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The constraints of antiretroviral uptake in rural areas: the case of Thamaga and surrounding villages, Botswana.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines the constraints of antiretroviral (ARV) uptake in the villages of Thamaga, Kumakwane, Mankgodi and Gakgatla which are in the Kweneng District of Botswana. The social interactionist approach and theories of health behaviour provided the theoretical basis of the study. Data were obtained by using interviewer-administered questionnaires which were applied to a sample of 145 respondents and 61 people living with HIV/AIDS in the four villages. The results of the study showed that people aged 30-39 years represented the highest proportion of the persons on ARV treatment in the villages. Some of the people living with HIV believed that ARV therapy could better their lives during the initial stages of introduction, but with time, they lost hope and gave up the treatment. Culturally, parents and children in the villages do not discuss sexual matters at home and it was found in the study that there was little communication between parents and children on AIDS and ARV issues. Some churches in the area discouraged the use of ARV. There were also traditional doctors who made their patients mix traditional herbs treatment with ARV treatment. Distance, travel costs, cultural beliefs, stigma and discrimination among others were found to be important socio-economic factors inhibiting ARV uptake. Even though there were constraints on ARV uptake in the villages, efforts were being made by Government and non-governmental organizations to overcome them. The Ministry of Health provided information and education to the public using its strategy known as Information, Education and Communication. Nurses, doctors and chiefs taught people at kgotlas (traditional courts) in the villages about the dangers of the epidemic. Free HIV testing, ARVs and condoms were provided to the villagers. The outlook for ARV uptake looks generally promising for the future. However, if HIV/AIDS is to be contained, sexual behaviour of people in the villages needs to change. PMID:25365702

Bene, Matlhogonolo; Darkoh, Michael B K

2014-01-01

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Space-time analysis of the urban-rural grafient in the metropolitan area of Madrid and ist surroundings -Guadalajara and Toledo.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

According to UN provisions in the period from 2007 to 2050 world population will grow up to 9200 million people. In fact, for the first time in history, in the year 2008 world urban population became higher than rural population. The increase of urban areas and their transport infrastructures has influenced agricultural land use due to their irreversible change, especially when they remain as periurban vacant land, losing their character and identity. In the Europe of the nineties, the tradit...

Diaz-palacios Sisternes, Susana; Ayuga Te?llez, Francisco; Garci?a Garci?a, Ana Isabel

2012-01-01

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Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural entrepreneurship can be considered as one of the solutions to reduce poverty, migration and develop employment in rural environments. In this study, the necessity of sustainable entrepreneurship, the effective factors and the barriers to entrepreneurship in rural area will be described. In this regard, a model has been considered to create a sustainable rural entrepreneurship area by establishing a logical connection between the effective factors in entrepreneurship. Some of the most im...

Bahareh Ansari; Seyed Mehdi Mirdamadi; Azita Zand; Masoumeh Arfaee

2013-01-01

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Gifted Education in Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes responses of 35 state gifted education consultants and 76 teachers of gifted students in rural areas to survey of rural gifted programming. Finds many needs for gifted programming involving cooperative efforts, adequate funding, use of community resources, more consistent/appropriate identification methods, teacher influence, and role…

Meriweather, Suzanne; Karnes, Frances A.

1986-01-01

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Bronchoscopy in Rural Areas?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Quality of bronchoscopy performed by one single pulmonologist in a scarcely populated subarctic area was compared to the guidelines provided by the British Thoracic Society (BTS). 103 patients underwent bronchoscopy. Diagnostic yield was increased to 76.6% when the first bronchoscopy was supplemented by bronchial washing fluid and brush cytology and to 86.7% (BTS guidelines >80%) after a second bronchoscopy. Median time from referral to bronchoscopy was 10 days and 8 days from positive br...

Reidar Berntsen; Erik Waage Nielsen

2012-01-01

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Food Resilience in Rural Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT Food Resilience in Rural Area (A Case study In Tambassa Village Makassar) By : Ismartoyo, M.Sc. in National Resilience, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta This research was aimed to investigate the level of household food security in Tambassa village, Makassar, South Sulawesi. The investigation was mainly focused on the food supply, food accessibility, food utilization, and the food consumption in connection with the national standard of food consumption recommended by...

Ismartoyo, Ismartoyo

2012-01-01

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Rurality study of restricted areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas&...

Sergio Rivaroli; Domenico Regazzi; Rino Ghelfi

2009-01-01

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EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Europe's rural areas face a common challenge: the creation of highquality, sustainable jobs. In this area, the gap between urban and rural areas continues to widen. Although rural areas make up 93% of theterritory of the European Union (EU, income per capita in these areas is little more than half that in urban areas. For this reason it is becoming increasingly difficult to attract and retain skilled individuals.

MADALINA NEACSU

2009-05-01

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT-NECESSARY COMPONENT OF RURAL AREA  

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Full Text Available The economical activities that deploy in the rural area have a very low level of diversification, the economical life of the romanian village being dominated by agriculture. Industry is an economical sector less diversed and developed in the rural space. If we take into consideration the services in the rural space, these, not only that they are not properly developed, but in some areas, they are totaly missing.

Ioan Marincas

2012-01-01

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RURAL DEVELOPMENT-NECESSARY COMPONENT OF RURAL AREA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The economical activities that deploy in the rural area have a very low level of diversification, the economical life of the romanian village being dominated by agriculture. Industry is an economical sector less diversed and developed in the rural space. If we take into consideration the services in the rural space, these, not only that they are not properly developed, but in some areas, they are totaly missing.

Ioan Marincas

2012-01-01

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Comparison of the vector potential of different mosquito species for the transmission of heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, in rural and urban areas in and surrounding Stillwater, Oklahoma, U.S.A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dirofilaria immitis Leidy (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), or heartworm, is a mosquito-borne nematode that causes a fatal disease in carnivores. Although infection is preventable through prophylactic drugs, compliance and the spectre of resistance suggest vector control is a viable alternative. There were two main objectives in this study: (a) to evaluate the relationships between landscape and social factors and the number and species of heartworm-positive mosquitoes, with a specific focus on the importance of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), and (b) to test the hypothesis that dog heartworm is more prevalent in suburban than in rural areas. To achieve these objectives, mosquitoes were collected from May to November 2010 at 16 rural and 16 urban locations in Payne County, Oklahoma, U.S.A. using three trapping methods that utilized, respectively, resting boxes, carbon dioxide traps and BG Sentinel traps. Urban areas showed greater numbers of Ae.?albopictus and a higher overall likelihood of infection with D.?immitis. Because many species of mosquito are responsible for heartworm transmission, current prophylactic treatment remains the best method of controlling this parasite. PMID:24898348

Paras, K L; O'Brien, V A; Reiskind, M H

2014-08-01

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Tourism in the Portuguese Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The tourism in the rural areas is an important contribution to the local economies and an additional income for the traditional local activities as the agricultural sector. Some traditional rural activities, as the agriculture, sometimes and in some locations are not sufficient to provide an acceptable return to their promoters. So the different forms of tourism in rural zones, as the small industry and others sectors, are important contributions to the economic activity in the rural areas. T...

Martinho, Vi?tor Joa?o Pereira Domingues

2013-01-01

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A typology of rural areas in Serbia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper is to present a method to establish the typology of rural areas in Serbia. Initially the OECD rurality criterion was applied to define the rural areas in Serbia. Subsequently, relevant indicators were selected (demographic, geographic, economic, employment-related, human capital, agricultural, tourism and infrastructure) and used to define and distinguish relatively homogeneous rural regions, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis (VARIMAX method) and cluster an...

Bogdanov Natalija; Meredith David; Efstratoglou Sophia

2008-01-01

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ROLE OF RURAL TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS  

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Full Text Available The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …. The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa. The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development possibilities of studied rural areas. We analysed how different systems are able to maintain its functions in the context of identifi ed perturbations (socio-economic and geophysical. We analysed the infl uence of different factors on systems stability, its resilience, robustness and integrity. The gained results show that only the higher level of diversifi cation is not a guarantee for systems higher stability, resilience, robustness and integrity, but there also other

Andrej Udov?

2001-09-01

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PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AMONG POPULATION OF SULTANPUR KUNHARI AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA, HARIDWAR, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The average prevalence of hypertension in India is 25% in urban and 10% in rural inhabitants. Prevalence of hypertension has been found to increase in traditional populations undergoing innovation. There is a strong correlation between changing lifestyle factors and increase in hypertension. Objectives: 1.To study prevalence of hypertension among population of Sultanpur Kunhari and its surrounding area, Haridwar Uttarakhand. 2. To study association between various factors and hypertension in ...

Izharul Hasan; Mahboob Ali; Mustaq Hussain

2012-01-01

16

Reconceptualising Child Care in Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examining child care services in rural and remote areas conducted focus group interviews and distributed questionnaires to parents living in 15 towns in the Mallee region of Western Victoria (Australia). Barriers to accessing child care in rural areas included limited availability of formal services, costs, stereotypes associated with life…

Morda, Romana; Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Clyde, Margaret

17

Plastic surgery in rural area: A report  

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Full Text Available Most of our rural population does not seek the expensive specialist service of distant city hospitals due to social or financial reasons. Existing health system in rural area is not efficient enough to meet the health demands of such vast population. There is only one Government Plastic surgery unit covering the population of 40 lacs leading to huge backlog of patients waiting for reconstructive surgery. To evade this situation a team of Plastic surgeons from Government Medical College Jabalpur goes to rural areas twice a year and has operated in on nine occasions since last 4 years. The activities and experiences of the last nine visits are reported here.

Agarwal Pawan

2005-01-01

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Rural areas under urban pressure : case studies of rural-urban relationships across Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report presents the results of the European research project on building new relationships in rural areas under urban pressure (RURBAN). The analysis identifies the impact of urban pressure on rural landscapes and the contribution of rural goods and services (RGS) to enhance the rural landscape in Finland, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and Spain. In each country, two case study regions have been selected: a rural area near a metropolitan area and a rural area near a tourist seashore a...

Overbeek, M. M. M.; Terluin, I. J.

2006-01-01

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Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J.; Hitz, Martin

2014-01-01

20

Integrated Pollutant Concentration Distribution Over Area Surrounding Elevated Point Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollutant dispersion from a continuous elevated point source in the atmosphere for a combination of varying meteorological parameters is studied in the frame of Gaussian plume model. The gaussian basic formula for the concentration is reformulated in polar coordinates. The study derives a general formula for the annual or seasonal integrated concentration over sixteen angular sectors surrounding the source. A computer program is developed to determine the frequency of occurrence of the wind velocity and direction together with the stability classes for the sake of evaluating the integrated pollutant concentration as a function of the distance from the source in the different angular sectors. The results have been applied to the area surrounding the reactor of the Nuclear Research at Inshas-Egypt

 
 
 
 
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Tectonics and seismicity of Baku and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : In this article it is described Baku and its surrounding areas, where the main tectonics are the Caucasus, strike-slip faults and reverse faults. The Caucasus is a part of the Alpine-Himalayan folding belt and situated between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The main faults in this region are the Pembak-Sevan fault, the Garni fault and the Talesh fault. The Pembak-Sevan fault and the Garni fault are characterized by right-leteral strike slip faults. The Talesh fault is characterized by reverse fault and the Talesh Mountains have been thrust over the south Caspian depression. Some earthquake catalogues for Baku and surrounding region had been prepared from different sources. The qreat earthquakes had been occured in the Caucasus, the Caspian sea and the Tales fault and around Baku.

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PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AMONG POPULATION OF SULTANPUR KUNHARI AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA, HARIDWAR, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The average prevalence of hypertension in India is 25% in urban and 10% in rural inhabitants. Prevalence of hypertension has been found to increase in traditional populations undergoing innovation. There is a strong correlation between changing lifestyle factors and increase in hypertension. Objectives: 1.To study prevalence of hypertension among population of Sultanpur Kunhari and its surrounding area, Haridwar Uttarakhand. 2. To study association between various factors and hypertension in a rural community of the study area. A community based cross sectional study was carried out in the selected area for the study. The cross sectional field study involved 500 respondents, aged 30 years and above using simple random sampling technique. A study instrument which included behavioral risk factor questionnaire (Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and type of diet and physical measurements of height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and blood pressure was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze data. The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 11%. It was higher in females (12.1% than males (10%. It was seen that prevalence of hypertension increased with age. Prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among individuals, aged 40 years and above, with high body mass index and increased waist hip ratio, (P<.05. The prevalence of hypertension is high and is associated with socio-demographic factors. Hence there is need for primordial prevention efforts on large scale.

Izharul Hasan

2012-03-01

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Biogas production in rural areas of Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mexico is highly dependent on fossil fuels. One of the governmental initiatives proposes to investigate the possibilities for biogas production in rural areas. Agricultural producers are highly susceptible to energy price variations and in most cases the steadily growing prices of electricity and fuels are lowering the profits and income of farmers. Environmental concerns about fossil fuels give additional stimulus towards a switch to more sustainable energy sources. Literature research on di...

Koldisevs, Jevgenijs

2014-01-01

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Accessibility to and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services in a rural area of state of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present paper was to compare accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis diagnostic and treatment services in a small village and the surrounding rural area in northern part of the state of Minas Gerais Brazil. The study included 1,228 individuals: 935 central village residents and 293 rural residents of São Pedro do Jequitinhonha. Schistosoma mansoni infection rates were significantly higher in the central village than in the rural area during a survey in 2007 (44....

Dener Carlos dos Reis; Helmut Kloos; Charles King; Humberto Ferreira Oliveira Quites; Leonardo Ferreira Matoso; Kellen Rosa Coelho; Andrea Gazzinelli

2010-01-01

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CHANGING SCHOOL NEEDS IN RURAL AREAS.  

Science.gov (United States)

AS THE RURAL ECONOMY HAS BECOME MORE AFFECTED BY AUTOMATION, RURAL SOCIETY HAS BECOME MORE INDUSTRIAL. FARM POPULATION AND THE NUMBER OF FARMS HAVE DECREASED, WHILE NON-FARM RURAL POPULATION HAS INCREASED. THE CHANGING RURAL SCENE IS REFLECTED IN CHANGES IN RURAL EDUCATION. EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES HAVE GREATLY INCREASED DUE TO SCHOOL…

RHODES, ALVIN E.

26

Role-in Rural Areas of Shanxi  

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Full Text Available This study uses the income of rural residents per capita income grouping and panel data of 2001-2010 from "Shanxi Statistical Yearbook". The study uses the World Bank's software Povcal and the purchasing power of $ 1.25 per person per day as the poverty line to measure the index of the extent of poverty in rural areas in Shanxi Province. It was found that the poverty rate decreases exponentially significant effect, but the poverty gap index decreased to a lesser extent and the poverty gap squared index relatively rose. This suggests that economic growth to poverty reduction of the total population especially to the poor in the richer part of the population has a distinct role, but to the poor population living in extreme poverty has negative effects. Rapid economic growth will increase extreme poverty, resulting in further widening the gap between rich and poor.

Zhan-ju Cui

2013-01-01

27

Surveillance Of Vital Events In Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Research question: Which system of registration of vital events is more efficient? Objective: To ascertain the efficiency and quality of vital events registration in the rural community. Study design: Population based cross-sectional. Settings: Rural areas. Sample size: All births and deaths which occurred during the year 96-97 in the community development block were incorporated in the study. Study variables: Births, deaths, cause of death, events missed by different agencies and quality of registration. Analysis: Simple proportions Results: During the reference period of one year 2617 births and 855 deaths were reported in rural population of 96242. Anganwadi workers were most efficient as they could record 96% of births and 83.2% of deaths. Multipurpose health workers (female and village chowkidar could record 77.7% and 51.0% of births and 75% and 64%. 6% of deaths respectively. Correctness of causes of death matched to the extent of 31-36%, which was quite discouraging. Health system and system of integrated child Development Services do not use mortality data for local planning and seldom share this information with the community, whose lives.

Lal Sunder

1998-01-01

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RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the la...

Ci?rstea, Alexandru Costin; Dobre, Ramona

2013-01-01

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On Hiring Library Staff in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available There has been a great deal said in the literature about what would be librarians can do to find a job; less has been said about what would be employers can do if they are having problems recruiting. This article gives some ideas about things that libraries, especially those in rural areas, can do to help them find the employees they need. There are many possibilities discussed, including helping spouses of new hires get jobs in the community, hiring from out of region or country, hiring older workers or new grads, reconsidering what competencies are core for the position and what tasks should be in the job description. The world has changed for job seekers, who must now show that they are more than competent to be competitive, and perhaps it needs to change for employers too. If you don’t think the job you are posting is a great opportunity, then potential applicants likely won’t either.

Sarah Sutherland

2011-11-01

30

Changes in Rural Areas and Regional Development  

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Full Text Available The present study examines how regional development has been affected by social, economic and environmental changes in three regions located in central Greece. These regions were affected significantly by social and economic changes, because of substantial new infrastructure development that took place related to a ski resort and agritourism establishments. Sample data were collected on the characteristics of residents and land use in these three rural areas. The results of the study show that tourist development is very important for the socio-economic improvement of these regions. Using cross-tabulation statistical methods it was found that regions with better infrastructure attract more tourists than regions with inferior infrastructure (p-value = 0.000 and residents with higher education have better income than residents with lower education (p-value = 0.000.

Helen Theodoropoulou

2008-01-01

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On the future of local communities in rural areas  

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Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and emotional connection of people living there. In other words, their participation and their self-identification with these communities is a key prerequisite. Although the renewal of our rural communities is an extremely difficult task, filled with many dilemmas, inconsistencies and objective contradictions, it is not unresolvable, at least for one type of these communities. With the well-thought strategy of planning and management of rural development, these processes can be accelerated and channelled in the desired direction. This paper discusses some possible solutions and gives more concrete propositions in relation to this problem.

Maleševi? Krstan

2003-01-01

32

Electrification of rural areas by solar PV  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

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Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

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Differences in ozone photochemical characteristics between the megacity Tianjin and its rural surroundings  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground level ozone and its precursors were measured from July 10 to September 30, 2009 within Tianjin. The data were used to analyze differences in ozone photochemical oxidant production in urban and rural areas. Results showed more pronounced risk of O3 exposure at the rural site, Wuqing. During the observation period, ozone varied monthly, peaking in Jul. and reaching a minimum in Sep. The daily maximum ozone concentration was found to exceed 80 ppb for 28 days 100 ppb for 12 days, 120 ppb for 7 days at Wuqing, while it exceeded 80 ppb for 10 days, 100 ppb for 2 days, and 120 ppb for 1 day at the urban site, Tieta. The daily maximum ozone concentrations at Wuqing and Tieta were 193.7 ppb and 130.4 ppb. The daily maximum ozone concentration occurred at noon in Tieta and at 14:00 in Wuqing. NO and NOx peaked in September and reached minimum values in Jul., CO showed little variation at both sites. NOx and CO showed similar double-peak diurnal cycles resulted from a combination of diurnal variation of emission and the Planetary Boundary Layer During the VOCs (volatile organic compounds) sampling period, the average total VOCs concentration showed considerable day to day variation, which was 87.91 ppb with a range of 27.2 ppb-437.3 ppb at Tieta, and the average total VOCs was 197.95 ppb with a range of 63.48 ppb-473.97 ppb at Wuqing. A sensitivity study performed with the NCAR-MM model showed alkenes to be the most numerous contributors to O3 production, accounting for 53.3% of the total. Aromatics and alkanes accounted for 35.1% and 9.2%, respectively.

Han, Su-qin; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Chun-sheng; Lu, Xue-qiang; Ran, Liang; Han, Meng; Li, Pei-yan; Li, Xiang-jin

2013-11-01

35

Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

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Factual biosphere database for Dounreay and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Dounreay region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Dounreay area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

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Innovation centres as growth points for smaller towns and rural areas  

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Full Text Available This article addresses the role of innovative centres in the development of surrounding areas beyond large cities. At the same time, the innovative development of rural areas should be of a composite nature; municipality development strategies take innovations into account. International practices serve as a an argument in favour of establishing innovative centres in smaller and medium-sized towns in order to facilitate the socioeconomic development of the territory and surrounding rural areas. Science parks created in smaller towns give a boost to socioeconomic development. The authors analyse the case of the science park in the town of Gusev in the Kaliningrad region and emphasise the role of development and adoption of legal acts at regional and municipal levels, for example, the law «On the production policy of the Kaliningrad region».

Belova A. V.

2012-01-01

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APPEARANCE MOTIVATIONS OF RURAL TOURISM IN RURAL AREA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the trends developing tourism industry is returning to nature, already manifested in all countries, the current post-industrial civilization has created the need for withdrawal (for several days) of the metropolis. And for the huge tourism potential of our country, rural tourism is one of the most attractive travel packages and this from a multiple perspective: on the one hand, the tourist, Romanian or foreign, which will require increasingly more intense this tourist service, on th...

Eduard Bianu; Claudia Sîrbulescu; Daniel Chiril?

2013-01-01

39

Quality of life in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of rural development (regardless of its theoretical perception is the improvement of quality of life for rural population. This issue is a complex one because it depends on multiple objective and subjective factors, community characteristics, but also its spatial, economic, social and cultural environment. Authors analyze the influence of socio-cultural individual characteristics and household characteristics, as well as their stay in Staniši? during evaluating quality of life of its rural population. The research confirmed a significant influence of socio-cultural (rural household characteristics on the evaluation of quality of life. The influence of spatial dimension of social structure is more obvious on socio-cultural (rural household characteristics.

Boki? Jelena

2014-01-01

40

Final Report. [Training of Physicians for Rural Areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of the Southwest Alabama Medical Education Consortium (SAMEC) is to create an organization to operate a medical residency program focused on rural physician training. If successful, this program would also serve as a national model to address physician placement in other rural and underserved areas.

McLaughlin, Max, MD

2004-07-23

 
 
 
 
41

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented w...

Elizeus Rutebemberwa; Katureebe, Sheila K.; Gitta, Sheba N.; Mwaka, Amos D.; Lynn Atuyambe

2013-01-01

42

Children's Services in Rural and Remote Areas: An Australian Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined families' needs and expectations of child care services in a rural and remote area of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlighted the restricted number of child care options available in these rural and remote settings. Ways to best meet child care needs of these families were devised, based on findings. (JPB)

Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Morda, Romana; Clyde, Margaret

2000-01-01

43

Quality of life in rural areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of rural development (regardless of its theoretical perception) is the improvement of quality of life for rural population. This issue is a complex one because it depends on multiple objective and subjective factors, community characteristics, but also its spatial, economic, social and cultural environment. Authors analyze the influence of socio-cultural individual characteristics and household characteristics, as well as their stay in Staniši? du...

Boki? Jelena; ?iki? Jovana

2014-01-01

44

Ethnoastronomical researches on te rural area of Valjevo mountains  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of ethnoastronomical investigations made by the Astronomical group of the Society of researchers "Vladimir Mandi? - Manda" (Valjevo) during the 1997-2000 period in the Valjevo rural area are presented.

Boži?, Nikola

2002-04-01

45

Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo) to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (...

SOEJONO; SUGENG BUDIHARTA; ENDANG ARISOESILANINGSIH

2013-01-01

46

Structural transformations from rural area in the Republic of Moldova  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the links between rural transformations and sustainable livelihoods, looking in particular at the impact of the structural changes over the national economy. In order to achieve this, there were used the following research methods such as: analysis of the economic indicators, methods of comparative analysis, assessment of the public policies’ impact on the rural development.The agri-food sector in the Republic of Moldova is based on extensive farming and is insufficiently adapted to market economy conditions. There is a growing understanding in the country that the rural economy is not confined to the agricultural sector, but embraces the broad spectrum of needs of all rural people including living standards, economic activities and natural resources. The paper contains conclusions and proposals on diversification of agriculture and non farm activities in rural areas

Lucasenco Eugenia

2013-01-01

47

Socio-economic aspects development of the rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a change in the urban-rural relations in recent decades, as a result of increased mobility and intensity of information flow, changes in the production processes and the growing globalization of markets. The old urban-rural division lost its importance for the new ones: the metropolitan areas and those beside metropolitan. This can lead to the end of the traditional urban-rural relations, some signs are already seen. This is already observed in the process of “growing” the cities with their territories to rural areas. The risk of loss of the relationship between urban and rural areas is high because of the growing disproportion between these areas and decreased territorial cohesion. It requires strengthening new and deliberate efforts in regional policy, those that are not “fighting with windmills”, ie will take into account the objective processes already taking place. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to characterise the development of economic and social processes in rural areas and proposals for further action in the context of sustainable development.

Beata Skubiak

2013-06-01

48

Study on the Environmental Tritium in Surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah - Bandung Landfill Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation of environmental tritium distribution in surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah landfill areas has been carried out. The aim of this investigation was to know tritium concentration in surrounding of both landfill areas. Normally, tritium concentration in the nature is around 0-5 TU. The results of this investigation showed that the tritium concentration in both shallow groundwater of both landfill areas were still in the range of its normal limit, whereas tritium concentration in stream along both landfill areas and leached water showed higher value. Tritium concentration in deep groundwater of Bantar Gebang landfill showed about the zero value, it means is the normal condition. (author)

49

SOCIAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES IN RURAL AREAS OF BURYATIYA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the social and demographic situation in the rural areas of the Republic of Buryatia. It was revealed that the position of the modern rural society, the main trends of its social change has affected not only the processes that occurred in the country in the 90-ies of the last century, but also more of the early Soviet period. Based on the analysis of the statistics shows the main features of the demographic situation in rural areas: depopulation, gender imbalance, aging of the population. This article examines the socio-demographic situation in the rural areas of the Republic of Buryatia. It was revealed that the position of the modern rural society, the main trends of its social change has affected not only the processes that occurred in the country in the 90-ies of the last century, but also more of the early Soviet period. Based on the analysis of the statistics shows the main features of the demographic situation in rural areas: depopulation, gender imbalance, aging of the population.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-2

????????? ??????????? ?????????

2013-08-01

50

SOCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY OF WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS – TRENDS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study was to determine what had changed in recent years in the field of social and economic activity of rural women, and to determine whether the manifestations of adaptation to changing circumstances are visible. In connection with disabilities in the labour market in rural areas and at the same time increase of the educational aspirations of women, a high risk of losing the potential of rural women emerges. Lack of solution to these problems may lead to weakening of the human...

Laura P?atkowska-Prokopczyk

2014-01-01

51

Socio-economic aspects development of the rural areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There has been a change in the urban-rural relations in recent decades, as a result of increased mobility and intensity of information flow, changes in the production processes and the growing globalization of markets. The old urban-rural division lost its importance for the new ones: the metropolitan areas and those beside metropolitan. This can lead to the end of the traditional urban-rural relations, some signs are already seen. This is already observed in the process of “growing&rdq...

Beata Skubiak

2013-01-01

52

Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points fo...

Hude Quan; Qunhong Wu; Mingli Jiao; Lijun Gao; Hong Sun; Xia Li; Ning Ning; Yanhua Hao

2013-01-01

53

MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGE? COUNTY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Arge? County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through...

Florentina Miu

2013-01-01

54

Quality of life in rural areas: A topic for the Rural Development policy?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contemporary transformations of rural areas involve changes in land uses, economic perspectives, connectivity, livelihoods, but also in lifestyles, whereupon a traditional view of ‘the rural’ and, consequently, of ‘rural development’ no longer holds. Accordingly, EU’s 2007-2013 Rural Development policy (RDP is one framework to incorporate aspects labelled as quality of life (QOL alongside traditional rural tenets. With a new rendition of the RDP underway, this paper scopes the content and extent of the expired RDP regarding its incorporation of QOL, in order to better identify considerations for future policy making. Using novel methodology called topic modelling, a series of latent semantic structures within the RDP could be unravelled and re-interpreted via a dual categorization system based on RDP’s own view on QOL, and on definitions provided by independent research. Corroborated by other audits, the findings indicate a thematic overemphasis on agriculture, with the focus on QOL being largely insignificant. Such results point to a rationale different than the assumed one, at the same time reinforcing an outdated view of rurality in the face of the ostensibly fundamental turn towards viewing rural areas in a wider, more humanistic, perspective. This unexpected issue of underrepresentation is next addressed through three possible drivers: conceptual (lingering productionist view of the rural, ideological (capitalist prerogative preventing non-pecuniary values from entering policy and material (institutional lock-ins incapable of accommodating significant deviations from an agricultural focus. The paper ends with a critical discussion and some reflections on the broader concept of rurality.

Brauer René

2014-09-01

55

The Influence of Tourism on Rural Life in Minority Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, taking three ethnic minority areas as an example, through a questionnaire to obtain relevant data, according to the characteristics of the ethnic minority areas, using the factor analysis method, we analyse the tourism in ethnic areas of country life with various effects. We summarize the pros and cons, avoid or minimize the adverse impacts within the maximum limits, mitigate the conflicts between the value of resource and the development, find a balance between tourism development and rural construction, realize win-win tourism development and rural construction.

Cuiping Zhang

2013-07-01

56

Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

57

77 FR 29320 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request  

Science.gov (United States)

...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. FOR FURTHER...Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; OMB Number...jurisdiction described as urban or rural; (4) jurisdiction...jurisdiction; (6) alternative forms of voting allowed in the...

2012-05-17

58

Wine Tourism on Rural Areas - Polish Conditions after the Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic transformations after 1989 have brought huge changes in the administration of personal properties and made it possible to manage the private property. Centrally planned economy has been replaced by the market economy, in which single farm households became the subjects of the market. It opened a new way to realize modern ideas and plans, especially on rural areas. As a result, rural households from being solely the attribute of the national agriculture sector, have now become prominent players in the services sector, particularly in the hospitality - tourism industry. One of the means to diversify profile of rural households is to transform an agriculture household into an agro-tourism household. Nowadays, rural communities face new, market-oriented requirements, which make them respond by joining the tradition and modernity. Rural areas are not only obliged to produce and supply food for the cities. Their image is now created by a tourism product, which includes: natural environment, natural and cultural landscape and local culture. Over the last years wine tourism has become more and more popular, even in those countries, which were not traditionally considered wine countries. In Poland wine tourism is a new and dynamic phenomenon copying successfully the resolution from the West. Setting up particularly oriented agro-tourism farms (e.g. wine agro-tourism farms can be a means to transform and modernize the rural households and, equally, a great opportunity for the owners to improve their financial situation and status of life.

Magdalena KUBAL

2010-12-01

59

Study of cryptosporidiosis in a rural area of Maharashtra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human cryptosporidiosis has been reported world wide, both from developed and developing countries and from urban and rural areas. Present study is undertaken to assess the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis in human and cattle population (cows and calves) in and around the rural areas of Loni, district Ahmednagar, Maharashtra State. Human stool samples were collected from 220 patients of age ranging between newborn to 85 years, attending the Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni. The samples were examined using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Drug samples were also examined from 101 asymptomatic (apparently healthy and non-diarrhoeic) cows and calves from the same area, to detect Cryptosporidium. Three positive cases (1.36%) in human and 11 positive cases (10.89%) in cattle (cows and calves) were detected. It is assumed that in rural areas the most likely source of human infection is cattle. This is the first report of human infection by Cryptosporidium from rural Maharashtra and also the first report of occurrence in cattle from India. PMID:9145609

Khubnani, H; Sivarajan, K; Khubnani, A H

1997-01-01

60

MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGE? COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Arge? County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through exceptions or total qualities, methods (of diagnostic analysis, foundation-optimization of decisions etc. and different management techniques can be applied, depending on the characteristics aimed.The conditions which must be met by the effective rural tourism management are: observation and appreciation of nature as well as knowledge of cultural traditions, inventory of protected natural areas and of the cultural ones in a protected area, establishment of potential market of tourists, setting of support threshold based on the compliance with the consumption norms per tourist.

Florentina Miu

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government. PMID:19712653

El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

2009-01-01

62

The cultural tourism in the rural areas of Westpomeranian voivodeship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of cultural tourism in the rural areas of the Westpomeranian region is conditioned by possession of distinguished natural value, as well as significant historical and cultural heritage resources. Tourists who come to the village looking for traces of the past, learn the material and immaterial elements of the regional culture, become familiar with its natural environment, interact with the farms and the local population, participate in the economic life and folk events in rural areas, and thus discover the charm and tourist appeal of the region.

Ma?gorzata Matlegiewicz

2011-01-01

63

Retail development in rural and under-developed areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research will determine if it is possible to pursue turnkey retail development in rural and underdeveloped areas in South Africa, which is sustainable and satisfies the needs of the community, the tenants and the investor. The areas of difficulty that have been experienced by developers who have pursued retail development in these areas will be discussed and solutions offered. The problems experienced in land acquisition will be identified and discussed, the associated problems with l...

Farrell, Dennis Abram

2010-01-01

64

Research Regarding the Impact of Rural Tourism Forms on the Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The twentieth century is the century of speed, large transformation of civilization, of great discoveries, but also the period that puts more emphasis on return to roots, the unpolluted environment, relaxation, traditional products. Many EU governments recognize that agrotourism and rural tourism are one way that can save agriculture, also that "in the next 20 years tourism will be part of the economy and rural tourism and agrotourism will become the tourism of future." The reason? Authenticity of rural areas is a quality becoming more demanding in terms of present life. In his development, rural tourism, had periods of growth but also of decline. Certainly that was never endangered. Unknown forms of rural tourism know so far, the large momentum dating at the desire for freedom and lack of rigid programs. Conducted as complementary activities, rural tourism forms not break peasant life balance, not cause loss of existing activities before, but allow the high-grade products obtained and hence their development, together with the development of others.

Ramona Ciolac

2011-10-01

65

Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labor market settle in the countryside due to low housing prices. This article explores which groups of people move to rural, peripheral areas and why they chose to do so.

Andersen, Hans Skifter; NØrgaard, Helle

2012-01-01

66

Attention Reshapes Center-Surround Receptive Field Structure in Macaque Cortical Area MT  

Science.gov (United States)

Directing spatial attention to a location inside the classical receptive field (cRF) of a neuron in macaque medial temporal area (MT) shifts the center of the cRF toward the attended location. Here we investigate the influence of spatial attention on the profile of the inhibitory surround present in many MT neurons. Two monkeys attended to the fixation point or to 1 of 2 random dot patterns (RDPs) placed inside or next to the cRF, whereas a third RDP (the probe) was briefly presented in quick succession across the cRF and surround. The probe presentation responses were used to compute a map of the excitatory receptive field and its inhibitory surround. Attention systematically reshapes the receptive field profile, independently shifting both center and surround toward the attended location. Furthermore, cRF size is changed as a function of relative distance to the attentional focus: attention inside the cRF shrinks it, whereas directing attention next to the cRF expands it. In addition, we find systematic changes in surround inhibition and cRF amplitude. This nonmultiplicative push–pull modulation of the receptive field's center-surround structure optimizes processing at and near the attentional focus to strengthen the representation of the attended stimulus while reducing influences from distractors. PMID:19211660

Stephan, Valeska M.; Treue, Stefan

2009-01-01

67

Teacher Training Colleges in the Rural Areas of Angola  

Science.gov (United States)

The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the rural areas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…

Nsiangengo, Pedro; Diasala, Andre Jacinto

2008-01-01

68

Foreshock activity and its probabilistic relation to earthquake occurrence in Albania and the surrounding area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate some characteristics of foreshock activity of moderate and large earthquakes which occurred in the present century in Albania and the surrounding area. Using a prediction algorithm, based on possible foreshocks, we obtained a probabilistic relation between possible foreshocks and mainshocks. From documentary and instrumental data for the period 1901-1994 for the area between 39.0°- 43.0°N and 18.5°-21.5°E we evaluated the probability of the occurrence of mainshocks immediat...

Irikura, K.; Matsumura, K.; Pec?i, V.; Maeda, K.

1999-01-01

69

Bringing fiber to the home to rural areas in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to support development of rural areas, and avoid that these  areas are being depopulated, access to fast broadband networks can contribute by facilitating tele working, distance learning, ICT for industries and farming etc. In this paper we show how broadband and Fiber To The Home (FTTH) is developing in Denmark, and that FTTH is also being deployed in rural areas. A main reason for this is that consumer-owed utility companies have decided to invest heavily in the field, to a large extent with the philosophy that, since all consumers are a part of the investment, everybody should also benefit from it. As a result of these investments, FTTH availability and penetration has increased significantly over the last years. In the end of the paper, we highlight the importance of studying the actual impact of bringing FTTH to these areas.

Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, M. Tahir

2009-01-01

70

Trivial Injuries In A Rural Area Of Ambala  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: What are the management practices of a rural community towards trivial injuries sustained by them. Objectives: To study 1. action taken by individuals in the management of trivial injuries, 2.factors related with trivial injuries. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Rural area of Haryana. Participants: individuals attending the outpatient department of Community Health Centres, Primary Health Centres, sub-centres, local registered medical practitioners (RMPs. Study variables: Trivial injuries. Outcome Variables: Management- home based or hospitals based. Results: Peripheral parts of the extremities- hands, finger, feet and toes were most commonly affected by trivial injuries. A variety of local applications like tobacco, salt, kerosene, oil, nail polish, turmeric, urine, were used for initial wound care. Conclusion: Rural people of Haryana use a variety of local applications, some not very hygienic, for the immediate management of injuries. Education is required to make them aware of hygienic practices where would care is concerned.

Singh A.J

1993-01-01

71

Extent of Online Communication Compatibility in Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Online communication system are several way people communicate with each other over the Internet, as well as e-mail, make contact with forms on web sites ,feedback on blogs and social networking sites.3Recently efforts have been made to use the electronic modes or communication to supply information to rural development sector. Online communication system is helpful for rural development such as Technology Transfer (Persuasive and Paternalistic, Advisory work (Persuasive and Participation, Human Resource Development (Educational and Paternalistic and Facilitation for empowerment (Educational and Participatory.1,7 Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India, agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy. 5 . On the basis of Kanpur Dehat Uttar Pradesh India respondents interviewed to judge the level of satisfaction on the communication facility provided by different agencies was desired in order to measure the on line communication compatibility in rural area.

Dr. Subhash Singh Parihar

2014-02-01

72

Scenario analysis of land use change in Horqin Desert and its surrounding area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Horqin desert and its surrounding area(41°17'?45°24' N,116°21'?123°30' E),loca-ted in the eastern part of agro-pas ture transitional zone in northern China,is an area sensitive to environmental change due to transitional location and the high potential for sandy desert-if ication.During the past decades,the rapid expansion of sandy desertification i n this area has greatly accelerated the processes of environmental change,leadi ng to deterioration of the eco-environmental conditions i...

Zhang, Y. M.; Zhao, S.; Verburg, P. H.

2004-01-01

73

47 CFR 54.101 - Supported services for rural, insular and high cost areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

...rural, insular and high cost areas. 54.101 Section...CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED...rural, insular and high cost areas. (a) Services...wireless telecommunications carriers, which use spectrum...limitation for qualifying low-income consumers...

2010-10-01

74

Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

Hude Quan

2013-03-01

75

Vascular flora in cemeteries of the Roztocze region and surrounding areas (south-east Poland)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper presents a systematic list of vascular plant species recorded at 78 cemeteries in the Roztocze region and surrounding areas. 543 species belonging to 75 families were recorded. Of these, 99 foreign and 43 native species were cultivated. 41 species introduced by humans to cemeteries can be regarded as the so-called established cemetery species. These species, once planted on graves, continue to grow or even spread after people stopped cultivating them.

Aneta Czarna; Renata Nowi?ska

2011-01-01

76

Moving to the countryside - migrants in rural areas of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denmark is undergoing a process of centralisation and concentration of economic growth, employment and people in and around its larger cities. Other more peripheral areas have been stagnating and loosing both jobs and inhabitants over a long period of time. Important social, cultural and economic changes are taken place in the countryside due to various restructuring processes and more recently some of these changes are related to in-migration. There are few Danish studies on migration into rural and peripheral areas but e.g. Andersen (2008) Ærø et al. (2005) show how those moving to rural areas have very different reasons for moving and have different expectations and needs. Other international studies e.g. Boyle & Halfacree (1998), Chavez (2005), Clooke, Goodwin & Milbourne (1998), Cuba & Hummon (1993), Hidalgo & Hernandez (2001) Mesch & Manor (1998) rather focus on processes of change from the view of the local population, migrants and relations between them. This paper reports on a study on migrants who have moved long distances to settle in rural and peripheral areas of Denmark. The study focuses on moving motives, background and expectations of migrants in relation to living in rural and peripheral areas. One important theme is the relationship between migrants or newcomers and locals stressing social change, attachment and integration from the view of migrants. Our study is based on an understanding that there are multiple reasons and motivations that influence migration decision-making thereby applying a biographical approach inspired by e.g. Giddens (1984), Boyle and Halfacree (1998) seeking to 'demonstrate the complexity of the seemingly simple act of migration and its embeddedness within the everyday context of daily life for those involved'. Our study further finds inspiration in the concept of 'elective belonging' by Savage et al. (2005) in terms of understanding peoples sense of being at home as related to 'reflexive processes in which they can satisfactory account to themselves how they come to live where they do'.

NØrgaard, Helle

77

Accessibility to and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services in a rural area of state of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the present paper was to compare accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis diagnostic and treatment services in a small village and the surrounding rural area in northern part of the state of Minas Gerais Brazil. The study included 1,228 individuals: 935 central village residents and 293 rural residents of São Pedro do Jequitinhonha. Schistosoma mansoni infection rates were significantly higher in the central village than in the rural area during a survey in 2007 (44.3% and 23.5%, respectively and during the 2002 schistosomiasis case-finding campaign (33.1% and 26.5%, respectively (p < 0.001. However, during the 2002-2006 period, only 23.7% of the villagers and 27% of the rural residents obtained tests on their own from health centres, hospitals and private clinics in various nearby towns. In 2007, 63% of the villagers and 70.5% of the rural residents reported never having received treatment for schistosomiasis. This paper reveals considerable variation in the accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services between the central village and the rural area. A combination of low utilisation rates between 2002-2006 and persistently high S. mansoni infection rates suggest that the schistosomiasis control program must be more rapidly incorporated into the primary health services.

Dener Carlos dos Reis

2010-07-01

78

Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

2009-07-01

79

The Problem Of Youth Unemployment in Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of Czech agricultural labour market has been continuously predominantly negative since 1989 and recently, the problem of youth unemployment is acute in many countries, not only in the Czech Republic, but also in the Russian Federation, where most of graduates of agricultural universities work in non-agricultural sphere and in urban area. The present paper tries to consider the problems faced by youth in the labour market after graduating from the university, the reasons for working in any sphere but not in agriculture and not in rural area. It identifies the factors influencing the profession choice by young people. It considers the opportunities for attracting young people to work in agriculture and rural aria.

N. Grigoryeva

2012-03-01

80

E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. This methodology supports the use of networking and communications technology in teaching and learning. E-Learning is generally meant for remote learning or distance learning, but can also be used in face-to-face mode. In this paper we have made study about the awareness and impact of E-Learning in selected rural areas in India, the providers and learners ratio and an analysis on the collected data has been made to find the advantages of E-Learning resources and their affect on social and mental development of the individuals belonging to rural areas.

Rimmi Anand

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a net exporter of organic production.

Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

2012-07-01

82

Source rocks from Cuban Gulf of Mexico offshore sector and surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A regional study of source rocks from Cuban Gulf of Mexico Deep Water Zone, the Western area of Northern Cuban Petroleum Province and Southeastern Mexico Basin was made. The results of the work indicate that the Cuban Gulf of Mexico Deep Water Zone is a very promissory region with significant volumes of effective source rocks development, with high generation potential in conjunction with the favorable timing of hydrocarbon generation and entrapment. There is no risk in source rock development for petroleum systems of the Cuban Gulf of Mexico Offshore Sector and surrounding area. (author)

Lopez Quintero, Jose O; Lopez-Rivera, Juan G.; Tenreyro Perez, Rafael; Sanchez Arango, Jorge R. [Centro de Investigaciones del Petroleo (CEINPET), La Habana (Cuba)

2000-07-01

83

A procura do turismo em espaço rural / The demand for tourism in rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER) em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quot [...] idiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas. Abstract in english This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA) in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break [...] free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

Luís, Silva.

2007-05-01

84

A procura do turismo em espaço rural The demand for tourism in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quotidiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas.This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

Luís Silva

2007-05-01

85

Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the four classified areas.

SOEJONO

2013-04-01

86

Collective resources or local social inequalities ? examining the social determinants of mental health in rural areas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In England, although some studies report better health among rural populations, few have examined social inequalities in health within rural areas and how they compare to inequalities observed in urban settings. The objectives of this study are to examine (i) whether living in rural, in more affluent and in more socially cohesive areas is associated with better mental health; and (ii) whether being in employment is more protective for mental health in rural than in urban areas. Me...

Riva, M.; Bambra, C.; Curtis, S. E.; Gauvin, L.

2011-01-01

87

Accessibility to and utilisation of schistosomiasis-related health services in a rural area of state of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of the present paper was to compare accessibility and utilisation of schistosomiasis diagnostic and treatment services in a small village and the surrounding rural area in northern part of the state of Minas Gerais Brazil. The study included 1,228 individuals: 935 central village resid [...] ents and 293 rural residents of São Pedro do Jequitinhonha. Schistosoma mansoni infection rates were significantly higher in the central village than in the rural area during a survey in 2007 (44.3% and 23.5%, respectively) and during the 2002 schistosomiasis case-finding campaign (33.1% and 26.5%, respectively) (p

Dener Carlos dos, Reis; Helmut, Kloos; Charles, King; Humberto Ferreira Oliveira, Quites; Leonardo Ferreira, Matoso; Kellen Rosa, Coelho; Andrea, Gazzinelli.

2010-07-01

88

Measuring the equity of inpatient utilization in Chinese rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background As an important outcome of the health system, equity in health service utilization has attracted an increasing amount of attention in the literature on health reform in China in recent years. The poor, who frequently require more services, are often the least able to pay, while the wealthy utilize disproportionately more services although they have less need. Whereas equity in health service utilization between richer and poorer populations has been studied in urban areas, the equity in health service utilization in rural areas has received little attention. With improving levels of economic development, the introduction of health insurance and increasing costs of health services, health service utilization patterns have changed dramatically in rural areas in recent years. However, previous studies have shown neither the extent of utilization inequity, nor which factors are associated with utilization inequity in rural China. Methods This paper uses previously unavailable country-wide data and focuses on income-related inequity of inpatient utilization and its determinants in Chinese rural areas. The data for this study come from the Chinese National Health Services Surveys (NHSS conducted in 2003 and 2008. To measure the level of inequity in inpatient utilization over time, the concentration index, decomposition of the concentration index, and decomposition of change in the concentration index are employed. Results This study finds that even with the same need for inpatient services, richer individuals utilize more inpatient services than poorer individuals. Income is the principal determinant of this pro-rich inpatient utilization inequity- wealthier individuals are able to pay for more services and therefore use more services regardless of need. However, rising income and increased health insurance coverage have reduced the inequity in inpatient utilization in spite of increasing inpatient prices. Conclusions There remains a strong pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilization in rural China. However, a narrowing income gap between the rich and poor and greater access to health insurance has effectively reduced income inequality, equalizing access to care. This suggests that the most effective way to reduce the inequity is to narrow the gap of income between the rich and poor while adopting social risk protection.

Xu Ke

2011-08-01

89

Aerial radiological survey of the Brookhaven National Laboratory and surrounding area, May 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed from 15 to 18 May 1980 over approximately a 21-square-kilometer (8-square-mile) area surrounding the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). BNL is located in the center of Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. All gamma radiation data were collected by flying north-south lines spaced 91 meters (300 feet) apart at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) above ground level. A total of 17 anomalous areas were identified. The dominant isotopes found over these areas were cesium-137, manganese-54, and cobalt-60. All anomalies identified by the aerial measurements were correlated to site activities and storage facilities. 4 references, 18 figures, 1 table

90

A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

Hinojosa, H. [comp.

1998-02-01

91

Aerial radiological survey of the Callaway Plant and surrounding area, Fulton, Missouri  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Callaway Plant and the surrounding area in April 1982. The survey included the plant water intake and discharge location on the Missouri River. Separate ground-based ion chamber measurements and soil samples were collected in the survey area to support the aerial data. Gamma data, stored on magnetic tape, were searched for evidence of man-made gamma emitters. A contour map of the terrestral exposure rate plus the cosmic exposure rate at 1 meter was prepared and overlaid on a photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The exposure contour map is typical for farmland in the mid-western United States. Terrestrial plus cosmic exposure rates ranged from 4 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) over the Missouri River to a maximum of 12 ?R/h over the cultivated land. A 137Cs calibration source was detected at the Callaway Plant site

92

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of ±15%

93

An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Paducah, Kentucky  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky, was conducted during May 15--25, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the PGDP and surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) along a series of parallel lines 107 meters (350 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 62 square kilometers (24 square miles), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). Protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected at several facilities at the PGDR. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ±15%

94

An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (?41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source

95

The identification of soil radionuclides in the area of Puspiptek and surrounding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of PUSPIPTEK and the surrounding are potentially exposed by radionuclides, because the operation of the nuclear research plant. The PPTN Serpong was operated long than 10 years, therefore soil radioactivity need to evaluate. The determination of radioactivity in the soil samples which be taken from research location using gamma spectrometry on June-August. The result of the research identified natural radionuclides K-40; Thorium decay series Ac-228, Bi-212, Pb-212, Tl-208, Ra-224 and Rn-220; Uranium decay series Bi-214, Pa-234, Pb-214 and Actinium decay series Bi-211, Po-211. There are no identification radionuclides produce from the activation of PPTN Serpong

96

Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

M?rioara Drug?

2010-05-01

97

Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Baxley, Georgia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An airborne radiological survey of a 2146 km2 area surrounding the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant was made 28-31 March 1977. Detected radioisotopes, and their associated gamma ray exposure rates, were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. Count rates observed at 152 m altitude are converted to equivalent exposure rates at 1 m above the ground, and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Exposure rates measured with small portable instruments and soil sample analysis showed agreement with the airborne data

98

Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 ?g/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 ?g/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 ?g/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

99

Study on Nitrate Value in Rural Area in Amol City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Nitrate is considered as a major pollutant for groundwater resource. In recent years, the concentration of nitrate in subsurface water is increasing because du to utilization of the of using excessive amount of fertilizers and disposal of wastewater in soils. This research was carried out as descriptive study, in a rural area of Paeen Khiaban Litkooh in Amol City in 2005.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 300 samples were collected from 50 well drinking water in different weather (wet and dry The samples was taken from each well, 3 times in the wet air and 3 times in the dry air. Nitrate analysis method was Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (Model Jesco 7800 U.V/Visible at 220 and 275 nm according to "Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th edition".Results: The results revealed that, nitrate maximum related to well number 38 in a rural qrea with code 8 and with 20.66 mg/l Nitrate as N. Maximum of Nitrate average concerned in rural code 8 with 9.66 mg/l and minimum of nitrate average related to rural code 2 with 1.257 mg/l nitrate as N. The results indicated that nitrate was reduced when the depth of water wells increased and ford ware, the value of nitrate in deep wells is more than surface wells.Conclusion: The statistical analysis showed, there is a significant difference between concentrations of nitrate in surface wells drinking water in wet and dry air conditions, but there is not a significant difference between deep well drinking water. The leakage of surface water to the low depth well and lack of sanitation, may be the cause of this difference.

Z. Yousefi, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

100

Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rural and urban areas of northern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air pollution in rural China has often been ignored, especially for the less developed west China. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured monthly at 11 rural sites (5 rural villages and 6 rural fields) together with 7 urban stations in northern China between April 2010 and March 2011. PAH concentrations at rural village sites were similar to those in urban areas and significantly higher than those in rural fields, indicating severe contamination in rural villages. PAH concentrations in the west were similar to those in the more developed North China Plain, and higher than those along the coast. Such a geographical distribution is mainly caused by the differences in residential energy consumption and meteorological conditions, which can explain approximately 48% of the total variation in PAH concentrations. With heavy dependence on biofuel combustion for heating, seasonality in rural areas is more profound than that in urban areas. PMID:24905256

Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Shen, Huizhong; Shen, Guofeng; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Tang, Jianhui; Li, Qingbo; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Tao, Shu

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

A Study on Water Utilization in Chinese Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
In China, because rural population is great and agriculture is very important in national economy, rural areas have becomes a main sphere of water consume. There exist the problems of water shortage and water waste in the countryside. The conflicts of water resource supply and demand between industry and agriculture are very conspicuous. Various factors that include ideology, finance, technology, management and policy restrict the rational and effective use of water resource. The survey on the villages of Jia Ge Zhuang and Yao Bai Zhuang in Ji County, Tianjin reflects these problems. The government tries to solve the problems by making laws and policies, as well as affording financial and technology support to towns and villages. At the same time, it is necessary for the government to make officials and farmers realize the importance of rational water usage and saving by doing propaganda, coordinating the inter-governments relations, and defining the departments’ duties. For realizing the objective of rational water usage, it is necessary to take measures to construct and perfect irrigation installations by both superior and local governments’ investment and farmers’ labor force.
Key Words: Chinese Rural Areas, Water Resource, Rational Use, Farmland, Irrigation System
Résumé: En Chine,la population est grande et l’agriculture est très importante dans l’économie nationale. Les régions rurales sont devenues un sphère principal de la consommation d’eau. Il existe les problèmes d’insuffisance d’eau et le gaspillage d’eau dans la campagne. Les conflits sur les resources d’eau fournie et demandée entre industrie and agriculture sont très fréquents. Les facteurs variés tels qu’idéologie, finance, technologie, management et politique limitent l’usage rationel et effectif de ressources d’eau. L’enquête sur les villages de Jia Ge Zhuang et Yao Bai Zhuang dans le pays Ji, Tianjin reflète ces problèmes. Le government tente de résoudres les problèmes par l’élabortion des lois et les poliques, ainsi que le support financierl et technologique aux bourgs et villages. Au meme temps, il est nécessaire pour le government à render conscients les officiels et les paysans l’ importance de l’usage rationel en économisant par la publicité, en coordonnant les relations inter-governmentaux, et en déterminant les tâches des départments. Pour la realiser l’objectif de l’usage d’eau rational, il est nécessaire de prendre des mesures pour construire et perfectionner l’ installations d’irrigation par l’investissement des governements supérieurs et locaux ainsi que les forces des labeurs.
Mots clés: Les régions rurales chionoises, Ressource d’eau, usage rationel, fermier, Système d’ Irrigation

Rong TAN

2009-12-01

102

An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

Singman, L.V.

1994-11-01

103

An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent

104

Assessing metal toxicity in sediments of Yellow River wetland and its surrounding coastal areas, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Seventy one surface sediments were collected from Yellow River (YR) wetland and its surrounding coastal areas, mainly in Laizhou Bay, China. The equilibrium partitioning (EqP) model and empirical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were applied to assess the potential metal toxicity in the collected sediments. The results show that, based on the EqP model, 15% of stations exhibited potential metal toxicity. Several metals (Cu, Ni and Cr) exceeded the empirical SQGs (59-100% of the time), however these guidelines may not be suitable for use in the Bohai Sea owing to the background concentrations. As a result, the EqP model is found to be a more useful method for assessing potential metal toxicity in Bohai Sea sediment than the empirical SQGs. Additionally, we have provided new insights on assessing metal toxicity in sediment of low organic carbon and acid volatile sulfide concentrations, which may be useful for other coastal areas in China.

Li, Li; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhu, Aimei; Yang, Gang; Liu, Jihua

2014-12-01

105

E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. This methodology supports the use of networking and communications technology in teaching and learning. E-Learning is generally meant for remote learning or distance learning, but can also be used in face-to-face mode. In this paper we have made study about the awareness and impact of E-Learning in selected rural areas in India, the providers and learners ratio and an analysis on the collected data has been made to...

Rimmi Anand; Sharad Saxena; Shilpi Saxena

2012-01-01

106

Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 ?g/m3, respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

107

Assessing flood risk for a rural detention area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flood detention areas serve the primary purpose of controlled water storage during large flood events in order to decrease the flood risk downstream along the river. These areas are often used for agricultural production. While various damage estimation methods exist for urban areas, there are only a few, most often simpler approaches for loss estimation in rural areas. The loss assessment can provide an estimate of the financial provisions required for the farmers' compensation (e.g., in the context of cost-benefit analyses of detention measures.

Flood risk is a combination of potential damage and probability of flooding. Losses in agricultural areas exhibit a strong seasonal pattern, and the flooding probability also has a seasonal variation. In the present study, flood risk is assessed for a planned detention area alongside the Elbe River in Germany based on two loss and probability estimation approaches of different time frames, namely a monthly and an annual approach. The results show that the overall potential damage in the proposed detention area amounts to approximately 40 000 € a?1, with approximately equal losses for each of the main land uses, agriculture and road infrastructure. A sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of flooding (i.e., the frequency of operation of the detention area has the largest impact on the overall flood risk.

S. Förster

2008-04-01

108

An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co)-the manufacture of commercial {sup 60}Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two {sup 60}Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as {sup 60}Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of {sup 60}Co or any other man-made radionuclide.

Vojtech, R.J.

1994-12-01

109

An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 (60Co)-the manufacture of commercial 60Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two 60Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as 60Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of 60Co or any other man-made radionuclide

110

SPECIFIC CONDITIONS AND FORMS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL AREA IN SOUTH MUNTENIA REGION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of the rural area refers to the modifications in the rural area and the specific forms that supports these modifications, represented by the technical and social infrastructure. The rural area of the region was formed from administrative point of view of 7 counties, in 2010, containing 519 communes, with 2019 villages. The rural area, by the development potential it has, plays and important role in the economic and social life of the region, being different by the urban area by the profile of the economic activities, occupational structures and available resources. In the rural area, the agriculture dominates as main activity, the percent owned by it at the regional level being of 35.5% of the total employed population in 2010. The proposed paper presents the aspects regarding the infrastructure for the development of the rural area in South Muntenia Region.

Elena LASCAR

2013-01-01

111

Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area  

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Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (??czna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (?uszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas.The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in ?uszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in ?uszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek.Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in ?uszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and 7.2% in Lublin – Kalina, whereas that of kenophytes was between 15.1% in Ostrówek and 8.2% in ??czna. In the case of spontaneophytes, the percentage varied between 8.8% in Lublin – Majdanek and 2.7% in ?uszczów. The majority, 299 of the taxa found, proved invaluable to insects (polleniferous and nectariferous. Among the plants growing spontaneously in the analysed cemeteries, there were also 11 legally protected species..

Ewa Trzaskowska

2013-07-01

112

Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.

Goodman Catherine

2010-07-01

113

77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request  

Science.gov (United States)

...collection techniques or other forms of information technology...HAVAinfo@eac.gov with Urban/Rural study as the subject...Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; OMB...jurisdiction described as urban or rural; (4) jurisdiction...jurisdiction; (6) alternative forms of voting allowed in...

2012-02-21

114

An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 (60Co) and cesium-137 (137Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 (235U). Protactinium-234m (234mPa) and 60Co Were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data

115

Aerial radiological survey of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area Brookhaven, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station during 5 to 9 June 1983. The survey, which covered an area of 338 square kilometers (131 square miles), also encompassed the entire Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) facility. The highest radiation exposure rate, over 1 milliroentgen per hour (mR/h), was inferred from data measured directly over the BNL facility. This detected activity was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60 and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal BNL operations. With the exception of the BNL facility, the only detected man-made radioactivity was found near a cottage in Moriches, New York and was due to the presence of cobalt-60. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied generally from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 ?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted concurrently with the aerial survey, were compared to the inferred aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired from five locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were consistent with those inferred from the aerial results. 11 references, 12 figures, 3 tables

116

Sanitation norms in rural areas: a cross-cultural comparison.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mortality rates have sharply decreased throughout the world in the twentieth century. While the communicable diseases that had been the principal killers of mankind have been largely brought under control, the enteric and other diseases, which are directly related to sanitation practices, have not been affected. Improvement in health status in the developing nations, especially in isolated rural areas, will hinge on changes in sanitation norms. Modification of these norms must be based on an awareness of what they are and of the values that are associated with them. Sanitation norms in rural areas of three countries--in the southeastern United States, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic--are reviewed on the basis of a study in which essentially the same survey instrument was used in the three samples. Sanitation norms relating to the source of water and storage for household use are compared, as are personal hygiene practices and patterns for the disposal of liquid wastes, garbage, and other solid wastes. Selected attitudinal values are also examined. PMID:667407

Belcher, J C

1978-01-01

117

The “LEADER Approach” - New Development Opportunity for Rural Areas in Slovenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Integrated rural development programmes, which are prepared with the active involvement of local citizens, have a long tradition in Slovenia. In the period 1991-2006, Slovenia introduced “Programmes of Integrated Rural Development and Village Renewal” and “Development Programmes for Rural Areas”, which were quite similar to the LEADER initiative in theEuropean Union. From the 2007-2013 programming period, the LEADER approach has been mainstreamed within the overall EU rural developmen...

Tomaz? Cunder, B. Sc Geography; Matej Bedrac?, B. Sc Agriculture

2010-01-01

118

SOME GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF EXAMPLE ANDRIJEVICA (MONTENEGRO)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper analyzes the economic and geographical factors of rural settlements of Andrijevica. Isolated traffic and geographical position adversely affect the economic and social development of rural settlements. Natural features indicate that rural areas of Andrijevica economy do not comply with all the natural conditions. Incompatibility between the available natural and current conditions of the rural economy determine by the overall socio-economic factors of development. The percentage de...

Goran Rajovic; Jelisavka Bulatovic

2012-01-01

119

Ecology of small mammals in a Brazilian rural area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A small mammal study was carried out in Pamparrão valley, Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 1991 to July 1996. The area was characterised by small rural properties with vegetable plantations, pasture lands and small forest fragments. Small mammals were captured in seven line tran [...] sects along the valley. Eleven small mammal species were captured: the didelphid marsupials Didelphis aurita, Philander frenata and Monodelphis americana, and the rodents Nectomys squamipes, Akodon cursor, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Bolomys lasiurus, Oecomys concolor (Sigmodontinae), Rattus ratlus (Murinae), Proechimys iheringi and Euryzygo-matomys guiara (Echimyidae). The heterogeneous habitat configuration probably allowed the occurrence of marsupials and more rodent species when compared to studies in monoculture areas.

Paulo Sergio, D' Andrea; Rosana, Gentile; Rui, Cerqueira; Carlos Eduardo V, Grelle; Claudia, Horta; Luis, Rey.

120

90Sr and 137Cs in Environmental Samples at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center and Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Determination of 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental samples collected around Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) and surrounding areas during 1997 - 1998 were obtained. Radioactivity of 90Sr in surface water leaf and fish were 0-3.0 mBq/l 0-0.2 Bq/kg fresh and 0-0.1 Bq/kg fresh. Radioactivity of 137Cs in the same samples were 0.8-3.3 mBq/l 0.2-0.9 Bq/kg fresh and 0.1-0.3 Bq/kg fresh respectively. The levels of the radioactivity show the base line levels of radioactivity at ONRC for preoperation situation which will benefit for radiation protection to the public

 
 
 
 
121

An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from August 10-16, 1993, over a 78-square-kilometer (30-square-mile) area of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was performed at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with a line spacing of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on a set of United States Geological Survey topographic maps of the area and an aerial photograph of the plant. The terrestrial gamma exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour at 1 meter above the ground. Protactinium-234m was observed at six sites within the boundaries of the plant. At a seventh site, only uranium-235 was observed. No other man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was present in a detectable quantity, either on or off the plant property. Soil sample and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ± 7.5%

122

An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant

123

A regional study of the radiation environment of Greenham Common, Newbury District and surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was commissioned by Newbury District Council and Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council in response to public concern following disclosures about events at Greenham Common in the 1950s, and the suspicion that there may have been an accident involving a nuclear weapon leading to off-site contamination at the airbase. The Greenham Common airbase is at an advanced stage of decommissioning with parts of the site already re-developed for industrial and leisure purposes and material being removed for use in construction of the Newbury by-pass. The success of such developments is critically dependent on public confidence in the quality of the environment, both near the site, and more generally throughout the area. For this reason the study was commissioned with the aims of: I. defining the radiation environment of the whole district and parts of its surrounding areas. II. examining whether there is any evidence of radioactive contamination in the vicinity of the Greenham Common airbase. III. assessing the evidence that there may have been a release of nuclear material from the site. The work involved a collaboration between scientists from the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, who conducted gamma ray surveys to define the general radiation environment of the area, and Scientists from the University of Southampton who collected an extensive range of samples for high sensitivity radiochemical analyses. This report presents their findings and main coneport presents their findings and main conclusions, together with a discussion of the background to the study and its implications. (Author)

124

Decadal-Scale Vegetation Dynamics of Kolkata and Its Surrounding Areas, India Using Fuzzy Classification Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vegetation is an important component of any ecosystem. In urban areas, presence of vegetation is essential for reducing the effects of environmental pollution and maintaining the ecological balance. In the wake of excessive growth of population, the urban vegetation with parkland, especially in developing countries, are diminishing rapidly to provide additional space to various other types of land use. However, such reductions can have serious future implications. Therefore, an assessment of the vegetation cover of urban areas is essential. In this paper, Landsat satellite imageries have been used to study the changes in the vegetation cover of Kolkata, the largest metropolis in eastern India, from 1973 to 2011. The entire area of Kolkata and its surroundings (up to a distance of 10 km has been divided into four quadrants according to the cardinal directions (northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest and six concentric rings of 2 km radius each, and from these 24 sectors (four quadrants and six concentric circles, vegetated lands have been identified for analyzing the changes during the study period. There is a constant decrease of vegetation cover from 1973 till date. The outer periphery of the city is characterized by more urban vegetation as compared to the core of the city. Apart from this, the western sector is denser in terms of vegetation than the eastern one.

Arun Mondal

2012-08-01

125

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. METHOD: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive stud [...] y in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. RESULTS: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people's thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus, Rutebemberwa; Sheila K., Katureebe; Sheba N., Gitta; Amos D., Mwaka; Lynn, Atuyambe.

2013-01-01

126

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus Rutebemberwa

2013-05-01

127

A detailed study of the active crustal deformation in the Aegean and surrounding area  

Science.gov (United States)

A detailed study of the active crustal deformation in the Aegean sea and surrounding area is presented. The estimation of the deformation velocities is not performed in broad seismic zones but in seismogenic sources of limited spatial extent, where the seismic energy is practically released, in order to describe the spatial variations of the components of the strain rate tensor. The deformation analysis is based on previous work where the seismicity and the available focal mechanisms are used separately for estimating the rate and shape of the deformation, respectively. The calculations were performed for 63 seismogenic sources identified in the Aegean sea and surrounding area which belong to eight belts with an almost uniform orientation of the stress field. Along the coasts of Albania and northwestern Greece (up to Leukada island) the collision of the Adria plate with Eurasia results in a compressional velocity of about 4 mm/yr in a direction (N49°E) almost normal to the coast line. The dextral movement with almost 3 cm/yr along the Cephalonia transform fault with strike N45°E is expressed as an almost equal extension and compression in N-S and E-W direction, respectively. Along the convex (outer) part of the Hellenic arc a crustal shortening of 1.3 cm/yr is observed in a mean direction N34°E. The direction of this shortening is almost constant from the southern Ionian islands (Zakynthos) up to Rodos while the shortening rate does not significantly change from the outer sources to the inner ones. The Aegean sea and surrounding area is characterised by an extensional deformation. The direction of the maximum extension in the northern part of this area shows an anticlockwise rotation from east to west. Thus, this extension has a NNE direction in northwestern Turkey (N11°E), a NNW direction in central and northern Greece as well as along the southern Aegean volcanic arc and its extension to southwestern Turkey (N12°W) and a WNW direction in the westernmost part of this extensional area (N72°W). The mean value of the extensional velocities in this area is 5 mm/yr. The northern part of Asia Minor and of the Aegean sea is characterised by the dextral strike-slip movement of about 2 cm/yr of the North Anatolian fault and its continuation in the northern Aegean, where this movement gradually decreases to about 6 mm/yr. The vertical crustal (upper 10 km of the crust) thickening is about 2 mm/yr along the convex side of the Hellenic arc and the vertical crustal thinning is about 1 mm/yr in the Aegean sea. These values were obtained from the component U33 of the velocity tensor.

Papazachos, Constantinos B.; Kiratzi, Anastasia A.

1996-03-01

128

The Geology and Petrography of Yücebelen and Surrounding Area, Torul-Gümü?hane  

Science.gov (United States)

The study area is located in the tectono-stratigraphic zone named "Eastern Pontide Zone" from the northeastern part of Turkey. Eastern Pontides were formed by the subduction of Tethys Ocean under the Eurasian plate, during the Early Cretaceous - Late Eocene. Eastern Pontide orogenic zone can be divided in two tectono-stratigraphic subgroups as the northern and southern zones. The study area is located very close to border of these two subgroups but located in northern zone. In this project, the first geological map of the study area at the scale 1:5000 was made. Subsequently, detailed geological maps at the scale 1:2000 were made for the areas rich in ores. In the study area, Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks consisting of basalts and basaltic andesites take place at the bottom of the rock sequence. Basalts and basaltic andesites with hyaloophitic, vitrophiric and microporphyric texture comprise plagioclase +pyroxene +chlorite +calcite ±epidote ±chalcedony ±opaque minerals. They are overlain by concordant pyroclastic and dacitic-rhyodacitic rocks. Quarts + K-feldispar ±plagioclase? ±biotite ±chlorite ±calcite ±chalcedony minerals are determined as a result of microscope investigation on samples taken from these rocks. These rocks are overlain by sedimentary rocks intercalated with pyroclastic rocks. All those units mentioned above, were intruded by granitoids of supposed Upper Cretaceous-Eocene age. Granitoids that crop out in the area were classified in terms of Q-ANOR parameters as granodiorites (Adile Hamlet occurrence - investigated in detail), diorites (Tuzlak Hill occurrence- eastern-part of study area) and quartz monzodiorites (?stavroma Hill occurrence- northern part of study area). Adile Hamlet granodiorites comprise plagioclase +pyroxene +chlorite +calcite ±quarts ±epidote +opaque minerals. A sequence of quarts +orthoclase +plagioclase ±chlorite ±epidote ±calcite ±opaque minerals have been determined after investigation of the rock samples collected from Tuzlak Hill surrounding area. Also, petrographic investigation gave us plagioclase +hornblende ±biotite ±chlorite ±calcite ±quarts ±opaque minerals mineral sequence for the occurrences seen around ?stavroma Hill. All of these units are intruded Late Eocene andesitic and dacitic dykes. It was determined that Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization depends on the quartz veins developed in the fracture zones of the granitoid body and its contacts with sedimentary rocks. These veins revealed a paragenesis consisting Cu-Pb-Zn minerals. Key words: Eastern Pontides, Gümü?hane-Torul, Granitoid, Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization, Gümü?hane-Torul

Do?acan, Özcan; Özp?nar, Yahya

2013-04-01

129

The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

Ron Wimberley

2006-11-01

130

Brazilian university technology transfer to rural areas Transferência de tecnologia de universidades brasileiras na área rural  

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Full Text Available In agriculture, there is a difference between average yield obtained by farmers and crop potential. There is technology available to increase yields, but not all farmers have access to it and/or use this information. This clearly characterizes an extension and technology transference problem. There are several technology transfer systems, but there is no system to fit all conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to create extension solutions according to local conditions. Another rural extension challenge is efficiency, despite continuous funding reductions. One proposal that has resulted from extension reform worldwide has suggested integration between the public and private sectors. The public universities could play the role of training and updating technical assistance of human resources, which is the one of the main aspects that has limited technology transfer. The objective of this study was to identify approaches to promote technology transfer generated in Brazilian public universities to rural areas through literature review. An experimental approach of technology transfer is presented here where a Brazilian university extension Vice-chancellor incorporates professionals from consolidated research groups according to demand. In this way, public universities take part of their social functions, by integrating teaching, research, and extension.Em agricultura, há diferenças entre a produtividade média obtida pelos produtores e o potencial produtivo dos cultivos. Há informação tecnológica disponível para aumentar a produtividade, mas nem todos os produtores têm acesso e/ou usam a informação. Isso caracteriza claramente um problema de extensão e transferência de tecnologia. Há vários sistemas de transferência de tecnologia, mas, como não há sistema que se ajuste a todas as condições, é necessário criar alternativas adequadas às condições de cada local. Outro desafio da extensão rural é ser eficiente, apesar da contínua redução de recursos. Uma proposta advinda das constantes reformas na extensão verificada ao redor do mundo é o trabalho integrado entre a iniciativa privada e o poder público. A universidade pública contribuiria para o treinamento e a atualização dos recursos humanos envolvidos com assistência técnica, apontado como um dos aspectos limitantes na transferência de tecnologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar, por meio de revisão bibliográfica, alternativas de promover a transferência de tecnologias geradas nas universidades públicas brasileiras para a área rural. Assim, é apresentada uma proposta de transferência de tecnologia a ser gerenciada pelas Pró-reitorias de extensão das universidades brasileiras, tendo como base os grupos consolidados de pesquisa, nos quais poderiam ser incorporados outros profissionais de acordo com a necessidade. Dessa forma, a universidade pública recuperaria parte da sua função social, integrando ensino, pesquisa e extensão.

Enio Marchesan

2010-10-01

131

Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was developed. It reflects a modern system of relationships to the land in the laws and regulations on the federal, regional and local levels. It is a tool for informational and legal support in the decision-making process in the field of the wildlife management. The federal laws regulate the situation in general, and the departmental regulations govern its adjustment by components. The analysis of legal acts' dynamics in the sphere of wildlife management and environmental protection was conducted in order to monitoring the situation and evaluate the changes of relationships to the territory for 10 years (2001-2011 years). As the result with the use of GIS-technology a map of legal zoning was created. This electronic map has become a GIS model of the legal zoning, besides the informational content each contour includes cadastral data and information about its legal status. The model is created as a form of refraction of legislative base through a natural and economic basis of the territory. It allows shifting to the analysis of strategy of the territorial use, choice of optimal strategy of regional development, and decision-making and its realization.

Lesnykh, Svetlana

2013-04-01

132

Fog in a marginal agricultural area surrounded by montane Andean cloud forest during El Niño climate  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate temporal variations of water inputs, rainfall and fog (cloud water), and its contribution to the water balance in a marginal agricultural area of potato surrounded by tropical montane cloud forest in Colombia. Fog in the air boundary layer was estimated using a cylindrical fog collector. Liquid water content of fog events were evaluated before and during natural climate event of El Niño. Our study shows the temporal variation of these two water inputs in both daily and monthly cycles on Boyacá at 2900 m a.s.l. Rainfall was the most frequently observed atmospheric phenomenon, being present on average 62% of the days per year, whereas fog was 45% of the time. Reflected on the lower frequency, annual amount of fog was 11% of precipitation. However during the anomalous dry climate of El Niño, total amount of rainfall was negligible and the few fog events were the only water source for plant growth. Estimated water crop requirements were higher than the water inputs. The survival of the crops was explained by meteorological conditions during dew and fog events. High relative humidity might have eased the plant’s water stress by decreasing transpiration and temperature in leaves and soil, affecting the water balance and the heat exchange between the atmosphere-land interfaces in the marginal agricultural areas during exceptional dry climate.

García-Santos, G.

2010-07-01

133

An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 11--20, 1990, over an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 122 meters (400 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) at 1 meter above the ground. Analysis of the data for man-made sources and for the uranium decay product, protactinium-234m (234mPa), showed five sites within the boundaries of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant with elevated readings. Spectra obtained in the vicinity of the buildings at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant showed the presence of 234mPa, a uranium-238 (238U) decay product. In addition, spectral analysis of the data obtained over the processing plant facility showed gamma activity indicative of uranium-235 (234U). No other man-made gamma ray emitting radioactive material was detected, either on or off the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant property. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at five different locations within the survey boundlaries to cations within the survey boundlaries to support the aerial data

134

Menstrual pattern among adolescent girls in rural area of Bijapur  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a crucial period in everyone’s life. This is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood. These are formative years when maximum amount of physical, psychological and behavioral changes takes place. For girls, adolescence is period of extreme stress and strain. Menarche and menstruation are bound to elicit tremendous psychological response in them. Objectives of the study: To know the menstrual pattern among adolescent girls. Material methods: Community based cross sectional study was done in rural field practice area of department of community medicine, BLDEA’S Shri B.M.Patil medical college, Bijapur. The study subjects include all adolescent girls who have attained menarche. Results: Mean age of menarche of adolescent girls in the present study was 14 years, mean duration of blood flow 3.9±5.07 days. Mean intermenstrual period 28.7±3.26 days and dysmenorrhoea was present in 27.9% of adolescent girls.

Manjula S. Patil

2013-01-01

135

Determination of the pollution with lead in the batteries factory in Al-Saffera (Aleppo) and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study aimed to determine the lead concentrations in the ecosystem surrounding the batteries factory in Al-Saffera. The results showed that the lead levels were very high in both factory area and the surrounding agricultural area. Lead levels in air varied between 12 and 34 ?g/m3 in the area outside the factory. The same trends were in both soil and plant samples, and normal washing does not decrease the lead level in plant samples to acceptable levels. Mean lead levels in blood was also high and ranged between 55 and 28 ?g /dl for factory workers and village inhabitants respectively. In conclusion the authorities administration must take all necessary procedures to reduce the lead levels in the factory area and in the surrounding area.(Author)

136

Anemia among children and adolescents in a rural area  

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Full Text Available Background Anemia in children and adolescents affects growth and development. It is a preventable disease, but unfortunately is often ignored until the symptoms occur. There have been limited reports on the prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents in Indonesia, especially from rural areas. Objective To describe the prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents in district of Malinau, a rural area in Eeast Kalimantan Province. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in June 2010 using laboratory records between July 2009 to January 2010. Laboratory records of patients aged between 6 months and 18 years which investigated were complete blood count (CBC from ambulatory, inpatient, and emergency care of Malinau Public Hospital in Eeast Kalimantan. Mentzer and England & Fraser indices were used to differentiate iron deficiency anemia (IDA and thalassemia among microcytic hypochromic anemic patients. Results This study involved 709 laboratory records. Prevalence of anemia was 53.9% (95% CI 50.2% to 57.5%. The prevalence of IDA among age groups were as follows: 29.4% (95% CI 24.3 to 34.5% in 6–59 months group, 16% (95% CI 11 to 21% in 5–11.9 years, and 15.2% (95% CI 10.2 to 20.2% in 12–18 years. Children aged 6–59 months tended to have more anemia than those aged 5–11.9 years (OR 2.184, 95% CI 1.398 to 3.413 or aged 12-18 years (OR 2.319, 95% CI 1.464 to 3.674. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents of the Malinau Regency is 53.9% (95% CI 50.2 to 57.5%, quite similar to that of other developing countries. A government program to overcome anemia is recommended, not only for pregnant women, but also for children and adolescents.

Ivan Riyanto Widjaja

2014-03-01

137

Implementation of socio-economic and socio-cultural innovations in rural areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural areas are suitable for the creation of businesses and trades associations, guilds, manufacture's idea for raising social and economic life activity in order to increase employment in the countryside. Lithuanian Rural Development Vision for 2013 is to strengthen the agricultural and forestry sector’s competitiveness by supporting restructuring, development and innovation process, to increase the environmental and landscape value, to improve the quality of life in rural areas and promot...

S?es?kauskaite?, Daiva

2011-01-01

138

General Health in the Elderly and Younger Adults of Rural areas in Fars Province, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: There are critical gaps in assessment and research on health among the elderly living in rural communities. The state of aging and health in rural areas provides a snapshot of our older adults’s need to necessary public health measures .The aim of this study was to determine the self-rated general health of adults residing in rural areas and compare the general health of the elderly with younger adults.

Zare, Najaf; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Dehesh, Tania; Moradi, Fariba

2015-01-01

139

Research and Study on Living Conditions of Empty Nest Elderly in Rural Areas of Gansu  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Through a questionnaire survey, house surveys, case interviews, etc., Gansu Province on the empty nest elderly in rural areas to survive conditions of systematic survey, in-depth analysis of the impact of rural endowment insurance system for internal and external factors and put forward countermeasures and suggestions related.
Kew Words: Rural areas; Empty nest elderly; Living conditions; Investigate
Résumé: Par le biais des enquêtes en ...

Yan, An

2008-01-01

140

Teleophthalmology: A Model for Eye Care Delivery in Rural and Underserved Areas of India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives. To describe the application of teleophthalmology in rural and underserved areas of India. Study Design. This paper describes the major teleophthalmology projects in India and its benefits. Results. Teleophthalmology is the use of telecommunication for electronic transfer of health-related data from rural and underserved areas of India to specialities in urban cities. The MDRF/WDF Rural Diabetes Project has proved to be very beneficial for improvement of quality health care in Tami...

Vijayaraghavan Prathiba; Mohan Rema

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Probability impact analysis of potential radioactive release from Fukushima accident to surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper simulated the potential impact of radioactive material from the Fukushima accident to the surrounding areas with China as an area of special concern. Using the five-year meteorological data in Spring during 2004-2008 as input, the forward 3D trajectories started 8 times a day at 50 m high above four simulated releasing points, which were ± 0.2 degree latitude and longitude centering around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was calculated with an interval of 3 h and a trajectory length of 5 d. By means of cluster analysis to results of trajectory calculation, the atmospheric transport pathways of all the 14720 trajectories derived were obtained that enabled the following statistical analysis to the frequency of radioactive material in reaching interest region as well the probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration. The results showed a relatively low frequency in Spring with its peak appeared in May. For instance the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Harbin in May is 0.9%, Shanghai 0.6%, Taiwan 0.2%, and Beijing 0.1% with an average migration time of 3.2 d, 4.2 d , 4.5 d and 4.6 d respectively. The lowest frequency showed in March, the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Taiwan in March is merely 0.1%, for Harbin is 0.1% and 0 for the rest of areas concerned in our country. The probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are consistent with the impact analysis results of trajectories. Meanwhile, the impact of probability field to other regions can be observed from the results. (authors)

142

Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin  

Science.gov (United States)

In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3"x3") at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of "Marinelli" container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of 137Cs, for which maesured activities correspond, within allowed measurement error, to the conditions before the start of NPP Temelin operation.

Thinova, Lenka; Kluson, Jaroslav

2008-08-01

143

LO RURAL. UN CAMPO INACABADO / THE RURAL AREA: AN UNFINISHED “FIELD”  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El surgimiento de nuevas lecturas de la realidad social rural latinoamericana, e incluso europea, y los efectos de las políticas internacionales sobre qué producir, cuánto, cómo y dónde, han puesto en la agenda académica el debate entorno al significado y contenido de lo rural y del desarrollo rural [...] . En el centro de esta controversia está la superación o ruptura entre lo rural y lo agrario, dos términos otrora considerados como sinónimos. Trascender esta dicotomía reduccionista abre la posibilidad de repensar los caminos y las estrategias mediante las cuales las sociedades en general, en sus esfuerzos por autoproducirse crean condiciones de vida, proveen recursos necesarios y pertinentes y movilizan las capacidades y las libertades de los pobladores rurales. Este documento recoge los elementos más sobresalientes de la investigación “Repensando lo rural y el desarrollo rural” en la que se hizo una revisión de literatura sobre el tema y se buscó, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas³, la participación de funcionarios institucionales, representantes gremiales y académicos. En términos generales se pretendía identificar los significados y los contenidos que se atribuyen a lo rural y al desarrollo rural. El texto se organiza en tres partes: En la primera parte, Reiteración o resignificación, se analizan los posibles avances y permanencias en los significados y contenidos de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En la segunda, denominada Elementos constitutivos del desarrollo rural, se hace referencia a las dimensiones, los indicadores y los actores identificados mediante la información obtenida. En la tercera parte, se establece una relación entre el discurso y las prácticas de desarrollo en Colombia y sus implicaciones en el diseño de políticas públicas. Finalmente se concluye que el desarrollo rural ha tenido como trasfondo una orientación modernizadora de la sociedad rural en general y del sector agrario en particular. Abstract in english The emergence of new readings about the Latin American and European rural social reality and the effects of international policies on what to produce, how much, how and where, has placed a debate around the significance and contents of the rural and the rural development. The core of this controvers [...] y is the improvement or breaking between the rural and the agrarian, two terms that were before considered to be synonyms. Going beyond this reductive dichotomy opens the possibility of rethinking the ways and the strategies through which societies in general, in their efforts to self-produce, create conditions of life, supply the necessary resources and move the capacities and freedom of the rural workers. This document collects the most outstanding elements of the research “Rethinking the rural and the rural development” in which an extensive revision of literature about the topic was made. This was made also through semi-structured interviews, participation of institutional officers, academic and association representatives. In general, it was sought to identify the meanings of the contents attributed to the rural and the rural development. The text is organized in three sections: In the first section, Reiteration, possible advances and continuance in the meanings and contents of the rural and the rural development are analyzed. In second, called Constitutive elements of the rural development, reference to dimensions, indicators and identified actors is made through the information obtained. In the third, Implications in the design of public policies are articulation between discourse and development practices in the country is established. Finally, it is concluded that the rural development has had an undercurrent modern orientation in rural society in general and the agrarian sector in particular.

Nelly del Carmen, Suárez Restrepo; Isaías, Tobasura Acuña.

2008-12-01

144

LO RURAL. UN CAMPO INACABADO THE RURAL AREA: AN UNFINISHED “FIELD”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El surgimiento de nuevas lecturas de la realidad social rural latinoamericana, e incluso europea, y los efectos de las políticas internacionales sobre qué producir, cuánto, cómo y dónde, han puesto en la agenda académica el debate entorno al significado y contenido de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En el centro de esta controversia está la superación o ruptura entre lo rural y lo agrario, dos términos otrora considerados como sinónimos. Trascender esta dicotomía reduccionista abre la posibilidad de repensar los caminos y las estrategias mediante las cuales las sociedades en general, en sus esfuerzos por autoproducirse crean condiciones de vida, proveen recursos necesarios y pertinentes y movilizan las capacidades y las libertades de los pobladores rurales. Este documento recoge los elementos más sobresalientes de la investigación “Repensando lo rural y el desarrollo rural” en la que se hizo una revisión de literatura sobre el tema y se buscó, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas³, la participación de funcionarios institucionales, representantes gremiales y académicos. En términos generales se pretendía identificar los significados y los contenidos que se atribuyen a lo rural y al desarrollo rural. El texto se organiza en tres partes: En la primera parte, Reiteración o resignificación, se analizan los posibles avances y permanencias en los significados y contenidos de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En la segunda, denominada Elementos constitutivos del desarrollo rural, se hace referencia a las dimensiones, los indicadores y los actores identificados mediante la información obtenida. En la tercera parte, se establece una relación entre el discurso y las prácticas de desarrollo en Colombia y sus implicaciones en el diseño de políticas públicas. Finalmente se concluye que el desarrollo rural ha tenido como trasfondo una orientación modernizadora de la sociedad rural en general y del sector agrario en particular.The emergence of new readings about the Latin American and European rural social reality and the effects of international policies on what to produce, how much, how and where, has placed a debate around the significance and contents of the rural and the rural development. The core of this controversy is the improvement or breaking between the rural and the agrarian, two terms that were before considered to be synonyms. Going beyond this reductive dichotomy opens the possibility of rethinking the ways and the strategies through which societies in general, in their efforts to self-produce, create conditions of life, supply the necessary resources and move the capacities and freedom of the rural workers. This document collects the most outstanding elements of the research “Rethinking the rural and the rural development” in which an extensive revision of literature about the topic was made. This was made also through semi-structured interviews, participation of institutional officers, academic and association representatives. In general, it was sought to identify the meanings of the contents attributed to the rural and the rural development. The text is organized in three sections: In the first section, Reiteration, possible advances and continuance in the meanings and contents of the rural and the rural development are analyzed. In second, called Constitutive elements of the rural development, reference to dimensions, indicators and identified actors is made through the information obtained. In the third, Implications in the design of public policies are articulation between discourse and development practices in the country is established. Finally, it is concluded that the rural development has had an undercurrent modern orientation in rural society in general and the agrarian sector in particular.

Nelly del Carmen Suárez Restrepo

2008-12-01

145

Rates of active crustal deformation in the Aegean and the surrounding area  

Science.gov (United States)

Active crustal deformation is calculated for 26 zones of shallow seismicity in the Aegean and the surrounding regions. The data analysis is based on a procedure developed in a previous paper (Papazachos and Kiratzi, 1993). This procedure takes advantage of all the available historical and instrumental data for the calculation of the "size" of the deformation in a seismic zone and of all reliable fault plane solutions which are available for the broader seismic belt for the determination of the "shape" of the deformation. The Aegean and its surroundings has been divided into 11 such seismic belts which may consist of one or more seismic zones that share earthquakes with similar focal mechanisms. This data analysis showed that along the coastal region of Albania, Yugoslavia and western Greece the deformation is taken up by compression in a direction perpendicular to the coast line (47°E) at a rate of about 2 mm/a. In the Ionian islands (Leukada, Cephalonia, Zante) compression occurs at a rate of 10 mm/a in an almost EW direction (N83°E) and extension at a rate of 11 mm/a in an almost NS direction (N174°E). Along the convex side of the Hellenicarc (south of Peloponese, Crete, Rodos), the upper crust is compressed at a rate of about 6 mm/a in a direction N34°E. In the Aegean Sea and the surrounding lands (mainland of western and northern Greece, southern Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, western Turkey) the seismic deformation is taken up by an almost NS extension at an average rate of 5 mm/a. In northwestern Anatolia and the northern Aegean fault zones deformation is controlled by the westward movement along the North Anatolian fault. Northern Anatolia is undergoing a N115°E compression at a rate of 22 mm/a which is relieved by a N25°E extension at a rate of 19 mm/a, and the Northern Aegean is undergoing EW compression at a rate of 16 mm/a and NS extension at a rate of 8 mm/a. The vertical crustal thickening along the external compressional zones ranges from 0.2 to 0.5 mm/a with an average of 0.3 mm/a and the vertical crustal thinning in the inner back-arc extensional area ranges from 0.1 to 2.4 mm/a with an average equal to 0.8 mm/a. In the western part of the area and between the external compressional field and the internal extensional field, a belt exists where the deformation is expressed as extension at an average rate of 1.6 mm/a in a N112°E direction.

Papazachos, C. B.; Kiratzi, A. A.; Papazachos, B. C.

1992-11-01

146

DIVERSIFICATION OF ECONOMY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE: VECTORS OF DEVELOPMENT FOR THE RURAL AREA AND FOR IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF RURAL POPULATION  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is the analysis of socio-economical structures which are: rural economy and rural infrastructure, regarding their contribution to the development of the rural area and to the improvement of the quality of life for the rural population.We emphasize the diversification and the economical development in the Romanian and European rural area, by analyzing employment and gross value added. Also, we emphasize the development of rural infrastructure through the analysis of tourism and Internet infrastructures, as well as social infrastructure (through education.

NECULAI Cristina

2011-12-01

147

Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

Kenitiro Suguio

2012-12-01

148

Climatological analysis of dust storms in the area surrounding the Tengger Desert during 1960-2007  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on dust storm records and meteorological data from six stations in the area surrounding the Tengger Desert over the period 1960-2007, the diurnal, monthly and interannual variation of dust storms and severe dust storms, as well as their relation to wind speed, precipitation and temperature, are analyzed and discussed. Statistical analyses demonstrate that such storms occur more frequently from 9:00 to 21:00 local standard time and much more frequently between March and May, especially April. Dust storm frequency (DSF) and severe dust storm frequency (SDSF) show a significant linear decreasing trend from 1960 to 2007. For monthly variability, winds (especially strong ones with speeds 10-20 m/s) are the main factor controlling both dust storm types. Precipitation and temperature have an indirect effect on DSF and SDSF by controlling vegetation growth. For interannual variability, strong wind is still the main control, with precipitation a relatively important cofactor. Temperature has an irregular but somewhat negative relationship with dust storms. Precipitation and especially temperature have likely been important in the increase of DSF since 2000.

Guan, Qingyu; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Shilei; Pan, Baotian; Liu, Chenglin; Zhang, Di; Wu, Tao

2014-09-01

149

A model for community health service development in depressed rural areas in China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To introduce a model of community health service organization (as implemented in urban areas) to less developed rural areas in China and evaluate the impact of this model on health care utilization. Methods The intervention involved developing leadership at county level, training rural health practitioners, providing clinical management guidelines and standards, encouraging clinic improvements and providing access to subsidies for public heal...

Zhaokang Yuan; Yuxi Liu; Yong Liu; Yunchang Xiao; Yuanjun Guo; Harris Mark

2012-01-01

150

TRAINING OF FUTURE TEACHERS TO THE WORK IN PRIMARY SCHOOL IN RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article outlines the main directions of research on primary education in rural areas. The results of studies on the preparation of teachers to the educational process in primary schools in rural areas in national educational research were analyzed

Zinoviy Onyshkiv

2013-12-01

151

Local earthquake tomography of the Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, selected travel time data from the aftershock series of the Erzincan earthquake (March, 1992, Ms=6.8 were inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D Vp and Vs structure. The general features of the 3D velocity structure of the upper crust of Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area, one of the most tectonically and seismically active regions in Turkey were investigated. The data used for this purpose were 2215 P-wave and 547 S-wave arrival times from 350 local earthquakes recorded by temporary 15 short-period seismograph stations. Thurber?s simultaneous inversion method (1983 was applied to the arrival time data to obtain a 3D velocity structure, and hypocentral locations. Both 3D heterogeneous P and S wave velocity variations down to 12 km depth were obtained. The acquired tomographic images show that the 3D velocity structure beneath the region is heterogeneous in that low velocity appears throughout the basin and at the southeastern flank, and high velocities occur at south and east of the basin. The low velocities can be related to small and large scale fractures, thus causing rocks to weaken over a long period of the active tectonic faulting process. The ophiolitic rock units mostly occurring around the basin area are the possible reason for the high velocities. The validity of 3D inversion results was tested by performing detailed resolution analysis. The test results confirm the velocity anomalies obtained from inversion. Despite the small number of inverted S-wave arrivals, the obtained 3D S velocity model has similar anomalies with lower resolution than the 3D P-wave velocity model. Better hypocenter locations were calculated using the 3D heterogeneous model obtained from tomographic inversion.

H. Gökalp

2007-06-01

152

Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbei...

Bijker, Rixt A.; Nora Mehnen; Sijtsma, Frans J.; Daams, Michiel N.

2014-01-01

153

Age distribution of fossil landslides in the Tyrol (Austria and its surrounding areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some of the largest mass movements in the Alps cluster spatially in the Tyrol (Austria. Fault-related valley deepening and coalescence of brittle discontinuities structurally controlled the progressive failure and the kinematics of several slopes. To evaluate the spatial and temporal landslide distribution, a first comprehensive compilation of dated mass movements in the Eastern Alps has been made. At present, more than 480 different landslides in the Tyrol and its surrounding areas, including some 120 fossil events, are recorded in a GIS-linked geodatabase. These compiled data show a rather continuous temporal distribution of landslide activities, with (i some peaks of activity in the early Holocene at about 10 500–9400 cal BP and (ii in the Tyrol a significant increase of deep-seated rockslides in the Subboreal at about 4200–3000 cal BP. The majority of Holocene mass movements were not directly triggered by deglaciation processes, but clearly took a preparation of some 1000 years, after ice withdrawal, until slopes collapsed. In view of this, several processes that may promote rock strength degradation are discussed. After the Late-Glacial, slope stabilities were affected by stress redistribution and by subcritical crack growth. Fracture propagating processes may have been favoured by glacial loading and unloading, by earthquakes and by pore pressure fluctuations. Repeated dynamic loading, even if at subcritical energy levels, initiates brittle fracture propagation and thus substantially promotes slope instabilities. Compiled age dating shows that several landslides in the Tyrol coincide temporally with the progradation of some larger debris flows in the nearby main valleys and, partially, with glacier advances in the Austrian Central Alps, indicating climatic phases of increased water supply. This gives evidence of elevated pore pressures within the intensely fractured rock masses. As a result, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations are induced by complex and polyphase interactions of lithological and structural parameters, morphological changes, subcritical fracture propagation, variable seismic activity and climatically controlled groundwater flows.

C. Prager

2008-04-01

154

3D Structure of Iran and Surrounding Areas From The Simultaneous Inversion of Complementary Geophysical Observations  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the three-dimensional seismic structure of the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone estimated through the use of a simultaneous, joint inversion algorithm that combines surface-wave dispersion and gravitational variations. We use a simple relationship between density and shear velocity to relate the sensitivities of gravity and dispersion to shear velocity so that they may be combined in a single inversion. The sensitivity of both data sets are well known, surface waves provide information on the smooth variations in elastic properties, gravity measurements provide information on broad-wavenumber shallow density variations and long-wavenumber components of deeper density structures. The combination of the data provides improved resolution of shallow-structure variations, which in turn help produce the smooth features at depth with less contamination from the strong heterogeneity often observed in the upper crust. We also explore geologically based smoothness constraints to help resolve sharp features in the underlying shallow 3D structure, and investigate the potential of including relatively localized structure information contained in receiver functions into the 3D inversion for shear-velocity (and parameterized density).Our focus is on the region surrounding Iran from the east coast of the Mediterranean in the west, to Pakistan in the east. We use gravity anomalies derived from the global gravity model extracted from the GRACE satellite mission. Rayleigh wave dispersion velocities in the period range between 7 and 100 s are taken from previously published tomographic maps for the region. The integrated inversion with the incorporation of geologic information is expected to produce a reasonably well constrained shear-wave velocity structure of the Iranian area, which is helpful for better understanding the Central Alpine-Himalayan Collision Zone.

Ammon, C. J.; Maceira, M.; Cleveland, M.

2009-12-01

155

Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 ?g/m(3), respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. PMID:24270102

Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

2014-02-01

156

Sustainable development of the Romanian rural areas within the present European context  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present concept of rural sustainable development is based on the European model and implies a multifunctional agriculture. The LEADER programme (a part of NRDP) represents an approach that offers new development opportunities for the rural areas. The rural development objectives can be fulfilled both by the locally available financing, and by accessing national and European non-refundable financing, on the basis of real projects.

Nicolau, L. C.; Albu, R. G.

2011-01-01

157

Sustainable development of the Romanian rural areas within the present European context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present concept of rural sustainable development is based on the European model and implies a multifunctional agriculture. The LEADER programme (a part of NRDP represents an approach that offers new development opportunities for the rural areas. The rural development objectives can be fulfilled both by the locally available financing, and by accessing national and European non-refundable financing, on the basis of real projects.

Nicolau, L. C.

2011-01-01

158

The Study of Cultural Soft Power under the Construction of New Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Culture is the core element of soft power, and it is also closely related to the construction of new rural areas. To achieve the overall goal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the developing of country is not only the key point but also the difficult one. In this article, the authors firstly do a brief overview of the concept and meaning of soft power, and then show the importance and necessity of the cultural soft power to make a new sustainable development of country. But today the construction of rural cultural soft power is not optimistic, and the four key problems are as follows: the public cultural projects can not meet the demands of new rural construction, and the government show less attention to the cultural construction of rural areas .Besides, the defective management of rural culture and the insufficient quality of the peasants do exist in rural areas .Therefore, addressed the above issues, authors put forward several suggestions. At first, build and improve the new rural cultural soft power system. Furthermore, make the grassroots government work in the construction of cultural soft power. What’s more, increase the cultural resources and enhance the services of rural public culture. Finally, improve the overall quality of the peasants and cultivate new peasants.

Key Words: New rural construction; Cultural soft power; Rural cultural construction.

Résumé: La culture est l’élément central de la puissance douce, et de la culture et le développement rural sont étroitement liés atteindre l’objectif global du socialisme aux caractéristiques chinoises, en mettant l’accent sur les zones rurales, les zones rurales est également difficile dans le présent document, le concept. de la puissance douce et pour un bref aperçu du contenu, l’analyse de la puissance culturelle douce de la nouvelle importance du développement durable dans les zones rurales et la nécessité. Mais aujourd’hui, la construction des régions rurales du soft power culturel n’est pas optimiste, il ya un manque de public rural projets culturels ne peuvent pas répondre aux exigences strictes de la construction rurale nouvelle, la construction culturelle des cadres de base en milieu rural à l’attention et le niveau de sensibilisation ne suffit pas, la gestion de la culture en milieu rural doit être renforc?e, la qualité globale en milieu rural la science retard scolaire, l’agriculteur n’est pas élevés quatre questions, afin d'aborder les questions ci-dessus pour construire et améliorer la nouvelle rurale système culturel soft power, à renforcer la capacité des ruraux aux services publics culturels, de changer leur façon de penser, faire jouer pleinement la population rurale du gouvernement local qui est de nourrir douce culturelle la construction de centrales de l'ordinaire, d'augmenter les ressources culturelles de la puissance douce pour les zones rurales de la force, d'accélérer la promotion des aspects culturels de la consommation rurale, améliorer la qualité globale des agriculteurs, la formation des nouveaux agriculteurs un total de quatre propositions visant à promouvoir vigoureusement la construction de la culture rurale et la puissance douce.

Mots-clés: Nouvelle construction en milieu rural; Culturel de la puissance; la Construction culturelle en milieu rural.

Junjie LI

2012-03-01

159

An aerial radiological survey of the Faultless Site and surrounding area. Final report, September 9, 1996 - September 12, 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Faultless site was measured during September 9-12, 1996, using aerial radiological survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the site and to identify any unexpected man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a four-mile (six-kilometer) radius of the site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Terrestrial exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on maps of the survey area. Terrestrial exposure rates in areas surrounding the site varied from 12-16 microroentgens per hour. No evidence of man-made radiation was detected at the site

160

SIGNIFICANCE OF STATISTICS IN HEALTH SCIENCES IN RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present article is aimed at significance ofstatistics in growing health science industries. Health andstatistics are essential tools in demography; health care, medicalprofession and community services. Statistics plays verysignificant role to describe what is normal and healthy inpopulation and to find limits of normality in variables, such asweight and pulse rate, sex and haemoglobin, age andmenstruation cycle etc. Statistics in health sciences willarticulates leading causes of death, sickness, whether particulardiseases is rising or falling in severity and prevalence. Statisticaldata collected from measurements or surveillance that definesthe characteristics of specific population samples. Descriptivestatistics précis the utility, efficacy and expenses of medical goodsand facilities. Progressively, health care organizations employstatistical analysis to measure their performance outcomes. Thistype of study is important in finding the correlation between twovariables, comparison in the action of different drugs, to find anassociation between two attributes, in field of Anatomy &Physiology, Pharmacology, Medicines, and Public health &Community medicines respectively. By collecting the waitingtimes of five different patients chosen at random from Govtdispensary Mallewal, district Patiala, Govt dispensary Dhablan,district Patiala , Govt dispensary Todarpur, district Patiala Govtdispensary Bahadurgarh, district Patiala(treated as out-patientclinics A, B, C, and D to determine if there are differencesbetween the dispensaries using Kruskal-Wallis Application(statistics one can know how statistics is helpful in rural area.

Reetu Malhotra , Vandana Singh , Dr. Rajesh Kumar

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana / School performance of rural area students in urban school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato [...] Grosso do Sul (MS), sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural), turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno), tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual) e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / [...] MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of residence (urban/rural), period of study (day / night), type of school (municipal/state) and gender. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in the performances of the students from series 1 to 4, in none of the disciplines. From series 5 to 8 we found a slightly better performance in the students who lived in the urban area, measured by t-Student test. However, if upon jointly analyzing all the variable, none of them was preponderant in explaining the performance of the student, measured by multiple lineal regression. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were found in the school performance between students in the urban and rural area.

Stella Maris Cortez, Bacha; Carla Castro Rezende Diniz, Brandão; Leandro, Sauer; Adriano Viana, Bednaski; Marcos Yuri, Camparoto.

2006-12-01

162

Standard and quality of life of rural areas population in the view of new paradigm of development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main tasks of modern civilization is development according to a New Paradigm, so-called sustainable development.It involves economic and social de-velopment with respect to the state of environment. Demands of sustainable development involve the notion of intergenerational justice, which provides the possibilities of meeting the requirements of humanity in the future. A man constitutes the centre of interest and is the main subject of sustainable development. Its superior aim is to fulfill the needs and aspirations of people, especially the improvement of their standard and quality of life. The work presents analysis of theoretical and empirical issues connected with the development, as well as the standard and quality of life of rural areas population in the region of Lower Silesia, taking into account its functional regions. The analysis made use of sustainable development indexes, basing on normalization method. The mentioned indexes involved housing conditions, as well as expenses connected with housing, health, culture and sport. Areas situated in the surrounding of larger urban agglomerations with higher potential of development, proved to acquire higher standards and quality of life. From the regional point of view the lowest values featured region I of rural character. Research results clearly defined the standard and quality of life of rural areas population in Lower Silesian voivodeship, as well as the changes in these two examined parameters, which confirmed the results of the research conducted in the territory of the whole country.

Adamska Hanna

2012-09-01

163

Radionuclide renography in rural areas of the Gambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A transportable renography apparatus has been used to study subjects in rural communities in the Gambia. The apparatus fits into six metal containers which can be sealed against dust and moisture and carried in the back of a Land-Rover. A small petrol generator can be used to supply power in the field. A three-detector renogram is recorded on a chart recorder whilst digital data are recorded on a C60 cassette for subsequent deconvolution analysis. Indices of renal function, such as mean renal transit time (MTT) and relative effective renal plasma flow (%ERPF), are obtained from the digital data, and a blood sample taken after the renogram is used to estimate overall effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). The apparatus has been reliable, with no serious breakdowns, but supplies of 131I-Hippuran have been a difficult problem. The short half-life of 131I and the short shelf-life of 131I-Hippuran limit the time spent in the field to a few days and delays in delivery from the United Kingdom have had serious consequences. Measurements in an area free from urinary schistosomiasis were used to establish normal values and relationships with other indices, such as time to peak counts and percentage uptake. Results from an area where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic showed a statistically significant difference in MTT and ERPF but not in %ERPF. MTT was longer in subjects aged 45 or less in the endemic area, but no statistically significant differe, but no statistically significant differences were found for older subjects. ERPF was lower for subjects aged 17 or above in the endemic area, but for subjects aged 16 or less it was higher with a positive correlation between ERPF and urinary egg count. Subjects who had a second renogram one year after treatment with metrifonate showed some improvement. By the time of a two-year follow-up nine subjects had died in the endemic area and four of them had abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF. Only one subject with abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF had survived. (author)

164

Activities of Youth Restiveness and Militancy in the Development of Rural Areas in Southern Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study examined the effects of youth restiveness and militancy in the development of the rural areas in Rivers State. Data obtained from 100 randomly sampled respondents in two local government areas were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed poverty (87.7%), unemployment (88%), use of youths for election purposes by politicians (69.4%) and cultism (60%) were the main causes of militancy and youth restiveness in the study area. The effects of this in rural development w...

Ozuruoke, S. N.; Nlerum, F. E.; Albert, C. O.

2013-01-01

165

Measles antibody levels in children of rural and urban areas of Nigeria following vaccination campaign.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study compares the presence and level of measles haemagglutination inhibiting antibody in the sera of primary school children in selected rural and urban areas of Kaduna State, Nigeria following a vaccination campaign. The results, analysed by Mann-Whitney statistical test at alpha = 0.05, showed significantly higher levels of haemagglutination inhibiting antibody in all the age groups in urban areas when compared with rural areas. The implications of these findings on measles vaccinatio...

Eghafona, N. O.; Odama, L. E.; Emejuaiwe, S. O.; Obineche, E. N.; Tafida, D. S.

1987-01-01

166

Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

2010-01-01

167

Radiological survey of the area surrounding Arkansas Nuclear One, Russellville, Ark. Date of survey: 31 May--2 June 1973  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS) was used to perform an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Station from May 31 through June 2, 1973. The terrestrial background gamma radiation was measured during the survey.

1974-11-01

168

Radiological survey of the area surrounding Arkansas Nuclear One, Russellville, Ark. Date of survey: 31 May--2 June 1973  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS) was used to perform an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Station from May 31 through June 2, 1973. The terrestrial background gamma radiation was measured during the survey

169

Key Drivers of Economic Development and Inclusion in Rural Areas  

widely accepted that agriculture is no longer the main economic driver in rural \\economies ..... and a greater number of self-employed people. 27. Thus it ..... \\commuting, higher car ownership per family and the consequent reduced \\dependence.

170

Diagnóstico ambiental e delimitação de Áreas de Preservação Permanente em um assentamento rural = Environmental diagnosis and delimitation of PPAs (Permanent Preservation Areas in a rural settlement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leia-se neste artigo a tentativa de diagnosticar, delimitar e situar as Áreas de Preservação Permanentes e de Reserva Legal dentro de um assentamento rural, do Incra; visando à experimentação de ferramentas de geoprocessamento para a restauração das matas ribeirinhas, pela delimitação destas áreas, respeitando a legislação ambiental vigente, e partindo de uma ampla avaliação ambiental descritiva da paisagem, encontrada no Projeto de Assentamento Federal Capela. Um diagnóstico da paisagem local é apresentado na forma de um memorial fotográfico. Neste trabalho, serão delimitadas e quantificadas somente asAPP’s de entorno de corpos d’água.This article aims to diagnose, demarcate and situate Permanent Preservation Areas and Legal Reserves within an Incra Rural Settlement. This effort was conducted while testing the effective application of geoprocessing tools in the restoration of riparian forests and the delimitation of these areas, in accordance withexisting environmental legislation, and based on a broad descriptive environmental evaluation of the local landscape, located at the Capela Federal Settlement Project. A landscape diagnosis is shown in a photographic memorial as well. For this study, only the PPAs surrounding water bodies will be delimited and quantified.

Nelson Alexandre Fagundes

2008-01-01

171

ANALYSIS OF LIVING INDICATORS IN RURAL AREA OF ROMANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: Method and living conditions of the rural population is determined based on of living indicators, which shows significant differences in the national territory. The way of living of the rural population is determined by many factors such as:traditional cultural models,socio-demographic characteristics,economic power of the population,localities resources for building materials etc.All this correlated with the level of developmen...

Iuliana Ioana Merce; Sorin Milin; Ioana Anda Milin; Ioan Fruja

2013-01-01

172

The importance of social capital in rural development, networking and decision-making in rural areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural decline is frequently explained in economic terms by unfavourable conditions and by missing resources or support. But this link is not entirely clear and does not apply in all regions. Some particularly remote rural regions with a very sparse population, a lack of policy support, poor economic performance and unfavourable climatic conditions prove more viable than some regions with more plentiful economic resources and support. The presentation will discuss the issue whether the concept...

Georg Wiesinger

2009-01-01

173

3D Analysis and Investigation of Traffic Noise Impact from Hemmat Highway Located in Tehran on Buildings and Surrounding Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study analyzes and investigates the impact of traffic noise on high rise buildings and surrounding areas by the side of Hemmat Highway that links west of Tehran to the east. In this study, a 3D traffic noise simulation model is applied on a GIS system. Visualized noise levels are formulated by the proposed model for noise mapping on all surfaces of the buildings and surrounding ground in a 3D platform. The investigation shows that there is a high traffic noise impact on the foreground an...

Hamid Reza Ranjbar; Ali Reza Gharagozlou; Ali Reza Vafaei Nejad

2012-01-01

174

International cooperation on wind energy for rural areas in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An overview of the recent wind energy activities in China is given. China has a long history in harnessing the wind; modern development started during the late seventies. The Chinese wind potential is mainly in the coastal regions (North East and South East) and in Inner Mongolia. The actual total installed wind power is estimated to be 15 MW. For low lift (within 2 meters), high volume applications, e.g. salt making in salt pans along the coast, of mechanical windmills coupled to screw pumps have been developed. In Inner Mongolia, small portable wind generators (50-200 MW) charging car batteries are supplying some 100,000 farmer and herdsman families with electricity for television and lighting. The average energy consumption is between 200 and 300 kWh per year and the corresponding kWh price 0.40 to 0.50 US$. Since 1988 the demand for small wind generators declined due to the lower wool prices on the world market, affecting the income of the herdsman, and due to the fact that the machines have to be marketed in remote, less accesible rural areas. Various demonstration projects have been set up, f.e. a decentralized energy system on Dachen Island, including a wind diesel hybrid system. On Kongdon Island a 60 kW wind turbine and a 60 kW diesel generator were installed. With several foreign wind turbine manufacturers cooperations have been set up for licensed production in China. Also wind farms have been installed. The largest Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 m Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 meter diameter, 200 kW machine. Western organizations or manufacturers are involved in most of the cooperatives. For the next five years the focus is on development of a large 150 and 200 kW machine and a windmill coupled to a centrifugal pump for lifting heads between 2 and 5 meter. 1 fig., 3 refs

175

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

176

The importance of social capital in rural development, networking and decision-making in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural decline is frequently explained in economic terms by unfavourable conditions and by missing resources or support. But this link is not entirely clear and does not apply in all regions. Some particularly remote rural regions with a very sparse population, a lack of policy support, poor economic performance and unfavourable climatic conditions prove more viable than some regions with more plentiful economic resources and support. The presentation will discuss the issue whether the concept of social capital could lead to a better understanding of these patterns. The role of social capital will be demonstrated by means of a model connecting it with rural development, multifunctionality, local governance and environmental perception and national policies. The findings of several case studies within the EUROLAN project (Strengthening the Multifunctional Use of Land: Coping with marginalisation, suggest that social capital should be more recognized by policy makers as a key issue in the rural development process, hampering (when weak or supporting (when strong and well-rooted the implementation of rural development policies.La marginalisation rurale peut en grande partie s’expliquer par les conditions peu favorables et un manque de ressources, mais pas uniquement et pas dans toutes les régions. Certaines régions de faible densité, aux conditions économiques et climatiques peu favorables, et qui ne font pas l’objet de politiques locales d’envergure, s’avèrent plus viables que certaines régions bien plus aisées. Dans le présent article, nous nous demanderons si le capital social peut aider à combler ce fossé, et si tel est le cas, dans quelle mesure. Le rôle du capital social sera démontré en tant que vecteur d’un modèle le reliant avec le développement rural, la plurifonctionnalité, la gouvernance locale, la perception environnementale et les politiques nationales. Les résultats de certaines études de cas inclues dans le projet EUROLAN (Renforcement de l’usage multifonctionnel du Sol, prendre en charge la marginalisation laissent entendre que le capital social devrait être mieux pris en compte par les acteurs politiques comme une question clé dans le processus de développement rural, freinant (lorsqu’elles sont faibles ou encourageant (lorsqu’elles sont fortes et bien enracinées la mise en œuvre de politiques de développement rural.

Georg Wiesinger

2009-03-01

177

Rehabilitación psicosocial para enfermos mentales graves en contextos rurales: alternativas a los modelos tradicionales / Psychosocial rehabilitation for severely mentally ill patients in rural areas: Alternatives to traditional treatments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo analiza los servicios comunitarios de atención psicosocial para pacientes con enfermedad mental crónica en los contextos rurales. El propósito es determinar si los enfoques de atención tradicionales se adaptan al ámbito rural, así como analizar las alternativas existentes a los modelos t [...] radicionales. Se proponen unos criterios que aseguren la eficacia de las intervenciones en las áreas rurales. Abstract in english The objetive is to describe the psychosocial community services for seriously mentally ill persons living in rural settings. This paper describes the adaptation of traditional models to determine its efficacy in rural areas. It is described alternative programs developed for patients in rural commun [...] ities. It is proposed a group of criteria for the psychosocial services in rural areas.

Daniel, Navarro Bayón.

2003-06-01

178

Menarchial Age of Secondary School Girls in Urban and Rural Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The menarchial age of 859 secondary school girls consisting of 508 from urban and 351 from rural area of Rivers State, Nigeria were determined, using questionnaires and interview method. Data collation revealed that 69.2% (243) of the rural population were menstruating, while 70.1% (356) of the urban population were menstruating. Mean ages of menarche were 13.19±1.32 years and 14.22±1.47 years for urban and rural areas respectively .A statistically significant lower mean menarchial age was ...

Ci, Ikaraoha; Ic, Mbadiwe; Cu, Igwe; Do, Allagua; Mezie O; Gto, Iwo; Pi, Ofori

2005-01-01

179

Water defluoridation, water denitrification and water desalination in rural areas in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many borehole waters in rural areas in South Africa are unfit for human consumption because the fluoride (>1,5 mg/?), nitrate-nitrogen (>6 mg/?) and salinity (>1 500 mg/?) concentrations are too high. Ion exchange (IX) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology are available that can be used for defluoridation, denitrification and desalination of water. However, methodology, guidelines and the economics for the use of these technologies in rural areas are not readily available. Therefore, the ...

Schoeman, J. J.

2010-01-01

180

Needs an posibility for introduction of district heating system in rural areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis micro district heating system on woods biomass is presented, which is suitable for rural area. Also energy consumption for residential heating for Slovenia and wider is introduced. The aim to find sustainable, clean and stable energy source was introduced trough analysis of possible construction of a biomass district heating systems for family houses. A model was made with the intention to reflect the reality of rural areas on which the analysis is based. The analysis tries to ...

Juvan, Miha

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Water Pollution and its Effects on Human Health in Rural Areas of Faisalabad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was envisaged to assess the water pollution and its effects on human health in rural areas of Faisalabad. The study was conducted in three villages of Faisalabad district using simple random method. 150 respondents were selected from three villages (i.e. 50 from each village). The data were collected from the rural areas through well structured interviewing schedule by using face to face survey method. The collected data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical techniq...

Samina Farid; Mehnaz Gul; Asma Usman; Khuram Iqbal

2002-01-01

182

Assessment of government housing program for young professionals in rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Support of young professionals in rural areas, in particular help to ensure their housing is a priority for the state in the agricultural sector. The solution to this problem provides not only the influx of young professionals in agriculture in Tatarstan, but also the consolidation of the village, which is associated with socialization. The outflow of young people from rural areas led to the deterioration of the demographic and professional characteristics of the staff of the agricultural org...

Gafurova Gulnara Talgatovna; Notfullina Galina Nickolaevna

2012-01-01

183

Water Pollution and its Effects on Human Health in Rural Areas of Faisalabad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was envisaged to assess the water pollution and its effects on human health in rural areas of Faisalabad. The study was conducted in three villages of Faisalabad district using simple random method. 150 respondents were selected from three villages (i.e. 50 from each village. The data were collected from the rural areas through well structured interviewing schedule by using face to face survey method. The collected data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical techniques.

Samina Farid

2002-01-01

184

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF RURAL AREA USING ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims to highlight the importance of organizational innovation in the development of small and medium sized enterprises in the rural area. In this paper, I review the existing literature on organizational  innovation and will present itsimportance in the process of sustainable development of enterprises in the SME sector. Throughout this study I intend to present the issues that the SMEs are facing  in the agricultural sector of the rural area and to present to the entrepreneu...

Kristina Jana Drienovski

2013-01-01

185

Evaluation Of Intensive Information, Education And Communication Campaign On HIV/AIDS In Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research questions: To what extent the knowledge of preventive practices on HIV/AIDS can be enhanced through intensive interactive and interpersonal communication in rural areas through primary health care infrastructure. Objectives: 1. To scale up the level of awareness of HIV/AIDS amongst persons aged 15-45 years in rural areas. 2. To screen the cases of RTI/STI at the village level for prompt treatment at Primary Health Centres. Study design: Cross-sectional, population based action resear...

Lal Sunder; Singh Vashisht B. M; Punia M S

1999-01-01

186

Comparison of Changes in Consumption Distribution in the Rural and Urban Areas of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumption of goods and services by households is an important index of their level of economic welfare. State of consumption distribution among households is an important index of equity in economic welfare. In this research, two important dimensions of consumption distribution have been studied: 1 Trend of changes of consumption distribution between Iranian rural and urban households; 2 Changes of consumption distribution among households within rural and urban areas in different provinces. Secondary data were used in this research from rural and urban households surveys of expenditure and income for different years. The results show that the ratio of urban household expenditures over rural household expenditures during 1965-96 has had a decreasing trend, though the gap is still high. To compare consumption expenditure distribution changes within rural and urban areas in different provinces, the data for the two years of 1986 and 1996 have been used. The results show that countrywide the Gini coefficients in 1986 and 1996 in rural areas were higher than those in urban areas; in rural areas the coefficients were 0.458 and 0.421 and in urban areas 0.430 and 0.403, respectively, which indicate a decrease of 8.08 and 6.28 percent, respectively. Among the rural areas of 24 provinces, the Gini coefficients of 9 provinces increased and those of 15 provinces decreased from 1986 to 1996. This is while the comparison for the urban areas in the same provinces and for the same period indicates that the Gini coefficient of 6 provinces increased but that of 17 provinces decreased. No change occurred in the case of Tehran Province.

M. Arsalanbod

2001-01-01

187

Religious tourism as a perspective for development of rural areas in the Lublin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Lublin province is commonly perceived as a region with dominance of rural areas with rather low level of socio-economic development. The basic drawback of the province is monofunctional character of its economy, orientated towards agriculture. Moreover, regional method of agricultural management can be seen as traditional, little competitive and effective. Additionally, due to poor level of infrastructure and peripheral localization, rural areas have inconsiderable chances to attract indu...

Flaga, Ma?gorzata

2013-01-01

188

Diabetes prevalence and its risk factors in rural area of Tamil Nadu  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To estimate the usefulness of the Indian diabetes risk score for detecting undiagnosed diabetes in the rural area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the field practice area of rural health centers (Chunampett and Annechikuppam, Tamil Nadu), covering a population of 35000 from February to March 2008 by using a predesigned and pretested protocol to find out the prevalence and the risk of diabetes mellitus in general population by u...

Gupta Sanjay; Singh Zile; Purty Anil; Kar M; Vedapriya D; Mahajan P; Cherian J

2010-01-01

189

A Socio -Epidemiological Study of Tuberculosis in a Rural Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

hc thousand rural adults (aged IS years and above) were studied to find out role of socIal vanabiesm the occurrence of tuberculosis in seven villages of R.S.Pura tehsi! ofJammu district. During thIScross-,ccllonal study. 25 tubercular cases were found in the adult rural population. Out of 25 cases.16 yorc lound m the age group of below 45 years and only 9 cases were above -15 ycaf'. Men \\ ereal"ICctcd more than women. Smoking and overcrowding were found to be important social factor,slgnJ!'lc...

R K Gupta, A. Gupta

2002-01-01

190

Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. Keywords: prevalence, perception, domestic violence, rural, urban 

Ajah LO

2014-10-01

191

Measurement of Aerosol Optical Property in Hong Kong Rural Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change and visibility impairment. The evidence of the role in climate change is required for monitoring the extinction, absorption, scattering coefficient and single scattering albedo in different sites around world. In the southern China public attention are focusing on severe regional visibility problem and its connection to regional air pollution. Black carbon (BC) is a form of atmospheric aerosol and can reduce visibility through absorption of solar radiation and it is an important primary aerosol cause global warming. Here, we presented the 2-year measurements (2011-2013) of aerosol optical properties, using aethalometer and nephelometer to measure scattering (Bsp), absorption coefficient (Bab), single scattering albedo (SSA) and scattering angstrom exponent (?s) in Hong Kong rural area (Hok Tsui) and determine the Hong Kong regional pollution status. The mean Bsp, Bab, ?s and SSA during the sampling period is 110.84±89.19, 15.09±9.85 Mm-1, 1.0±0.42 and 0.84±0.11, respectively. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are both ~22% higher than the median. The significant seasonal variation of absorption and scattering coefficient is observed, which was lower in spring (12.87±7.5 and 91.30±73.3) and summer (10.84±10.1 and 65.24±75.2) seasons but has higher value in autumn (16.79±8.9 and 124.23±82.4) and winter (18.74±10.3 and 157.27±98.8) seasons. Similar as scattering and absorption value, in spring and summer, the SSA is lower than the value measured in autumn and winter seasons, indicates that absorption coefficient play an important role in spring and summer seasons than in autumn and winter seasons. Compared to scattering and absorption coefficient data reported by [1] in HT, 14 years ago, the annual scattering coefficient is increased about ~106% and absorption coefficient decreased ~11%. The main reason for absorption coefficient decreasing relies on BC concentration significantly decreased. In addition, the value of SSA is 0.8 in 2011 compared with 0.7 in 2001and it could estimate that secondary pollution increasing greatly.

GAO, Yuan; Lee, Shun-cheng; Huang, Yu; Lai, Senchao

2014-05-01

192

ENTERTAINMENT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS – PART OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES  

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Full Text Available The work aims to highlight the niche forms of tourism (active tourism and ecotourism, showing similarities and differences between them. However it argues the need to introduce the occupation of rural tourism entertainer, showing the main tasks incumbent upon it to organize leisure tourists. The research was conducted by studying the latest articles in the field and by consulting specific websites.

Dionisie Marian TURCU

2014-04-01

193

Treating Swallowing Disorders in Rural Areas: Preservice Preparation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A West Virginia preservice program prepares professionals in a variety of fields to work with rural children with swallowing disorders. Program features include graduate assistantships, interdisciplinary academic coursework, a practicum in a swallowing disorders clinic under supervision of a faculty mentor, and a technology project related to…

Ruscello, Dennis M.; Werner, Jeffrey; Price, Kari; Williams, Diane

2000-01-01

194

Barriers to the use of urban medical services by rural and remote area households.  

Science.gov (United States)

People from rural and remote areas commonly need to attend provincial and metropolitan cities for specialist care. There decisions to make such trips 'away' involve a number of non-medical considerations that include economic, emotional and social factors. This paper reports the results of two surveys that sought information about the types and importance of non-medical considerations taken into account by rural and remote Queensland householders when faced with a trip away. In addition, the problems encountered by respondents on their last trip away are reported and discussed. The data revealed that important considerations taken into account when planning the trip were predominantly related to urgency, household organisation and the costs likely to be incurred where away. A number of avoidable problems occurring at destination were also described. Generally, remote area respondents saw these impediments as more serious barriers to seeking care than did rural area respondents. When respondents were further asked to identify major problems associated with their last trip to an urban facility, problems at the destination figured more prominently, particularly problems directly related to the lack of understanding of the transport and distance needs of rural people. With one exception, these problems were reported by similar proportions of rural and remote area respondents. These are matters that merit high priority attention in any programs to enhance access to specialist medical services by people in rural and remote areas. PMID:9437131

Veitch, P C; Sheehan, M C; Holmes, J H; Doolan, T; Wallace, A

1996-05-01

195

CO2 flux and seasonal variability in the turbidity maximum zone and surrounding area in the Changjiang River estuary  

Science.gov (United States)

The turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) is one of the most important regions in an estuary. However, the high concentration of suspended material makes it difficult to measure the partial pressure of CO2 ( pCO2) in these regions. Therefore, very little data is available on the pCO2 levels in TMZs. To relatively accurately evaluate the CO2 flux in an example estuary, we studied the TMZ and surrounding area in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary. From seasonal cruises during February, August, November 2010, and May 2012, the pCO2 in the TMZ and surrounding area was calculated from pH and total alkalinity (TA) measured in situ, from which the CO2 flux was calculated. Overall, the TMZ and surrounding area acted as a source of atmosphere CO2 in February and November, and as a sink in May and August. The average FCO2 was -9, -16, 5, and 5 mmol/(m2·d) in May, August, November, and February, respectively. The TMZ's role as a source or sink of atmosphere CO2 was quite different to the outer estuary. In the TMZ and surrounding area, suspended matter, phytoplankton, and pH were the main factors controlling the FCO2, but here the influence of temperature, salinity, and total alkalinity on the FCO2 was weak. Organic carbon decomposition in suspended matter was the main reason for the region acting as a CO2 source in winter, and phytoplankton production was the main reason the region was a CO2 sink in summer.

Li, Xuegang; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin; Qu, Baoxiao

2015-01-01

196

Epidemiological Characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Rural and Urban Endemic Areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To compare the epidemiological profile and socioeconomic factors associated to the infection by Schistosoma mansoni in a rural and an urban endemic area a cross-sectional study was performed in Água Branca de Minas (rural area and Bela Fama (urban area, both situated in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two hundred and eighty eight individuals were surveyed in the rural area and 787 in the urban area. Water contact and socioeconomic questionnaires were used to identify risk factors for the infection. The prevalences of 38.8% and 9.7% and the geometric mean of eggs per gram of faeces of 117.8 and 62.3 were found in the rural and urban areas, respectively. By multivariate statistical analysis age groups over nine years old and previous specific treatment were associated with the infection in rural area. In urban area age over nine years old, low quality housing, weekly fishing and swimming were associated after adjustment by logistic regression

Amorim Márcia N

1997-01-01

197

Epidemiological Characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Rural and Urban Endemic Areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english To compare the epidemiological profile and socioeconomic factors associated to the infection by Schistosoma mansoni in a rural and an urban endemic area a cross-sectional study was performed in Água Branca de Minas (rural area) and Bela Fama (urban area), both situated in the State of Minas Gerais, [...] Brazil. Two hundred and eighty eight individuals were surveyed in the rural area and 787 in the urban area. Water contact and socioeconomic questionnaires were used to identify risk factors for the infection. The prevalences of 38.8% and 9.7% and the geometric mean of eggs per gram of faeces of 117.8 and 62.3 were found in the rural and urban areas, respectively. By multivariate statistical analysis age groups over nine years old and previous specific treatment were associated with the infection in rural area. In urban area age over nine years old, low quality housing, weekly fishing and swimming were associated after adjustment by logistic regression

Márcia N, Amorim; Ana, Rabello; Rabindranah Loyola, Contreras; Naftale, Katz.

1997-09-01

198

Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

J B Baon

2014-01-01

199

Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas  

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Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

Marta Pallares-Blanch

2012-01-01

200

An aerial radiological survey of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and surrounding area, Fairborn, Ohio  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over areas of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) and the immediate surrounding area, during the period July 7 through 20, 1994. The survey was conducted to measure and map the gamma radiation in the area. This mission was the first aerial radiation survey conducted at WPAFB. In the surveyed area, five small localized sources of gamma radiation were detected which were atypical of naturally-occurring radionuclides. On WPAFB property, these sources included a radiation storage facility in Area B (krypton-85) and an ash pile near the Area C flight line (low energy gamma activity). In the area covered outside WPAFB boundaries, sources included cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout over a landfill in a northern Dayton industrial area, an X-ray radiography source over a steel plant in the same industrial area, and a mixture of cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout and possibly iridium-192 in an area near Crystal Lakes, Ohio. The naturally-occurring gamma emitters (uranium-238 and progeny, thorium and progeny, and potassium-40) were detected in the remaining area with a total exposure rate range of 4 to 16 {mu}R/h; this range is typical of that found in the United States, 1 to 20 {mu}R/h.

NONE

1995-08-01

 
 
 
 
201

An aerial radiological survey of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Decatur, Alabama  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 12 July to 17 July 1985 over a 97-square-kilometer (37-square-mile) area centered on the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station located near Decatur, Alabama. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with line spacings of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus the cosmic exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates north and east of Wheeler Lake ranged from approximately 11 to 18 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), while the area south and west of the lake ranged from approximately 9 to 11 ?R/h. Two areas of increased exposure rate were evident. One of these areas was associated with the main units of the reactor facility, while the other was associated with a temporary radiological waste holding area inside the plant's protected area. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of a third area within the plant facility. This area is utilized as a temporary low-level radioactive waste storage site. All three areas indicated the presence of Co-60. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations to support the aerial data. In addition, soil samples were also taken at six locations along the shore of Wheeler Lake. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabseler Lake. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

202

The rural areas electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel gen set. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

203

Availability of ground water in the area surrounding the Trident submarine construction facility, Kitsap County, Washington  

Science.gov (United States)

General information is presented on water resources--with emphasis on ground-water occurrence and availability--in that part of Kitsap County (referred to as Trident Impact Area) that would be most affected by the development of the Trident submarine construction facility at Bangor, Washington. The estimated 1970 water use in the study area averaged about 13 million gallons per day (mgd); of this amount about 9 mgd came from surface-water sources--from a large reservoir outside the study area--and about 4 mgd came from ground water pumped from two aquifers in the area. Anticipated water use soon will be about 18 to 21 mgd; virtually all the additional quantity required (about 5 to 8 mgd) above present use must come from ground-water sources. Preliminary evaluation of the aquifers suggests that an additional 1.5 mgd can be developed from the upper aquifer and 7 mgd from the lower aquifer. Existing wells tapping the lower aquifer might yield additional water and increase the total yield in the area by 3.5 mgd, and new wells drilled in selected areas could produce an additional 3.5 mgd from this aquifer. However, additional, large-scale ground-water withdrawal from the lower aquifer could induce saltwater intrusion into wells situated in coastal areas. (Woodard-USGS)

Hansen, Arnold J.; Molenaar, Dee

1976-01-01

204

Food security in rural areas of Limpopo province, South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although South Africa is food secure as a nation, many households remain food insecure. The government has recognized several key food security challenges in the Integrated Food Security Strategy (IFSS). However, South Africa still lacks specific and accepted methods to measure food security and currently has no regulated way of monitoring the food security status of its population. This article reports on an investigation into the food security situation of rural hous...

Cock, N.; D Haese, M.; Vink, Nick; Rooyen, Cornelius Johannes; Staelens, L.; Schonfeldt, H. C.; D Haese, L.

2013-01-01

205

PARTICULARITIES OF EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority of employed population in rural areas is engaged either in agricultural activities mostly being informal activities, or they are employed in the public sector through the activities of education, health care, culture, social welfare, which are quite modest share in rural employment structure. Both agricultural activities, which can not ensure a rapid growth of labor productivity and employment in the public sector can not provide a level of income needed for a decent living where salaries depend on the limited possibilities of local budget. In the created conditions, in order to improve the situation of employment in rural areas the necessity to develop nonagricultural activities appears, it would increase rural incomes and would reduce urban migration.

Olga SÂRBU

2013-01-01

206

Cognitive Access to TVWS in India : TV Spectrum Occupancy and Wireless Broadband for Rural Areas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The digital transition of TV transmission will make available some TV frequencies which are to be geographically unused called as TV White Spaces. The important regulatory trend in the context of Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is the Cognitive access of TV white Spaces. In this context, we have performed spectrum measurements of TV band in Pune, India. Our result shows poor spectrum utilization in TV band, and good potential for Cognitive radio operation. Digital switchover in India will generate golden opportunity for empowering rural India. As majority of India’s population lives in rural part of India, we have proposed wireless broadband access to rural areas using TV White Spaces (TVWSs). This will help in bridging the digital divide by offering governance, banking, and health services online in the rural areas.

Patil, Kishor P.; Skouby, Knud Erik

2013-01-01

207

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/reha...

Duka, Ykateryna D.; Ilchenko, Svetlana I.; Kharytonov, Mykola M.; Vasylyeva, Tetyana L.

2011-01-01

208

Land Policy and Systematic Transformation in Chinese Rural Areas ?1950—1978?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)


Based on historical review of the Chinese rural land policy from 1950 to 1978, we looked back the devious journey undergone in Chinese rural areas during this period. At first, the landlord’s ownership was transferred into the peasant’s ownership; and then private ownership was transferred into public ownership. The radical transformation of property right and process of agricultural cooperation went against the economic law and the wills of the mass peasants, ...

Tan, Rong; Gao, Hua-ke; Cui, Jie

2005-01-01

209

Determinants of household access to formal credit in the rural areas of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the factors affecting the access of rural individual and group-based households to formal credit in the Mekong Delta (MD), Vietnam. Poverty levels in the Mekong Delta have declined significantly over the last decades, but in the rural areas they remain significant. If it is assumed that access to credit is a suitable vehicle for poverty alleviation, it is necessary to assess the way households decide on borrowing. This paper identifies the determinants of the decision ...

Vuong Quoc, Duy

2012-01-01

210

TOURISM – AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE ECONOMIC INVIGORATION OF RURAL AREAS IN ROMANIA?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Romanian rural area is a space that, in the context of the transition from centralized economy to market economy, has accumulated multiple dysfunctions, whose resolution requires the identification of viable solutions, matching local potential and at the same time preserving traditional specificity. In terms of cultural, historical, natural and economic values, the Romanian village has proved to be a highly original tourism product. The article analyzes the evolution of Romanian rural tou...

CRISTINA MERCIU; LORETA CERCLEUX; DANIEL PEPTENATU; NATA?A V?IDIANU; CRISTIAN DR?GHICI; RADU PINTILII

2011-01-01

211

Management of Covariant Risk in Rural Areas of Developing Economies: Opportunities and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims at exploring the possibilities to increase the satisfaction of the demand for financial services in rural areas through market based financial products allowing farmers to protect against major sources of risk. The focus is on developing economies, where farm specific and covariant risks, such as natural and weather risks and agricultural commodity price volatility, are seriously hitting the rural population and few instruments are currently available to support farmers’ pr...

Vigano, Laura; Bonomo, Luciano

2006-01-01

212

Factors Influencing the Choise of Profession by Schoolchildren from Rural and Urban Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Paper author: Vaida Radzevi?ien? Paper topic: Factors Influencing the Choise of Profession by Schoolchildren from Rural and Urban Areas Place of writing the paper: Lithuanian Agricultural University. The Department of Profession Education and Psychology. 2006 Size of paper: 60 pages Paper contains: 9 tables, 17 pictures, 3 supplements Literature sources: 34 Research object: Factors influencing the choice of first profession by schoolchildren from urban and rural terit...

Radzevic?iene?, Vaida

2006-01-01

213

THE ROLE OF NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREA DEVELOPMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural non-agricultural activities can be classified into two categories depending on occupancy degree of time: independent ones, those who are practiced in exclusivity, occupying entire working time and complementary, and those who are carried out in completion time, by those involved in agriculture. Through these agricultural activities it is provided employment of labor from rural area by judiciously using local resources because these products are used for individual household needs but...

Ramona Ciolac; Ana Maria Dincu; Ioan Petroman; Ioana B?lan; Cornelia Petroman; Diana Marin; Carmen Dumitrescu; Ana Lozici

2013-01-01

214

Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the regional at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS) while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR) between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aero magnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

Chiappini, M.; Meloni, A.; Boschi, E. [Istituto di Geofisica, Rome (Italy); Faggioni, O.; Beverini, N.; Carmisciano, C. [Istituto di Geofisica Marina, Consorzio Universitario, La Spezia (Italy); Marson, I. [Trieste Univ., Trieste (IT). Ist. di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS)

2000-10-01

215

Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

C. Carmisciano

2000-06-01

216

Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the regional at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS) while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Calling's Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR) between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aero magnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible

217

Aerial radiological survey of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Dothan, Alabama  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed during the period 8 to 19 December 1979 over a 2000 square kilometer area centered on the two unit Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant near Dothan, Alabama. Radiological data were collected by flying north-south lines spaced 900 meters apart at an altitude of 150 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring radionuclides. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of a radiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 4 and 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), with most of the area ranging between 4 and 10 ?R/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 ?R/h but do not include any contribution from airborne radionuclides, i.e., radon. Exposure rates obtained from ground measurements taken within the survey area were in close agreement with the aerial data. The data were also in close agreement with those obtained from a similar survey conducted during March 1977. Comparison of the results from both surveys indicated that no detectable change in the radiological characteristics of the survey area has occurred due to the operation of unit number 1 during the intervening period. The same equipment and procedures were utilized for both surveys

218

Aerial radiological survey of the Salem Nuclear Generating Station and surrounding area, Salem, New Jersey  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed from 24 July through 1 August 1980 over a 244-square-kilometer (95-square-mile) area centered on the Salem Nuclear Generating Station near Salem, New Jersey. All gamma ray data were collected by flying lines oriented north-south and spaced 152 meters (500 feet) apart, at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) above the ground. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters except directly over the site, where spectral analysis revealed the presence of 60Co. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an exposure rate contour map. The resulting exposure rates varied between 5 and 55 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). The river-shore areas ranged from 5 to 7 ?R/h, inland areas showed 7 to 12 ?R/h, and the site had a maximum exposure rate of 55 ?R/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4 ?R/h. The exposure rates obtained from soil samples taken within the survey area displayed good agreement with the aerial data

219

An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site and surrounding area. Central Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site was conducted in December 1993. An interim report was issued. That report described survey procedures and presented terrestrial exposure rate and wide-area-averaged plutonium isopleth plots. This letter report presents additional plutonium plots and some ``rule-of-thumb`` calculations which should help the reader to properly interpret the data presented. Attached to this report are three isopleth plots produced from the Double Track data. No one processing method provides all the answers regarding a particular surveyed area. Where peak values are most important, isopleth {number_sign}1, created from the original unsmoothed data, is the presentation of choice. Isopleth {number_sign}2, from smoothed data, is superior for the detection of areas of widespread low-level contamination. Isopleth {number_sign}3, also smoothed data, satisfied a particular early mission goal but is not as useful for cleanup operations as the other two.

Hendricks, T.J.

1995-07-01

220

A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

 
 
 
 
221

Preparation of Potentially Site Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Java Island and Its Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)

222

An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site and surrounding area. Central Nevada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site was conducted in December 1993. An interim report was issued. That report described survey procedures and presented terrestrial exposure rate and wide-area-averaged plutonium isopleth plots. This letter report presents additional plutonium plots and some ''rule-of-thumb'' calculations which should help the reader to properly interpret the data presented. Attached to this report are three isopleth plots produced from the Double Track data. No one processing method provides all the answers regarding a particular surveyed area. Where peak values are most important, isopleth number-sign 1, created from the original unsmoothed data, is the presentation of choice. Isopleth number-sign 2, from smoothed data, is superior for the detection of areas of widespread low-level contamination. Isopleth number-sign 3, also smoothed data, satisfied a particular early mission goal but is not as useful for cleanup operations as the other two

223

Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes.

Ip, Carman C.M. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk; Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wai, Onyx W.H. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li, Y.-S. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2007-05-15

224

Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes

225

3D Analysis and Investigation of Traffic Noise Impact from Hemmat Highway Located in Tehran on Buildings and Surrounding Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study analyzes and investigates the impact of traffic noise on high rise buildings and surrounding areas by the side of Hemmat Highway that links west of Tehran to the east. In this study, a 3D traffic noise simulation model is applied on a GIS system. Visualized noise levels are formulated by the proposed model for noise mapping on all surfaces of the buildings and surrounding ground in a 3D platform. The investigation shows that there is a high traffic noise impact on the foreground and front facades of buildings, rendering these areas unsuitable for residential purposes. The ground area by the sides of buildings and the building side panels receive a lower noise impact. Most of these areas are still not acceptable for residential and even commercial use, only the back yards and back panels, have the lowest traffic noise impact. It also shows that the building height is not an effective factor for reducing motorway noise on the upper part of the building. Finally, construction cantilever barriers with a height of seven meters, close to the outer edge of the highway was presented as an effective way to reduce noise within the allowable range of noise pollution for commercial and residential purposes.

Hamid Reza Ranjbar

2012-08-01

226

AN ANALYSIS OF TEMPORAL CHANGES OF NIGDE CITY AND SURROUNDING AREAS USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uncontrolled spatiotemporal changes in large urban areas can produce several problems such as environmental pollution, diminishing valuable agricultural lands; irregular industrialization and urbanization due to number and proportion of residents continue to increase. Recently, to evaluate uncontrolled temporal changes in urban areas, remote sensing and GIS have become important tools, because these techniques allow examination and management large amount of spatial and tabular data which would be impossible using manual interpretation. In this study, to protect limited resources, to prepare sustainable and suitable plans, urban dynamics of the Ni?de city was examined and evaluated.

Yakup K?z?lelma

2013-12-01

227

Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Portsmouth, Ohio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An airborne radiological survey was conducted in July 1976. It was centered on the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Two areas were surveyed: one 35 km2 and the other 16 km2. Using Nal(Tl) scintillation detectors, measurements were made of the terrestrial gamma radiation over the areas with a series of north-south flight lines. The processed data indicated that on-site radioactivity was due to nuclear matterials currently or previously handled, processed, or stored. Off-site activities were found to be due wholly to the naturally occurring 40K, the 238U chain, and thorium chain gamma emitters

228

3D Structure of Iran and Surrounding Areas From The Simultaneous Inversion of Complementary Geophysical Observations  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a three-dimensional seismic-structure model of the Arabian-Eurasian collision zone obtained via simultaneous, joint inversion of surface-wave dispersion measurements, teleseismic P-wave receiver functions, and gravity observations. We use a simple, approximate relationship between density and seismic velocities so that the three data sets may be combined in a single inversion. The sensitivity of the different data sets are well known: surface waves provide information on the smooth variations in elastic properties, receiver functions provide information on abrupt velocity contrasts, and gravity measurements provide information on broad-wavenumber shallow density variations and long-wavenumber components of deeper density structures. The combination of the data provides improved resolution of shallow-structure variations, which in turn help produce the smooth features at depth with less contamination from the strong heterogeneity often observed in the upper crust. We also explore geologically based smoothness constraints to help resolve sharp features in the underlying shallow 3D structure. Our focus is on the region surrounding Iran from east Turkey and Iraq in the west, to Pakistan and Afghanistan in the east. We use Bouguer gravity anomalies derived from the global gravity model extracted from the GRACE satellite mission. Surface-wave dispersion velocities in the period range between 7 and 150 s are taken from previously published tomographic maps for the region. Preliminary results show expected strong variations in the Caspian region as well as the deep sediment regions of the Persian Gulf. Regions constrained with receiver-function information generally show sharper crust-mantle boundary structure than that obtained by inversion of the surface waves alone (with thin layers and smoothing constraints). Final results of the simultaneous inversion will help us to better understand one of the most prominent examples of continental collision. Such models also provide an important starting model for time-consuming and fully 3D inversions.

Ammon, C. J.; Maceira, M.; Cleveland, M.

2010-12-01

229

Emission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from pig fattening farms to surrounding areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock such as pigs has been known for some time. However, to date there is little information about the transmission of these resistant bacteria between pig farms and their surroundings. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore this topic by investigating seven German pig fattening farms. Samples from outside (including ground surfaces, ambient air, slurry and digestate from biogas plants) and, in parallel, from inside the pig barns (including pig feces, dust, barn air, flies and mice feces) were examined for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli and selected isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. 14/17 (82.4%) slurry samples and three of four samples of digestate from biogas plants tested positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. In the vicinity of the pig barns these resistant bacteria were detected in 14/87 (16.1%) boot swabs taken from various ground surfaces and in 2/36 (6%) ambient air samples. Inside the pig barns, 6/63 (9.5%) barn air samples and a small proportion of flies and mice feces samples were ESBL/AmpC-positive. PFGE analysis proved fecal emission as well as a possible spread via flies, as identical ESBL-E. coli isolates were detected in slurry and on fertilized fields, as well as in flies and pooled feces from inside the barn and slurry. Contaminated slurry presented the major emission source for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the pig fattening farms, but a spread via the airborne route or via different vectors also seems possible. PMID:25465658

von Salviati, Christina; Laube, Henriette; Guerra, Beatriz; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

2015-01-30

230

Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

Amira Oun

2014-11-01

231

The “LEADER Approach” - New Development Opportunity for Rural Areas in Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrated rural development programmes, which are prepared with the active involvement of local citizens, have a long tradition in Slovenia. In the period 1991-2006, Slovenia introduced “Programmes of Integrated Rural Development and Village Renewal” and “Development Programmes for Rural Areas”, which were quite similar to the LEADER initiative in theEuropean Union. From the 2007-2013 programming period, the LEADER approach has been mainstreamed within the overall EU rural development policy. This means that LEADER is included in national and regional rural development programmes supported by the EU,alongside a range of other rural development axes. The main emphasis of the current paper is given to the implementation of the LEADER approach and establishment of local action groups in the 2007-2013 programming period. The paper consists of three parts. The first part presents the general characteristics of the LEADER approach and the measures which are carried out in the 2007-2013 Rural Development Programme. In the second part, an analysis of 33 Local Action Groups is described. The main focus is given to spatial-demographic characteristics, the partnership structure, and the organisation of the decision making body.The paper concludes with an analysis of 33 Local Development Strategies. We analysed the extent to which the strategic goals and priority tasks of Local Development Strategies follow the economic, social and spatial-environmental component of sustainable development.

Tomaž Cunder, B.Sc. Geography

2010-03-01

232

Community Based Study Of Self Reported Morbidity Of Reproductive Tract Among Women Of Reproductive Age In Rural Area Of Rajasthan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research questions: What is the prevalence of morbidity of reproductive tract among women in a rural area of Rajasthan? Objectives: 1. To assess the load of reproductive morbidity among the rural women. 2. To study the association of potential risk factors with reproductive tract infection. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A village of Bikaner (rural western Rajasthan). Participants: 1044 rural women aged 15-45. Study period: June 2000 to October 2000. Statistical analysis: Percentages...

Rathore Monika; Mr.Swami S.S.2 ,; Gupta B. L; Sen Vandana; Vyas B. L; Bhargav A; Vyas Rekha

2003-01-01

233

Biological studies in the sea area surrounding the Loviisa nuclear power plant in the year 1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations of rise in water temperature caused by the plant's cooling water were made in a large area of Haestholmsfjaerden. The mean temperatures during the growth period and summer months were on average of the same magnitude as those in the 1970s, except very close to the outlet, where the mean temperatures were clearly increased by the cooling water. The salinity of the water increased to exceptionally high values in September in the whole study area. Salinities even exceeding 0.6% were measured in the surface water of Haestholmsfjaerden. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were clearly above the level found earlier in the area, but the increase in the nutrient level was similar at all stations (including the reference station at Pernajanlahti). The amount of oxygen in the bottom water of the deep part of Haestholmsfjaerden in late summer was lower than in previous years (1.2 ml/l, 14% of the saturation level). The phytoplankton biomass spring maximum was greater at all stations than in 1974-76. Differences in species composition were small compared with earlier years. The amounts of chlorophyll a during the spring maximum were higher in 1977 than in 1975-76. The level of phytoplankton primary production in the whole study area was lower in 1977 than in the 1970s on average. The annual production at station nearest the outlet, was about 10% greater than at station situated in the middle of Haestholmsfjaerden, owing to higher production in the middle of summer. No important differences in 'in vitro' primary production were observed between sampling places near the water intake and the outlet and the values were of the same magnitude as in 1976. (T.V.)

234

Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

235

Ground Subsidence in the Granada City and Surrounding Area (Spain) using DInSAR Monitoring  

Science.gov (United States)

Differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) is a remote sensing technique which has been successfully used, since the final of the eighties, for different applications such as coseismic deformation mapping, volcano deformation monitoring, landslides monitoring and subsidence detection among others. This is an alternative technique to obtain measurements of the surface displacement providing better spatial resolution and comparable accuracy while being less time consuming than conventional surveying methods. However, spatial and temporal decorrelation and atmospheric signal contributions in repeat-pass SAR interferometry often hamper the accurate measurement of surface displacements in SAR interferograms. In 1999, the POLIMI SAR group implemented a different process allowing overcoming these difficulties by interpreting time-series of interferometric phases at coherent point scatterers. This technique was called the Permanent Scatterer techniques, which allow us to measure deformation with accuracies of millimetres per year. Since then, other techniques have been suggested following similar processing lines, such as the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) developed at Delft Technical University (The Netherlands). In this study, we apply PSI technique using two time-series of 32 ERS-1/2 and 22 ENVISAT ASAR acquisitions of the Granada Basin, located at the central sector of the Betic Cordillera (southern Spain), covering the period from 1992 to 2005. This is the first time that the PSI technique is applied to derive displacement information in this southern Iberia region. This technique is very useful for the analysis of subsidence in urban areas, where angular structures produce efficient reflectors that dominate the background scattering. However, man-made structures are absent from most of the Earth's surface, such is the case in part of the studied area. After this first data processing, several subsidence areas have been detected in the southern part of Granada city and nearby villages. At the moment, some investigations are being carried out in order to find the relationship between the detected deformation and the tectonic deformation present in the area.

Sousa, J. J.; Hanssen, R.; Bastos, L.; Ruiz, A.; Perski, Z.; Gil, A.

2007-12-01

236

Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095?Sv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

Chagas, Claudio Jose; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Rodrigues, Paulo C. Horta [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Augustin, Cristina Helena R. Rocha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

2013-07-01

237

Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095?Sv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

238

STUDY ON THE NATURAL AND ANTHROPIC TOURISM RESOURCES – FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA HA?EG-RETEZAT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rural area from ?ara Ha?egului – Retezat is one of the richest area in Romania in natural and anthropic tourism supplies, determined by the natural, socio-cultural, economic and historical potential that can be used for tourism purposes. As the tourism potential comprises few economic resources that can be used only “in situ”, their inclusion in the economic circuit of values represents the premise of a superior economic process of rural development in the rural area ?ara Ha?egu...

GABRIELA BOTICI; P?UN ION OTIMAN; CORNEL IONESCU; VIOLETA FLORIAN

2012-01-01

239

Women Living with HIV in Rural Areas. Implementing a Response using the HIV and AIDS Risk Assessment and Reduction Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global fight against HIV is progressing; however, women living in rural areas particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continue to face the devastating consequences of HIV and AIDS. Lack of knowledge and geographical barriers to HIV services are compounded by gender norms often limiting the negotiation of safe sexual practices among women living in rural areas. This paper discusses findings from a qualitative study conducted in rural areas of Mozambique examining factors that influenced w...

Sarah Bandali

2014-01-01

240

An aerial radiological survey of the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station and surrounding area, Bay City, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS) near Bay City, Texas, during the period 25 March to 4 April 1988. The purpose of the 259-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates were observed up to 10?R/h over land. No areas of enhanced exposure rates were observed. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the plant were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

 
 
 
 
241

Methodology of seismotectonic zoning in an intraplate low seismicity domain. Examples of France surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Until now, the dominant factor in seismic hazard assessments has been historical seismicity. This approach is justified if the data derived from historical seismicity in a region are representative of its seismic activity and if we consider that in areas where damaging earthquakes have happened, they may happen again. This can be seen when seismotectonic relationships are well established in areas such as well localised plate boundaries (subduction zones, transform faults) and/or with a high rate of deformation. In these cases, the areas where future earthquakes might occur are usually well determined and the recurrences short enough on the time scale of historical observations. However, in areas where recent tectonic deformations are diffused and moderate, the historical period of seismicity data (a few centuries) is not long enough to observe a sample of historical seismicity representative of the present-day tectonic activity of the area. The studies on the most recent damaging earthquakes (El Asnam 1980, Spitak 1988, Cherchell Tipasa 1989) show that it would have been extremely difficult to predict the magnitude and the localisation of these events considering historical seismicity alone. It is the same in Provence (south of France) where the risk of occurrence of a damaging earthquake would have been underestimated before the June 1909 event. In all these cases, seismotectonic studies 'a posteriori' show that the geometry and kinematic of the faults responsible for these earthquakes can be identified and that all of them have presented seismic activity in the last thousand years. So it is necessary to emphasis a global approach of the problem through specific studies such as neotectonics, teledetection, geodesy, present-day stress field, strain field, paleoseismology etc. These studies will enlarge the period of observation compared with the data derived only from historical and present-day seismicity. In France seismicity is moderate and recent tectonic deformations are slight in comparison to neighbouring countries (Italy, Greece, Turkey). Only a few important earthquakes have been studied and the relationship between quakes and faults are still unknown. So it seems necessary to 'regionalise' the seismic hazard and to introduce concepts like 'seismotectonic domains' more than 'active faults'

242

Integrated development – essential condition for modernisation of rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The inspiration to take up the issue of integrated development in the context of the modernization of the village was, on the one hand, the conviction of the urgent need of stimulation, on the other hand, there was a concern that it should not be identified entirely with the integrated management system. Although the idea of integrated development is no longer a novelty, but it still remains a declaration and not translated into effective mechanisms for the functioning of local communities. The need to popularise it further does not require an extensive justification. The essence of the modernisation of rural background, characteristics of the integrated management of development, its place in the future EU policy 2014-2020 and in the new system of integrated planning in Poland, will be presented: rural location in the system of integrated management development, declared in selected strategic documents, the role of smart specialization of regions, the Opolskie voivodeship good practice to stimulate development, recommendations for further actions conducive to integrated development, including modernization of the countryside.

Ma?gorzata S?odowa-He?pa

2012-04-01

243

L'acces des jeunes de regions rurales aux etudes postsecondaires (The Access of Youth from Rural Areas to Postsecondary Studies).  

Science.gov (United States)

The access to postsecondary education that is offered to students in rural areas differs significantly from the access available to urban students. An overview is given of the various factors and structural obstacles influencing rural access to postsecondary education, including aspirations, college preparation, socioeconomic characteristics of…

Sawh, Natasha; Charron, Jocelyn

2003-01-01

244

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa. Date of survey: July 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of {+-}15%.

Maurer, R.J.

1993-04-01

245

TOURISM – AN OPPORTUNITY FOR THE ECONOMIC INVIGORATION OF RURAL AREAS IN ROMANIA?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Romanian rural area is a space that, in the context of the transition from centralized economy to market economy, has accumulated multiple dysfunctions, whose resolution requires the identification of viable solutions, matching local potential and at the same time preserving traditional specificity. In terms of cultural, historical, natural and economic values, the Romanian village has proved to be a highly original tourism product. The article analyzes the evolution of Romanian rural tourism, highlighting the stages of its development, and paying special attention to the current stage that witnesses the solid consolidation of the extant niche of rural tourism as part of Romanian tourism. This consolidation led to several rural tourism destinations in Romania standing out on the international market (Bran-Moeciu, Maramure?, the Danube Delta, the Banat, Bucovina.

CRISTINA MERCIU

2011-11-01

246

The Perceptions to Climate Change among Rural Farming Households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on the perceptions to climate change among rural farming households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. The basic objective was to determine the rural farming household’s perception to climate change in the Area and the specific objective was to determine the direction of change of the climate change indicators (whether increasing, decreasing or constant. Multistage sampling procedure was sampled 739 rural farming households (respondents for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic. Socio – economic profile of the respondents indicated that 37.69% of rural farming households falls between the age bracket of 47 to 51 years and majority (60.0% having educational qualification below secondary school level. The study also reveals 76% had no extension contact during the farming season and 78.6% of respondents are not aware of the phenomenon of climate change. The study noticed an increasing change in the climate change indicators except longer raining season that is decreasing in the Area. The perception to the cause of climate indicators was mostly attributed to natural occurrence by God/gods (67.7%. Awareness campaign on climate change is recommended in the rural areas for climate change information.

Emaziye, P. O.

2013-04-01

247

Solar lighting system delivery models for rural areas in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many rural areas in developing countries will not have electricity access from the central grid for several years to come. Autonomous Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) are attractive and enviromentally friendly options for replacing kerosene lamps and providing basic lighting services to such areas. In order to highlight the benefits of these technologies, analysis of reduction in indoor air pollution due to replacement of kerosene lamp by SLS has been carried out. Use of SLS in place of kerosene lamps saves an equivalent of 1341 kg CO{sub 2} emissions per annum from each household. If a suitable mechanism is created, this amount of GHG emissions saving could alone be sufficient to finance solar lighting system for rural households. However, these technologies have not reached most of the poor population. In order to guarantee the access of solar lighting to the people at the Base of the Pyramid (BOP), strengths of different organizations working in the rural areas should be combined together to form successful business models. This paper will discuss business models to disseminate such services to needy people. A comparative study of SLS delivery models based on cash, credit, leasing, subsidy and service is performed. In addition, SWOT analysis for each model is employed. Further, Case studies of few projects to elaborate different models are also presented. If suitable business models for its delivery to rural people are considered, solar lighting systems are viable for providing basic lighting needs of rural areas in developing countries. (orig.)

Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ortiz, Brisa [Freiburg Univ. (DE). Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Modi, Anish [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Kafle, Nashib [Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), Kathmandu (Nepal)

2011-07-01

248

An outbreak of dengue fever in rural areas of northern India.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the past few decades, epidemics of dengue fever are causing concern in several South-East Asian countries including India. The rural areas of Hissar district of Haryana state, situated about 170 km North-West of Delhi, experienced an outbreak of febrile illness during July-August 1996. A total of 13 villages in eight affected primary health centres reported fever cases. The clinical, epidemiological and entomological findings indicated that the present episode was due to dengue fever. The aetiological agent of the current outbreak, the DEN-2 virus, was isolated from 12 acute-phase sera specimens. Though, in the recent past outbreaks have been reported from the rural areas of southern and western India, the present episode is the first outbreak being reported from the rural areas of northern India. The increasing frequency of dengue fever outbreaks in rural areas of various Indian states reflects the changing life style of the rural population as a result of urbanization process and calls for a suitable prevention and control policy based on strengthened surveillance, appropriate health education to the community coupled with proper training of health personnel. PMID:12561505

Kumar, A; Sharma, S K; Padbidri, V S; Thakare, J P; Jain, D C; Datta, K K

2001-12-01

249

Digital tabulation of stratigraphic data from oil and gas wells in Cuyama Valley and surrounding areas, central California  

Science.gov (United States)

Stratigraphic information from 391 oil and gas exploration wells from Cuyama Valley, California, and surrounding areas are herein compiled in digital form from reports that were released originally in paper form. The Cuyama Basin is located within the southeasternmost part of the Coast Ranges and north of the western Transverse Ranges, west of the San Andreas fault. Knowledge of the location and elevation of stratigraphic tops of formations throughout the basin is a first step toward understanding depositional trends and the structural evolution of the basin through time, and helps in understanding the slip history and partitioning of slip on San Andreas and related faults.

Sweetkind, Donald S.; Bova, Shiera C.; Langenheim, Victoria E.; Shumaker, Lauren E.; Scheirer, Daniel S.

2013-01-01

250

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

Ykateryna D. Duka

2011-05-01

251

Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 19...

Paolo Pedrini; Claudio Prigioni; Gilberto Volcan

1995-01-01

252

Aerial radiological survey of the Nuclear Engineering Company (NECO) facility and surrounding area, Sheffield, Illinois  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the Nuclear Engineering Company (NECO) facility located near Sheffield, Illinois. Gamma ray data were collected over a 13 km2 area enclosing the facility by flying north-south lines spaced 91 m apart. Processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. Estimated exposure rates 1 m above the ground, as calculated from the aerial data, are presented in the form of an isopleth map. No ground sample data were taken at the time of the aerial survey

253

Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

254

Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

Nlerum, F. E.

2012-12-01

255

Assessment of government housing program for young professionals in rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Support of young professionals in rural areas, in particular help to ensure their housing is a priority for the state in the agricultural sector. The solution to this problem provides not only the influx of young professionals in agriculture in Tatarstan, but also the consolidation of the village, which is associated with socialization. The outflow of young people from rural areas led to the deterioration of the demographic and professional characteristics of the staff of the agricultural organizations, and therefore providing housing for young professionals in many ways is a priority in the strategic plan, as it is connected with the stabilization of employment in the long run. It is necessary to apply a new approach to social development of the village, as the existing forms of support do not make substantial changes. Some results of the program to provide affordable housing for young families and young professionals in rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan are examined.

Gafurova Gulnara Talgatovna

2012-06-01

256

Echinococcosis (zoonotic hydatidosis) in street dogs in urban and rural areas, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of one hundred and ninety street dogs were captured from urban area, Mansoura district and three hundreds and fifty from rural area, Met El-Korama and adjacent villages (Manshet El-Badawy, Talka Center). The overall prevalence of Echinoccocus granulosus was 5%, with a worm burden ranging from 4 to 1010 (mean = 421). The prevalence was 6% in rural locality and 3.2% in urban locality. E. granulosus in dogs was significantly higher in rural areas but, without significant difference in puppies and males. The overall sensitivity was 61.5% and specificity was 97.5%. Apart from E. granulosus, dogs were also, infected with Taenia sp., Diplydium caninum, Toxocara canis, Trichurus vulpis and Ancylostoma caninum. The major cross-reactions were with Taenia sp., and D. caninum. Significantly, no correlation was found between ELISA on dogs' sera and E. granulosus burden. PMID:17580584

Elshazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Abdel Tawab, Ahmed H; Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Tosson A

2007-04-01

257

Study of Effective Factors on Income Inequality Decrease in Rural Areas of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the Ahlowalia hypothesis (1995, the growth oftotal factor productivity (TFP beside infrastructure investmentsof government lead to income inequality decrease in ruralareas of countries. The main objective of this study is toinvestigate the effects of public investments such as agriculturalR&E, road, education and irrigation on income inequality inrural areas of Iran. In order to get results, we used ARDLmethod and time series data of 1980 to 2008. However, thisresearch attempts to survey the direction of causality betweenthe income inequality and total factor productivity (TFP inIran. Empirical results show there is a negative relation betweenincome inequality and agricultural TFP in rural areas of Iran.Hence, additional investments on rural education and agriculturalR&E have significance and different impacts on income inequality.Findings showed Ahlowalia hypothesis developed forthe relation among income inequality, TFP and investment inelectricity is not rejected in case of Iran`s rural areas.

Ali Bagherzadeh

2012-03-01

258

Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

259

The dispersion of fibrous amphiboles by glacial processes in the area surrounding Libby, Montana, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Mining operations began at a world-class vermiculite deposit at Vermiculite Mountain near Libby, Montana, circa 1920 and ended in 1990. Fibrous and asbestiform amphiboles intergrown with vermiculite ore are suspected to be a causative factor in an abnormally high number of cases of respiratory diseases in former mine and mill workers, and in residents of Libby. The question addressed in this report is whether some of the amphibole from Vermiculite Mountain could have been dispersed by Pleistocene glacial processes rather than by human activity after vermiculite mining began. The history of Pinedale glaciation in the Libby area provides a framework for estimating the presence and distribution of asbestiform amphiboles derived from Vermiculite Mountain and found in naturally occurring sediments of Glacial Lake Kootenai that underlie the Libby Valley area. There were two situations where sediments derived from Vermiculite Mountain were deposited into Glacial Lake Kootenai: (1) as lake-bottom sediments derived from meltwater flowing down Rainy Creek when the valley south of Vermiculite Mountain was free of ice but active ice still covered Vermiculite Mountain; and (2) as lake-bottom sediments eroded from the Rainy Creek outwash and re-deposited during a re-advance of the Purcell Trench Glacier lobe near Moyie Springs, Idaho.

Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Adams, David T.; Hoefen, Todd M.

2011-01-01

260

An aerial radiological survey of the Hanford Site and surrounding area, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, during the period 5 July through 26 August 1988. The survey was expanded, and additional flights were conducted to the east of the site and along the banks of the Columbia River down to McNary Dam near Umatilla. The survey was flown at altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) by a helicopter containing 17 liters (eight 2 in. x 4 in. x 16 in.) of sodium iodide detectors. Gamma ray data were collected over the survey area by flying north-south lines spaced 122 meters (400 feet) apart. The processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were generally consistent with those expected from normal background emitters and man-made fission/activation products resulting from activities at the site. External exposure rates were generally 10 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) with some operating areas over 1000 ?R/h. The radiation levels over more than 95% of the site are due to normal background exposure rates. 3 refs., 25 figs

 
 
 
 
261

Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 1970 respectively, were not checked. From the analysis of 201 records (sightings, signs of presence, animals found dead and skins, we found that the badger, weasel and stone marten selected middle-low altitude (since 1000 m a.s.l., the pine marten and stoat the middle-high altitude. The former species frequented mainly agricultural lands of bottom of the valley with built-up areas, the latter ones occurred mainly in forest habitat of secluded valleys (the pine marten, and in stony ground and alpine prairies (the stoat. The badger was the most diffuse species, the pine marten the least one. On a total of 46 grids of the study area, 32.6% presented three mustelid species, 17.4% five species. The badger and the stone marten were the species with the greatest overlapping range (61.7% of the grids, the weasel and the stoat with the smallest one (23.4% of the grids. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mustelidi nel Parco Adamello-Brenta e aree limitrofe (Trentino, Alpi centrali - L'indagine, condotta nel 1991-93, ha interessato un'area di 1085 km² e ha permesso di definire le mappe di distribuzione, secondo una griglia di 6,4x5,5 km desunta dalla Carta Topografica generale (scala 1:10000 edita dalla Provincia Autonoma di Trento, di cinque specie: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina e Martes martes. La presenza di Mustela putorius e di Lutra lutra, accertata fino intorno agli anni '60 e '70 rispettivamente, non è stata invece confermata. Dall'analisi di 201 segnalazioni (osservazioni dirette, segni di presenza, animali trovati morti o imbalsamati è stato rilevato che le fasce altitudinali medio-basse (fino a 1000 m sono selezionate da tasso, donnola e faina che frequentano soprattutto ambienti coltivati di fondovalle con presenza di centri abitati, quelle medio-alte da martora e ermellino che utilizzano rispettivamente comprensori forestali delle vallate interne e ambienti con presenza di versanti detritici, praterie alpine e malghe. La specie più diffusa è risultata il tasso, quella meno diffusa la martora. Il 32,6% delle 46 griglie, in cui è stata suddivisa l'area di studio, mostra la presenza di 3 specie, il 17,4% di 5 specie. I1 tasso e la faina sono risultate le specie con maggior sovrapposizione di areale di distribuzione (61,7% delle griglie, la donnola e l'ermellino quelle con minor sovrapposizione (23,4% delle griglie.

Paolo Pedrini

1995-12-01

262

Multifunctional centers in rural areas : Fabrics of social and human capital  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually being abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces such a model: Multifunctional centers. Such a model reflects a long tradition of local centralization in rural areas, that is, a golden compromise between ruralization and urbanization. First, I argue that governments should actively invest in rural areas rather than practicing laissez-faire. Second, I trace ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnationalGarden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks, and facilities for local associations as theatre scenes and sports halls. The centers should be designed to secure both economies of scale and geographic proximity. Empirical evidence indicates that such large meeting places in fact foster physical and social cohesion, as well as human capital and informal learning. Also that the stock of beneficial bridging social capital thus created actually contributes to attract newcomers and counteract depopulation.

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

2009-01-01

263

Aerial radiological survey of the North Anna power station and surrounding area, Mineral, Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 1600 km2 area around the North Anna Power Station near Mineral, Virginia was radiometrically surveyed from an airborne platform during July 1979. No man-made terrestrial gamma-photon emitting radionuclides were detected, although airborne krypton-85 was observed during one survey flight. Aerial count rates from natural emitters were converted to average exposure rates one meter above the ground and presented in the form of an isopleth map. The average levels were between 6 and 10 ?R/h, which included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 ?R/h. Exposure rates, measured with a portable ion chamber, and subsequent soil analyses displayed reasonable agreement with the data collected from the aerial platform

264

Technical and economic comparison of electric generators for rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems, internal combustion engine generator units and extending the main electric utility network as sources of electric power for remote rural locations have been compared by means of mathematical model incorporating the principal technical and economic features of these systems. Plant investment and maintenance costs were determined for each of the systems by including all of the identifiable principal costs in the model. The model does not, however, take into account failure modes, mean time between failures and mean time for repairs which are very different for the three types of systems and can affect the results of the analysis. The results of the parametric analysis on the most significant parameters are presented in charts which permit quick comparison of the principal features of each of the three kinds of power sources.

Abenavoli, R.I. (Univ. La Sapienza, Rome (Italy))

1991-01-01

265

An Evaluation of Groundnut Processing by Women in a Rural Area of North Central Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study evaluated the economic empowerment potentials of groundnut processing by women in rural areas of Northcentral Nigeria state using a sample of 100 women processors randomly selected from the study area. Data analysis wasdone using Descriptive statistics, Net Farm Income Model and Data Envelopment Analysis (D.E.A. An average netreturns of N10, 586.6 was obtainable within a processing cycle. The average pure technical and scale efficiency scoreswere 80 and 83 percent respectively. The major constraints confronting the processing of groundnut include inadequatecapital for expansion and lack of processing machines. A significant opportunity exists for empowering rural womenthrough groundnut processing.

Hussaini Yusuf Ibrahim

2010-02-01

266

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF RURAL AREA USING ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the importance of organizational innovation in the development of small and medium sized enterprises in the rural area. In this paper, I review the existing literature on organizational  innovation and will present itsimportance in the process of sustainable development of enterprises in the SME sector. Throughout this study I intend to present the issues that the SMEs are facing  in the agricultural sector of the rural area and to present to the entrepreneur his role in the economy and the importance of his actions in the economic crisis.

Kristina Jana Drienovski

2013-05-01

267

MANAGEMENT- KEY PLAYER OR EXECUTIVE POWER OF AN ENTITY IN RURAL AREA IN THE TRANSITION PROCESS  

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Full Text Available Since independence, Republic of Moldova aligns among the developed countries and this process is related to thetransition from the command to market economy. This process is lengthy, laborious and often contradictory,especially in rural areas. In the given article we consider the process of transition in rural areas fromkolkhozy/collective farms to market economy entities through the prism of organizational policies, activities, staff ofcontemporary agricultural enterprises based on example of Brinzenii Vechi village, Telenesti, Moldova. That will befollowed by some conclusions on the role of management as well as the impact on sustainability of localdevelopment.

Ion CERTAN

2014-06-01

268

STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

Rubeena Bano

2009-03-01

269

Fluoride Concentration in Potable Groundwater in Rural Areas of Khaf City, Razavi Khorasan Province, Northeastern Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in rural areas the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.11 to 3.59 ppm—the level was less than the permissible limit in 31% of ...

Aa, Khafajeh; Sh, Fallah; Ha, Asgharnia; Aa, Mohammadi; Ah, Mahvi; Ai, Amouei

2012-01-01

270

LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA  

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Full Text Available Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009, which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education and training (leading to the underutilization of labor in rural areas, while major shortages in the labor market and increased migration phenomenon manifests.\\r\

Mosora Liviu - Cosmin

2011-07-01

271

Rural Transport & Rural Isolation: A Case Study on the Impact of Rural Transport Provision on Older People in one Rural Area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study is a very valuable contribution to the local needs and services for rural isolated people. Miriam McKenna is a committed leader. Miriam with the board of Flexibus and the support of the Rural Transport Initiative (RTI) has had a life enhancing impact on the lives of many people in Meath. The Flexibus staff and the community groups around Meath and South Cavan have a great deal to be proud of. This document is a way of recognising the impact of Flexibus and the many projects...

Kenny, Michael; Mckenna, Miriam

2006-01-01

272

Variability of zooplankton communities at Condor seamount and surrounding areas, Azores (NE Atlantic)  

Science.gov (United States)

Seamounts are common topographic features around the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). Recently there has been increasing research effort devoted to the ecology of these ecosystems. In the Azores, the mesozooplankon is poorly studied, particularly in relation to these seafloor elevations. In this study, zooplankton communities in the Condor seamount area (Azores) were investigated during March, July and September 2010. Samples were taken during both day and night with a Bongo net of 200 µm mesh that towed obliquely within the first 100 m of the water column. Total abundance, biomass and chlorophyll a concentrations did not vary with sampling site or within the diel cycle but significant seasonal variation was observed. Moreover, zooplankton community composition showed the same strong seasonal pattern regardless of spatial or daily variability. Despite seasonal differences, the zooplankton community structure remained similar for the duration of this study. Seasonal variability better explained our results than mesoscale spatial variability. Spatial homogeneity is probably related with island proximity and local dynamics over Condor seamount. Zooplankton literature for the region is sparse, therefore a short review of the most important zooplankton studies from the Azores is also presented.

Carmo, Vanda; Santos, Mariana; Menezes, Gui M.; Loureiro, Clara M.; Lambardi, Paolo; Martins, Ana

2013-12-01

273

A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps

274

A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

1997-04-01

275

Thermal maturation in the Ellef Ringnes Island and surrounding area, Sverdrup Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Determining thermal maturity studies in the Ellef Ringnes Island area was complicated by numerous factors, such as the presence of cavings, bitumen staining, and igneous intrusions. Cavings are a problem in certain intervals in Hoodoo H-37, Dome Bay P-36, and Helicopter J-12. Bitumen staining resulting in suppression of reflectance has occurred in the lower part of the Jameson Bay shales in Elve M-40. Thick sills resulted in increase of Ro to 4.0%, whereas thin sills had a minimal impact on reflectance increase. Other features observed include overpressuring caused by hydrocarbon generation in the Schei Point source rocks as well as in the Jameson and Ringnes Shales, and a kinky Ro profile caused by the presence of low-permeability gas-bearing reservoirs in the Heiberg sandstones in Jackson Bay G-16A. The presence of sapropelic coals with HI up to 329 mg HC/gTOC in Heiberg sandstones in Elve M-40 containing Botryococcus algae should also be noted.

Gentzis, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, Alberta (Canada); Goodarzi, F. [National Resources Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

1998-12-01

276

Geohydrologic characterization of the area surrounding the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this investigation is to achieve regulatory compliance with the applicable ground-water monitoring requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC). An assessment-level compliance monitoring project was established for the 183-H Basins because hazardous waste constituents were known to have entered the ground water beneath the facility. Three phases were defined for this project, with work being concentrated in five areas: geology, hydrology, ground-water monitoring, geochemistry, and ground-water modeling. These characterization activities have resulted in the definition of principal lithologic and hydrostratigraphic units. Ground-water monitoring results indicated a contamination peak, which occurred between April and August 1986. Further monitoring has shown that nitrate, sodium, gross alpha, and gross beta are the clearest indicators of ground-water contamination attributable to the 183-H Basins. In addition, the concentrations of these contaminants are affected by variations in Columbia River stage. Future studies will focus on continued ground-water monitoring throughout the closure and post-closure periods for the 183-H Basins, sampling of the Columbia River and nearby ground-water springs, and soil sampling adjacent to the facility. 45 refs., 90 figs., 19 tabs.

Liikala, T.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Aimo, N.J.; Bates, D.J.; Gilmore, T.J.; Jensen, E.J.; Last, G.V.; Oberlander, P.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Oster, K.R.; Roome, L.R.; Simpson, J.C.; Teel, S.S.; Westergard, E.J.

1988-12-01

277

The Effect of Ozonation Process on Bromide-Containing Groundwaters in Bandung Area and Its Surroundings  

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Full Text Available Disinfection process was applied as the last step of the water treatment to kill pathogenic bacteria in the water. However, according to several studies, the ozonation disinfection process could form undesired by-products. One of the by-products potentially affecting human life is bromate produced from bromide ionic-containing water. This study was carried out to examine the effect of raw water characteristics and pH on bromate formation. Also, the performance of bromate formation for a period of exposure time was analyzed. Raw waters taken from four different areas around Bandung were exposed to ozone introduced to a reactor with a flow rate of 2 L/min. The pH of the raw waters varied from 4, 7 to 10. The results show that there was no evidence of an initial bromide ion concentration, whereas a change in pH value gives a significantly different outcome. In acidic condition (pH of 4 the bromate formation tends to decrease, whereas when the pH value increases to a pH of 10, the bromate formation increases. Therefore, for drinking water with a neutral pH, when bromide ions are detected in the raw water, the drinking water may be toxic due to the presence of bromate.

Mindriany Syafila

2012-11-01

278

Study of indoor radon and its progeny concentration levels in the surrounding areas of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Having studied the radon/thoron and their concentration levels in the urban Hyderabad (known for higher concentrations of uranium, thorium and {sup 40}K compared to other metropolitan cities of India), an attempt has been made to measure radon and its progeny levels in its surrounding areas covering the region beyond municipal limits, with an approximate radius of 50 km, using the technique of solid-state nuclear track detectors. The concentration levels of radon and its progeny varied from 3 to 47 Bq/m{sup 3} and 0.04 to 3.5 mWL with arithmetic mean of 11 Bq/m{sup 3} and 0.9 mWL, respectively. These airborne radioactivity levels in the surrounding areas of Hyderabad are found to be less than the activity levels of urban Hyderabad region. Seasonal variations of these activity levels have also been studied. Further, variation of radon and its progeny levels in different types of dwellings were investigated and it is found that the dwellings with bare flooring and mud walls were found to have higher concentration levels. Distribution of dwellings for different radon levels was carried out to unravel the effect of poor ventilation, type of the construction materials used, etc.

Reddy, M.S. E-mail: marrisr@yahoo.com; Reddy, B. Sreenivasa; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Reddy, P. Yadagiri; Reddy, K. Rama

2003-06-01

279

Study of indoor radon and its progeny concentration levels in the surrounding areas of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Having studied the radon/thoron and their concentration levels in the urban Hyderabad (known for higher concentrations of uranium, thorium and 40K compared to other metropolitan cities of India), an attempt has been made to measure radon and its progeny levels in its surrounding areas covering the region beyond municipal limits, with an approximate radius of 50 km, using the technique of solid-state nuclear track detectors. The concentration levels of radon and its progeny varied from 3 to 47 Bq/m3 and 0.04 to 3.5 mWL with arithmetic mean of 11 Bq/m3 and 0.9 mWL, respectively. These airborne radioactivity levels in the surrounding areas of Hyderabad are found to be less than the activity levels of urban Hyderabad region. Seasonal variations of these activity levels have also been studied. Further, variation of radon and its progeny levels in different types of dwellings were investigated and it is found that the dwellings with bare flooring and mud walls were found to have higher concentration levels. Distribution of dwellings for different radon levels was carried out to unravel the effect of poor ventilation, type of the construction materials used, etc

280

Carboniferous hydrocarbon geology: the southern North Sea and surrounding onshore areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The offshore Carboniferous, particularly the late Westphalia red bed sequence, has locally been the locus of considerable research by the hydrocarbon industry. However, the Carboniferous of much of the southern North Sea remains poorly known and under-explored. The conference brought together scientists working on the offshore area and those whose primary knowledge is of the Carboniferous of the adjacent onshore, which has been studied extensively for over two centuries. Over a hundred delegates attended, including many of the current key offshore and onshore researchers. The main aim of the conference - the promotion of the relevance of the well studied onshore Carboniferous to the understanding of the lesser-known offshore successions, with the objective of locating and producing additional hydrocarbon reserves - was a major underlying feature of most of the papers presented. This volume contains fourteen of the papers presented at the meeting by leading specialists in their fields. The papers range widely in stratigraphical and geographical extend, and review such topics as biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, regional tectonics, provenance, sedimentology and reservoir architecture, depositional systems and sequence stratigraphy, post-depositional uplift and geophysical imaging of coal-bearing strata. Much new information is presented on the offshore sequences and several papers summarize current knowledge of the onshore strata that will aid investigation offshore. A detailed review of remaining offshore prospects is included. An abstract of a talk by Bernard Besly on 'Late carboniferous redbeds of the UK southern North Sea, viewed in a regional context' which has become widely adopted and cited in the industry is included. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Collinson, J.D.; Evans, D.J.; Holliday, D.W.; Jones, N.S. (eds.) [John Collinson Consulting, Beech (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Effects of human activities on karst groundwater geochemistry in a rural area in the Balkans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geochemistry of three drinking water sources (wells, springs, and tap) in the Vratza region of northern Bulgaria was investigated to gain an understanding of how human activities influence natural geochemical processes in a carbonate aquifer system. Numerous villages have been identified within this highly agricultural area as endemic for the environmental disease Balkan endemic nephropathy, with some suggesting a link to the geochemistry of the region. We observe that water quality varies significantly as a function of source. Hydrochemical facies analysis reveals trends not typical for limestone systems, with cation trajectories falling along the Ca2+–Mg2+ axis and the anion trajectories lying along the HCO3-–SO42- axis. R-mode factor analysis reveals: (i) an increasing dominance of a Cl?–Na+–SO42-–NO3- association from tap to spring to well waters, (ii) a strong association between Mg2+ and U, and (iii) a lack of associations between Ca2+ and Mg2+ and between Ca2+ and HCO3- that is atypical for limestone systems. These observations are interpreted to indicate that human activities have influenced all sources across the Vratza region and that Mg and U concentrations result from the dissolution of limestone, which is enhanced due to the input of anthropogenue to the input of anthropogenic chemicals. Geochemical modeling indicates that Ca2+ concentrations are in equilibrium with calcite, but that Mg2+ concentrations remain conservative, resulting in the decoupling of a Ca2+ and Mg2+, association. Uranium concentrations also appear to be conservative, aided by a poised redox state due to high concentrations of NO3- and the formation of CO32- and PO43- ion pairs. The similar source and conservative nature of both Mg2+ and U can account for their association. Finally, cluster analysis indicates that the pattern of water geochemistry in the endemic area differs from the surrounding non-endemic area, may be explained by differences in the underlying geology. This study has shown that the general water quality in this rural area, whether in endemic or non-endemic villages, is poor and that agricultural activities have not only added chemicals to the groundwater system, but that these chemicals have likely disrupted geochemical processes. More work is required to understand the specific details of anthropogenic influences on geochemical processes on water quality in karstic terrains.

282

SOME GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF EXAMPLE ANDRIJEVICA (MONTENEGRO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyzes the economic and geographical factors of rural settlements of Andrijevica. Isolated traffic and geographical position adversely affect the economic and social development of rural settlements. Natural features indicate that rural areas of Andrijevica economy do not comply with all the natural conditions. Incompatibility between the available natural and current conditions of the rural economy determine by the overall socio-economic factors of development. The percentage decrease in rural population in the municipality Andrijevica period 1948-2003 amounted to - 49.44%. The main characteristic of the modern development of rural settlements are give industrialization and urbanization processes. Age groups, due to migration and the reduction of fertility change and take on unfavorable characteristics, reduces the proportion of younger and older increases the proportion of the population. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations types of economic development.

Goran Rajovic

2012-05-01

283

Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1) examine the determinants of the likelihood of the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2) for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of p...

Pierre Kébreau Alexandre; Gilbert Saint-Jean; Lee Crandall; Etzer Fevrin

2005-01-01

284

Strategies for Organization and Development of Tourism Function in Rural Areas Case Study: Villages of Qom Province, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regarding its appeals and capacities, tourism function of rural areas in Qom province has not adequately played an effective role in advancing rural sustainable development. Therefore, the current research attempts at identifying and preparing organization and development strategies for tourism function in rural areas of Qom province. Research method is descriptive-analytical and it is applied in terms of its content. The present study aims at searching for organization and development str...

Mohammad Ali Ahmadi Shapourabadi

2013-01-01

285

Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1 examine the determinants of the likelihood of the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2 for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad que habían dado a luz en los tres años anteriores a la entre-vista, fueron: 1 examinar los factores que determinan la probabilidad de que las mu-jeres acudan a atención prenatal en las zonas rurales y urbanas del país y 2 dentro del grupo de mujeres con una o más consultas prenatales, examinar los factores que determinan el número de dichas consultas en las zonas rurales y urbanas. MÉTODOS: En el análisis multifactorial se emplearon modelos logísticos para deter-minar qué factores explicaban la decisión de acudir a control prenatal, y se usaron modelos binomiales negativos para determinar el número de consultas prenatales dentro del subgrupo de mujeres que consultaron por lo menos una vez. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad esperada de acudir a control prenatal, determinada según el valor medio de las variables de control, fue de 77,16% en las zonas rurales, en comparación con 85,83% en las zonas urbanas de Haití. Dentro del grupo de mu-jeres que acudieron a servicios de control prenatal, las madres en zonas rurales tuvieron un número esperado de consultas prenatales de 3,78, en comparación con 5,06 en las zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES: Un buen porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas tiene acceso a servicios de atención prenatal en Haití, pero las madres en zonas rurales que eligieron acudir a dichos servicios tuvieron un poco menos del mínimo de cuatro consultas recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El nivel educativo de las madres y de sus parejas es un factor pronóstico muy importante en relación con el uso de servicios de atención prenatal. Las consultas repetidas se vieron obstaculizadas en las zonas rurales por el mayor tiempo de desplazamiento y la mayor distancia hasta el centro de salud. Los formuladores de políticas y los proveedores de atención sanitaria deben tener en cuenta estos resultados a la hora de tomar decisiones sobre la prestación y administración de los servicios de salud en Haití.

Pierre Kébreau Alexandre

2005-08-01

286

AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN RURAL AREAS  

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Full Text Available In India, half of the world's labour force is in agriculture and an estimated 1.3 billion workers are engaged in agricultural production world wide. The share of the agricultural labour force in the very economically active population is under 10 per cent in the developed countries and accounts for 59 per cent of workers in the less developed regions (International Labour Conference (ILC 2000. Compared to workers in other sectors, agricultural workers are under protected. They suffer from sever health problems. In most of the countries, including India, agricultural workers are excluded from any employment injury benefit or insurance scheme. Farmers in India are rarely covered by any schemes. Only if they contribute individually to insurance schemes, they get social security benefits. In agriculture, the most vulnerable groups are daily wage labourers, women workers, and child labourers most of them are very poor. They are the one who are exposed to occupational hazards. In India agricultural work is carried out mostly in rural environment where there is no clean-cut distinction between working and living conditions. Most agricultural work is carried out in the open air and farmers depend on weather to perform their agricultural activities. Uneven weather further aggravates health conditions of the people and influence their working conditions.

Chandrashekhar B.

2014-07-01

287

Hábitos de salud en escolares en ámbito urbano y rural / Health habits in schoolchildren in urban and rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. En los primeros años de vida se produce la asimilación e interiorización de los hábitos de salud que van a condicionar la vida adulta, siendo fundamentales las características socioambientales para la adquisición de los mismos. Objetivos Nos planteamos conocer los hábitos de salud que [...] presentan los escolares de dos zonas geográficas contrapuestas: la urbana y la rural. Metodología. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo con alumnos de 10 y 11 años de una zona urbana y de una rural, llevándose a cabo una prueba de comparación de dos proporciones de muestras independientes. Resultados. Se han recogido 104 encuestas (21.2% de ámbito rural) en las cuales se observa la existencia de un porcentaje importante en cuanto a la falta de hábito de lavado de manos e higiene dental se refiere. Respecto a la alimentación, existe un pequeño número de niños que acuden al colegio sin desayunar y, en caso de hacerlo, es considerable el porcentaje obtenido en el consumo de bollería y zumos envasados, apreciándose un déficit en el de verduras y pescados. Aunque mayoritariamente realizan actividad física, el 10% no la hacen nunca. Asimismo se aprecia un excesivo uso del televisor preferido frente a otros hábitos. En lo relacionado con el tabaquismo, cabe destacar que un 30% conviven con fumadores, y un 6% han probado el tabaco. En lo referente al alcohol un porcentaje importante (4.8%-19.5%) ya lo ha probado mayoritariamente en el ámbito familiar. Conclusiones. La finalidad del estudio es el de servir como punto de partida para la planificación de futuras actuaciones, ya que indica la existencia de situaciones de riesgo: alteraciones en la salud bucodental por déficit de cuidados e higiene, hábitos alimenticios incorrectos, hábitos sedentarios e inicio temprano de consumo o contacto con sustancias tóxicas. Abstract in english Introduction. ln the first years of life assimilation occurs and the understanding of health habits that will shape adult life, and these socio-environmental characteristics are fundamental for the acquisition of health habits. Objectives. This study is aimed at ascertaining the health habits of sch [...] oolchildren from two opposing geographical areas (urban and rural). Methodology. We performed a descriptive study of students aged 10/11 years old from urban and rural areas, performing a comparison test of two proportions from independent samples. Results. 104 surveys were obtained (21.2% from rural areas). There is a significant percentage which refers to a lack of hand washing and dental hygiene habits. With regard to food there is a small percentage of children who come to school without breakfast, among those who did, it was found that a significant percentage have pastries and packaged juices showing a lack in consumption of vegetables and fish. Although largely physically inactive, 10% never take exercise. There is high television consumption and other habits are that, 30% live with smokers and 6% have tried snuff. A significant percentage (4.8% -19.5%) have tried alcohol, mostly in the family. Conclusions. The study should serve as a starting point for planning future actions, and indicates the existence of risk: changes in oral health due to a lack of care and hygiene, bad eating habits, sedentary habits and the early onset of contact with consumption, or with toxic substances.

Antonio, Martínez Sabater; Asunción, Marzá Gascón; Julia, Llorca Tauste; Cristina, Martínez Puig; Gema, Escrivá Aznar; Mercedes, Blasco Roque.

2013-01-01

288

Quality and disinfection trials of consumption water in storage reservoirs for rural area in the Marrakech region (Assif El Mal).  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional reservoirs for water storage are important systems of water supply in rural areas of Morocco. These reservoirs are fed by rainwater and/or directly from rivers through open channels; the stored water is used without any treatment as drinking water by the surrounding population. The present study aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of stored water and the corresponding sediment in six traditional reservoirs (R1 to R6) located in the rural municipality of Assif El Mal. We tested two inexpensive methods of disinfecting the stored water: chlorination and solar disinfection in bottles. The results show a rise of organic and mineral concentrations. Regarding bacteriological quality, a critical contamination level was detected (8 × 10(5) CFU/100 ml in water and 9 × 10(7) CFU/g in sediment) according to the 2002 Moroccan Standards for drinking water (0 CFU/100 ml). In the disinfection tests, chlorine disinfection removed all studied germs after just 1 hour, and the solar exposure process removed the majority of bacteria (after 3 hours) except those with a resistant form (Clostridia). PMID:23428557

Aziz, Faissal; Mandi, Laila; Boussaid, Abdellatif; Boraam, Fatima; Ouazzani, Naaila

2013-03-01

289

Aerial radiological survey of the Feed Materials Production Center and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1985  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, located near Fernald, Ohio, during the period April 24 to 27, 1985. The survey covered a 70-square-kilometer (27-square-mile) area centered on the plant. The highest exposure rates, in excess of 0.35 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the plant. This radiation was due to the presence of nuclides which were consistent with normal plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates, varying from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), were due to naturally-occurring potassium, uranium, thorium, and daughter products. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. Soil sample results showed several areas just outside the site boundary with slightly elevated amounts of U-238. The levels, however, were well below the detection limit of the aerial system. The only off-site area that showed apparent above background activity in the aerial data was directly west of the storage silos. The symmetly west of the storage silos. The symmetric shape of the contours, however, suggests that these elevated levels are due to ''shine'' from material stored on-site in the silos and not to actual off-site contamination. Detailed comparison of the 1985 aerial survey data with a previous survey conducted in 1976 showed no significant change in any area outside the plant boundary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

290

Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

291

Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step. PMID:25189850

Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

2014-01-01

292

The prevalence and the age at the onset of menopause in Turkish women in rural area.  

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There was a noticeably high percentage of females (8.6% younger than 40 years who were entering menopause. On the other hand, an early onset of natural menopause among Turkish women living in this rural area was found to be associated with never been pregnant and their age of menarche.

Suphi Vehid

2006-09-01

293

The Whole Village Center: A Model for Promoting Client Access to Services in Rural Areas.  

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The village center model is designed to eliminate fragmented social service delivery problems in rural areas. The Whole Village Project at Plymouth, New Hampshire, offers interagency collaboration, local control and leadership, and increased client access to family and child services. Alternative strategies are outlined for development of similar…

Davis, Sharon; Meyer, Scott; Terrasi, Margaret

1996-01-01

294

Air quality in urban, industrialized and rural french areas in 1991  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air quality measurements in urban, industrial and rural areas in 1991 have shown different trends. It turned out that lead and carbon monoxide concentrations have recently decreased. The concentrations of black smoke and sulphur dioxide have however remained constant since 1988, whereas nitrogen oxide and ozone have decreased in most sites. (TEC). 23 figs., 34 tabs., 40 refs

295

Microbiological aspects of underground water quality for human consumption in rural area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Underground water sources from rural area of Northeast of Romania are frequently polluted with fecal contaminants. Surface and groundwater sources used as drinking water were affected in 2005-2007 by natural disasters (floods, drought). In the period 2007-2009 were analyzed 321 samples of water from underground sources for human consumption. Descriptive statistics for 1038 microbiological indicators are presented in this paper

Luminita-Smaranda Iancu; Luminita Minea; Ioan Chirila

2010-01-01

296

Trial by Satellite: Videoconferencing for Continuing Education for Rural Area Nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes LIVE-NET, a compressed videoconferencing network in Australia that was used for continuing education sessions for nurses in rural areas. Results of a survey that evaluated physical presentation, instructional presentation, and interactive communication are reported, and future directions are discussed. (nine references) (LRW)

Latchem, Colin; Rapley, Pat

1992-01-01

297

STUDY ON THE NATURAL AND ANTHROPIC TOURISM RESOURCES – FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA HA?EG-RETEZAT  

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Full Text Available The rural area from ?ara Ha?egului – Retezat is one of the richest area in Romania in natural and anthropic tourism supplies, determined by the natural, socio-cultural, economic and historical potential that can be used for tourism purposes. As the tourism potential comprises few economic resources that can be used only “in situ”, their inclusion in the economic circuit of values represents the premise of a superior economic process of rural development in the rural area ?ara Ha?egului - Retezat.Starting from the great variety of the tourism supply, the specialists in economy and tourism management can find optimum solutions for the development of the rural and agro-tourism services as a sustainable rural development component, while the optimization of the rural tourism services activities can be based on mathematical models and adequate system analyses.

GABRIELA BOTICI

2012-05-01

298

The Impact of Public Spending in a Low-Income Rural Area: A Case Study of Fort Leonard Wood, Mo.  

Science.gov (United States)

The economic effects of Government spending at public installations in rural areas was investigated. Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri, was chosen because of its location in a low-income rural area with relatively high outmigration, a declining agricultural industry base, and few employment opportunities. All of the data relating to Government spending…

Holmes, O. Wendell

299

Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

Shyu, Chian-Woei

2010-05-19

300

Using e-health to enable culturally appropriate mental healthcare in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to review relevant research issues in the provision of culturally appropriate e-mental healthcare and make recommendations for expanding and prioritizing research efforts in this area. A workshop was convened by the Office of Rural Mental Health Research (ORMHR) at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the Center for Reducing Health Disparities at the University of California, Davis, the California Telemedicine and e-Health Center, and the California Endowment in December 2005, during which papers were presented concerning culture and e-mental health. Relevant literature was reviewed and research questions were developed. Major issues in the provision of culturally appropriate e-mental healthcare were defined, as were the barriers to the provision of such care in rural areas and interventions to overcome these barriers. Rural areas have increased barriers to culturally appropriate mental healthcare because of increased rates of poverty, increasingly large ethnic minority populations, and various degrees of geographical isolation and cultural factors specific to rural communities. Although culture and language are major barriers to receiving appropriate mental healthcare, including e-mental healthcare, they cannot be separated from other related influential variables, such as poverty and geography. Each of these critical issues must be taken into account when planning technologically enabled rural mental health services. This review describes one in a series of ORMHR/NIMH efforts aimed at stimulating research using culturally appropriate e-mental health strategies that address unique characteristics of various racial/ethnic groups, as well as rural and frontier populations. PMID:18578685

Yellowlees, Peter; Marks, Shayna; Hilty, Don; Shore, Jay H

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

A quantitative comparison of frugivorous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae) in tropical forests and rural areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the current knowledge about African tephritids originates from studies performed in agricultural areas, while information about their distribution in pristine or moderately disturbed environments is extremely scarce. This study aims at (i) describing levels of spatial variability of frugivorous tephritids in tropical forests and small rural villages of the Congo River basin and (ii) verifying if human-mediated activities, such as small-scale agriculture and trade, can affect their distribution patterns. Four locations were sampled along a 250?km stretch of the Congo River. At each location, pristine and disturbed habitats (i.e. tropical forests and small rural villages, respectively) were sampled, with three replicate sites in each combination of habitat and location. Sampling with modified McPhail traps baited with four different attractants yielded 819 tephritid specimens of 29 species from seven genera (Bactrocera, Carpophthoromyia, Ceratitis, Dacus, Celidodacus, Perilampsis, Trirhithrum). The three most abundant species sampled (Dacus bivittatus, D. punctatifrons, Bactrocera invadens) showed significant variations in abundance across locations and sites and accounted for 98.29% of the overall dissimilarity between habitats. Assemblages differed among locations and sites while they showed significant differences between pristine and disturbed habitats in two out of the four locations. This study shows that frugivorous tephritids in central Congo have remarkably patchy distributions with differences among locations and sites representing the main source of variability. Our data show that, in rural villages of central Democratic Republic of Congo, human activities, such as small-scale agriculture and local commerce, are not always sufficient to promote differences between the tephritid assemblages of villages and those of the surrounding tropical forests. PMID:21554799

Virgilio, M; Backeljau, T; Emeleme, R; Juakali, J L; De Meyer, M

2011-10-01

302

Does urbanisation affect rural poverty? Evidence from Indian districts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the high rate of urbanization and the high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, we still do not know the effects of the former on the latter. We address this issue by exploring the mechanisms through which urbanization may alleviate rural poverty, disentangling “first round” effects, due to migration of rural poor to cities, and “second round” effects, due to positive externalities of city growth on surrounding rural areas. We tes...

Cali, Massimiliano; Menon, Carlo

2009-01-01

303

An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

304

The Optimization Mechanism of Administrative Sanctions for Violation of Environmental Laws in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Optimization mechanism for sanctioning administrative for violations of environmental legislation is one of the basic guarantees of ensuring environmental sustainability and comfort in the rural space. Under the new provisions of the Offences Code has expanded the area of applying of penalties for contraventions on the soil, waste, water and wildlife. There are several new forms of punishment, such as work for the benefit of rural communities, meant to increase the economic, social and environmental effects of the mechanism of administrative sanctions, but they are rarely applied. There is a multiple increase of fines imposed for infringement of environmental legislation on soils, water resources, atmospheric air and the animal kingdom.

Petru BACAL

2010-06-01

305

Research on the Information Supporting System for the New Educational Mechanism Reforming in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the analysis of information requirements and the funds guaranteeing system reform of rural compulsory education, this paper tried to design and construct an information support system for the new network-based educational mechanism reforming in rural areas. This paper also defined the concept of this new system and its framework. A prospective forecast was also given in terms of its function and application. This paper intended to provide effective informationized managing measures for the implementation of the new educational mechanism.

Jianxiong Huang

2009-04-01

306

Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

Fischer Tatjana

2014-03-01

307

Techno-economic evaluation of various electric energy supply for rural areas Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A diagnostic study was carried out to evaluate the techno-economic viability of various electric supply sources for electrification of rural areas in Pakistan in present socio-economic conditions. The important influencing factors considered were: social needs, electric requirement and availability of energy resources. The electric requirements of model rural village were established at 20431 kw h per year. Prudent evaluations reveal that hydroelectric, photovoltaic and diesel systems are better options than an electric grid extension of more than 2 km. In order to become an economically meritorious energy source, photovoltaic system should attain cost level Rs. 100 per watt-peak of installed system. (author)

308

Small field segments surrounded by large areas only shielded by a multileaf collimator: Comparison of experiments and dose calculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Complex radiotherapy fields delivered using a tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) often feature small open segments surrounded by large areas of the beam only shielded by the MLC. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two modern dose calculation algorithms to accurately calculate the dose in these fields which would be common, for example, in volumetric modulated arc treatment (VMAT) and study the impact of variations in dosimetric leaf gap (DLG), focal spot size, and MLC transmission in the beam models. Methods: Nine test fields with small fields (0.6-3 cm side length) surrounded by large MLC shielded areas (secondary collimator 12 Multiplication-Sign 12 cm{sup 2}) were created using a 6 MV beam from a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf MLC. Measurements of output factors and profiles were performed using a diamond detector (PTW) and compared to two dose calculations algorithms anisotropic analytical algorithm [(AAA) and Acuros XB] implemented on a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (Varian Eclipse 10). Results: Both calculation algorithms predicted output factors within 1% for field sizes larger than 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2}. For smaller fields AAA tended to underestimate the dose. Profiles were predicted well for all fields except for problems of Acuros XB to model the secondary penumbra between MLC shielded fields and the secondary collimator. A focal spot size of 1 mm or less, DLG 1.4 mm and MLC transmission of 1.4% provided a generally good model for our experimental setup. Conclusions: AAA and Acuros XB were found to predict the dose under small MLC defined field segments well. While DLG and focal spot affect mostly the penumbra, the choice of correct MLC transmission will be essential to model treatments such as VMAT accurately.

Kron, T.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Cramb, J.; Lonski, P.; Cozzi, L.; Fogliata, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006, Australia and Department of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006 (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006, Australia and Department of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)

2012-12-15

309

Sanitation behavior among schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic area of Northern rural Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In Vietnam, efforts are underway to improve latrine use in rural and remote areas with particular focus on increasing coverage of sanitation in schools. However, there is a lack of information on how the school program affects latrine use by schoolchildren and at community level. This paper analyzes sanitation use among schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic area to inform future school-based sanitation promotion programmes. Methods A combination o...

Xuan Le thi Thanh; Hoat Luu; Rheinländer Thilde; Dalsgaard Anders; Konradsen Flemming

2012-01-01

310

Knowledge and Attitude of School Teachers Towards Tooth Avulsion in Rural and Urban Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: School teachers are most likely to be in the vicinity of the child at the time of the injury in the school. Thus they should be well prepared to intervene when such dental emergencies arise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding tooth avulsion and dental fi rst aid among school teachers in Chandigarh (urban area) and Barwala (rural area). Material & Methods: The study was performed by administering a self-designed quest...

Manjeet Kaur; Kanika Gupta; Ruchika Goyal; Navdha Chaudhary

2014-01-01

311

Malaria control measures : Impact on malaria and anaemia in holoendemic area of rural coastal Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malaria is a major public health problem in tropical Africa. It is particularly the main killer disease in children below five years and its health impact is most severe in the rural areas. Malarial anaemia is believed to be the main complication in high endemic areas. However both clinical and basic research on this topic has been largely neglected so far. Epidemiological and intervention studies on anaemia and malaria including malaria case-management were ther...

Premji, Zul

1996-01-01

312

Rural and Urban Areas Planning Orientation in the Flood Plain of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes new development orientation for cities and rural residential areas in the Plain of Reeds, a region in Southern Vietnam that is subject to annual flooding and is grounded in the author’s practical experience and theoretical analysis. Furthermore, this study is based on the plain's features, the history of the foundation of regional urban and residential areas, and the successes and failures of previous planning in the region. Based on data from the Vietnam...

Nguyen Thanh Nguyen

2013-01-01

313

Study on the Psychological Problems of Left-Behind Children in Rural Areas and Countermeasures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of left-behind children in rural areas is a social problem which arises in the process of urbanization in which labor forces in rural areas migrate to urban cities. With the expedition of the process of industrialization and urbanization, a large majority of rural labor forces flow to urban cities. As a result, the phenomenon of left-behind children becomes more prominent who have become an important group in building a harmonious socialist society in China. As they are isolated from their parents for a long period of time, quite a lot of left-behind children have the problems of inferiority complex, psychological inversion, interpersonal disorder and deviation between personality and behavior, etc.. The underlying reasons for these problems are absence of parents’ education, inappropriate education by guardians, inadequate school education and unhealthy social education, etc. This paper suggests improving family education, making full use of resources in school education, integrating social power to construct the education and custody system of left-behind children and educating left-behind children to strengthen their own psychological quality cultivation, and doing a good job of education in left-behind children in rural areas.

Guanchen SHEN

2014-10-01

314

Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t� test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

Gandotra V.K

1998-01-01

315

Wireless Regional Access Networks: A Wise Choice for Internet Connectivity to Rural Areas of Zimbabwe  

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Full Text Available Wireless Regional Access Network (WRAN is increasingly becoming the focus architecture for future rural and remote area access networks. Firstly, we explain “the Zimbabwean problem”, and then give brief discussions of existing technologies deployed for rural communications elsewhere in the world. As we searched for solutions to the Zimbabwean problem, special attention was given to technologies such as cognitive radio networks. In the process, WRAN, which saves on deployment and license costs, has extended coverage range, increased cell capacity and utilises idle TV spectrum, was identified as a suitable broadband access candidate for providing connectivity to the rural areas of Zimbabwe. A design network structure suitable for rural areas in Zimbabwe is proposed and a basic cognitive radio (CR simulation to show the possibility of harnessing idle Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation TV channels/frequency bands using CR technology was successfully run. Power spectrum density estimation model for sensing was used. A number of implementation challenges such as the effect of antenna height on the hidden terminal problem, MIMO incorporation in order to mitigate for such effects in WRAN networks, the investigation and mitigation of interference contribution from remote television stations, WRAN networks and other primary stations and users are discussed.

Mardeni Roslee

2013-06-01

316

Aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio. Date of survey: May 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Plant during the period May 1 to 14, 1984. The survey covered an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area centered on the Plant. The highest radiation exposure rates, up to a maximum of 1.3 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the Plant. This detected radiation was due to the presence of uranium, which was consistent with normal Plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied from 7 to 14 microentgens per hour (?R/h), which was found to be due to the naturally occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 ?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area and along the banks of the Scioto River upstream and downstream of the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. No evidence of any radioactive contamination, which might have occurred off-site as a result of Plant operations, was inferred from the aerial survey data. This was further supported by the results of the soil sample analysis ahe results of the soil sample analysis and the comparison of the current survey data with that collected during a previous survey conducted in July 1976. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

317

Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the oral health status of children and adults in rural and urban areas of Burkina Faso; to provide epidemiological data for planning and evaluation of oral health care programmes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey including different ethnic and socio-economic groups. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling of households in urban areas and random samples of participants selected based on the recent population census in rural areas. The final study population covered four age groups: 6 years (n = 424), 12 years (n = 505), 18 years (n = 492) and 35-44 years (n = 493). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year-olds and 6.3 in 35-44-year-olds and figures were higher for women than men. In adults, no differences in caries experience were found by location whereas the caries index was significantly affected by ethnic group and occupation. CPI score 2 (gingivitis and calculus) was dominant for all ages: 6 years (58%), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes rather than traditional curative care.

Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik

2004-01-01

318

Expanding Economic and Educational Opportunity in Distressed Rural Areas: A Conceptual Framework for the Rural Community College Initiative.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI) collaborates with community colleges in rural communities that are racially, ethnically, culturally, and economically diverse by challenging them to think broadly about their potential as catalysts for regional development. RCCI is a national demonstration program that combines the goals of rural

MDC, Inc., Chapel Hill, NC.

319

Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

320

Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

2004-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drink...

Hairong Li; Wuyi Wang; Yonghua Li; Bixiong Ye; Linsheng Yang

2013-01-01

322

Comparative study of third molar impaction in rural and urban areas of South-Western Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out in the urban and rural areas of Southwest Nigeria with the objective of comparing the pattern of third molar impaction. A total of two thousand four hundred (2,400) subjects aged 20 years and above were examined for third molar impaction and radiographs taken for all suspected cases. Analysis of the finding in this study revealed that there was an increase in the prevalence of third molar impaction in the urban areas (10.7%) when compared with the rural populations (1.1%). It could be demonstrated that third molar impaction is more of a problem of urban youths than the older age groups. Civilization and change of diet seemed to be responsible for the observed differences in third molar impaction in the two geographical areas. This study also revealed that mesioangular impaction of lower third molar and vertical impaction of upper third molar was the commonest respectively in both communities. PMID:11372160

Olasoji, H O; Odusanya, S A

2000-06-01

323

EMPLOYMENT DIFFICULTIES EXPERIENCED BY YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

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Full Text Available The basic aim of our investigation was to elucidate the problems of young people as part of the human potential ofrural areas. As a result of processing statistical data related to the evolution of the labour market in the Republic ofMoldova, there were highlighted the differences between the average indicators of the labour market in the country,both in urban and rural areas, putting a particular emphasis on young people. Also, according to the generalizationof a survey data there were found the causes that repress the desire of graduates of agricultural educationinstitutions to find jobs in rural areas. The final conclusion is that even if in the country at governmental level,certain attempts are made to attract young people to work in villages, their efficiency is still insufficient.

Veronica PRIS?CARU

2014-06-01

324

A sociological analysis of the problem of the rural areas and rural development in Turkey: 17 years before and later Ankara-Güdül Kavaközü Willage  

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The rural development is one of the major problems of developing countries. As a developing country Turkish society is still strugling with this problem. The main aim of this study is to describe the social and economical problems of rural Turkey. Kavaközü Village selected as the research area. The data which was gathered in the field researches was used to achieve the aim. A couple of fieldworks were carried out in the field within last twenty years.

Ali Arslan, D.

2010-01-01

325

A sociological analysis of the problem of the rural areas and rural development in Turkey: 17 years before and later Ankara-Güdül Kavaközü Willage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rural development is one of the major problems of developing countries. As a developing country Turkish society is still strugling with this problem. The main aim of this study is to describe the social and economical problems of rural Turkey. Kavaközü Village selected as the research area. The data which was gathered in the field researches was used to achieve the aim. A couple of fieldworks were carried out in the field within last twenty years.

D. Ali Arslan

2010-07-01

326

Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

2010-07-01

327

Ethnobotanical and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Floristic Diversity in Murari Devi and Surrounding Areas of Mandi District in Himachal Pradesh, India  

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Full Text Available Traditional uses of floristic diversity are the most important component of indigenous knowledge system, which is widely prcatised by human populations all across the world. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been conducted during 2010-2012, to study the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi Disrtict in Himachal Pradesh, India. Total 384 species (71 trees, 97 shrubs, 209 herbs and 07 ferns belonging to 106 families and 285 genera were recorded and used by the inhabitants of the area. Different parts of these species, such as whole plants, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, seeds, stems, barks, etc. were used by the inhabitants for curing various ailments. Various anthropogenic activities, over exploitation and habitat degradation have led rapid population depletion of these species. Therefore, study on habitat ecology, development of conventional and in-vitro propagation protocols, development of agro techniques/plantation techniques and introduction in the akin habitats, education and awareness programs for the inhabitants are suggested. So that adequate planning for the conservation of these species could be done.

Ajit Agnihotri

2013-01-01

328

Mothers? Perceptions & Ambitions About Their Daughters in Rural Area  

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Full Text Available Research question: What are the perceptions and ambitions of mothers about their daughters in relation to critical areas like literacy, age of marriage & child bearing, health risk due to early marriage etc. Objectives: To raise the level of awareness of mothers through ongoing programmes focused on women. Design: Before and after study in population. Participants: Mothers of girls aged 7-19 years. Study variables: Literacy, caste, communication, menstruation, food distribution in the family, age of marriage & childbirth, health risks, sources of information. Outcome variables: Raised level of awareness on critical areas as mentioned above. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions. Results: A little less than half (48% of mother�s felt that their daughters could study as long as they desired. Though 73-82% of mothers knew the health risk of early marriage yet 67% of girls were married below the age of 18 years. Only 15% of mothers educated their daughters on the subject of menstruation. Female children were considered the last priority for nutritious food. The results of this study necessitate strengthening of women programmes for better awareness; favorable attitudes and sound practices.

Lal Sunder

1997-01-01

329

Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

2011-01-01

330

Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 ?g m(-3) in the mining area; 48 ?g m(-3) in the rural area and 45 ?g m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 ?g m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921

Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

2014-08-01

331

Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas  

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Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8 y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3, mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9 tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4 obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2 de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6 de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños (Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8 were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3 were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9 were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4 were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2 were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6 were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (<5,000 people, with OR = 1.49 (95%CI: 1.13-1.95 and OR = 1.33 (95%CI: 1.06-1.67, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas is very high and is even higher in towns with less than 5,000 inhabitants.

Valle Coronado Vázquez

2012-10-01

332

[Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae) in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area].  

Science.gov (United States)

As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or disseminators of infectious diseases (including parasites), coyotes (Canis latrans) may also serve as indicators of ecological health. In Costa Rica, little information exists on coyote parasites, making research necessary to identify potential zoonotic interactions. For this reason, a survey of the coyote parasites was performed in a mixed area of protected woodland and agricultural land, surrounding Irazú Volcano National Park (IVNP) in Cartago, Costa Rica. Over a one-year period, 209 fecal samples were collected directly from the ground. Collection took place on a monthly basis in a trail sectioned into three sub-areas named Irazú (closest to the volcano), potato fields (where potatoes were cultivated), and Prusia (a protected sector of IVNP). Sectioning the trail allowed separate collection and analysis of the samples, where 99 were obtained from Irazú, 11 from potato fields and 99 from Prusia. Using direct examination and mechanical concentration 36.84% positive samples containing at least one helminth were found. The presence of parasites was similar for both woodland areas (33.3% in Prusia and 37.4% in Irazú), but differed from the 63.6% observed in the potato fields. Hookworm parasites (probably Ancylostoma caninum), threadworms (possibly Strongyloides sp.), Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. and Taenia pisiformis were identified, as well as Hymenolepis diminuta, possible spurious parasite resulting from the ingestion of rodents by coyotes. Seasonal details are discussed, concluding that wet and dry seasons affect presence of parasites. Some remarks are made on the importance of these first findings for Costa Rica, especially considering the systematic way in which the collection of samples was carried out. PMID:23894947

Niehaus, Carmen; Valerio, Idalia; Blanco, Kinndle; Chinchilla, Misael

2012-06-01

333

Management of water resources in the Cantareira Water Producer System area: a look at the rural context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy established the principles of participation, integration and decentralization, as well as new instruments for the management of water resources in Brazil. The implementation of this policy created several challenges, such as establishing effective management within the framework of rural territorial structure. The example of the Cantareira’s System in Piracicaba river watershed is conducive to the understanding of this challenge. In this scenario, we analyzed the effective implementation of principles, and of two instruments of water resource management from the perspective of farmers’ participation: the integration of water management and rural land use, and public policies for rural areas. To accomplish this, we reviewed documents and literature, and considered conclusions drawn from meetings at the Technical Chamber of Use and Water Conservation in Rural Areas (CT-Rural. We identified a lack of participation by farmers’ representatives in the CT-Rural Chamber and little concern to increase their participation in the management practices. However, the support payments for environmental services projects (PES are stimulating farmers and calling attention to the Cantareira area, in addition to promoting the integration of water resource management and rural land use. However, even though this support acknowledges the importance of the farmers, we emphasize the low priority given by the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí Watershed Committee to the rural context of the area studied.

Rafael Eduardo Chiodi

2013-12-01

334

Participation of Youth in Rural Leadership Development Activities in Yewa South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of the study was to assess the levels of participation of youth in rural leadership development activities in Yewa South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive and systematic random sampling techniques were adopted for the study. This study considered the socio-economic characteristics of the rural youth, stages of participation in r...

Adeyanju Agbelemoge; Adebanjo, S. A.

2013-01-01

335

Surveillance of Dengue Vectors Mosquito in Some Rural Areas of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 24 week survey was conducted in some rural areas of Bangladesh and found a total of 256 positive containers and a total of 9415 larvae. In an average a 25.80% larvae positive containers were found in Malikanda and 8.00% in Dohar sadar. Aedes albopictus (Skuse were found in all the study areas, but Aedes aegypti were found only in Jahangirnagar campus (Savar and Zingera (Keranigonj areas. Percentage of positive houses was highest in Pachimde (35% and lowest in Jahangirnagar (6%. Aedes aegypti (L. larvae were found mainly in tyres, bamboo stumps earthen pots and coconut shells, whereas Aedes albopictus in all types of containers.

Kabirul Bashar

2005-01-01

336

Pulmonary Tuberculosis Incidence and Risk Factors in Rural Areas of China: A Cohort Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and its risk factors in China remains unclear. This study examined TB incidence and relative risk factors in rural areas of China. Participants (n?=?177,529) were recruited in Xiangtan County (in the central area of China) and in Danyang County (in the eastern area of China) in 2009 and a followed-up study was conducted for one year. The incidence density of pulmonary TB and smear-positive TB were 91.6 (95% CI: 78.7, 106.0) per 100,000 person-year and 36...

Chen, Wei; Shu, Wen; Wang, Min; Hou, Yongchun; Xia, Yinyin; Xu, Weiguo; Bai, Liqiong; Nie, Shaofa; Cheng, Shiming; Xu, Yihua

2013-01-01

337

Digital Gap in Iranian Rural Areas (Case Study at Sistan and Baluchestan-Iran  

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Full Text Available In this paper we have tried to evaluate four levels of accessibility (motivational level, physical level, professionallevel, and applied level related to digital gap in rural areas at Sistan and Baluchestan in Iran. First of all weexpressed the concept of digital gap and its measurement yardsticks, and then we have introduced a model forcontinuous accessibility in digital gap and we explained all four levels in details. After that we came up withresearch model hypothesizes and the results of the statistical hypothesizes. Our findings show that rural areas inSistan and Baluchestan in term of motivational level are in good and suitable situation but in term of other levelsthey don’t have a suitable situation.

Noor Mohammad Yaghoobi

2010-05-01

338

Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

Anti? Ljiljana

2013-01-01

339

Fluoride Concentration in Potable Groundwater in Rural Areas of Khaf City, Razavi Khorasan Province, Northeastern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in rural areas the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.11 to 3.59 ppm—the level was less than the permissible limit in 31% of studied samples, higher than the permissible limit in 4% of the samples, and within the optimum limit of 1 to 1.5 ppm in 65% of water samples.

AA Khafajeh

2012-09-01

340

Fluoride concentration in potable groundwater in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in rural areas the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.11 to 3.59 ppm-the level was less than the permissible limit in 31% of studied samples, higher than the permissible limit in 4% of the samples, and within the optimum limit of 1 to 1.5 ppm in 65% of water samples. PMID:23022871

Amouei, A I; Mahvi, A H; Mohammadi, A A; Asgharnia, H A; Fallah, S H; Khafajeh, A A

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Prehypertension and hypertension among young Indonesian adults at a primary health care in a rural area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Prehypertension and hypertension were related with many complications of nearly every organ, but often neglected by young adults in rural area. This research was done to observe the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among young adult in a primary health care of rural area at Cicurug, Sukabumi District, West Java.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Cicurug Public Health Center, Sukabumi District, West Java. The subjects were consecutively recruited from the outpatient clinic on Monday until Saturday in September 2012,18–25 years old, not pregnant nor having shock. They were interviewed about their age, gender, physical activity, sitting hours, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and family history and examined by trained health professionals (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Results: From 111 young adults, 34.2% had prehypertension and 17.1% had hypertension. Within sex groups, the prevalence of prehypertension was higher in females, whereas hypertension was occurred more in males. Neither of family history from mother nor father were associated with prehypertension and hypertension compared with normotension. Total activity was not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.6; p = 0.052 and hypertension (OR = 1.758; p = 0.498. BMI was associated with hypertension (OR = 3.354; p = 0.041 and not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.343; p = 0.099.Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were relatively high among young adult in primary health care of rural area. Intervention to prevent further complications needs to be done early with lifestyle modification because blood pressure is associated with modifiable risk factors, such as BMI and total activity. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:39-45Keywords: Hypertension, prehypertension, rural area, young adult

Felix F. Widjaja

2013-02-01

342

Are Central Africa?s Protected Areas Displacing Hundreds of Thousands of Rural Poor?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An ongoing debate over the impacts of protected areas on rural communities in central Africa has become increasingly polarized in recent years, even as definitions of displacement have shifted from outright expulsion to economic dislocation precipitated by lost access to natural resources. Although forcible removal of communities to make way for the creation of National Parks has certainly occurred in the past in some parts of the world, we contend that not a single individual has been physi...

Curran Bryan; Sunderland Terry; Maisels Fiona; Oates John; Asaha Stella; Balinga Michael; Defo Louis; Dunn Andrew; Telfer Paul; Usongo Leonard; Loebenstein Karin; Roth Philipp

2009-01-01

343

A case report of Linguatula serrata infestation from rural area of Isfahan city, Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Linguatulosis occurs accidentally in human by ingestion of raw or undercooked visceral tissues of sheep, goat, camel, and other herbivores. In this case report, 2 patients from an Afghan family infested with this parasite in rural area of Isfahan, Iran are presented. Clinical signs and symptoms including pricking sensation in throat, coughing, sneezing, yellow nasal and ears discharges, which started 2-3 hours after eating raw goat liver. Nymphs of Linguatula serrata were isolated from their ...

Hamid, Tabibian; Hossein, Yousofi Darani; Mehran, Bahadoran-bagh-badorani; Masood, Farahmand Soderjani; Hamid, Enayatinia

2012-01-01

344

Using e-Health to Enable Culturally Appropriate Mental Healthcare in Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to review relevant research issues in the provision of culturally appropriate e-mental healthcare and make recommendations for expanding and prioritizing research efforts in this area. A workshop was convened by the Office of Rural Mental Health Research (ORMHR) at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the Center for Reducing Health Disparities at the University of California, Davis, the California Telemedicine and e-Health Center, and the California ...

Yellowlees, Peter; Marks, Shayna; Hilty, Don; Shore, Jay H.

2008-01-01

345

Habitat preferences of bats in a rural area of Sicily determined by acoustic surveys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The bat fauna of a 60 km2 wide area representing the typical rural landscape of inland Sicily and including the small “Rocche di Entella” karstic plateau (Natural Reserve and SAC) was surveyed between May 2006 and September 2007. Sampling was carried out at 95 sites, distributed proportionally in six main habitats. Bat calls were time-expanded with a D980 bat detector and then identified to species level by a Dis...

Ivy Di Salvo; Danilo Russo; Maurizio Sarà

2010-01-01

346

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF UNDER - NUTRITION IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS FROM RURAL AREAS OF DEHRADUN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Under nutrition is a major problem in India. This is a study conducted in rural catchment areas of Department of Community Medicine, SGRRMC, Dehradun to asses the same. Objectives: To find out prevalence of under nutrition in children in the age group of 0-5 years and also to study its epidemiological correlates. Methods :All registered children of RHTC Mothrowala during October to December2009 were studied. Detailed histories were taken & growth chartingwas done using growth ...

Megha Luthra; Surekha Kishore; Kajal Jain

2010-01-01

347

A simple kit system for rapid diagnosis of cerebrospinal meningitis in rural areas of developing countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A simple, easily operated, portable diagnostic kit, employing coagglutination reagents, has been developed for the rapid, bedside diagnosis of cerebrospinal meningitis. Field trials using this kit were conducted in a rural area of sub-Saharan Africa for identifying the etiological agents of meningitis outbreaks. West African village medical attendants were taught to use this kit and succeeded in making rapid specific diagnoses of meningitis cases. Other acute infections such as cholera and ty...

Sanborn, Warren R.; Toure?, Isak M.

1984-01-01

348

A model for community health service development in depressed rural areas in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To introduce a model of community health service organization (as implemented in urban areas to less developed rural areas in China and evaluate the impact of this model on health care utilization. Methods The intervention involved developing leadership at county level, training rural health practitioners, providing clinical management guidelines and standards, encouraging clinic improvements and providing access to subsidies for public health work. We chose 7 townships and 49 administrative villages in Chongyi County as the intervention sites; 3 townships and 9 administrative villages in Luxi County as the comparison sites. Officers from county health bureaus and postgraduates from School of Public Health, Nanchang University visited each township hospital and village clinic in field together and made observations and interviewed clinic staff. Results There was little change in health facilities or workforce in the two areas. However, there was an increase in the use of public health services at township and village level in the intervention sites in Chongyi. In these, the proportion of clinics which had developed a child health (under the age of 3 management system, maternal postpartum visit and chronic disease management increased from 53%, 51% and 47% to 78%, 73%, and 71% respectively. There was no significant change in the comparison sites. Conclusions The trial demonstrated that it was feasible to implement a model of community health service delivery that was adapted to depressed rural areas because it required little organizational change, additional funding or personnel. The model had a positive impact on the provision of public health programs, a finding which has implications for efforts to improve access to primary health care in rural China.

Zhaokang Yuan

2012-12-01

349

Rural youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara state, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigated the level of youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and five youths were randomly selected from seven rural communities, fifteen youths from each village. Data were collected with the aid of a questionnaire, which was analysed using frequency count and percentages. Chi-square analysis was used to test the hypothesis of significance between the socio-economi...

Adesiji Gbolagade B.; Omotesho Kemi F.; Komolafe Sola E.; Oni Kehinde J.; Adereti Francis O.

2014-01-01

350

Rural livelihood diversification and income inequality in local government area Akinyele, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pattern of income distribution has been a major concern in the developing world. This is because high levels of income inequality are likely to create a hostile atmosphere for economic growth and development. This study examined rural livelihood strategies and their contribution to the overall income inequality of households in Akinyele local government area of Oyo state. Primary data employed in the study were obtained from 105 respondents selected thr...

Adepoju Abimbola O.; Oyewole Olaniyi O.

2014-01-01

351

Chances of the new EU regional policy for rural (peripherical) areas : the case study of Leader  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The new tendencies on the EU regional policy, since the late nineties may represent a threat to the rural peripherical areas. The traditional integrated approaches of the development programmes are giving place to a project-support oriented policy. The financing plans result more and more from the total of the projects budgets. Under the "regional competitiveness" umbrella, this approach overemphasises though the economic vertices of the sustainability concept and a short term planning practi...

Fonseca, Madalena Pires Da; Maier, Jo?rg

2004-01-01

352

Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important source of support for the social integration of new immigrant groups. Although the bonding social capital associated with evangelical communities is arg...

Andrews, R.

2011-01-01

353

IMPLEMENTING TQM IN RURAL MONUMENTAL BAROQUE SCULPTURE IN THE BANAT AREA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cultural patrimony preserves the memory and identity of the Banat’s rural area, defining the personality specific to each locality depending on the colonizing ethnic group after the liberation from the Turkish yoke. Steadily degrading, this baroque sculptural patrimony must be saved and integrated into a tourist circuit through the development of a managerial strategy and the implementation of a total quality management that...

Petroman, I.; CORNELIA PETROMAN; DIANA MARIN

2013-01-01

354

TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English) means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society...

Vitalia, Sabina

2013-01-01

355

The Illegal Dumping of Waste in Forest Areas - Evidence from Rural Territory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Household waste generated is often uncolleted in rural areas causing various types of pollution like: air and water pollution, soil pollution and the aesthetic degradation of the landscape. The environmental legislation proposed by the European Union was transposed on the national legislation but the implementation process was difficult because of particular situations encountered in practice. Rudimentary infrastructure of waste management and limited access to waste collection services lead ...

Lamasanu, Andreea; Mihai, Florin-constantin

2012-01-01

356

Nutritional Status and School Achievements in a Rural Area of Anti-Atlas, Morocco  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of children. However, malnutrition affects physical growth, cognitive development, physical work capacity, and it consequently influences human performance and health. The present study was designed to identify factors that may influence the nutritional status and educational achievements of the children in a rural area of ANTI Atlas of Morocco. The nutritional status of 162 children (12 to 15 years of age) was assessed by nutr...

Mohamed El Hioui; Fatima-Zahra Azzaoui; Ahmed Omar Touhami Ahami; Youssef Aboussaleh

2011-01-01

357

Design of telemedicine systems for rural and urban areas in Iraq  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Telemedicine is the use of information technology to deliver medical services and information from one location to another. The evolution and growth of telemedicine is highly correlated with the developments in communication technology and IT software development. In Iraq health services was degraded not only in rural areas, but also, in the big cities because of the migration of doctors, especially, specialist doctors. There is a great shortage in the advance medical equipments so that there...

Aziz, Jabir S.; Osama Abbas Hussein; Amer Naoom

2009-01-01

358

Self-treatment of malaria in a rural area of western Kenya.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reported are the results of a study of residents' knowledge about malaria and antimalarial drugs and of their treatment-seeking behaviour in a rural area of western Kenya. The study subjects were generally well-informed about the symptoms of the disease. Malaria was perceived as a relatively mild illness, much less severe than acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), measles, difficulty in breathing, and diarrhoea. Self-treatment was extremely common: of 138 episodes of febrile illness, 60%...

Ruebush, T. K.; Kern, M. K.; Campbell, C. C.; Oloo, A. J.

1995-01-01

359

A Smart Teaching System for Autistic Children in Rural Area using MANET  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

These The most challenging and stressful issue faced by schools and parents in efforts to provide appropriate education for autistic children .The purpose of this research work was to contribute to the knowledge and implementation of best practices for children with autism and normal children in rural area using manet. Autism is development disability that affects the normal functioning of brain. It means that children with autism think differently because brains work differently. They may ha...

Balaji, V.; Kanaga Suba Raja, S.; Vivekanandan, M.

2012-01-01

360

Research on Utilization of Online Resources Among Kindergarten Teachers in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After the entry into the online era, the Internet has grown up to be an indispensable part of people’s life and work. This research, through questionnaires and interviews, studies the employment of online resources among kindergarten teachers in rural areas from 12 districts and counties in Chongqing, China. Based on the results of the survey, suggestions will be proposed to improve online resources utilization among countryside kindergarten teachers.

Xiaoguang YU

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Applications of biomass Stirling engines for electrification -A case study of rural areas in Bolivia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report provides a study and a simulation of a feasible system configuration for the implementation of a Stirling engine for electrification of rural areas in Bolivia. The aim of the review is to determine if a hybrid system combining a biomass-fired Stirling engine and photovoltaic technology may respond to a basic electricity need. An introductory literature study about the Stirling engine technology and the energy resources and characteristics of Bolivia leads to a further proposal of ...

Arco Sola, Javier; Nelson, Oscar

2014-01-01

362

Female carpet weavers' visual acuity and effective factors: Fordu rural area of Qom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Healthy vision of workers is one of the important elements in carpet weaving industry which has essential role in improving of the job quality and efficiency. Visual acuity is the primary outcome measure in most studies involving eye diseases. Ihe aim of this study was determination of visual acuity and its effective factors in women carpet weaver in fordu rural area of Qom has been investigated.  Methods: In a cross-sectional (descriptive-analytical) study visual acuity ...

Khajenasiri F.; Sotoudeh G.

2007-01-01

363

Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in [...] children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The activated alumina and reverse osmosis processes are both processes that can be very effectively applied for water defluoridation. The activated alumina process, however, is considered to be a more simple and robust process for water defluoridation, especially in a rural area. Therefore, the activated alumina process was selected for water defluoridation. An activated alumina plant was designed, constructed and commissioned in the rural area. Fluoride in the feed water is removed from 6 to 8 mg/? to less than 1.5 mg/?. No reduction in plant output was experienced over 6 service cycles. Therefore, it appears that fouling of the activated alumina should not be a problem. Plant output varied between 940 and 1 296 m³ to a fluoride breakthrough of approximately 2.0 mg/?. No significant operational problems were experienced during commissioning and the plant is performing satisfactorily. Spent regenerant is disposed of into evaporation ponds. It was demonstrated that a 1st world technology could be effectively applied in a rural area with proper training and supervision of the operators. The capital and operational costs of the 200 m³/d defluoridation plant are estimated at approximately R1.2m. and R0.7/m³ treated water.

JJ, Schoeman.

2009-01-01

364

Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the 210Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

365

Analysis of the effects of aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport [paper in Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the perception of discomfort caused by aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport (SBBR. The study was divided into two parts. At first, noise measurements were conducted in four residentials zones and the sound pressure level determined by the parameters: Leq, Lmax, Lmin, RF, SEL and IPR. In the second part, we applied a questionnaire adapted from the project Eurocontrol (European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation. The results of field measurements indicate regions with soundscape compromised and with potential of nuisance, especially at night. Was obtained, from analysis of questionnaires, that the respondents female sex if showed more sensitive by the noise of cars and planes and realize more intensity the noise from road and air traffic. It was found dissatisfaction with the interference caused by the noise of aircraft in daily activities and indicated as reactions noise-related: headaches, sleep disorders, stress and difficulty concentrating. It is noteworthy, that in the region with lower noise, the respondents are more sensitive to the noise of airplanes and the values of acoustic parameters measured would justify the negative reactions of respondents to the air transportation noise. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between the perception of annoyance and discomfort with the sound pressure levels measured.

Armando Mendonça Maroja

2012-10-01

366

The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

Md. M. Hossain

2010-01-01

367

Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

Vinhas, Denise Martins

2004-07-01

368

Present Situation, Problems and Measures of Grass-roots Level Democracy in Rural Areas of Hangzhou  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Since, the reform and opening up, countryside in Hangzhou, like the whole country, has carried on the economic system reform, mainly called the household contract responsibility system, has been carried out, farmers have become the relatively independent main body of the production and management. With the development of economy, the increase in people’s living standards and the acceleration of the information exchange, farmers can not only be concerned about their material interests, but also pay close attention to their democratic rights and their requirements to participate in decision-making, management and monitoring the grass-roots affairs are increasingly strong. In recent years, townships of Hangzhou district explored the effective way to promote the villager’s autonomy-through the democratic election, decision-making, management and supervision to realize the villager’s self-management, self-education and self-service. At last, they achieved remarkable results and various contradictions of rural areas in transformation period have been digested. Based on deep investigation in the towns of Hangzhou, the exploration and practice of grass-roots level democracy in rural areas of Hangzhou are summarized, the weak village economy, insufficient internal driving force in democracy, elections and unpublicized village affairs are targeted at and the corresponding measures are put forward from five aspects so as to promote the healthy development of grassroots democracy in rural areas of Hangzhou.

Zhong Xuemin

2013-01-01

369

THE IMPORTANCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE ICT NETWORK IN ACHIEVING KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN THE RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently in Romania, the information sources available to farmers are limited and belong mostly to the public sector. The knowledge provided is relevant but insufficient in order to meet the needs of the Romanian farmers, especially since they are not oriented towards the market, as the main segment of interest. This paper has the intention to emphasize the need to introduce ICT as the main tool in supporting the decision making process and in resolving the specific issues faced by this sector In analyzing the current situation regarding this matter, in order to propose ways to resolve the problems encountered in achieving knowledge transfer, until now, were addressed issues such as: the evolution of the knowledge transfer concept, development milestones and actions that marked the RDI sector as the main producer of information, the main supporters of the farmers in their information actions (World Bank, IFAD, means, procedures and techniques used for transmitting knowledge (extension; consultancy. But what is most important is making all this resulted information available for the farmers, fact which can only be accomplished, in our opinion, by introducing and implementing ICT in the rural areas. The main method of research is the statistical data analysis of the data regarding the components involved in the knowledge transfer process and the current status of implementation of ICT in the rural areas. Among the expected results are included identifying the main restrictive factors in achieving knowledge transfer in rural and the main implications that implementing ICT would have on farmers' market position. Introducing ICT in the rural area is, in our opinion the best way to transform information, as a research result, into knowledge, becoming this way a real input for the farmer In practice, this will lead to lower production costs, lower prices for inputs, increased revenues by increasing the production’s prices and, not least, increased level of the European funding resources attracted for supporting investments.

Menda Teodora - Adriana

2011-07-01

370

Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613 of Sri Lanka in 2002. The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN, median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. Results The overall incidence of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 – 2168 per 100,000 across GNs. Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003 and low levels of education (p Conclusion Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data.

Dawson Andrew

2008-01-01

371

Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were 137Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

372

Self-Interest in Innovation Diffusion Decision Process : The Case of Extending Broadband Internet Services to Rural Areas of Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper assesses the factors that would facilitate the diffusion and adoption of broadband internet services in rural areas using the internet café business model. The rural areas of developing countries are predominantly ignored or underserved with broadband Internet connectivity. However in the cities, the internet café business model has been a major driver in the diffusion of the internet services. This paper adopts an exploratory approach to investigate why Internet café entrepreneurs do not supply internet services to rural areas. It also explores the factors that would stimulate investments from the same who are currently investing in internet services provisioning in the cities. Ghana is used as a case study by surveying 25 Internet Café operators. The analysis of the data collected facilitated self-interest assessment and its influences on the decision for broadband service diffusion and adoption in the rural areas using the internet café business model.

Williams, Idongesit; Gyaase, Patrick Ohemeng Kwadwo

2013-01-01

373

USE OF MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION (MVC) SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality drinking water is scarce in many rural areas of developing countries. Currently, inland desalination for the supply of fresh water is not sustainable due to expensive and energy intensive desalination technologies. This project proposes the development of a renewable ...

374

Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women of Rural Area of Vadodara District, Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: With the growing aged population in the country, postmenopausal health problems and needs are likely to become a great challenge to public health. This is more so related to the women with poor social background like those residing in rural areas. Material & Methods: Design: Cross-sectional study, Participants: 147 post-menopausal women residing in Piparia village of Vadodara district were involved in the study, based on sample size calculation and necessary assumptions. Information was filled up in a pre-tested questionnaire. Objective: To study the social and demographic characteristics of the post-menopausal women in rural areas of Vadodara district, Gujarat. Results: Among a total of 147 respondents, the mean age was 58.32 (48-68 years, while the mean age of inception of menopause was 47.74 (44.84-50.64 years. Labor work (n=37, 25.2% was the most common occupation. Among all the respondents, 98.5% belonged to social class 4 or below, 18.4% were widow and 40% were below poverty line (BPL. 74.8% were not literate and 42.9% were dependent on their children for daily living. Conclusion: Rural post-menopausal women in India suffer many social disadvantages which could make them more vulnerable to experience more frequent and more severe of menopausal symptoms. Along with geriatric care, this special group of women also needs a separate focus for health care provision.

Donald Christian, Manish Kathad, Bharat Bhavsar

2011-01-01

375

Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland  

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Full Text Available This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. Results of pH tests indicated that 23.1% of the water sources were acidic, 7.7% were neutral and 69.2% were alkaline. Water collected from the unprotected wells tested acidic, had a pH of 5.96, implying that it is corrosive and might present health risks to humans and livestock. Sources with highly alkaline water were the borehole, spring, hot spring standpipes, and rivers. Survey findings show that colour, taste, smell and turbidity are the quality parameters mostly used by rural households to determine water suitability for domestic use. Most ground water sources were found to have saline water due to low ground water recharge in the area. Water quality remains a sustainable development challenge in the rural areas of Swaziland.

Amos Olutola Fadiran

2012-03-01

376

Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

Madhu K

2009-01-01

377

Impacts of biogas projects on agro-ecosystem in rural areas — A case study of Gongcheng  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid growth of agro-ecosystem has been the focus of "New Rural Construction" in China due to intensive energy consumption and environmental pollution in rural areas. As a kind of renewable energy, biogas is helpful for new energy development and plays an important role in the sustainable development of agro-ecosystem in China. To evaluate the effects of biogas on agro-ecosystem from a systematic angle, we discussed the status quo of household biogas and identified its main factors that may have impacts on agro-ecosystem. An indicator framework covering environmental, social and economic aspects was established to quantify the impacts exerted by biogas project on agro-ecosystem. A case study of Gongcheng was then conducted to evaluate the combined impact of biogas project using the proposed indicator framework. Results showed that there was a notable positive effect brought by the application of biogas, and the integrated benefit has been significantly improved by 60.36%, implying that biogas as a substitute energy source can promote the sustainable level of rural areas.

Yang, Jin; Chen, Weichao; Chen, Bin

2011-09-01

378

Prevalence of hepatitis surface antigen among rural population of Loni area in Ahmednagar district of Western Maharashtra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hundred and fifty three subjects among the rural population of Loni area admitted in the hospital, and 188 medical staff members working in the Rural Medical College and Hospital, Loni, were screened for the presence of HBsAg. Reveresed passive haemagglutination assay was used for screening; it showed an HBsAg positivity rate of 21.8% and 15.8% among hepatitis and non hepatitis cases respectively, and 1.2%, 0% and 4.2% among medical students, doctors and nursing staff respectively. A high HBsAg positivity rate has been observed in the rural population of Loni area. PMID:1452565

Jain, R C; Bhat, S D; Sangle, S

1992-06-01

379

The diffusion of innovations theory and its contribution to the understanding of the innovative potential of the rural areas (village)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the first pail of the paper the author has presented the theory of diffusion of innovations from the American rural sociologist Everett Rogers. This theory represents the synonym for the research of this area. The author considers that theory as useful in theoretical and methodological sense for the explanation and research of the process of diffusion of innovations in rural areas and agriculture. In the second part of the paper, the author reviews the mentioned approach and from the broad...

Jankovi? Dejan

2005-01-01

380

ASSESSMENT OF THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG THE WOMEN OF RURAL AND URBAN AREAS OF RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim of the study was to document the prevalence of use of Contraceptives among the rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Specific objectives were to identify the percentage of women using contraceptive, to document different methods used for contraception, to assess the knowledge regarding contraception and to identify the reasons of use and non-use between rural and urban areas of the Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 200females were recruited to assess the use of contraceptives from different ...

Hina Rehman; HumeraIshaq; Ammar Hussain

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

[Availability of patients living in rural areas, to have surgical method of treatment of cataract and glaucoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

Using modern surgical treatment on patients that live in rural areas, with cataract and glaucoma is not sufficient. There is insufficient expertise of ophthalmologists, low level of human, logistical and financial resource support for eye hospitals, low level of motivation and socio-psychological problems among patients, creating a favorable situation in Ukraine for further growth of low vision and blindness in rural areas. Institutional solutions of existing problems are proposed. PMID:22416380

Cheremukhina, O M

2011-01-01

382

TRADE AND RESTAURANT BUSINESS SPHERE IN RURAL AREAS OF UKRAINE: STATE, PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS  

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Full Text Available Rural social infrastructure is the material and organizational basis for satisfaction of vital needs of population. However, unsatisfactory economic and social conditions influence the extinction of village, extend the continuous unsettled zones of rural territories, scatter and reduce the level of provision of social infrastructure objects. In order to stop the negative processes in social infrastructures of village, the complex of measures in relation to the improvement of maintenance of villagers should be taken, the practical steps for saving and increasing the material base of social infrastructure should be worked out, in particular trade and restaurant economy.The article is concerned with research of the current situation in trade and restaurant economy in rural areas of Ukraine and determination of the problems of their development. The statistical analysis of data from the State committee of statistics was conducted, the indexes of development were calculated, a structural analysis was performed and basic progress of trade and restaurant economy trends in rural areas was determined.It is educed that the consumption market of rural locality in Ukraine is characterized by a limit of goods assortment, by in-depth tendency in relation to the problem of goods’ quality and its correspondence to the standards of food safety, by low purchasing power of villagers, and also by closing of retails’ networks.As for restaurant economy, it is well-proven that the change of the system of administrative management resulted in the redistribution of rights and duties of regional administrations and their vertical relations with central government bodies and enterprise structures. In the past the chain development, providing separate contingents of employees and students, was centrally planned. At present, when considerable amount of industrial enterprises has stopped working and the objects of social infrastructure became the communal property, regulation of food supply is controlled neither by the management of industrial enterprises nor by local authorities. Therefore, the development of restaurant economy under the new conditions requires the modernization of control system both on nation-wide and regional levels and at the level of separate enterprises and organizations.Thus, use of new approaches to management of trade and restaurant economy development, improving the state regulation methods will allow to renew and strengthen infrastructural potential, optimize financial flows, increase the level of satisfaction of respective necessities of rural population on this basis, promote the role of industries in providing the complex of social development of regions, to create background for attracting the investments.

T. Bulakh

2013-03-01

383

Echinococcosis in dogs in urban and rural areas in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of one hundred and ninety stray dogs was captured from Mansoura city (urban) and three hundreds and fifty stray dogs were captured from Meet El-Korama, Mansheit El-Badawy villages (rural). The total prevalence of E. granulosus was 5%, with a worm burden ranging from 4 to 1010 (mean = 421). The significant prevalence was 6% in the rural area and 3.2% in the urban one. E. granulosus showed higher prevalence in young than old dogs and in males than females but without significant difference in both variants. The overall Echino-ELISA sensitivity was 61.5% and specificity was 97.5%. The major cross reactivity was with Taenia spp., and Diplydium caninum, but neither with Toxocara canis or Trichurus vulpis nor Ancylostoma caninum. There was a negative correlation between ELISA and Echinococcus granulosus burden in dogs. PMID:17985582

El Shazly, Atef M; Awad, Soha E; Nagaty, Ibrahiem Maged; Morsy, Tosson A

2007-08-01

384

From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English  

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Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer very difficult in the Røros area around 1867. Reindeer calves died as a result of the long and cold springs, and her father had to borrow money in order to buy more animals. When climatic conditions during the 1860s had such a dramatic impact on the population of wild reindeer, it must have had at least as great consequences in the Røros area during the 16th and 17th century. Even though the reindeer in nomadic times were very tame and under continuous supervision, the herds were left to graze freely on open lands. With the presence of a large population of wild reindeer close to the tame herds, the risk of losing reindeer would be great, especially during winter and in the mating season. The wild reindeer population in Røros would therefore have to be reduced, either before or in parallel to an increase in the number of tame reindeer. The climate contributed to this reduction, and the Sami took care of the rest as far as it was necessary. This could take place in parallel to the building up of herds of tame reindeer. According to the sources there were at least 6 Sami villages in the 17th century, from Tydal in the north to Østerdalen in the south, which kept herds of tame reindeer, and at the same time the Sami population was accused of extinguishing the wild reindeer. A picture emerges. In sum, we can see that circumstances at the time were in favour of a change in strategy, from a hunting-based economy to nomadic reindeer herding.

Sverre Fjellheim

2005-04-01

385

Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is common in parts of South Africa; rural residence is a frequently cited risk factor. We conducted a FAS school prevalence survey of an isolated rural community in a West Coast village of Western Cape Province, so obtaining the first directly measured rate, [...] focusing specifically on a South African rural area, of FAS and partial FAS (PFAS). METHODS: The study area (Aurora village), a community of about 2 500 people in a grain-producing region, has one primary school. All learners were eligible for study inclusion. Initial anthropometry screening was followed by a diagnostic stage entailing examination by a dysmorphologist for features of FAS, neurodevelopmental assessment, and an interview assessing maternal alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Of 160 learners screened, 78 (49%) were screen-positive, of whom 63 (81%) were clinically assessed for FAS. The overall FAS/PFAS rate among the screened learners was 17.5% (95% confidence interval 12.0 - 24.2%), with 16 (10.0%) children having FAS and 12 (7.5%) PFAS. High rates of stunting, underweight and microcephaly were noted in all learners, especially those with FAS or PFAS. Five (18%) mothers of affected children were deceased by the time of assessment. CONCLUSION: We describe very high rates of FAS/PFAS in an isolated rural part of the Western Cape that is not located in a viticultural region. Our study suggests that the prevalence of FAS may be very high in isolated communities, or in particular hot-spots. It adds to the growing evidence that FAS/PFAS is a significant, and underestimated, health problem in South Africa. Expanded screening and surveillance programmes, and preventive interventions, are urgently needed

L, Olivier; M, Urban; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; D, Viljoen.

2013-06-01

386

Analysis of airborne particulate matter collected in urban and rural area by instrumental neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ANALYSIS OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER COLLECTED IN URBAND AND RURAL AREA BY INSTRUMENTAL NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS. This report presents the work of monitoring study on air particulate matter (PMs) in Indonesia on the period of 2002 to 2004. The PMs were collected at two sampling site that represented an urban and rural area using Gent stacked air sampler for 24 hours, once a month for each sampling point. Fine and coarse fractions of PMs were collected. The PMs deposited on a filter were measured for mass concentration and were analyzed for elemental concentration by using INAA. Irradiation of filters were carried out at GA. Siwabessy reactor and were counted by high-resolution HPGe detector coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The PM10 analysis resulted shows that the range of PM10 for rural site was 5.5 ?g.m-3 to 46.9 ?g.m-3 while PM10 for urban site was 12.0 ?g.m-3 to 93.1 ?g.m-3. About 17 elements of Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Co, Cs, Fe, I, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, V and Zn were analyzed through short and long irradiation of INAA. Among, the elements of Al, Br, Cl, Fe and Na were found at mayor component. The pollutants of Fe, V, Sb, Cr, Zn and Co were higher at urban site compare to the rural site. It could be conclude that the mean of 24 hours PM10 and mean annual of fine fraction were still below the PMs National Standard for both sampling sites. The INAA technique could be used to control the pollutant concentration on environmental sample. (author)

387

A Framework for Providing E-Services to the Rural Areas using Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks  

CERN Document Server

In recent years, the proliferation of mobile computing devices has driven a revolutionary change in the computing world. The nature of ubiquitous devices makes wireless networks the easiest solution for their interconnection. This has led to the rapid growth of several wireless systems like wireless ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks etc. In this paper we have proposed a framework for rural development by providing various e-services to the rural areas with the help of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We have discussed how timely and accurate information could be collected from the rural areas using wireless technologies. In addition to this, we have also mentioned the technical and operational challenges that could hinder the implementation of such a framework in the rural areas in the developing countries.

Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Sayeed, Sabit Anjum; Ahmed, Farruk; Hong, Choong Seon

2007-01-01

388

Evaluation of Toxic Metals and Essential Elements in Children with Learning Disabilities from a Rural Area of Southern Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and ?-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p children (p children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533

do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina

2014-01-01

389

Distribution of Typhoid fever in different rural and urban areas of Lakhimpur District of Assam  

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Full Text Available Typhoid is one of the infectious bacterial diseases ofhuman in Assam. Blood samples were collected from5474 patients suspected with enteric fever from differentrural as well as urban areas of Lakhimpur district ofAssam during the period from January to December,2012.Among the suspected patients 26.2% were foundtyphoid positive in Widal test. It was observed thatamong the typhoid positive patients, 2% had only Hflagellarantibodies, 40% had only O-somatic antibodiesand 58% had both O-somatic and H-flagellar antibodies.The H2S test of water sample collected from typhoidreporting areas also showed presence of sulphur producingbacteria. All age groups and both the sexes are equallyaffected. Muslim communities and Tea garden communitieswere highly afflicted with this fever. The proportion of caseswas higher in rural areas as compared to urban areas.

Mridul Malakar

2013-08-01

390

Indoor air pollution from particulate matter emissions in different households in rural areas of Bangladesh  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Indoor air pollution from the combustion of traditional biomass fuels (wood, cow dung, and crop wastes) is a significant public health problem predominantly for poor populations in many developing countries. It is particularly problematic for the women who are normally responsible for food preparation and cooking, and for infants/young children who spend time around their mothers near the cooking area. Airborne particulate matter (PM) samples were collected from cooking and living areas in homes in a rural area of Bangladesh to investigate the impact of fuel use, kitchen configurations, and ventilation on indoor air quality and to apportion the source contributions of the measured trace metals and BC concentrations. Lower PM concentrations were observed when liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was used for cooking. PM concentrations varied significantly depending on the position of kitchen, fuel use and ventilation rates. From reconstructed mass (RCM) calculations, it was found that the major constituent of the PM was carbonaceous matter. Soil and smoke were identified as components from elemental composition data. It was also found that some kitchen configurations have lower PM concentrations than others even with the use of low-grade biomass fuels. Adoption of these kitchen configurations would be a cost-effective approach in reducing exposures from cooking in these rural areas. (author)

Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, P.O. Box-164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Paul, Samir K.; Dildar Hossain, M. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar (Bangladesh); Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, 8 Clarkson Avenue, Box 5708, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)

2009-05-15

391

Study of the Factor Involved in Non-farming Labor Supply in Rural Areas in Ghoochan Township  

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Full Text Available Considering the population growth and limitation of expansion in cultivation areas, employment in non-agricultural jobs in rural areas is inevitable. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the supply of labor of the rural families on non-agricultural jobs in the rural areas. A sample of 300 families from rural areas of the Ghoochan Township in 2000-2001 was studied. The data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. The analysis used a multivariable regression equation. The results showed that: 1. The wage level of the non-agricultural experience of the person had positive effect on the supply of labors to non-agricultural jobs. 2. However, this effect was negative for the number of days the person worked on farm. Finally, since wages earned from non-agricultural jobs was higher than that of agricultural jobs. Therefore, it is suggested that for the purpose of increasing the income of rural people, non-agricultural jobs in rural areas be facilitated and encouraged

J. Mir Mohammad Sadeghi

2004-07-01

392

ASSESSMENT OF THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG THE WOMEN OF RURAL AND URBAN AREAS OF RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Aim of the study was to document the prevalence of use of Contraceptives among the rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Specific objectives were to identify the percentage of women using contraceptive, to document different methods used for contraception, to assess the knowledge regarding contraception and to identify the reasons of use and non-use between rural and urban areas of the Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 200females were recruited to assess the use of contraceptives from different rural areas of Kallar Sayedan, and urban areas of Rawalpindi. Questionnaires were filled and data was analysed by SPSS version 19.The p value was found to be 0.661 for psychological effects. This means that the use of contraceptives is not dependent on psychological effects. The percentage of ease factor among rural area was 12% and urban area was 26%.The significance for religious factor was checked and the p value was found to be .000.This means that higher use of contraception was seen in women who considered that there is no religious barrier to contraception. Overall results of this study were found to be 100%.According to the knowledge the concept of contraception was assessed was 93% in both areas. In which the contraceptive use in urban was 59% while in rural was 56%.Different methods were used in which high use was IUCD among the other mentioned methods that included pills, injection, tubal legations and others (use of condoms by their husbands, percentage was about 31% -25%in both areas.

Hina Rehman

2013-06-01

393

Compliance to Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation among Pregnant Women in Urban and Rural Areas in Malaysia  

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Full Text Available Low compliance has been linked to the ineffectiveness of supplementation programme among pregnant women. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the compliance of vitamin and mineral supplementation among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in urban and rural areas. A total of 118 pregnant women aged 28±4 years (urban areas = 62; rural areas = 56 were recruited. Socio demographic data and compliance to supplementation were obtained through self-reported questionnaire. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb was obtained from the antenatal records. More than two-thirds of the subjects (79.7% were in third trimester and less than a third (20.3% was in second trimester. Overall, 49.2% of subjects complied with vitamin and mineral supplementation. The mean of weight and haemoglobin concentration were 63.7±15.1 kg and 11.3±1.1 g d/L, respectively. The overall percentage of subjects who complied with vitamin and mineral supplementation was 49.2%. There was no significant difference in percentage of subjects who complied with the supplements in urban (46.8% and rural areas (51.8% (p = 0.587. The prevalence of anaemia among the subjects (Hb <11 g d/L was 42.3% (n = 50. Prevalence of anaemia was lower in the compliant group compared with the non-compliant group (34.5% vs 50%, p = 0.01. Pregnant mothers who did not comply to the supplementation had significantly lower haemoglobin concentration (11.0±1.0 g d/L compared with those who complied (11.5±1.2 g d/L (p = 0.01. Percentage of compliance in anaemic and non-anaemic subjects were 34.5 and 65.5%, respectively (p = 0.088. The main reasons for non-compliance reported by subjects in both areas were forgetfulness (33.9%, side effects (nausea and vomiting (11.9% and worry regarding big size of babies (5.1%. In summary, the incidence of anemia is still high while compliance to supplementation is still low. Comprehensive nutrition education and health promotion programme should be carried out targeting pregnant women in urban and rural to educate the importance of compliance with the vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy.

A.M. Zahara

2010-01-01

394

Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area  

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Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

Subhash Singh Parihar

2014-03-01

395

Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ?18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

Cai Le

2012-10-01

396

Formação dos profissionais das áreas de ciências agrárias em segurança do trabalho rural / Preparation of professionals in the area of agrarian sciences regarding safety in rural work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar se os futuros profissionais que serão engajados ao mercado de trabalho têm recebido orientações e treinamentos para atuar na questão da segurança no trabalho rural e estabelecer relações entre a formação profissional e a informação levada aos produtores rurais. [...] Foi utilizado como instrumento de pesquisa um questionário aplicado a 209 produtores/trabalhadores rurais, 156 discentes formandos, da área de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina e 75 discentes do Colégio Agrícola Estadual Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR). A coleta dos dados foi realizada nos meses de junho, julho e agosto de 2006. Os resultados mostraram que tanto os produtores/trabalhadores rurais como os futuros profissionais não estão conscientizados com relação à segurança no trabalho rural. Portanto, tornar a disciplina Segurança e Higiene do Trabalho Rural obrigatória nos currículos dos cursos da área de Ciências Agrárias, colocar em prática a prevenção de acidentes ocupacionais no meio rural e realizar uma reciclagem contínua dos profissionais que atuam na área, por meio de treinamentos e do acesso a informações atualizadas que poderiam se apresentar como alternativas para a prevenção de acidentes na área rural. Abstract in english The present paper had the objective of checking if the professional who will be engaged in the job market had received proper orientation and training to act in rural working safety, to establish relations between professional orientation and the information which will be given to rural growers. As [...] research instrument, a questionnaire was used and applied to 209 growers and farm works, 156 graduated students of crop science at the Londrina State University and 75 students of the Agriculture High School Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR). The data were collected during the months of June, July, and August 2006. The results showed that neither the farm works and growers nor the students were conscious of safety in rural labor. Therefore, we suggest the inclusion of the course Safety and Hygiene in Rural Labor in the core curriculum for the preparation of crop science students. It is also necessary to put into practice the rules of occupation accident prevention for rural labor and a permanent recycling of professionals working in this area through training program and access to current information to be alternatives in preventing accidents become a necessity.

Adilson Luiz, Seifert; Débora Cristina, Santiago.

1131-11-01

397

A technical framework for costing health workforce retention schemes in remote and rural areas  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing the availability of health workers in remote and rural areas through improved health workforce recruitment and retention is crucial to population health. However, information about the costs of such policy interventions often appears incomplete, fragmented or missing, despite its importance for the sound selection, planning, implementation and evaluation of these policies. This lack of a systematic approach to costing poses a serious challenge for strong health policy decisions. Methods This paper proposes a framework for carrying out a costing analysis of interventions to increase the availability of health workers in rural and remote areas wit