.gov (United States)

Planners in multicounty rural areas can use the Rural Development, Activity Analysis Planning (RDAAP) model to try to influence the optimal growth of their areas among different general economic goals. The model implies that best industries for rural areas have: high proportion of imported inputs; low transportation costs; high value added/output…

Williams, Daniel G.

164

20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities...Grants § 645.525 What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities...developing application procedures, special consideration will be given to rural areas and...

2010-04-01

165

42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.  

Science.gov (United States)

...were located in a rural area. (4) For...of the new MSA definitions announced by OMB...being located in a rural area for purposes of...of the new MSA definitions announced by OMB...being located in a rural area for purposes...

2010-10-01

166

Radionuclide renography in rural areas of the Gambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A transportable renography apparatus has been used to study subjects in rural communities in the Gambia. The apparatus fits into six metal containers which can be sealed against dust and moisture and carried in the back of a Land-Rover. A small petrol generator can be used to supply power in the field. A three-detector renogram is recorded on a chart recorder whilst digital data are recorded on a C60 cassette for subsequent deconvolution analysis. Indices of renal function, such as mean renal transit time (MTT) and relative effective renal plasma flow (%ERPF), are obtained from the digital data, and a blood sample taken after the renogram is used to estimate overall effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). The apparatus has been reliable, with no serious breakdowns, but supplies of 131I-Hippuran have been a difficult problem. The short half-life of 131I and the short shelf-life of 131I-Hippuran limit the time spent in the field to a few days and delays in delivery from the United Kingdom have had serious consequences. Measurements in an area free from urinary schistosomiasis were used to establish normal values and relationships with other indices, such as time to peak counts and percentage uptake. Results from an area where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic showed a statistically significant difference in MTT and ERPF but not in %ERPF. MTT was longer in subjects aged 45 or less in the endemic area, but no statistically significant differe, but no statistically significant differences were found for older subjects. ERPF was lower for subjects aged 17 or above in the endemic area, but for subjects aged 16 or less it was higher with a positive correlation between ERPF and urinary egg count. Subjects who had a second renogram one year after treatment with metrifonate showed some improvement. By the time of a two-year follow-up nine subjects had died in the endemic area and four of them had abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF. Only one subject with abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF had survived. (author)

167

Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area  

Science.gov (United States)

The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

2011-12-01

168

Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

2010-01-01

169

Ecogenetics of Parkinson's disease: prevalence and environmental aspects in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

We make use of the unique combination of a homogeneous genetic and racial origin in the rural population of Quebec and the facilities of free and universal access to medical care, to study the distribution of the prevalence of Parkinson's disease in the 9 rural hydrographic regions of the Province. Through 3 different methods of ascertainment, confirmed by two control probes, we demonstrate that the prevalence of Parkinson's disease is of uneven distribution within rural areas. We further investigated the characteristics of the regions of high prevalence. These regions which are predominantly agricultural and areas of intensive market gardening were also the areas with the highest use of pesticides. PMID:3815163

Barbeau, A; Roy, M; Bernier, G; Campanella, G; Paris, S

1987-02-01

170

Diagnóstico ambiental e delimitação de Áreas de Preservação Permanente em um assentamento rural = Environmental diagnosis and delimitation of PPAs (Permanent Preservation Areas in a rural settlement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leia-se neste artigo a tentativa de diagnosticar, delimitar e situar as Áreas de Preservação Permanentes e de Reserva Legal dentro de um assentamento rural, do Incra; visando à experimentação de ferramentas de geoprocessamento para a restauração das matas ribeirinhas, pela delimitação destas áreas, respeitando a legislação ambiental vigente, e partindo de uma ampla avaliação ambiental descritiva da paisagem, encontrada no Projeto de Assentamento Federal Capela. Um diagnóstico da paisagem local é apresentado na forma de um memorial fotográfico. Neste trabalho, serão delimitadas e quantificadas somente asAPP’s de entorno de corpos d’água.This article aims to diagnose, demarcate and situate Permanent Preservation Areas and Legal Reserves within an Incra Rural Settlement. This effort was conducted while testing the effective application of geoprocessing tools in the restoration of riparian forests and the delimitation of these areas, in accordance withexisting environmental legislation, and based on a broad descriptive environmental evaluation of the local landscape, located at the Capela Federal Settlement Project. A landscape diagnosis is shown in a photographic memorial as well. For this study, only the PPAs surrounding water bodies will be delimited and quantified.

Nelson Alexandre Fagundes

2008-01-01

171

Electric distribution infrastructures for rural areas in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally defined. Chapter II describes the design method developed to compare the costs of different architectures and choose the most suitable. Chapter III shows a method of sizing systems Decentralized Rural Electrification including generators, batteries and windmills. Chapter IV describes the results of a reliability study was carried out on different solutions. Chapter V describes the work done to analyze the operation of a production center consists of a generator and a wind turbine. (author)

172

Extent of Online Communication Compatibility in Rural Area  

OpenAIRE

Online communication system are several way people communicate with each other over the Internet, as well as e-mail, make contact with forms on web sites ,feedback on blogs and social networking sites.3Recently efforts have been made to use the electronic modes or communication to supply information to rural development sector. Online communication system is helpful for rural development such as Technology Transfer (Persuasive and Paternalistic), Advisory work (Persuasive and ...

Dr. Subhash Singh Parihar

2014-01-01

173

3D Analysis and Investigation of Traffic Noise Impact from Hemmat Highway Located in Tehran on Buildings and Surrounding Areas  

OpenAIRE

This study analyzes and investigates the impact of traffic noise on high rise buildings and surrounding areas by the side of Hemmat Highway that links west of Tehran to the east. In this study, a 3D traffic noise simulation model is applied on a GIS system. Visualized noise levels are formulated by the proposed model for noise mapping on all surfaces of the buildings and surrounding ground in a 3D platform. The investigation shows that there is a high traffic noise impact on the foreground an...

Hamid Reza Ranjbar; Ali Reza Gharagozlou; Ali Reza Vafaei Nejad

2012-01-01

174

The Contribution of Rural Tourism to the Sustainable Development of the Rural Areas  

OpenAIRE

There are some elements related to the concept of rural tourism which has nowadays become very important around the world. The rural tourism can revitalize the conventional concepts and views on tourism, and bring in a new dimension to the sustainable development of tourism. It has been realized that tourism can play a major role in many countries economies, especially in developing ones, where it can substantially contribute to the increase of the national income. In this respect, mention sh...

Turtureanu, Anca Gabriela

2006-01-01

175

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

176

International cooperation on wind energy for rural areas in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the recent wind energy activities in China is given. China has a long history in harnessing the wind; modern development started during the late seventies. The Chinese wind potential is mainly in the coastal regions (North East and South East) and in Inner Mongolia. The actual total installed wind power is estimated to be 15 MW. For low lift (within 2 meters), high volume applications, e.g. salt making in salt pans along the coast, of mechanical windmills coupled to screw pumps have been developed. In Inner Mongolia, small portable wind generators (50-200 MW) charging car batteries are supplying some 100,000 farmer and herdsman families with electricity for television and lighting. The average energy consumption is between 200 and 300 kWh per year and the corresponding kWh price 0.40 to 0.50 US$. Since 1988 the demand for small wind generators declined due to the lower wool prices on the world market, affecting the income of the herdsman, and due to the fact that the machines have to be marketed in remote, less accesible rural areas. Various demonstration projects have been set up, f.e. a decentralized energy system on Dachen Island, including a wind diesel hybrid system. On Kongdon Island a 60 kW wind turbine and a 60 kW diesel generator were installed. With several foreign wind turbine manufacturers cooperations have been set up for licensed production in China. Also wind farms have been installed. The largest Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 m Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 meter diameter, 200 kW machine. Western organizations or manufacturers are involved in most of the cooperatives. For the next five years the focus is on development of a large 150 and 200 kW machine and a windmill coupled to a centrifugal pump for lifting heads between 2 and 5 meter. 1 fig., 3 refs

177

Rural settlement within the hinterland of conurbations  

OpenAIRE

The post war years have seen a steady flow of inmigration into the rural hinterlands of conurbations, eminating both from the surrounding rural areas and from the urban complexes themselves. By 1981 over one fifth of Britain's population was resident in a rural district, the majority falling within zones close to urban centres. This study, based on one year's participant observation in seven settlements within southern Staffordshire, part of the rural hinterland of the We...

Harper, Sarah

1985-01-01

178

77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request  

Science.gov (United States)

...in Urban and Rural Areas) to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget for approval. The Election Administration in Urban...hours. Frequency: One-time data collection. Mark A. Robbins, Acting Executive Director, U.S. Election...

2012-02-21

179

Survey of Microbial Quality of Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Kashan-Iran in Second Half of 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study is surveying microbial quality of drinking water in Kashan rural areas and determining the rural population that using safe water in terms of microbial quality in second-half of 2008. In this cross-sectional study, microbial quality of water in all rural areas was determined in 3 stages based on 3 parameters as Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC. The results of this study illustrates that 100.0, 47.71 and 92.99% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of Kashan Rural Water and Wastewater Company (KRWWC and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Fecal Coliforms and 98.4, 21.2 and 88.00% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of KRWWC rural areas and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Total Coliforms. There is also a meaningful difference in microbial quality between under coverage and non-under coverage rural areas. The results of this study express that the fecal contamination in under coverage rural areas is excellent, but there is a bad condition in non-under coverage areas. Generally, the microbial quality in all Kashan rural areas is approximately equal to national microbial criteria. Its been also illustrated that the role of KRWWC in supplying safe drinking water in terms of microbial quality for rural population is very important.

M. Heidari

2011-01-01

180

An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.

Proctor, A.E.

1997-06-01

181

The importance of social capital in rural development, networking and decision-making in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural decline is frequently explained in economic terms by unfavourable conditions and by missing resources or support. But this link is not entirely clear and does not apply in all regions. Some particularly remote rural regions with a very sparse population, a lack of policy support, poor economic performance and unfavourable climatic conditions prove more viable than some regions with more plentiful economic resources and support. The presentation will discuss the issue whether the concept of social capital could lead to a better understanding of these patterns. The role of social capital will be demonstrated by means of a model connecting it with rural development, multifunctionality, local governance and environmental perception and national policies. The findings of several case studies within the EUROLAN project (Strengthening the Multifunctional Use of Land: Coping with marginalisation, suggest that social capital should be more recognized by policy makers as a key issue in the rural development process, hampering (when weak or supporting (when strong and well-rooted the implementation of rural development policies.La marginalisation rurale peut en grande partie s’expliquer par les conditions peu favorables et un manque de ressources, mais pas uniquement et pas dans toutes les régions. Certaines régions de faible densité, aux conditions économiques et climatiques peu favorables, et qui ne font pas l’objet de politiques locales d’envergure, s’avèrent plus viables que certaines régions bien plus aisées. Dans le présent article, nous nous demanderons si le capital social peut aider à combler ce fossé, et si tel est le cas, dans quelle mesure. Le rôle du capital social sera démontré en tant que vecteur d’un modèle le reliant avec le développement rural, la plurifonctionnalité, la gouvernance locale, la perception environnementale et les politiques nationales. Les résultats de certaines études de cas inclues dans le projet EUROLAN (Renforcement de l’usage multifonctionnel du Sol, prendre en charge la marginalisation laissent entendre que le capital social devrait être mieux pris en compte par les acteurs politiques comme une question clé dans le processus de développement rural, freinant (lorsqu’elles sont faibles ou encourageant (lorsqu’elles sont fortes et bien enracinées la mise en œuvre de politiques de développement rural.

Georg Wiesinger

2009-03-01

182

Diabetes Prevalence and its Risk Factors in Rural Area of Tamil Nadu  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To estimate the usefulness of the Indian diabetes risk score for detecting undiagnosed diabetes in the rural area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the field practice area of rural health centers (Chunampett and Annechikuppam, Tamil Nadu), covering a population of 35000 from February to March 2008 by using a predesigned and pretested protocol to find out the prevalence and the risk of diabetes mellitus in general population by using Indian di...

Gupta Sanjay; Singh Zile; Purty Anil; Kar M; Vedapriya D; Mahajan P; Cherian J

2010-01-01

183

Water defluoridation, water denitrification and water desalination in rural areas in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Many borehole waters in rural areas in South Africa are unfit for human consumption because the fluoride (>1,5 mg/?), nitrate-nitrogen (>6 mg/?) and salinity (>1 500 mg/?) concentrations are too high. Ion exchange (IX) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology are available that can be used for defluoridation, denitrification and desalination of water. However, methodology, guidelines and the economics for the use of these technologies in rural areas are not readily available. Therefore, the ...

Schoeman, J. J.

2010-01-01

184

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF RURAL AREA USING ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to highlight the importance of organizational innovation in the development of small and medium sized enterprises in the rural area. In this paper, I review the existing literature on organizational  innovation and will present itsimportance in the process of sustainable development of enterprises in the SME sector. Throughout this study I intend to present the issues that the SMEs are facing  in the agricultural sector of the rural area and to present to the entrepreneur hi...

Kristina Jana Drienovski

2013-01-01

185

Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas  

OpenAIRE

Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasi...

Gandotra V.K; Gupta Satish; Kaur P

1998-01-01

186

Needs an posibility for introduction of district heating system in rural areas  

OpenAIRE

In this thesis micro district heating system on woods biomass is presented, which is suitable for rural area. Also energy consumption for residential heating for Slovenia and wider is introduced. The aim to find sustainable, clean and stable energy source was introduced trough analysis of possible construction of a biomass district heating systems for family houses. A model was made with the intention to reflect the reality of rural areas on which the analysis is based. The analysis tries to ...

Juvan, Miha

2009-01-01

187

STUDY REGARDING THE ROMANIAN RURAL TOURISM FINANCING AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES  

OpenAIRE

Rural tourism and agricultural tourism are activities, which generate alternative incomes, a fact that offers development possibilities to the rural space, due to the unique landscapes, large semi-natural areas, the inhabitants' born hospitality in the rural surroundings. From this perspective, a modernization, development and innovation process for the Romanian rural tourism is required. All these aspects, however, require financing. Therefore, a pre-accession financing source of the rural t...

Baltes?, Nicolae; Ciuhureanu, Alina-teodora

2009-01-01

188

A Study on the Impact of Urban River Refurbishment to the Thermal Environment of Surrounding Residential Area  

OpenAIRE

In this study, a simulation was conducted targeting Beomeo stream of Daegu, for the purpose of the quantitative determination of the changes in thermal environment of surrounding residential areas according to the urban river refurbishment. For the study method, the reviews of literature and model verification were conducted, and then the results were derived through the process of comparing and analyzing the thermal environment resulting from the river refurbishment of...

Daewuk Kim; Jae-Gyu Cha; Eung-Ho Jung

2014-01-01

189

CO2 flux and seasonal variability in the turbidity maximum zone and surrounding area in the Changjiang River estuary  

Science.gov (United States)

The turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) is one of the most important regions in an estuary. However, the high concentration of suspended material makes it difficult to measure the partial pressure of CO2 ( pCO2) in these regions. Therefore, very little data is available on the pCO2 levels in TMZs. To relatively accurately evaluate the CO2 flux in an example estuary, we studied the TMZ and surrounding area in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary. From seasonal cruises during February, August, November 2010, and May 2012, the pCO2 in the TMZ and surrounding area was calculated from pH and total alkalinity (TA) measured in situ, from which the CO2 flux was calculated. Overall, the TMZ and surrounding area acted as a source of atmosphere CO2 in February and November, and as a sink in May and August. The average FCO2 was -9, -16, 5, and 5 mmol/(m2·d) in May, August, November, and February, respectively. The TMZ's role as a source or sink of atmosphere CO2 was quite different to the outer estuary. In the TMZ and surrounding area, suspended matter, phytoplankton, and pH were the main factors controlling the FCO2, but here the influence of temperature, salinity, and total alkalinity on the FCO2 was weak. Organic carbon decomposition in suspended matter was the main reason for the region acting as a CO2 source in winter, and phytoplankton production was the main reason the region was a CO2 sink in summer.

Li, Xuegang; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin; Qu, Baoxiao

2015-01-01

190

Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

J B Baon

2014-01-01

191

Measurement of Aerosol Optical Property in Hong Kong Rural Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change and visibility impairment. The evidence of the role in climate change is required for monitoring the extinction, absorption, scattering coefficient and single scattering albedo in different sites around world. In the southern China public attention are focusing on severe regional visibility problem and its connection to regional air pollution. Black carbon (BC) is a form of atmospheric aerosol and can reduce visibility through absorption of solar radiation and it is an important primary aerosol cause global warming. Here, we presented the 2-year measurements (2011-2013) of aerosol optical properties, using aethalometer and nephelometer to measure scattering (Bsp), absorption coefficient (Bab), single scattering albedo (SSA) and scattering angstrom exponent (?s) in Hong Kong rural area (Hok Tsui) and determine the Hong Kong regional pollution status. The mean Bsp, Bab, ?s and SSA during the sampling period is 110.84±89.19, 15.09±9.85 Mm-1, 1.0±0.42 and 0.84±0.11, respectively. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are both ~22% higher than the median. The significant seasonal variation of absorption and scattering coefficient is observed, which was lower in spring (12.87±7.5 and 91.30±73.3) and summer (10.84±10.1 and 65.24±75.2) seasons but has higher value in autumn (16.79±8.9 and 124.23±82.4) and winter (18.74±10.3 and 157.27±98.8) seasons. Similar as scattering and absorption value, in spring and summer, the SSA is lower than the value measured in autumn and winter seasons, indicates that absorption coefficient play an important role in spring and summer seasons than in autumn and winter seasons. Compared to scattering and absorption coefficient data reported by [1] in HT, 14 years ago, the annual scattering coefficient is increased about ~106% and absorption coefficient decreased ~11%. The main reason for absorption coefficient decreasing relies on BC concentration significantly decreased. In addition, the value of SSA is 0.8 in 2011 compared with 0.7 in 2001and it could estimate that secondary pollution increasing greatly.

GAO, Yuan; Lee, Shun-cheng; Huang, Yu; Lai, Senchao

2014-05-01

192

Hepatitis C in rural areas of Islamabad, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatitis is recognized as significant public health problem worldwide. There are one hundred and seventy five million Hepatitis C virus carriers around the world. Global prevalence ranges from 0.1 to 5 % with an average of 3 %. There are very few studies done at national and international levels to find the prevalence of HCV in our population. It is a Picorna virus that may invade the body usually through, intra venous devices and contaminated instruments. It may remain silent for years or cause acute hepatitis to chronic liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma is well known complication. Most of the epidemiological studies have so far been carried out on the population with high socio-economic status attending tertiary care hospitals in the cities that have good sterilization techniques. Whereas rural dispensaries are the drainage zones for HCV due to unqualified and untrained technical staff and lack of sterilization procedures. We, therefore, selected some villages (Chirah, Tumair, Thanda pani and Alipur) around Islamabad to assess the prevalence of HCV and tried to compare different epidemiological factors with urban areas in this randomized cross-sectional study conducted from May to August 2009. Two hundred asymptomatic volunteers were randomly selected from patients attending local dispensaries in this study zone. The subjects were given a detailed questionnaire to study and fill accordingly. Details of study were explained to them. Patients included in the stained to them. Patients included in the study were between 20-50 years of age, having gastrointestinal symptoms. Excluded subjects were pregnant women, patients on ant-viral therapy and known cases of HCV. 5 cc blood samples were taken and transported in ice containers to PINSTECH Complex Hospital laboratory within two hours for chromatographic analysis. We observed that 16.5% of the individuals were infected with HCV. Invasive procedures like D and C by dais and ear piercing were the major transmitting factors in females, whereas I/V devices, dental treatments and barber cutting in males was the dominant risk factors. The use of non disposable glass syringes for injection was also an important mode of transmission. (author)

193

Service Delivery to Southern Black Population in Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Planning for viable rural communities must seek elements inherent in a well-kept American home: lights, water, telephone, employment of the household head, children in school, access to transportation, sufficient food, clothing, health care, recreation, etc. If a community falls short in these necessities, the "needs gap" is where effective…

Pinnock, Theo J.

194

Music Education in Rural Areas: A Few Keys to Success  

Science.gov (United States)

Community dynamics play a major role in determining the duties of music educators. What music educators do each day can vary greatly depending on their location. A middle school band director's job description in suburban New York is likely to look nothing like that of a music educator in rural Iowa. There is a substantial lack of literature to…

Isbell, Daniel

2005-01-01

195

ENTERTAINMENT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS – PART OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work aims to highlight the niche forms of tourism (active tourism and ecotourism, showing similarities and differences between them. However it argues the need to introduce the occupation of rural tourism entertainer, showing the main tasks incumbent upon it to organize leisure tourists. The research was conducted by studying the latest articles in the field and by consulting specific websites.

Dionisie Marian TURCU

2014-04-01

196

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

197

Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (? 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

Setel Philip

2005-01-01

198

Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

199

A Marginal Profession in Rural Areas: The Case of Rural Chiropractors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In reference to the significance of a marginal profession, 44 Missouri chiropractors practicing in 20 rural counties (total enumeration) were compared with 39 randomly selected Kansas City chiropractors to determine the following characteristics: (1) social background; (2) place history (at time of birth, start of school; termination of 8th grade,…

Hassinger, Edward W.; And Others

200

An aerial radiological survey of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and surrounding area, Fairborn, Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over areas of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) and the immediate surrounding area, during the period July 7 through 20, 1994. The survey was conducted to measure and map the gamma radiation in the area. This mission was the first aerial radiation survey conducted at WPAFB. In the surveyed area, five small localized sources of gamma radiation were detected which were atypical of naturally-occurring radionuclides. On WPAFB property, these sources included a radiation storage facility in Area B (krypton-85) and an ash pile near the Area C flight line (low energy gamma activity). In the area covered outside WPAFB boundaries, sources included cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout over a landfill in a northern Dayton industrial area, an X-ray radiography source over a steel plant in the same industrial area, and a mixture of cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout and possibly iridium-192 in an area near Crystal Lakes, Ohio. The naturally-occurring gamma emitters (uranium-238 and progeny, thorium and progeny, and potassium-40) were detected in the remaining area with a total exposure rate range of 4 to 16 {mu}R/h; this range is typical of that found in the United States, 1 to 20 {mu}R/h.

NONE

1995-08-01

201

An aerial radiological survey of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and surrounding area, Fairborn, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over areas of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) and the immediate surrounding area, during the period July 7 through 20, 1994. The survey was conducted to measure and map the gamma radiation in the area. This mission was the first aerial radiation survey conducted at WPAFB. In the surveyed area, five small localized sources of gamma radiation were detected which were atypical of naturally-occurring radionuclides. On WPAFB property, these sources included a radiation storage facility in Area B (krypton-85) and an ash pile near the Area C flight line (low energy gamma activity). In the area covered outside WPAFB boundaries, sources included cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout over a landfill in a northern Dayton industrial area, an X-ray radiography source over a steel plant in the same industrial area, and a mixture of cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout and possibly iridium-192 in an area near Crystal Lakes, Ohio. The naturally-occurring gamma emitters (uranium-238 and progeny, thorium and progeny, and potassium-40) were detected in the remaining area with a total exposure rate range of 4 to 16 ?R/h; this range is typical of that found in the United States, 1 to 20 ?R/h

202

From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English)  

OpenAIRE

Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for t...

Sverre Fjellheim

2005-01-01

203

An aerial radiological survey of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Decatur, Alabama  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 12 July to 17 July 1985 over a 97-square-kilometer (37-square-mile) area centered on the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station located near Decatur, Alabama. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with line spacings of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus the cosmic exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates north and east of Wheeler Lake ranged from approximately 11 to 18 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), while the area south and west of the lake ranged from approximately 9 to 11 ?R/h. Two areas of increased exposure rate were evident. One of these areas was associated with the main units of the reactor facility, while the other was associated with a temporary radiological waste holding area inside the plant's protected area. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of a third area within the plant facility. This area is utilized as a temporary low-level radioactive waste storage site. All three areas indicated the presence of Co-60. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations to support the aerial data. In addition, soil samples were also taken at six locations along the shore of Wheeler Lake. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabseler Lake. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

204

Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas : Creative People and Social Network  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire, utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited.

Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

2014-01-01

205

Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

Marta Pallares-Blanch

2012-01-01

206

Information and Communication Technologies for Regional Development in the Czech Republic – Broadband Connectivity in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper introduces chosen results of an ICT development survey in the regions of the Czech Republic. The survey was primarily focused on broadband connectivity and its adoption by agricultural enterprises operating in rural areas. The survey was conducted in the context of both the EU strategy "Digital Agenda for Europe" and the national program document "National Policy in Electronic Communications - Digital Czech Republic". It stems from the enquiries that the situation is not – in spite of a certain improvement – satisfactory and the digital divide remains highly topical in rural areas of the Czech Republic. Broadband connectivity reaches practically 100% in urban areas and more than 85% in suburban areas whereas the rural areas show only about 75% availability. In many parts of the Czech Republic, a high quality Internet connection is quite questionable and sometimes even unavailable until present.

J. Van?k

2011-09-01

207

The new integrated aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields volcano and surrounding areas  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we present and analyze the new detailed aeromagnetic data set resulting from a recent survey carried out in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. The survey was aimed at gaining new insight into the volcanological characteristics of the region north of Phlegrean Fields (Parete-Villa Literno area) where remarkable thickness of volcanic/sub- volcanic rocks were found in wells. Measurement of total magnetic field was performed on two different flight levels, 70 m and 400 m above the ...

Rapolla, A.; Supper, R.; Florio, G.; Fedi, M.; Paoletti, V.

2004-01-01

208

Cognitive Access to TVWS in India : TV Spectrum Occupancy and Wireless Broadband for Rural Areas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The digital transition of TV transmission will make available some TV frequencies which are to be geographically unused called as TV White Spaces. The important regulatory trend in the context of Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is the Cognitive access of TV white Spaces. In this context, we have performed spectrum measurements of TV band in Pune, India. Our result shows poor spectrum utilization in TV band, and good potential for Cognitive radio operation. Digital switchover in India will generate golden opportunity for empowering rural India. As majority of India’s population lives in rural part of India, we have proposed wireless broadband access to rural areas using TV White Spaces (TVWSs). This will help in bridging the digital divide by offering governance, banking, and health services online in the rural areas.

Patil, Kishor P.; Skouby, Knud Erik

2013-01-01

209

Geology and coal resources of the Foidel Creek EMRIA site and surrounding area, Routt County, Colorado  

Science.gov (United States)

Terrigenous clastic sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group (Campanian) in the southeastern part of the Yampa coal field in Routt County, northwestern Colorado, contain many beds of bituminous coal. Lower, middle, and upper coal groups are recognized. The middle coal group, in the lower coal-bearing member of the Williams Fork Formation, contains two thick, persistent coal beds in the Foidel Creek area. The Wadge coal bed, stratigraphically the higher of the two, reaches thicknesses of 3.7 meters, and is strippable beneath large areas on the south slope of Eckman Park. Coal resources of the Wadge bed in the Foidel Creek area--an area of 134 square kilometers, as defined in this study--are estimated to be 317 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site--an area of 10.9 square kilometers--contains about 36.1 million metric tons of Wadge coal, as much as 28.1 million metric tons of which occur beneath overburden 61 meters or less in thickness. About 52 meters lower in the section, the Wolf Creek coal bed locally exceeds 6.1 meters in thickness. Coal resources of the Wolf Creek bed in the Foidel Creek area are estimated to be 434 million metric tons. The Foidel Creek EMRIA reclamation study site contains an estimated 49.7 million metric tons of Wolf Creek coal.

Ryer, Thomas A.

1977-01-01

210

Financing and disseminating small energy systems in rural areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The viability of small energy systems, primarily photovoltaic systems, is discussed as an alternative for rural electrification via traditional grid extension. A dissemination model that incorporates financing to allow access to a much larger population of users and technology support (e.g. training for sales and service and small business development) is described. The experience of two successful programs is presented to illustrate the keys to effective program development and implementation. (author)

211

Food security in rural areas of Limpopo province, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Although South Africa is food secure as a nation, many households remain food insecure. The government has recognized several key food security challenges in the Integrated Food Security Strategy (IFSS). However, South Africa still lacks specific and accepted methods to measure food security and currently has no regulated way of monitoring the food security status of its population. This article reports on an investigation into the food security situation of rural hous...

Cock, N.; D Haese, M.; Vink, Nick; Rooyen, Cornelius Johannes; Staelens, L.; Schonfeldt, H. C.; D Haese, L.

2013-01-01

212

Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the regional at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS) while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Calling's Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR) between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aero magnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible

213

Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the regional at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS) while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR) between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aero magnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

Chiappini, M.; Meloni, A.; Boschi, E. [Istituto di Geofisica, Rome (Italy); Faggioni, O.; Beverini, N.; Carmisciano, C. [Istituto di Geofisica Marina, Consorzio Universitario, La Spezia (Italy); Marson, I. [Trieste Univ., Trieste (IT). Ist. di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS)

2000-10-01

214

Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

C. Carmisciano

2000-06-01

215

Prevalence of Food Insecurity among Women in Rural Area of North West Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Food insecurity is a public health concern among rural poor in Bangladesh. Food insecurity is the insufficiency of good quality foods, reduced access to foods and inadequate intake of foods to meet ones physiological demands. Food insecurity is inversely associated with health and nutritional status of rural women of Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted using an interview-based pre tested questionnaire. Data were collected from 500 women in low-income areas of Nageswari and Ph...

Azizur Rahman; Rezaul Karim

2013-01-01

216

THE ROLE OF NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREA DEVELOPMENT  

OpenAIRE

Rural non-agricultural activities can be classified into two categories depending on occupancy degree of time: independent ones, those who are practiced in exclusivity, occupying entire working time and complementary, and those who are carried out in completion time, by those involved in agriculture. Through these agricultural activities it is provided employment of labor from rural area by judiciously using local resources because these products are used for individual household needs but ca...

Ramona Ciolac; Ana Maria Dincu; Ioan Petroman; Ioana B?lan; Cornelia Petroman; Diana Marin; Carmen Dumitrescu; Ana Lozici

2013-01-01

217

Management of Covariant Risk in Rural Areas of Developing Economies: Opportunities and Challenges  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims at exploring the possibilities to increase the satisfaction of the demand for financial services in rural areas through market based financial products allowing farmers to protect against major sources of risk. The focus is on developing economies, where farm specific and covariant risks, such as natural and weather risks and agricultural commodity price volatility, are seriously hitting the rural population and few instruments are currently available to support farmers’ pr...

Vigano, Laura; Bonomo, Luciano

2006-01-01

218

Robust, multifunctional flood protection zones in the Dutch Rural Riverine area  

OpenAIRE

This paper reviews the possible functions of robust dikes in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands. It furthermore reviews and analyses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with robust, multifunctional flood defense zones in rural riverine zones. The study focused on recent plans and ideas for innovative dike reinforcement at five locations in the Netherlands, supplemented with information obtained in semi-structured interviews with experts a...

Loon-steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

2013-01-01

219

High maternal mortality estimated by the sisterhood method in a rural area of Mali  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Maternal mortality is high in Mali. Nevertheless, there are few studies on this topic from rural areas, and current estimates are mostly based on studies from urban settings. Our objective was to estimate the maternal mortality ratio in Kita, rural Mali. Methods Using the "sisterhood method", we interviewed participants aged 15-50 years from 20 villages in Kita, Mali, and thereby created a retrospective cohort of their sisters in reproductive age. Based on population and f...

Haugsjå Anita H; Grove Mari A; Aa Ingvill; Hinderaker Sven G

2011-01-01

220

Aerial radiological survey of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Dothan, Alabama  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed during the period 8 to 19 December 1979 over a 2000 square kilometer area centered on the two unit Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant near Dothan, Alabama. Radiological data were collected by flying north-south lines spaced 900 meters apart at an altitude of 150 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring radionuclides. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of a radiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 4 and 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), with most of the area ranging between 4 and 10 ?R/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 ?R/h but do not include any contribution from airborne radionuclides, i.e., radon. Exposure rates obtained from ground measurements taken within the survey area were in close agreement with the aerial data. The data were also in close agreement with those obtained from a similar survey conducted during March 1977. Comparison of the results from both surveys indicated that no detectable change in the radiological characteristics of the survey area has occurred due to the operation of unit number 1 during the intervening period. The same equipment and procedures were utilized for both surveys

221

Preparation of Potentially Site Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Java Island and Its Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)

222

A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

223

An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site and surrounding area. Central Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site was conducted in December 1993. An interim report was issued. That report described survey procedures and presented terrestrial exposure rate and wide-area-averaged plutonium isopleth plots. This letter report presents additional plutonium plots and some ``rule-of-thumb`` calculations which should help the reader to properly interpret the data presented. Attached to this report are three isopleth plots produced from the Double Track data. No one processing method provides all the answers regarding a particular surveyed area. Where peak values are most important, isopleth {number_sign}1, created from the original unsmoothed data, is the presentation of choice. Isopleth {number_sign}2, from smoothed data, is superior for the detection of areas of widespread low-level contamination. Isopleth {number_sign}3, also smoothed data, satisfied a particular early mission goal but is not as useful for cleanup operations as the other two.

Hendricks, T.J.

1995-07-01

224

Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes.

Ip, Carman C.M. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk; Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wai, Onyx W.H. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li, Y.-S. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2007-05-15

225

3D Analysis and Investigation of Traffic Noise Impact from Hemmat Highway Located in Tehran on Buildings and Surrounding Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes and investigates the impact of traffic noise on high rise buildings and surrounding areas by the side of Hemmat Highway that links west of Tehran to the east. In this study, a 3D traffic noise simulation model is applied on a GIS system. Visualized noise levels are formulated by the proposed model for noise mapping on all surfaces of the buildings and surrounding ground in a 3D platform. The investigation shows that there is a high traffic noise impact on the foreground and front facades of buildings, rendering these areas unsuitable for residential purposes. The ground area by the sides of buildings and the building side panels receive a lower noise impact. Most of these areas are still not acceptable for residential and even commercial use, only the back yards and back panels, have the lowest traffic noise impact. It also shows that the building height is not an effective factor for reducing motorway noise on the upper part of the building. Finally, construction cantilever barriers with a height of seven meters, close to the outer edge of the highway was presented as an effective way to reduce noise within the allowable range of noise pollution for commercial and residential purposes.

Hamid Reza Ranjbar

2012-08-01

226

Survey of Bacteriological Quality of the Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Saqqez City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Safe drinking water providing is one of the main purposes in the community. Development and improvement of community is related to the public health. In this study !we studied the bacteriological quality of 116 villages under coverage of the water and wastewater companies in rural areas of Saqqez in.1386"nMaterial and Methods:Drinking water of these rural areas have provided of deep, semi-depth- wells and spring water sources. Because in numerous rural areas both sources of drinking water and in some of them different sources of drinking water were used (old and new storage water source, in general, 359 samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory for testing to evaluate its quality. We also used linear Regression statistical analysis for collected data."nResults:results show that residual chlorine in drinking water in 33.88 percent of rural areas population were in range 0.2-1 mg/l. For 98.3 percent of the seqqez rural population, the turbidity was lower than the maximum permissible levels of drinking water standards of Iran (5 NTU. There was no any E.coli contamination in 88 percent of drinking water in saqqez rural areas."nConclusion:Based on WHO guidelines concerning the microbial quality of water published in 2006! the average indicator for lack of E.coli in water of rural areas of seqqez was 88 percent and water is safe or good for drinking.

S Golmohamadi

2009-09-01

227

Delayed treatment of tuberculosis patients in rural areas of Yogyakarta province, Indonesia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In year 2000, the entire population in Indonesia was 201 million and 57.6 percent of that was living in rural areas. This paper reports analyses that address to what extent the rural structure influence the way TB patients seek care prior to diagnosis by a DOTS facility. Methods We documented healthcare utilization pattern of smear positive TB patients prior to diagnosis and treatment by DOTS services (health centre, chest clinic, public and private hospital in Yogyakarta province. We calculated the delay in treatment as the number of weeks between the onset of symptoms and the start of DOTS treatment. Statistical analysis was carried out with Epi Info version 3.3 (October 5, 2004. Results The only factor which was significantly associated with total delay was urban-rural setting (p = st Quartile = 4; 3rd Quartile = 12 weeks compared to 12 (1st Quartile = 7; 3rd Quartile = 23 weeks for patients in rural districts. Multivariate analysis suggested no confounding between individual factors and urban-rural setting remained as the main factor for total delay (p = Conclusion Improving access to DOTS services in rural areas is an area of vital importance in aiming to make progress toward achieving TB control targets in Indonesia.

Mahendradhata Yodi

2008-11-01

228

Emission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from pig fattening farms to surrounding areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock such as pigs has been known for some time. However, to date there is little information about the transmission of these resistant bacteria between pig farms and their surroundings. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore this topic by investigating seven German pig fattening farms. Samples from outside (including ground surfaces, ambient air, slurry and digestate from biogas plants) and, in parallel, from inside the pig barns (including pig feces, dust, barn air, flies and mice feces) were examined for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli and selected isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. 14/17 (82.4%) slurry samples and three of four samples of digestate from biogas plants tested positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. In the vicinity of the pig barns these resistant bacteria were detected in 14/87 (16.1%) boot swabs taken from various ground surfaces and in 2/36 (6%) ambient air samples. Inside the pig barns, 6/63 (9.5%) barn air samples and a small proportion of flies and mice feces samples were ESBL/AmpC-positive. PFGE analysis proved fecal emission as well as a possible spread via flies, as identical ESBL-E. coli isolates were detected in slurry and on fertilized fields, as well as in flies and pooled feces from inside the barn and slurry. Contaminated slurry presented the major emission source for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the pig fattening farms, but a spread via the airborne route or via different vectors also seems possible. PMID:25465658

von Salviati, Christina; Laube, Henriette; Guerra, Beatriz; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

2015-01-30

229

An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station was conducted during September 18 to 21, 1998, and encompassed a 53.1-square-kilometer area. The survey was conducted by the U. S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The purpose of the survey was to measure and map the general exposure-rate levels that existed within the survey area and to define the areas of man-made radionuclide activity. The inferred exposure rates were generally uniform and typical of the natural background radiation, which varied from less than 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour. Enhanced exposure rates, not attributable to natural background, and activity from man-made radionuclides were detected over the power station. The detected man-made radionuclide activity was due to the presence of cobalt-60, which is a nuclear activation product, and cesium-137, which is a long-lived fission product. The detected man-made radionuclides were generally consistent with those expected from routine plant operations. Areas outside of the power station boundaries were found to be free of any detectable man-made radionuclides. A series of ground-based, pressurized ionization chamber exposure-rate measurements were acquired at four locations within the survey boundaries. The results of these measurements were compared and found to be within 5 to 30 percent of the corresponding 1998 inferred aerial exposure-rate data

230

Regional water balance for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WIPP water-balance study area defined here comprises approx.2000 mi2 in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico. Inflows to the study area are precipitation (roughly 1.47 x 106 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.1 x 105 ac-ft/y), water imported by municipalities and industries (roughly 3 x 104 ac-ft/y), and ground water (volume not estimated). Outflows from the area are evapotranspiration (roughly 1.5 x 106 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.2 x 105 ac-ft/y), and possibly some ground water. The volume of surface and ground water in storage in Nash Draw has increased since the beginning of potash refining. Regional ground-water flow in aquifers above the Salado Formation is from the northeast to the southwest, although this pattern is interrupted by Clayton Basin, Nash Draw, and San Simon Swale. The Pecos River is the only important perennial stream. Most of the area has no integrated surface-water drainage. The available data suggest that approx.1600 mi2 of the study area are hydrologically separate from Nash Draw and the WIPP site. Ground water north of Highway 180 apparently discharges into Clayton Basin and evaporates. Water in San Simon Swale apparently percolates downward and flows to the southeast. Data are inadequate to create a water budget for the Nash Draw-WIPP site hydrologic system alone, although an attempt to do so can provide guidance for further study guidance for further study

231

Construcción de tipologías para el turismo en áreas rurales / Development of Categories for Tourism in Rural Areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Durante los últimos años han surgido en Brasil diversos emprendimientos en áreas rurales como contraoferta del turismo tradicional basado en el modelo sol y playa. Este nuevo tipo de turismo ha recibido diversas denominaciones en función de las distintas realidades de cada región geográfica en la cu [...] al se ubican y de los productos ofrecidos. Intentando profundizar el conocimiento de las tipologías, se consideró oportuno comprender mejor esta temática a partir de un caso concreto. Abstract in english Over the last few years a number of initiatives in Brazil have been developed in rural areas as a counterweight to traditional tourism based on the sun and beach paradigm. This new form of tourism has been variously designated, reflecting the different realities of distinct geographical locations an [...] d the products on offer. In an effort to achieve a more thorough understanding of categories, this subject is presented as a case study.

Luiz Carlos, Leonardi Bricalli.

2005-09-01

232

Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

Amira Oun

2014-11-01

233

Community Based Study Of Self Reported Morbidity Of Reproductive Tract Among Women Of Reproductive Age In Rural Area Of Rajasthan  

OpenAIRE

Research questions: What is the prevalence of morbidity of reproductive tract among women in a rural area of Rajasthan? Objectives: 1. To assess the load of reproductive morbidity among the rural women. 2. To study the association of potential risk factors with reproductive tract infection. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A village of Bikaner (rural western Rajasthan). Participants: 1044 rural women aged 15-45. Study period: June 2000 to October 2000. Statistical analysis: Percentages...

Rathore Monika; Mr.Swami S.S.2 ,; Gupta B. L; Sen Vandana; Vyas B. L; Bhargav A; Vyas Rekha

2003-01-01

234

The “LEADER Approach” - New Development Opportunity for Rural Areas in Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrated rural development programmes, which are prepared with the active involvement of local citizens, have a long tradition in Slovenia. In the period 1991-2006, Slovenia introduced “Programmes of Integrated Rural Development and Village Renewal” and “Development Programmes for Rural Areas”, which were quite similar to the LEADER initiative in theEuropean Union. From the 2007-2013 programming period, the LEADER approach has been mainstreamed within the overall EU rural development policy. This means that LEADER is included in national and regional rural development programmes supported by the EU,alongside a range of other rural development axes. The main emphasis of the current paper is given to the implementation of the LEADER approach and establishment of local action groups in the 2007-2013 programming period. The paper consists of three parts. The first part presents the general characteristics of the LEADER approach and the measures which are carried out in the 2007-2013 Rural Development Programme. In the second part, an analysis of 33 Local Action Groups is described. The main focus is given to spatial-demographic characteristics, the partnership structure, and the organisation of the decision making body.The paper concludes with an analysis of 33 Local Development Strategies. We analysed the extent to which the strategic goals and priority tasks of Local Development Strategies follow the economic, social and spatial-environmental component of sustainable development.

Tomaž Cunder, B.Sc. Geography

2010-03-01

235

Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

236

Detailed study of the seismotectonic setting in the Lucanian Apennines and surrounding areas (Southern Italy)  

OpenAIRE

In this research work I analyzed the instrumental seismicity of Southern Italy in the area including the Lucanian Apennines and Bradano foredeep, making use of the most recent seismological database available so far. I examined the seismicity occurred during the period between 2001 and 2006, considering 514 events with magnitudes M ? 2.0. In the first part of the work, P- and S-wave arrival times, recorded by the Italian National Seismic Network (RSNC) operated by the Istituto Nazionale di ...

Maggi, Cosmiana

2011-01-01

237

Area and volume changes from Greenland's longest-observed local glacier, Mittivakkat Gletscher, and surrounding glaciers  

Science.gov (United States)

Glaciers and ice caps are indicators of ongoing climate changes. Warming in the Arctic during the past several decades has caused local glaciers and ice caps to thin and retreat. Few mass-balance observations are available in Greenland to quantify area and volume losses and determine the extent to which these glaciers and ice caps are out of equilibrium with present-day climate. Here, we present mass balance records since 1995 and volume observations for the Mittivakkat Gletscher (17.6 km2; 65°41 N, 37°48 W), Southeast Greenland: the only local glacier in Greenland for which there exists long-term observations of both surface mass balance and glacier front fluctuations. Front observations were first made in 1931, taken by the British Arctic Air Route Expedition, 1930-1931, indicating continuous glacier recession since 1931 of about 1300 meters. Since 1995, mean values of observed net balance was -0.97 m w.e. The measurements show that 14 out of 16 balance years have a negative balance, and two balance years have a slightly positive balance. The cumulative mass balance since 1995 is -15.0 m w.e., corresponding to a volume loss of about 13% of the total glacier ice volume determined in 1994. Also, the Mittivakkat Gletscher (26.3 km2 in 2011) area extent has diminished about 22% since 1986 - close to the mean area exposure of 27±24% for glaciers and ice caps in Southeast Greenland. Since 1986, five GIC melted away in the Ammassalik area, and one would therefore expect that GIC might melt substantially within the 21st century under ongoing climate warming.

Mernild, S. H.; Knudsen, N. T.; Yde, J. C.

2012-04-01

238

Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095?Sv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

Chagas, Claudio Jose; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Rodrigues, Paulo C. Horta [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Augustin, Cristina Helena R. Rocha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

2013-07-01

239

The law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Law envisages to promote the arrangement of public facilities in the sorrounding areas of power generating facilities to help to smooth the establishment of power generating facilities by increasing the welfare of inhabitants. The power generating facilities include those of atomic energy, hydrauric and steam power, the reprocessing facilities for nuclear fuel materials for atomic power generation and other facilities closely related to such power generation. The competent minister (Prime Minister, Minister of International Trade and Industry and other Ministers concerned) designates and makes public the following locations among the locations where power generating facilities are expected to be set up, namely, a location where the establishment plan seems sure, a location that is not included in the removal promoting areas provided for by the Law for Promotion of Industry Redistribution, a location where the arrangement of public facilities seems necessary for the smooth establishment of such facilities, etc. The governor of each prefecture may prepare the arrangement plan of public facilities including roads, harbors, waterworks, etc. in the sorrounding areas of the locations designated, and file the applications for permission of the plan to the competent minister. The government may grant subsidy to the local municipalities for the expenses of the undertakings based on the arrangement plan. When necessary, the government may also transfer some ordinary assets nt may also transfer some ordinary assets of the nation to the local municipalities which bear the expenses of such undertakings. (Okada, K.)

240

The new integrated aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields volcano and surrounding areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present and analyze the new detailed aeromagnetic data set resulting from a recent survey carried out in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. The survey was aimed at gaining new insight into the volcanological characteristics of the region north of Phlegrean Fields (Parete-Villa Literno area where remarkable thickness of volcanic/sub- volcanic rocks were found in wells. Measurement of total magnetic field was performed on two different flight levels, 70 m and 400 m above the ground surface, along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Both aeromagnetic maps show the noisy effect of linear anomalies evidently due to the presence of railway lines. To filter out these local anomalies a method based on discrete wavelet transform was used, allowing an accurate local filtering and leaving the rest of the field practically unchanged. The filtered data set was integrated with the existing Agip aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields, leading to a new aeromagnetic map of the whole Phlegrean volcanic area. The compilation of the pole reduced map and of the maps of the Analytic Signal and of the Horizontal Derivative of the integrated data set represents a first step for the interpretation of the maps in terms of geological structures of the whole Phlegrean volcanic district.

A. Rapolla

2004-06-01

241

A note on the energy consumption of urban slums and rural areas in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct energy consumption in Sao Paulo, Brazil, for slums and rural areas were compared, with the conclusion that they are very similar for the same expenditure regardless of the geographical area in which they occur. Slums are shown to be more energy efficient. The relevance of these results to account for changes in energy consumption due to social changes is emphasized.

Vanin, V.R.; Droichi, M.S.; Goldemberg, J.; Graca, G.M.G.; Higa, T.T.

1983-08-01

242

STUDY ON THE NATURAL AND ANTHROPIC TOURISM RESOURCES – FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA HA?EG-RETEZAT  

OpenAIRE

The rural area from ?ara Ha?egului – Retezat is one of the richest area in Romania in natural and anthropic tourism supplies, determined by the natural, socio-cultural, economic and historical potential that can be used for tourism purposes. As the tourism potential comprises few economic resources that can be used only “in situ”, their inclusion in the economic circuit of values represents the premise of a superior economic process of rural development in the rural area ?ara Ha?egu...

GABRIELA BOTICI; P?UN ION OTIMAN; CORNEL IONESCU; VIOLETA FLORIAN

2012-01-01

243

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa. Date of survey: July 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of {+-}15%.

Maurer, R.J.

1993-04-01

244

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

Ykateryna D. Duka

2011-05-01

245

[Risk factors for unfavorable birth weight in areas surrounding Guadalajara, Mexico].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to identify the incidence of unfavorable birth weight (UBW) -areas of Greater Metropolitan Guadalajara, Mexico. A sample of live-born infants in 1991, children of mothers covered by the Mexican Institute of Social Security were selected from the study area; through multistage probabilistic sampling, random selection was made of Family Medical Units within the study areas, and of physicians' offices within those selected units; finally, all the liveborn infants in 1991 from these selected physicians' offices were studied: a total of 141 newborns were studied Mothers of the newborns chosen were interviewed; a questionnaire with different biomedical, socioeconomic, and demographic items was applied by social workers specially trained for the purpose. Logistic regression models were used lo estimate odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The probability that a child would have UBW in the presence or absence of identified risk factors were also calculated. The results show that 22% of the infants studied were born weighing less than 3000 grams; four risk factors were statistically associated with UBW: mother's age of 35 or older (OR=18.47, CL 1.86-83.54); mother worked outside the home (OR= 3.14, C1:1.15-8.59); mother's pre-pregnancy low weight (OR= 5.04, CL1.04-24.47); and late detection of pregnancy (OR=2.64, CI: 1.02-6.84). In the presence of all the risk factors identified, there is a very high probability (0.97) that a child be born with birthweight less than 3000 g, and in the absence of these factors the probability is reduced substantially (0.04). The findings indicate the magnitude of the problem studied, but also the possibility of health services acting in a timely fashion, since the identified risk factors make it possible lo predict, with relative certainty, the birth of a child weighing less than 3000 g. PMID:14528334

González-Pérez, G J; Vega-López, M G

1995-01-01

246

Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

247

Land Policy and Systematic Transformation in Chinese Rural Areas ?1950—1978?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on historical review of the Chinese rural land policy from 1950 to 1978, we looked back the devious journey undergone in Chinese rural areas during this period. At first, the landlord’s ownership was transferred into the peasant’s ownership; and then private ownership was transferred into public ownership. The radical transformation of property right and process of agricultural cooperation went against the economic law and the wills of the mass peasants, which led to laggard rural productive forces and long-term low peasants’ income level. During the policy transformation process, political and ideological factors played the predominant role, which led to harmful results. The experiences in this period demonstrated that the economic developmental model and systematic arrangement in Chinese rural areas should satisfy the peasants’ free wills and protect the peasants’ essential interests. Only in this way could the Chinese rural economy gain fast development. Key Words: Chinese Rural Areas, Land Policy, System Arrangement, Ideology, Interests. Abstrait: Basés sur une révision historique de la politique de terre dans les régions rurales de Chine de 1950 à 1978, nous avons mené un examen rétrospectif sur le parcours détourné qu’avaient traversé ces régions pendant cette période. Au début, les terres des propriétaires fonciers avaient été transférées comme propriétés des paysans ; et puis, les propriétés privées avaient été transféré comme propriétés publiques. La transformation radicale du droit de propriété et le processus de la coopération agricole après la réforme de terre allaient à l’encontre de la loi économique et de la volonté des paysans, ce qui avait conduit à un retard des forces productives dans les régions rurales et à un niveau de revenu très inférieur pour les paysans chinois. Dans ce processus de transformation de politiques, les facteurs politiques et idéologiques avaient joué un rôle prédominant, d’où des résultats défavorables. Les expériences que nous avons tirées pendant cette période montrent bien que le modèle du développement économique et l’arrangement systématique dans les régions rurales de Chine doivent satisfaire la volonté des paysans et protéger leurs intérêts fondamentaux. C’est aussi le seul moyen qui permette aux régions rurales de Chine de réaliser un développement rapide. Mots Clés: Régions Rurales de Chine, Politique de Terre, Transformation Systématique, Idéologie, Intérêts. ???????????? 1950?? 1978???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????

Rong TAN

2005-03-01

248

An aerial radiological survey of the Hanford Site and surrounding area, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, during the period 5 July through 26 August 1988. The survey was expanded, and additional flights were conducted to the east of the site and along the banks of the Columbia River down to McNary Dam near Umatilla. The survey was flown at altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) by a helicopter containing 17 liters (eight 2 in. x 4 in. x 16 in.) of sodium iodide detectors. Gamma ray data were collected over the survey area by flying north-south lines spaced 122 meters (400 feet) apart. The processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were generally consistent with those expected from normal background emitters and man-made fission/activation products resulting from activities at the site. External exposure rates were generally 10 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) with some operating areas over 1000 ?R/h. The radiation levels over more than 95% of the site are due to normal background exposure rates. 3 refs., 25 figs

249

Effect of organic suspended solids and their sedimentation on the surrounding sea area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of sediment contamination was made in one of the 23 specific designated important ports in Japan, the inner part of which had been used as wood pool. The study focused on the relationship between contaminants and organic matter in terms of ignition loss and the impact of the wood pool on the port area. Organic matter exists in the form of suspended solids and deposits. Sediment samples were taken from the mouths of the rivers feeding into Shimizu Port, from the wood pool and from Shimizu Port. Samples within Shimizu Port showed that as the ignition loss decreased with distance from the wood pool, other properties including the concentrations of trace metals, ignition loss and sulfide content also decreased with the distance. In conclusion, Shimizu Port seems to function as a buffer area between the wood pool and Suruga Bay. - Suspended solids can act as adsorbents for hazardous substances in surface water and their sedimentation can prevent the pollutants from spreading into the ocean

250

Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 1970 respectively, were not checked. From the analysis of 201 records (sightings, signs of presence, animals found dead and skins, we found that the badger, weasel and stone marten selected middle-low altitude (since 1000 m a.s.l., the pine marten and stoat the middle-high altitude. The former species frequented mainly agricultural lands of bottom of the valley with built-up areas, the latter ones occurred mainly in forest habitat of secluded valleys (the pine marten, and in stony ground and alpine prairies (the stoat. The badger was the most diffuse species, the pine marten the least one. On a total of 46 grids of the study area, 32.6% presented three mustelid species, 17.4% five species. The badger and the stone marten were the species with the greatest overlapping range (61.7% of the grids, the weasel and the stoat with the smallest one (23.4% of the grids. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mustelidi nel Parco Adamello-Brenta e aree limitrofe (Trentino, Alpi centrali - L'indagine, condotta nel 1991-93, ha interessato un'area di 1085 km² e ha permesso di definire le mappe di distribuzione, secondo una griglia di 6,4x5,5 km desunta dalla Carta Topografica generale (scala 1:10000 edita dalla Provincia Autonoma di Trento, di cinque specie: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina e Martes martes. La presenza di Mustela putorius e di Lutra lutra, accertata fino intorno agli anni '60 e '70 rispettivamente, non è stata invece confermata. Dall'analisi di 201 segnalazioni (osservazioni dirette, segni di presenza, animali trovati morti o imbalsamati è stato rilevato che le fasce altitudinali medio-basse (fino a 1000 m sono selezionate da tasso, donnola e faina che frequentano soprattutto ambienti coltivati di fondovalle con presenza di centri abitati, quelle medio-alte da martora e ermellino che utilizzano rispettivamente comprensori forestali delle vallate interne e ambienti con presenza di versanti detritici, praterie alpine e malghe. La specie più diffusa è risultata il tasso, quella meno diffusa la martora. Il 32,6% delle 46 griglie, in cui è stata suddivisa l'area di studio, mostra la presenza di 3 specie, il 17,4% di 5 specie. I1 tasso e la faina sono risultate le specie con maggior sovrapposizione di areale di distribuzione (61,7% delle griglie, la donnola e l'ermellino quelle con minor sovrapposizione (23,4% delle griglie.

Paolo Pedrini

1995-12-01

251

Solar lighting system delivery models for rural areas in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many rural areas in developing countries will not have electricity access from the central grid for several years to come. Autonomous Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) are attractive and enviromentally friendly options for replacing kerosene lamps and providing basic lighting services to such areas. In order to highlight the benefits of these technologies, analysis of reduction in indoor air pollution due to replacement of kerosene lamp by SLS has been carried out. Use of SLS in place of kerosene lamps saves an equivalent of 1341 kg CO{sub 2} emissions per annum from each household. If a suitable mechanism is created, this amount of GHG emissions saving could alone be sufficient to finance solar lighting system for rural households. However, these technologies have not reached most of the poor population. In order to guarantee the access of solar lighting to the people at the Base of the Pyramid (BOP), strengths of different organizations working in the rural areas should be combined together to form successful business models. This paper will discuss business models to disseminate such services to needy people. A comparative study of SLS delivery models based on cash, credit, leasing, subsidy and service is performed. In addition, SWOT analysis for each model is employed. Further, Case studies of few projects to elaborate different models are also presented. If suitable business models for its delivery to rural people are considered, solar lighting systems are viable for providing basic lighting needs of rural areas in developing countries. (orig.)

Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ortiz, Brisa [Freiburg Univ. (DE). Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Modi, Anish [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Kafle, Nashib [Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), Kathmandu (Nepal)

2011-07-01

252

A Development of the dust deposition in the area surrounding the SMZ, a.s., Jel?ava plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The area of Jel?ava ? Lubeník ranks among the eight excessively polluted areas registered in Slovakia. The main cause of this situation is a hundred years of existence of the exploitation and processing of magnesite. The SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava is currently the biggest Slovak producer of brick and steel magnesite-based clinkers. The technological procedures used to process the raw material represent the main source of solid polluting substances as well as the primary dustiness in the area surrounding the plant. The negative visual look of the surrounding country has its origin in the past, when a 25-times higher quantity of the currently produced solid emissions was released into the air in some years, while the current value of the pollution does not exceed 200 tons per year. The devastated, deforested and degrassed surfaces of the area surrounding the plant and roads became a significant source of secondary dustiness in the given area.Since 1994 ÚGt SAV Ko?ice in co-operation with SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava has been focusing on the monitoring of solid emissions in the form of dust deposition. 18 sampling points situated in the vicinity of the plant, mainly in surrounding villages and city Jel?ava were originally built for the purpose of sampling the dust deposition. The samples were taken monthly , analysed by the gravimetric method and the samples of dust deposition was determined in g.m-2.(30 days-1. To analyse all samples, they were cumulated for a certain period and then the selected elements were analysed using the AAS method. The results of the dust deposition were averaged for each individual year of the period from 1996 to 1999 to make a better interpretation of the results. The results of the chemical analysis represent an average for a given period. The main component of the dust deposition, i.e. MgO is stated as an average value in individual years.The processed results from 1996 to 1999 show a decreasing trend in the total dust deposition in all localities, except for 1999, when a slight increase was observed in some localities. This increase observed in the most exposed sampling points in the vicinity of the main primary sources did not achieve the value recorded in 1996. In addition to the localities in the vicinity of the plant, the highest hygienic admissible dust deposition [12.5 g.m-2.(30 days-1] was sporadically exceeded on the places located in the populated zone of Jel?ava, especially during summer dry seasons. The decrease observed in 1999 in the case of the most exposed places in the vicinity of the plant can be caused by an increase in the secondary dust deposition in the given area. The average yearly dust deposition in Jel?ava, representing ca. 10 g.m-2.(30 days-1 was 2-3 times lower than the stated values of the dust deposition measured in the 80-ties. The MgO deposition follows the development in the total dust deposition. The average content of heavy metals in the dust deposition is relatively small and it increases proportionally with the distance from the main source confirming that SMZ, a.s. is not a big producer of these elements, the content of which has a decreasing trend probably due to a change in the fuel used in the plant. In spite of an increasing production, the plant implements measures to reduce a negative influence of the dust pollution on the surrounding area.

Hanèu¾ák Jozef

2000-09-01

253

Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

254

Aerial radiological survey of the North Anna power station and surrounding area, Mineral, Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 1600 km2 area around the North Anna Power Station near Mineral, Virginia was radiometrically surveyed from an airborne platform during July 1979. No man-made terrestrial gamma-photon emitting radionuclides were detected, although airborne krypton-85 was observed during one survey flight. Aerial count rates from natural emitters were converted to average exposure rates one meter above the ground and presented in the form of an isopleth map. The average levels were between 6 and 10 ?R/h, which included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 ?R/h. Exposure rates, measured with a portable ion chamber, and subsequent soil analyses displayed reasonable agreement with the data collected from the aerial platform

255

Multifunctional centers in rural areas : Fabrics of social and human capital  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually being abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces such a model: Multifunctional centers. Such a model reflects a long tradition of local centralization in rural areas, that is, a golden compromise between ruralization and urbanization. First, I argue that governments should actively invest in rural areas rather than practicing laissez-faire. Second, I trace ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnationalGarden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks, and facilities for local associations as theatre scenes and sports halls. The centers should be designed to secure both economies of scale and geographic proximity. Empirical evidence indicates that such large meeting places in fact foster physical and social cohesion, as well as human capital and informal learning. Also that the stock of beneficial bridging social capital thus created actually contributes to attract newcomers and counteract depopulation.

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

2009-01-01

256

Analysis of Home Safety of the Elderly Living in City and Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiological changes and chronic diseases arising during aging process increase risk of accident of the elderly, especially the elderly living alone at their homes. Home accidents are the most commonly health problem in the elderly. This study was carried out to describe home safety of the elderly living in a city or rural area using a home safety checklist. MEDHODS: 512 living in Turkey (330 in city; 182 in rural area were evaluated via face-to-face interview using a home safety checklist during a period between December and March in 2007. In addition to sociodemographics, a questionnaire including home characteristics and life style of participants was applied. To describe home safety level, Home Safety Checklist was used. RESULTS: 51.8% of the participants living in a city and 42.8% living in rural area were aged 65-69 years. Of the participants living in a city, 59.4% were living with their partners (61.5% of the participants living in rural area. While 63.9% of the participants living in a city reported that they had a private room in their homes, 53.8% of the participants living in rural area reported that they had a private room in their homes. 2.1% of participants living in a city had an excellent home safety score. Percentage for participants living in rural area was 0.5. CONCLUSION: The results obtained from this study show that majority of houses of the elderly living in Turkey were unsafe and hazardous. Therefore, health providers and architects should work together to prevent home accidents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 297-300

Nihal Buker

2008-08-01

257

Geohydrologic characterization of the area surrounding the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this investigation is to achieve regulatory compliance with the applicable ground-water monitoring requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC). An assessment-level compliance monitoring project was established for the 183-H Basins because hazardous waste constituents were known to have entered the ground water beneath the facility. Three phases were defined for this project, with work being concentrated in five areas: geology, hydrology, ground-water monitoring, geochemistry, and ground-water modeling. These characterization activities have resulted in the definition of principal lithologic and hydrostratigraphic units. Ground-water monitoring results indicated a contamination peak, which occurred between April and August 1986. Further monitoring has shown that nitrate, sodium, gross alpha, and gross beta are the clearest indicators of ground-water contamination attributable to the 183-H Basins. In addition, the concentrations of these contaminants are affected by variations in Columbia River stage. Future studies will focus on continued ground-water monitoring throughout the closure and post-closure periods for the 183-H Basins, sampling of the Columbia River and nearby ground-water springs, and soil sampling adjacent to the facility. 45 refs., 90 figs., 19 tabs.

Liikala, T.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Aimo, N.J.; Bates, D.J.; Gilmore, T.J.; Jensen, E.J.; Last, G.V.; Oberlander, P.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Oster, K.R.; Roome, L.R.; Simpson, J.C.; Teel, S.S.; Westergard, E.J.

1988-12-01

258

A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

1997-04-01

259

Study of indoor radon and thoron progeny levels in surrounding areas of Nalbari, Assam, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the growing understanding of the role of radon and its daughter products as major sources of radiation exposure, the importance of large number of estimation of radon concentration in various parts of the country is realized. Inhalation of radon, thoron and their decay products is the major source of the total radioactive dose received by the human population from natural radiation. The indoor radon and thoron progeny levels in Nalbari area of Assam are studied by using the LR-115 Type II Solid State Nuclear Tack Detector in Plastic Twin Chamber dosimeter. Radon and thoron progeny levels in different types of dwellings for one full calendar year are presented in this paper. For Assam Type (A.T.) houses, indoor radon progeny concentrations vary from 0.17 to 0.64 mWL with an annual geometric mean of 0.27 mWL and that for Reinforced Cement Concrete (R.C.C.) houses vary from 0.22 mWL to 0.60 mWL with the annual geometric mean of 0.37 mWL. The thoron progeny levels in A.T. houses also vary from 0.01 to of 0.05 mWL with an annual geometric mean of 0.02 mWL and that for R.C.C. houses vary from 0.02 to 0.08 mWL with the annual geometric mean of 0.04 mWL. (author)

260

A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps

261

Variability of zooplankton communities at Condor seamount and surrounding areas, Azores (NE Atlantic)  

Science.gov (United States)

Seamounts are common topographic features around the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). Recently there has been increasing research effort devoted to the ecology of these ecosystems. In the Azores, the mesozooplankon is poorly studied, particularly in relation to these seafloor elevations. In this study, zooplankton communities in the Condor seamount area (Azores) were investigated during March, July and September 2010. Samples were taken during both day and night with a Bongo net of 200 µm mesh that towed obliquely within the first 100 m of the water column. Total abundance, biomass and chlorophyll a concentrations did not vary with sampling site or within the diel cycle but significant seasonal variation was observed. Moreover, zooplankton community composition showed the same strong seasonal pattern regardless of spatial or daily variability. Despite seasonal differences, the zooplankton community structure remained similar for the duration of this study. Seasonal variability better explained our results than mesoscale spatial variability. Spatial homogeneity is probably related with island proximity and local dynamics over Condor seamount. Zooplankton literature for the region is sparse, therefore a short review of the most important zooplankton studies from the Azores is also presented.

Carmo, Vanda; Santos, Mariana; Menezes, Gui M.; Loureiro, Clara M.; Lambardi, Paolo; Martins, Ana

2013-12-01

262

An Evaluation of Groundnut Processing by Women in a Rural Area of North Central Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the economic empowerment potentials of groundnut processing by women in rural areas of Northcentral Nigeria state using a sample of 100 women processors randomly selected from the study area. Data analysis wasdone using Descriptive statistics, Net Farm Income Model and Data Envelopment Analysis (D.E.A. An average netreturns of N10, 586.6 was obtainable within a processing cycle. The average pure technical and scale efficiency scoreswere 80 and 83 percent respectively. The major constraints confronting the processing of groundnut include inadequatecapital for expansion and lack of processing machines. A significant opportunity exists for empowering rural womenthrough groundnut processing.

Hussaini Yusuf Ibrahim

2010-02-01

263

LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA  

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Full Text Available Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009, which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education and training (leading to the underutilization of labor in rural areas, while major shortages in the labor market and increased migration phenomenon manifests.\\r\

Mosora Liviu - Cosmin

2011-07-01

264

STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA  

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Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

Rubeena Bano

2009-03-01

265

Fossil Cercopithecidae from the Hadar Formation and surrounding areas of the Afar Depression, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hadar is well known as one of the most productive early hominin sites in the world. Between 1972 and 1994 a large sample of fossil cercopithecid specimens was collected from Hadar and the nearby sites of Geraru, Ahmado, and Leadu. At least five, and possibly six, species are present in the sample, including two chronological subspecies of Theropithecus oswaldi. T. o. cf. darti is known from the Middle Pliocene deposits in the Hadar area, along with Parapapio cf. jonesi, cf. Rhinocolobus turkanaensis, and a new species of Cercopithecoides, C. meaveae. There are also isolated molars from the Middle Pliocene of a large colobine which most likely represent cf. R. turkanaensis, but may also represent another large colobine known from the nearby site of Maka in the Middle Awash. T. o. oswaldi is represented from younger deposits of Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene age, along with the large colobine Cercopithecoides kimeui. Throughout the sequence Theropithecus oswaldi is by far the most abundant cercopithecid, with the other taxa being comparatively rare. The Parapapio material from Hadar is important as the only securely identifiable material of the genus in the East African Pliocene. Furthermore, the Hadar material includes the only associated postcranial remains for the genus. If the tentative identification of Rhinocolobus is correct, then the Hadar sample is the only known occurrence outside of the Turkana Basin. Cercopithecoides meaveae is a new species, currently only known from the Hadar region, most importantly by the associated partial skeleton from Leadu. It appears to show adaptations for terrestrial locomotion. Finally, Cercopithecoides kimeui, a very large colobine previously known from Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Rawi is recorded from the uppermost part of the Formation. PMID:12457855

Frost, Stephen R; Delson, Eric

2002-11-01

266

Características de los suicidios de áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia, Colombia / Characteristics of Suicides in Rural and Urban Areas in Antioquia, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si existen diferencias entre áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia en las características asociadas con el suicidio. Método: Se compararon 79 sujetos provenientes de áreas rurales y 75 de áreas urbanas de Antioquia. Se hizo autopsia psicológica y se calcularon razones de prevalen [...] cia (RP) (frecuencia de la característica en zona rural/frecuencia de la característica en zona urbana). Resultados: Las características asociadas de manera independiente con provenir de área rural y urbana fueron: “momento del suicidio durante la noche” (RP = 0,65; IC 95%: 0,48-0,89) y “vivir solo” (RP = 0,40; IC 95%: 0,17-0,98), que fueron más frecuentes en zona urbana, y “envenenamiento con pesticidas”, que ocurrió más en zona rural (RP = 1,80; IC 95%: 1,39-2,34). Conclusiones: Los individuos suicidas provenientes de zonas rurales y urbanas tenían características diferentes. Ello puede tener implicaciones para el diseño de las estrategias de prevención del suicidio en cada una de las zonas. Se requieren otros estudios para determinar los factores de riesgo propios de cada área. Abstract in english Objective: To determine differences in characteristics associated with suicide between rural and urban populations from Antioquia. Method: 79 subjects from rural areas and 75 subjects from urban areas were compared. Psychological autopsy was done and prevalence ratios (PR) (frequency of characterist [...] ic in rural zone/frequency of characteristic in urban zone) were calculated. Results: The characteristics that associated independently with coming from rural or urban areas were: “suicide during the night” (PR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.89) and “living alone” (PR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.98), which were more frequent in urban areas, and “pesticide poisoning” which was more frequent in rural areas (PR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.39-2.34). Conclusions: Individuals who committed suicide from rural and urban areas have different characteristics. This finding might have implications for the design of preventive strategies in each zone. Additional studies are required to determine specific risk factors in urban and rural areas.

Jenny, García Valencia; Gabriel Jaime, Montoya Montoya; Carlos Alberto, López Jaramillo; María Cecilia, López Tobón; Patricia, Montoya Guerra; Juan Carlos, Arango Viana; Carlos Alberto, Palacio Acosta.

2011-04-01

267

Turismo rural y expansion urbanística en areas de interior. Análisis socioespacial de riesgos  

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Full Text Available Rural tourism is generally recognized as a booster for sustainable development of inland areas, but two researchactions would be necessary in advance: a local diagnosis of touristic processes and a risk assessment for those processes in affected areas. This article concerns the sociological and spatial risk analysis of urban sprawl in rural areas. As a case study, 29 municipalities in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (formed as a “comarca”, North of Huelva province are considered. Urban sprawl has been identified by specific literature as a threat for sustainable development in touristic areas, in coastal zones and in rural areas too. Based on the results of previous diagnosis, and the literature on socioenvironmental risks and impacts of residential tourism, two specific risk indicators are selected and analysed, in relation to local touristic models.El turismo rural es reconocido en Europa como un factor de desarrollo sostenible para las áreas de interior, secularmente deprimidas. Su éxito como tal va a depender de un diagnóstico a tiempo de sus procesos y de la evaluación de los riesgos que afectan a las áreas en las que aquellos se manifiesten. Este trabajo se centra en el análisis sociológico y espacial de los riesgos que la expansión urbanística en áreas de interior puede suponer para su desarrollo sostenible por medio del turismo rural. Como estudio de caso, se toman 29 municipios del suroeste de la península ibérica, conformados como comarca en el borde norte de la provincia de Huelva. A partir de los resultados de diagnósticos previos, y de la literatura sobre riesgos e impactos socioambientales del turismo residencial, se seleccionan dos indicadores de riesgo y se analiza su comportamiento en los modelos turístico-rurales existentes en la zona.

Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés

2015-04-01

268

SOME GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF EXAMPLE ANDRIJEVICA (MONTENEGRO  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes the economic and geographical factors of rural settlements of Andrijevica. Isolated traffic and geographical position adversely affect the economic and social development of rural settlements. Natural features indicate that rural areas of Andrijevica economy do not comply with all the natural conditions. Incompatibility between the available natural and current conditions of the rural economy determine by the overall socio-economic factors of development. The percentage decrease in rural population in the municipality Andrijevica period 1948-2003 amounted to - 49.44%. The main characteristic of the modern development of rural settlements are give industrialization and urbanization processes. Age groups, due to migration and the reduction of fertility change and take on unfavorable characteristics, reduces the proportion of younger and older increases the proportion of the population. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations types of economic development.

Goran Rajovic

2012-05-01

269

Effects of human activities on karst groundwater geochemistry in a rural area in the Balkans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geochemistry of three drinking water sources (wells, springs, and tap) in the Vratza region of northern Bulgaria was investigated to gain an understanding of how human activities influence natural geochemical processes in a carbonate aquifer system. Numerous villages have been identified within this highly agricultural area as endemic for the environmental disease Balkan endemic nephropathy, with some suggesting a link to the geochemistry of the region. We observe that water quality varies significantly as a function of source. Hydrochemical facies analysis reveals trends not typical for limestone systems, with cation trajectories falling along the Ca2+–Mg2+ axis and the anion trajectories lying along the HCO3-–SO42- axis. R-mode factor analysis reveals: (i) an increasing dominance of a Cl?–Na+–SO42-–NO3- association from tap to spring to well waters, (ii) a strong association between Mg2+ and U, and (iii) a lack of associations between Ca2+ and Mg2+ and between Ca2+ and HCO3- that is atypical for limestone systems. These observations are interpreted to indicate that human activities have influenced all sources across the Vratza region and that Mg and U concentrations result from the dissolution of limestone, which is enhanced due to the input of anthropogenue to the input of anthropogenic chemicals. Geochemical modeling indicates that Ca2+ concentrations are in equilibrium with calcite, but that Mg2+ concentrations remain conservative, resulting in the decoupling of a Ca2+ and Mg2+, association. Uranium concentrations also appear to be conservative, aided by a poised redox state due to high concentrations of NO3- and the formation of CO32- and PO43- ion pairs. The similar source and conservative nature of both Mg2+ and U can account for their association. Finally, cluster analysis indicates that the pattern of water geochemistry in the endemic area differs from the surrounding non-endemic area, may be explained by differences in the underlying geology. This study has shown that the general water quality in this rural area, whether in endemic or non-endemic villages, is poor and that agricultural activities have not only added chemicals to the groundwater system, but that these chemicals have likely disrupted geochemical processes. More work is required to understand the specific details of anthropogenic influences on geochemical processes on water quality in karstic terrains.

270

Strategies for Organization and Development of Tourism Function in Rural Areas Case Study: Villages of Qom Province, Iran  

OpenAIRE

Regarding its appeals and capacities, tourism function of rural areas in Qom province has not adequately played an effective role in advancing rural sustainable development. Therefore, the current research attempts at identifying and preparing organization and development strategies for tourism function in rural areas of Qom province. Research method is descriptive-analytical and it is applied in terms of its content. The present study aims at searching for organization and development strate...

Mohammad Ali Ahmadi Shapourabadi

2013-01-01

271

Mapping permanent preservation areas and natural forest fragments as subsidy to the registration of legal reserve areas in rural properties  

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Full Text Available The major objective of this work was to identify and quantify forest fragments suitable to be used as private protected land in rural properties located in the São Bartolomeu creek watershed, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological procedures included: mapping of 78 forest fragments through the visual interpretation of an Ikonos II satellite image; delineation of Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs from a hydrographically conditioned digital elevation model and mapping of 292 rural properties through interviews with owners, with the aid of a printed Ikonos II image. The generated maps were overlapped (crossed, allowing the identification of forest fragments that could be used as private protected land in rural property. The result indicated that, from the total of properties evaluated, only 41 (14.04% have more than 20% of forest cover, and therefore, are in condition to attend the environmental law for private protected land.

Vicente Paulo Soares

2011-12-01

272

The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in urban and rural areas of Eski?ehir-Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic disease in our country. The epidemiology of allergic rhinitis varies according to the geographic regions of the country. The aim of this study was to find out if it also differs in urban and rural areas of the same region. The study groups were randomly selected in order to sample high school students living in small towns or villages in rural areas and in the city center. Initially the screening questionnaires about allergic rhinitis were responded by the students at school. Then the questionnaires were evaluated. Seven hundred eighty-three students who had a positive questionnaire outcome were underwent an ENT examination. Then skin tests and blood analysis were performed to two hundred forty-six students who were diagnosed as allergic rhinitis clinically. Prick test results was found to be positive 61.8% in urban areas and 46.7% in rural areas. The comparison of the ratios of urban and rural areas was significant. Similar results were obtained in serum specific Ig E analysis. The correlation of specific Ig E levels and skin prick test results was significant in all allergens. Allergic rhinitis is a medical and economic problem all over the world and further epidemiologic investigations should be performed. PMID:15946628

Cingi, C; Cakli, H; Us, T; Akgün, Y; Kezban, M; Ozudogru, E; Cingi, E; Ozdamar, K

2005-01-01

273

Chlamydia trachomatis in the conjunctiva of children living in three rural areas in Mexico Chlamydia trachomatis en la conjuntiva de niños de tres zonas rurales de México  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis infections, in the context of extreme poverty, may trigger trachoma. Because the levels of C. trachomatis eye infections in Mexico are unknown, this study sought to determine if C. trachomatis was present in the conjunctiva of children living in three poor, rural areas of the country. METHODS: Clinical diagnosis of conjunctival follicles in children was conducted during the 2004 visual acuity assessment campaigns in rural areas of the states of Chiapas, Oaxac...

Pablo Goldschmidt; Virginia Vanzzini Zago; Lidia Diaz Vargas; Laura Espinoza Garcia; Carlos Morales Montoya; Beatríz Peralta; Mario Mercado

2007-01-01

274

The potential for creating additional rural livelihoods in agriculture and the rural non-farm sector in semi-arid areas : a case study in the Northern Province  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the chapter is to estimate the potential for creating additional livelihoods in a typical semi-arid area under various assumptions about farm activities, farm size and technology. The perception that agriculture in semi-arid areas has limited potential to create additional livelihoods was confirmed by the results of the research. In acknowledging that rural households earn income from other sources than agriculture, attention was paid to the important contribution of rural non-farm...

Kirsten, Johann F.

1996-01-01

275

Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1 examine the determinants of the likelihood of the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2 for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad que habían dado a luz en los tres años anteriores a la entre-vista, fueron: 1 examinar los factores que determinan la probabilidad de que las mu-jeres acudan a atención prenatal en las zonas rurales y urbanas del país y 2 dentro del grupo de mujeres con una o más consultas prenatales, examinar los factores que determinan el número de dichas consultas en las zonas rurales y urbanas. MÉTODOS: En el análisis multifactorial se emplearon modelos logísticos para deter-minar qué factores explicaban la decisión de acudir a control prenatal, y se usaron modelos binomiales negativos para determinar el número de consultas prenatales dentro del subgrupo de mujeres que consultaron por lo menos una vez. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad esperada de acudir a control prenatal, determinada según el valor medio de las variables de control, fue de 77,16% en las zonas rurales, en comparación con 85,83% en las zonas urbanas de Haití. Dentro del grupo de mu-jeres que acudieron a servicios de control prenatal, las madres en zonas rurales tuvieron un número esperado de consultas prenatales de 3,78, en comparación con 5,06 en las zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES: Un buen porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas tiene acceso a servicios de atención prenatal en Haití, pero las madres en zonas rurales que eligieron acudir a dichos servicios tuvieron un poco menos del mínimo de cuatro consultas recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El nivel educativo de las madres y de sus parejas es un factor pronóstico muy importante en relación con el uso de servicios de atención prenatal. Las consultas repetidas se vieron obstaculizadas en las zonas rurales por el mayor tiempo de desplazamiento y la mayor distancia hasta el centro de salud. Los formuladores de políticas y los proveedores de atención sanitaria deben tener en cuenta estos resultados a la hora de tomar decisiones sobre la prestación y administración de los servicios de salud en Haití.

Pierre Kébreau Alexandre

2005-08-01

276

Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti / El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad que habían dado a luz en los tres años anteriores a la entre-vista, fueron: 1) examinar los factores que [...] determinan la probabilidad de que las mu-jeres acudan a atención prenatal en las zonas rurales y urbanas del país y 2) dentro del grupo de mujeres con una o más consultas prenatales, examinar los factores que determinan el número de dichas consultas en las zonas rurales y urbanas. MÉTODOS: En el análisis multifactorial se emplearon modelos logísticos para deter-minar qué factores explicaban la decisión de acudir a control prenatal, y se usaron modelos binomiales negativos para determinar el número de consultas prenatales dentro del subgrupo de mujeres que consultaron por lo menos una vez. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad esperada de acudir a control prenatal, determinada según el valor medio de las variables de control, fue de 77,16% en las zonas rurales, en comparación con 85,83% en las zonas urbanas de Haití. Dentro del grupo de mu-jeres que acudieron a servicios de control prenatal, las madres en zonas rurales tuvieron un número esperado de consultas prenatales de 3,78, en comparación con 5,06 en las zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES: Un buen porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas tiene acceso a servicios de atención prenatal en Haití, pero las madres en zonas rurales que eligieron acudir a dichos servicios tuvieron un poco menos del mínimo de cuatro consultas recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El nivel educativo de las madres y de sus parejas es un factor pronóstico muy importante en relación con el uso de servicios de atención prenatal. Las consultas repetidas se vieron obstaculizadas en las zonas rurales por el mayor tiempo de desplazamiento y la mayor distancia hasta el centro de salud. Los formuladores de políticas y los proveedores de atención sanitaria deben tener en cuenta estos resultados a la hora de tomar decisiones sobre la prestación y administración de los servicios de salud en Haití. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1) examine the determinants of the likelihood o [...] f the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2) for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.

Pierre Kébreau, Alexandre; Gilbert, Saint-Jean; Lee, Crandall; Etzer, Fevrin.

2005-08-01

277

ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups of people interested in their development of social-economic scale, rural women are trying to adapt, to evolve, to overcome the barriers imposed at psychologically, socially and financially. The paper highlights the results of a survey on a sample of 979 women students in the project "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. An inter-regional model for women entrepreneurial school "(AntrES acronym, which certified mediators intention to initiate their own business.The results of questionnaires have provided important information about the character, ambition, motivation, courage, and moral support and financial support to women entrepreneurs based in Romania, including those in rural areas. The information obtained inetrmediul "I shattered" 7 myths about starting a business in our country. Romanian entrepreneur spirit, women in rural areas in Romania is not only a manifestation of strong desire to improve living standards in financial terms, but rather an "effort" to improve and "beauty" of the individual, family, environment and society we belong! In developed countries, at its home, female entrepreneurship is trying to reform, to seek new solutions to rethink the principles, to exercise imagination, to learn. Here, in Romania standard behavior still predominates. Female entrepreneurs are doing what everyone else in the same category does. The future however belongs to those who will opt diversity, surprise, excitement, personalization. How could this happen in the Romanian rural environment and take place in a sustainable way?

Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

2011-07-01

278

The Influence of Tourism on Rural Life in Minority Areas  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, taking three ethnic minority areas as an example, through a questionnaire to obtain relevant data, according to the characteristics of the ethnic minority areas, using the factor analysis method, we analyse the tourism in ethnic areas of country life with various effects. We summarize the pros and cons, avoid or minimize the adverse impacts within the maximum limits, mitigate the conflicts between the value of resource and the development, find a balance between tourism develo...

Cuiping Zhang; Guangming Deng; Xiaoling Yu

2013-01-01

279

Aerial radiological survey of the Feed Materials Production Center and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, located near Fernald, Ohio, during the period April 24 to 27, 1985. The survey covered a 70-square-kilometer (27-square-mile) area centered on the plant. The highest exposure rates, in excess of 0.35 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the plant. This radiation was due to the presence of nuclides which were consistent with normal plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates, varying from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), were due to naturally-occurring potassium, uranium, thorium, and daughter products. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. Soil sample results showed several areas just outside the site boundary with slightly elevated amounts of U-238. The levels, however, were well below the detection limit of the aerial system. The only off-site area that showed apparent above background activity in the aerial data was directly west of the storage silos. The symmetly west of the storage silos. The symmetric shape of the contours, however, suggests that these elevated levels are due to ''shine'' from material stored on-site in the silos and not to actual off-site contamination. Detailed comparison of the 1985 aerial survey data with a previous survey conducted in 1976 showed no significant change in any area outside the plant boundary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

280

Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

281

Research and Study on Living Conditions of Empty Nest Elderly in Rural Areas of Gansu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through a questionnaire survey, house surveys, case interviews, etc., Gansu Province on the empty nest elderly in rural areas to survive conditions of systematic survey, in-depth analysis of the impact of rural endowment insurance system for internal and external factors and put forward countermeasures and suggestions related.
Kew Words: Rural areas; Empty nest elderly; Living conditions; Investigate
Résumé: Par le biais des enquêtes en questionnaire, au foyer et en interviews etc, on a effectué une investigation sur les personnes âgées qui vivent dans le nid vide dans la province de Gansu, notamment celles dans les zones rurales qui survivent à des conditions d'enquête systématiques. L’article fait une analyse approfondie sur l'impact du système d'assurances-vie temporaires, sur les facteurs internes et externes et met en avant les contre-mesures et des suggestions appropriés.
Mots-clés: zones rurales; les personnes âgées qui vivent dans le nid vide; conditions de vie, investigations
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An YAN

2008-12-01

282

Hábitos de salud en escolares en ámbito urbano y rural / Health habits in schoolchildren in urban and rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. En los primeros años de vida se produce la asimilación e interiorización de los hábitos de salud que van a condicionar la vida adulta, siendo fundamentales las características socioambientales para la adquisición de los mismos. Objetivos Nos planteamos conocer los hábitos de salud que [...] presentan los escolares de dos zonas geográficas contrapuestas: la urbana y la rural. Metodología. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo con alumnos de 10 y 11 años de una zona urbana y de una rural, llevándose a cabo una prueba de comparación de dos proporciones de muestras independientes. Resultados. Se han recogido 104 encuestas (21.2% de ámbito rural) en las cuales se observa la existencia de un porcentaje importante en cuanto a la falta de hábito de lavado de manos e higiene dental se refiere. Respecto a la alimentación, existe un pequeño número de niños que acuden al colegio sin desayunar y, en caso de hacerlo, es considerable el porcentaje obtenido en el consumo de bollería y zumos envasados, apreciándose un déficit en el de verduras y pescados. Aunque mayoritariamente realizan actividad física, el 10% no la hacen nunca. Asimismo se aprecia un excesivo uso del televisor preferido frente a otros hábitos. En lo relacionado con el tabaquismo, cabe destacar que un 30% conviven con fumadores, y un 6% han probado el tabaco. En lo referente al alcohol un porcentaje importante (4.8%-19.5%) ya lo ha probado mayoritariamente en el ámbito familiar. Conclusiones. La finalidad del estudio es el de servir como punto de partida para la planificación de futuras actuaciones, ya que indica la existencia de situaciones de riesgo: alteraciones en la salud bucodental por déficit de cuidados e higiene, hábitos alimenticios incorrectos, hábitos sedentarios e inicio temprano de consumo o contacto con sustancias tóxicas. Abstract in english Introduction. ln the first years of life assimilation occurs and the understanding of health habits that will shape adult life, and these socio-environmental characteristics are fundamental for the acquisition of health habits. Objectives. This study is aimed at ascertaining the health habits of sch [...] oolchildren from two opposing geographical areas (urban and rural). Methodology. We performed a descriptive study of students aged 10/11 years old from urban and rural areas, performing a comparison test of two proportions from independent samples. Results. 104 surveys were obtained (21.2% from rural areas). There is a significant percentage which refers to a lack of hand washing and dental hygiene habits. With regard to food there is a small percentage of children who come to school without breakfast, among those who did, it was found that a significant percentage have pastries and packaged juices showing a lack in consumption of vegetables and fish. Although largely physically inactive, 10% never take exercise. There is high television consumption and other habits are that, 30% live with smokers and 6% have tried snuff. A significant percentage (4.8% -19.5%) have tried alcohol, mostly in the family. Conclusions. The study should serve as a starting point for planning future actions, and indicates the existence of risk: changes in oral health due to a lack of care and hygiene, bad eating habits, sedentary habits and the early onset of contact with consumption, or with toxic substances.

Antonio, Martínez Sabater; Asunción, Marzá Gascón; Julia, Llorca Tauste; Cristina, Martínez Puig; Gema, Escrivá Aznar; Mercedes, Blasco Roque.

2013-01-01

283

42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result...Operating Costs § 412.102 Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

2010-10-01

284

Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step. PMID:25189850

Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

2014-01-01

285

Financing and Sustaining Mobility Programs in Rural Areas: A Manual. Final Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manual focuses on the start-up and operation of low-cost transportation in rural areas. A principal focus is the use of volunteers and/or the consolidation of rides through a brokerage program. Chapter One provides an overview of what financial and operating decisions must be made to design a volunteer system. Chapter Two describes easy…

Wallin, Theodore A.; Kidder, Alice

286

Improving Distance Education for University Students: Issues and Experiences of Students in Cities and Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined issues related to improving the quality of distance education courses that were raised by university students in Australia. Focus group sessions were held in rural and urban areas in Queensland that discussed student interaction with lecturers, assessment tasks, flexibility, study materials, mentors, and educational technology.…

Purnell, Ken; Cuskelly, Eve; Danaher, Patrick

1996-01-01

287

Air quality in urban, industrialized and rural french areas in 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air quality measurements in urban, industrial and rural areas in 1991 have shown different trends. It turned out that lead and carbon monoxide concentrations have recently decreased. The concentrations of black smoke and sulphur dioxide have however remained constant since 1988, whereas nitrogen oxide and ozone have decreased in most sites. (TEC). 23 figs., 34 tabs., 40 refs

288

Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

Shyu, Chian-Woei

2010-05-19

289

Aerial radiological survey of the Brookhaven National Laboratory and surrounding area, Upton, New York. Date of survey: June 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed from 11 to 13 June 1983, over approximately a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area surrounding the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). BNL is located in the center of Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. All gamma radiation data were collected by flying east-west lines spaced 76 meters (250 feet) apart at an altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground. The average background exposure rate in the survey area ranged from 5 to 10 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 ?R/h. Ground-based measurements made during the same time period were compared to the aerial survey results. Pressurized ion chamber readings and soil samples were taken from two locations within the aerial survey boundaries. Exposure rate values obtained from these measurement techniques were in agreement with those obtained from the aerial data. A total of 23 areas of man-made radioactivity were identified. The dominant isotopes found over these areas were cesium-137, sodium-22, manganese-54, and cobalt-60. A similar survey was conducted in May 1980. The 1983 survey results were similar to the 1980 results. Three areas of low level man-made activity were not reproduced by the 1983 data. Ten new areas were detected. The major difference occurred because of the ajor difference occurred because of the increased sensitivity and spatial reduction brought on by lowering the altitude and decreasing the line spacing. 8 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs

290

An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

291

A quantitative comparison of frugivorous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae) in tropical forests and rural areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the current knowledge about African tephritids originates from studies performed in agricultural areas, while information about their distribution in pristine or moderately disturbed environments is extremely scarce. This study aims at (i) describing levels of spatial variability of frugivorous tephritids in tropical forests and small rural villages of the Congo River basin and (ii) verifying if human-mediated activities, such as small-scale agriculture and trade, can affect their distribution patterns. Four locations were sampled along a 250?km stretch of the Congo River. At each location, pristine and disturbed habitats (i.e. tropical forests and small rural villages, respectively) were sampled, with three replicate sites in each combination of habitat and location. Sampling with modified McPhail traps baited with four different attractants yielded 819 tephritid specimens of 29 species from seven genera (Bactrocera, Carpophthoromyia, Ceratitis, Dacus, Celidodacus, Perilampsis, Trirhithrum). The three most abundant species sampled (Dacus bivittatus, D. punctatifrons, Bactrocera invadens) showed significant variations in abundance across locations and sites and accounted for 98.29% of the overall dissimilarity between habitats. Assemblages differed among locations and sites while they showed significant differences between pristine and disturbed habitats in two out of the four locations. This study shows that frugivorous tephritids in central Congo have remarkably patchy distributions with differences among locations and sites representing the main source of variability. Our data show that, in rural villages of central Democratic Republic of Congo, human activities, such as small-scale agriculture and local commerce, are not always sufficient to promote differences between the tephritid assemblages of villages and those of the surrounding tropical forests. PMID:21554799

Virgilio, M; Backeljau, T; Emeleme, R; Juakali, J L; De Meyer, M

2011-10-01

292

Small field segments surrounded by large areas only shielded by a multileaf collimator: Comparison of experiments and dose calculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Complex radiotherapy fields delivered using a tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) often feature small open segments surrounded by large areas of the beam only shielded by the MLC. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two modern dose calculation algorithms to accurately calculate the dose in these fields which would be common, for example, in volumetric modulated arc treatment (VMAT) and study the impact of variations in dosimetric leaf gap (DLG), focal spot size, and MLC transmission in the beam models. Methods: Nine test fields with small fields (0.6-3 cm side length) surrounded by large MLC shielded areas (secondary collimator 12 Multiplication-Sign 12 cm{sup 2}) were created using a 6 MV beam from a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf MLC. Measurements of output factors and profiles were performed using a diamond detector (PTW) and compared to two dose calculations algorithms anisotropic analytical algorithm [(AAA) and Acuros XB] implemented on a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (Varian Eclipse 10). Results: Both calculation algorithms predicted output factors within 1% for field sizes larger than 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2}. For smaller fields AAA tended to underestimate the dose. Profiles were predicted well for all fields except for problems of Acuros XB to model the secondary penumbra between MLC shielded fields and the secondary collimator. A focal spot size of 1 mm or less, DLG 1.4 mm and MLC transmission of 1.4% provided a generally good model for our experimental setup. Conclusions: AAA and Acuros XB were found to predict the dose under small MLC defined field segments well. While DLG and focal spot affect mostly the penumbra, the choice of correct MLC transmission will be essential to model treatments such as VMAT accurately.

Kron, T.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Cramb, J.; Lonski, P.; Cozzi, L.; Fogliata, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006, Australia and Department of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006 (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006, Australia and Department of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)

2012-12-15

293

THE ROLE OF NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREA DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural non-agricultural activities can be classified into two categories depending on occupancy degree of time: independent ones, those who are practiced in exclusivity, occupying entire working time and complementary, and those who are carried out in completion time, by those involved in agriculture. Through these agricultural activities it is provided employment of labor from rural area by judiciously using local resources because these products are used for individual household needs but can be a source of additional income if they are sold in markets or even exported as traditional products.

Ramona Ciolac

2013-05-01

294

Research on the Information Supporting System for the New Educational Mechanism Reforming in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the analysis of information requirements and the funds guaranteeing system reform of rural compulsory education, this paper tried to design and construct an information support system for the new network-based educational mechanism reforming in rural areas. This paper also defined the concept of this new system and its framework. A prospective forecast was also given in terms of its function and application. This paper intended to provide effective informationized managing measures for the implementation of the new educational mechanism.

Jianxiong Huang

2009-04-01

295

Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

Fischer Tatjana

2014-03-01

296

Aerial radiological survey of the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station and surrounding area, Berwick, Pennsylvania. Date of survey: September 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed from 12 to 22 September 1980 over a 188-square-kilometer area surrounding the Susquehanna Steam Electric Station near Berwick, Pennsylvania. All gamma ray data were collected along flight lines oriented southwest to northeast. The lines were spaced 152 meters apart and flown at an altitude of 91 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of a radiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 8 and 23 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), with most of the area ranging from 8 to 15 ?R/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4 ?R/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken from within the survey site were in agreement with the aerial data

297

Health Profile Of Aged Persons In Urban & Rural Field Practice Areas Of Medical College, Amrisar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: What is the health status of aged persons in urban and rural area? Objectives: 1. To study the socio-demographic profile. 2. To study the health status of aged persons in urban and rural areas and factors associated with it. Study design: Cross-sectional Participants: Persons aged 60 years and above. Sample size: 698 (423 males and 275 females Study variables: Age, Sex, marital status, occupation, literacy status, addition, morbidity pattern and disability. Results: Among 698 aged persons, 423(60.60% were males and 275(39.40% were females, 393(56.3% were in the age group of 60-65 years while only 34(4.8% were more than 80 years. Majority (58.45% belonged to Sikh community followed by Hindus (39.9%. 61.37% aged persons were literate and 38.63% were illiterate. 73.74% of all aged were living in joint families. 68.39% aged persons were engaged in one or other works while 31.61% were dependent on other family members. It was observed that 46.08% of rural aged and 32.97% of urban aged persons were going for morning/evening walk. 33.69% of urban aged and 20.69% of rural aged were reading newspapers or books. Out of total 423 males, 363(85.81% were addicted to one or the other intoxicants. 374(53.58% were feeling satisfactory at this age while 324(46.42% were not feeling so. Majority of them were ill at the time of survey. Arthritis (60.60% being the commonest cause of illness followed by cataract or visual impairment (54.01%. 16.62% of the aged were hypertensive, it was more (19.35% in urban aged as compared to rural aged (13.79%. Diabetes mellitus was observed in 5.3% aged persons and it was more commonly seen in urban area (6.81% than in rural area (2.51%. Prevalence of peptic ulcers/chromic gastritis was found to be 5.87% (6.09% in urban area (6.27% in rural area aged. The problems due to socio-psychology causes were minimal, probably because majority (73.74% of them were residing with their families

Padda A.S

1998-01-01

298

Sanitation behavior among schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic area of Northern rural Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background In Vietnam, efforts are underway to improve latrine use in rural and remote areas with particular focus on increasing coverage of sanitation in schools. However, there is a lack of information on how the school program affects latrine use by schoolchildren and at community level. This paper analyzes sanitation use among schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic area to inform future school-based sanitation promotion programmes. Methods A combination of quantitative and qualitative ...

Xuan Le thi Thanh; Hoat Luu; Rheinländer Thilde; Dalsgaard Anders; Konradsen Flemming

2012-01-01

299

Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in a Child from a Rural Area: A Rare Case Report  

OpenAIRE

In humans, infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is usually uncommon but has been reported from various areas of the world. Parasitization rates ranging between 0.001% and 5.5% have been reported according to different surveys. We report a rare case of H. diminuta infection in a 10-year-old female from the rural area of Kendrapada district of Odisha. The patient came to our pediatrics outpatient department with the chief complain of intermittent abdominal pain, anal pruritus and nocturnal restl...

Tiwari, Shreekant; Karuna, Tadepalli; Rautaraya, Bibhudutta

2014-01-01

300

Rural and Urban Areas Planning Orientation in the Flood Plain of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

OpenAIRE

This paper proposes new development orientation for cities and rural residential areas in the Plain of Reeds, a region in Southern Vietnam that is subject to annual flooding and is grounded in the author’s practical experience and theoretical analysis. Furthermore, this study is based on the plain's features, the history of the foundation of regional urban and residential areas, and the successes and failures of previous planning in the region. Based on data from the Vietnamese government a...

Nguyen Thanh Nguyen

2013-01-01

301

Serious BTEX pollution in rural area of the North China Plain during winter season.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a rural site of the North China Plain (NCP) were preliminarily investigated in winter, and the outdoor concentrations (25.8-236.0?g/m(3)) were found to be much higher than those reported in urban regions. The pollution of BTEX inside a farmer's house was even more serious, with combined concentrations of 254.5-1552.9?g/m(3). Based on the ratio of benzene to toluene (1.17±0.34) measured, the serious BTEX pollution in the rural site was mainly ascribed to domestic coal combustion for heating during the winter season. With the enhancement of farmers' incomes in recent years, coal consumption by farmers in the NCP is rapidly increasing to keep their houses warm, and hence the serious air pollution in rural areas of the NCP during winter, including BTEX, should be paid great attention. PMID:25872726

Liu, Kankan; Zhang, Chenglong; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhang, Gen; Sun, Xu; Mu, Yujing

2015-04-01

302

Qualidade de água de uma lagoa rasa em meio rural no sul do Brasil Water quality of a shallow lagoon in rural area in Southern Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No seu entorno, a lagoa Caiubá apresenta regiões preservadas e áreas com cultura de arroz e de pecuária. Esta pesquisa descreve o padrão de variação sazonal e espacial das variáveis fisico-químicas e biológicas durante os anos de 2009 e 2010, em nove pontos distribuídos espacialmente na lagoa, representando suas partes norte, central e sul. A qualidade da água foi avaliada através da aplicação do índice de estado trófico (IET, do índice de qualidade de água (IQA e das classes da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005. Foram coletadas amostras de invertebrados bentônicos e determinados os Índices Bióticos (IB de acordo com os modelos da Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA e a adaptação do Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP. Os resultados evidenciaram um sistema com alta turbidez e conteúdo de fósforo, além de baixa razão N:P, e com poucas alterações sazonais e espaciais nas variáveis medidas. Embora os resultados do IQA e CONAMA tenham classificado a lagoa Caiubá como águas de excelente a boa qualidade, os resultados do IET e dos IB foram opostos classificando a lagoa como sistema alterado e poluído. Conclui-se que esses índices devam ser readequados através de avaliações sistemáticas visando refletir as condições de qualidade de ecossistemas aquáticos em meio rural, na região subtropical do Brasil.The Caiubá lagoon has its surroundings with preserved areas and areas with rice cultivation and livestock. This study describes the pattern of seasonal and spatial variation of physico-chemical and biological variables during the years 2009 and 2010 at nine points, representing part of northern, central and southern regions. Water quality was evaluated by applying the trophic state index (TSI and the water quality index (WQI, and classes according to CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Samples of benthic invertebrates were collected and determined the biotic index (BI, following the models of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA, and adaptation of Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP. The results demonstrated a system with high turbidity and phosphorus content, and low N:P ratio, and with little seasonal and spatial changes in the measured variables. Although the results of WQI and the CONAMA have classified the lagoon waters with excellent to good quality, the results of the TSI and the BI were opposites, classifying the ecosystem as amended and polluted system. It is concluded that these indices should be readjusted through systematic evaluations in order to reflect the quality condition of aquatic ecosystems in rural areas in the subtropical region of Brazil.

Raquel W. Cunha

2013-07-01

303

Qualidade de água de uma lagoa rasa em meio rural no sul do Brasil / Water quality of a shallow lagoon in rural area in Southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available No seu entorno, a lagoa Caiubá apresenta regiões preservadas e áreas com cultura de arroz e de pecuária. Esta pesquisa descreve o padrão de variação sazonal e espacial das variáveis fisico-químicas e biológicas durante os anos de 2009 e 2010, em nove pontos distribuídos espacialmente na lagoa, repre [...] sentando suas partes norte, central e sul. A qualidade da água foi avaliada através da aplicação do índice de estado trófico (IET), do índice de qualidade de água (IQA) e das classes da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005. Foram coletadas amostras de invertebrados bentônicos e determinados os Índices Bióticos (IB) de acordo com os modelos da Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA) e a adaptação do Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). Os resultados evidenciaram um sistema com alta turbidez e conteúdo de fósforo, além de baixa razão N:P, e com poucas alterações sazonais e espaciais nas variáveis medidas. Embora os resultados do IQA e CONAMA tenham classificado a lagoa Caiubá como águas de excelente a boa qualidade, os resultados do IET e dos IB foram opostos classificando a lagoa como sistema alterado e poluído. Conclui-se que esses índices devam ser readequados através de avaliações sistemáticas visando refletir as condições de qualidade de ecossistemas aquáticos em meio rural, na região subtropical do Brasil. Abstract in english The Caiubá lagoon has its surroundings with preserved areas and areas with rice cultivation and livestock. This study describes the pattern of seasonal and spatial variation of physico-chemical and biological variables during the years 2009 and 2010 at nine points, representing part of northern, cen [...] tral and southern regions. Water quality was evaluated by applying the trophic state index (TSI) and the water quality index (WQI), and classes according to CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Samples of benthic invertebrates were collected and determined the biotic index (BI), following the models of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA), and adaptation of Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). The results demonstrated a system with high turbidity and phosphorus content, and low N:P ratio, and with little seasonal and spatial changes in the measured variables. Although the results of WQI and the CONAMA have classified the lagoon waters with excellent to good quality, the results of the TSI and the BI were opposites, classifying the ecosystem as amended and polluted system. It is concluded that these indices should be readjusted through systematic evaluations in order to reflect the quality condition of aquatic ecosystems in rural areas in the subtropical region of Brazil.

Raquel W., Cunha; Manoel D. N., Garcia Jr.; Edélti F., Albertoni; Cleber, Palma-Silva.

2013-07-01

304

Phlebotomine fauna in a rural area of the Brazilian Pantanal  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify among the phlebotomine fauna potential leishmaniasis vectors. The study was carried out in Corumbá county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mid-West Brazil (18º59'S, 56º39'W. Sand fly captures were undertaken fortnightly with automatic light traps at 11 sites in forested environments and anthropic areas from April 2001 to July 2003. A total of only 41 specimens were captured. Thirty-one percent of the specimens were captured in forests and 68.3% in anthropic areas. The predominance of non-anthropophilic groups and the low density of N. whitmani, a known cutaneous leishmaniasis vector, does not seem to indicate any actual risk of the transmission of this disease in the study area.

Braga-Miranda Lourdislene Costa

2006-01-01

305

Feasibility of developing low-cost measures of demand for public transportation in rural areas. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Appalachian region has many rural areas of limited accessibility. To improve the accessibility of the rural carless (poor, elderly, young, infirm) public transportation has often been suggested. The objective of the research is to develop a low-cost methodology for determining latent demand for public transportation in rural areas, i.e., to develop a data base of key socio-economic, highway network, and geographic variables which can be used to estimate latent demand along possible rural-transit routes. Data were collected on existing rural-transit operations in Planning Region VI of West Virginia (Monongalia, Taylor, Marion, Harrison, Doddridge, and Preston counties) by means of an on-off survey and an on-board questionnaire survey. Using these as indicators of demand, this information will be related to census data for the affected region to determine if a simplified modeling approach to estimate rural public transportation demand is feasible.

Byrne, B.F.; Neumann, E.S.

1976-12-01

306

Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the oral health status of children and adults in rural and urban areas of Burkina Faso; to provide epidemiological data for planning and evaluation of oral health care programmes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey including different ethnic and socio-economic groups. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling of households in urban areas and random samples of participants selected based on the recent population census in rural areas. The final study population covered four age groups: 6 years (n = 424), 12 years (n = 505), 18 years (n = 492) and 35-44 years (n = 493). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year-olds and 6.3 in 35-44-year-olds and figures were higher for women than men. In adults, no differences in caries experience were found by location whereas the caries index was significantly affected by ethnic group and occupation. CPI score 2 (gingivitis and calculus) was dominant for all ages: 6 years (58%), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes rather than traditional curative care.

Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik

2004-01-01

307

Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of rural

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

308

Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-07-01

309

Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

310

Seismicity and seismic hazard parameters evaluation in the island of Crete and the surrounding area inferred from mixed data files  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the spatial distribution of seismicity and seismic hazard is undertaken for Crete and the surrounding area (CISA). For the estimation of seismicity parameters, CISA is divided in rectangular subregions. By applying the centroid of strain energy technique, we obtain seismicity parameter maps closely related to the tectonics of the area. The b-value from the magnitude-frequency distribution is calculated by a maximum likelihood technique ( Page, 1968. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 58, 1131-1168), as well as by Gumbel's first asymptotic distribution of extreme values technique. The b-value shows consistent spatial variation along CISA for both techniques. Low b-values are dominant in the western part of CISA, while higher b-values are present to the east side, forming a pattern like a 'sleeping letter S'. This pattern may be attributed to the variation of the regional velocity of deformation. Finally, we performed seismic hazard analysis for shallow and intermediate events. From mixed (historical and instrumental) data files, we estimated the regional maximum magnitude M?max, as well as the other parameters like the activity rate of seismic events ?? and the well-known b? parameter ( Kijko and Sellevoll, 1989. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 79, 645-654).

Manakou, Maria V.; Tsapanos, Theodoros M.

2000-05-01

311

Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations  

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Full Text Available Airborne dust is a major environmental hazard in Asia. Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 10 km and higher. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in North India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar.

Zhaoyan Liu

2008-03-01

312

An aerial radiological survey of the River Bend Station and surrounding area, St. Francisville, Louisiana: Date of survey: March 1987  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 19 through 31 March 1987 over a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area surrounding the River Bend Station located near St. Francisville, Louisiana. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 152 meters (500 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 8 to 10 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. The levels over the nuclear power reactor were above background. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of a man-made source of radiation to the west of the River Bend Station. This source proved to be a 70-curie Co-60 source belonging to the Gulf States Utilities coal-fired electric power plant. Spectra of the River Bend reactor did not show the presence of unexpected radioisotopes. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

313

An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background

314

Rural settlement policies in Turkey and the Kurdish areas  

OpenAIRE

The adament refusal of Turkey to admit to a Kurdish question is a major source of human rights violations, social tension, political and economic instability, and an irritant in Turkey's relations with neighboring countries and the European Union. In the 1980s and 1990s Turkey, and in particular the areas predominantly populated by Kurds, was the scene of an increasingly bitter war between Turkish armed forces and the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK; Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan). As a strategy fo...

Jongerden, J. P.

2003-01-01

315

Rural and Urban Areas Planning Orientation in the Flood Plain of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes new development orientation for cities and rural residential areas in the Plain of Reeds, a region in Southern Vietnam that is subject to annual flooding and is grounded in the author’s practical experience and theoretical analysis. Furthermore, this study is based on the plain's features, the history of the foundation of regional urban and residential areas, and the successes and failures of previous planning in the region. Based on data from the Vietnamese government and the IMF, this development orientation is in opposition to the views of many leaders with respect to the development of the cities and rural residential areas of the region. It is hoped that this study will help administrators, planners, and other authorities in Vietnam and other countries.

Nguyen Thanh Nguyen

2013-12-01

316

Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

Irohibe Ifeoma

2014-03-01

317

Assessment of welfare living and public law with an emphasis on rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Today, the quality of life is the main objective of all planning which is produced by the thinkers and planners. Problems is faced our rural areas challenges such as, weak sources of income, loss of opportunity and good job opportunities and housing instability. Present study seeks to answer the question how is the quality of life of the sample? How been it spatial distribution the quality of the sample villages? Research method is descriptive - analytical with an emphasis on the questionnaire. Based on this approach explain the descriptive statistical analysis and test results show Comments on the conditions the quality of life of society have been evaluated (education and leisure as moderate and less of it. Meanwhile, can be seen the most difficult aspects of environmental and economic conditions that the calculated T statistic shows Frequency deviation than average So that more rural areas are located the quality of the environment at a disadvantage. Findings show that the distribution of all the components influencing the quality of life in rural Shahindezh is observed significant differences in terms of location or distance of the rural population.

Sajjad Ehrami

2013-06-01

318

Considerations for decision-making on distributed power generation in rural areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy resources for rural electrification are variable and widely dispersed, such that a solution for one region might not be appropriate for another. This study evaluates the feasibility of renewable energy technologies, centralized grid extension and local coal-fired power for rural areas that currently do not have sufficient access to electricity. The renewable power generation options considered are solar photovoltaic and wind power, with battery storage or fossil fuel generator backup. New local coal-fired power, as well as extension of the grid from an existing centralized power system, are considered to compare the impacts of scale and traditional approaches to power generation. A case study for a rural area in Northwestern China demonstrates the complexity of energy decision-making when faced with low peak demands and non-ideal renewable resource availability. Economic factors, including cost of electricity generation, breakeven grid extension distance, capacity shortage fraction (the ratio of the annual capacity shortage to the annual electric load) and land use are evaluated. - Highlights: • Considerations include technical and non-technical factors for energy decisions. • Coal and renewable power are compared based on cost and availability of resources. • Key factors for renewable power generation are capacity shortage and availability of resources. • Rural China case study evaluates the viability of distributed wind or solar power relative to coal

319

High maternal mortality estimated by the sisterhood method in a rural area of Mali  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is high in Mali. Nevertheless, there are few studies on this topic from rural areas, and current estimates are mostly based on studies from urban settings. Our objective was to estimate the maternal mortality ratio in Kita, rural Mali. Methods Using the "sisterhood method", we interviewed participants aged 15-50 years from 20 villages in Kita, Mali, and thereby created a retrospective cohort of their sisters in reproductive age. Based on population and fertility estimates, we calculated the lifetime risk of maternal death, and from that the estimated approximate maternal mortality ratio. Results The 2,039 respondents reported 4,628 sisters who had reached reproductive age. Of these 4,628 sisters, almost a third (1,233; 27% had died, and 429 (9% had died during pregnancy or childbirth. This corresponded to a lifetime risk of maternal death of 20% and a maternal mortality ratio of 3,131 per 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval 2,967-3,296, with a time reference around 1999. Conclusions We found a very high maternal mortality in rural Mali and this highlights the urgent need for obstetric services in the remote rural areas.

Haugsjå Anita H

2011-08-01

320

Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

2011-01-01

321

[Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae) in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area].  

Science.gov (United States)

As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or disseminators of infectious diseases (including parasites), coyotes (Canis latrans) may also serve as indicators of ecological health. In Costa Rica, little information exists on coyote parasites, making research necessary to identify potential zoonotic interactions. For this reason, a survey of the coyote parasites was performed in a mixed area of protected woodland and agricultural land, surrounding Irazú Volcano National Park (IVNP) in Cartago, Costa Rica. Over a one-year period, 209 fecal samples were collected directly from the ground. Collection took place on a monthly basis in a trail sectioned into three sub-areas named Irazú (closest to the volcano), potato fields (where potatoes were cultivated), and Prusia (a protected sector of IVNP). Sectioning the trail allowed separate collection and analysis of the samples, where 99 were obtained from Irazú, 11 from potato fields and 99 from Prusia. Using direct examination and mechanical concentration 36.84% positive samples containing at least one helminth were found. The presence of parasites was similar for both woodland areas (33.3% in Prusia and 37.4% in Irazú), but differed from the 63.6% observed in the potato fields. Hookworm parasites (probably Ancylostoma caninum), threadworms (possibly Strongyloides sp.), Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. and Taenia pisiformis were identified, as well as Hymenolepis diminuta, possible spurious parasite resulting from the ingestion of rodents by coyotes. Seasonal details are discussed, concluding that wet and dry seasons affect presence of parasites. Some remarks are made on the importance of these first findings for Costa Rica, especially considering the systematic way in which the collection of samples was carried out. PMID:23894947

Niehaus, Carmen; Valerio, Idalia; Blanco, Kinndle; Chinchilla, Misael

2012-06-01

322

Mothers? Perceptions & Ambitions About Their Daughters in Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: What are the perceptions and ambitions of mothers about their daughters in relation to critical areas like literacy, age of marriage & child bearing, health risk due to early marriage etc. Objectives: To raise the level of awareness of mothers through ongoing programmes focused on women. Design: Before and after study in population. Participants: Mothers of girls aged 7-19 years. Study variables: Literacy, caste, communication, menstruation, food distribution in the family, age of marriage & childbirth, health risks, sources of information. Outcome variables: Raised level of awareness on critical areas as mentioned above. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions. Results: A little less than half (48% of mother�s felt that their daughters could study as long as they desired. Though 73-82% of mothers knew the health risk of early marriage yet 67% of girls were married below the age of 18 years. Only 15% of mothers educated their daughters on the subject of menstruation. Female children were considered the last priority for nutritious food. The results of this study necessitate strengthening of women programmes for better awareness; favorable attitudes and sound practices.

Lal Sunder

1997-01-01

323

Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas: New actors in the regulation arena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks.

324

Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas. New actors in the regulation arena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks. (author)

325

The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

2010-01-01

326

Surveillance of Dengue Vectors Mosquito in Some Rural Areas of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 24 week survey was conducted in some rural areas of Bangladesh and found a total of 256 positive containers and a total of 9415 larvae. In an average a 25.80% larvae positive containers were found in Malikanda and 8.00% in Dohar sadar. Aedes albopictus (Skuse were found in all the study areas, but Aedes aegypti were found only in Jahangirnagar campus (Savar and Zingera (Keranigonj areas. Percentage of positive houses was highest in Pachimde (35% and lowest in Jahangirnagar (6%. Aedes aegypti (L. larvae were found mainly in tyres, bamboo stumps earthen pots and coconut shells, whereas Aedes albopictus in all types of containers.

Kabirul Bashar

2005-01-01

327

Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the 210Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

328

Distributions of n-alkanes and their hydrogen isotopic composition in plants from Lake Qinghai (China) and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various aquatic plants from Lake Qinghai, the largest inland saline lake in China, and terrestrial plants from the surrounding area were investigated for the distribution of n-alkanes and their ?D values. The n-alkanes in the samples range from C15 to C33 with C preference index (CPI) values of 4.0–29.7. The n-C23 or n-C25 alkane is the dominant compound in the aquatic submerged plants. The aquatic emergent and terrestrial plants have an abundance maximum at n-C27, n-C29 or n-C31. The average chain length (ACL) values, ranging from 26.0 to 29.6, are closely related to the plant species. The n-alkanes from the aquatic plants have mean ?D values of ?169‰ to ?121‰ and those from the terrestrial plants values of ?173‰ to ?109‰. The H isotopic composition (?D) and fractionation differ significantly among the plants studied. Comparison shows that additional evaporative enrichment of the lake water associated with saline lakes and humidity influence the ?D values of the n-alkanes in aquatic and terrestrial plants, respectively. The mean ?D values of n-alkanes in the plants decrease with increasing ACL value. The n-alkanes from the different types of plants are more depleted in D relative to environmental water and those from aquatic plants (with a mean value of ?143‰) have a greater isotopic fractionation than terrestrial plants (mean value ?113‰).

329

Analysis of the effects of aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport [paper in Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the perception of discomfort caused by aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport (SBBR. The study was divided into two parts. At first, noise measurements were conducted in four residentials zones and the sound pressure level determined by the parameters: Leq, Lmax, Lmin, RF, SEL and IPR. In the second part, we applied a questionnaire adapted from the project Eurocontrol (European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation. The results of field measurements indicate regions with soundscape compromised and with potential of nuisance, especially at night. Was obtained, from analysis of questionnaires, that the respondents female sex if showed more sensitive by the noise of cars and planes and realize more intensity the noise from road and air traffic. It was found dissatisfaction with the interference caused by the noise of aircraft in daily activities and indicated as reactions noise-related: headaches, sleep disorders, stress and difficulty concentrating. It is noteworthy, that in the region with lower noise, the respondents are more sensitive to the noise of airplanes and the values of acoustic parameters measured would justify the negative reactions of respondents to the air transportation noise. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between the perception of annoyance and discomfort with the sound pressure levels measured.

Armando Mendonça Maroja

2012-10-01

330

Post-Variscan exhumation history and long-term landscape evolution of the western Rhenish Massif and surrounding areas  

Science.gov (United States)

The Northern Linksrheinisches Schiefergebirge is the western part of the Variscan fold-and-thrust belt in Central Europe. Published apatite fission-track ages cover the range of 159 (10) Ma to 203 (21) Ma in the Northern Linksrheinisches Schiefergebirge. The post-Variscan thermal and exhumation history of the foreland and fold-and-thrust belt in the Northern Linksrheinisches Schiefergebirge is part of the general post-Variscan geological evolution of the Rhenish Massif. To unravel the post-Variscan exhumation history and long-term landscape evolution samples of the RWTH-1 drill cuttings from various depths were analyzed. The well RWTH-1 is located at the Aachen Thrust in Aachen, Germany. The four thermochronometric analyses (fission-track, (U-Th)/He on apatite and zircon each) and furthermore 2-D Modelling with HeFTy were performed at the Devonian to Carboniferous rocks of the RWTH-1. The apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages of 5-10 Ma clarify, that the geothermal gradient is very young. The apatite fission-track ages ranging between 43-174 Ma confirm the published AFT data of the surrounding area and points to a post-Triassic exhumation. The zircon (U-Th)/He ages ranging from 198-239 Ma suggest an earlier post-Variscan exhumation, starting during the Lower-Middle Triassic. Comparing these results to existing geological records enable us to identify and quantify the relevant tectonic processes that shape the landscape of the western Rhenish Massif.

Sehrt, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Kukla, P.; Stockli, D. F.; Wipf, M.

2010-05-01

331

The Analysis Of The Heavy Metals Pollution In The River Water For Fishing Accusative The Surrounding UJUNG LEMAH ABANG Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metals are introduced into aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils or rocks, from volcanic eruptions and from a variety of human activities involving the mining, processing, or use of metals and/or substances that contain metal contaminants. The metal natural contents will changeable depends on the pollutant which is proportionally occurred in the environment. The extremely heavy metals absorption by organisms Directly or indirectly through the food chain will give the significant impact to the human lives. For this purpose an investigation was carried out to take samples of heavy metals from the river (Doplang, Balong, and Pacitran) surrounding the Ujung Lemah abang area, and to see how far was the impact of pollutants to the community who live nearby from the food-chain point of view. Results showed that the heavy metals content of Cd, Fe, Cu and Hg in the water and sediment are higher than the permissible concentration for fish nursery. It is found that the concentration of Cd between 0.91 - 1.85 ?g/ml, Cu: 0.03 ?g/ml, and Fe: 0.16 - 2.51 ?g/ml, whereas concentration of Hg in sediment between 0.036 - 0.118 mg/g. Up to now there are no report yet to the death fish caused by the more content of heavy metals in their body or the sickness related to it in the community around the location, but nevertheless this condition need to be took attention

332

An aerial radiological survey of Ottawa, Illinois and surrounding area, Ottawa Illinois: Date of survey, May 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the town of Ottawa, Illinois, located 128 kilometers (80 miles) southwest of Chicago, Illinois, during the period 12 May through 20 May 1986. The object of the survey was to locate any possible radium anomalies in the Ottawa area. The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) suspected that radium residues from the former Luminous Processes Plant may have been distributed around the town. The IDNS was decontaminating the Luminous Processes Plant site during the aerial survey. Approximately 23 square kilometers (9 square miles) surrounding the town of Ottawa were surveyed. A contour map derived from the aerial data indicated the presence of anomalous radium at 11 locations in and around Ottawa. A copy of the map was given to the IDNS in Ottawa at the end of the survey period. Subsequent to the aerial survey, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) obtained a high-altitude aerial photograph of Ottawa on 17 June 1986. The aerial photograph was used as the underlying map for the radiological survey data. 1 ref., 6 figs., 1 tab

333

Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

Anti? Ljiljana

2013-01-01

334

Community perceptions of biomedical health care in a rural area in the Northern Province South Africa  

OpenAIRE

The success of strategies to revitalize primary health care services such as those advocated by the Bamako Initiative requires a response adapted to the expectations of the populations, especially in terms of quality. The goal of this study was to investigate community perceptions of availability, accessibility, acceptability and affordability of biomedical health care services in a rural area of the Northern Province in South Africa. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the ...

Karl Peltzer

2000-01-01

335

Research on Utilization of Online Resources Among Kindergarten Teachers in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the entry into the online era, the Internet has grown up to be an indispensable part of people’s life and work. This research, through questionnaires and interviews, studies the employment of online resources among kindergarten teachers in rural areas from 12 districts and counties in Chongqing, China. Based on the results of the survey, suggestions will be proposed to improve online resources utilization among countryside kindergarten teachers.

Xiaoguang YU

2014-08-01

336

Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19...

Vaibhav Jain; Mayank Singh; Khursheed Muzammil; Jaivir Singh

2014-01-01

337

Framework for utilizing angling as a tourism development tool in rural areas.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 55, ?. 10 (2009), s. 508-518. ISSN 0139-570X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB300860902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rural areas * development * angling Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-72349089553&origin=resultslist&sort

Navrátil, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva

2009-01-01

338

Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The activated alumina and revers...

Schoeman, J. J.

2009-01-01

339

"Growth Chart Study in Children Under 5 Years Old in Rural Area of Khoramabad Province"  

OpenAIRE

Growth chart is the best measure for weight monitoring of children. Most factors that affect child heath show their effect on child weight. This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was achieved to estimate malnutrition prevalence and effective factors in children under 5 years old in rural area of Khoramabad province. 555 girls and 570 boys were chosen from health houses by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through questionnaires. verbal interviews and child weighing. Nutritio...

Majlesi, F.; Nikpoor, B.; Golestan, B.; Sadre, F.

2001-01-01

340

Utilizing Community through Developing the Center of Community's Learning Activity (CCLA) in the Rural Area  

OpenAIRE

Utilizing community is an effort to raise their value and status, whose condition nowadays still cannot afford to avoid the trap of poorness and backwardness especially in rural area. In other words, utilizing community is to make them capable and independent, creating more effective and efficient change. The center of community’s learning activity (CCLA) as one of non-formal education institutions grown and established by community’s initiative will develop when both the executor of the...

Rusdiana, A.

2012-01-01

341

Chances of the new EU regional policy for rural (peripherical) areas : the case study of Leader  

OpenAIRE

The new tendencies on the EU regional policy, since the late nineties may represent a threat to the rural peripherical areas. The traditional integrated approaches of the development programmes are giving place to a project-support oriented policy. The financing plans result more and more from the total of the projects budgets. Under the "regional competitiveness" umbrella, this approach overemphasises though the economic vertices of the sustainability concept and a short term planning practi...

Fonseca, Madalena Pires Da; Maier, Jo?rg

2004-01-01

342

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection in a Rural Area of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection was evaluated by ELISA in 40 children and teenagers and in 164 adults from a rural area of the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Antibodies to H. pylori were detected in the serum of 31 (77.5%) children and teenagers and in 139 (84.7%) adults. The prevalen [...] ce of infection increased with age (c2 for trend, p

Francisco José, Dutra Souto; Cór, Jesus Fernandes Fontes; Gifone, Aguiar Rocha; Andreia Maria, Rocha de Oliveira; Edilberto, Nogueira Mendes; Dulciene Maria de, Magalhães Queiroz.

1998-03-01

343

Trial of a centralized IgE allergy service to general practitioners in a rural area  

OpenAIRE

We describe a pilot study of a community IgE service which serves a large rural area and is centred on the biochemistry laboratory and allergy clinic of a district general hospital. The service has proved useful because in many cases it has made attendance at an outpatient department unnecessary. The results appear to be reliable and have provided the general practitioners with additional knowledge of their patients. Other benefits included the investigation of larger numbers of patients, the...

Parker, J. H.; Moore, R. M. A.; Wilson, R. S. E.

1981-01-01

344

CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL SUBSISTENCE SMALL HOLDER LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEM IN MOUNTAINOUS AREAS OF NWFP, PAKISTAN  

OpenAIRE

A study was conducted in the rural mountainous areas of North West Frontier Province of Pakistan to characterize small holder’s subsistence livestock production system. Livestock farmers (n=82) were interviewed in 16 villages of Batagram and Mansehra districts. The farmers were keeping on an average 4 buffalos, 1 cattle, 12 sheep or 13 goats per household. More than 94% farmers were keeping 4 buffaloes per household as compared to only 40% keeping 1 or 2 cattle. Buffaloes were main dairy an...

Usmani, R. N. Khan And R. H.

2005-01-01

345

Hypertension and Obesity in Adults Living in a High HIV Prevalence Rural Area in South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART) coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate f...

Malaza, Abraham; Mossong, Joel; Newell, Marie-louise; Baernighausen, Till Winfried

2012-01-01

346

Hypertension and associated risk factors in some selected rural areas of Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

Background: Although, Bangladesh has the ninth highest rate of age-standardized rates of deaths due to chronic diseases, mostly due to cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. There is scanty literature on the estimated burden, and the determinants of hypertension in the rural areas of Bangladesh. Methods: This facility based cross-sectional survey was conducted at sub-urban field research clinic from four unions of Araihazar upazilla of Narayangong district, Bangladesh. The analyses were ba...

Alauddin Ahmed; Mosiur Rahman; Rabiul Hasan; Salma Akter Shima; Faruquee, M. H.; Tariqul Islam; Syed Emdadul Haque

2014-01-01

347

Rural livelihood diversification and income inequality in local government area Akinyele, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The pattern of income distribution has been a major concern in the developing world. This is because high levels of income inequality are likely to create a hostile atmosphere for economic growth and development. This study examined rural livelihood strategies and their contribution to the overall income inequality of households in Akinyele local government area of Oyo state. Primary data employed in the study were obtained from 105 respondents selected thr...

Adepoju Abimbola O.; Oyewole Olaniyi O.

2014-01-01

348

Managing uncertainties in broadband investments - case studies of real options for rural area networks  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the study is to analyze uncertainties in broadband access network investments and determine how real option valuation can be used to manage uncertainties. A rough theoretical model for network investment valuation is summarized. The economics of different broadband access technologies, including WiMAX and ADSL and Flash-OFDM, in rural area is analyzed with the developed methods. The adaptation of the service is modeled by different S-shaped curves and those models are used to ...

Riihima?ki, Vesa

2010-01-01

349

IT&C COMPREHENSION IN THE URBAN AND RURAL AREA OF TIMIS COUNTY IN YEAR 2012  

OpenAIRE

The present paper is presenting some statistics relating to knowledge in the field of information technology and communication in year 2012. Data presented were taken following the processing of 122 questionnaires from Timis county, urban and rural area. Questionnaires have tried to include a higher sphere on IT & C knowledge of the persons interviewed, from what is known as a simple user of programs considered usual, passing over aspects of knowledge minimum hardware and ending with the ...

Adrian B?ne?; Manuela-Dora Orboi; Tiberiu Iancu

2013-01-01

350

Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in [...] children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The activated alumina and reverse osmosis processes are both processes that can be very effectively applied for water defluoridation. The activated alumina process, however, is considered to be a more simple and robust process for water defluoridation, especially in a rural area. Therefore, the activated alumina process was selected for water defluoridation. An activated alumina plant was designed, constructed and commissioned in the rural area. Fluoride in the feed water is removed from 6 to 8 mg/? to less than 1.5 mg/?. No reduction in plant output was experienced over 6 service cycles. Therefore, it appears that fouling of the activated alumina should not be a problem. Plant output varied between 940 and 1 296 m³ to a fluoride breakthrough of approximately 2.0 mg/?. No significant operational problems were experienced during commissioning and the plant is performing satisfactorily. Spent regenerant is disposed of into evaporation ponds. It was demonstrated that a 1st world technology could be effectively applied in a rural area with proper training and supervision of the operators. The capital and operational costs of the 200 m³/d defluoridation plant are estimated at approximately R1.2m. and R0.7/m³ treated water.

JJ, Schoeman.

2009-01-01

351

The Illegal Dumping of Waste in Forest Areas - Evidence from Rural Territory  

OpenAIRE

Household waste generated is often uncolleted in rural areas causing various types of pollution like: air and water pollution, soil pollution and the aesthetic degradation of the landscape. The environmental legislation proposed by the European Union was transposed on the national legislation but the implementation process was difficult because of particular situations encountered in practice. Rudimentary infrastructure of waste management and limited access to waste collection services lead ...

Lamasanu, Andreea; Mihai, Florin-constantin

2012-01-01

352

Assessment of welfare living and public law with an emphasis on rural areas  

OpenAIRE

Today, the quality of life is the main objective of all planning which is produced by the thinkers and planners. Problems is faced our rural areas challenges such as, weak sources of income, loss of opportunity and good job opportunities and housing instability. Present study seeks to answer the question how is the quality of life of the sample? How been it spatial distribution the quality of the sample villages? Research method is descriptive - analytical with an emphasis on the questionnair...

Sajjad Ehrami; Hassan Houshyar

2013-01-01

353

PREVALENCE OF PRIORITY PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN A RURAL AREA IN KERALA  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence rate of priority psychiatric disorders in a rural area in Kerala and to find out the sociodemographic correlates of the morbidity. A door to door survey had been conducted by trained surveyors to identify individuals with priority psychiatric disorders. The detected cases were examined by a psychiatrist at their houses in the village itself, to confirm as to whether they were having any psychiatric disorder. Out of the 1094 households...

Shaji, S.; Verghese, Abraham; Promodu, K.; George, Benny; Shibu, V. P.

1995-01-01

354

A controlled evaluation of a health education programme for pregnant women in rural areas.  

OpenAIRE

A controlled evaluation of health education for pregnant women was implemented from 1983 to 1985 in the French north alpine rural area with a quasi-experimental design. Altogether 116 villages (88,983 inhabitants) constituted the pilot zone where the programme took place. This was matched with a control zone of 114 villages (78,800 inhabitants) where routine antenatal surveillance was not changed. The programme involved a large group of health and social workers and institutions and several e...

Zmirou, D.; Charrel, M.; Veyre, C.

1988-01-01

355

A modeling analysis of alternative primary and secondary US ozone standards in urban and rural areas  

Science.gov (United States)

This study employed the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) of sensitivity analysis in a photochemical grid model to determine US anthropogenic emissions reductions required from 2006 levels to meet alternative US primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) ozone (O3) standards. Applying the modeling techniques developed by Yarwood et al. (2013), we specifically evaluated sector-wide emission reductions needed to meet primary standards in the range of 60-75 ppb, and secondary standards in the range of 7-15 ppm-h, in 22 cities and at 20 rural sites across the US for NOx-only, combined NOx and VOC, and VOC-only scenarios. Site-specific model biases were taken into account by applying adjustment factors separately for the primary and secondary standard metrics, analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative response factor technique. Both bias-adjusted and unadjusted results are presented and analyzed. We found that the secondary metric does not necessarily respond to emission reductions the same way the primary metric does, indicating sensitivity to their different forms. Combined NOx and VOC reductions are most effective for cities, whereas NOx-only reductions are sufficient at rural sites. Most cities we examined require more than 50% US anthropogenic emission reductions from 2006 levels to meet the current primary 75 ppb US standard and secondary 15 ppm-h target. Most rural sites require less than 20% reductions to meet the primary 75 ppb standard and less than 40% reductions to meet the secondary 15 ppm-h target. Whether the primary standard is protective of the secondary standard depends on the combination of alternative standard levels. Our modeling suggests that the current 75 ppb standard achieves a 15 ppm-h secondary target in most (17 of 22) cities, but only half of the rural sites; the inability for several western cities and rural areas to achieve the seasonally-summed secondary 15 ppm-h target while meeting the 75 ppb primary target is likely driven by higher background O3 that is commonly reported in the western US. However, a 70 ppb primary standard is protective of a 15 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 18 of 20 rural sites we examined, and a 60 ppb primary standard is protective of a 7 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 19 of 20 rural sites. If EPA promulgates separate primary and secondary standards, exceedance areas will need to develop and demonstrate control strategies to achieve both. This HDDM analysis provides an illustrative screening assessment by which to estimate emissions reductions necessary to satisfy both standards.

Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Emery, Chris; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Jung, Jaegun; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

2014-12-01

356

The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

Md. M. Hossain

2010-01-01

357

Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

Vinhas, Denise Martins

2004-07-01

358

Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility. (author)

Silva, Diego; Nakata, Toshihiko [Department of Management Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-yama 6-6-11-815, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2009-08-15

359

Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility.

360

The Implementation of Preventive Vaccination of Dogs and Cats against Rabies in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal viral infection that has no specific treatment. For that reason prevention, especially vaccinations against rabies, is the matter of the utmost importance. The study involved 176 dog owners (possessing 257 dogs and 86 cat owners (possessing 182 cats from rural areas in Lublin province. The special original inquiry questionnaire was applied. Results: Preventive vaccination of dogs against rabies is properly realized by only 64.8 ± 7 % dog owners (below the level recommended by WHO and by only 19.8 ± 9.1 % of cat owners - inhabitants of rural areas in Lublin Province. 16.5 % of respondents confessed that they have never vaccinated their dogs against rabies. 48.3 ± 7.4 % of dog owners as well as 65.1 ± 10.1 % of cat owners don't have any veterinary health certificates for their animals. Conclusions: The standards of veterinary care as well as effectiveness of dogs and cats vaccinations against rabies in rural areas in Poland need to be improved.

Witold Kollataj

2012-01-01

361

Medical education for rural areas: Opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies  

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Full Text Available Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine?s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and educational interventions, and discusses opportunities and challenges of ICT use, especially in rural areas. The literature review included technology and medical education, 1996-2005. Using an educational model as a framework, the uses of ICTs in medical education are, very generally, to link learners, instructors, specific course materials and/or information resources in various ways. ICTs range from the simple (telephone, audio-conferencing to the sophisticated (virtual environments, learning repositories and can increase access to medical education and enhance learning and collaboration for learners at all levels and for institutions. While ICTs are being used and offer further potential for medical education enhancement, challenges exist, especially for rural areas. These are technological (e.g., overcoming barriers like cost, maintenance, access to telecommunications infrastructure, educational (using ICTs to best meet learners? educational priorities, integrating ICTs into educational programs and social (sensitivity to remote needs, resources, cultures. Finally, there is need for more rigorous research to more clearly identify advantages and disadvantages of specific uses of ICTs in medical education.

Sargeant Joan

2005-01-01

362

Prevalence of Anemia and Correlated Factors in the Reproductive Age Women in Rural Areas of Tabas  

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Full Text Available Objective: To find out the prevalence and relationship of anemia in reproductive age women in rural area of Tabas, center of Iran. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional problem, affecting about 41.8% of pregnant and 30.2% of non-pregnant women worldwide.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on the random sample of 382 reproductive age women in rural areas of Tabas in March 2010. Independent sample t-test, one way analysis of variance (ANOVA and logistic regression were applied for the data analysis.Results: The obtained data revealed a total response rate of 13.8% for prevalence of anemia, while 14.5% and 5.9% belonged to non-pregnant and pregnant participants, respectively. Low socioeconomic status (odds ratio 3.35 and high parity index (odds ratio 2.31 were associated with higher prevalence of anemia.Conclusion: Although this study was conducted in a rural area of Tabas, where their average incomes were lower than average income of major cities in Iran, the prevalence of anemia was lower than the rate reported in previous studies carried out in other locations of Iran, even in high risk (pregnant women groups.

Majid Sadeghian

2013-09-01

363

The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 310 participants in carbon sequestration project. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The stepwise method was used in the regression analysis. Results: The result indicates that 30% of the variance in the perception of respondents about role of extension in adopting solar energy could be explained by using educational films and slides, contacting with extension agents, visiting sample sites and providing lectures. Conclusion and Recommendations: The results demonstrated that success of solar energy will depend on the informing population about benefits and in this regard the authorities should provide accurate and on time information. There is no single and appropriate intervention for developing and protecting solar energy in rural areas and in view of the numerous and varied constraints and opportunities, there is need to develop location- specific strategies.

Seyed J.F. Hosseini

2011-01-01

364

Present Situation, Problems and Measures of Grass-roots Level Democracy in Rural Areas of Hangzhou  

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Full Text Available Since, the reform and opening up, countryside in Hangzhou, like the whole country, has carried on the economic system reform, mainly called the household contract responsibility system, has been carried out, farmers have become the relatively independent main body of the production and management. With the development of economy, the increase in people’s living standards and the acceleration of the information exchange, farmers can not only be concerned about their material interests, but also pay close attention to their democratic rights and their requirements to participate in decision-making, management and monitoring the grass-roots affairs are increasingly strong. In recent years, townships of Hangzhou district explored the effective way to promote the villager’s autonomy-through the democratic election, decision-making, management and supervision to realize the villager’s self-management, self-education and self-service. At last, they achieved remarkable results and various contradictions of rural areas in transformation period have been digested. Based on deep investigation in the towns of Hangzhou, the exploration and practice of grass-roots level democracy in rural areas of Hangzhou are summarized, the weak village economy, insufficient internal driving force in democracy, elections and unpublicized village affairs are targeted at and the corresponding measures are put forward from five aspects so as to promote the healthy development of grassroots democracy in rural areas of Hangzhou.

Zhong Xuemin

2013-01-01

365

Saneamento rural em áreas endêmicas de esquistossomose: experiência e aprendizagem Rural sanitation in schistosomiasis endemic areas: experience and learning process  

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Full Text Available A partir de 25 entrevistas para avaliação do vídeo "Doença do Caramujo" em áreas endêmicas de esquistossomose, MG, procuramos analisar, interpretar e contextualizar as vivências relatadas e as opiniões expressas pelos entrevistados sobre saneamento e destino dos dejetos, de modo a colaborar na compreensão desta temática. A experiência popular com a fossa sanitária é negativa, apresentando-se como um problema com o qual deveremos aprender a lidar em oposição à forte valoração positiva das chamadas "redes de esgoto" que nada mais fazem do que lançar os despejos in natura nos rios. O pensamento concreto, que caracteriza grupos sem escolaridade, tende a evitar julgamentos com base em premissas alheias à experiência prática imediata e, portanto, tais "redes" vêm se confirmando como melhor opção sanitária por serem menos trabalhosas e onerosas. Ao fortalecer o nexo causal entre os despejos in natura e a esquistossomose, o vídeo "Doença do Caramujo" levou metade dos entrevistados a abordar a questão do saneamento, enquanto a outra metade referiu-se estritamente à prevenção do contato com águas poluídas. Como o material destina-se ao trabalho educativo em grupo, são grandes as chances de que os debates previstos, utilizando o vídeo, abordem a temática do saneamento.Drawing on data from 25 interviews for the evaluation of the video: "Snail disease" in schistosomiasis endemic areas, this article is concerned with reports of rural experiences with sanitation and sewerage disposals. Negative popular experiences with pit latrines were reported, highlighting a problem with which health professionals in endemic areas will have to learn to deal. What is known in most rural areas as "sewerage system", provides no treatment of sewerage at all, but instead, a connection to empty directly into the rivers. For most interviewees this system is considered the best one, for it is the only alternative known for pit latrines. The learning process of illiterates tends towards the concrete way of thinking. Thus, there are practical concrete evidences of the advantages of the "sewerage system", which demands no costs and efforts for its construction and mantainance. By relating sewage disposal in natura and schistosomiasis, the video "Snail Disease" evoked sanitation issues' discussion in half of the interviews, while the other half focused strictly on the prevention of water contact. Eventhough, the chances for the discussion of sanitation to arise at the video's follow-up debates, to be conducted in the field, are considerably high.

Brani Rozemberg

1998-01-01

366

[A correlation study on homocysteine metabolism in pregnant women and neural tube defects in urban and rural areas].  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum levels of homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 in pregnant women in urban and rural areas were compared to study the relationship between homocysteine metabolism and neural tube defects. Four hundred and eleven serum specimens were sampled randomly from a serum bank for women with early pregnancy in Beijing area, 195 from urban and 216 from rural. Their levels of homocysteine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography combined with electrochemical methods, and those of folic acid and vitamin B12 by radioimmunoassay. Results showed that level of homocysteine was significantly higher in rural pregnant women than that in urban, with 9.31 mumol/L and 5.73 mumol/L, respectively, level of vitamin B12 was lower in rural than that in urban women, with 210.09 pmol/L and 233.35 pmol/L, respectively, and level of folic acid was higher in rural than that in urban women, but no significant difference in deficiency of folic acid between rural and urban was found. The average ratio of folic acid to homocysteine and that of vitamin B12 to homocysteine were higher in rural than those in urban women. It suggests that abnormal metabolism of homocysteine usually correlates with high incidence of neural tube defects in rural area. PMID:9812582

Zhan, S; Hu, Y; Li, L

1997-07-01

367

Strategies for Organization and Development of Tourism Function in Rural Areas Case Study: Villages of Qom Province, Iran  

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Full Text Available Regarding its appeals and capacities, tourism function of rural areas in Qom province has not adequately played an effective role in advancing rural sustainable development. Therefore, the current research attempts at identifying and preparing organization and development strategies for tourism function in rural areas of Qom province. Research method is descriptive-analytical and it is applied in terms of its content. The present study aims at searching for organization and development strategies and approaches for tourism function in rural areas of Qom province with special emphasis on existent potentials and restrictions. For so doing, using SWOT technique, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats related to tourism function of rural areas in Qom province have been investigated. Findings indicate that 12 internal strengths and 12 internal weaknesses as well as 10 external opportunities and 9 external threats influence greatly on tourism function of rural areas. In the research presented here, research sample consists of 145 managers and experts of Qom province. Then, their ideas are received and recorded. After that, using one sample t-test, the influence of those two environments on organization and development of rural regions’ tourism function is analyzed. Results obtained from findings analysis reveal that both components of external environment and internal environment do greatly influence on organization and development of tourism function. Compatible with analysis content, efficient strategies are derived and ranked. Ultimately, WO strategies are considered as first priority for planning and SO strategies as second one.

Mohammad Ali Ahmadi Shapourabadi

2013-12-01

368

Point of care investigations in pediatric care to improve health care in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The good quality laboratory services in developing countries are often limited to major urban centers. As a result, many commercially available high-quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases are neither accessible nor affordable to patients in the rural areas. Health facilities in rural areas are compromised and this limits the usability and performance of the best medical diagnostic technologies in rural areas as they are designed for air-conditioned laboratories, refrigerated storage of chemicals, a constant supply of calibrators and reagents, stable electrical power, highly trained personnel and rapid transportation of samples. The advent of new technologies have allowed miniaturization and integration of complex functions, which has made it possible for sophisticated diagnostic tools to move out of the developed-world laboratory in the form of a "point of care"(POC) tests. Many diagnostic tests are being developed using these platforms. However, the challenge is to develop diagnostics which are inexpensive, rugged and well suited to the medical and social contexts of the developing world and do not compromise on accuracy and reliability. The already available POC tests which are reliable and affordable, like for HIV infection, malaria, syphilis, and some neglected tropical diseases, and POC tests being developed for other diseases if correctly used and effectively regulated after rigorous evaluation, have the potential to make a difference in clinical management and improve surveillance. In order to use these tests effectively they would need to be supported by technically competent manpower, availability of good-quality reagents, and healthcare providers who value and are able to interpret laboratory results to guide treatment; and a system for timely communication between the laboratory and the healthcare provider. Strengthening the laboratories at the rural level can enable utilization of these diagnostics for improving the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases among children which require prompt treatment and thus, considerably reduce morbidity and mortality among the pediatric age group. PMID:23564518

Walia, Kamini

2013-07-01

369

Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were 137Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

370

Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number of countries, their geographical spread across Western/Central and Eastern/Southern Africa, and their socioeconomic diversities, constitute a good yardstick for the region and allow us to draw some generalizations. A household wealth index is constructed in each country and area (urban, rural, and the odds ratio between its uppermost and lowermost category, derived from multilevel logistic models, is used as a measure of socioeconomic inequalities. Control variables include mother's and father's education, community socioeconomic status (SES designed to represent the broad socio-economic ecology of the neighborhoods in which families live, and relevant mother- and child-level covariates. Results Across countries in SSA, though socioeconomic inequalities in stunting do exist in both urban and rural areas, they are significantly larger in urban areas. Intra-urban differences in child malnutrition are larger than overall urban-rural differentials in child malnutrition, and there seem to be no visible relationships between within-urban inequities in child health on the one hand, and urban population growth, urban malnutrition, or overall rural-urban differentials in malnutrition, on the other. Finally, maternal and father's education, community SES and other measurable covariates at the mother and child levels only explain a slight part of the within-urban differences in child malnutrition. Conclusion The urban advantage in health masks enormous disparities between the poor and the non-poor in urban areas of SSA. Specific policies geared at preferentially improving the health and nutrition of the urban poor should be implemented, so that while targeting the best attainable average level of health, reducing gaps between population groups is also on target. To successfully monitor the gaps between urban poor and non-poor, existing data collection programs such as the DHS and other nationally representative surveys should be re-designed to capture the changing patterns of the spatial distribution of population.

Fotso Jean-Christophe

2006-07-01

371

USE OF MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION (MVC) SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality drinking water is scarce in many rural areas of developing countries. Currently, inland desalination for the supply of fresh water is not sustainable due to expensive and energy intensive desalination technologies. This project proposes the development of a renewable ...

372

Self-Interest in Innovation Diffusion Decision Process : The Case of Extending Broadband Internet Services to Rural Areas of Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper assesses the factors that would facilitate the diffusion and adoption of broadband internet services in rural areas using the internet café business model. The rural areas of developing countries are predominantly ignored or underserved with broadband Internet connectivity. However in the cities, the internet café business model has been a major driver in the diffusion of the internet services. This paper adopts an exploratory approach to investigate why Internet café entrepreneurs do not supply internet services to rural areas. It also explores the factors that would stimulate investments from the same who are currently investing in internet services provisioning in the cities. Ghana is used as a case study by surveying 25 Internet Café operators. The analysis of the data collected facilitated self-interest assessment and its influences on the decision for broadband service diffusion and adoption in the rural areas using the internet café business model.

Williams, Idongesit; Gyaase, Patrick Ohemeng Kwadwo

2013-01-01

373

DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC CULTURE IN TERMS OF REGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION OF RURAL AREAS  

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Full Text Available The article Development of Economic Culture in terms of regional differentiation of rural areas relates to the issue of individualisation of development policies in the area of creating economic culture. Pointing to the nature and significance of economic culture as a factor of economic development, the author advocates a focus on some of the support instruments in order to influence its shape, taking into account Polish regional differences. The article uses the achievements of economic and sociological research based on the methodology of desk research and the use of its own research achievements.

Gra?yna Krzyminiewska

2014-03-01

374

The challenge of multi-functional land use in rural areas  

OpenAIRE

The relationship between cities and rural areas is subject to continual change. This was true in the past, but particularly in the last two centuries. The latter period showed a mass movement towards the cities in Western countries followed by the rest of the world, especially by the end of the century. Based on figures from the World Resource Institute, Weier (2000) concluded that in the year 2000 50% of the world’s population lived in urban areas, while a decade ago it was ...

Dijst, M. J.; Elbersen, B.; Willis, K.

2005-01-01

375

Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in a Child from a Rural Area: A Rare Case Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

In humans, infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is usually uncommon but has been reported from various areas of the world. Parasitization rates ranging between 0.001% and 5.5% have been reported according to different surveys. We report a rare case of H. diminuta infection in a 10-year-old female from the rural area of Kendrapada district of Odisha. The patient came to our pediatrics outpatient department with the chief complain of intermittent abdominal pain, anal pruritus and nocturnal restlessness. She responded well to praziquantel therapy. PMID:24696564

Tiwari, Shreekant; Karuna, Tadepalli; Rautaraya, Bibhudutta

2014-01-01

376

From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English  

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Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer very difficult in the Røros area around 1867. Reindeer calves died as a result of the long and cold springs, and her father had to borrow money in order to buy more animals. When climatic conditions during the 1860s had such a dramatic impact on the population of wild reindeer, it must have had at least as great consequences in the Røros area during the 16th and 17th century. Even though the reindeer in nomadic times were very tame and under continuous supervision, the herds were left to graze freely on open lands. With the presence of a large population of wild reindeer close to the tame herds, the risk of losing reindeer would be great, especially during winter and in the mating season. The wild reindeer population in Røros would therefore have to be reduced, either before or in parallel to an increase in the number of tame reindeer. The climate contributed to this reduction, and the Sami took care of the rest as far as it was necessary. This could take place in parallel to the building up of herds of tame reindeer. According to the sources there were at least 6 Sami villages in the 17th century, from Tydal in the north to Østerdalen in the south, which kept herds of tame reindeer, and at the same time the Sami population was accused of extinguishing the wild reindeer. A picture emerges. In sum, we can see that circumstances at the time were in favour of a change in strategy, from a hunting-based economy to nomadic reindeer herding.

Sverre Fjellheim

2005-04-01

377

Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

Madhu K

2009-01-01

378

Early implementation of WHO recommendations for the retention of health workers in remote and rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The maldistribution of health workers between urban and rural areas is a policy concern in virtually all countries. It prevents equitable access to health services, can contribute to increased health-care costs and underutilization of health professional skills in urban areas, and is a barrier to universal health coverage. To address this long-standing concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued global recommendations to improve the rural recruitment and retention of the health workforce. This paper presents experiences with local and regional adaptation and adoption of WHO recommendations. It highlights challenges and lessons learnt in implementation in two countries - the Lao People's Democratic Republic and South Africa - and provides a broader perspective in two regions - Asia and Europe. At country level, the use of the recommendations facilitated a more structured and focused policy dialogue, which resulted in the development and adoption of more relevant and evidence-based policies. At regional level, the recommendations sparked a more sustained effort for cross-country policy assessment and joint learning. There is a need for impact assessment and evaluation that focus on the links between the rural availability of health workers and universal health coverage. The effects of any health-financing reforms on incentive structures for health workers will also have to be assessed if the central role of more equitably distributed health workers in achieving universal health coverage is to be supported. PMID:24347707

Buchan, James; Couper, Ian D; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thepannya, Khampasong; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Perfilieva, Galina; Dolea, Carmen

2013-11-01

379

Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas  

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Full Text Available The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbeing. We provide empirical evidence for this urban–rural interconnection, using results from a survey in the Netherlands. In addition to their attachment to local and regional green places, survey results show that residents of the capital city of Amsterdam have a high appreciation of a wide range of natural, rural places throughout the country. We argue that these (until now invisible urban–rural ties should be made more visible because these natural areas enjoyed by urban residents can no longer be taken for granted. Financial and other support for nature conservation are therefore needed. However, to organise support for nature can often be problematic because nature is a public good and collective action is often difficult to launch. The invisible and distant ties of urban dwellers for rural areas complicate the task even more. Nevertheless, it is increasingly recognised that the Internet opens many doors for community building and may help to overcome the “illogic” of collective action. In the research project “Sympathy for the Commons”, we aim to investigate the possibilities provided by the internet by building online communities around nature areas and enquiring into the available support and funding that these communities can provide.

Rixt A. Bijker

2014-06-01

380

TRADE AND RESTAURANT BUSINESS SPHERE IN RURAL AREAS OF UKRAINE: STATE, PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS  

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Full Text Available Rural social infrastructure is the material and organizational basis for satisfaction of vital needs of population. However, unsatisfactory economic and social conditions influence the extinction of village, extend the continuous unsettled zones of rural territories, scatter and reduce the level of provision of social infrastructure objects. In order to stop the negative processes in social infrastructures of village, the complex of measures in relation to the improvement of maintenance of villagers should be taken, the practical steps for saving and increasing the material base of social infrastructure should be worked out, in particular trade and restaurant economy.The article is concerned with research of the current situation in trade and restaurant economy in rural areas of Ukraine and determination of the problems of their development. The statistical analysis of data from the State committee of statistics was conducted, the indexes of development were calculated, a structural analysis was performed and basic progress of trade and restaurant economy trends in rural areas was determined.It is educed that the consumption market of rural locality in Ukraine is characterized by a limit of goods assortment, by in-depth tendency in relation to the problem of goods’ quality and its correspondence to the standards of food safety, by low purchasing power of villagers, and also by closing of retails’ networks.As for restaurant economy, it is well-proven that the change of the system of administrative management resulted in the redistribution of rights and duties of regional administrations and their vertical relations with central government bodies and enterprise structures. In the past the chain development, providing separate contingents of employees and students, was centrally planned. At present, when considerable amount of industrial enterprises has stopped working and the objects of social infrastructure became the communal property, regulation of food supply is controlled neither by the management of industrial enterprises nor by local authorities. Therefore, the development of restaurant economy under the new conditions requires the modernization of control system both on nation-wide and regional levels and at the level of separate enterprises and organizations.Thus, use of new approaches to management of trade and restaurant economy development, improving the state regulation methods will allow to renew and strengthen infrastructural potential, optimize financial flows, increase the level of satisfaction of respective necessities of rural population on this basis, promote the role of industries in providing the complex of social development of regions, to create background for attracting the investments.

T. Bulakh

2013-03-01

381

Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is common in parts of South Africa; rural residence is a frequently cited risk factor. We conducted a FAS school prevalence survey of an isolated rural community in a West Coast village of Western Cape Province, so obtaining the first directly measured rate, [...] focusing specifically on a South African rural area, of FAS and partial FAS (PFAS). METHODS: The study area (Aurora village), a community of about 2 500 people in a grain-producing region, has one primary school. All learners were eligible for study inclusion. Initial anthropometry screening was followed by a diagnostic stage entailing examination by a dysmorphologist for features of FAS, neurodevelopmental assessment, and an interview assessing maternal alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Of 160 learners screened, 78 (49%) were screen-positive, of whom 63 (81%) were clinically assessed for FAS. The overall FAS/PFAS rate among the screened learners was 17.5% (95% confidence interval 12.0 - 24.2%), with 16 (10.0%) children having FAS and 12 (7.5%) PFAS. High rates of stunting, underweight and microcephaly were noted in all learners, especially those with FAS or PFAS. Five (18%) mothers of affected children were deceased by the time of assessment. CONCLUSION: We describe very high rates of FAS/PFAS in an isolated rural part of the Western Cape that is not located in a viticultural region. Our study suggests that the prevalence of FAS may be very high in isolated communities, or in particular hot-spots. It adds to the growing evidence that FAS/PFAS is a significant, and underestimated, health problem in South Africa. Expanded screening and surveillance programmes, and preventive interventions, are urgently needed

L, Olivier; M, Urban; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; D, Viljoen.

2013-06-01

382

Resolution No. 44/78. Improvement of the Situation of Women in Rural Areas, 8 December 1989.  

Science.gov (United States)

The UN General Assembly's December 1989 resolution No. 44/78, addresses Improvement of the Status of Women in Rural Areas. It begins with the recollecting of prior resolutions, an acknowledgement of the importance given to the problems of rural women in Nairobi Forward-looking Strategies for the Advancement of Women, the Economic and Social Council resolution 1988/29 of May 1988, in which the Council urged Governments and development agencies of the UN system to pay particular attention to the role of women in rural development, and it takes note with satisfaction of the results of the "International Seminar on Women and Rural Development: Programs and Projects." The resolution recognizes that the economic crises in many developing countries has severely affected the socio-economic status of women, especially in rural areas, requiring the urgent need to take appropriate measures aimed at improving the situation of women in rural areas. Beginning with praise for the Secretary-General's report on the national experience relating to the improvement of the situation of women in rural areas, it then calls upon Member states to make use of the report and the main conclusions and recommendations of the "International Seminar on Women and Rural Development: Programs and Projects" to endeavor to reflect them in national development strategies, paying special attention to 1) setting up or strengthening national machineries for the advancement of women in order to ensure effective execution, monitoring, and evaluation of national strategies in the field of rural development and to strengthen liaison with agricultural and rural development institutions, 2) identifying and formulating more comprehensive priority development projects aimed at improving the situation of rural women and integrating them into national development plans at all levels, 3) taking measures to give rural women broader access to material resources. The resolution also requests that the organizations of the UN system promote the realization of programs and projects aimed at the improvement of the situation of rural women and that the Secretary-General prepare a report on the implementation of the present resolution and submit it to the General Assembly at its 48th session, through the Economic and Social Council. PMID:12344084

1989-01-01

383

Study of the Factor Involved in Non-farming Labor Supply in Rural Areas in Ghoochan Township  

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Full Text Available Considering the population growth and limitation of expansion in cultivation areas, employment in non-agricultural jobs in rural areas is inevitable. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the supply of labor of the rural families on non-agricultural jobs in the rural areas. A sample of 300 families from rural areas of the Ghoochan Township in 2000-2001 was studied. The data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. The analysis used a multivariable regression equation. The results showed that: 1. The wage level of the non-agricultural experience of the person had positive effect on the supply of labors to non-agricultural jobs. 2. However, this effect was negative for the number of days the person worked on farm. Finally, since wages earned from non-agricultural jobs was higher than that of agricultural jobs. Therefore, it is suggested that for the purpose of increasing the income of rural people, non-agricultural jobs in rural areas be facilitated and encouraged

J. Mir Mohammad Sadeghi

2004-07-01

384

Human exposures to wood smoke in rural areas of South Africa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than 60 % of the South African population use unprocessed fuels,such as coal and wood, as primary household cooking and heating fuels. A proJect was undertaken to measure human exposures to air pollutants emitted as a result of household wood combustion processes in rural areas of South Africa. Measurements of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and CO were done with fixed monitors placed inside the cooking areas, while total suspended particulates (TSP) were measured inside the cooking and the sleeping areas of the homes. Total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) were measured inside the cooking areas and outside the homes. In addition, personal monitoring of TSP was done in 15 children, aged 8 to 12 years. SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and CO were monitored continuously with an electrochemical monitor (EXOTOX Model 75), TVOCs were sampled with 3M passive samplers and analysed with a GC, using an FID detector. TSP was sampled at 2 Q/min, using low flow pumps and cellulose filters. Gravimetric analyses were performed. The hazards of wood fuel use as a health risk factor in rural South Africa, has been raised through this project. Practical and affordable means of reducing exposures are currently explored. (author)

Terblanche, A.P.S.; Danford, I.R.; Baunok, I. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Atmospheric Processes and Management Advice

1993-12-31

385

Is Tourism in Zimbabwe Developing with the Poor in Mind? Assessing the Pro-poor Involvement of Tourism Operators Located Near Rural Areas in Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available The paper explores the contribution of tourism industry operators to pro-poor tourism development in Zimbabwe. This research investigates a possible nexus between the aforementioned tourism growth and its potential for poverty reduction in communities surrounding Victoria Falls and Hwange. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with tourism industry businesses that exhibited their products and services at the International Travel Expo held on the 18th- 21st of October 2012 at the Harare International Conference Centre in Zimbabwe. Findings indicate that the tourism industry is keen to engage in pro-poor tourism initiatives for the rural people despite the political and economic turmoil that the industry has suffered over the past years. In Zimbabwe, 80% of the population resides in rural areas and a sizable fraction of these are near National Parks and Tourism Resorts, for example, Hwange National Park, the biggest Park in Zimbabwe and Victoria Falls, respectively. The findings point to the fact that tourism operators appreciate the need to incorporate pro-poor initiatives in their operations as evidenced by their commitment towards education funding initiatives, employment of the poor and generation of income from village tours. However more could be done to enhance the pro-poor tourism benefits that accrue to the rural poor by establishing close linkages between tourism operators and local communities.

Sarudzai Mutana

2013-04-01

386

CRIMES AND DISTRIBUTION OF CRIMES IN THE RURAL AREAS OF TURKEY (1997  

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Full Text Available Crime is a phenomenon which results from the interaction between social, political, economic, physical, psychological conditions and geographical agents. Geographical site is important in the event of crime. Security forces should first know the geographical sites in order to protect people and then know the socio-economic aspects of the site in which crime occurs. This article aims at studying crimes, types of crimes, spatial analysis of crimes, the geographical factors which affect the crimes in rural areas (areas that are out of provinces and municipalities which account for 92% of Turkey. The study of “1997 Rural Envantery” which presents the problems of rural settlements and population is the data base of this article. In this study, crimes and their aspects have been examined in 37.368 villages and 922 towns which are affiliated with 80 provinces in 1997. 31.430 crimes occured in the rural areas of Turkey in that period. As a result of these events, 990 people were killed and 2.145 people were injured. Crime rate in coastal areas is higher than that in inner areas. In terms of the number of crimes and injures, Black Sea Region has the highest rate whereas Eastern Anatolia has the highest rate in terms of death rates. In terms of the number of events in every 100.000 people, Eastern Anatolia has the highest crime and death rates while Black Sea Region has the highest rate of injury. There are regional differences both when crimes are propotioned to the population and when types of crimes are taken into consideration. In terms of the types of crimes, abduction of girls, land conflicts and forestry crimes are the highest in Black Sea Region, while water conflicts in the Mediterranean Region and blood feud in Eastern Anatolia are common. In terms of crimes for per 100.000, the highest rates are: land conlicts and forestry crimes in Black Sea Region, abduction of girls in Marmara Region, water conflicts in Mediterranean Region, blood feud in Eastern Anatolia.

Kadir TEMURÇ?N

2013-10-01

387

Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area  

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Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

Subhash Singh Parihar

2014-03-01

388

Population study on chronic and acute conjunctivitis associated with ambient environment in urban and rural areas.  

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The objective of this study is to evaluate whether daily clinic visits for conjunctivitis are associated with the ambient environment in urban and rural areas of Taiwan. The incidences of acute and chronic conjunctivitis (International Classification of Disease 9 Clinical Modification 372.0 and 372.1) in two urban cities and two rural counties and their relative risks (RRs) are associated with air pollutants (nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter 1.3 time more likely to have chronic complaints than the patients lived in the capital, Taipei. Per 10?°C increment of the daily average temperature increased the risk of acute conjunctivitis and chronic conjunctivitis with RRs of 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.09) and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.04-1.07), respectively. A 10-p.p.b. increase in NOx concentration also increased the risk of acute conjunctivitis (RR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.04) and chronic conjunctivitis (RR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.05-1.06). Residents in rural counties, females, the elderly, and children have higher risk of conjunctivitis. Ambient temperature and NOx concentration can cause greater significant risks on the diseases. PMID:22714096

Chiang, Chun-Chi; Liao, Chiang-Chang; Chen, Pei-Chun; Tsai, Yi-Yu; Wang, Yu-Chun

2012-09-01

389

Las dinámicas de dominación capitalista en el espacio rural: la configuración de paisajes turísticos / Les dynamiques de domination capitaliste dans le milieu rural: la configuration des paysages touristiques / Capitalist Domination Dynamics in Rural Areas: the Configuration of Touristic Farmlands  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La pérdida de significación económica de las actividades primarias en el ámbito rural mexicano ha venido acompañada de una marcada terciarización de las actividades productivas, el campo ha comenzado a ser vinculado a actividades no agrícolas como el turismo que, además de deteriorar los ecosistemas [...] , ha transformado el espacio rural en un tejido denso y tupido de infraestructuras o equipamientos destinados al ofrecimiento de servicios turísticos. El objetivo es reflexionar teóricamente sobre la configuración paisajística de los espacios rurales como resultado del proceso de dominación capitalista a través del turismo, lo cual no es más que un proceso histórico conformado por dos dinámicas fundamentales: la apropiación de los espacios y recursos estratégicos para el turismo y, la valorización del espacio. Abstract in english The economic downturn of primary activities in rural Mexico has brought about a shift of productive activities into a service economy, and the land is now the place for non-agricultural activities such as tourism which not only affects ecosystems but has transformed rural areas into a dense fabric f [...] ull of infrastructures and equipment for providing services to tourists. The aim of this paper is to conduct a theoretical reflection on the configuration of rural areas as a result of the process of capitalist domination through tourism, a historic process formed by two main dynamics: the appropriation of space and strategic resources for tourism, and the increase in value of such space.

Erika, Cruz-Coria; Lilia, Zizumbo-Villarreal; Graciela, Cruz-Jiménez; Ana Luz, Quintanilla-Montoya.

2012-12-01

390

Problemas en la extensión rural paraguaya: modelos de extensión en la encrucijada / Problèmes à l'intérieur de la vulgarisation rurale paraguayenne: modèles de vulgarisation au carrefour / Problems in Paraguayan Rural Areas: Extension Models at a Crossroads  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La extensión rural constituye un factor clave en la mejora de la calidad de vida de los pequeños productores. Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo de la problemática de extensión rural en Paraguay, con particular énfasis en el departamento de Caazapá. Para esto se realizaron entrevistas a pequeños [...] productores, extensionistas y referentes institucionales, las cuales fueron desgrabadas y su contenido categorizado. Se concluye que las dinámicas político-institucionales poseen un rol estructurante de la problemática en estudio; que la pobreza, la pérdida de fertilidad de los suelos y la escasa productividad de la agricultura campesina son fenómenos emergentes de un sistema complejo, y que la implementación de metodologías de extensión rural transferencistas constituye un elemento nodal del entramado problemático. Abstract in english The rural area constitutes a key factor for improving the quality of life of small producers. We conducted a qualitative study on the problems of the Paraguayan rural area, focusing particularly on the department of Caazapâ. To this purpose we conducted interviews with small producers, extension age [...] nts and institutions, which were transcribed and categorised according to contents. It was concluded that political-institutional dynamics play a leading role in the problem at hand; that poverty, the lack of fertility of the land and low agricultural productivity are phenomena that are part of a complex system, and that the implementation of transfer methods of rural extension constitute a key element in the problem under discussion.

Fernando, Landini.

2012-12-01

391

Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

2014-01-01

392

Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China.  

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With its rapid development, the rural area of Southwest China has been puzzled by the waste management problem, especially for increasing solid waste and water pollution from the domestic waste. Therefore, in order to efficiently and effectively manage the domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China, 22 villages were selected randomly to analyse the characteristics of domestic waste, the influence factors of characteristics and resident's willingness of participation in domestic waste management by questionnaires, field samplings and laboratory tests. The results of the rural area of Southwest China indicated that the generation of domestic waste was 178?g?d(-1) per capita and it was mainly composed of kitchen waste, inert waste, plastics and paper with a total proportion of 81.98%. The waste bulk density, moisture, ash, combustible and lower calorific value were 107?kg?m(-3), 37.04%, 25.73%, 37.23% and 8008?kJ?kg(-1), respectively. These characteristics were influenced by the topography, the distance from towns or cities, the villagers' ethnicities and income sources to some extent. Moreover, the distance of 50-800?m between each collection facility and the disposal fee of around ¥5.00 per household per month could be accepted. The working hours of participation in waste management is suggested as 5?hours per day with the income of ¥1000 per capita per month. Based on the outcome of this survey, a waste management system consisting of classified collection, centralised treatment and decentralised treatment was proposed. It is important to ensure financial viability and practical considerations of this system. PMID:25423957

Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Lei, Yunhui; Wu, Jing; Li, Shulan

2015-01-01

393

Fear and loathing in New England: examining the health-care perspectives of homeless people in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little anthropological research has been conducted on the health care perspectives of homeless people in rural areas. The aim of the present study is to elicit health-care beliefs, and examine overall health experience among a sample of current or recently homeless people in rural New Hampshire. Thirteen qualitative interviews were conducted, 11 with single men. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Despite a massive burden of disease and illness, almost all participants reported an abiding aversion to doctors, hospitals and professional health care. Participants reported numerous negative encounters with doctors and health care professionals, often of a demeaning and disparaging nature. Participants noted that these encounters resulted in frequent cases of misdiagnosis and iatrogenesis. In contrast, participants spoke more fondly of other social and voluntary services, for example homeless organizations. Like other rural New Englanders, participants made their own individual efforts to maintain and promote health, for example by pursuing hobbies or prayer. The findings are contextualized within literature suggesting that these perspectives are generally shared by other poor rural people. Consistent with this literature, the findings suggest that homelessness in rural areas is often temporary and episodic. As such, this paper brings into question the distinctiveness and overall utility of the concept: 'the rural homeless'. The key determinant of negative attitudes to health care may not be recent homelessness. It may be entrenched socio-economic marginalization, and the resultant social stigma, that are shared amongst the rural poor, regardless of their current housing status. PMID:24670159

Whitley, Rob

2013-01-01

394

Current Trends in Unlocking the Potential of Rural Tourism in Romania. Case Study: Snagov Area  

OpenAIRE

This paper is aimed at demonstrating that rural tourism is a viable source of income for all Romanian communes. To prove this point, we will refer to the circumstances of the Snagov area. Snagov’s tourism resources are not used to their full potential and tourism, as currently managed, has detrimental effects on the environment, which is deteriorating by the year. Therefore, the paper is also a warning to those who are in the position to improve the technologies for the transformation and p...

Nova?cescu, Petronela; Ion, Florentina; Dinu, Laurent?iu

2010-01-01

395

Farms in the concept of sustainable development policy on rural areas  

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Full Text Available Problems of the sustainable development of farms were presented in this paper. Thesis that farms like other companies are guided in their philosophy by the economic premise and short-term perspective was advanced. For this reason for implementation of sustainable development, understanding as a leading of profitable production and mineralization of negative environmental influence, it is necessary to lead active agriculture and rural areas policy. On the other hand it is indispensable to take into account both production potential of farms and current (involved before all with production technology as well as strategic (concerned with investments decision made by farmers.

Arkadiusz Sadowski

2009-01-01