WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding rural areas

  1. Space-time analysis of the urban-rural grafient in the metropolitan area of Madrid and ist surroundings -Guadalajara and Toledo.

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-palacios Sisternes, Susana; Ayuga Te?llez, Francisco; Garci?a Garci?a, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    According to UN provisions in the period from 2007 to 2050 world population will grow up to 9200 million people. In fact, for the first time in history, in the year 2008 world urban population became higher than rural population. The increase of urban areas and their transport infrastructures has influenced agricultural land use due to their irreversible change, especially when they remain as periurban vacant land, losing their character and identity. In the Europe of the nineties, the tradit...

  2. Energy for rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Angela Menin Teixeira de; Sales, Rosemary do Bom Conselho; Cortez, Marcio Fonte-Boa; Silva, Emanuel Barbosa; Fabrini, Wallison [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.]. E-mails: angelamenin@superig.com.br; rosebcs@gmail.com; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; emanuelribeiro@gmail.com; wallisson_fabrini@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    In spite of Brazilian energy matrix being the one with the greatest renewable sources participation in the world, local authorities have been making efforts during the past two decades in order to enlarge this participation. As an example, the governmental program PROINFA aims to increase the use of windmills, biomass and small size hydro plants. The solar energy utilization, besides its traditional use on water heating in urban areas, can also contribute to maintain the rural population in the fields, since it offers comfort and improvements in production equipment. Additional actions intended to bring electric energy to rural population come from the program 'Luz para Todos' (Light for Everybody), launched in 2004 by the government. It is directed to poor families living in depleted regions, with the smallest Human Development Index, and without access to energy. 80% of those families live in rural areas. In this work, the Brazilian rural population was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively, with special attention to Minas Gerais State. The state-of-the-art of the existing technologies for thermal or electric generation in rural area have been identified and compared to each other considering the social and environmental characteristics of the regions to be attended, mainly in North Region, and in Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley. The study showed that either wind energy or solar energy can be used for energy supply, rather than biogas and small size hydro plants. However, considering the rural population profile and also that the small scale windmills did not have experienced technological development since the beginning of twentieth century, the conclusion shows that the use of photovoltaic panels is promising. (author)

  3. Rural Areas and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rise of the so-called information age, a number of research institutes have felt compelled to research the digital divide that seems to exist between the mainstream and certain marginalized groups, such as those with lower incomes or those in rural areas. Released in February 2004, this intriguing 38-page report authored by Peter Bell of the Pew Internet & American Life Project, examines the use of the internet by rural residents across the United States. Based primarily on survey data collected between March and August 2003, the report contains some interesting findings, most notably the fact that while almost 52% of rural adults go online on a regular basis, they still have internet participation rates lower than their urban and suburban counterparts. Other interesting findings include information in the report that suggests rural users' online connections to various groups and virtual communities are more likely to stretch beyond immediate physically proximate communities. The report is rounded out by the inclusion of a methodology section and several demographic tables.

  4. EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADALINA NEACSU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Europe's rural areas face a common challenge: the creation of highquality, sustainable jobs. In this area, the gap between urban and rural areas continues to widen. Although rural areas make up 93% of theterritory of the European Union (EU, income per capita in these areas is little more than half that in urban areas. For this reason it is becoming increasingly difficult to attract and retain skilled individuals.

  5. A typology of rural areas in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov Natalija; Meredith David; Efstratoglou Sophia

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a method to establish the typology of rural areas in Serbia. Initially the OECD rurality criterion was applied to define the rural areas in Serbia. Subsequently, relevant indicators were selected (demographic, geographic, economic, employment-related, human capital, agricultural, tourism and infrastructure) and used to define and distinguish relatively homogeneous rural regions, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis (VARIMAX method) and cluster an...

  6. Tourism in the Portuguese Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Martinho, Vi?tor Joa?o Pereira Domingues

    2013-01-01

    The tourism in the rural areas is an important contribution to the local economies and an additional income for the traditional local activities as the agricultural sector. Some traditional rural activities, as the agriculture, sometimes and in some locations are not sufficient to provide an acceptable return to their promoters. So the different forms of tourism in rural zones, as the small industry and others sectors, are important contributions to the economic activity in the rural areas. T...

  7. Ethical challenges of practicing in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, James L; Hastings, Sarah L; Riding-Malon, Ruth

    2010-05-01

    Mental health professionals practicing in rural areas face ethical dilemmas different from those experienced by their urban counterparts and may find that the existing ethics literature and American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) ethics code not particularly helpful. We highlight parts of five standards from the APA ethics code to illustrate the dilemmas rural practitioners frequently confront and offer suggestions for how to handle them. We discuss competence, human relations, and confidentiality as specific areas and then examine assessment and therapy as broader situations in which dilemmas may occur. We use case examples to highlight complications that may arise in rural areas. PMID:20222121

  8. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhard Leitner; Alexander Felfernig; Fercher, Anton J.; Martin Hitz

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, whi...

  9. Rural areas under urban pressure : case studies of rural-urban relationships across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Overbeek, M. M. M.; Terluin, I. J.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the results of the European research project on building new relationships in rural areas under urban pressure (RURBAN). The analysis identifies the impact of urban pressure on rural landscapes and the contribution of rural goods and services (RGS) to enhance the rural landscape in Finland, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and Spain. In each country, two case study regions have been selected: a rural area near a metropolitan area and a rural area near a tourist seashore a...

  10. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336...

  11. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants by rural communities surrounding the PARNASI, Sergipe, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maroti, Paulo Se?rgio; Lima, Juliano S.; Silva-mann, Renata; Gomes, Laura Jane

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out in the four rural communities (Pedrinhas, Ladeira, Caroba and Cajueiro) surrounding the National Park of Serra de Itabaiana - PARNASI, in order to assess which botanical species are recognized by local specialists as wild food plants. The methodology was based on stages of observation, questionnaires, performance-guided tours, and a floristic inventory. There were 31 specialties divided into three categories of emic wild food plants, those being for human consumptio...

  12. Integrated Pollutant Concentration Distribution Over Area Surrounding Elevated Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollutant dispersion from a continuous elevated point source in the atmosphere for a combination of varying meteorological parameters is studied in the frame of Gaussian plume model. The gaussian basic formula for the concentration is reformulated in polar coordinates. The study derives a general formula for the annual or seasonal integrated concentration over sixteen angular sectors surrounding the source. A computer program is developed to determine the frequency of occurrence of the wind velocity and direction together with the stability classes for the sake of evaluating the integrated pollutant concentration as a function of the distance from the source in the different angular sectors. The results have been applied to the area surrounding the reactor of the Nuclear Research at Inshas-Egypt

  13. Tectonics and seismicity of Baku and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : In this article it is described Baku and its surrounding areas, where the main tectonics are the Caucasus, strike-slip faults and reverse faults. The Caucasus is a part of the Alpine-Himalayan folding belt and situated between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The main faults in this region are the Pembak-Sevan fault, the Garni fault and the Talesh fault. The Pembak-Sevan fault and the Garni fault are characterized by right-leteral strike slip faults. The Talesh fault is characterized by reverse fault and the Talesh Mountains have been thrust over the south Caspian depression. Some earthquake catalogues for Baku and surrounding region had been prepared from different sources. The qreat earthquakes had been occured in the Caucasus, the Caspian sea and the Tales fault and around Baku.

  14. Medical library support in rural areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J. K.; Cooper, D.; Johnson, T P

    1983-01-01

    Physicians in rural areas often feel professionally isolated due to lack of access to medical center services, particularly library services. To test the need for and use of medical library services, an experimental program was established for physicians in southeastern Kentucky. Physicians were given a toll-free number to call for assistance or to make requests, and persons in two rural locations were trained in the use of basic library reference sources. A communication procedure to a unive...

  15. Living in rural areas is a major risk factor for severe burn injury in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tarim, Mehmet Akin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. The surroundings andlifestyle that are typical of rural areas are less safe than those of urbanareas. This retrospective studyanalyzed risk factors of the patients with burn injuries who lived in ruralareas. BetweenJanuary 2000 and June 2011, 1145 patients were hospitalized in the Adana burn unit of Baskent Universityof whom 600 (52.5%) lived in rural areas and 545 (47.5%) lived in urban areas.The two groups were compared with respect to demographic characteristics, causeof burn inj...

  16. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  17. Disseminating ambient assisted living in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J; Hitz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

  18. Multifunctional character of rural areas in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sikora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional development of rural areas involves implementation of new non-agricultural functions, such as production, commerce or services. This strategy results from social and economic difficulties in these areas, economic underdevelopment, ineffective agricultural farms and unemployment. The research material used in the paper included analysis of the related literature, analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in the area of Poland and the author’s own observations. As results from the study, rural areas should perform the functions of food production, environmental protection, culture, tourism and providing services for municipal areas. These functions should provide the basis for development of additional non-agricultural activity. This involves the plans made by people who live in the country for starting businesses in the area of services, commerce, transport, tourism and craftsmanship and handicraft. The non- -agricultural activities which have already been performed suggest, on the one hand, opti-mistic opportunities of growth in rural areas but, on the other hand, are not conducive to the development of agricultural functions, which are inherent in rural areas.

  19. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  20. Typology and development characteristics of rural areas in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Perpar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the typology of rural areas in Slovenia is presented. In theresearch some important indicators of the rural areas have been analysedand three basic types of rural areas have been defined: suburban, typicalrural areas and depopulation areas. In the continuation detailed comparisonanalysis of the situation in defined rural areas on the sample of ruralareas is stated. The analysis is based on demographic, agricultural, economicand social indicators. A sociological part of the research is based oninterviews with leaders of local communities including opinions about thesituation and opportunities of sample rural areas and their proposals andremarks for the rural development policy makers.

  1. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

  2. 911 Best Call for Heart Attack Victims in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_152330.html 911 Best Call for Heart Attack Victims in Rural Areas: Study But many drive ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Many rural residents with severe heart attacks drive or are driven to the hospital, but ...

  3. The Impact of Building Recreational Houses in Rural Areas. Case Study: Rânca Mountain Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta-Carina POPESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at showing how the present-day rural space suffers modifications meant to produce different changes in terms of physiognomy and also at social and economic levels, focusing on the phenomenon of building recreational houses in rural areas, by population coming from urban areas. The case study we have chosen refers to the Rânca mountain resort, situated in the Southern Carpathians (in the Parâng Mountains. This place, which thirty years ago might have passed for a peripherally rural area, it is now characterized by incipient urbanization. It is interesting to observe that this process is not supported by the closest urban centre (the town of Novaci, but by the towns located at greater distances (the towns of Craiova and Târgu-Jiu, that have the social and economic power to extend their influence up to 150 km distance. Therefore, the flows caused, on the one hand by the urban population migrating during the week-ends to the rural areas and, on the other hand, by the investments made in utility infrastructures, have profound implications not only on the changing rural landscape, but also on peoples’ perception of traditional (rural versus modern (urban way of life. Hence, a new type of landscape appears in remote rural areas, which benefit from an extraordinary natural potential, as a result of town dwellers’ wish for natural surroundings and urban standards

  4. Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca IGNAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.

  5. 42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...its employees. (d) Use of urban or other rural area's wage index —(1...to hospital wage costs in an urban or other rural area; (ii) The hospital...of its actual location in an urban or rural area. (4) Special...

  6. Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

  7. On the future of local communities in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maleševi? Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and emotional connection of people living there. In other words, their participation and their self-identification with these communities is a key prerequisite. Although the renewal of our rural communities is an extremely difficult task, filled with many dilemmas, inconsistencies and objective contradictions, it is not unresolvable, at least for one type of these communities. With the well-thought strategy of planning and management of rural development, these processes can be accelerated and channelled in the desired direction. This paper discusses some possible solutions and gives more concrete propositions in relation to this problem.

  8. Satellite determination of regional aerosol properties over Paris and the surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundstrom, Anu-Maija

    2010-05-01

    One of the main objectives of the MEGAPOLI project is to assess impacts of megacities and large air-pollution hot-spots on local, regional and global air quality. Megacities are considered as more that ten million inhabitants or more than 2000 inhabitants /km2. Paris and London are the only cities in Europe that fit the definition of a megacity. As part of the activities at the MEGAPOLI project in summer 2009 a field campaign was performed in Paris and its surroundings. Paris was chosen for various scientific and logistical reasons, but mainly because it is a very concentrated European urban pollution hot spot surrounded by rural areas. The effects of air pollution in Palaiseau and Creteil generated from Paris have been analyzed. Palaiseau and Cretil are located 30 km southwest and 10 km southeast of Paris respectively. The instrumentation used for this study was: the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), flying on ENVISAT; and MODIS-Terra; sun photometer measurements obtained from the AERONET sun photometer network in Palaiseau and Creteil. AATSR and MODIS provide information on the regional distribution of aerosol properties; AERONET provides information on local aerosol properties which is used to validate the satellite data but also to study gradients in along-wind situations. The wind speed and direction, jointly with the back trajectories for the polluted day event specifically were used to determine gradients. To calculate the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and the Ångström Exponent (AE), with the AATSR data, we use a combination of coarse and fine mode aerosol models. AOD values at 550 nm were around 0.2 and AE (870-440) was higher than 1.2 for most of the days.

  9. Factual biosphere database for Dounreay and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Dounreay region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Dounreay area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

  10. Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

  11. Innovation centres as growth points for smaller towns and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belova A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the role of innovative centres in the development of surrounding areas beyond large cities. At the same time, the innovative development of rural areas should be of a composite nature; municipality development strategies take innovations into account. International practices serve as a an argument in favour of establishing innovative centres in smaller and medium-sized towns in order to facilitate the socioeconomic development of the territory and surrounding rural areas. Science parks created in smaller towns give a boost to socioeconomic development. The authors analyse the case of the science park in the town of Gusev in the Kaliningrad region and emphasise the role of development and adoption of legal acts at regional and municipal levels, for example, the law «On the production policy of the Kaliningrad region».

  12. Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat, Raluca

    2012-01-01

    The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that ...

  13. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  14. Quality of life in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boki? Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of rural development (regardless of its theoretical perception is the improvement of quality of life for rural population. This issue is a complex one because it depends on multiple objective and subjective factors, community characteristics, but also its spatial, economic, social and cultural environment. Authors analyze the influence of socio-cultural individual characteristics and household characteristics, as well as their stay in Staniši? during evaluating quality of life of its rural population. The research confirmed a significant influence of socio-cultural (rural household characteristics on the evaluation of quality of life. The influence of spatial dimension of social structure is more obvious on socio-cultural (rural household characteristics.

  15. Economic evaluation of a demand responsive transport in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Ana; Telhada, José; Carvalho, Maria Sameiro

    2011-01-01

    The provision of traditional public transport services in rural areas have shown to be very inefficient and ineffective. In fact, rural areas are typically characterized by low levels population density leading to complex demand patterns (demand is low and spread over a large area) which leads to low levels of service of conventional transport services (low frequency, old vehicles, etc). Demand Responsive Transport projects have been seen as an interesting alternative solution already adopted...

  16. Rural areas development – local needs and external forces.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    T?šitel, Jan; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    Warsaw : Polish Academy of Sciences, 2006 - (Florianczyk, Z.; Czapiewski, K.), s. 87-97 ISBN 83-89666-60-X. - (European Rural Development Network. 4) R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : rural development * local communities * marginality * tourism * protected areas Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  17. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil / Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anaiá da Paixão, Sevá; Mikaela Renata, Funada; Sheila de Oliveira, Souza; Alessandra, Nava; Leonardo José, Richtzenhain; Rodrigo Martins, Soares.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular dos [...] parasitas através do sequenciamento dos produtos amplificados na PCR do gene SSU rRNA. Foram coletadas amostras fecais de animais domésticos criados para subsistência e estimação nas propriedades rurais do entorno de três fragmentos florestais. Amostras de bovinos (197), equinos (63), suínos (25), ovinos (11) e cães (28) foram coletadas de 98 propriedades rurais. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium para a espécie bovina foi de 3,0% (6/197); para os cães, de 10,7% (3/28); e para os demais animais os resultados foram negativos. Todas as sequências obtidas das seis amostras de bovinos apresentaram identidade molecular com Cryptosporidium andersoni, enquanto as sequências oriundas de amostras de fezes de cães revelaram-se similares ao C. canis. A ocorrência do Cryptosporidium entre os animais estudados foi baixa. Diante dos resultados do presente estudo, o ciclo zoonótico da criptosporidiose parece ter menos importância nesta região. A presença de espécies de Cryptosporidium ainda pouco relatadas em humanos pode ser, por outro lado, importante para a fauna silvestre, uma vez que estes animais podem ser considerados como uma fonte de infecção e disseminação deste protozoário. O impacto e a magnitude da infecção de C. andersoni, em ruminantes selvagens, e de C. canis, em cães silvestres, deve ser avaliado em estudos futuros, com intuito de verificar a real importância dessas espécies nesta região. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasit [...] es by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.

  18. Rural areas, land planning and heritage evaluation: some educational proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas, Jose? Manuel; Themudo Barata, Filipe; Capelo, Sofia; Maharjan, Monalisa

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas are frequently neglected in development politics and processes. This problem has become especially important in peri-urban zones affecting a large amount of people in what concerns mainly basic resources as well as livelihoods, pattern of life, heritage and culture, and identity. Only with land planning it is possible to condition the rural areas deterioration and preserve heritage values that are a resource with a real economic potential, although they are usually seen as a burde...

  19. Socio-economic aspects development of the rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Skubiak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a change in the urban-rural relations in recent decades, as a result of increased mobility and intensity of information flow, changes in the production processes and the growing globalization of markets. The old urban-rural division lost its importance for the new ones: the metropolitan areas and those beside metropolitan. This can lead to the end of the traditional urban-rural relations, some signs are already seen. This is already observed in the process of “growing” the cities with their territories to rural areas. The risk of loss of the relationship between urban and rural areas is high because of the growing disproportion between these areas and decreased territorial cohesion. It requires strengthening new and deliberate efforts in regional policy, those that are not “fighting with windmills”, ie will take into account the objective processes already taking place. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to characterise the development of economic and social processes in rural areas and proposals for further action in the context of sustainable development.

  20. STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS FROM RURAL AREA IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor MOROZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the links between rural transformations and sustainable livelihoods, looking in particular at the impact of the structural changes over the national economy. In order to achieve this, there were used the following research methods such as: analysis of the economic indicators, methods of comparative analysis, assessment of the public policies’ impact on the rural development. The agri-food sector in the Republic of Moldova is based on extensive farming and is insufficiently adapted to market economy conditions. There is a growing understanding in the country that the rural economy is not confined to the agricultural sector, but embraces the broad spectrum of needs of all rural people including living standards, economic activities and natural resources. The paper contains conclusions and proposals on diversification of agriculture and non farm activities in rural areas.

  1. Structural transformations from rural area in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucasenco Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the links between rural transformations and sustainable livelihoods, looking in particular at the impact of the structural changes over the national economy. In order to achieve this, there were used the following research methods such as: analysis of the economic indicators, methods of comparative analysis, assessment of the public policies’ impact on the rural development.The agri-food sector in the Republic of Moldova is based on extensive farming and is insufficiently adapted to market economy conditions. There is a growing understanding in the country that the rural economy is not confined to the agricultural sector, but embraces the broad spectrum of needs of all rural people including living standards, economic activities and natural resources. The paper contains conclusions and proposals on diversification of agriculture and non farm activities in rural areas

  2. The Role of Rural Tourism on the Development of Rural Areas: The Case of Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Giannakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas in the European Union are currently undergoing significant economic and social changes, mostly induced by the international trade liberalization and the strengthening of the role of rural development policy. There is an increasing awareness of the need to accompany changes in rural areas through the diversification of their economic base that seems to be the only answer to their socioeconomic survival. Rural tourism has been considered a means of achieving such economic and social development due to its capacity to generate local employment and stimulate external investment into the communities. Within this context, the objective of this paper is to investigate the economic role of tourism on the development of rural areas in Cyprus. Tourism economic impact assessment is based on a constructed input-output table for rural Cyprus followed by a tourism-centered multiplier analysis. Model results suggest that tourism creates significant backward linkages in the rural economy of Cyprus and offers great potential for improving economic activity.

  3. APPEARANCE MOTIVATIONS OF RURAL TOURISM IN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Bianu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the trends developing tourism industry is returning to nature, already manifested in all countries, the current post-industrial civilization has created the need for withdrawal (for several days of the metropolis. And for the huge tourism potential of our country, rural tourism is one of the most attractive travel packages and this from a multiple perspective: on the one hand, the tourist, Romanian or foreign, which will require increasingly more intense this tourist service, on the other hand, villagers who will use all the energy and skill to integrate into what will become the association's efforts to profile a network covering the whole country.It is no secret that beyond the obvious need to relax in nature, one that comes to rest here gladly participate in these habits. And because of its beautiful pictures plus original memories about a different way of life and a different culture, local efforts to justify open house to receive tourists, efforts will be rewarded in the future. Experience from other countries confirms most optimistic forecasts.

  4. REACHING NEW READERS IN RURAL AREAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAW, E.C.

    IN RURAL INDIA, MOBILE LIBRARIES ARE ESSENTIAL TO LITERACY EDUCATION AND PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT. THE TIN TRUNK LIBRARY, A COLLECTION OF 15 TO 50 BOOKS IN A BOX, IS FLEXIBLE AND ECONOMICAL. HOWEVER, IT IS USED PRIMARILY BY FRIENDS OF THE PERSON IN WHOSE HOUSE THE TRUNK IS PLACED. THE LIBRARIAN OF THE MARKET MOBILE LIBRARY BRINGS BOOKS AND NEWSPAPERS…

  5. Wine Tourism on Rural Areas - Polish Conditions after the Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena KUBAL; Bartosz PIZIAK

    2010-01-01

    The socio-economic transformations after 1989 have brought huge changes in the administration of personal properties and made it possible to manage the private property. Centrally planned economy has been replaced by the market economy, in which single farm households became the subjects of the market. It opened a new way to realize modern ideas and plans, especially on rural areas. As a result, rural households from being solely the attribute of the national agriculture sector, have now beco...

  6. MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGE? COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Miu

    2013-01-01

    Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Arge? County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through exceptions or total qualities), methods ...

  7. Computer Usage and Achievement among Adults in Rural Area Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Abdul R.; Abiddin, Norhasni Z.; Jamaludin Badusah; Wai, Pang S.

    2009-01-01

    Problem Statement: Previous study showed that most of the adults especially from rural area they are not expert and do not have any knowledge in using computer. Besides that, they cannot afford to buy a computer at home. Due to this problem, Ministry if Rural Development organized the Computer Literacy Program to increase adult?s knowledge and skills in using computer. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to study the achievement of adult learners towards Computer Literacy Program whic...

  8. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Elizeus Rutebemberwa; Katureebe, Sheila K.; Gitta, Sheba N.; Mwaka, Amos D.; Lynn Atuyambe

    2013-01-01

    Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their ...

  9. Aspects on Healthcare Provision in Romanian Rural Areas, Geographical Accessibility

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen SASU; Ciutan, Marius

    2008-01-01

    The accessibility of health services in rural areas represents a high priority for the Romanian Ministry of Public Health; in this context, the improvement of the access of rural population to primary care services (provided as much as possible in a continuously manner) and to emergency and pharmaceutical services, is considered a strategic objective in the health reform medium term plan of the Ministry of Public Health.

  10. Quality of life in rural areas: A topic for the Rural Development policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer René

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary transformations of rural areas involve changes in land uses, economic perspectives, connectivity, livelihoods, but also in lifestyles, whereupon a traditional view of ‘the rural’ and, consequently, of ‘rural development’ no longer holds. Accordingly, EU’s 2007-2013 Rural Development policy (RDP is one framework to incorporate aspects labelled as quality of life (QOL alongside traditional rural tenets. With a new rendition of the RDP underway, this paper scopes the content and extent of the expired RDP regarding its incorporation of QOL, in order to better identify considerations for future policy making. Using novel methodology called topic modelling, a series of latent semantic structures within the RDP could be unravelled and re-interpreted via a dual categorization system based on RDP’s own view on QOL, and on definitions provided by independent research. Corroborated by other audits, the findings indicate a thematic overemphasis on agriculture, with the focus on QOL being largely insignificant. Such results point to a rationale different than the assumed one, at the same time reinforcing an outdated view of rurality in the face of the ostensibly fundamental turn towards viewing rural areas in a wider, more humanistic, perspective. This unexpected issue of underrepresentation is next addressed through three possible drivers: conceptual (lingering productionist view of the rural, ideological (capitalist prerogative preventing non-pecuniary values from entering policy and material (institutional lock-ins incapable of accommodating significant deviations from an agricultural focus. The paper ends with a critical discussion and some reflections on the broader concept of rurality.

  11. The Influence of Tourism on Rural Life in Minority Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiping Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, taking three ethnic minority areas as an example, through a questionnaire to obtain relevant data, according to the characteristics of the ethnic minority areas, using the factor analysis method, we analyse the tourism in ethnic areas of country life with various effects. We summarize the pros and cons, avoid or minimize the adverse impacts within the maximum limits, mitigate the conflicts between the value of resource and the development, find a balance between tourism development and rural construction, realize win-win tourism development and rural construction.

  12. Assessing flood risk for a rural detention area

    OpenAIRE

    S. Förster; Kuhlmann, B; K.-E. Lindenschmidt; A. Bronstert

    2008-01-01

    Flood detention areas serve the primary purpose of controlled water storage during large flood events in order to decrease the flood risk downstream along the river. These areas are often used for agricultural production. While various damage estimation methods exist for urban areas, there are only a few, most often simpler approaches for loss estimation in rural areas. The loss assessment can provide an estimate of the financial provisions required for the farmers' compensation (e.g., i...

  13. Wine Tourism on Rural Areas - Polish Conditions after the Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena KUBAL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic transformations after 1989 have brought huge changes in the administration of personal properties and made it possible to manage the private property. Centrally planned economy has been replaced by the market economy, in which single farm households became the subjects of the market. It opened a new way to realize modern ideas and plans, especially on rural areas. As a result, rural households from being solely the attribute of the national agriculture sector, have now become prominent players in the services sector, particularly in the hospitality - tourism industry. One of the means to diversify profile of rural households is to transform an agriculture household into an agro-tourism household. Nowadays, rural communities face new, market-oriented requirements, which make them respond by joining the tradition and modernity. Rural areas are not only obliged to produce and supply food for the cities. Their image is now created by a tourism product, which includes: natural environment, natural and cultural landscape and local culture. Over the last years wine tourism has become more and more popular, even in those countries, which were not traditionally considered wine countries. In Poland wine tourism is a new and dynamic phenomenon copying successfully the resolution from the West. Setting up particularly oriented agro-tourism farms (e.g. wine agro-tourism farms can be a means to transform and modernize the rural households and, equally, a great opportunity for the owners to improve their financial situation and status of life.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGE? COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Miu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Arge? County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through exceptions or total qualities, methods (of diagnostic analysis, foundation-optimization of decisions etc. and different management techniques can be applied, depending on the characteristics aimed.The conditions which must be met by the effective rural tourism management are: observation and appreciation of nature as well as knowledge of cultural traditions, inventory of protected natural areas and of the cultural ones in a protected area, establishment of potential market of tourists, setting of support threshold based on the compliance with the consumption norms per tourist.

  15. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government. PMID:19712653

  16. Pubertad en adolescentes de áreas rurales y urbanas / Puberty in adolescent of rural and urban areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María de la Caridad, Osorio Mora; Ariana, González Balmaceda; María de los Ángeles, Mora de Zayas; Juana, Olivero Pupo.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los factores genéticos determinan un crecimiento potencial, pero el medio ambiente, inhibe o acelera su expresión. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento según procedencia urbana o rural, de variables relacionadas con el desarrollo puberal: telarquia, pubarquia, menarquia. Métodos: se [...] realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional en adolescentes urbanas y rurales con edades entre 12 a 15 años. En los municipios Urbano Noris, Cacocum y la zona urbana de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido de enero 2009 a enero 2010; previo consentimiento informado y en ambiente acogedor se les realizó encuesta en modelo semiestructurado. Se creó una base de datos con su posterior procesamiento estadístico descriptivos como: análisis porcentual, desviación estándar, media aritmética y t de Student, cálculos necesarios para obtener los resultados. Resultados: en las adolescentes de procedencia rural la telarquia aparece a los 11,36 años y en la urbana a los 10,36 años. La pubarquia se manifestó a los 11,18 y 10,36 años en el área rural y urbana respectivamente. La menarquia a los 12,4 y 11,14 años, en el área rural y urbana, o sea la pubertad aparece un año antes en el área urbana. Conclusión: resultó significativa la diferencia de la edad media en el área urbana y el inicio de la pubertad. Abstract in english Introduction: the genetic factors determine a potential growth, but the environment inhibits and to speed up its expression. Objective: to determine the behavior according the urban or rural origin of the variables related to the pubertal development: telarche, pubarche and menarche. Methods: a corr [...] elation and descriptive study was conducted in urban and rural adolescents from the Holguín province from January, 2009 to January, 2010 subject to informed consent and in suitable environment they were polled in a semistructured form. A database was created with its latter statistic descriptive processing including: percentage analysis, standard deviation (SD), arithmetic mean and t-Student test; estimation necessary to obtain the results. Results: in adolescents from rural the telarche appears at the 11,36 years old and in the urban ones at 10,36 years old. The pubarche was manifested at 11,18 and 10,36 years old in the rural and urban area, respectively. The menarche appears at 12,4 and 11,14 years old in the rural and urban areas, that is, the puberty appears a year before in the urban area. Conclusion: it was significant the difference in mean age in the urban area and the onset of puberty.

  17. Pubertad en adolescentes de áreas rurales y urbanas Puberty in adolescent of rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Caridad Osorio Mora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los factores genéticos determinan un crecimiento potencial, pero el medio ambiente, inhibe o acelera su expresión. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento según procedencia urbana o rural, de variables relacionadas con el desarrollo puberal: telarquia, pubarquia, menarquia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional en adolescentes urbanas y rurales con edades entre 12 a 15 años. En los municipios Urbano Noris, Cacocum y la zona urbana de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido de enero 2009 a enero 2010; previo consentimiento informado y en ambiente acogedor se les realizó encuesta en modelo semiestructurado. Se creó una base de datos con su posterior procesamiento estadístico descriptivos como: análisis porcentual, desviación estándar, media aritmética y t de Student, cálculos necesarios para obtener los resultados. Resultados: en las adolescentes de procedencia rural la telarquia aparece a los 11,36 años y en la urbana a los 10,36 años. La pubarquia se manifestó a los 11,18 y 10,36 años en el área rural y urbana respectivamente. La menarquia a los 12,4 y 11,14 años, en el área rural y urbana, o sea la pubertad aparece un año antes en el área urbana. Conclusión: resultó significativa la diferencia de la edad media en el área urbana y el inicio de la pubertad.Introduction: the genetic factors determine a potential growth, but the environment inhibits and to speed up its expression. Objective: to determine the behavior according the urban or rural origin of the variables related to the pubertal development: telarche, pubarche and menarche. Methods: a correlation and descriptive study was conducted in urban and rural adolescents from the Holguín province from January, 2009 to January, 2010 subject to informed consent and in suitable environment they were polled in a semistructured form. A database was created with its latter statistic descriptive processing including: percentage analysis, standard deviation (SD, arithmetic mean and t-Student test; estimation necessary to obtain the results. Results: in adolescents from rural the telarche appears at the 11,36 years old and in the urban ones at 10,36 years old. The pubarche was manifested at 11,18 and 10,36 years old in the rural and urban area, respectively. The menarche appears at 12,4 and 11,14 years old in the rural and urban areas, that is, the puberty appears a year before in the urban area. Conclusion: it was significant the difference in mean age in the urban area and the onset of puberty.

  18. In-situ gamma spectrometry measurements of the surrounding area of a decommissioned repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors present the use of a portable high resolution gamma spectrometer in the measurement of the surrounding area of a former repository for radioactive wastes, decommissioned more than 15 years ago. In the spectra recording this work the presence of Co-60 was evidenced. (Author) 2 Figs., 1 Tab., 6 Refs

  19. Methodology of testing environmental samples from the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods are described of environmental sample investigation in the area surrounding radioactive waste deposits, namely monitoring ground water, surface water, sediments, water flows and catchments, vegetation and soil. Methods of sample preparation, and methods of radionuclides determination in mixtures are also discussed, as are spot activity measurement methods. (author)

  20. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misi?n?, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation regarding the land use of the Natura 2000 buffer areas is contributing to the degradation of the services provide by these areas. Acknowledgments RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission, for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research) and COST Action IS1204 Tourism, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Services (TObeWELL) References Dasselaar, I.V. (2013) The impact of a buffer zone. The influence of the introduction of buffer zones surrounding Natura 2000 areas on local actors, the case of het Boetelerveld in the Netherlands. Master Thesis Forest and Nature Conservation, Forest and Nature Conservation Policy group, 69 p. Hansen, A.J. (2007) Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands. Ecological Applications, 17, 974-978. McDonald, R.I., Kareiva, P., Forman, R.T.T. (2008) The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 141, 1695-1703. Pereira, P., Monkevicius, A., Siarova, A. (2014) Public perception of the Environmental, Social and Economic impacts of Urban Sprawl in Vilnius. Societal Studies, 6, 256-290. Salvati, L., Sabbi, A. (2011) Exploring long-term land cover changes in an urban region of southern of Europe. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 18, 273-282.

  1. Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; NØrgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labor market settle in the countryside due to low housing prices. This article explores which groups of people move to rural, peripheral areas and why they chose to do so.

  2. Land-use planning and sustainable development of rural areas; Amenagement du territoire et developpement rural durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarev, G.

    2002-03-01

    The concept of rural development applies to two different realities: that of a space where the resources developed by man form the basis for a multitude of uses, the most important of which is agriculture, and that of the populations that derive their revenue from those resources and inhabit that space. Sustainable development as it relates to rural development, applies two paradigms: the rational management of resources in a rural environment, and responsible participation of rural communities in the development processes that concern them. The paradigms at times partially overlap and interact, but leave important questions unresolved. The author began by providing a definition of rural area, whereby it defines the space utilized by rural populations. The paradigms were discussed, followed by the options of rational management of natural resources. The options of economic and social development of rural areas was next examined. Another section was devoted to land-use planning as an instrument of reconciliation in sustainable rural development.

  3. Teacher Training Colleges in the Rural Areas of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsiangengo, Pedro; Diasala, Andre Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the rural areas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…

  4. Status of Thai Women in Two Rural Areas. Survey Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Women of Thailand.

    Chachoengsao Province and Lampang Province were selected in 1976 as sites for an "action survey" to identify appropriate program areas for rural women so that governmental and voluntary agencies could be assisted in planning. During December 994 families and 1,272 women (ranging from 15-70 years old) were surveyed. Interviews were conducted by 30…

  5. Urbanisation of rural areas: A case study from Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Fabricius; Kristensen, SØren Bech Pilgaard

    2010-01-01

    The growth of urban areas is one of the most important characteristics of spatial development in Europe during the past decades and is traditionally described with a few indicators on a relatively coarse spatial scale. However, urbanisation is not only a matter of land use change, but also socio-economic changes, which may or may not manifest itself as physical changes in built-up area and land use. It is therefore useful to analyse the urbanisation patterns along an urban-rural continuum, based on a broad range of indicators. This paper analyses urbanisation patterns in rural areas of Region Midtjylland, Denmark using socio-economic data from the entire rural population aggregated at parish level to investigate if this method may contribute to existing classifications. Through multivariate analysis and GIS analysis, five types of urbanization were identified and their spatial distribution analysed. The results indicate that rural areas of Region Midtjylland are very diverse, and generally reflect the patterndescribed in the 2006 Danish National Planning Report. However, our results offer a more fine-grained analysis based on scientifically selected indicators which is an important step to improve existing classifications. This is especially relevant in a Danish context following the administrative reform in 2007 which renders the traditional classifications less suited for locally adapted planning and policy formulation.

  6. Bringing fiber to the home to rural areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2009-01-01

    In order to support development of rural areas, and avoid that these  areas are being depopulated, access to fast broadband networks can contribute by facilitating tele working, distance learning, ICT for industries and farming etc. In this paper we show how broadband and Fiber To The Home (FTTH) is developing in Denmark, and that FTTH is also being deployed in rural areas. A main reason for this is that consumer-owed utility companies have decided to invest heavily in the field, to a large extent with the philosophy that, since all consumers are a part of the investment, everybody should also benefit from it. As a result of these investments, FTTH availability and penetration has increased significantly over the last years. In the end of the paper, we highlight the importance of studying the actual impact of bringing FTTH to these areas.

  7. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... THE SECRETARY OF HUD'S REGULATION OF THE FEDERAL NATIONAL MORTGAGE ASSOCIATION (FANNIE MAE) AND THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN MORTGAGE CORPORATION (FREDDIE MAC) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other...

  8. Representative and Diverse Image Set Gathering for Geographic Area and its Surrounding Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali B. Ulape

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geo-tagging is becoming famous in today’s era of web 2.0 technologies. Geo-tagging is a concept in which we are adding information about location to the image. In proposed approach such geo-tagged images are used for making visual summary. Generally, visual summary of geographic location provides images of dominate location and ignore surrounding areas of that location which are potentially valuable. Multiple images of the same location suppress other places close to the dominant location and can be visited. In this proposed approach automatic visual summary of geographic area and its surrounding location is generated. For this community contributed images and their associated metadata are extracted from popular social websites such as Flickr [11]. Proposed approach generate visual summary which contains representative and diverse image set of given geographic location and its surrounding areas. For automatic generation of visual summary four layer graph of images and its associated metadata is formed. Proposed edge weight calculation method in this system is novel. With the help of random walk with restarts representative and diverse image set is selected which is visual summary of the given geographic location. Such visual summary can motivate a person to visit nearby areas of given geographic location.

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the former Chemetron factory site and surrounding area, Newburgh Heights, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period April 15--27, 1991, over an area surrounding the former location of a Chemetron Corporation factory and an associated disposal site. The area surveyed is situated in Newburgh Heights, Ohio, 3 kilometers south of Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the former factory and dump site and surrounding area. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region were generally uniform and typical of natural background: 3--7 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), excluding an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 ?R/h. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over three areas within the survey region. Two areas, both within the boundary of a sewage processing plant, showed evidence of cobalt-60 (60CO). A third area, measured over a chemical factory, showed evidence of thorium-232 (232Th). Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ionization chamber measurements were obtained at seven locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements are in agreement with the aerial data

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity surrounding the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 ?R/h in areas adjacent to these fields and along roadways, and (c) below 6 ?R/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (22-52 ?R/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 and cobalt-58 were the primary sources of man-made activity found at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  11. 42 CFR 412.103 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply for reclassification as rural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. 412.103 Section...Hospitals located in urban areas and that apply...reclassification as rural. (a) General...Modification, the Rural-Urban Commuting Area...

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and surrounding area, Waxahachie, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) site from July 22 through August 20,1991. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 305 meters over a 1,036-square-kilometer (400-square-mile) area surrounding Waxahachie, Texas. The 70,000 terrestrial gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a United States Geological Survey (USGS) map of the area. The mean terrestrial exposure rate measured was 5.4 ?R/h at 1 meter above ground level. Comparison to ground-based measurements shows good agreement. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were detected

  13. Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hude Quan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  14. Moving to the countryside - migrants in rural areas of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØrgaard, Helle

    Denmark is undergoing a process of centralisation and concentration of economic growth, employment and people in and around its larger cities. Other more peripheral areas have been stagnating and loosing both jobs and inhabitants over a long period of time. Important social, cultural and economic changes are taken place in the countryside due to various restructuring processes and more recently some of these changes are related to in-migration. There are few Danish studies on migration into rural and peripheral areas but e.g. Andersen (2008) Ærø et al. (2005) show how those moving to rural areas have very different reasons for moving and have different expectations and needs. Other international studies e.g. Boyle & Halfacree (1998), Chavez (2005), Clooke, Goodwin & Milbourne (1998), Cuba & Hummon (1993), Hidalgo & Hernandez (2001) Mesch & Manor (1998) rather focus on processes of change from the view of the local population, migrants and relations between them. This paper reports on a study on migrants who have moved long distances to settle in rural and peripheral areas of Denmark. The study focuses on moving motives, background and expectations of migrants in relation to living in rural and peripheral areas. One important theme is the relationship between migrants or newcomers and locals stressing social change, attachment and integration from the view of migrants. Our study is based on an understanding that there are multiple reasons and motivations that influence migration decision-making thereby applying a biographical approach inspired by e.g. Giddens (1984), Boyle and Halfacree (1998) seeking to 'demonstrate the complexity of the seemingly simple act of migration and its embeddedness within the everyday context of daily life for those involved'. Our study further finds inspiration in the concept of 'elective belonging' by Savage et al. (2005) in terms of understanding peoples sense of being at home as related to 'reflexive processes in which they can satisfactory account to themselves how they come to live where they do'.

  15. Kees: a Practical Ict Solution for Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoye; Tabirca, Sabin; Lenihan, Eamon

    This paper introduces a practical e-learning system, identified as Knowledge Exchange E-learning System (abbr. KEES), for knowledge distribution in rural areas. Particularly, this paper is about providing a virtual teaching and learning environment for small holders in agriculture in those rural areas. E-learning is increasingly influencing the agricultural education (information and knowledge learning) in all forms and the current e-learning in agricultural education appears in informal and formal methods in many developed countries and some developing areas such as Asian Pacific regions. KEES is a solution to provide education services including other services of information distribution and knowledge sharing to local farmers, local institutes or local collection of farmers. The design of KEES is made to meet the needs of knowledge capacity building, experience sharing, skill upgrading, and information exchanging in agriculture for different conditions in rural areas. The system allows the online lecture/training materials to be distributed simultaneously with all multimedia resources through different file formats across different platforms. The teaching/training content can be contextless and broad, allowing for greater participation by more small holders, commercial farmers, extension workers, agriculturists, educators, and other agriculture-related experts. The relative inconsistency in content gives farmers more localised and useful knowledge. The framework of KEES has been designed to be a three-tier architecture logic workflow, which can configure the progressive approach for KEES to pass on and respond to different requests/communications between the client side and the server.

  16. Assumption on the Reform of Social Security of Migrant Workers from Rural Areas from an Angle of Unified System in Urban and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Anmin Chen

    2009-01-01

    China is making efforts to improve the social security for migrant workers from rural areas and that for farmers in rural areas. However, due to the strong mobility of migrant workers, the efforts are hard to coordinate. To establish a unified social security system for urban and rural areas is the most reasonable objective and can be put into practice at present. This system should cover a wide and comprehensive scope. In China, no matter whether city or countryside, every citizen should pos...

  17. [Fluoride content in well water in rural areas in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jaoudi, R; El Cadi, M Ait; Bouslimane, Y; Fekhaoui, M; Bouklouze, A; Cherrah, Y

    2014-06-01

    The aim of our study was to determine fluorides (F-) content in the well water consumed as drinking water by some Moroccan populations in rural areas. All samples were collected between April and October 2011. Measurements were performed by an ion selective electrode. Thirty wells spread to cover most of the country and locally chosen based on the number of inhabitants who consume its water. All wells were in rural areas. The mean (+/- SD) of F- was 1.84 +/- 1.6 mg/L with a range from 0.42 to 8.95 mg/L Concentrations of F- in phosphate regions were higher than those found in other regions. More than half of the samples exceeded the current standard. Our study showed that water of some Moroccan regions is naturally rich in F-exposing people who consume it at high risk of fluorosis. PMID:25223146

  18. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas : Opportunities and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; MØller, JØrgen

    Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contributor to mitigate these challenges. This system uses ITS to plan and coordinate carpooling. A study in two Danish rural areas found that a markedly part of residents are interesting in Intelligent Carpooling, but also that they require knowledge of whom they are driving with and as well as planning the carpooling in sufficient time (2-24 hours before). Another factor that has to be fulfilled is a high level of cohesion in the local area, i.e. a high level of knowledge of any participants in the scheme. Despite of these requirements being met, it is still a challenge to change car owners’ habit in order to make carpooling work.

  19. The Problem Of Youth Unemployment in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Grigoryeva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of Czech agricultural labour market has been continuously predominantly negative since 1989 and recently, the problem of youth unemployment is acute in many countries, not only in the Czech Republic, but also in the Russian Federation, where most of graduates of agricultural universities work in non-agricultural sphere and in urban area. The present paper tries to consider the problems faced by youth in the labour market after graduating from the university, the reasons for working in any sphere but not in agriculture and not in rural area. It identifies the factors influencing the profession choice by young people. It considers the opportunities for attracting young people to work in agriculture and rural aria.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 ?R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation

  1. Safety Assessment Of Inshas Area Related To Environmental Effects From Surrounding Factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main safety objective require that a nuclear or radiation facility must be sited, designed, constructed, operated and commissioned in a way that assure that no hazards from ionizing radiation could occur on site personnel, the public, and the environment. On the other hand many of a new activities such companies, factories, are established surrounding the nuclear or radiation site, that give rise to hazards on the nuclear site personnel due to its normal and accidental releases of dangerous and taxis gases. The present study considers that effects from surrounding industries on Inchas site which could happened. Two Egyptian research reactors are located within the nuclear research center at Inshas area, 30 km north east of Cairo. This area are crowded by different industrial plants. The releases from them has a hazardous and economical effects on the research center workers and the surrounding inhabitancy. In the study, a meteorological regional specific data is considered all over the year, including a wind rose characterization. It considered both normal operating conditions and an accidental situation. The results shows that there are a considerable risk due to normal releases in some areas downwind direction of the major releases, and a highly risk in areas subjected to major exposure. Regional maps of emission distribution, economical damage , pollutant concentration are obtained. The study helps to identify solutions to problems of atmospheric protection. It can be used as a decision support for the environmental, economic, and innovation planning at the national levels taking into consideration the national pollution standards and variety of existing emission sources.

  2. SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a net exporter of organic production.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AND AGRO-TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE IN ROMANIAN RURAL AREAS DURING 2000 – 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Kruzslicika; Verginia Chiri?escu; Daniela Ruxandra Andrei; Manuela Rodica Gogonea; Mariana Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: More and more tourists from around the world are passionate about the beauty that nature has created. Romania has, including and especially in rural areas many attractions, some already known, others less known. Tourism practiced in various forms in rural areas of Romania offers people who want to relax, who loves nature, culture and folk art, a treasure chest of ancient rural civilization values and can save time and money is staying in reception of rural areas, be it by: peasant f...

  4. Influences on the choice of health professionals to practise in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Couper, I.D.; Hugo, J.F.M. (Jannie); Conradie, H.; Mfenyana, K.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Training health care professionals (HCPs) to work in rural areas is a challenge for educationalists. This study aimed to understand how HCPs choose to work in rural areas and how education influences this. METHODS: Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with 15 HCPs working in rural areas in SA. RESULTS: Themes identified included personal, facilitating,contextual, staying and reinforcing factors. Personal attributes of the HCPs, namely rural origin and/or heir value ...

  5. Agrotourism - A Sustainable Development for Rural Area of Korca

    OpenAIRE

    STELA ZOTO; ELEINA QIRICI; ESMERALDA POLENA

    2013-01-01

    The term agro-tourism emerged in the late twentieth century. It includes agricultural farms that are related to tourism. This notion represents all activities related not only to tourists but also to the organizers of the holidays in general. Agro tourism is very important for rural communities as well as urban areas. It can provide several advantages: income, employment, use accommodation, activities, natural resource conservation, recreation and education. But the main problem for many coun...

  6. Frailty Among Elderly Adults in a Rural Area of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmur, Hülya

    2015-01-01

    Background The elderly population is growing in Turkey, as it is worldwide. The average age of residents in rural areas of Turkey is relatively high and is gradually increasing. The purpose of this study is to summarize the fitness and frailty of elderly adults living in a rural area of Turkey characterized by a relatively low level of socioeconomic development. Material/Methods This study was designed as a prospective, cross-sectional study, and was conducted in a rural area of Kars Province. A total of 168 elderly adults (?65 years old) from 12 central villages were included in the study. The Fried Frailty Criteria was used to assess the frailty of the participants. In addition to frailty, the physical, social, and mental status of elderly adults was examined. Results The prevalence of frailty in this rural area of Turkey was 7.1%. The study group ranged in age from 65 to 96 years (mean 72.70±7.73 years), and 53.6% were female. Among the elderly adult group, 84.3% had not completed elementary school, and 43.29% had a monthly income of ?500 Turkish liras ($200). No significant relationship was identified between gender and frailty. There was a statistically significant relationship between frailty and older age, lower education level, lower economic level, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastric disease, arthritis, generalized pain, benign prostatic hyperplasia, urinary incontinence, auditory impairment, impaired oral care, caregiver burden, impaired cognitive function, depression, or a lack of social support (social isolation). Conclusions It is believed that this study will contribute considerably to understanding the health status and needs of elderly adults in Turkey and the health problems of this population as well as to planning the development of public health and geriatric services based on regional needs. PMID:25925800

  7. Agrotourism - A Sustainable Development for Rural Area of Korca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STELA ZOTO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The term agro-tourism emerged in the late twentieth century. It includes agricultural farms that are related to tourism. This notion represents all activities related not only to tourists but also to the organizers of the holidays in general. Agro tourism is very important for rural communities as well as urban areas. It can provide several advantages: income, employment, use accommodation, activities, natural resource conservation, recreation and education. But the main problem for many countries is the low level of farm income. Agro tourism intends to obtain higher standards of living for rural communities especially through increased income for people who work in agriculture.There are five main forms of rural tourism which bring benefits both for tourists and for the local community.• Natural tourism, which is mainly preferred for its recreational value.• Cultural tourism, which is mainly related to culture, history and archeology of the area destination.• Ecotourism, as a form of tourism that presents natural resources while maintaining the values and local population welfare.• Village tourism, where visitors live and enjoy the various activities of peasant life.• Agro tourism, in which tourists see and participate in traditional agricultural practices without destroying the ecosystems, the host bases. Development in Korca region is one of the main priorities of the regional strategy. The study will be focused on four villages: Dardhe, Voskopoja, Vithkuq and Prespa. We will see the advantages and weaknesses of rural tourism development in these areas, as well as their benefits. We will also see a study about the residents’ perceptions of the tourism development in the area and of the agro- touristic behavior of the tourists there.

  8. The DEPURANAT project : sustainable management of wastewater in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Vera, L.; Martel, G.; Salas, J. J.; Sardón, N.; Nogueira, R; Brito, A. G.; Faby, J. A.; Ramón, A.

    2007-01-01

    The DEPURANATt project received co-financing from the European Union through its interregional cooperation programme, Interreg IIIB Atlantic Arc Programme. This project, coordinated by the Canary Islands Institute of Technology, allowed French, Portuguese and Spanish institutions to work together on sustainable management of wastewater in rural and protected areas. Within the framework of this project, twelve natural wastewater treatment systems have been built or adapted fr...

  9. Urbanization of Rural Areas in the Case of Velenje Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Ostruh, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the master thesis was to find out the character of the settlements in the Velenje municipality due to urbanization. The main questions were the presence of suburbanization, its intensity, trends and correlation with the distance of settlements from the town. Groups of indicators for rural areas urbanization monitoring were defined through environmental, social and economic point of view, which ensure the use of sustainable development approach by development assesment. The analysi...

  10. A procura do turismo em espaço rural / The demand for tourism in rural areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís, Silva.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER) em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quot [...] idiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas. Abstract in english This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA) in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break [...] free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

  11. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, H. [comp.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  12. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (?41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source

  13. Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in ?ódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in ?ódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in ?ódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

  14. Water analysis from wells in Ezeiza and surrounding areas. Dissolved uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to give an answer to the different social sectors, we sampled water from previously existing wells that reaches the Puelche aquifer. The uranium concentration was determined in these samples to obtain a preliminary checkup of water quality situation. For the analysis we considered the samples obtained inside the CAE as well as those sampled in the surrounding areas as Monte Grande, Claypole and Burzaco. The results show a correlation between the amount of dissolved salts and the presence of dissolved uranium. (author)

  15. TOURISM – IN SUPPORT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT. A CASE STUDY ON TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS IN RURAL AREA (BUTEA, IA?I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Maria BORDEIANU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is a result of a research conducted in a rural area from North-Eastern part of Romania, analyzing the training need in tourism and the level of education of the working population. The goal of the study is to obtain conclusive information as to establish concrete solutions and priorities regarding the diversification and employment reviving in rural areas in the following years (with an orientation in the field of tourism and services. The key aspect is to improve the quality of human resources in rural areas in order to facilitate the access to employment in non-agricultural activities, as an alternative. Along with other measures supported and promoted by the local government, this initiative will help to prevent depopulation of rural areas in the short to medium term. Moreover, the ingredients for a sustainable rural development are the tourism potential proper exploitation and the human resources skills development.

  16. Migration to Less-Popular Rural Areas in the Netherlands: Exploring the Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, Rixt A.; Haartsen, Tialda; Strijker, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Migration into rural areas is often explained in terms of the rural idyll, the attraction of the countryside with its less hurried way of life in a quiet, spacious and green environment. However, this migration phenomenon has mostly been researched in attractive, amenity-rich, popular rural areas. This paper investigates the characteristics and…

  17. Training Special Educators to Teach in Rural Areas: Special Problems and Recommendations for Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloway, Edward A.; Tolbert, Merrill P.

    A review of the existing literature on preparation of rural teaching personnel focuses on the problems of education and specifically, special education, in rural areas and reports various solutions to those problems. Characteristics of many rural areas (such as high non-enrollment rates, rising service costs, resistance to outside interference,…

  18. Impacts of Rural Development Projects on Rural Areas in Turkey: A Study on Yozgat Rural Development Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Berk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines economic structure and results of economic activities of farms (2001-2002 production years in the context of Yozgat Rural Development Project (YRDP that implemented between 1991 and 2001 in the Yozgat province in Turkey by International Fund For Agricultural Development (IFAD and aims at disclosing economic effects of YRDP on farms in the region. For this purpose, farmers living within and outside of the project area were interviewed and a questionnaire study was carried out.Comparative evaluation and factorial analysis methods were employed in the analyses. It was observed that the farmers are not well informed of the objectives of YRDP, project related activities, project implementation agencies and relationships between them. It was also found out that the farmers did not actively participate to several stages of the project (such as planning, implementation and control. YRDP achieved its objectives in some areas (such as road construction, irrigation and domestic water supply, however it could not reach that level in other activities. Yozgat Rural Development Project could not meet the expectations in terms of regional development and several activities (animal husbandry, forestry, women programs, creating additional income sources etc. The main deficiencies of the Project were as follows: insufficient cooperation between implementing agencies, selection of improper tools for creating additional income, selecting region based on unsatisfactory data, inadequate activities towards the old people and the children. Taking into consideration of the factors affecting farm activities and adoption of new rural development approaches such as organic farming, micro-credit applications and rural tourism and also establishing new farmers` associations/unions that utilize Information and Communication Technologies (ICT will lead to a new understanding for the improvement of individuals living in the region.

  19. COASTAL PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY OF SURABAYA AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA TO SEA LEVEL RISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayidah Sulma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for coastal vulnerability to sea level rise was carried out in Surabaya and its surrounding area, it has focused on calculations of the physical vulnerability index were used coastal vulnerability index (CVI methods. It was standardized by the multi criteria analysis (MCA approach according to the study area.The score of each physical variable derived from remote sensing satellite data and the results of studies that have been done, such as modeling results and thematic maps, and then integrated into geographic information systems (GIS. Result of this study showsthat the coastal areas of Gresik, Surabaya, and Sidoarjo in the very low to very high vulnerability level. Physically, the low land areas with open and slightly open coastal have a high vulnerability category. The high level vulnerability was found located in the northern of Madura Strait (Gresik Regency that overlooks to the Java Sea is about 28.81% from the entire of study areas. Meanwhile, the moderate, low and very low levels of vulnerability were located on Surabaya and Sidoarjo Regency that have more protected coastal area,relatively. According to the physical condition, the coastal elevation is the most variable that contributes to the high of vulnerability index in the coastal of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo Regency.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent

  1. Side Activities of Non-Farmers in Rural Areas in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Marianna Markantoni; Dirk Strijker

    2012-01-01

    In many rural areas, not only in The Netherlands but also elsewhere in Europe, has been observed a variety of employment opportunities for rural populations, following the decline in traditional agricultural employment. This contributes to the fact that the countryside is changing and rural areas can be viewed as new spaces of work. As a result, rural economy is no longer dominated by agricultural activities, but by activities such as small scale industrial production, service provision, lan...

  2. Impacts of Religious and Pilgrimage Tourism in Rural Areas: The Case of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Pourtaheri; Khalil Rahmani; Hassan Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Rural tourism has speedily developed and become an engine for economic development and plays a great role towards socio-economic changes in rural areas. However, its impact is controversial and not always obvious. To examine these issues, this research presents an empirical analysis of pilgrimage and religious tourism and the impacts of these types of travel in rural areas in Iran. The paper provides examples of these impacts and transformations in the three rural centers as Tourism Model Vil...

  3. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balagangatharathilagar, M. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India); Swarup, D. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India); Patra, R.C. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: patra@ivri.up.nic.in; Dwivedi, S.K. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India)

    2006-04-15

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs.

  4. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 ?g/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 ?g/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 ?g/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 (60Co)-the manufacture of commercial 60Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two 60Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as 60Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of 60Co or any other man-made radionuclide

  6. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizeus, Rutebemberwa; Sheila K., Katureebe; Sheba N., Gitta; Amos D., Mwaka; Lynn, Atuyambe.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. METHOD: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive stud [...] y in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. RESULTS: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people's thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  7. Study on Nitrate Value in Rural Area in Amol City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yousefi, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Nitrate is considered as a major pollutant for groundwater resource. In recent years, the concentration of nitrate in subsurface water is increasing because du to utilization of the of using excessive amount of fertilizers and disposal of wastewater in soils. This research was carried out as descriptive study, in a rural area of Paeen Khiaban Litkooh in Amol City in 2005.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 300 samples were collected from 50 well drinking water in different weather (wet and dry The samples was taken from each well, 3 times in the wet air and 3 times in the dry air. Nitrate analysis method was Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (Model Jesco 7800 U.V/Visible at 220 and 275 nm according to "Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th edition".Results: The results revealed that, nitrate maximum related to well number 38 in a rural qrea with code 8 and with 20.66 mg/l Nitrate as N. Maximum of Nitrate average concerned in rural code 8 with 9.66 mg/l and minimum of nitrate average related to rural code 2 with 1.257 mg/l nitrate as N. The results indicated that nitrate was reduced when the depth of water wells increased and ford ware, the value of nitrate in deep wells is more than surface wells.Conclusion: The statistical analysis showed, there is a significant difference between concentrations of nitrate in surface wells drinking water in wet and dry air conditions, but there is not a significant difference between deep well drinking water. The leakage of surface water to the low depth well and lack of sanitation, may be the cause of this difference.

  8. Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (??czna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (?uszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas.The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in ?uszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in ?uszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek.Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in ?uszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and 7.2% in Lublin – Kalina, whereas that of kenophytes was between 15.1% in Ostrówek and 8.2% in ??czna. In the case of spontaneophytes, the percentage varied between 8.8% in Lublin – Majdanek and 2.7% in ?uszczów. The majority, 299 of the taxa found, proved invaluable to insects (polleniferous and nectariferous. Among the plants growing spontaneously in the analysed cemeteries, there were also 11 legally protected species..

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 (60Co) and cesium-137 (137Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 (235U). Protactinium-234m (234mPa) and 60Co Were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data

  10. Sand fly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Goytacazes National Forest and surrounding areas of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Virgens, Thieres Marassati; Rezende, Helder Ricas; de Souza Pinto, Israel; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2015-06-01

    Most studies of the sand fly fauna in southeastern Brazil are conducted in the peridomiciliary environment of leishmaniasis endemic regions. Therefore, to increase the knowledge about diversity and richness of sand fly conservation areas, we describe here the sand fly fauna from the National Forest of Goytacazes (NFG), state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and its surroundings areas. We also used sand fly fauna records from eight conservations units within the state of Espírito Santo to understand the similarity and relationships among them. The sand flies were simultaneously collected from June, 2008 to May, 2009 in two different environments: a preserved environment represented by the NFG and a modified environment represented by a peridomicile. To establish the similarity among the conservation units, we used a method very similar to parsimony analysis of endemism. We collected 2,466 sand fly specimens belonging to 13 species. Pressatia choti and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant sand fly species. Ny. intermedia is a known vector of Leishmania braziliensis and epidemiological surveillance must be conducted in the area. We discuss aspects regarding the diversity of sand flies as well as the risk of transmission of Leishmania parasites in the area. We also provide for the first time a hypothesis of similarity relationships among conservation units within the state of Espírito Santo. PMID:26047181

  11. A Study on Water Utilization in Chinese Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong TAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available
    In China, because rural population is great and agriculture is very important in national economy, rural areas have becomes a main sphere of water consume. There exist the problems of water shortage and water waste in the countryside. The conflicts of water resource supply and demand between industry and agriculture are very conspicuous. Various factors that include ideology, finance, technology, management and policy restrict the rational and effective use of water resource. The survey on the villages of Jia Ge Zhuang and Yao Bai Zhuang in Ji County, Tianjin reflects these problems. The government tries to solve the problems by making laws and policies, as well as affording financial and technology support to towns and villages. At the same time, it is necessary for the government to make officials and farmers realize the importance of rational water usage and saving by doing propaganda, coordinating the inter-governments relations, and defining the departments’ duties. For realizing the objective of rational water usage, it is necessary to take measures to construct and perfect irrigation installations by both superior and local governments’ investment and farmers’ labor force.
    Key Words: Chinese Rural Areas, Water Resource, Rational Use, Farmland, Irrigation System
    Résumé: En Chine,la population est grande et l’agriculture est très importante dans l’économie nationale. Les régions rurales sont devenues un sphère principal de la consommation d’eau. Il existe les problèmes d’insuffisance d’eau et le gaspillage d’eau dans la campagne. Les conflits sur les resources d’eau fournie et demandée entre industrie and agriculture sont très fréquents. Les facteurs variés tels qu’idéologie, finance, technologie, management et politique limitent l’usage rationel et effectif de ressources d’eau. L’enquête sur les villages de Jia Ge Zhuang et Yao Bai Zhuang dans le pays Ji, Tianjin reflète ces problèmes. Le government tente de résoudres les problèmes par l’élabortion des lois et les poliques, ainsi que le support financierl et technologique aux bourgs et villages. Au meme temps, il est nécessaire pour le government à render conscients les officiels et les paysans l’ importance de l’usage rationel en économisant par la publicité, en coordonnant les relations inter-governmentaux, et en déterminant les tâches des départments. Pour la realiser l’objectif de l’usage d’eau rational, il est nécessaire de prendre des mesures pour construire et perfectionner l’ installations d’irrigation par l’investissement des governements supérieurs et locaux ainsi que les forces des labeurs.
    Mots clés: Les régions rurales chionoises, Ressource d’eau, usage rationel, fermier, Système d’ Irrigation

  12. Ocular Morbid Conditions in the Rural Area of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali K Shrote (Brahmapurkar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular morbid conditions are responsible for partial or total blindness. Ocular morbidities by its sheer magnitude form an enormous problem, not only in human suffering, but also in terms of economical loss and social burden. Aim: The aim of present study was to find the prevalence of ocular morbidities in rural area. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study in area covered by Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC, Hingna which is under the administrative control of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College [IGGMC], Nagpur, was carried out in 194 families with 925 study subjects during February 2005-December 2005. The study focuses on ocular examination and diagnosis of ocular morbid conditions. Both eyes were examined and all the relevant clinical findings were recorded in predesigned proforma. Chi Square test was used for the analysis of data .Results: The results revealed that out of 925 study subjects 297(32.11% were had ocular morbidity. Common ocular morbidity was Myopia (13.62%, Conjunctival xerosis (12.11%, Hypermetropia (11.68%, Xerophthalmia (3.46%, Pterygium (2.92%, immature senile cataract (2.70%, Eye strain (2.49%, mature senile cataract (1.84% and Presbyopia (0.86%. Females were more affected (36.58% as compared to males (28.37%, [?2 = 7.09; d.f. =1, P< 0.05]. It was observed that as the age increases the prevalence of ocular morbidity increases [?2=318.03; d.f =7, p<0.001].Higher prevalence of ocular morbid conditions was found in Illiterates 122 (40.94% [?2 = 16.47; d.f. =3, p<0.001] Conclusion: High prevalence of ocular morbidities was found in rural areas of central India with greater predominance among women and illiterates.

  13. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 ?g/m3, respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  14. Clusters as a factor for sustainable development in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Soci?ska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development is one of the determinants of strategic thinking and current operation of modern companies. Sustainable development is a factor in other words, in which companies come to work. It is an important factor, and having far-reaching repercussions, but it is not the only one. Enterprises should therefore take in its action it into account, adapt to it and benefit from its existence, but that does not mean that this fact can and should be the only determinant of their performance. The determinant of its action should reflect the clusters, especially those operating in rural areas.

  15. EU policy for agriculture, food and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Oskam, A. J.; Meester, G.; Silvis, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union, now of 27 member states, varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and rural areas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in member states. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a long-term path to freer and more open markets, with increased attention at EU and member-state levels to food quality, food safety and animal welfare as well as the environment and the development of...

  16. Locating police service points in rural areas of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cramer, Shaun

    2013-01-01

    A total count of 2,178,700 crimes was committed in South Africa during the year 2012 (Crime Stats SA, 2012). 15,940 murders were committed, resulting in a murder rate of 31.8 per 100,000 inhabitants, and ranking South Africa at the 12th highest murder rate in the world (Crime Stats SA, 2012). These alarming crime rates need to be reduced. Consequently, the need for safety and security is growing among South Africans. This is especially true for the communities living in the rural areas of Sou...

  17. E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Rimmi Anand; Sharad Saxena; Shilpi Saxena

    2012-01-01

    E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. This methodology supports the use of networking and communications technology in teaching and learning. E-Learning is generally meant for remote learning or distance learning, but can also be used in face-to-face mode. In this paper we have made study about the awareness and impact of E-Learning in selected rural areas in India, the providers and learners ratio and an analysis on the collected data has been made to...

  18. The deforestation of rural areas in the Lower Congo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloweka, Ernest Manganda

    2004-12-01

    The Lower Congo is one of eleven provinces in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and is located southwest of Kinshasa Town Province. It has an area of approximately 53.947 km2 with a population of 1,504,361 at an estimated 237 persons per km2. The Province comprises five districts, including Lukaya and Cataracts where rural poverty is severe and the population struggle to make a living through agriculture and woodcutting. These activities result in excessive resource exploitation. The high demand for foodstuffs and the high consumption of wood (for energy, construction and export) in Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo and the expanding towns of Matadi and Boma in the Lower Congo Province, are speeding the deforestation rate and unbalancing forest ecosystems. In addition there is the stress resulting from reduced josher (the rest period for agriculture ground), plus climate change and erosion. The phenomena that that we need to address in these two districts include deforestation, reduced josher, excessive agriculture, erosion, burning and climate change which taken together largely explain the current soil degradation. These areas are marked by excessive post deforestation savannah formation and extended areas of sandy soil, distributed throughout grass and shrub savannahs. This desertification, which is rampant in Lukaya and Cataracts, risks imprisoning the rural population in a vicious cycle of poverty if adequate solutions are not found. PMID:15641386

  19. A universal inequality between angular momentum and horizon area for axisymmetric and stationary black holes with surrounding matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Jörg; Cederbaum, Carla

    2008-01-01

    We prove that for sub-extremal axisymmetric and stationary black holes with arbitrary surrounding matter the inequality $8\\pi|J|area of the black hole.

  20. Assessing flood risk for a rural detention area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Förster

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Flood detention areas serve the primary purpose of controlled water storage during large flood events in order to decrease the flood risk downstream along the river. These areas are often used for agricultural production. While various damage estimation methods exist for urban areas, there are only a few, most often simpler approaches for loss estimation in rural areas. The loss assessment can provide an estimate of the financial provisions required for the farmers' compensation (e.g., in the context of cost-benefit analyses of detention measures.

    Flood risk is a combination of potential damage and probability of flooding. Losses in agricultural areas exhibit a strong seasonal pattern, and the flooding probability also has a seasonal variation. In the present study, flood risk is assessed for a planned detention area alongside the Elbe River in Germany based on two loss and probability estimation approaches of different time frames, namely a monthly and an annual approach. The results show that the overall potential damage in the proposed detention area amounts to approximately 40 000 € a?1, with approximately equal losses for each of the main land uses, agriculture and road infrastructure. A sensitivity analysis showed that the probability of flooding (i.e., the frequency of operation of the detention area has the largest impact on the overall flood risk.

  1. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Aprilia Puspita; Nugraha, Andri Dian; Puspito, Nanang T.

    2015-04-01

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Salmon Site and surrounding area, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former Atomic Energy Commission Test Site at the Salmon Site and surrounding area between April 20 and May 1, 1992. The Salmon Site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 20 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma-ray environment of the Salmon Site and adjacent lands. A contour map showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a rectified aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates within the area are between 5 and 8 ?R/h. The reported exposure rates include a cosmic-ray contribution estimated to be 3.7 ?R/h. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and in situ measurements, taken with a pressurized ion chamber and a high-purity germanium detector, were obtained at 4 locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of and are in agreement with the aerial data

  4. [Identification of vulnerable individuals in the area surrounding a university hospital: connecting vulnerability, solidarity and healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthal, Hellen Cristina; Berti, Heloisa Wey

    2011-07-01

    In the area around a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo state people are found sleeping, eating or resting on the lawns and surrounding areas, and they linger in such sites for hours. This study sought to identify and characterize vulnerable individuals in the area around the hospital by offering help. Data were collected from November 2007 to October 2008, on a weekly basis and on randomly selected days and times. The people found in these places were identified, and 52 subjects were interviewed. The individuals were, predominantly, females (67.3%), white (51.9%), married (59.6%), had attended school for up to four years (44.2%) and did not have a defined profession (84.6%). Most of them were waiting for bus transportation provided by their hometown administration; the mean waiting time was approximately 90 minutes and most of the subjects had certain needs during the waiting period. Help was offered to 15 individuals who reported specific needs at the moment of the interview. It was concluded that these individuals were in a situation of individual, social and systematic vulnerability, especially in terms of socio-economic vulnerability. They showed reduced self-determination ability and submitted themselves to unfavorable conditions due to their dependence on public services. PMID:21808903

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 ?R/h plus an approximate 6 ?R/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey's gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within ± 5%

  6. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from August 10-16, 1993, over a 78-square-kilometer (30-square-mile) area of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was performed at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with a line spacing of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on a set of United States Geological Survey topographic maps of the area and an aerial photograph of the plant. The terrestrial gamma exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour at 1 meter above the ground. Protactinium-234m was observed at six sites within the boundaries of the plant. At a seventh site, only uranium-235 was observed. No other man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was present in a detectable quantity, either on or off the plant property. Soil sample and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ± 7.5%

  7. Lightning flash densities in urban and rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Y.; Binshtok, G.; Price, C.

    2009-09-01

    Lightning flash densities near Tel-Aviv and Haifa, the two largest metropolitan areas in Israel, are compared to rural areas along the Mediterranean coastline. The average flash density in the Tel-Aviv area is ~1.2 flashes/km2/year, increasing from south to north and reaching a maximum in Haifa-bay and the near-by Mt. Carmel. Based on 4 years of lightning data obtained from the Israeli Electrical Company LPATS system (2004/5-2006/7 and 2008/9), we mapped flash densities by using high-resolution Google-earth visualization tools. The maximum lightning flash density is typically found to occur just west of the coastline above the Mediterranean Sea and to decrease eastward over land. The urban complex of the metropolitan Tel-Aviv area shows a clear increase in total lightning density compared to more rural regions to its north and south. An increase in positive-cloud-to-ground (+CG) flash density is present downwind from the Tel-Aviv urban area. A clear mid-week effect is also apparent in +CG densities with peak currents >50 kA north-east of the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area. The second maximum in flash density is found north of Haifa and its surrounding industrial complex, where it is probably dominated by the orographic effect of Mt. Carmel. A possible explanation for the lightning density anomaly in the Tel-Aviv area may be the Urban-Heat Island (UHI) effect, which alters the storm dynamics by enhancing convection and invigorating lightning activity downwind. Alternatively, aerosols emitted from industrial and vehicle activities may be ingested by the passing thunderclouds, modifying the microphysical processes within them and enhancing the ice mass flux, known to be directly related to the flash rate.

  8. Aerial radiological survey of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Middletown, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station during October 26 to 30, 1982. The survey covered an 82-square-kilometer area centered on the nuclear plant and encompassed the communities of Middletown, York Haven, Goldsboro and Royalton, Pennsylvania. The highest radiation exposure rates, up to a maximum of 200 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), were inferred from data measured directly over the TMI facilities. This detected radiation was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60 and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal plant operations. Similar activity is routinely observed in aerial surveys over nuclear power plants which have been or are presently in an operational mode. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied from 6 to 14 ?R/h. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 ?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area, along the river banks upstream and downstream of the survey area, and at the ground-based locations used for a previous aerial survey which was conducted in 1976. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the corresponding aerial data. With the exception of the actial data. With the exception of the activity observed within the TMI facilities, no evidence of any contamination which might have occurred as a result of past reactor operations or the 1979 TMI Unit 2 accident was detected from the aerial survey data. This was further supported by the results of the soil sample analyses and the comparison with the 1976 aerial survey data. 7 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

  9. INTEGRATED TOOLS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF LARGE HYDROELECTRIC RESERVOIRS AND THEIR SURROUNDING AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Elízio Calazans Campelo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the largest electricity market in South America and has the largest capacity for water storage in the world. However, the recent economic growth in Brazil has resulted in a strong demand for expansion and modernization of the nation's electric infrastructure. In order to meet these needs, power companies are increasingly looking for Information Technology (IT solutions that can ensure more efficiency in their business. Moreover, new regulatory rules directly impacts the way companies should acquire, maintain and report information about concession areas, and demand the modernization of companies' information systems. This paper presents a corporate IT solution developed in our Labs to the Sao Francisco's Hydroelectric Company (CHESF, a unit of Brazil’s state-run power utility that generates and transmits electric power to all of the cities in the northeast of Brazil. This project aimed to facilitate the monitoring of concession areas to meet a new normative resolution that establishes particular procedures to be followed by the concessionaires for collecting and maintaining georeferenced information in the granting areas of hydroelectric plants, including all properties around the explored reservoirs. The main aim of monitoring reservoirs and their surrounding areas is to prevent the occurrence of undesired events of land-use or water-use, such construction of buildings and aquaculture; and undesired environmental events, such as fish mortality and water contamination by waste. Our solution provides means of managing different types of information about the properties located within the monitored area; comprises a mobile application that helps collect in-loco information about events; and provides a GIS-based module to facilitate the access and management of georeferenced information.

  10. Modeling captivity and the demand for motorised transport in rural areas of South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, C.J. (Christoffel Jacobus); Venkatesh, Anand

    2009-01-01

    Mobility and access problems in rural areas of developing countries have received some attention from researchers, but this has mostly been of a qualitative nature using small-sample studies. Progressively achieving rural development objectives requires, amongst other things, a better and more quantitative understanding of the nature of the demand for mobility in rural environments, and its links with livelihoods. Rural travel demand differs from urban demand in key respects, including the ex...

  11. Environmental education in rural areas - a real support for sustainable development,

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiurca, Ana-andreea; Lamasanu, Andreea; Mihai, Florin-constantin

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development represents the future for Romanian rural areas and a viable solution to solve the environmental problems. This concept can be put into practice through the interaction between economic, sociocultural, environmental and political-institutional dimension. In this interaction an important role has the ecological education of citizens from rural areas and their involvement in environmental policy decisions. So, a low level of ecological education in rural areas leads to...

  12. Water and Soil Pollution in Punjab with Special Reference to Mandi Gobindgarh & Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shalini Gupta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mandi Gobindgarh is an industrial town in Fatehgarh District of Punjab, India, located on NH-1 at an equi-distance of 55 kms from Ambala, Ludhiana and Chandigarh. It is the second biggest industrial town in Punjab and its industry includes 475 units generating hazardous waste making it as one among the list of 43 critically polluted industrial hubs of the country on which the ministry had imposed a moratorium. (Indian Express: 09 Dec 2012. The population showed a higher prevalence of symptoms of respiratory problems, angina, cardiovascular and skin diseases. The rural area around the city too stands polluted due to industrial smoke, dust and ‘the burning of over 20 million tons of paddy husk by Punjab's farmers’ triggered smog.’ (Times of India 12 Dec 2012. The Commutative Environment Pollution Index for land (soil and ground water has been calculated as 62 for Mandi Gobindgarh and it has been declared as critical as per the analysis results of the samples of ground water collected by the Punjab Pollution Board from different localities of the town.

  13. Ecology of small mammals in a Brazilian rural area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Sergio, D' Andrea; Rosana, Gentile; Rui, Cerqueira; Carlos Eduardo V, Grelle; Claudia, Horta; Luis, Rey.

    Full Text Available A small mammal study was carried out in Pamparrão valley, Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 1991 to July 1996. The area was characterised by small rural properties with vegetable plantations, pasture lands and small forest fragments. Small mammals were captured in seven line tran [...] sects along the valley. Eleven small mammal species were captured: the didelphid marsupials Didelphis aurita, Philander frenata and Monodelphis americana, and the rodents Nectomys squamipes, Akodon cursor, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Bolomys lasiurus, Oecomys concolor (Sigmodontinae), Rattus ratlus (Murinae), Proechimys iheringi and Euryzygo-matomys guiara (Echimyidae). The heterogeneous habitat configuration probably allowed the occurrence of marsupials and more rodent species when compared to studies in monoculture areas.

  14. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area in Paducah, Kentucky. The purposes of the survey were to (1) measure the terrestrial radiological environment within and around the PGDP in order to update previous radiological survey data from 1976 and 1990, and (2) provide information that will be used in the radiological verification for the PGDP's remedial closure effort. The survey was performed from October 28 to November 2, 2009, utilizing a large array of helicopter-mounted sodium iodide gamma ray detectors. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 150 feet (?46 meters) along a series of parallel lines spaced 250 feet (?76 meters) apart and encompassing an area of 24 square miles (62 square kilometers), bordered on the north by the Ohio River. The results of the aerial survey are reported as implied exposure rate, man-made activity, and depleted uranium activity, which are presented in the form of contour maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Exposure rate measurements were acquired using a pressurized ionization chamber at 10 specific locations on the ground to validate the data derived from the aerial measurements. Throughout most of the surveyed area, the detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma-ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific locations within the PGDP, man-made activity was detected that was consistent with the operational history of the plant. In particular, protactinium-234m, a radioisotope indicative of uranium-238, was detected within the PGDP. The aerial survey data indicated no anomalies outside of the depleted uranium cylinder yards.

  15. Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnykh, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was developed. It reflects a modern system of relationships to the land in the laws and regulations on the federal, regional and local levels. It is a tool for informational and legal support in the decision-making process in the field of the wildlife management. The federal laws regulate the situation in general, and the departmental regulations govern its adjustment by components. The analysis of legal acts' dynamics in the sphere of wildlife management and environmental protection was conducted in order to monitoring the situation and evaluate the changes of relationships to the territory for 10 years (2001-2011 years). As the result with the use of GIS-technology a map of legal zoning was created. This electronic map has become a GIS model of the legal zoning, besides the informational content each contour includes cadastral data and information about its legal status. The model is created as a form of refraction of legislative base through a natural and economic basis of the territory. It allows shifting to the analysis of strategy of the territorial use, choice of optimal strategy of regional development, and decision-making and its realization.

  16. The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wimberley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

  17. Fog in a marginal agricultural area surrounded by montane Andean cloud forest during El Niño climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Santos, G.

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate temporal variations of water inputs, rainfall and fog (cloud water), and its contribution to the water balance in a marginal agricultural area of potato surrounded by tropical montane cloud forest in Colombia. Fog in the air boundary layer was estimated using a cylindrical fog collector. Liquid water content of fog events were evaluated before and during natural climate event of El Niño. Our study shows the temporal variation of these two water inputs in both daily and monthly cycles on Boyacá at 2900 m a.s.l. Rainfall was the most frequently observed atmospheric phenomenon, being present on average 62% of the days per year, whereas fog was 45% of the time. Reflected on the lower frequency, annual amount of fog was 11% of precipitation. However during the anomalous dry climate of El Niño, total amount of rainfall was negligible and the few fog events were the only water source for plant growth. Estimated water crop requirements were higher than the water inputs. The survival of the crops was explained by meteorological conditions during dew and fog events. High relative humidity might have eased the plant’s water stress by decreasing transpiration and temperature in leaves and soil, affecting the water balance and the heat exchange between the atmosphere-land interfaces in the marginal agricultural areas during exceptional dry climate.

  18. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)s is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

  19. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeus Rutebemberwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  20. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeus Rutebemberwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  1. Air Pollution by Gases and PM in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janda?ka D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of the air by gases (nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter is a matter of everyday life. Particulate matter (PM is one of hazardous pollutants causing deterioration of the environment and thus quality of life of the population. Long-term exposure to effects of increased concentrations of gaseous pollutants can also cause deterioration of the environment and human health. Particulate matter and gases production by road transport is a burning issue, particularly for larger urban areas. However, pollution also occurs outside urban areas from different sources (road transport that primarily affect vegetation and animals living in the given areas. The environment in urban areas can be affected secondarily by a long-range transfer of pollutants. Due to the dominant use of combustion engines, exhaust gases contain large amounts of gaseous pollutants as well as particulate matter. They particularly include a large amount of the finest PM fractions, which can remain in the air for a long time, easily enter respiratory tracks, and damage human health. The other part includes particulate matter produced by the friction of different parts of roads and vehicle fleets, which concerns matter of larger aerodynamic diameters. The aim of the presented part of the work is to monitor production of particulate matter and gaseous pollutants along roads in rural areas and evaluate their inter-relations, while taking into account the monitored meteorological characteristics and traffic volume.

  2. The Effects of Non-Farm Business in Rural Sustainable Development: A Case Study in Sanandaj's Rural Areas, Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Movahedi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural economy has an important role in rural sustainabledevelopment in every region or country. However, therural economy in Iran is too much depending on agricultureand development of other rural economy in particular nonfarmactivities, has been neglected by Iranian rural communities.Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the role ofnon-farm business on rural sustainable development in SanandajTownship. This study was a type of surveying research andemployed both questionnaire and interview tools. A four-partquestionnaire (with 48 questions was developed in order tocollect data from the respondents. Likert-type responses withfive scales were used to assess different sections of the questionnaires.The questionnaires’ reliability was tested by Cronbach’sAlpha technique and it was 76% (?= 0.76. A numberof 279 families, 181 families with and 98 without non-farmbusiness were selected randomly in 2011. Results of the studyshowed that non-farm business can contribute to employmentgrowth, income generating, and prevent seasonal and permanentmigration from rural areas. Based on the results, non-farmbusiness and non-farm industries need to be strongly investedby financial facilities through rural cooperatives and unions.Additionally, encouraging rural participation is essential innon-farms and industrial activities.

  3. Probability impact analysis of potential radioactive release from Fukushima accident to surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper simulated the potential impact of radioactive material from the Fukushima accident to the surrounding areas with China as an area of special concern. Using the five-year meteorological data in Spring during 2004-2008 as input, the forward 3D trajectories started 8 times a day at 50 m high above four simulated releasing points, which were ± 0.2 degree latitude and longitude centering around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was calculated with an interval of 3 h and a trajectory length of 5 d. By means of cluster analysis to results of trajectory calculation, the atmospheric transport pathways of all the 14720 trajectories derived were obtained that enabled the following statistical analysis to the frequency of radioactive material in reaching interest region as well the probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration. The results showed a relatively low frequency in Spring with its peak appeared in May. For instance the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Harbin in May is 0.9%, Shanghai 0.6%, Taiwan 0.2%, and Beijing 0.1% with an average migration time of 3.2 d, 4.2 d , 4.5 d and 4.6 d respectively. The lowest frequency showed in March, the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Taiwan in March is merely 0.1%, for Harbin is 0.1% and 0 for the rest of areas concerned in our country. The probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are consistent with the impact analysis results of trajectories. Meanwhile, the impact of probability field to other regions can be observed from the results. (authors)

  4. Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3''x3'') at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminant activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of 'Marinelli' container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of 137Cs, for which maesured activities correspond, within allowed measurement error, to the conditions before the start of NPP Temelin operation

  5. Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Kluson, Jaroslav

    2008-08-01

    In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3"x3") at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of "Marinelli" container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of 137Cs, for which maesured activities correspond, within allowed measurement error, to the conditions before the start of NPP Temelin operation.

  6. Study of Indoor Air Quality of Kitchens of Rural Area’s in Lucknow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakanksha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Study deals with the assessment of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ in terms of Particulate matter, Gaseous pollutants, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH during domestic combustions of biofuels (i.e. Fire wood, animal dung and Crop residues in the cooking and non-cooking area of rural kitchens of the rural suburbs of Lucknow (North India. The indoor air samples of kitchens when analyzed for various pollutants, revealed very high concentrations of CO, CO2, NO2 and SO2 in cooking area (kitchen area as compared to non-cooking area (living area. Burning of biofuels (Fire wood, animal dung and Crop residues produced highest emission of PAH. Increment in PAH level was found in the cooking area (kitchen area as compared to PAH level in the non-cooking area. The concentration of PM10 in the indoor air sample was 3.7 times more than that found in the living area. Similarly, the concentration of PM2.5 was four times higher in kitchens using biomass during cooking hours.

  7. Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Baon, J. B.; Prawoto, A. A.; Wibawa, A.; Abdoellah, S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the conseque...

  8. Low-level stability and pollutant-trapping potential for a rural area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takle, E.S.; Shaw, R.H.; Vaughan, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    Temperature and wind speed measurements over a 6-year period from a 32 m tower located in a primarily rural area are used to assess the pollutant-dispersive characteristics of a rural site. A monthly comparison of a crude pollution-trapping index shows July through September the most favorable, and December through February the least favorable, months for the trapping of contaminants emitted from ground-based sources in rural areas.

  9. Benefits of donkeys in rural and urban areas in northwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, M.R.; Steenstra, F.A.; Udo, H. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the benefits of donkeys for rural and urban smallholder farmers in northwest Nigeria. We visited 112 smallholder donkey farmers located in rural and urban areas from four states in northwest Nigeriathrough four focus group meetings, interviews with individual farmers and in depth interview with 12 key informants. In addition, 80 citizens were interviewed about their perception on donkeys. Donkeys were used more intensively in urban than in rural areas...

  10. The Perceptions to Climate Change among Rural Farming Households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    P.O. Emaziye

    2013-01-01

    The study focused on the perceptions to climate change among rural farming households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. The basic objective was to determine the rural farming household’s perception to climate change in the Area and the specific objective was to determine the direction of change of the climate change indicators (whether increasing, decreasing or constant). Multistage sampling procedure was sampled 739 rural farming households (respondents) for the study. Data were analyzed ...

  11. Eye damage following radiotherapy in the surrounding area of the eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation damage of the eyes was investigated in 233 patients who underwent radiotherapy (consisting of 204 with Linac x-ray, 13 with Linac electron beam and 16 with unknown kind of irradiation) for tumors in the eyes or their surrounding areas, with special reference to its relation to exposure doses to the cornea, lens and retina calculated. Corneal damage was seen in 66% of the total patients and in all patients irradiated with 5,000 rad or more. Cataract was seen in 48% of the total patients, in all patients with 6,000 rad or more and in 10% of patients with 3,000 rad or less. Retinopathy was seen in 45% of the total patients, in all patients with 8,000 rad or more and in 12% of patients with 4,000 rad or less. Iridocyclitis and glaucoma were seen in 15% of the total patietns, in 53% of patients with 6,000 rad or more and 8% of patients with 4,000 rad or less. These results suggest the possibility that eye damage can be prevented by precise radiotherapy techniques. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the Innt minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  13. Pn and Sn Velocity Distribution under the Caucasus and Surrounding Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Gülen, L.; Kuleli, S.; Toksöz, M.; Krasovec, M.; Martin, R. J.; Romer, S.; Kalafat, D.; Aliyev, F.; Pei, S.

    2006-12-01

    The new and expanded seismic networks in the countries in the Caucasus and surrounding regions have provided high-quality seismic phase data from local and regional earthquakes. These data have been used to generate 3-D P and S wave velocity models for the crust and upper mantle in the region. Regional velocity models are being incorporated into the analysis of tectonic evolution and the geodynamics of the region. In the paper we present the data from the seismic networks and the Pn and Sn velocity models for the region. 50,000 Pn arrivals and 35,000 Sn arrivals were selected from 6,000 events recorded by 250 stations. Pn anisotropy was also obtained simultaneously with Pn velocity. Average Pn and Sn velocities are 7.9 km/s and 4.45 km/s, respectively, and velocity perturbations are about 3-4%. Areas of thicker continental crust throughout the central Caucasus show lower velocities. High Pn and Sn velocities are dominant under eastern Azerbaijan/ southern Caspian and under eastern Black Sea. Initial results show a NE-SE extension of the high value Pn and Sn velocities between the eastern Black Sea and Southern Caspian basins.

  14. Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitiro Suguio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

  15. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

  16. Can Skill Diversification Improve Welfare in Rural Areas? Evidence from the Rural Skills Development Project in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Natalie; Watanabe, Makiko

    2011-01-01

    Income growth in rural areas may be one of the greatest challenges to further poverty reduction and economic development. Using a new survey of rural Bhutanese households we investigate the short-term economic, social, and psychosocial benefits of a vocational skills training program that was intended to help diversify incomes into sources outside of agriculture; and the determinants of participation. We find limited positive impacts of the program along various economic, social, and psychoso...

  17. Foreshock activity and its probabilistic relation to earthquake occurrence in Albania and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Irikura

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate some characteristics of foreshock activity of moderate and large earthquakes which occurred in the present century in Albania and the surrounding area. Using a prediction algorithm, based on possible foreshocks, we obtained a probabilistic relation between possible foreshocks and mainshocks. From documentary and instrumental data for the period 1901-1994 for the area between 39.0°- 43.0°N and 18.5°-21.5°E we evaluated the probability of the occurrence of mainshocks immediately after their possible foreshocks. The result shows that the probability that mainshocks with magnitude M ³ 6.0 are preceded by a foreshock with magnitude M ³ 4.4, distance £ about 50 km and time £ 10 days is 38% (6/16. The probability that one earthquake with M ³ 4.4 will be followed by a larger earthquake with M ³ 6.0 within about 50 km and 10 days is 1.3% (6/468, but the probability increases to 33% (1/3 if 7 earthquakes with M ³ 4.4 occur within about 50 km and 10 days. From instrumental data for the period 1971-1994, the probability that mainshocks with M ³ 5.0 are preceded by a foreshock with magnitude M ³ 4.0 is 33% (5/15. The probability that one earthquake with M ³ 4.0 will be followed by a larger earthquake with M ³ 5.0 within about 50 km and 10 days is 1.9% (5/262, but the probability increase to 5.6% (1/18 if 3 earthquakes with M ³ 4.0 occur within about 50 km and 10 days. We also found a regional variation of foreshock activity with activity decreasing from the Vlora-Elbasani-Dibra transversal seismic belt to the Ionian-Adriatic seismic zone to the interior part of Albania seismic zone.

  18. Local earthquake tomography of the Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gökalp

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selected travel time data from the aftershock series of the Erzincan earthquake (March, 1992, Ms=6.8 were inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D Vp and Vs structure. The general features of the 3D velocity structure of the upper crust of Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area, one of the most tectonically and seismically active regions in Turkey were investigated. The data used for this purpose were 2215 P-wave and 547 S-wave arrival times from 350 local earthquakes recorded by temporary 15 short-period seismograph stations. Thurber?s simultaneous inversion method (1983 was applied to the arrival time data to obtain a 3D velocity structure, and hypocentral locations. Both 3D heterogeneous P and S wave velocity variations down to 12 km depth were obtained. The acquired tomographic images show that the 3D velocity structure beneath the region is heterogeneous in that low velocity appears throughout the basin and at the southeastern flank, and high velocities occur at south and east of the basin. The low velocities can be related to small and large scale fractures, thus causing rocks to weaken over a long period of the active tectonic faulting process. The ophiolitic rock units mostly occurring around the basin area are the possible reason for the high velocities. The validity of 3D inversion results was tested by performing detailed resolution analysis. The test results confirm the velocity anomalies obtained from inversion. Despite the small number of inverted S-wave arrivals, the obtained 3D S velocity model has similar anomalies with lower resolution than the 3D P-wave velocity model. Better hypocenter locations were calculated using the 3D heterogeneous model obtained from tomographic inversion.

  19. An exploration of revitalization strategies for rural areas : the case of the Northern Free State / Daniel Francois Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Daniel Francois

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas, globally, are characterized as poor regions, with two-thirds of the world’s poor people residing in rural areas. In South Africa, 70 percent of the poor population or 3.6 million households, live in rural areas. In the last three State of the Nation Addresses (SONA) in South Africa by President Zuma since 2011, rural development has been placed high on government’s developmental agenda. The formulation of a comprehensive rural development policy, with coordinated implementati...

  20. Energy use in the rural areas of India: setting up a rural energy data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggregating and forecasting demand are crucial parts of energy planning. While a large number of energy consumption surveys have been conducted in the past in the rural energy sector of India, the lack of sufficient data and its compilation, coupled with doubt about the quality of data, has made the task extremely difficult. This paper summarizes recent efforts to compile, computerize and analyze data from 638 village energy consumption surveys covering over 39,000 households, carried out by different organisations between 1985 and 1989. The details of the level of information provided in the survey reports, area of survey, land use pattern, asset ownership, etc., of the collated studies are presented. Results based on the analysis of the energy consumption data compiled are then discussed. The paper also compares the estimates with those based on other surveys in India. (author)

  1. Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m3) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m3) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Concentration of PBDEs at each site of the studied area. Highlights: ? High levels of PBDEs with BDE-209 domination were detected in air in northern China. ? PBDE concentrations in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in rural open fields. ? Proportions of BDE-209 in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ? PBDE concentrations were correlated to local population density and Gross Domestic Production. - In northern China, PBDEs in air in rural residential areas air in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in open fields.

  2. LO RURAL. UN CAMPO INACABADO THE RURAL AREA: AN UNFINISHED “FIELD”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly del Carmen Suárez Restrepo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El surgimiento de nuevas lecturas de la realidad social rural latinoamericana, e incluso europea, y los efectos de las políticas internacionales sobre qué producir, cuánto, cómo y dónde, han puesto en la agenda académica el debate entorno al significado y contenido de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En el centro de esta controversia está la superación o ruptura entre lo rural y lo agrario, dos términos otrora considerados como sinónimos. Trascender esta dicotomía reduccionista abre la posibilidad de repensar los caminos y las estrategias mediante las cuales las sociedades en general, en sus esfuerzos por autoproducirse crean condiciones de vida, proveen recursos necesarios y pertinentes y movilizan las capacidades y las libertades de los pobladores rurales. Este documento recoge los elementos más sobresalientes de la investigación “Repensando lo rural y el desarrollo rural” en la que se hizo una revisión de literatura sobre el tema y se buscó, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas³, la participación de funcionarios institucionales, representantes gremiales y académicos. En términos generales se pretendía identificar los significados y los contenidos que se atribuyen a lo rural y al desarrollo rural. El texto se organiza en tres partes: En la primera parte, Reiteración o resignificación, se analizan los posibles avances y permanencias en los significados y contenidos de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En la segunda, denominada Elementos constitutivos del desarrollo rural, se hace referencia a las dimensiones, los indicadores y los actores identificados mediante la información obtenida. En la tercera parte, se establece una relación entre el discurso y las prácticas de desarrollo en Colombia y sus implicaciones en el diseño de políticas públicas. Finalmente se concluye que el desarrollo rural ha tenido como trasfondo una orientación modernizadora de la sociedad rural en general y del sector agrario en particular.The emergence of new readings about the Latin American and European rural social reality and the effects of international policies on what to produce, how much, how and where, has placed a debate around the significance and contents of the rural and the rural development. The core of this controversy is the improvement or breaking between the rural and the agrarian, two terms that were before considered to be synonyms. Going beyond this reductive dichotomy opens the possibility of rethinking the ways and the strategies through which societies in general, in their efforts to self-produce, create conditions of life, supply the necessary resources and move the capacities and freedom of the rural workers. This document collects the most outstanding elements of the research “Rethinking the rural and the rural development” in which an extensive revision of literature about the topic was made. This was made also through semi-structured interviews, participation of institutional officers, academic and association representatives. In general, it was sought to identify the meanings of the contents attributed to the rural and the rural development. The text is organized in three sections: In the first section, Reiteration, possible advances and continuance in the meanings and contents of the rural and the rural development are analyzed. In second, called Constitutive elements of the rural development, reference to dimensions, indicators and identified actors is made through the information obtained. In the third, Implications in the design of public policies are articulation between discourse and development practices in the country is established. Finally, it is concluded that the rural development has had an undercurrent modern orientation in rural society in general and the agrarian sector in particular.

  3. Diagnostic laparoscopies in rural areas: a different use for the cystoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanaraj, J

    2010-07-01

    Minimally invasive surgeries are gaining popularity even in rural areas. Diagnostic laparoscopies overcome the disadvantages of open surgical procedures and provide useful diagnostic information. We describe a method of carrying out diagnostic laparoscopies using the cystoscope in rural areas. PMID:20413548

  4. Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

    2014-01-01

    The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, and…

  5. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  6. Role of tourism in development of rural marginal areas (region of Šumava Mts. in Czech Republic).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    T?šitel, Jan; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    Polsko : Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics , 2003 - (Banski, J.; Owsinski, J.), s. 10 ISBN 83-86815-98-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : marginality * marginal area * rural areas Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  7. Impact of surrounding tissue on conductance measurement of coronary and peripheral lumen area

    OpenAIRE

    Won Choi, Hyo; Jansen, Benjamin; Zhang, Zhen-Du; Ghassan S. Kassab

    2012-01-01

    Parallel conductance (electric current flow through surrounding tissue) is an important determinant of accurate measurements of arterial lumen diameter, using the conductance method. The present study is focused on the role of non-uniform geometrical/electrical configurations of surrounding tissue, which are a primary source of electric current leakage. Computational models were constructed to simulate the conductance catheter measurement with two different excitation electrodes spacings (i.e...

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the Faultless Site and surrounding area. Final report, September 9, 1996 - September 12, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Faultless site was measured during September 9-12, 1996, using aerial radiological survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the site and to identify any unexpected man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a four-mile (six-kilometer) radius of the site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Terrestrial exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on maps of the survey area. Terrestrial exposure rates in areas surrounding the site varied from 12-16 microroentgens per hour. No evidence of man-made radiation was detected at the site

  9. The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira are two of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Nyiragongo last erupted in January 2002 and Nyamulagira in November 2011. Even if only a small number of victims resulted directly from these eruptions (notably because they both happened in the day-time), the town of Goma (approx. 700 000 inhabitants) is directly threatened by the fluid lava flows, of which the speed can reach several tens of km/h. But this is not the only menace. Indeed, Nyiragongo hosts a permanent lava lake that produces a plume of gases rich in sulphur (SO2), carbon (CO2), and halogen compounds (HCl, HF). As for Nyamulagira, it makes a major contribution to these emissions during its frequent and regular periods of eruptive activity (approx. every two years). Although the region under study is densely populated (up to 250 inh/km2), and basic volcanic hazard mapping exists, an updated and long-term evaluation of the specific impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira semi-permanent volcanic plumes on the population health has not been done to date. It is the objective of this study. Michigan Technological University (MTU, USA) provides satellite data retrievals of volcanogenic SO2 gas columns. These remote sensing data provide insights about the spatial distribution of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira plumes, which are used to select the sampling areas for studying the human health impact of volcanic emissions. Based on the Congolese Health Information System (HIS) data provided by the CEMUBAC, our study is focused on the 1999-2010 time period. Scientific studies carried out on other active volcanoes suggest that certain pathologies could be linked to a high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. These include Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), conjunctivitis, skin diseases, and ear-nose-throat infections. Using Poisson regression analysis, we determine a Relative Risk Index (IRR) that allows us to identify the years of higher health risk for the population living under the plume. Additionally, time series analysis helps us to disregard any seasonal effect of certain pathologies and to derive a 12-year risk trend. For 2004-2010, our results are compared to SO2 gas emission rates and plume location data measured by using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopic (DOAS) sensors located around Nyiragongo volcano. Finally, the areas identified as more hazardous are highlighted through a geographical approach (using GIS tools), to generate maps and other relevant information that can be of direct use for risk assessment authorities. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the impact of SO2 emissions doesn't seem to be severe, being its most important effect an increase of ARI in the area surrounding the volcanoes (up to 50km). Our on-going study will help us to better determine the magnitude and geographical extent of the impact of volcanic plumes on the health of the population, as well as locate the areas that are most affected. This will contribute to provide the appropriate sanitation recommendations (water treatment, early warning system, etc.) and lead to a more effective volcanic impact reduction on human health.

  10. Sustainable development of the Romanian rural areas within the present European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present concept of rural sustainable development is based on the European model and implies a multifunctional agriculture. The LEADER programme (a part of NRDP represents an approach that offers new development opportunities for the rural areas. The rural development objectives can be fulfilled both by the locally available financing, and by accessing national and European non-refundable financing, on the basis of real projects.

  11. The contribution of town functions to the development of rural areas: empirical analyses for Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2012-01-01

    Rural areas in many developing countries often lack infrastructure and institutions. However, rural towns and towns possess some of the major services that rural and town households can use to advance their economic activities. The study of the contribution that towns and their functions make to different economic activities is still in development. The thesis sought to add to the literature by conceptually discussing the role of town functions and empirically examining the influence on incom...

  12. The great tsunami of 26 December 2004: A description based on tide gauge data from Indian subcontinent and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajan, B.; Suresh, I.; Sundar, D.; Sharma, R.; Lal, A.K.; Neetu, S.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Shankar, D.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Tsunami of 26 December 2004 is described using data from seven tide gauges in India and others from surrounding areas in the Indian Ocean. The tsunami struck the Indian east coast around 0330 UTC. The amplitude was 2 m above the tide...

  13. Rural Sociology in an International Context. Papers on the State of Rural Sociology in Selected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugitt, Glenn V., Ed.

    Published in order to further a better understanding of how work in the field of rural sociology is carried on in various places, the six papers describe pedagogical and research activities relating to the sociological concern for rural people in West Africa, Brazil, Iran, the Middle East, Japan, and India. Each paper describes the evolution of…

  14. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P 10, SO2, and NO2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM10, SO2 and NO2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM10, SO2, and NO2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  15. Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana / School performance of rural area students in urban school

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Stella Maris Cortez, Bacha; Carla Castro Rezende Diniz, Brandão; Leandro, Sauer; Adriano Viana, Bednaski; Marcos Yuri, Camparoto.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato [...] Grosso do Sul (MS), sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural), turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno), tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual) e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / [...] MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of residence (urban/rural), period of study (day / night), type of school (municipal/state) and gender. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in the performances of the students from series 1 to 4, in none of the disciplines. From series 5 to 8 we found a slightly better performance in the students who lived in the urban area, measured by t-Student test. However, if upon jointly analyzing all the variable, none of them was preponderant in explaining the performance of the student, measured by multiple lineal regression. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were found in the school performance between students in the urban and rural area.

  16. Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana School performance of rural area students in urban school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Cortez Bacha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural, turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno, tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas.PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of residence (urban/rural, period of study (day / night, type of school (municipal/state and gender. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in the performances of the students from series 1 to 4, in none of the disciplines. From series 5 to 8 we found a slightly better performance in the students who lived in the urban area, measured by t-Student test. However, if upon jointly analyzing all the variable, none of them was preponderant in explaining the performance of the student, measured by multiple lineal regression. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were found in the school performance between students in the urban and rural area.

  17. SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZE ENTERPRISES AS A FORM OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bucka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In rural areas, we are now dealing with a surplus of labour in agriculture and lack of jobs for the population without land. The decreasing role of agriculture and the benefits of agricultural production as a primary source of income of the rural population makes it necessary to supplement income from other activities. Making activities in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises can significantly be replenished. Small and medium-sized enterprises can be regarded as a manifestation of entrepreneurship in rural areas. The aim of the study is to identify the role and importance of small and medium-sized enterprises in rural activation. In this study, the statistical material available from GUS contained in the publications concerning rural areas in Poland and literature.

  18. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  19. Drinking water quality assessment of rural wells from Aiud Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ro?u

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the assessment of physico-chemical quality of drinking watercoming from rural wells of Aiud area (villages: M?gina, Livezile, Poiana Aiudului, V?li?oara. Water qualitywas evaluated through a research project conducted over a period of eight months (October 2009 - May2010. It consisted of a monthly monitoring of water physico-chemical characteristics of 27 drinking wellsfrom the villages mentioned above. There were monitored monthly in the laboratory the followingparameters: pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids,salinity, using WTW Multi-parameter inolab 720. In April and May, at the parameters mentioned abovewere added chemical measurements for the following indicators: Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2->, NO3 -, PO4 3-,HCO3 -, which analysis were performed with Dionex Ion Chromatograph System 2100. The results of thechemical analysis were processed using the following methods: linear regression, Pearson correlationcoefficient (r and water quality index (WQI. This monitoring project was initiated from the premise of aproblematic quality of well waters, based on the well known contamination vulnerability of the drinkingwater in Romania, but the results of this study proved the opposite: the water from the monitored wellshad a proper quality for drinking

  20. Rural flour mills. farmer promotion tool m the Sahel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audroing, M.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grameen Bank is a specialized financial institution in Bangladesh that was established to provide credit to the rural poor for the purpose of improving their economic conditions with the hypothesis that if the poor are supplied with working capital they can generate productive self-employment without external assistance. Loans from the Grameen Bank are used primarily for undertaking noncrop activities. The loan repayment performance is excellent. Only 0.5 percent of loans to 975 borrowers surveyed were overdue beyond one year, and overdue weekly installments (before the expiration of the one-year repayment period were only 3.3 percent of the total amount borrowed. The Grameen Bank concept of credit without collateral should work in other countries with widespread poverty and underemployment. But elements like taking the bank to the people and intensive interaction of bank staff with borrowers may be inappropriate and highly expensive for sparsely settled areas with underdeveloped transport systems. For such environments, an appropriate delivery mechanism has to be worked out.

  1. Activities of Youth Restiveness and Militancy in the Development of Rural Areas in Southern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ozuruoke, S. N.; Nlerum, F. E.; Albert, C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effects of youth restiveness and militancy in the development of the rural areas in Rivers State. Data obtained from 100 randomly sampled respondents in two local government areas were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed poverty (87.7%), unemployment (88%), use of youths for election purposes by politicians (69.4%) and cultism (60%) were the main causes of militancy and youth restiveness in the study area. The effects of this in rural development w...

  2. Radionuclide renography in rural areas of the Gambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transportable renography apparatus has been used to study subjects in rural communities in the Gambia. The apparatus fits into six metal containers which can be sealed against dust and moisture and carried in the back of a Land-Rover. A small petrol generator can be used to supply power in the field. A three-detector renogram is recorded on a chart recorder whilst digital data are recorded on a C60 cassette for subsequent deconvolution analysis. Indices of renal function, such as mean renal transit time (MTT) and relative effective renal plasma flow (%ERPF), are obtained from the digital data, and a blood sample taken after the renogram is used to estimate overall effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). The apparatus has been reliable, with no serious breakdowns, but supplies of 131I-Hippuran have been a difficult problem. The short half-life of 131I and the short shelf-life of 131I-Hippuran limit the time spent in the field to a few days and delays in delivery from the United Kingdom have had serious consequences. Measurements in an area free from urinary schistosomiasis were used to establish normal values and relationships with other indices, such as time to peak counts and percentage uptake. Results from an area where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic showed a statistically significant difference in MTT and ERPF but not in %ERPF. MTT was longer in subjects aged 45 or less in the endemic area, but no statistically significant differe, but no statistically significant differences were found for older subjects. ERPF was lower for subjects aged 17 or above in the endemic area, but for subjects aged 16 or less it was higher with a positive correlation between ERPF and urinary egg count. Subjects who had a second renogram one year after treatment with metrifonate showed some improvement. By the time of a two-year follow-up nine subjects had died in the endemic area and four of them had abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF. Only one subject with abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF had survived. (author)

  3. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  4. Diagnóstico ambiental e delimitação de Áreas de Preservação Permanente em um assentamento rural = Environmental diagnosis and delimitation of PPAs (Permanent Preservation Areas in a rural settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Alexandre Fagundes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leia-se neste artigo a tentativa de diagnosticar, delimitar e situar as Áreas de Preservação Permanentes e de Reserva Legal dentro de um assentamento rural, do Incra; visando à experimentação de ferramentas de geoprocessamento para a restauração das matas ribeirinhas, pela delimitação destas áreas, respeitando a legislação ambiental vigente, e partindo de uma ampla avaliação ambiental descritiva da paisagem, encontrada no Projeto de Assentamento Federal Capela. Um diagnóstico da paisagem local é apresentado na forma de um memorial fotográfico. Neste trabalho, serão delimitadas e quantificadas somente asAPP’s de entorno de corpos d’água.This article aims to diagnose, demarcate and situate Permanent Preservation Areas and Legal Reserves within an Incra Rural Settlement. This effort was conducted while testing the effective application of geoprocessing tools in the restoration of riparian forests and the delimitation of these areas, in accordance withexisting environmental legislation, and based on a broad descriptive environmental evaluation of the local landscape, located at the Capela Federal Settlement Project. A landscape diagnosis is shown in a photographic memorial as well. For this study, only the PPAs surrounding water bodies will be delimited and quantified.

  5. Problems of health education in rural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzy?ska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Go?dziewska, Ma?gorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; Ga??ziowska, Edyta

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community. PMID:24069857

  6. Sustainable Development Problems of Rural Areas: Tariff Policy in Energy Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michurina Frida Zakharovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted both to stability theory forming as an important economic conception and tariff policy in energy supply for rural areas as a part of the program to achieve sustainability. Policy evaluation is made on the statistics materials on Permskii Krai. The authors show that government, business and society collaborating can achieve economic efficiency, also through tariff regulation for electric energy payment and due to energy saving. This will have a positive impact on the socio-economic condition of enterprises in rural areas. This policy may also be applied to the whole country as a contribution to sustainable development of rural areas.

  7. Comparing supports for LGBT aging in rural versus urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael G; Quam, Jean K

    2013-01-01

    Studies of rural populations typically underrepresent lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. This secondary analysis examined data from a nationwide sample of LGBT baby boomers (n = 1201). Geographic differences with respect to self-reported outness, acceptance of sexual identity, social and familial support, and household income were assessed with one-way analyses of variance. Guardedness about one's sexual identity and household asset levels were assessed with chi-square analyses. Rural individuals reported lower levels of outness, guardedness with people including siblings and close friends, and lower levels of household income. Providers should consider strategies for connecting older rural LGBT adults for potential care and support. PMID:23350566

  8. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Asthma Rates Similar Among Black Children in Urban, Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_151937.html Asthma Rates Similar Among Black Children in Urban, Rural ... 9, 2015 THURSDAY, April 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Asthma rates are essentially identical among black children living ...

  10. Electric distribution infrastructures for rural areas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally defined. Chapter II describes the design method developed to compare the costs of different architectures and choose the most suitable. Chapter III shows a method of sizing systems Decentralized Rural Electrification including generators, batteries and windmills. Chapter IV describes the results of a reliability study was carried out on different solutions. Chapter V describes the work done to analyze the operation of a production center consists of a generator and a wind turbine. (author)

  11. Geology of the Šalek valley and the surrounding areas from written sources

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander Brezigar

    2007-01-01

    In the paper are presented the oldest written records on Natural History, and especially the Earth Sciences concerning the [alek valley and surroundings, and that are of exceptionalcultural heritage value. We translated from archaic German a text by Hacquet from 1784 that discusses the Dobrna hot springs, and supplied it with explanations and comments.Added is the copy of a part of Hacquet’s lithohydrographic map with Šalek valley in its centre, and with our geologic explanations. Among the f...

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Ontario, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proctor, A.E.

    1997-06-01

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in the area surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation (cobalt-60 within the plant site and cesium-1 37 directly over the reactor) was found at the plant site. In addition, small areas of suspected cesium-137 activity were found within the survey areas. Other than these small sites, the survey area was free of man-made radioac- tivity.

  13. RURAL AREAS – THE PREMISE OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia LEPADATU

    2012-01-01

    Year 2007 when Romania joins the European Union marked a new era in development and agricultural economy of our country. In this context Romania has had to quickly adapt its economy to take part in the EU internal market and to benefit fully from the positive effects of adopting the CAP. EU membership is perhaps the strongest factor of pressure for reform of agriculture and rapid rural Romanian economy given the necessity to integrate successfully in European rural economy. European model of ...

  14. Extent of Online Communication Compatibility in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-01-01

    Online communication system are several way people communicate with each other over the Internet, as well as e-mail, make contact with forms on web sites ,feedback on blogs and social networking sites.3Recently efforts have been made to use the electronic modes or communication to supply information to rural development sector. Online communication system is helpful for rural development such as Technology Transfer (Persuasive and Paternalistic), Advisory work (Persuasive and ...

  15. Community Associations of Rural Areas: A Case Study in Central West of Minas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Toledo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the association in a rural mining town in Brazil. The results belong to a master dissertationin Rural Extension on membership organizations and public policies for rural areas aiming to identify the roles performed by membership organizations, the reasons that explained their formation and their relationship with policy making for rural areas in the case studied. It is a case study, for which interviews were conducted with representatives of the organizations in order to deepen into the issues related to their historical, the roles they play and how and whether they participate in development project proposals. The results revealed anup-down process of formation of rural organizations, being created as bargaining tools for achieving collective benefits, reproducing dependency relationships

  16. The Contribution of Rural Tourism to the Sustainable Development of the Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Turtureanu, Anca Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    There are some elements related to the concept of rural tourism which has nowadays become very important around the world. The rural tourism can revitalize the conventional concepts and views on tourism, and bring in a new dimension to the sustainable development of tourism. It has been realized that tourism can play a major role in many countries economies, especially in developing ones, where it can substantially contribute to the increase of the national income. In this respect, mention sh...

  17. STUDY REGARDING THE ROMANIAN RURAL TOURISM FINANCING AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae BALTE?; Alina-Teodora CIUHUREANU

    2009-01-01

    Rural tourism and agricultural tourism are activities, which generate alternative incomes, a fact that offers development possibilities to the rural space, due to the unique landscapes, large semi-natural areas, the inhabitants' born hospitality in the rural surroundings. From this perspective, a modernization, development and innovation process for the Romanian rural tourism is required. All these aspects, however, require financing. Therefore, a pre-accession financing source of the rural t...

  18. International cooperation on wind energy for rural areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the recent wind energy activities in China is given. China has a long history in harnessing the wind; modern development started during the late seventies. The Chinese wind potential is mainly in the coastal regions (North East and South East) and in Inner Mongolia. The actual total installed wind power is estimated to be 15 MW. For low lift (within 2 meters), high volume applications, e.g. salt making in salt pans along the coast, of mechanical windmills coupled to screw pumps have been developed. In Inner Mongolia, small portable wind generators (50-200 MW) charging car batteries are supplying some 100,000 farmer and herdsman families with electricity for television and lighting. The average energy consumption is between 200 and 300 kWh per year and the corresponding kWh price 0.40 to 0.50 US$. Since 1988 the demand for small wind generators declined due to the lower wool prices on the world market, affecting the income of the herdsman, and due to the fact that the machines have to be marketed in remote, less accesible rural areas. Various demonstration projects have been set up, f.e. a decentralized energy system on Dachen Island, including a wind diesel hybrid system. On Kongdon Island a 60 kW wind turbine and a 60 kW diesel generator were installed. With several foreign wind turbine manufacturers cooperations have been set up for licensed production in China. Also wind farms have been installed. The largest Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 m Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 meter diameter, 200 kW machine. Western organizations or manufacturers are involved in most of the cooperatives. For the next five years the focus is on development of a large 150 and 200 kW machine and a windmill coupled to a centrifugal pump for lifting heads between 2 and 5 meter. 1 fig., 3 refs

  19. Determining rural areas vulnerable to illegal dumping using GIS techniques. Case study: Neamt county, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constantin; Ursu, Adrian; Ichim, Pavel; Chelaru, Dan-Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to mapping the potential vulnerable areas to illegal dumping of household waste from rural areas in the extra- Carpathian region of Neamt County. These areas are ordinary in the proximity of built-up areas and buffers areas of 1 km were delimited for every locality. Based on various map layers in vector formats (land use, rivers, built-up areas, roads etc) an assessment method is performed to highlight the potential areas vulnerable to illegal dumping inside t...

  20. Analysing agriculture and rural areas in Europe; A synthesis of research programmes in 20 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, F.M.; Sas-Paszt, L.

    2011-01-01

    The existing research programmes in Europe dealing with the new relationships between rural areas, agriculture and sustainable development, cover a wide range of topics in the domains of ecology and economy.

  1. Vitamin D insufficiency among postmenopausal women in urban and rural areas in Guilan, Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddah, Mohsen; Sharami, Seyede Hajar; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to describe vitamin D status in postmenopausal women in urban and rural areas in Guilan, northern Iran. Between October 2004 and February 2005 a group of 750 women older than 50 years was randomly selected from urban and rural areas in Guilan. The participants were interviewed to collect data on age, educational level, body weight, height, employment status, reproductive history, medications, history of illness, and supplement use. Serum 25(OH) D was measured in 646 women (427 in urban areas and 219 women in rural areas). Serum 25(OH) D levels in urban and rural postmenopausal women were 18.5 ± 13.5 ng/ml and 22.9 ± 13.8 ng/ml (P upper social class. Supplement use and national strategies to prevent vitamin D insufficiency are strongly needed in this community. PMID:21184380

  2. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Project Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.61 Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas. (a) Pursuant to the...

  3. Impacts of Religious and Pilgrimage Tourism in Rural Areas: The Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Pourtaheri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism has speedily developed and become an engine for economic development and plays a great role towards socio-economic changes in rural areas. However, its impact is controversial and not always obvious. To examine these issues, this research presents an empirical analysis of pilgrimage and religious tourism and the impacts of these types of travel in rural areas in Iran. The paper provides examples of these impacts and transformations in the three rural centers as Tourism Model Villages (TMVs. A qualitative method and survey questionnaire was distributed to 300 households in the study area and the data analyzed by use of One-sample T-test, Kruskal-Wallis and tukey test in SPSS software. In this regards the social, physical and economic impacts on the transformation of rural households are discussed. The results revealed that pilgrims and religious tourists are strongly influenced in rural areas, but the social aspect of pilgrimage and religious tourism had the largest impacts on rural households. And also the results indicated that the villages related to “Religious tourism”, have registered statistically significant higher impacts of those villages related to “Pilgrimage tourism”.

  4. Breast Feeding Practices and Newborn Care in Rural Areas: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu K; Chowdary Sriram; Masthi Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care ce...

  5. General Population Survey In Rural Area To Generate Prevention Indicators For HIV/AIDS Control

    OpenAIRE

    Lal Sunder; Malik J.S; Singh, Vashisht B. M.; Punia M.S.; Jain R.B

    1998-01-01

    Research question: What has been the impact of massive educational campaign of AIDS/HIV in general population in rural areas? Objectives :1.To ascertain the level of awareness of preventive practices relating to HIV/AIDS.2.To know the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour.3.To ascertain condom availability and accessibility. Study design: Cross-sectional. Participants: Men and women in age group 15-49 years. Sample size: 1737 individuals. Settings: Rural areas of Distt.Rohtak. Outcome variables...

  6. Water defluoridation, water denitrification and water desalination in rural areas in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeman, J.J. (Jakob Johannes)

    2010-01-01

    Many borehole waters in rural areas in South Africa are unfit for human consumption because the fluoride (>1,5 mg/?), nitrate-nitrogen (>6 mg/?) and salinity (>1 500 mg/?) concentrations are too high. Ion exchange (IX) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology are available that can be used for defluoridation, denitrification and desalination of water. However, methodology, guidelines and the economics for the use of these technologies in rural areas are not readily available. Therefore, the object...

  7. Needs an posibility for introduction of district heating system in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Juvan, Miha

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis micro district heating system on woods biomass is presented, which is suitable for rural area. Also energy consumption for residential heating for Slovenia and wider is introduced. The aim to find sustainable, clean and stable energy source was introduced trough analysis of possible construction of a biomass district heating systems for family houses. A model was made with the intention to reflect the reality of rural areas on which the analysis is based. The analysis tries to ...

  8. Changing European farming systems for a better future. New visions for rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Langeveld, J. W. A.; Ro?ling, N. G.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in market organisation, climatic conditions and societal demands on food quality, animal welfare and environmental quality have created new conditions for farming families as well as for researchers and policy makers. New social, technical and economic solutions are needed for farming and rural areas. This book presents new perspectives for farms, farm products and rural areas, many of which were collectively developed by coalitions of farmers, farmer representatives, researchers, civ...

  9. CO2 flux and seasonal variability in the turbidity maximum zone and surrounding area in the Changjiang River estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuegang; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin; Qu, Baoxiao

    2015-01-01

    The turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) is one of the most important regions in an estuary. However, the high concentration of suspended material makes it difficult to measure the partial pressure of CO2 ( pCO2) in these regions. Therefore, very little data is available on the pCO2 levels in TMZs. To relatively accurately evaluate the CO2 flux in an example estuary, we studied the TMZ and surrounding area in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary. From seasonal cruises during February, August, November 2010, and May 2012, the pCO2 in the TMZ and surrounding area was calculated from pH and total alkalinity (TA) measured in situ, from which the CO2 flux was calculated. Overall, the TMZ and surrounding area acted as a source of atmosphere CO2 in February and November, and as a sink in May and August. The average FCO2 was -9, -16, 5, and 5 mmol/(m2·d) in May, August, November, and February, respectively. The TMZ's role as a source or sink of atmosphere CO2 was quite different to the outer estuary. In the TMZ and surrounding area, suspended matter, phytoplankton, and pH were the main factors controlling the FCO2, but here the influence of temperature, salinity, and total alkalinity on the FCO2 was weak. Organic carbon decomposition in suspended matter was the main reason for the region acting as a CO2 source in winter, and phytoplankton production was the main reason the region was a CO2 sink in summer.

  10. Side Activities of Non-Farmers in Rural Areas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Markantoni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural areas, not only in The Netherlands but also elsewhere in Europe, has been observed a variety of employment opportunities for rural populations, following the decline in traditional agricultural employment. This contributes to the fact that the countryside is changing and rural areas can be viewed as new spaces of work. As a result, rural economy is no longer dominated by agricultural activities, but by activities such as small scale industrial production, service provision, landscape management, and residential use. To a certain extent these activities have the form of side-activities next to primary income sources. Most attention in both scientific literature and policies is focused on side-activities by farmers, such as agro-tourism and direct marketing. However, according to empirical data from The Netherlands, most side-activities are developed by non-farmers. In this paper the focus is on this last group. The amounts and types of non-farmers’ and farmers side-activities will be deployed, together with their motives to start new entrepreneurship endeavors and the impact on the local community. It will be argued that this type of activities will stimulate rural economic development offering new job opportunities for income generation to the rural inhabitants and create new economic spaces in rural geographical contexts transforming the rural economy.

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Site and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina, October--November 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of October 14 to November 23, 1991, over an area surrounding the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The area is situated 15 kilometers south of Aiken, South Carolina. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the SRS and surrounding areas. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region are generally uniform and typical of natural background. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over several areas within the survey region. The manmade radionuclides detected in these areas, cesium-137, cobalt-60, and protactinium-234m, were produced by the reactor operations and material processing conducted at the SRS. The radiation levels produced by these nuclides are consistent with those levels measured during previous SRS aerial surveys. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries

  12. Areas of rural reservation in Bolivar's South: a proposal of rural territorial reordering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article describes by means of a methodological process and inside an analysis mark that picks up aspects tried from the perspective of agrarian economy and the human geography, the effects of the public politics of the rural reservations in Bolivar's south, as well as its advances and challenges in the territorial reorganization of the territory. In this context, the document evidences the process of the new territorial configurations, in Bolivar's south, result of a social construction exercised by its own rural communities. In a same way the document presents a brief analysis of the agrarian structure of the rural reservations, and it illustrates the new underlying classification, product of the territorial control that develop the illegal armed groups at the moment. The advances, difficulties and challenges of the rural reservations, are the central axis of the present text, since the figure is presents as an interesting project of public politics, not alone of colonization and of agrarian reformation, but of territorial rural ordination, stiller, when in the country it has not been possible to approve an organic law of territorial classification that involves in an integral way the territorial aspects with the agrarian ones, going outside of the conception of the agrarian things of the strictly agricultural thing

  13. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. Keywords: prevalence, perception, domestic violence, rural, urban 

  14. An aerial radiological survey of the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and surrounding area, Fairborn, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over areas of Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) and the immediate surrounding area, during the period July 7 through 20, 1994. The survey was conducted to measure and map the gamma radiation in the area. This mission was the first aerial radiation survey conducted at WPAFB. In the surveyed area, five small localized sources of gamma radiation were detected which were atypical of naturally-occurring radionuclides. On WPAFB property, these sources included a radiation storage facility in Area B (krypton-85) and an ash pile near the Area C flight line (low energy gamma activity). In the area covered outside WPAFB boundaries, sources included cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout over a landfill in a northern Dayton industrial area, an X-ray radiography source over a steel plant in the same industrial area, and a mixture of cesium-137 in excess of worldwide fallout and possibly iridium-192 in an area near Crystal Lakes, Ohio. The naturally-occurring gamma emitters (uranium-238 and progeny, thorium and progeny, and potassium-40) were detected in the remaining area with a total exposure rate range of 4 to 16 ?R/h; this range is typical of that found in the United States, 1 to 20 ?R/h

  15. A Socio -Epidemiological Study of Tuberculosis in a Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    R K Gupta, A. Gupta

    2002-01-01

    hc thousand rural adults (aged IS years and above) were studied to find out role of socIal vanabiesm the occurrence of tuberculosis in seven villages of R.S.Pura tehsi! ofJammu district. During thIScross-,ccllonal study. 25 tubercular cases were found in the adult rural population. Out of 25 cases.16 yorc lound m the age group of below 45 years and only 9 cases were above -15 ycaf'. Men \\ ereal"ICctcd more than women. Smoking and overcrowding were found to be important social factor,slgnJ!'lc...

  16. Measurement of Aerosol Optical Property in Hong Kong Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAO, Yuan; Lee, Shun-cheng; Huang, Yu; Lai, Senchao

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate change and visibility impairment. The evidence of the role in climate change is required for monitoring the extinction, absorption, scattering coefficient and single scattering albedo in different sites around world. In the southern China public attention are focusing on severe regional visibility problem and its connection to regional air pollution. Black carbon (BC) is a form of atmospheric aerosol and can reduce visibility through absorption of solar radiation and it is an important primary aerosol cause global warming. Here, we presented the 2-year measurements (2011-2013) of aerosol optical properties, using aethalometer and nephelometer to measure scattering (Bsp), absorption coefficient (Bab), single scattering albedo (SSA) and scattering angstrom exponent (?s) in Hong Kong rural area (Hok Tsui) and determine the Hong Kong regional pollution status. The mean Bsp, Bab, ?s and SSA during the sampling period is 110.84±89.19, 15.09±9.85 Mm-1, 1.0±0.42 and 0.84±0.11, respectively. Scattering coefficient and absorption coefficient are both ~22% higher than the median. The significant seasonal variation of absorption and scattering coefficient is observed, which was lower in spring (12.87±7.5 and 91.30±73.3) and summer (10.84±10.1 and 65.24±75.2) seasons but has higher value in autumn (16.79±8.9 and 124.23±82.4) and winter (18.74±10.3 and 157.27±98.8) seasons. Similar as scattering and absorption value, in spring and summer, the SSA is lower than the value measured in autumn and winter seasons, indicates that absorption coefficient play an important role in spring and summer seasons than in autumn and winter seasons. Compared to scattering and absorption coefficient data reported by [1] in HT, 14 years ago, the annual scattering coefficient is increased about ~106% and absorption coefficient decreased ~11%. The main reason for absorption coefficient decreasing relies on BC concentration significantly decreased. In addition, the value of SSA is 0.8 in 2011 compared with 0.7 in 2001and it could estimate that secondary pollution increasing greatly.

  17. Hepatitis C in rural areas of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis is recognized as significant public health problem worldwide. There are one hundred and seventy five million Hepatitis C virus carriers around the world. Global prevalence ranges from 0.1 to 5 % with an average of 3 %. There are very few studies done at national and international levels to find the prevalence of HCV in our population. It is a Picorna virus that may invade the body usually through, intra venous devices and contaminated instruments. It may remain silent for years or cause acute hepatitis to chronic liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma is well known complication. Most of the epidemiological studies have so far been carried out on the population with high socio-economic status attending tertiary care hospitals in the cities that have good sterilization techniques. Whereas rural dispensaries are the drainage zones for HCV due to unqualified and untrained technical staff and lack of sterilization procedures. We, therefore, selected some villages (Chirah, Tumair, Thanda pani and Alipur) around Islamabad to assess the prevalence of HCV and tried to compare different epidemiological factors with urban areas in this randomized cross-sectional study conducted from May to August 2009. Two hundred asymptomatic volunteers were randomly selected from patients attending local dispensaries in this study zone. The subjects were given a detailed questionnaire to study and fill accordingly. Details of study were explained to them. Patients included in the stained to them. Patients included in the study were between 20-50 years of age, having gastrointestinal symptoms. Excluded subjects were pregnant women, patients on ant-viral therapy and known cases of HCV. 5 cc blood samples were taken and transported in ice containers to PINSTECH Complex Hospital laboratory within two hours for chromatographic analysis. We observed that 16.5% of the individuals were infected with HCV. Invasive procedures like D and C by dais and ear piercing were the major transmitting factors in females, whereas I/V devices, dental treatments and barber cutting in males was the dominant risk factors. The use of non disposable glass syringes for injection was also an important mode of transmission. (author)

  18. ENTERTAINMENT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS – PART OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisie Marian TURCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to highlight the niche forms of tourism (active tourism and ecotourism, showing similarities and differences between them. However it argues the need to introduce the occupation of rural tourism entertainer, showing the main tasks incumbent upon it to organize leisure tourists. The research was conducted by studying the latest articles in the field and by consulting specific websites.

  19. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas : Creative People and Social Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire, utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited.

  20. Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

  1. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF RURAL AREAS IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICATION OF LEADER PROGRAM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural development policy is an important component of the Common Agricultural Policy. LEADER is an innovative approach to rural development policy in the European Union to improve the quality of life in rural areas. LEADER is a very effective way to support "smart" and to increase "sustainable" and "inclusive" rural areas, encouraging rural territories to explore new ways to become competitive, to capitalize at maximum their assets and overcome difficulties encountered, encouraging the socio-economic factors to collaborate in order to produce quality goods and services in their local area

  2. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  3. Information and Communication Technologies for Regional Development in the Czech Republic – Broadband Connectivity in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van?k

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces chosen results of an ICT development survey in the regions of the Czech Republic. The survey was primarily focused on broadband connectivity and its adoption by agricultural enterprises operating in rural areas. The survey was conducted in the context of both the EU strategy "Digital Agenda for Europe" and the national program document "National Policy in Electronic Communications - Digital Czech Republic". It stems from the enquiries that the situation is not – in spite of a certain improvement – satisfactory and the digital divide remains highly topical in rural areas of the Czech Republic. Broadband connectivity reaches practically 100% in urban areas and more than 85% in suburban areas whereas the rural areas show only about 75% availability. In many parts of the Czech Republic, a high quality Internet connection is quite questionable and sometimes even unavailable until present.

  4. Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes

  5. Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ip, Carman C.M. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk; Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wai, Onyx W.H. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li, Y.-S. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-05-15

    Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes.

  6. 3D Analysis and Investigation of Traffic Noise Impact from Hemmat Highway Located in Tehran on Buildings and Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Ranjbar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes and investigates the impact of traffic noise on high rise buildings and surrounding areas by the side of Hemmat Highway that links west of Tehran to the east. In this study, a 3D traffic noise simulation model is applied on a GIS system. Visualized noise levels are formulated by the proposed model for noise mapping on all surfaces of the buildings and surrounding ground in a 3D platform. The investigation shows that there is a high traffic noise impact on the foreground and front facades of buildings, rendering these areas unsuitable for residential purposes. The ground area by the sides of buildings and the building side panels receive a lower noise impact. Most of these areas are still not acceptable for residential and even commercial use, only the back yards and back panels, have the lowest traffic noise impact. It also shows that the building height is not an effective factor for reducing motorway noise on the upper part of the building. Finally, construction cantilever barriers with a height of seven meters, close to the outer edge of the highway was presented as an effective way to reduce noise within the allowable range of noise pollution for commercial and residential purposes.

  7. Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carmisciano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

  8. Geology of the Šalek valley and the surrounding areas from written sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Brezigar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented the oldest written records on Natural History, and especially the Earth Sciences concerning the [alek valley and surroundings, and that are of exceptionalcultural heritage value. We translated from archaic German a text by Hacquet from 1784 that discusses the Dobrna hot springs, and supplied it with explanations and comments.Added is the copy of a part of Hacquet’s lithohydrographic map with Šalek valley in its centre, and with our geologic explanations. Among the first geologists(geognostswho studied the Šalek valley the German Keferstein should be mentioned, also author of the first geologic map of Germany,Studer,thewell-known Swiss geologist and founder of the Swiss Geologic Survey, and Ami Boué, one of founders of the French Geologic Society.The first modern geologic map of most of the [alek valley and Dobrna depression was elaborated between 1854 and 1856 by Marko Vincenc Lipold, the first geologist of Slovene origin and for many years the general manager of the Idrija mercury mine. The paper overs also the year 1875 when by drilling through the main lignite seam the rich Velenje coal deposit was recognized. This is considered the starting year of exploitation of the Velenje colliery.

  9. Aerial radiological survey of the Salem Nuclear Generating Station and surrounding area, Salem, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 24 July through 1 August 1980 over a 244-square-kilometer (95-square-mile) area centered on the Salem Nuclear Generating Station near Salem, New Jersey. All gamma ray data were collected by flying lines oriented north-south and spaced 152 meters (500 feet) apart, at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) above the ground. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters except directly over the site, where spectral analysis revealed the presence of 60Co. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an exposure rate contour map. The resulting exposure rates varied between 5 and 55 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). The river-shore areas ranged from 5 to 7 ?R/h, inland areas showed 7 to 12 ?R/h, and the site had a maximum exposure rate of 55 ?R/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4 ?R/h. The exposure rates obtained from soil samples taken within the survey area displayed good agreement with the aerial data

  10. Cognitive Access to TVWS in India : TV Spectrum Occupancy and Wireless Broadband for Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Kishor P.; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2013-01-01

    The digital transition of TV transmission will make available some TV frequencies which are to be geographically unused called as TV White Spaces. The important regulatory trend in the context of Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is the Cognitive access of TV white Spaces. In this context, we have performed spectrum measurements of TV band in Pune, India. Our result shows poor spectrum utilization in TV band, and good potential for Cognitive radio operation. Digital switchover in India will generate golden opportunity for empowering rural India. As majority of India’s population lives in rural part of India, we have proposed wireless broadband access to rural areas using TV White Spaces (TVWSs). This will help in bridging the digital divide by offering governance, banking, and health services online in the rural areas.

  11. A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Contrasting characteristics of the surface energy balance between the urban and rural areas of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Gao, Zhiqiu; Miao, Shiguang; Guo, Xiaofeng; Sun, Ting; Liu, Maofeng; Li, Dan

    2015-04-01

    A direct comparison of urban and rural surface energy balances, as well as a variety of other variables including incoming shortwave/longwave radiation and aerosol optical depth, is conducted for the Beijing metropolitan area. The results indicate that, overall, the urban area receives a smaller amount of incoming shortwave radiation but a larger amount of incoming longwave radiation. However, comparisons in the aerosol optical depth and cloud fraction at the two locations suggest that neither aerosol optical depth nor cloud fraction alone can explain the difference in the incoming shortwave radiation. The urban-rural differences in the incoming longwave radiation are unlikely to be caused by the presence of more abundant greenhouse gases over the urban area, as suggested by some previous studies, given that water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas and precipitable water is found to be less in urban areas. The higher incoming longwave radiation observed over the urban area is mostly likely due to the higher temperatures of the ambient air. The urban area is also found to always produce higher sensible heat fluxes and lower latent heat fluxes in the growing season. Furthermore, the urban area is associated with a larger amount of available energy (the sum of sensible and latent heat fluxes) than the rural area, except in May and October when evapotranspiration in the rural area significantly exceeds that in the urban area. This study provides observational evidence of urban-rural contrasts in relevant energy-balance components that plausibly arise from urban-rural differences in atmospheric and land-surface conditions.

  13. AN ANALYSIS OF TEMPORAL CHANGES OF NIGDE CITY AND SURROUNDING AREAS USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup K?z?lelma

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled spatiotemporal changes in large urban areas can produce several problems such as environmental pollution, diminishing valuable agricultural lands; irregular industrialization and urbanization due to number and proportion of residents continue to increase. Recently, to evaluate uncontrolled temporal changes in urban areas, remote sensing and GIS have become important tools, because these techniques allow examination and management large amount of spatial and tabular data which would be impossible using manual interpretation. In this study, to protect limited resources, to prepare sustainable and suitable plans, urban dynamics of the Ni?de city was examined and evaluated.

  14. Emission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from pig fattening farms to surrounding areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Salviati, Christina; Laube, Henriette; Guerra, Beatriz; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

    2015-01-30

    The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock such as pigs has been known for some time. However, to date there is little information about the transmission of these resistant bacteria between pig farms and their surroundings. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore this topic by investigating seven German pig fattening farms. Samples from outside (including ground surfaces, ambient air, slurry and digestate from biogas plants) and, in parallel, from inside the pig barns (including pig feces, dust, barn air, flies and mice feces) were examined for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli and selected isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. 14/17 (82.4%) slurry samples and three of four samples of digestate from biogas plants tested positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. In the vicinity of the pig barns these resistant bacteria were detected in 14/87 (16.1%) boot swabs taken from various ground surfaces and in 2/36 (6%) ambient air samples. Inside the pig barns, 6/63 (9.5%) barn air samples and a small proportion of flies and mice feces samples were ESBL/AmpC-positive. PFGE analysis proved fecal emission as well as a possible spread via flies, as identical ESBL-E. coli isolates were detected in slurry and on fertilized fields, as well as in flies and pooled feces from inside the barn and slurry. Contaminated slurry presented the major emission source for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the pig fattening farms, but a spread via the airborne route or via different vectors also seems possible. PMID:25465658

  15. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station was conducted during September 18 to 21, 1998, and encompassed a 53.1-square-kilometer area. The survey was conducted by the U. S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The purpose of the survey was to measure and map the general exposure-rate levels that existed within the survey area and to define the areas of man-made radionuclide activity. The inferred exposure rates were generally uniform and typical of the natural background radiation, which varied from less than 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour. Enhanced exposure rates, not attributable to natural background, and activity from man-made radionuclides were detected over the power station. The detected man-made radionuclide activity was due to the presence of cobalt-60, which is a nuclear activation product, and cesium-137, which is a long-lived fission product. The detected man-made radionuclides were generally consistent with those expected from routine plant operations. Areas outside of the power station boundaries were found to be free of any detectable man-made radionuclides. A series of ground-based, pressurized ionization chamber exposure-rate measurements were acquired at four locations within the survey boundaries. The results of these measurements were compared and found to be within 5 to 30 percent of the corresponding 1998 inferred aerial exposure-rate data

  16. Cancer Outcomes Research in a Rural Area: A Multi-Institution Partnership Model

    OpenAIRE

    GOODMAN, MICHAEL; Almon, Lyn; Bayakly, Rana; Butler, Susan; Crosby, Carol; DiIorio, Colleen; Ekwueme, Donatus; Fletcher, Diane; Fowler, John; Gillespie, Theresa; Glanz, Karen; Hall, Ingrid; Lee, Judith; Liff, Jonathan; Lipscomb, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Whereas, most cancer research data come from high-profile academic centers, little is known about the outcomes of cancer care in rural communities. We summarize the experience of building a multi-institution partnership to develop a cancer outcomes research infrastructure in Southwest Georgia (SWGA), a primarily rural 33-county area with over 700,000 residents. The partnership includes eight institutions: the Emory University in Atlanta, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), t...

  17. Robust, multifunctional flood protection zones in the Dutch Rural Riverine area

    OpenAIRE

    Loon-Steensma, J.M., van; Vellinga, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the possible functions of robust dikes in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands. It furthermore reviews and analyses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with robust, multifunctional flood defense zones in rural riverine zones. The study focused on recent plans and ideas for innovative dike reinforcement at five locations in the Netherlands, supplemented with information obtained in semi-structured interviews with experts a...

  18. Management of Covariant Risk in Rural Areas of Developing Economies: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vigano, Laura; Bonomo, Luciano

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring the possibilities to increase the satisfaction of the demand for financial services in rural areas through market based financial products allowing farmers to protect against major sources of risk. The focus is on developing economies, where farm specific and covariant risks, such as natural and weather risks and agricultural commodity price volatility, are seriously hitting the rural population and few instruments are currently available to support farmers’ pr...

  19. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DORNA BASIN, BY PROMOTING TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Vintila?, Andrei Lucian; Boca?nici, Mioara

    2013-01-01

    Any strategy of diversification of non-agricultural economic activities and development of micro-enterprises in rural areas, aims to increase farms’ side incomes from non-agricultural activities, to create new job opportunities, new services for local people, to promote entrepreneurship and development of rural tourism. Sustainable developmentby promoting tourism should have as objective, besides recovery and sustainable promotion of cultural heritage the natural resources with tourism pote...

  20. Prevalence of Food Insecurity among Women in Rural Area of North West Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Azizur Rahman; Rezaul Karim

    2013-01-01

    Food insecurity is a public health concern among rural poor in Bangladesh. Food insecurity is the insufficiency of good quality foods, reduced access to foods and inadequate intake of foods to meet ones physiological demands. Food insecurity is inversely associated with health and nutritional status of rural women of Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted using an interview-based pre tested questionnaire. Data were collected from 500 women in low-income areas of Nageswari and Ph...

  1. The rural areas electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel gen set. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

  2. Regional water balance for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WIPP water-balance study area defined here comprises approx.2000 mi2 in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico. Inflows to the study area are precipitation (roughly 1.47 x 106 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.1 x 105 ac-ft/y), water imported by municipalities and industries (roughly 3 x 104 ac-ft/y), and ground water (volume not estimated). Outflows from the area are evapotranspiration (roughly 1.5 x 106 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.2 x 105 ac-ft/y), and possibly some ground water. The volume of surface and ground water in storage in Nash Draw has increased since the beginning of potash refining. Regional ground-water flow in aquifers above the Salado Formation is from the northeast to the southwest, although this pattern is interrupted by Clayton Basin, Nash Draw, and San Simon Swale. The Pecos River is the only important perennial stream. Most of the area has no integrated surface-water drainage. The available data suggest that approx.1600 mi2 of the study area are hydrologically separate from Nash Draw and the WIPP site. Ground water north of Highway 180 apparently discharges into Clayton Basin and evaporates. Water in San Simon Swale apparently percolates downward and flows to the southeast. Data are inadequate to create a water budget for the Nash Draw-WIPP site hydrologic system alone, although an attempt to do so can provide guidance for further study guidance for further study

  3. Food security in rural areas of Limpopo province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    De Cock, N.; D'Haese, M.; Vink, Nick; Van Rooyen, Cornelius Johannes; Staelens, L; Schonfeldt, H.C.; D'Haese, L.

    2013-01-01

    Although South Africa is food secure as a nation, many households remain food insecure. The government has recognized several key food security challenges in the Integrated Food Security Strategy (IFSS). However, South Africa still lacks specific and accepted methods to measure food security and currently has no regulated way of monitoring the food security status of its population. This article reports on an investigation into the food security situation of rural hous...

  4. Survey of Bacteriological Quality of the Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Saqqez City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Golmohamadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Safe drinking water providing is one of the main purposes in the community. Development and improvement of community is related to the public health. In this study !we studied the bacteriological quality of 116 villages under coverage of the water and wastewater companies in rural areas of Saqqez in.1386"nMaterial and Methods:Drinking water of these rural areas have provided of deep, semi-depth- wells and spring water sources. Because in numerous rural areas both sources of drinking water and in some of them different sources of drinking water were used (old and new storage water source, in general, 359 samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory for testing to evaluate its quality. We also used linear Regression statistical analysis for collected data."nResults:results show that residual chlorine in drinking water in 33.88 percent of rural areas population were in range 0.2-1 mg/l. For 98.3 percent of the seqqez rural population, the turbidity was lower than the maximum permissible levels of drinking water standards of Iran (5 NTU. There was no any E.coli contamination in 88 percent of drinking water in saqqez rural areas."nConclusion:Based on WHO guidelines concerning the microbial quality of water published in 2006! the average indicator for lack of E.coli in water of rural areas of seqqez was 88 percent and water is safe or good for drinking.

  5. Policy interventions that attract nurses to rural areas: a multicountry discrete choice experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, E; Pagaiya, N; Tangcharoensathein, V; Mullei, K; Mudhune, S; Goodman, C; English, M; Lagarde, M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the relative effectiveness of different policies in attracting nurses to rural areas in Kenya, South Africa and Thailand using data from a discrete choice experiment (DCE). Methods A labelled DCE was designed to model the relative effectiveness of both financial and non-financial strategies designed to attract nurses to rural areas. Data were collected from over 300 graduating nursing students in each country. Mixed logit models were used for analysis and to predict the uptake of rural posts under different incentive combinations. Findings Nurses’ preferences for different human resource policy interventions varied significantly between the three countries. In Kenya and South Africa, better educational opportunities or rural allowances would be most effective in increasing the uptake of rural posts, while in Thailand better health insurance coverage would have the greatest impact. Conclusion DCEs can be designed to help policy-makers choose more effective interventions to address staff shortages in rural areas. Intervention packages tailored to local conditions are more likely to be effective than standardized global approaches. PMID:20461141

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AND AGRO-TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE IN ROMANIAN RURAL AREAS DURING 2000 – 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Kruzslicika

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: More and more tourists from around the world are passionate about the beauty that nature has created. Romania has, including and especially in rural areas many attractions, some already known, others less known. Tourism practiced in various forms in rural areas of Romania offers people who want to relax, who loves nature, culture and folk art, a treasure chest of ancient rural civilization values and can save time and money is staying in reception of rural areas, be it by: peasant family farms, private farms, boarding houses and guesthouses. The evolution of these structures for tourism and agro-tourism in Romania recorded an upward trend during the period studied, respectively 2000 to 2012. This research paper is based on a complex processing and analysis of statistical data, the information from official sources, to central and local institutions, as well as numerous data and information obtained from the field. Rural tourism and agro-tourism potential in Romania have been created and developed numerous tourist accommodation, in order to practice both forms of tourism types: classic and unconventional, complementary, such as rural tourism, agro-tourism, ecotourism, cyclo-tourism, etc.

  7. Biological studies in the sea area surrounding the Loviisa nuclear power plant in the year 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of rise in water temperature caused by the plant's cooling water were made in a large area of Haestholmsfjaerden. The mean temperatures during the growth period and summer months were on average of the same magnitude as those in the 1970s, except very close to the outlet, where the mean temperatures were clearly increased by the cooling water. The salinity of the water increased to exceptionally high values in September in the whole study area. Salinities even exceeding 0.6% were measured in the surface water of Haestholmsfjaerden. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were clearly above the level found earlier in the area, but the increase in the nutrient level was similar at all stations (including the reference station at Pernajanlahti). The amount of oxygen in the bottom water of the deep part of Haestholmsfjaerden in late summer was lower than in previous years (1.2 ml/l, 14% of the saturation level). The phytoplankton biomass spring maximum was greater at all stations than in 1974-76. Differences in species composition were small compared with earlier years. The amounts of chlorophyll a during the spring maximum were higher in 1977 than in 1975-76. The level of phytoplankton primary production in the whole study area was lower in 1977 than in the 1970s on average. The annual production at station nearest the outlet, was about 10% greater than at station situated in the middle of Haestholmsfjaerden, owing to higher production in the middle of summer. No important differences in 'in vitro' primary production were observed between sampling places near the water intake and the outlet and the values were of the same magnitude as in 1976. (T.V.)

  8. Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

  9. Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, Claudio Jose; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Rodrigues, Paulo C. Horta [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Augustin, Cristina Helena R. Rocha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2013-07-01

    To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095?Sv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

  10. Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095?Sv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

  11. Methodology of seismotectonic zoning in an intraplate low seismicity domain. Examples of France surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until now, the dominant factor in seismic hazard assessments has been historical seismicity. This approach is justified if the data derived from historical seismicity in a region are representative of its seismic activity and if we consider that in areas where damaging earthquakes have happened, they may happen again. This can be seen when seismotectonic relationships are well established in areas such as well localised plate boundaries (subduction zones, transform faults) and/or with a high rate of deformation. In these cases, the areas where future earthquakes might occur are usually well determined and the recurrences short enough on the time scale of historical observations. However, in areas where recent tectonic deformations are diffused and moderate, the historical period of seismicity data (a few centuries) is not long enough to observe a sample of historical seismicity representative of the present-day tectonic activity of the area. The studies on the most recent damaging earthquakes (El Asnam 1980, Spitak 1988, Cherchell Tipasa 1989) show that it would have been extremely difficult to predict the magnitude and the localisation of these events considering historical seismicity alone. It is the same in Provence (south of France) where the risk of occurrence of a damaging earthquake would have been underestimated before the June 1909 event. In all these cases, seismotectonic studies 'a posteriori' show that the geometry and kinematic of the faults responsible for these earthquakes can be identified and that all of them have presented seismic activity in the last thousand years. So it is necessary to emphasis a global approach of the problem through specific studies such as neotectonics, teledetection, geodesy, present-day stress field, strain field, paleoseismology etc. These studies will enlarge the period of observation compared with the data derived only from historical and present-day seismicity. In France seismicity is moderate and recent tectonic deformations are slight in comparison to neighbouring countries (Italy, Greece, Turkey). Only a few important earthquakes have been studied and the relationship between quakes and faults are still unknown. So it seems necessary to 'regionalise' the seismic hazard and to introduce concepts like 'seismotectonic domains' more than 'active faults'

  12. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar: Herbert Hoover Dike Project Area (Southeastern Florida, Lake Okeechobee Surrounding Area)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was collected by Merrick & Company from September through December of 2007 for the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM). The project area...

  13. Do women in rural areas of Serbia rarely apply preventive measures against cervical cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anti? Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The incidence of cervical cancer in Central Serbia has the higher rate as compared with that in other European countries. Considering mortality rate for cervical cancer, the standardized rate in Serbia is 10.1 per 10,000 females, which is the second highest one after that in Romania with 13.0. The aim of this study was to examine application of preventive measures for cervical cancer in women both from rural and urban areas in Serbia and if they are associated with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Methods. We analyzed secondary data of the 2006 National Health Survey of the population of Serbia focused on characteristics of adult females aged 25 to 65 years (5.314 in total taking into consideration that programme of the organized screening will include female population aged over 25 years. Results. Respondents from rural areas have gynecological examination less than once a year in comparison with those from urban areas (OR = 0.60, 95% Cl 0.54-0.68. Less women from rural areas did Pap test during the last 12 months in comparison with respondents from urban areas (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.48- 0.64. Respondents from urban areas less often do the Pap test on doctor's advice in comparison with those from rural one (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.42-0.62. Conclusion. This study shows that women in rural areas rarely implement preventive gynecological measures againt cervical cancer in comparison with those in urban areas. Implementation of preventive measures among rural women is conditioned by lower levels of education and lower socioeconomic status. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025

  14. A Development of the dust deposition in the area surrounding the SMZ, a.s., Jel?ava plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanèu¾ák Jozef

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The area of Jel?ava ? Lubeník ranks among the eight excessively polluted areas registered in Slovakia. The main cause of this situation is a hundred years of existence of the exploitation and processing of magnesite. The SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava is currently the biggest Slovak producer of brick and steel magnesite-based clinkers. The technological procedures used to process the raw material represent the main source of solid polluting substances as well as the primary dustiness in the area surrounding the plant. The negative visual look of the surrounding country has its origin in the past, when a 25-times higher quantity of the currently produced solid emissions was released into the air in some years, while the current value of the pollution does not exceed 200 tons per year. The devastated, deforested and degrassed surfaces of the area surrounding the plant and roads became a significant source of secondary dustiness in the given area.Since 1994 ÚGt SAV Ko?ice in co-operation with SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava has been focusing on the monitoring of solid emissions in the form of dust deposition. 18 sampling points situated in the vicinity of the plant, mainly in surrounding villages and city Jel?ava were originally built for the purpose of sampling the dust deposition. The samples were taken monthly , analysed by the gravimetric method and the samples of dust deposition was determined in g.m-2.(30 days-1. To analyse all samples, they were cumulated for a certain period and then the selected elements were analysed using the AAS method. The results of the dust deposition were averaged for each individual year of the period from 1996 to 1999 to make a better interpretation of the results. The results of the chemical analysis represent an average for a given period. The main component of the dust deposition, i.e. MgO is stated as an average value in individual years.The processed results from 1996 to 1999 show a decreasing trend in the total dust deposition in all localities, except for 1999, when a slight increase was observed in some localities. This increase observed in the most exposed sampling points in the vicinity of the main primary sources did not achieve the value recorded in 1996. In addition to the localities in the vicinity of the plant, the highest hygienic admissible dust deposition [12.5 g.m-2.(30 days-1] was sporadically exceeded on the places located in the populated zone of Jel?ava, especially during summer dry seasons. The decrease observed in 1999 in the case of the most exposed places in the vicinity of the plant can be caused by an increase in the secondary dust deposition in the given area. The average yearly dust deposition in Jel?ava, representing ca. 10 g.m-2.(30 days-1 was 2-3 times lower than the stated values of the dust deposition measured in the 80-ties. The MgO deposition follows the development in the total dust deposition. The average content of heavy metals in the dust deposition is relatively small and it increases proportionally with the distance from the main source confirming that SMZ, a.s. is not a big producer of these elements, the content of which has a decreasing trend probably due to a change in the fuel used in the plant. In spite of an increasing production, the plant implements measures to reduce a negative influence of the dust pollution on the surrounding area.

  15. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ykateryna D. Duka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

  16. Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

  17. STUDY ON THE NATURAL AND ANTHROPIC TOURISM RESOURCES – FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA HA?EG-RETEZAT

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA BOTICI; P?UN ION OTIMAN; CORNEL IONESCU; VIOLETA FLORIAN

    2012-01-01

    The rural area from ?ara Ha?egului – Retezat is one of the richest area in Romania in natural and anthropic tourism supplies, determined by the natural, socio-cultural, economic and historical potential that can be used for tourism purposes. As the tourism potential comprises few economic resources that can be used only “in situ”, their inclusion in the economic circuit of values represents the premise of a superior economic process of rural development in the rural area ?ara Ha?egu...

  18. The “LEADER Approach” - New Development Opportunity for Rural Areas in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Cunder, B.Sc. Geography

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated rural development programmes, which are prepared with the active involvement of local citizens, have a long tradition in Slovenia. In the period 1991-2006, Slovenia introduced “Programmes of Integrated Rural Development and Village Renewal” and “Development Programmes for Rural Areas”, which were quite similar to the LEADER initiative in theEuropean Union. From the 2007-2013 programming period, the LEADER approach has been mainstreamed within the overall EU rural development policy. This means that LEADER is included in national and regional rural development programmes supported by the EU,alongside a range of other rural development axes. The main emphasis of the current paper is given to the implementation of the LEADER approach and establishment of local action groups in the 2007-2013 programming period. The paper consists of three parts. The first part presents the general characteristics of the LEADER approach and the measures which are carried out in the 2007-2013 Rural Development Programme. In the second part, an analysis of 33 Local Action Groups is described. The main focus is given to spatial-demographic characteristics, the partnership structure, and the organisation of the decision making body.The paper concludes with an analysis of 33 Local Development Strategies. We analysed the extent to which the strategic goals and priority tasks of Local Development Strategies follow the economic, social and spatial-environmental component of sustainable development.

  19. Determining rural areas vulnerable to illegal dumping using GIS techniques. Case study: Neam? county, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai, Florin-Constantin; Ursu, Adrian; Ichim, Pavel; Chelaru, Dan-Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to mapping the potential vulnerable areas to illegal dumping of household waste from rural areas in the extra- Carpathian region of Neam? County. These areas are ordinary in the proximity of built-up areas and buffers areas of 1km were delimited for every locality. Based on various map layers in vector formats ( land use, rivers, buil-up areas, roads etc) an assessment method is performed to highlight the potential areas vulnerable to illegal dumping inside these buffer areas ...

  20. The dispersion of fibrous amphiboles by glacial processes in the area surrounding Libby, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Adams, David T.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining operations began at a world-class vermiculite deposit at Vermiculite Mountain near Libby, Montana, circa 1920 and ended in 1990. Fibrous and asbestiform amphiboles intergrown with vermiculite ore are suspected to be a causative factor in an abnormally high number of cases of respiratory diseases in former mine and mill workers, and in residents of Libby. The question addressed in this report is whether some of the amphibole from Vermiculite Mountain could have been dispersed by Pleistocene glacial processes rather than by human activity after vermiculite mining began. The history of Pinedale glaciation in the Libby area provides a framework for estimating the presence and distribution of asbestiform amphiboles derived from Vermiculite Mountain and found in naturally occurring sediments of Glacial Lake Kootenai that underlie the Libby Valley area. There were two situations where sediments derived from Vermiculite Mountain were deposited into Glacial Lake Kootenai: (1) as lake-bottom sediments derived from meltwater flowing down Rainy Creek when the valley south of Vermiculite Mountain was free of ice but active ice still covered Vermiculite Mountain; and (2) as lake-bottom sediments eroded from the Rainy Creek outwash and re-deposited during a re-advance of the Purcell Trench Glacier lobe near Moyie Springs, Idaho.

  1. Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pedrini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 1970 respectively, were not checked. From the analysis of 201 records (sightings, signs of presence, animals found dead and skins, we found that the badger, weasel and stone marten selected middle-low altitude (since 1000 m a.s.l., the pine marten and stoat the middle-high altitude. The former species frequented mainly agricultural lands of bottom of the valley with built-up areas, the latter ones occurred mainly in forest habitat of secluded valleys (the pine marten, and in stony ground and alpine prairies (the stoat. The badger was the most diffuse species, the pine marten the least one. On a total of 46 grids of the study area, 32.6% presented three mustelid species, 17.4% five species. The badger and the stone marten were the species with the greatest overlapping range (61.7% of the grids, the weasel and the stoat with the smallest one (23.4% of the grids. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mustelidi nel Parco Adamello-Brenta e aree limitrofe (Trentino, Alpi centrali - L'indagine, condotta nel 1991-93, ha interessato un'area di 1085 km² e ha permesso di definire le mappe di distribuzione, secondo una griglia di 6,4x5,5 km desunta dalla Carta Topografica generale (scala 1:10000 edita dalla Provincia Autonoma di Trento, di cinque specie: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina e Martes martes. La presenza di Mustela putorius e di Lutra lutra, accertata fino intorno agli anni '60 e '70 rispettivamente, non è stata invece confermata. Dall'analisi di 201 segnalazioni (osservazioni dirette, segni di presenza, animali trovati morti o imbalsamati è stato rilevato che le fasce altitudinali medio-basse (fino a 1000 m sono selezionate da tasso, donnola e faina che frequentano soprattutto ambienti coltivati di fondovalle con presenza di centri abitati, quelle medio-alte da martora e ermellino che utilizzano rispettivamente comprensori forestali delle vallate interne e ambienti con presenza di versanti detritici, praterie alpine e malghe. La specie più diffusa è risultata il tasso, quella meno diffusa la martora. Il 32,6% delle 46 griglie, in cui è stata suddivisa l'area di studio, mostra la presenza di 3 specie, il 17,4% di 5 specie. I1 tasso e la faina sono risultate le specie con maggior sovrapposizione di areale di distribuzione (61,7% delle griglie, la donnola e l'ermellino quelle con minor sovrapposizione (23,4% delle griglie.

  2. Aerial radiological survey of the North Anna power station and surrounding area, Mineral, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1600 km2 area around the North Anna Power Station near Mineral, Virginia was radiometrically surveyed from an airborne platform during July 1979. No man-made terrestrial gamma-photon emitting radionuclides were detected, although airborne krypton-85 was observed during one survey flight. Aerial count rates from natural emitters were converted to average exposure rates one meter above the ground and presented in the form of an isopleth map. The average levels were between 6 and 10 ?R/h, which included an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 ?R/h. Exposure rates, measured with a portable ion chamber, and subsequent soil analyses displayed reasonable agreement with the data collected from the aerial platform

  3. Land Policy and Systematic Transformation in Chinese Rural Areas ?1950—1978?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong TAN

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on historical review of the Chinese rural land policy from 1950 to 1978, we looked back the devious journey undergone in Chinese rural areas during this period. At first, the landlord’s ownership was transferred into the peasant’s ownership; and then private ownership was transferred into public ownership. The radical transformation of property right and process of agricultural cooperation went against the economic law and the wills of the mass peasants, which led to laggard rural productive forces and long-term low peasants’ income level. During the policy transformation process, political and ideological factors played the predominant role, which led to harmful results. The experiences in this period demonstrated that the economic developmental model and systematic arrangement in Chinese rural areas should satisfy the peasants’ free wills and protect the peasants’ essential interests. Only in this way could the Chinese rural economy gain fast development. Key Words: Chinese Rural Areas, Land Policy, System Arrangement, Ideology, Interests. Abstrait: Basés sur une révision historique de la politique de terre dans les régions rurales de Chine de 1950 à 1978, nous avons mené un examen rétrospectif sur le parcours détourné qu’avaient traversé ces régions pendant cette période. Au début, les terres des propriétaires fonciers avaient été transférées comme propriétés des paysans ; et puis, les propriétés privées avaient été transféré comme propriétés publiques. La transformation radicale du droit de propriété et le processus de la coopération agricole après la réforme de terre allaient à l’encontre de la loi économique et de la volonté des paysans, ce qui avait conduit à un retard des forces productives dans les régions rurales et à un niveau de revenu très inférieur pour les paysans chinois. Dans ce processus de transformation de politiques, les facteurs politiques et idéologiques avaient joué un rôle prédominant, d’où des résultats défavorables. Les expériences que nous avons tirées pendant cette période montrent bien que le modèle du développement économique et l’arrangement systématique dans les régions rurales de Chine doivent satisfaire la volonté des paysans et protéger leurs intérêts fondamentaux. C’est aussi le seul moyen qui permette aux régions rurales de Chine de réaliser un développement rapide. Mots Clés: Régions Rurales de Chine, Politique de Terre, Transformation Systématique, Idéologie, Intérêts. ???????????? 1950?? 1978???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????

  4. Solar lighting system delivery models for rural areas in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ortiz, Brisa [Freiburg Univ. (DE). Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Modi, Anish [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Kafle, Nashib [Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2011-07-01

    Many rural areas in developing countries will not have electricity access from the central grid for several years to come. Autonomous Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) are attractive and enviromentally friendly options for replacing kerosene lamps and providing basic lighting services to such areas. In order to highlight the benefits of these technologies, analysis of reduction in indoor air pollution due to replacement of kerosene lamp by SLS has been carried out. Use of SLS in place of kerosene lamps saves an equivalent of 1341 kg CO{sub 2} emissions per annum from each household. If a suitable mechanism is created, this amount of GHG emissions saving could alone be sufficient to finance solar lighting system for rural households. However, these technologies have not reached most of the poor population. In order to guarantee the access of solar lighting to the people at the Base of the Pyramid (BOP), strengths of different organizations working in the rural areas should be combined together to form successful business models. This paper will discuss business models to disseminate such services to needy people. A comparative study of SLS delivery models based on cash, credit, leasing, subsidy and service is performed. In addition, SWOT analysis for each model is employed. Further, Case studies of few projects to elaborate different models are also presented. If suitable business models for its delivery to rural people are considered, solar lighting systems are viable for providing basic lighting needs of rural areas in developing countries. (orig.)

  5. [Characteristics of delta18O in precipitation and water vapor sources in Lanzhou City and its surrounding area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fen-Li; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Ma, Qian; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Sheng-Jie; Li, Fei

    2013-10-01

    Based on the 243 daily precipitation samples and meteorological statistics at the four stations at Lanzhou city and its surrounding area (Yongdeng, Gaolan and Yuzhong) from April 2011 to March 2012, the characteristics of stable isotopes in precipitation, as well as the correlation between stable isotopes and meteorological records, were analyzed. The precipitation equation of Lanzhou city and its surrounding area were calculated through the regression analysis, and the water vapor source of the four sites was tracked by the HYSPLIT 4. 9 model, and water vapor transmission regime was established. Results showed that the precipitation equation of deltaD =7.48 delta18O + 8.13 indicated intense evaporation; delta18O value was low in winter but high in summer; The variations of observed d-excess was stable all over the year, but there was variation in different time periods; The spatial distribution showed that the weighted delta18O value decreased from the west to the east; The linear relationships between delta18O and temperature was positive correlation, but the linear relationships between delta18O and precipitation was negative correlation; The seasonal variations of delta18O indicated that westerly water vapor, local moisture and summer monsoon all had influence on this region in a large scale, but the westerly water vapor played a dominant role. However, the impact of monsoon moisture had a seasonal limitation, mainly during the period from June to early August. PMID:24364289

  6. Policy implications of a financial incentive programme to retain a physician workforce in underserved Japanese rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Kajii, Eiji

    2010-08-01

    Existing evidence supports the effectiveness of a financial incentive policy for medical students and early-career physicians in return for obligatory rural service. But whether the experience of contractual rural service affects the physician's choice of practice location after the service is completed remains unknown. This study analysed the practice location of Jichi Medical University (JMU) graduates. JMU is a Japanese medical education programme with a contract system under which all graduates have an obligation to serve in underserved areas for about six years in exchange for a 6-year undergraduate tuition waiver. 484 JMU graduates who were under rural service in 2000 and had completed the service by 2006 were included in the study. The rurality of the communities was determined by population density quintiles. The proportion of those practicing in the communities with the highest rurality quintile in 2000 (30.8%) decreased dramatically (8.7%) in 2006, but the geographic distribution of the participants after contract was still biased toward rural areas compared with the distribution pattern of all Japanese physicians. The flow of participants from rural to urban communities was largely unidirectional. In 2006, 452 (93.4%) practiced in places with the same or lower rurality than in 2000, while only 32 (6.6%) practiced in places with higher rurality as compared to the placements of 2000. Multivariate analysis showed that service experience in the communities of the first and second highest quintiles of rurality was associated with choosing such places after contract, independent of known predictors of rural practice, such as having a rural background and primary care specialty choice. Although the effect of contractual rural service substantially decreased after finishing the service, the experience of rural service early in the physician's career had a positive impact on the later choice of a rural practice. The results from this study support the use of a policy that attracts early-career physicians to practice in rural areas. PMID:20542362

  7. Study of Effective Factors on Income Inequality Decrease in Rural Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ahlowalia hypothesis (1995, the growth oftotal factor productivity (TFP beside infrastructure investmentsof government lead to income inequality decrease in ruralareas of countries. The main objective of this study is toinvestigate the effects of public investments such as agriculturalR&E, road, education and irrigation on income inequality inrural areas of Iran. In order to get results, we used ARDLmethod and time series data of 1980 to 2008. However, thisresearch attempts to survey the direction of causality betweenthe income inequality and total factor productivity (TFP inIran. Empirical results show there is a negative relation betweenincome inequality and agricultural TFP in rural areas of Iran.Hence, additional investments on rural education and agriculturalR&E have significance and different impacts on income inequality.Findings showed Ahlowalia hypothesis developed forthe relation among income inequality, TFP and investment inelectricity is not rejected in case of Iran`s rural areas.

  8. Assessment of government housing program for young professionals in rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafurova Gulnara Talgatovna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Support of young professionals in rural areas, in particular help to ensure their housing is a priority for the state in the agricultural sector. The solution to this problem provides not only the influx of young professionals in agriculture in Tatarstan, but also the consolidation of the village, which is associated with socialization. The outflow of young people from rural areas led to the deterioration of the demographic and professional characteristics of the staff of the agricultural organizations, and therefore providing housing for young professionals in many ways is a priority in the strategic plan, as it is connected with the stabilization of employment in the long run. It is necessary to apply a new approach to social development of the village, as the existing forms of support do not make substantial changes. Some results of the program to provide affordable housing for young families and young professionals in rural areas in the Republic of Tatarstan are examined.

  9. Youth Restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas: Lesson for .Contemporary Nigerian Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nlerum, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    This study reviewed the youth restiveness in Niger Delta rural areas as lesson for the contemporary Nigerian society. The study was based on secondary sources of information. The study identified youths in the area as people between the ages of 15 ñ 40 years. Youths possess viable characteristics for rural development which if mismanaged results into restiveness. The study showed that the primary causes of youth restiveness in the area were proliferation of arms, misuse of the military to suppress protests, misappropriation of benefits from crude oil, youth unemployment and environmental degradation. Consequences of youth restiveness among others included loss of life and properties, rural-urban migration of the farm families, breeding defective future leaders, disruption of oil and gas activities and food insecurity. In order to eradicate youth restiveness, the contemporary Nigeria society should check the rate of arm proliferation, misuse of the military to suppress youth protests, misappropriation of benefits accruing to the communities, youth unemployment and environmental degradation.

  10. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Model Volcanic Hazard Risk Levels in Areas Surrounding the Copahue Volcano in the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, A. M.; Weigel, A. M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Copahue is a stratovolcano located along the rim of the Caviahue Caldera near the Chile-Argentina border in the Andes Mountain Range. There are several small towns located in proximity of the volcano with the two largest being Banos Copahue and Caviahue. During its eruptive history, it has produced numerous lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and lahars. This isolated region has steep topography and little vegetation, rendering it poorly monitored. The need to model volcanic hazard risk has been reinforced by recent volcanic activity that intermittently released several ash plumes from December 2012 through May 2013. Exposure to volcanic ash is currently the main threat for the surrounding populations as the volcano becomes more active. The goal of this project was to study Copahue and determine areas that have the highest potential of being affected in the event of an eruption. Remote sensing techniques were used to examine and identify volcanic activity and areas vulnerable to experiencing volcanic hazards including volcanic ash, SO2 gas, lava flow, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ISS ISERV Pathfinder, and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products were used to analyze volcanic hazards. These datasets were used to create a historic lava flow map of the Copahue volcano by identifying historic lava flows, tephra, and lahars both visually and spectrally. Additionally, a volcanic risk and hazard map for the surrounding area was created by modeling the possible extent of ash fallout, lahars, lava flow, and pyroclastic density currents (PDC) for future eruptions. These model results were then used to identify areas that should be prioritized for disaster relief and evacuation orders.

  11. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps

  12. Multifunctional centers in rural areas : Fabrics of social and human capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually being abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces such a model: Multifunctional centers. Such a model reflects a long tradition of local centralization in rural areas, that is, a golden compromise between ruralization and urbanization. First, I argue that governments should actively invest in rural areas rather than practicing laissez-faire. Second, I trace ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnationalGarden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks, and facilities for local associations as theatre scenes and sports halls. The centers should be designed to secure both economies of scale and geographic proximity. Empirical evidence indicates that such large meeting places in fact foster physical and social cohesion, as well as human capital and informal learning. Also that the stock of beneficial bridging social capital thus created actually contributes to attract newcomers and counteract depopulation.

  13. Distribution of Albuminuria and Low Glomerular Filtration Rate in a Rural Area, Shahreza, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Barahimi; Iraj Najafi; Reza Esmailian; Farahnaz Rajaee; Manochehr Amini; Mohammad Reza Ganji

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a major public health problem worldwide. A remarkable part of health budget is designated annually to control end-stage renal disease in most countries. The aim of this study was to screen for CKD among the general population of the rural area of Shahreza, in the central region of Iran. Materials and Methods. In a study of rural area around Shahreza, Iran, in 2009, a total of 1400 participants aged over 30 years old were selected by syst...

  14. LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosora Liviu - Cosmin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009, which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education and training (leading to the underutilization of labor in rural areas, while major shortages in the labor market and increased migration phenomenon manifests.\\r\

  15. An Evaluation of Groundnut Processing by Women in a Rural Area of North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussaini Yusuf Ibrahim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the economic empowerment potentials of groundnut processing by women in rural areas of Northcentral Nigeria state using a sample of 100 women processors randomly selected from the study area. Data analysis wasdone using Descriptive statistics, Net Farm Income Model and Data Envelopment Analysis (D.E.A. An average netreturns of N10, 586.6 was obtainable within a processing cycle. The average pure technical and scale efficiency scoreswere 80 and 83 percent respectively. The major constraints confronting the processing of groundnut include inadequatecapital for expansion and lack of processing machines. A significant opportunity exists for empowering rural womenthrough groundnut processing.

  16. STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubeena Bano

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

  17. Income Distribution in Rural Areas of Turkey: A Case Study in Adana Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Dagistan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have focused on income distribution in rural areas in Adana Province of Turkey. According to the research, the richest 20% of households receive 58.47% of the total income, while the poorest twenty percent receive 3.21% of total income earned in rural areas of Adana province. A Gini coefficient for the region is 0.539. Income distribution in the region is getting worse. The main reason for this is that, a 6.4% reduction in GNP in 1999.

  18. Características de los suicidios de áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia, Colombia / Characteristics of Suicides in Rural and Urban Areas in Antioquia, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jenny, García Valencia; Gabriel Jaime, Montoya Montoya; Carlos Alberto, López Jaramillo; María Cecilia, López Tobón; Patricia, Montoya Guerra; Juan Carlos, Arango Viana; Carlos Alberto, Palacio Acosta.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si existen diferencias entre áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia en las características asociadas con el suicidio. Método: Se compararon 79 sujetos provenientes de áreas rurales y 75 de áreas urbanas de Antioquia. Se hizo autopsia psicológica y se calcularon razones de prevalen [...] cia (RP) (frecuencia de la característica en zona rural/frecuencia de la característica en zona urbana). Resultados: Las características asociadas de manera independiente con provenir de área rural y urbana fueron: “momento del suicidio durante la noche” (RP = 0,65; IC 95%: 0,48-0,89) y “vivir solo” (RP = 0,40; IC 95%: 0,17-0,98), que fueron más frecuentes en zona urbana, y “envenenamiento con pesticidas”, que ocurrió más en zona rural (RP = 1,80; IC 95%: 1,39-2,34). Conclusiones: Los individuos suicidas provenientes de zonas rurales y urbanas tenían características diferentes. Ello puede tener implicaciones para el diseño de las estrategias de prevención del suicidio en cada una de las zonas. Se requieren otros estudios para determinar los factores de riesgo propios de cada área. Abstract in english Objective: To determine differences in characteristics associated with suicide between rural and urban populations from Antioquia. Method: 79 subjects from rural areas and 75 subjects from urban areas were compared. Psychological autopsy was done and prevalence ratios (PR) (frequency of characterist [...] ic in rural zone/frequency of characteristic in urban zone) were calculated. Results: The characteristics that associated independently with coming from rural or urban areas were: “suicide during the night” (PR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.89) and “living alone” (PR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.98), which were more frequent in urban areas, and “pesticide poisoning” which was more frequent in rural areas (PR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.39-2.34). Conclusions: Individuals who committed suicide from rural and urban areas have different characteristics. This finding might have implications for the design of preventive strategies in each zone. Additional studies are required to determine specific risk factors in urban and rural areas.

  19. Turismo rural y expansion urbanística en areas de interior. Análisis socioespacial de riesgos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez Gómez, José Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is generally recognized as a booster for sustainable development of inland areas, but two researchactions would be necessary in advance: a local diagnosis of touristic processes and a risk assessment for those processes in affected areas. This article concerns the sociological and spatial risk analysis of urban sprawl in rural areas. As a case study, 29 municipalities in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula (formed as a “comarca”, North of Huelva province are considered. Urban sprawl has been identified by specific literature as a threat for sustainable development in touristic areas, in coastal zones and in rural areas too. Based on the results of previous diagnosis, and the literature on socioenvironmental risks and impacts of residential tourism, two specific risk indicators are selected and analysed, in relation to local touristic models.El turismo rural es reconocido en Europa como un factor de desarrollo sostenible para las áreas de interior, secularmente deprimidas. Su éxito como tal va a depender de un diagnóstico a tiempo de sus procesos y de la evaluación de los riesgos que afectan a las áreas en las que aquellos se manifiesten. Este trabajo se centra en el análisis sociológico y espacial de los riesgos que la expansión urbanística en áreas de interior puede suponer para su desarrollo sostenible por medio del turismo rural. Como estudio de caso, se toman 29 municipios del suroeste de la península ibérica, conformados como comarca en el borde norte de la provincia de Huelva. A partir de los resultados de diagnósticos previos, y de la literatura sobre riesgos e impactos socioambientales del turismo residencial, se seleccionan dos indicadores de riesgo y se analiza su comportamiento en los modelos turístico-rurales existentes en la zona.

  20. Aerial radiological survey of the Feed Materials Production Center and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, located near Fernald, Ohio, during the period April 24 to 27, 1985. The survey covered a 70-square-kilometer (27-square-mile) area centered on the plant. The highest exposure rates, in excess of 0.35 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the plant. This radiation was due to the presence of nuclides which were consistent with normal plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates, varying from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), were due to naturally-occurring potassium, uranium, thorium, and daughter products. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. Soil sample results showed several areas just outside the site boundary with slightly elevated amounts of U-238. The levels, however, were well below the detection limit of the aerial system. The only off-site area that showed apparent above background activity in the aerial data was directly west of the storage silos. The symmetly west of the storage silos. The symmetric shape of the contours, however, suggests that these elevated levels are due to ''shine'' from material stored on-site in the silos and not to actual off-site contamination. Detailed comparison of the 1985 aerial survey data with a previous survey conducted in 1976 showed no significant change in any area outside the plant boundary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

  2. Willingness and professional motivations of medical students to work in rural areas: a study in Alexandria, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Aida M. Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, e.g. personal preferences, difficult work conditions and low remuneration. Our aim was to determine the effect of motivational factors on willingness to accept postings to rural underserved areas in Alexandria, Egypt and to identify perceived attributes of rural service.,A cross-sectional survey involving 302 4th-year medical students was conducted in March-July 2012. Logistic regression analysis was used to asses...

  3. Strategies for Organization and Development of Tourism Function in Rural Areas Case Study: Villages of Qom Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi Shapourabadi

    2013-01-01

    Regarding its appeals and capacities, tourism function of rural areas in Qom province has not adequately played an effective role in advancing rural sustainable development. Therefore, the current research attempts at identifying and preparing organization and development strategies for tourism function in rural areas of Qom province. Research method is descriptive-analytical and it is applied in terms of its content. The present study aims at searching for organization and development strate...

  4. SOME GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF EXAMPLE ANDRIJEVICA (MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the economic and geographical factors of rural settlements of Andrijevica. Isolated traffic and geographical position adversely affect the economic and social development of rural settlements. Natural features indicate that rural areas of Andrijevica economy do not comply with all the natural conditions. Incompatibility between the available natural and current conditions of the rural economy determine by the overall socio-economic factors of development. The percentage decrease in rural population in the municipality Andrijevica period 1948-2003 amounted to - 49.44%. The main characteristic of the modern development of rural settlements are give industrialization and urbanization processes. Age groups, due to migration and the reduction of fertility change and take on unfavorable characteristics, reduces the proportion of younger and older increases the proportion of the population. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations types of economic development.

  5. Mapping permanent preservation areas and natural forest fragments as subsidy to the registration of legal reserve areas in rural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Paulo Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this work was to identify and quantify forest fragments suitable to be used as private protected land in rural properties located in the São Bartolomeu creek watershed, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological procedures included: mapping of 78 forest fragments through the visual interpretation of an Ikonos II satellite image; delineation of Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs from a hydrographically conditioned digital elevation model and mapping of 292 rural properties through interviews with owners, with the aid of a printed Ikonos II image. The generated maps were overlapped (crossed, allowing the identification of forest fragments that could be used as private protected land in rural property. The result indicated that, from the total of properties evaluated, only 41 (14.04% have more than 20% of forest cover, and therefore, are in condition to attend the environmental law for private protected land.

  6. Evaluation of rural areas in terms of landscape quality: Salacik Village (Trabzon/Turkey) example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzgüne?, Ertan; Demirel, Öner

    2015-06-01

    As a result of the increasing urbanization and fast pace of work life, people started to turn to rural areas so as to regenerate both socially and psychologically. Increasing interest in the rural areas made the importance of landscape quality of these areas more significant. This improvement gave way to the idea of the necessity of preserving the resourceful landscape areas in terms of visual characteristics and bringing them under the spotlight, and it became the driving power in reconciling the planners and administrators. From this point of view, a study was conducted in Salac?k Village of Akçaabat district of Trabzon (Turkey) in order to identify the visually resourceful landscape areas and maintain the sustainability of the resource values by preserving them. In this respect, the area was divided into seven individual landscape types, visual landscape evaluation including the opinions of the experts, and a survey that is used in planning of the rural areas was implemented. It is thought that the results attained with the evaluations made taking the principles of Gestalt theory into consideration will constitute an essential fundamental for urban and regional planners, natural resource administrators, and other planning parties in their planning decisions relating the specific area. Apart from that, among the goals of this study are contributing in the preservation of visually resourceful landscapes, maintaining their sustainability, and integration of these areas into the development strategies. PMID:25934050

  7. Beyond urban places: responding to intimate partner violence in rural and remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Karen S; Hammatt, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a recognized public health problem impacting the lives of women, families, and communities. Women in rural and more remote areas who experience IPV face unique barriers and challenges to accessing healthcare services to support healthy outcomes. Resources, access to services, presence of compassionate and informed healthcare providers, and environmental circumstances influence effective responses to this issue in rural and more remote areas. In a public health approach to this problem, prevention efforts, victim-centered responses, and the support of safety are imperative to improve outcomes for women. Forensic nurses play an important role in effective response by building linkages across health, human, and social systems through collaboration, partnership, activism, advocacy, and sensitivity to the issue across the rural landscape. PMID:25996433

  8. Does urbanisation affect rural poverty? Evidence from Indian districts

    OpenAIRE

    Cali, Massimiliano; Menon, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Although the high rate of urbanization and the high incidence of rural poverty are two distinct features of many developing countries, we still do not know the effects of the former on the latter. We address this issue by exploring the mechanisms through which urbanization may alleviate rural poverty, disentangling “first round” effects, due to migration of rural poor to cities, and “second round” effects, due to positive externalities of city growth on surrounding rural areas. We test our th...

  9. Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti / El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pierre Kébreau, Alexandre; Gilbert, Saint-Jean; Lee, Crandall; Etzer, Fevrin.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad que habían dado a luz en los tres años anteriores a la entre-vista, fueron: 1) examinar los factores que [...] determinan la probabilidad de que las mu-jeres acudan a atención prenatal en las zonas rurales y urbanas del país y 2) dentro del grupo de mujeres con una o más consultas prenatales, examinar los factores que determinan el número de dichas consultas en las zonas rurales y urbanas. MÉTODOS: En el análisis multifactorial se emplearon modelos logísticos para deter-minar qué factores explicaban la decisión de acudir a control prenatal, y se usaron modelos binomiales negativos para determinar el número de consultas prenatales dentro del subgrupo de mujeres que consultaron por lo menos una vez. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad esperada de acudir a control prenatal, determinada según el valor medio de las variables de control, fue de 77,16% en las zonas rurales, en comparación con 85,83% en las zonas urbanas de Haití. Dentro del grupo de mu-jeres que acudieron a servicios de control prenatal, las madres en zonas rurales tuvieron un número esperado de consultas prenatales de 3,78, en comparación con 5,06 en las zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES: Un buen porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas tiene acceso a servicios de atención prenatal en Haití, pero las madres en zonas rurales que eligieron acudir a dichos servicios tuvieron un poco menos del mínimo de cuatro consultas recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El nivel educativo de las madres y de sus parejas es un factor pronóstico muy importante en relación con el uso de servicios de atención prenatal. Las consultas repetidas se vieron obstaculizadas en las zonas rurales por el mayor tiempo de desplazamiento y la mayor distancia hasta el centro de salud. Los formuladores de políticas y los proveedores de atención sanitaria deben tener en cuenta estos resultados a la hora de tomar decisiones sobre la prestación y administración de los servicios de salud en Haití. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1) examine the determinants of the likelihood o [...] f the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2) for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.

  10. Aerial radiological survey of the Brookhaven National Laboratory and surrounding area, Upton, New York. Date of survey: June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was performed from 11 to 13 June 1983, over approximately a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area surrounding the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). BNL is located in the center of Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. All gamma radiation data were collected by flying east-west lines spaced 76 meters (250 feet) apart at an altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground. The average background exposure rate in the survey area ranged from 5 to 10 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 ?R/h. Ground-based measurements made during the same time period were compared to the aerial survey results. Pressurized ion chamber readings and soil samples were taken from two locations within the aerial survey boundaries. Exposure rate values obtained from these measurement techniques were in agreement with those obtained from the aerial data. A total of 23 areas of man-made radioactivity were identified. The dominant isotopes found over these areas were cesium-137, sodium-22, manganese-54, and cobalt-60. A similar survey was conducted in May 1980. The 1983 survey results were similar to the 1980 results. Three areas of low level man-made activity were not reproduced by the 1983 data. Ten new areas were detected. The major difference occurred because of the ajor difference occurred because of the increased sensitivity and spatial reduction brought on by lowering the altitude and decreasing the line spacing. 8 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs

  11. ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups of people interested in their development of social-economic scale, rural women are trying to adapt, to evolve, to overcome the barriers imposed at psychologically, socially and financially. The paper highlights the results of a survey on a sample of 979 women students in the project "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. An inter-regional model for women entrepreneurial school "(AntrES acronym, which certified mediators intention to initiate their own business.The results of questionnaires have provided important information about the character, ambition, motivation, courage, and moral support and financial support to women entrepreneurs based in Romania, including those in rural areas. The information obtained inetrmediul "I shattered" 7 myths about starting a business in our country. Romanian entrepreneur spirit, women in rural areas in Romania is not only a manifestation of strong desire to improve living standards in financial terms, but rather an "effort" to improve and "beauty" of the individual, family, environment and society we belong! In developed countries, at its home, female entrepreneurship is trying to reform, to seek new solutions to rethink the principles, to exercise imagination, to learn. Here, in Romania standard behavior still predominates. Female entrepreneurs are doing what everyone else in the same category does. The future however belongs to those who will opt diversity, surprise, excitement, personalization. How could this happen in the Romanian rural environment and take place in a sustainable way?

  12. Small field segments surrounded by large areas only shielded by a multileaf collimator: Comparison of experiments and dose calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Complex radiotherapy fields delivered using a tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) often feature small open segments surrounded by large areas of the beam only shielded by the MLC. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two modern dose calculation algorithms to accurately calculate the dose in these fields which would be common, for example, in volumetric modulated arc treatment (VMAT) and study the impact of variations in dosimetric leaf gap (DLG), focal spot size, and MLC transmission in the beam models. Methods: Nine test fields with small fields (0.6–3 cm side length) surrounded by large MLC shielded areas (secondary collimator 12 × 12 cm2) were created using a 6 MV beam from a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf MLC. Measurements of output factors and profiles were performed using a diamond detector (PTW) and compared to two dose calculations algorithms anisotropic analytical algorithm [(AAA) and Acuros XB] implemented on a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (Varian Eclipse 10). Results: Both calculation algorithms predicted output factors within 1% for field sizes larger than 1 × 1 cm2. For smaller fields AAA tended to underestimate the dose. Profiles were predicted well for all fields except for problems of Acuros XB to model the secondary penumbra between MLC shielded fields and the secondary collimator. A focal spot size of 1 mm or less, DLG 1.4 mm and MLC transmission of 1.4% provided and MLC transmission of 1.4% provided a generally good model for our experimental setup. Conclusions: AAA and Acuros XB were found to predict the dose under small MLC defined field segments well. While DLG and focal spot affect mostly the penumbra, the choice of correct MLC transmission will be essential to model treatments such as VMAT accurately.

  13. How does intimate partner violence differ depending on level of rurality of residential area in Spain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Escribá-Agüir, Vicenta; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Nevot-Cordero, Adela

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is recognized as a worldwide public health problem. Most theories ascribe IPV to individual, family, or cultural factors. Authors analyzed different residential areas in Spain in terms of IPV frequency as well as its impact on health and the use of services. A standardized self-administered cross-sectional survey was administered to ever-partnered adult women ages 18 to 70 years receiving care at primary health care centers (N = 10,322). Logistic regression analyzed the association between the level of rurality and health indicators, IPV, and use of services. The lowest frequency of IPV among women is reflected in higher rurality. Women of medium and low rurality presented a poorer self-perceived health and more physical health problems. Women from medium and low rurality areas declared seeking health services more frequently. These results show the importance of the environment in health and indicate the need for research on urban-rural differences in health problems to develop specific public health programs for each country. PMID:26027419

  14. The Human Ecology of Rural Areas: An Appraisal of a Field of Study with Suggestions for a Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lisandro

    1979-01-01

    Paper (1) explains the absence of a unifying conceptual framework for study of human ecology in rural areas; (2) proposes outline for such a framework with emphasis on its format, scope, and principal concepts; and (3) demonstrates the utility of the proposed framework for current areas of rural sociological research. (Author/DS)

  15. STUDY ON THE NATURAL AND ANTHROPIC TOURISM RESOURCES – FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA HA?EG-RETEZAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA BOTICI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The rural area from ?ara Ha?egului – Retezat is one of the richest area in Romania in natural and anthropic tourism supplies, determined by the natural, socio-cultural, economic and historical potential that can be used for tourism purposes. As the tourism potential comprises few economic resources that can be used only “in situ”, their inclusion in the economic circuit of values represents the premise of a superior economic process of rural development in the rural area ?ara Ha?egului - Retezat.Starting from the great variety of the tourism supply, the specialists in economy and tourism management can find optimum solutions for the development of the rural and agro-tourism services as a sustainable rural development component, while the optimization of the rural tourism services activities can be based on mathematical models and adequate system analyses.

  16. Prooxidant and proinflammatory potency of air pollution particulate matter (PM?.???.?) produced in rural, urban, or industrial surroundings in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dergham, Mona; Lepers, Capucine; Verdin, Anthony; Billet, Sylvain; Cazier, Fabrice; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz; Garçon, Guillaume

    2012-04-16

    Compelling evidence indicates that exposure to air pollution particulate matter (PM) affects human health. However, how PM composition interacts with PM-size to cause adverse health effects needs elucidation. In this study, we were also interested in the physicochemical characteristics and toxicological end points of PM?.???.? samples produced in rural, urban, or industrial surroundings, thereby expecting to differentiate their respective in vitro adverse health effects in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Physicochemical characteristics of the three PM?.???.? samples, notably their inorganic and organic components, were closely related to their respective emission sources. Referring also to the dose/response relationships of the three PM?.???.? samples, the most toxicologically relevant exposure times (i.e., 24, 48, and 72 h) and doses (i.e., 3.75 ?g PM/cm² and 15 ?g PM/cm²) to use to study the underlying mechanisms of action involved in PM-induced lung toxicity were chosen. Organic chemicals adsorbed on the three PM?.???.? samples (i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were able to induce the gene expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (i.e., Cytochrome P4501A1 and 1B1, and, to a lesser extent, NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase-1). Moreover, intracellular reactive oxygen species within BEAS-2B cells exposed to the three PM?.???.? samples induced oxidative damage (i.e., 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine formation, malondialdehyde production and/or glutathione status alteration). There were also statistically significant increases of the gene expression and/or protein secretion of inflammatory mediators (i.e., notably IL-6 and IL-8) in BEAS-2B cells after their exposure to the three PM?.???.? samples. Taken together, the present findings indicated that oxidative damage and inflammatory response preceeded cytotoxicity in air pollution PM?.???.?-exposed BEAS-2B cells and supported the idea that PM-size, composition, and origin could interact in a complex manner to determine the in vitro responsiveness to PM. PMID:22404339

  17. Hábitos de salud en escolares en ámbito urbano y rural / Health habits in schoolchildren in urban and rural areas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio, Martínez Sabater; Asunción, Marzá Gascón; Julia, Llorca Tauste; Cristina, Martínez Puig; Gema, Escrivá Aznar; Mercedes, Blasco Roque.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. En los primeros años de vida se produce la asimilación e interiorización de los hábitos de salud que van a condicionar la vida adulta, siendo fundamentales las características socioambientales para la adquisición de los mismos. Objetivos Nos planteamos conocer los hábitos de salud que [...] presentan los escolares de dos zonas geográficas contrapuestas: la urbana y la rural. Metodología. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo con alumnos de 10 y 11 años de una zona urbana y de una rural, llevándose a cabo una prueba de comparación de dos proporciones de muestras independientes. Resultados. Se han recogido 104 encuestas (21.2% de ámbito rural) en las cuales se observa la existencia de un porcentaje importante en cuanto a la falta de hábito de lavado de manos e higiene dental se refiere. Respecto a la alimentación, existe un pequeño número de niños que acuden al colegio sin desayunar y, en caso de hacerlo, es considerable el porcentaje obtenido en el consumo de bollería y zumos envasados, apreciándose un déficit en el de verduras y pescados. Aunque mayoritariamente realizan actividad física, el 10% no la hacen nunca. Asimismo se aprecia un excesivo uso del televisor preferido frente a otros hábitos. En lo relacionado con el tabaquismo, cabe destacar que un 30% conviven con fumadores, y un 6% han probado el tabaco. En lo referente al alcohol un porcentaje importante (4.8%-19.5%) ya lo ha probado mayoritariamente en el ámbito familiar. Conclusiones. La finalidad del estudio es el de servir como punto de partida para la planificación de futuras actuaciones, ya que indica la existencia de situaciones de riesgo: alteraciones en la salud bucodental por déficit de cuidados e higiene, hábitos alimenticios incorrectos, hábitos sedentarios e inicio temprano de consumo o contacto con sustancias tóxicas. Abstract in english Introduction. ln the first years of life assimilation occurs and the understanding of health habits that will shape adult life, and these socio-environmental characteristics are fundamental for the acquisition of health habits. Objectives. This study is aimed at ascertaining the health habits of sch [...] oolchildren from two opposing geographical areas (urban and rural). Methodology. We performed a descriptive study of students aged 10/11 years old from urban and rural areas, performing a comparison test of two proportions from independent samples. Results. 104 surveys were obtained (21.2% from rural areas). There is a significant percentage which refers to a lack of hand washing and dental hygiene habits. With regard to food there is a small percentage of children who come to school without breakfast, among those who did, it was found that a significant percentage have pastries and packaged juices showing a lack in consumption of vegetables and fish. Although largely physically inactive, 10% never take exercise. There is high television consumption and other habits are that, 30% live with smokers and 6% have tried snuff. A significant percentage (4.8% -19.5%) have tried alcohol, mostly in the family. Conclusions. The study should serve as a starting point for planning future actions, and indicates the existence of risk: changes in oral health due to a lack of care and hygiene, bad eating habits, sedentary habits and the early onset of contact with consumption, or with toxic substances.

  18. Marsupiales (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) de Iquitos y sus alrededores (Loreto, Perú) / Marsupials (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Iquitos and surrounding areas (Loreto, Peru)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M. Mónica, Díaz.

    Full Text Available Se presenta el resultado de un estudio realizado en la localidad de Iquitos y sus alrededores, un área ubicada en la Amazonia del noreste de Perú. Se ofrece una lista de especies de marsupiales registrados mediante colectas realizadas personalmente, información obtenida de la literatura y registros [...] confiables. Para cada especie se mencionan las localidades de colecta y presentan comentarios sobre su sistemática e historia natural. Se citan 19 especies para Iquitos, 14 fueron colectadas en este estudio, de las cuales una se confirma para el país (Marmosops neblina). Los resultados muestran que esta zona es una de la más diversa en marsupiales en Sudamérica. Abstract in english Introduction: Amazonia has a high diversity of marsupials, and while Emmons and Feer (1990) have cited 14 species for the area, 18 years later this number was increased to 28 by Gardner (2008a), a difference related to descriptions and revalidation of several species in recent years. Northeastern Pe [...] ru is one of the areas with high biodiversity, a "hotspot". The high diversity of small mammals can be explained by several factors: latitudinal gradient, size of the area, and lack of seasonal precipitations, among others. In this contribution 19 species are cited for the region of Iquitos, 14 collected through field trips and five recorded from the literature. These results confirm the presence of a species that was not known for the country (Marmosops neblina), and two species (Marmosa regina and Marmosops bishopi) with new records for the area. The results show that the study area is one of the most diverse in South America with respect to marsupials. Material and methods: The specimens were collected between December 2002 and December 2005, at 41 collecting sites along the Iquitos-Nauta Highway. The study was carried out in undisturbed primary and secondary forests, and other rural areas. In total, 18,081 Sherman trap-nights, 19,271 Tomahawk trap-nights, and 591 pitfall trap-nights were recorded. External and cranial morphometric data, body mass, sex, and reproductive condition were recorded for all specimens. A key to species is provided including the confirmed and probable species of the area. Species accumulation curves were calculated and plotted using Estimates 8.2.0. Results: Three hundred and seventy three records were obtained belonging to 14 out of 27 species cited for the area; eight species were collected outside the Iquitos area. Most specimens were collected in primary and secondary forests (123 and 199 specimens respectively), only 49 were captured in other areas. Pitfall traps were the most successful (1.69% capture success), followed by Tomahawk traps (1.29%), and Sherman traps (0.55%). Arboreal traps were more successful than the ground traps, with 4.18% and 0.89% capture success respectively. The species accumulation curve did not reach stability and the estimates calculated are greater than the recorded species. Discussion: During three years of sampling, 14 species were collected, a number that rises to 19 when literature citations for the specific area of Iquitos are considered (and increases to 27 if the area is extended to a 200 km radius around Iquitos). Some species were very abundant (P. opossum, M. nudicaudatus, D. marsupialis, and M. regina), while others were documented by only 1 or 2 records (G. venusta, M. adusta, and P. olrogi). It is evident that the Peruvian Amazon is one of the areas with the highest diversity of marsupials, but further surveys and studies are necessary in order to determine with greater precision the distribution of many species, and to acquire a better understanding of their natural history. More extensive studies of the fauna of the region are required to obtain informational bases that will provide a strong management policy, in order to preserve the species in such a highly fragmented region.

  19. Financing and Sustaining Mobility Programs in Rural Areas: A Manual. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Theodore A.; Kidder, Alice

    This manual focuses on the start-up and operation of low-cost transportation in rural areas. A principal focus is the use of volunteers and/or the consolidation of rides through a brokerage program. Chapter One provides an overview of what financial and operating decisions must be made to design a volunteer system. Chapter Two describes easy…

  20. Differences in Employee Motivation at Slovak Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitka, Miloš; Stachová, Katarína; Balážová, Žaneta; Stacho, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are…

  1. Air quality in urban, industrialized and rural french areas in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality measurements in urban, industrial and rural areas in 1991 have shown different trends. It turned out that lead and carbon monoxide concentrations have recently decreased. The concentrations of black smoke and sulphur dioxide have however remained constant since 1988, whereas nitrogen oxide and ozone have decreased in most sites. (TEC). 23 figs., 34 tabs., 40 refs

  2. The Impact of Rural Transportation on Agricultural Development in Boki Local Government Area, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Yaro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Linking areas of production with that of consumption is an effective approach for resource management and enhance productivity. Transportation remains a catalyst for efficient utilization of environmental resources for agricultural development safeguarding food security and rural livelihood. This study therefore is tailored towards assessing the impact of rural transportation on agricultural development in Boki LGA. The study adopts a questionnaire survey method for data collection as well as key informant interview and Focus Group Discussion. The study area was segmented into two based on accessibility viz, accessible and inaccessible communities. The result reveals that in inaccessible communities, common to the people is the use of head porterage (44% as a means of conveying their goods to the market, while in accessible areas; the common means is the use of landrover. Accessibility has therefore influenced positively the income, employment and easy access to market thereby increasing farm holdings. The paired sample test indicates that the farm holdings vary significantly in terms of farm sizes-Less than 1 hectares shows significant variation (t=5.245; p<0.05 and above 13 hectares (t=4.804; p<0.05. The difference between low income and high income earnings in both areas is statistically significant (t=2.687; p<0.05 and t=2.856; p<0.05. This result shows that transportation is vital for rural agricultural development. Hence it is recommended that rural transportation be given utmost priority to ensure sustainable food production.

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALNUTRITION (UNDER NUTRITION) AMONG UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN A SECTION OF RURAL AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak B. Phalke; Vaishali D. Phalke; Shubhada S Avachat

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence of malnutrition is very high in India; especially in rural area. A cross sectional study was done in randomly selected six villages to estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomicfactors associated with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the under five children was 50.46%.Children from lower socioeconomic status, with low birth weight were significantly malnourished.

  4. Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

  5. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar B.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In India, half of the world's labour force is in agriculture and an estimated 1.3 billion workers are engaged in agricultural production world wide. The share of the agricultural labour force in the very economically active population is under 10 per cent in the developed countries and accounts for 59 per cent of workers in the less developed regions (International Labour Conference (ILC 2000. Compared to workers in other sectors, agricultural workers are under protected. They suffer from sever health problems. In most of the countries, including India, agricultural workers are excluded from any employment injury benefit or insurance scheme. Farmers in India are rarely covered by any schemes. Only if they contribute individually to insurance schemes, they get social security benefits. In agriculture, the most vulnerable groups are daily wage labourers, women workers, and child labourers most of them are very poor. They are the one who are exposed to occupational hazards. In India agricultural work is carried out mostly in rural environment where there is no clean-cut distinction between working and living conditions. Most agricultural work is carried out in the open air and farmers depend on weather to perform their agricultural activities. Uneven weather further aggravates health conditions of the people and influence their working conditions.

  6. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

  7. Aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Plant and surrounding area, Portsmouth, Ohio. Date of survey: May 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Plant during the period May 1 to 14, 1984. The survey covered an 83-square-kilometer (32-square-mile) area centered on the Plant. The highest radiation exposure rates, up to a maximum of 1.3 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the Plant. This detected radiation was due to the presence of uranium, which was consistent with normal Plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied from 7 to 14 microentgens per hour (?R/h), which was found to be due to the naturally occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 ?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area and along the banks of the Scioto River upstream and downstream of the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. No evidence of any radioactive contamination, which might have occurred off-site as a result of Plant operations, was inferred from the aerial survey data. This was further supported by the results of the soil sample analysis ahe results of the soil sample analysis and the comparison of the current survey data with that collected during a previous survey conducted in July 1976. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Critical Socio-Cultural Elements of the Intercultural Endeavour of English Teaching in Colombian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ximena Bonilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study done with five English language teachers in Colombian rural areas. Questionnaires and interviews were used to see how these teachers understand their professional practice considering the contextual features of their regional workplaces. Amongst the findings, we noticed that these teachers have to mediate between local and global tensions and also deal with socio-cultural matches and mismatches in their labours. It is hoped this work raises awareness of critical socio-cultural factors involved in the teaching of English in rural settings and of the complexity of its intercultural dimension.

  9. THE ROLE OF NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREA DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rural non-agricultural activities can be classified into two categories depending on occupancy degree of time: independent ones, those who are practiced in exclusivity, occupying entire working time and complementary, and those who are carried out in completion time, by those involved in agriculture. Through these agricultural activities it is provided employment of labor from rural area by judiciously using local resources because these products are used for individual household needs but can be a source of additional income if they are sold in markets or even exported as traditional products.

  10. Research on the Information Supporting System for the New Educational Mechanism Reforming in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxiong Huang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of information requirements and the funds guaranteeing system reform of rural compulsory education, this paper tried to design and construct an information support system for the new network-based educational mechanism reforming in rural areas. This paper also defined the concept of this new system and its framework. A prospective forecast was also given in terms of its function and application. This paper intended to provide effective informationized managing measures for the implementation of the new educational mechanism.

  11. Assessment of Nutritional Status among Type 2 Diabetics in Bangalore Rural and Urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.V.Shubhashini M.Sc, M.Phil.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is one of the major public health challenges of the 21st century, both in rural and urban population. According to WHO the occurring epidemic of diabetes is strongly related to lifestyle and economic changes. IFG and IGT are associated with obesity. Structured lifestyle intervention, aimed at increasing physical activity and producing 5–10% loss of body weight, have been demonstrated to prevent or delay the development of diabetes in people with IGT (ADA guidelines 2010. Hence, an attempt was made to compare the nutritional status among Type 2 Diabetics from Bangalore rural and urban areas.

  12. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  13. Techno-economic evaluation of various electric energy supply for rural areas Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic study was carried out to evaluate the techno-economic viability of various electric supply sources for electrification of rural areas in Pakistan in present socio-economic conditions. The important influencing factors considered were: social needs, electric requirement and availability of energy resources. The electric requirements of model rural village were established at 20431 kw h per year. Prudent evaluations reveal that hydroelectric, photovoltaic and diesel systems are better options than an electric grid extension of more than 2 km. In order to become an economically meritorious energy source, photovoltaic system should attain cost level Rs. 100 per watt-peak of installed system. (author)

  14. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DORNA BASIN, BY PROMOTING TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Lucian VINTIL?

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Any strategy of diversification of non-agricultural economic activities and development of micro-enterprises in rural areas, aims to increase farms’ side incomes from non-agricultural activities, to create new job opportunities, new services for local people, to promote entrepreneurship and development of rural tourism. Sustainable developmentby promoting tourism should have as objective, besides recovery and sustainable promotion of cultural heritage the natural resources with tourism potential as well and the use of local products, which are marketed not only as raw materials but also as products with added value.

  15. QUALITY OF LIFE AND HUMAN ISOLATION: THE CASE OF RURAL AREA OF PUGLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Contò

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research explores the socio-economic problems arising in a typical peripheral rural area - the Wide Area of Daunian Mountains (WADM- in Southern Italy in order to analyse the concept of ‘well being’ through the analysis of the ‘quality of life’. For these purposes, we will develop an ‘Index of Human Isolation’ (UNDP, 1997, in order to take into account the multiple dimensions of isolation, that is a constant characteristic of rural areas, particularly the inter-generational, sociostructural, and geographical ones. This index will be employed to analyse the relationship between a set of variables representing the main economic, structural and social aspects of the area and the dynamics of the Value Added. The expected results are twofold; (a the creation of VA should be decreasing at high levels of IHI; (b the implementation of social-assistance network may actively contribute to the reduction of isolation.

  16. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas : Individual Creativity and Social Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    The entrepreneurial dynamics within urban and rural areas are often assumed to be very different. This study explores the importance of individual creativity and the social network in both places regarding the probability of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving the crucial three years after start-up. The results are based on longitudinal register data combined with a questionnaire survey from 2008, utilizing responses from 1,108 first-time entrepreneurs (out of which 670 survived) and 420 non-entrepreneurs (without previous entrepreneurial experience). Creativity is only found to lead to start-up in urban areas but it does not influence the chances of survival in any of the two areas. On the contrary, the social network matters particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment in the research design, common entrepreneurship beliefs are questioned which opens up for region specific policy initiatives..

  17. Potential market for small-scale gasifiers in rural areas of developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Kieffer, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This thesis report assesses the potential market for small-scale gasifiers in rural areas of developing countries and regions. Biomass is already widely used in these areas for energetic purpose, giving gasification an interesting niche market for remote electricity production. Success factors include a high reliability, an efficient biomass supply chain and sufficient local electricity needs. Suitable fuel for a gasifier must be available at low cost, which could be wood harvested locally or...

  18. Goiter prevalence and urinary iodine status in urban and rural/mountain areas of Piedmont region

    OpenAIRE

    Orlandi, Fabio

    2006-01-01

    Piedmont region was reported in the 70s as a mild iodine-deficient area with a goiter prevalence > 10%. This study aimed at characterizing the current status of iodine deficiency in Piedmont, with special attention to putative differences between urban and rural/mountain areas. A cross-sectional, observational study was performed according to the surveillance methods for iodine deficiency disorders recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Ultrasound local thyroid volume reference v...

  19. An Evaluation of Groundnut Processing by Women in a Rural Area of North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Hussaini Yusuf Ibrahim; Napoleon D. Saingbe; Hassan Ishaq Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the economic empowerment potentials of groundnut processing by women in rural areas of Northcentral Nigeria state using a sample of 100 women processors randomly selected from the study area. Data analysis wasdone using Descriptive statistics, Net Farm Income Model and Data Envelopment Analysis (D.E.A). An average netreturns of N10, 586.6 was obtainable within a processing cycle. The average pure technical and scale efficiency scoreswere 80 and 83 percent respectively. Th...

  20. Assessment of Determinants of Domestic Water Demand in Rural Areas of Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    K. Gamedze; Tevera, D.S.; G.B. Chemhaka

    2012-01-01

    This study is based on a study in which questionnaire interviews were administered to investigate the determinants of domestic water demand in rural areas of Swaziland. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed in Siphofaneni area to provide primary data for this study. The study discovered that average domestic water use per person per day was only 10 L and most households had unmet water demand for most domestic uses. The results suggest that income, household size and distance from h...

  1. Qualidade de água de uma lagoa rasa em meio rural no sul do Brasil / Water quality of a shallow lagoon in rural area in Southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel W., Cunha; Manoel D. N., Garcia Jr.; Edélti F., Albertoni; Cleber, Palma-Silva.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available No seu entorno, a lagoa Caiubá apresenta regiões preservadas e áreas com cultura de arroz e de pecuária. Esta pesquisa descreve o padrão de variação sazonal e espacial das variáveis fisico-químicas e biológicas durante os anos de 2009 e 2010, em nove pontos distribuídos espacialmente na lagoa, repre [...] sentando suas partes norte, central e sul. A qualidade da água foi avaliada através da aplicação do índice de estado trófico (IET), do índice de qualidade de água (IQA) e das classes da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005. Foram coletadas amostras de invertebrados bentônicos e determinados os Índices Bióticos (IB) de acordo com os modelos da Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA) e a adaptação do Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). Os resultados evidenciaram um sistema com alta turbidez e conteúdo de fósforo, além de baixa razão N:P, e com poucas alterações sazonais e espaciais nas variáveis medidas. Embora os resultados do IQA e CONAMA tenham classificado a lagoa Caiubá como águas de excelente a boa qualidade, os resultados do IET e dos IB foram opostos classificando a lagoa como sistema alterado e poluído. Conclui-se que esses índices devam ser readequados através de avaliações sistemáticas visando refletir as condições de qualidade de ecossistemas aquáticos em meio rural, na região subtropical do Brasil. Abstract in english The Caiubá lagoon has its surroundings with preserved areas and areas with rice cultivation and livestock. This study describes the pattern of seasonal and spatial variation of physico-chemical and biological variables during the years 2009 and 2010 at nine points, representing part of northern, cen [...] tral and southern regions. Water quality was evaluated by applying the trophic state index (TSI) and the water quality index (WQI), and classes according to CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Samples of benthic invertebrates were collected and determined the biotic index (BI), following the models of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA), and adaptation of Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). The results demonstrated a system with high turbidity and phosphorus content, and low N:P ratio, and with little seasonal and spatial changes in the measured variables. Although the results of WQI and the CONAMA have classified the lagoon waters with excellent to good quality, the results of the TSI and the BI were opposites, classifying the ecosystem as amended and polluted system. It is concluded that these indices should be readjusted through systematic evaluations in order to reflect the quality condition of aquatic ecosystems in rural areas in the subtropical region of Brazil.

  2. Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandotra V.K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t� test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

  3. Serious BTEX pollution in rural area of the North China Plain during winter season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kankan; Zhang, Chenglong; Cheng, Ye; Liu, Chengtang; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhang, Gen; Sun, Xu; Mu, Yujing

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) in a rural site of the North China Plain (NCP) were preliminarily investigated in winter, and the outdoor concentrations (25.8-236.0?g/m(3)) were found to be much higher than those reported in urban regions. The pollution of BTEX inside a farmer's house was even more serious, with combined concentrations of 254.5-1552.9?g/m(3). Based on the ratio of benzene to toluene (1.17±0.34) measured, the serious BTEX pollution in the rural site was mainly ascribed to domestic coal combustion for heating during the winter season. With the enhancement of farmers' incomes in recent years, coal consumption by farmers in the NCP is rapidly increasing to keep their houses warm, and hence the serious air pollution in rural areas of the NCP during winter, including BTEX, should be paid great attention. PMID:25872726

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background

  5. Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyan Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Airborne dust is a major environmental hazard in Asia. Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 10 km and higher. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in North India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar.

  6. Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 11–12 km. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in Northwest India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar. Comparisons with the OMI and MODIS measurements show the unique capability of the CALIPSO lidar to provide unambiguous, altitude-resolved dust measurements.

  7. Ethnobotanical and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Floristic Diversity in Murari Devi and Surrounding Areas of Mandi District in Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Agnihotri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional uses of floristic diversity are the most important component of indigenous knowledge system, which is widely prcatised by human populations all across the world. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been conducted during 2010-2012, to study the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi Disrtict in Himachal Pradesh, India. Total 384 species (71 trees, 97 shrubs, 209 herbs and 07 ferns belonging to 106 families and 285 genera were recorded and used by the inhabitants of the area. Different parts of these species, such as whole plants, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, seeds, stems, barks, etc. were used by the inhabitants for curing various ailments. Various anthropogenic activities, over exploitation and habitat degradation have led rapid population depletion of these species. Therefore, study on habitat ecology, development of conventional and in-vitro propagation protocols, development of agro techniques/plantation techniques and introduction in the akin habitats, education and awareness programs for the inhabitants are suggested. So that adequate planning for the conservation of these species could be done.

  8. Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the oral health status of children and adults in rural and urban areas of Burkina Faso; to provide epidemiological data for planning and evaluation of oral health care programmes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey including different ethnic and socio-economic groups. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling of households in urban areas and random samples of participants selected based on the recent population census in rural areas. The final study population covered four age groups: 6 years (n = 424), 12 years (n = 505), 18 years (n = 492) and 35-44 years (n = 493). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year-olds and 6.3 in 35-44-year-olds and figures were higher for women than men. In adults, no differences in caries experience were found by location whereas the caries index was significantly affected by ethnic group and occupation. CPI score 2 (gingivitis and calculus) was dominant for all ages: 6 years (58%), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes rather than traditional curative care.

  9. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  10. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  11. Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Hairong Li; Wuyi Wang; Yonghua Li; Bixiong Ye; Linsheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drink...

  12. Participation of Youth in Rural Leadership Development Activities in Yewa South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyanju Agbelemoge; Adebanjo, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the study was to assess the levels of participation of youth in rural leadership development activities in Yewa South Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive and systematic random sampling techniques were adopted for the study. This study considered the socio-economic characteristics of the rural youth, stages of participation in rural leadership development activities, motivational factors influencing youth`s participation and constraints to participation in rur...

  13. EMPLOYMENT DIFFICULTIES EXPERIENCED BY YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica PRIS?CARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of our investigation was to elucidate the problems of young people as part of the human potential ofrural areas. As a result of processing statistical data related to the evolution of the labour market in the Republic ofMoldova, there were highlighted the differences between the average indicators of the labour market in the country,both in urban and rural areas, putting a particular emphasis on young people. Also, according to the generalizationof a survey data there were found the causes that repress the desire of graduates of agricultural educationinstitutions to find jobs in rural areas. The final conclusion is that even if in the country at governmental level,certain attempts are made to attract young people to work in villages, their efficiency is still insufficient.

  14. Research on the accessibility to health and educational services in the rural areas in Extremadura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Masot Ana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the competent laws on Health and Education of the Extremaduran Government read, all the Extremaduran people have the right to their benefits, irrespective of their social, economic and cultural characteristics. Nevertheless, in the Region of Extremadura there are still differences between the rural and urban areas, so, studying how the Extremaduran people can access, with the same conditions, to those services considered basic, such as health and education, is very significant. Using techniques as Network Analyst and the interpolation method IDW, we can note that in Extremadura there are still zones with a very-far- from- laws reality, rural areas with a difficult access to the named services and equipment due to the location on low developed in population and economy areas, and very far from the main communication roads

  15. Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

  16. Methodological issues in applying Location Models to Rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Carling, Kenneth; Han, Mengjie; Ha?kansson, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Location Models are usedfor planning the location of multiple service centers in order to serve a geographicallydistributed population. A cornerstone of such models is the measure of distancebetween the service center and a set of demand points, viz, the location of thepopulation (customers, pupils, patients and so on). Theoretical as well asempirical evidence support the current practice of using the Euclidian distancein metropolitan areas. In this paper, we argue and provide empirical evide...

  17. Rural settlement policies in Turkey and the Kurdish areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jongerden, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    The adament refusal of Turkey to admit to a Kurdish question is a major source of human rights violations, social tension, political and economic instability, and an irritant in Turkey's relations with neighboring countries and the European Union. In the 1980s and 1990s Turkey, and in particular the areas predominantly populated by Kurds, was the scene of an increasingly bitter war between Turkish armed forces and the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK; Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan). As a strategy fo...

  18. Mothers? Perceptions & Ambitions About Their Daughters in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Lal Sunder

    1997-01-01

    Research question: What are the perceptions and ambitions of mothers about their daughters in relation to critical areas like literacy, age of marriage & child bearing, health risk due to early marriage etc. Objectives: To raise the level of awareness of mothers through ongoing programmes focused on women. Design: Before and after study in population. Participants: Mothers of girls aged 7-19 years. Study variables: Literacy, caste, communication, menstruation, food distribution in the fa...

  19. The Problem Of Youth Unemployment in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoryeva, N.

    2012-01-01

    The development of Czech agricultural labour market has been continuously predominantly negative since 1989 and recently, the problem of youth unemployment is acute in many countries, not only in the Czech Republic, but also in the Russian Federation, where most of graduates of agricultural universities work in non-agricultural sphere and in urban area. The present paper tries to consider the problems faced by youth in the labour market after graduating from the university, the reasons for wo...

  20. Considerations for decision-making on distributed power generation in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy resources for rural electrification are variable and widely dispersed, such that a solution for one region might not be appropriate for another. This study evaluates the feasibility of renewable energy technologies, centralized grid extension and local coal-fired power for rural areas that currently do not have sufficient access to electricity. The renewable power generation options considered are solar photovoltaic and wind power, with battery storage or fossil fuel generator backup. New local coal-fired power, as well as extension of the grid from an existing centralized power system, are considered to compare the impacts of scale and traditional approaches to power generation. A case study for a rural area in Northwestern China demonstrates the complexity of energy decision-making when faced with low peak demands and non-ideal renewable resource availability. Economic factors, including cost of electricity generation, breakeven grid extension distance, capacity shortage fraction (the ratio of the annual capacity shortage to the annual electric load) and land use are evaluated. - Highlights: • Considerations include technical and non-technical factors for energy decisions. • Coal and renewable power are compared based on cost and availability of resources. • Key factors for renewable power generation are capacity shortage and availability of resources. • Rural China case study evaluates the viability of distributed wind or solar power relative to coal

  1. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  2. Assessment of welfare living and public law with an emphasis on rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ehrami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quality of life is the main objective of all planning which is produced by the thinkers and planners. Problems is faced our rural areas challenges such as, weak sources of income, loss of opportunity and good job opportunities and housing instability. Present study seeks to answer the question how is the quality of life of the sample? How been it spatial distribution the quality of the sample villages? Research method is descriptive - analytical with an emphasis on the questionnaire. Based on this approach explain the descriptive statistical analysis and test results show Comments on the conditions the quality of life of society have been evaluated (education and leisure as moderate and less of it. Meanwhile, can be seen the most difficult aspects of environmental and economic conditions that the calculated T statistic shows Frequency deviation than average So that more rural areas are located the quality of the environment at a disadvantage. Findings show that the distribution of all the components influencing the quality of life in rural Shahindezh is observed significant differences in terms of location or distance of the rural population.

  3. Children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in urban, rural and mining activity areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, Andrea; Callan, Anna C; Heyworth, Jane; McCafferty, Peter; Sly, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    There has been limited study of children's personal exposure to PM10 and associated metals in rural and iron ore mining activity areas where PM10 concentrations can be very high. We undertook a small study of 70 children where 13 children were recruited in an area of iron ore mining processing and shipping, 15 children from an area in the same region with no mining activities, and 42 children in an urban area. Each child provided a 24h personal exposure PM10 sample, a first morning void urine sample, a hair sample, time activity diary, and self administered questionnaire. Children's 24h personal PM10 concentrations were low (median of 28 ?g m(-3) in the mining area; 48 ?g m(-3) in the rural area and 45 ?g m(-3) in the urban area) with corresponding outdoor PM10 concentrations also low. Some very high personal PM10 concentrations were recorded for individuals (>300 ?g m(-3)) with the highest concentrations recorded in the mining and rural areas in the dry season. PM10 concentrations were highly variable. Hair aluminium, cadmium and manganese concentrations were higher in the iron ore activity area, while hair mercury, copper and nickel concentrations were higher in the urban area. Factors such as season and ventilation appear to be important but this study lacked power to confirm this. These results need to be confirmed by a larger study and the potential for absorption of the metals needs to be established along with the factors that increase exposures and the potential for health risks arising from exposure. PMID:24875921

  4. Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

  5. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the 210Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

  6. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Jianbo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Ip, Carman C.M. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Li Xiangdong, E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.h [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-15

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the {sup 210}Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

  7. The concentration of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in soils from tin mining and its surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research has been conducted to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides (Uranium 238 and Thorium 232) and heavy metals (plumbum, zink, and cuprum) in soil samples collected from tin mining and amang processing areas and its surrounding in Dengkil, Selangor. The radionuclides were measured using gamma spectroscopy whilst heavy metals were extracted using various extracting solution before measured using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the pH of the soil was in the range of pH 4.28 - 5.53, whilst for amang the pH value was 2.65. The activity of U-238 and Th-232 were between 3.37 - 7.88 Bq/kg and 10.51 - 45.24 Bq/kg, respectively. For amang and reference IAEA-375 soil samples the values were 246.36 Bq/kg (U-238); 12452.18 Bq/kg (Th-232) and 24.4 Bq/kg (U-238); 20.5 Bq/kg (Th-232) respectively. Plumbum (5416.56 ?g/g) was the dominant heavy metal extracted from the soil followed by Cu (158.9 ?g/g) and Zn (6.23 ?g/g). Concentrated nitric acid was very efficient in extracting heavy metal (52.8%) followed by Na2EDTA (20.01%), NaOH (18.18%) and KNO3 (9.09%). (Author)

  8. Distributions of n-alkanes and their hydrogen isotopic composition in plants from Lake Qinghai (China) and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aquatic plants from Lake Qinghai, the largest inland saline lake in China, and terrestrial plants from the surrounding area were investigated for the distribution of n-alkanes and their ?D values. The n-alkanes in the samples range from C15 to C33 with C preference index (CPI) values of 4.0–29.7. The n-C23 or n-C25 alkane is the dominant compound in the aquatic submerged plants. The aquatic emergent and terrestrial plants have an abundance maximum at n-C27, n-C29 or n-C31. The average chain length (ACL) values, ranging from 26.0 to 29.6, are closely related to the plant species. The n-alkanes from the aquatic plants have mean ?D values of ?169‰ to ?121‰ and those from the terrestrial plants values of ?173‰ to ?109‰. The H isotopic composition (?D) and fractionation differ significantly among the plants studied. Comparison shows that additional evaporative enrichment of the lake water associated with saline lakes and humidity influence the ?D values of the n-alkanes in aquatic and terrestrial plants, respectively. The mean ?D values of n-alkanes in the plants decrease with increasing ACL value. The n-alkanes from the different types of plants are more depleted in D relative to environmental water and those from aquatic plants (with a mean value of ?143‰) have a greater isotopic fractionation than terrestrial plants (mean value ?113‰).

  9. The Analysis Of The Heavy Metals Pollution In The River Water For Fishing Accusative The Surrounding UJUNG LEMAH ABANG Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals are introduced into aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils or rocks, from volcanic eruptions and from a variety of human activities involving the mining, processing, or use of metals and/or substances that contain metal contaminants. The metal natural contents will changeable depends on the pollutant which is proportionally occurred in the environment. The extremely heavy metals absorption by organisms Directly or indirectly through the food chain will give the significant impact to the human lives. For this purpose an investigation was carried out to take samples of heavy metals from the river (Doplang, Balong, and Pacitran) surrounding the Ujung Lemah abang area, and to see how far was the impact of pollutants to the community who live nearby from the food-chain point of view. Results showed that the heavy metals content of Cd, Fe, Cu and Hg in the water and sediment are higher than the permissible concentration for fish nursery. It is found that the concentration of Cd between 0.91 - 1.85 ?g/ml, Cu: 0.03 ?g/ml, and Fe: 0.16 - 2.51 ?g/ml, whereas concentration of Hg in sediment between 0.036 - 0.118 mg/g. Up to now there are no report yet to the death fish caused by the more content of heavy metals in their body or the sickness related to it in the community around the location, but nevertheless this condition need to be took attention

  10. Analysis of the effects of aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport [paper in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mendonça Maroja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the perception of discomfort caused by aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport (SBBR. The study was divided into two parts. At first, noise measurements were conducted in four residentials zones and the sound pressure level determined by the parameters: Leq, Lmax, Lmin, RF, SEL and IPR. In the second part, we applied a questionnaire adapted from the project Eurocontrol (European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation. The results of field measurements indicate regions with soundscape compromised and with potential of nuisance, especially at night. Was obtained, from analysis of questionnaires, that the respondents female sex if showed more sensitive by the noise of cars and planes and realize more intensity the noise from road and air traffic. It was found dissatisfaction with the interference caused by the noise of aircraft in daily activities and indicated as reactions noise-related: headaches, sleep disorders, stress and difficulty concentrating. It is noteworthy, that in the region with lower noise, the respondents are more sensitive to the noise of airplanes and the values of acoustic parameters measured would justify the negative reactions of respondents to the air transportation noise. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between the perception of annoyance and discomfort with the sound pressure levels measured.

  11. Mothers? Perceptions & Ambitions About Their Daughters in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Sunder

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the perceptions and ambitions of mothers about their daughters in relation to critical areas like literacy, age of marriage & child bearing, health risk due to early marriage etc. Objectives: To raise the level of awareness of mothers through ongoing programmes focused on women. Design: Before and after study in population. Participants: Mothers of girls aged 7-19 years. Study variables: Literacy, caste, communication, menstruation, food distribution in the family, age of marriage & childbirth, health risks, sources of information. Outcome variables: Raised level of awareness on critical areas as mentioned above. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions. Results: A little less than half (48% of mother�s felt that their daughters could study as long as they desired. Though 73-82% of mothers knew the health risk of early marriage yet 67% of girls were married below the age of 18 years. Only 15% of mothers educated their daughters on the subject of menstruation. Female children were considered the last priority for nutritious food. The results of this study necessitate strengthening of women programmes for better awareness; favorable attitudes and sound practices.

  12. Mobile radio alternative systems study. Volume 2: Terrestrial. [rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.; Anderson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Terrestrial systems for satisfying the markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States in the years from 185 to 2000 were investigated. Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described for background in evaluating the concepts generated. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs. Nationwide dispatch, telephone and data services would require terrestrial installations in many locations where they would be used infrequently and would not recover their investment. Access to a roaming vehicle requires that the vehicle location be known within the range limit of the terrestrial installation in which the vehicle is present at the time of the call. Access to that installation must be made through the public switched telephone network, usually involving a long-distance toll charge, and requiring costly means to track or locate the vehicle as it moved through the network of installations.

  13. Analysis of Disparities in Health Center Quality between Rural, Coastal and Urban Areas at Kutai Kartanegara District, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Irwandy; Dian S, Rislamid; Nurdin Perdana; Syahrir A, Pasinringi

    2013-01-01

    Background/objective : Health development which has been implemented is still not running optimally and evenly to reach all areas and walks of life. It can be seen by the high incidence of health care disparities that occur in particular for remote areas. The objective of this studied to analyze Disparities of Quality Care in Health Center between rural, coastal and urban areas. Method : The study was conducted in 2011 on 2 rural health centers, 2 coastal health centers and 2 urban healt...

  14. Improving Women and Family’s Health through Integrated Microfinance, Health Education and Promotion in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Kahabi Ganka Isangula

    2012-01-01

    While increasing number of women enjoys more freedom and power in urban areas, women in rural areas are at a disadvantage in almost all aspects of life when compared to men. Investing in economic empowerment of women particularly in rural areas by supporting them to implement local context based business ideas and basic finance capacity and skills development may reverse these trends, however, when combined with heath education and promotion through trainings focusing on preventive health yie...

  15. A Smart Teaching System for Autistic Children in Rural Area using MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available These The most challenging and stressful issue faced by schools and parents in efforts to provide appropriate education for autistic children .The purpose of this research work was to contribute to the knowledge and implementation of best practices for children with autism and normal children in rural area using manet. Autism is development disability that affects the normal functioning of brain. It means that children with autism think differently because brains work differently. They may have different talking, learning or playing ability. Many software systems are good enough for a class for normal children, but the autistic fail to understand the teaching methodology. Hence the autistic children face various challenges in combining with normal children in the same class. We implement the novel web based teaching system which takes care of the field of interest and taste among the autistic children of a class and helps the teacher to teach in a class in a effective way to understand the concept for normal and autistic children in rural area using manet .Every village will be connected to mobile access point, were MAP will connect the rural area with the central database server which is located in urban area to provide e-learning.

  16. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas: New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks.

  17. Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

    2008-08-01

    Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned. PMID:17459569

  18. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas. New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks. (author)

  19. Endometrial resection/vaporization: a patient-friendly first-option treatment for menorrhagia in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanaraj, J; Lionel, Jessie

    2008-04-01

    Hysterectomy, a major surgical procedure, is often an unacceptable procedure for many patients from rural areas who attend small rural hospitals. Near total endometrial resection/vaporization is a more acceptable procedure which can control menorrhagia. This procedure can be carried out with standard urology instruments. PMID:18453503

  20. Analysis of lifestyle of young adults in the rural and urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, Joanna; Bogda?ski, Pawe?; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; G?ód-Nawrocka, Marta; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek

    2012-03-23

    An unhealthy lifestyle among young people is a serious and often unnoticed problem. It seems that there are differences in the lifestyle of young people from rural and urban areas. The objective of this study was to compare eating habits and physical activity of young adults according to their body weight, gender and place of residence. The study involved a group of 18-year-olds from rural and urban environments. The study included 50% girls and 50% of boys in each group, selected by simple random sampling (SRS). The author-designed questionnaire evaluating the nutrition habits and physical activity was provided. It was found that in the group of boys the value of BMI was markedly higher than in girls. Compared to the normal weight, young overweight adults ate meals more frequency, the majority preferred meat dishes, more often ate under the stress, and had lower physical activity. It was found that gender had a significant impact on the studied parameters. The girls ate meals more frequent during the day, the majority preferred fruit and vegetable, but had lower physical activity than the boys. It was found that the young adults from the rural area preferred fast food and frequently ate sweets. Compared to the subjects from the urban environment, the young adults living in the countryside consumed fewer meals daily and were more physical active. About a half of the studied adults were not satisfied with their weight, and nearly 40% of the subjects in both groups admitted that they had made effective or ineffective attempts to lose weight. The lifestyles of young people in rural and urban areas were slightly different; however, dietary factors which predispose to weight gain were comparable in both groups. In the rural areas, the most frequent nutritional faults were a preference for fast food, frequent consumption of sweets, and few meals during the day. A positive aspect of the lifestyle of young people in the rural areas was a relatively high level of physical activity and the small effect of stress on excessive consumption. PMID:22462458

  1. Analysis of the Radiopollution of the City of Sarajevo and its Surrounding Area with Regard to Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huremovi?, J.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great attention has been focused on the research of problems related to the environment and processes occurring within it. The accident that occurred at Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl (1986 unquestionably warned that global pollution with radioactive substances on a continent scale may be expected. The past twenty years have been marked with the utilization of metal uranium – a depleted isotope of uranium-235 for various purposes. Today, depleted uranium has found its use in modern armies and it is used as efficient ammunition against armored military systems.There are estimates about the usage of ammunition with depleted uranium deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war (1992–1995. The region of Bosnia and Herzegovina was exposed to the direct influence of the global dispersion processes that had occurred in May 1986 as a consequence of emissions originating from Nuclear Power Plant “Lenin” in Chernobyl. In thiswork the radionuclides fraction analysis (238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K i 137Cs of surface samples (0–5 cm originating from the City of Sarajevo and its surroundings has been presented. The soil samples were taken from nine locations in the city and the surrounding area: Blekin potok, Kobilja glava, Bentbaša, Vraca, Prirodno-matematieki fakultet (PMF, Aziai, Hrasnica, Butmir, and Blažuj. The analyses were performed at the Department for Environment of Jo?ef Štefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Ge HP detector connected to Ortec MCA Gamma Vision 32 Software was used in addition to the Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique (INAA.The results of the analysis were compared with data available for the City of Sarajevo (years 1986, 1987 and 1988 and Slovenia. Analyses were made after Chernobyl catastrophe. Almost all of radionuclides analysed have shown to have a slightly higher specific radioactivity when compared to the data obtained in 1986, 1987 and 1989 for the City of Sarajevo. Our results are in accordance with the values obtained in Slovenia except in the case of 137Cs at location Vraca, where a significantly higher concentration has been observed and reaching ? = 460 ± 20 Bq kg–1.

  2. Surveillance of Dengue Vectors Mosquito in Some Rural Areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabirul Bashar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24 week survey was conducted in some rural areas of Bangladesh and found a total of 256 positive containers and a total of 9415 larvae. In an average a 25.80% larvae positive containers were found in Malikanda and 8.00% in Dohar sadar. Aedes albopictus (Skuse were found in all the study areas, but Aedes aegypti were found only in Jahangirnagar campus (Savar and Zingera (Keranigonj areas. Percentage of positive houses was highest in Pachimde (35% and lowest in Jahangirnagar (6%. Aedes aegypti (L. larvae were found mainly in tyres, bamboo stumps earthen pots and coconut shells, whereas Aedes albopictus in all types of containers.

  3. Surveillance of Dengue Vectors Mosquito in Some Rural Areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kabirul Bashar; Mohammed Samsuzzaman; Mohammad Shaef Ullah; Zaglul Haider Iqbal

    2005-01-01

    A 24 week survey was conducted in some rural areas of Bangladesh and found a total of 256 positive containers and a total of 9415 larvae. In an average a 25.80% larvae positive containers were found in Malikanda and 8.00% in Dohar sadar. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were found in all the study areas, but Aedes aegypti were found only in Jahangirnagar campus (Savar) and Zingera (Keranigonj) areas. Percentage of positive houses was highest in Pachimde (35%) and lowest in Jahangirnagar (6%). Aedes a...

  4. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anti? Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  5. Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinhas, Denise Martins

    2004-07-01

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

  6. Human exposure to respirable manganese in outdoor and indoor air in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolté, Sébastien; Normandin, Louise; Kennedy, Greg; Zayed, Joseph

    2004-03-26

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), is an additive in gasoline, and its combustion leads to the emission of Mn particles, which increase atmospheric metal concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the level of outdoor and indoor respirable Mn (MnR) in Montreal, Canada, where MMT has been used since 1976. Ten women were involved in this study: five living in an urban area, near an expressway with high traffic density, and five residing in a rural area characterized by low traffic density. Outdoor and indoor air samples were collected each week (5 in total) during 3 consecutive days; blood samples were collected at the end of the air sampling period. The average concentration of outdoor MnR in the urban area was 0.025 microg/m3, which is significantly different from the average of 0.005 microg/m3 found in the rural area. The average indoor MnR concentration was also significantly different from teh average MnR indoor concentrations within both areas. The mean blood Mn concentrations were not significantly different between the urban area (0.017 microg/m3) and the rural area (0.007 microg/m3). The average outdoor MnR concentrations within both areas. The mean blood Mn concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups. Data suggest that a high outdoor atmospheric MnR leads to a high indoor MnR, but not to an increase in blood Mn levels. PMID:15000130

  7. Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women of Rural Area of Vadodara District, Gujarat

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Christian, Manish Kathad, Bharat Bhavsar

    2011-01-01

    Background: With the growing aged population in the country, postmenopausal health problems and needs are likely to become a great challenge to public health. This is more so related to the women with poor social background like those residing in rural areas. Material & Methods: Design: Cross-sectional study, Participants: 147 post-menopausal women residing in Piparia village of Vadodara district were involved in the study, based on sample size calculation and necessary assumptions. I...

  8. Managing uncertainties in broadband investments - case studies of real options for rural area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Riihimäki, Vesa

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze uncertainties in broadband access network investments and determine how real option valuation can be used to manage uncertainties. A rough theoretical model for network investment valuation is summarized. The economics of different broadband access technologies, including WiMAX and ADSL and Flash-OFDM, in rural area is analyzed with the developed methods. The adaptation of the service is modeled by different S-shaped curves and those models are used to ...

  9. Public transport provision in rural and sparsely populated areas in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dotterud Leiren, Merethe; Skollerud, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    The responsibility for ordinary public transport and the various special transport services are in the hands of several different authorities and organisations in Norway. Grappling with questions about how to keep the costs down, while retaining a good quality service level in rural areas, there is increasing interest in innovative solutions of coordination among public authorities as well as demand-responsive transport services. Evidence suggests that demand responsive transport pilots are p...

  10. A comparative study between met & unmet need groups of contraception in rural area of Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Harsha M Solanki; Chavan Mansi K. Chavan; Velhal Gajanan D; Mehul T. Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare met & unmet need groups of contraception with socio-economic, demographic, accessibility & family Planning (FP) related factors. Methods Community based cross-sectional, comparative study was conducted among 363 married women of reproductive age groups in rural area selected by stratified simple random technique. After collecting preliminary information, the study population then divided into two groups based on their contraceptive use i.e. MET Group & UNMET NEED Groups...

  11. Determinants of contraceptive use among married women residing in rural areas of Belgaum

    OpenAIRE

    Padmaja Ravindra Walvekar

    2012-01-01

    Today the world population is around 7 billion and India harbours 1.2 billion. One of the reasons for uncontrolled growth of the population is unregulated fertility. Unregulated fertility many a times leads to unintended pregnancies leading to many unwanted or mistimed births. It is important to know the determinants of contraceptive use among married women. This cross sectional study was conducted from May 2008-May 2009, involving 2106 married women from rural area of Belgaum. Chi square tes...

  12. IT&C COMPREHENSION IN THE URBAN AND RURAL AREA OF TIMIS COUNTY IN YEAR 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian B?ne?; Manuela-Dora Orboi; Tiberiu Iancu

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is presenting some statistics relating to knowledge in the field of information technology and communication in year 2012. Data presented were taken following the processing of 122 questionnaires from Timis county, urban and rural area. Questionnaires have tried to include a higher sphere on IT & C knowledge of the persons interviewed, from what is known as a simple user of programs considered usual, passing over aspects of knowledge minimum hardware and ending with the ...

  13. Framework for utilizing angling as a tourism development tool in rural areas.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Ro?. 55, ?. 10 (2009), s. 508-518. ISSN 0139-570X R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KJB300860902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rural areas * development * angling Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor : 0.716, year: 2009 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-72349089553&origin=resultslist&sort

  14. Medical education for rural areas: Opportunities and challenges for information and communications technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Sargeant Joan

    2005-01-01

    Resources in medical education are not evenly distributed and access to education can be more problematic in rural areas. Similar to telemedicine?s positive influence on health care access, advances in information and communications technologies (ICTs) increase opportunities for medical education. This paper provides a descriptive overview of the use of ICTs in medical education and suggests a conceptual model for reviewing ICT use in medical education, describes specific ICTs and ...

  15. Applications of biomass Stirling engines for electrification -A case study of rural areas in Bolivia.

    OpenAIRE

    Arco Sola, Javier; Nelson, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    This report provides a study and a simulation of a feasible system configuration for the implementation of a Stirling engine for electrification of rural areas in Bolivia. The aim of the review is to determine if a hybrid system combining a biomass-fired Stirling engine and photovoltaic technology may respond to a basic electricity need. An introductory literature study about the Stirling engine technology and the energy resources and characteristics of Bolivia leads to a further proposal of ...

  16. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREA IN ROMANIA XXI

    OpenAIRE

    Otiman, P. I.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper intends to design a strategy for the sustainable development of the Romanian agriculture and rural area, to identify the main modalities to reach the strategic objectives for the years 2013, 2020 and 2030. Romania needs a multifunctional and competitive agriculture, which is also complementary to the agriculture of the other European Union countries. Main decisions have to be taken with regard to the support to the different agricultural systems under competition, among whic...

  17. A technical framework for costing health workforce retention schemes in remote and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Stormont Laura; Juquois Maud; Lemière Christophe; Vujicic Marko; Zurn Pascal; Campbell Jim; Rutten Martine; Braichet Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Increasing the availability of health workers in remote and rural areas through improved health workforce recruitment and retention is crucial to population health. However, information about the costs of such policy interventions often appears incomplete, fragmented or missing, despite its importance for the sound selection, planning, implementation and evaluation of these policies. This lack of a systematic approach to costing poses a serious challenge for strong health ...

  18. Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JJ, Schoeman.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in [...] children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The activated alumina and reverse osmosis processes are both processes that can be very effectively applied for water defluoridation. The activated alumina process, however, is considered to be a more simple and robust process for water defluoridation, especially in a rural area. Therefore, the activated alumina process was selected for water defluoridation. An activated alumina plant was designed, constructed and commissioned in the rural area. Fluoride in the feed water is removed from 6 to 8 mg/? to less than 1.5 mg/?. No reduction in plant output was experienced over 6 service cycles. Therefore, it appears that fouling of the activated alumina should not be a problem. Plant output varied between 940 and 1 296 m³ to a fluoride breakthrough of approximately 2.0 mg/?. No significant operational problems were experienced during commissioning and the plant is performing satisfactorily. Spent regenerant is disposed of into evaporation ponds. It was demonstrated that a 1st world technology could be effectively applied in a rural area with proper training and supervision of the operators. The capital and operational costs of the 200 m³/d defluoridation plant are estimated at approximately R1.2m. and R0.7/m³ treated water.

  19. Child health inequities in developing countries: differences across urban and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Fotso Jean-Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To document and compare the magnitude of inequities in child malnutrition across urban and rural areas, and to investigate the extent to which within-urban disparities in child malnutrition are accounted for by the characteristics of communities, households and individuals. Methods The most recent data sets available from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of 15 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are used. The selection criteria were set to ensure that the number ...

  20. Nutritional Status and School Achievements in a Rural Area of Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed El Hioui; Fatima-Zahra Azzaoui; Ahmed Omar Touhami Ahami; Youssef Aboussaleh

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of children. However, malnutrition affects physical growth, cognitive development, physical work capacity, and it consequently influences human performance and health. The present study was designed to identify factors that may influence the nutritional status and educational achievements of the children in a rural area of ANTI Atlas of Morocco. The nutritional status of 162 children (12 to 15 years of age) was assessed by nutr...

  1. Nutritional status of preschool children in poor rural areas of China.

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Y.(National Central University, Chung-Li, Taiwan); Zhai, F.; LI, W; Ge, K.; Jin, D.; de Onis, M.

    1994-01-01

    Described are the main findings of the first large-scale nutrition monitoring project carried out over a 4-year period in China. The nutritional status of nearly 10,000 preschool children in 18 comparatively poor rural areas in seven provinces was followed each year over the period 1986-89 in order to identify their major nutritional problems and improve their growth and development. Physical measurements were made and dietary surveys and biochemical tests were performed on a subsample of the...

  2. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English) means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society...

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF UNDER - NUTRITION IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 0-5 YEARS FROM RURAL AREAS OF DEHRADUN

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Luthra; Surekha Kishore; Kajal Jain

    2010-01-01

    Background: Under nutrition is a major problem in India. This is a study conducted in rural catchment areas of Department of Community Medicine, SGRRMC, Dehradun to asses the same. Objectives: To find out prevalence of under nutrition in children in the age group of 0-5 years and also to study its epidemiological correlates. Methods :All registered children of RHTC Mothrowala during October to December2009 were studied. Detailed histories were taken & growth chartingwas done using growth ...

  4. The Illegal Dumping of Waste in Forest Areas - Evidence from Rural Territory

    OpenAIRE

    Lamasanu, Andreea; Mihai, Florin-constantin

    2012-01-01

    Household waste generated is often uncolleted in rural areas causing various types of pollution like: air and water pollution, soil pollution and the aesthetic degradation of the landscape. The environmental legislation proposed by the European Union was transposed on the national legislation but the implementation process was difficult because of particular situations encountered in practice. Rudimentary infrastructure of waste management and limited access to waste collection services lead ...

  5. A modeling analysis of alternative primary and secondary US ozone standards in urban and rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopmongcol, Uarporn; Emery, Chris; Sakulyanontvittaya, Tanarit; Jung, Jaegun; Knipping, Eladio; Yarwood, Greg

    2014-12-01

    This study employed the High-Order Decoupled Direct Method (HDDM) of sensitivity analysis in a photochemical grid model to determine US anthropogenic emissions reductions required from 2006 levels to meet alternative US primary (health-based) and secondary (welfare-based) ozone (O3) standards. Applying the modeling techniques developed by Yarwood et al. (2013), we specifically evaluated sector-wide emission reductions needed to meet primary standards in the range of 60-75 ppb, and secondary standards in the range of 7-15 ppm-h, in 22 cities and at 20 rural sites across the US for NOx-only, combined NOx and VOC, and VOC-only scenarios. Site-specific model biases were taken into account by applying adjustment factors separately for the primary and secondary standard metrics, analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) relative response factor technique. Both bias-adjusted and unadjusted results are presented and analyzed. We found that the secondary metric does not necessarily respond to emission reductions the same way the primary metric does, indicating sensitivity to their different forms. Combined NOx and VOC reductions are most effective for cities, whereas NOx-only reductions are sufficient at rural sites. Most cities we examined require more than 50% US anthropogenic emission reductions from 2006 levels to meet the current primary 75 ppb US standard and secondary 15 ppm-h target. Most rural sites require less than 20% reductions to meet the primary 75 ppb standard and less than 40% reductions to meet the secondary 15 ppm-h target. Whether the primary standard is protective of the secondary standard depends on the combination of alternative standard levels. Our modeling suggests that the current 75 ppb standard achieves a 15 ppm-h secondary target in most (17 of 22) cities, but only half of the rural sites; the inability for several western cities and rural areas to achieve the seasonally-summed secondary 15 ppm-h target while meeting the 75 ppb primary target is likely driven by higher background O3 that is commonly reported in the western US. However, a 70 ppb primary standard is protective of a 15 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 18 of 20 rural sites we examined, and a 60 ppb primary standard is protective of a 7 ppm-h secondary standard in all cities and 19 of 20 rural sites. If EPA promulgates separate primary and secondary standards, exceedance areas will need to develop and demonstrate control strategies to achieve both. This HDDM analysis provides an illustrative screening assessment by which to estimate emissions reductions necessary to satisfy both standards.

  6. Educação em meio rural e desenvolvimento local / ÉDUCATION DANS LE MONDE RURAL ET DÉVELOPPEMENT LOCAL / EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Abílio, Amiguinho.

    Full Text Available Neste artigo problematiza-se e analisa-se um processo de territorialização sócio-educativa em contexto rural. Corresponde a um desafio - assim o entendemos - para que sobre ele reflectíssemos, tendo como eixo estruturante a problemática da exclusão social ou a do desenvolvimento local. Optámos por n [...] os situar neste último campo de análise, por razões tanto de natureza teórica como política que, numa primeira parte do artigo, explicitamos e discutimos. De uma investigação que realizámos, ao longo de vários anos, invocamos contributos que pretendem discutir e elucidar como pode a escola ser uma instância promissora de desenvolvimento local. A sua identificação e reconhecimento como instituição local, quer pelos que trabalham e vivem no seu interior, quer pelos que actuam no contexto envolvente, são passos decisivos para instituir a escola, progressivamente, em parceiro do desenvolvimento. A promoção dos valores locais e das raízes, a reconstrução de identidades sócio-pessoais e locais, a produção de sociabilidades e o equacionamento e solução de problemas comuns, foram vertentes de uma intervenção socioeducativa, assumidamente globalizante. Este quadro, como se argumenta, foi também, intencionalmente, o de transformação e de mudança deliberada da escola e da administração dos territórios educativos. Abstract in english The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last [...] field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context) are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  7. The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. M. Hossain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

  8. Variability of atmospheric pesticide concentrations between urban and rural areas during intensive pesticide application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Intensive pesticide use leads to the contamination of water, soil and atmosphere. Atmospheric transport is responsible for pesticide dispersal over long distances. In this study, we evaluate the local dispersal of pesticides from agricultural to urban areas. For this purpose, three high-volume samplers, each equipped with a glass fiber filter and XAD-2 resin for the sampling of particulate and gas phase have been placed in a south-west transect (predominant wind direction) characteristic of rural and urban areas. The urban site (Strasbourg centre) is situated in the middle of two rural sites. Samples were taken simultaneously at three sites during pesticide treatments in autumn and spring 2002-2003. Sampling took place for 24 h at a flow rate of 10-15 m 3 h -1. The pesticides studied were those commonly used in the Alsace region for all crops (maize, cereal, vines …). Many of the pesticides analysed in atmospheric samples were not detected or observed very episodically at very low concentrations. For metolachlor, alachlor, trifluralin, atrazine and diflufenican, higher concentrations were observed, essentially during the application of these compounds. Moreover, some "spraying peaks" were observed for alachlor in the south rural site (near crops) at a level of 31 ng m -3 on 16-17 May 2003. These results show site and time dependence of atmospheric contamination by pesticides. A limited dispersal was also observed especially in the urban area during the application periods of pesticides.

  9. Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility.

  10. The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed J.F. Hosseini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 310 participants in carbon sequestration project. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The stepwise method was used in the regression analysis. Results: The result indicates that 30% of the variance in the perception of respondents about role of extension in adopting solar energy could be explained by using educational films and slides, contacting with extension agents, visiting sample sites and providing lectures. Conclusion and Recommendations: The results demonstrated that success of solar energy will depend on the informing population about benefits and in this regard the authorities should provide accurate and on time information. There is no single and appropriate intervention for developing and protecting solar energy in rural areas and in view of the numerous and varied constraints and opportunities, there is need to develop location- specific strategies.

  11. Strategies for Organization and Development of Tourism Function in Rural Areas Case Study: Villages of Qom Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi Shapourabadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding its appeals and capacities, tourism function of rural areas in Qom province has not adequately played an effective role in advancing rural sustainable development. Therefore, the current research attempts at identifying and preparing organization and development strategies for tourism function in rural areas of Qom province. Research method is descriptive-analytical and it is applied in terms of its content. The present study aims at searching for organization and development strategies and approaches for tourism function in rural areas of Qom province with special emphasis on existent potentials and restrictions. For so doing, using SWOT technique, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats related to tourism function of rural areas in Qom province have been investigated. Findings indicate that 12 internal strengths and 12 internal weaknesses as well as 10 external opportunities and 9 external threats influence greatly on tourism function of rural areas. In the research presented here, research sample consists of 145 managers and experts of Qom province. Then, their ideas are received and recorded. After that, using one sample t-test, the influence of those two environments on organization and development of rural regions’ tourism function is analyzed. Results obtained from findings analysis reveal that both components of external environment and internal environment do greatly influence on organization and development of tourism function. Compatible with analysis content, efficient strategies are derived and ranked. Ultimately, WO strategies are considered as first priority for planning and SO strategies as second one.

  12. Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were 137Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE ICT NETWORK IN ACHIEVING KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN THE RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menda Teodora - Adriana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Romania, the information sources available to farmers are limited and belong mostly to the public sector. The knowledge provided is relevant but insufficient in order to meet the needs of the Romanian farmers, especially since they are not oriented towards the market, as the main segment of interest. This paper has the intention to emphasize the need to introduce ICT as the main tool in supporting the decision making process and in resolving the specific issues faced by this sector In analyzing the current situation regarding this matter, in order to propose ways to resolve the problems encountered in achieving knowledge transfer, until now, were addressed issues such as: the evolution of the knowledge transfer concept, development milestones and actions that marked the RDI sector as the main producer of information, the main supporters of the farmers in their information actions (World Bank, IFAD, means, procedures and techniques used for transmitting knowledge (extension; consultancy. But what is most important is making all this resulted information available for the farmers, fact which can only be accomplished, in our opinion, by introducing and implementing ICT in the rural areas. The main method of research is the statistical data analysis of the data regarding the components involved in the knowledge transfer process and the current status of implementation of ICT in the rural areas. Among the expected results are included identifying the main restrictive factors in achieving knowledge transfer in rural and the main implications that implementing ICT would have on farmers' market position. Introducing ICT in the rural area is, in our opinion the best way to transform information, as a research result, into knowledge, becoming this way a real input for the farmer In practice, this will lead to lower production costs, lower prices for inputs, increased revenues by increasing the production’s prices and, not least, increased level of the European funding resources attracted for supporting investments.

  14. Screening for visual impairment: Outcome among schoolchildren in a rural area of Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Uppal, Yogesh; Taneja, Devender K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Uncorrected refractive errors are the main cause of vision impairment in school-aged children. The current study focuses on the effectiveness of school eye screening in correcting refractive errors. Objectives: 1. To study the magnitude of visual impairment among school children. 2. To assess the compliance of students for refraction testing, procurement and use of spectacles. Materials and Methods: An intervention study was conducted in schools of the north- west district of Delhi, in the rural field practice area of a medical college. Students studying in five government schools in the field practice area were chosen as the study subjects. Results: Out of 1123 students enrolled, 1075 (95.7%) students were screened for refractive errors. Low vision (visual acuity < 20/60) in the better eye was observed in 31 (2.9%) children and blindness (visual acuity <20/200) in 10 (0.9%) children. Compliance with referral for refraction was very low as only 51 (41.5%) out of 123 students could be tested for refraction. Out of 48 students, 34 (70.8%) procured spectacles from family resources but its regular use was found among only 10 (29.4%) students. The poor compliance among students stems out of various myths and perceptions regarding use of spectacles prevalent in the community. Conclusion: Refractive error is an important cause of avoidable blindness among rural school children. Behavior change communication among rural masses by spreading awareness about eye health and conducting operational research at school and community level to involve parent's teachers associations and senior students to motivate students for use of spectacles may improve utilization of existing eye health services in rural areas. PMID:22569381

  15. USE OF MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION (MVC) SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality drinking water is scarce in many rural areas of developing countries. Currently, inland desalination for the supply of fresh water is not sustainable due to expensive and energy intensive desalination technologies. This project proposes the development of a renewable ...

  16. 47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...The nationwide urban rate benchmark shall equal the most recent...standard deviations. The benchmark shall be calculated using...the nationwide urban rate benchmark shall include the access...iatd/lec.html . (c) Definition of “rural area.” For...

  17. Self-Interest in Innovation Diffusion Decision Process : The Case of Extending Broadband Internet Services to Rural Areas of Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit; Gyaase, Patrick Ohemeng Kwadwo

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the factors that would facilitate the diffusion and adoption of broadband internet services in rural areas using the internet café business model. The rural areas of developing countries are predominantly ignored or underserved with broadband Internet connectivity. However in the cities, the internet café business model has been a major driver in the diffusion of the internet services. This paper adopts an exploratory approach to investigate why Internet café entrepreneurs do not supply internet services to rural areas. It also explores the factors that would stimulate investments from the same who are currently investing in internet services provisioning in the cities. Ghana is used as a case study by surveying 25 Internet Café operators. The analysis of the data collected facilitated self-interest assessment and its influences on the decision for broadband service diffusion and adoption in the rural areas using the internet café business model.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC CULTURE IN TERMS OF REGIONAL DIFFERENTIATION OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gra?yna Krzyminiewska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article Development of Economic Culture in terms of regional differentiation of rural areas relates to the issue of individualisation of development policies in the area of creating economic culture. Pointing to the nature and significance of economic culture as a factor of economic development, the author advocates a focus on some of the support instruments in order to influence its shape, taking into account Polish regional differences. The article uses the achievements of economic and sociological research based on the methodology of desk research and the use of its own research achievements.

  19. Managing Urban Wellbeing in Rural Areas: The Potential Role of Online Communities to Improve the Financing and Governance of Highly Valued Nature Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rixt A. Bijker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The urban and the rural are increasingly interconnected. Rural areas have become places of consumption, as leisure and recreation have become important functions of rural areas. There are also indications that increased urbanisation even leads to a stronger appreciation of green areas situated far beyond city limits. Rural areas with their highly valued natural amenities nowadays seem increasingly to host urban wellbeing, given the positive relation found between green areas and human wellbeing. We provide empirical evidence for this urban–rural interconnection, using results from a survey in the Netherlands. In addition to their attachment to local and regional green places, survey results show that residents of the capital city of Amsterdam have a high appreciation of a wide range of natural, rural places throughout the country. We argue that these (until now invisible urban–rural ties should be made more visible because these natural areas enjoyed by urban residents can no longer be taken for granted. Financial and other support for nature conservation are therefore needed. However, to organise support for nature can often be problematic because nature is a public good and collective action is often difficult to launch. The invisible and distant ties of urban dwellers for rural areas complicate the task even more. Nevertheless, it is increasingly recognised that the Internet opens many doors for community building and may help to overcome the “illogic” of collective action. In the research project “Sympathy for the Commons”, we aim to investigate the possibilities provided by the internet by building online communities around nature areas and enquiring into the available support and funding that these communities can provide.

  20. Lifelong Learning: Telecentres in Semi-rural Areas as a Bridge betweenFormal, Non-formal, and Informal Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Hallberg, David; Mozelius, Peter; Megammaana, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    The usage of telecentres has been the main initiative in many countries to provideinformation and communications technology in rural areas in a try to address the digitaldivide. In this paper, we analyse the situation in Sri Lankan semi-rural areas, discussingwhether telecentres in the Nenasala network has a potential to act as local knowledge centres;bridging formal, non-formal, and informal learning. The visited telecentre is located about 50kilometres east of Colombo. A qualitative design ...

  1. Promoting the multifunctionality of agriculture, forestry, and rural areas - design and implementation of public policies in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Paul; Schleyer, Christian; Wu?stemann, Henry; Drechsler, Martin; Hagedorn, Konrad; Wa?tzold, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The multiple roles and functions of agriculture and forestry beyond those of supplying food and fibre, such as the provision of environmental benefits and the contribution to the socio-economic viability of rural areas, account for a growing recognition in both scientific debates and political decision making. In order to foster further research in the field of multifunctionality of agriculture, forestry, and rural areas, this report provides an overview of the scientific work that has been d...

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE ACCEPTABILITY OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE AMONG THE WOMEN OF RURAL AND URBAN AREAS OF RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Hina Rehman; HumeraIshaq; Ammar Hussain

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study was to document the prevalence of use of Contraceptives among the rural and urban areas of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Specific objectives were to identify the percentage of women using contraceptive, to document different methods used for contraception, to assess the knowledge regarding contraception and to identify the reasons of use and non-use between rural and urban areas of the Rawalpindi, Pakistan. 200females were recruited to assess the use of contraceptives from different ...

  3. Survey of Microbial Quality of Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Kashan-Iran in Second Half of 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Heidari, M.; M.B Miranzadeh; A.R Mesdaghinia; M Younesian

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study is surveying microbial quality of drinking water in Kashan rural areas and determining the rural population that using safe water in terms of microbial quality in second-half of 2008. In this cross-sectional study, microbial quality of water in all rural areas was determined in 3 stages based on 3 parameters as Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC). The results of this study illustrates that 100.0, 47.71 and 92.99% population in under ...

  4. Breast Feeding Practices and Newborn Care in Rural Areas: A Descriptive Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, K; Chowdary, Sriram; Masthi, Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC) that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed. PMID:20049304

  5. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  6. Analysis on Imbalance of Family Intergenerational Exchange in China Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In China rural area, intergenerational exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring is uneven. Parents pay much more than the return they’ll get when they’re old, which mainly relates to the utilities of children. In countryside, the utilities of children (especially sons manifest in following aspects: continuing the family line, emotional comfort, laborer and supporting for old age. To some extent, these factors influence the rural intergenerational injustice respectively and together. From the prospective of trend of social and economic development, the caring of the retired will be taken by social insurance system; the intergeneration exchange on supporting each other between parents and offspring will no longer be a social issue, but in the vast rural areas, the influence of traditional culture family lineage is still powerful. The need of caring of the old becomes so weak that emotional effect becomes much more urgent. The weak status of the old generation bring the fathers’ generation in a weak social status, which seriously affect the living conditions of the old generations. Therefore, when focusing the caring issue in the country, besides that we should ensure the old be cared materially, what matters most is keep the balance between the exchanging two sides

  7. TRADE AND RESTAURANT BUSINESS SPHERE IN RURAL AREAS OF UKRAINE: STATE, PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bulakh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural social infrastructure is the material and organizational basis for satisfaction of vital needs of population. However, unsatisfactory economic and social conditions influence the extinction of village, extend the continuous unsettled zones of rural territories, scatter and reduce the level of provision of social infrastructure objects. In order to stop the negative processes in social infrastructures of village, the complex of measures in relation to the improvement of maintenance of villagers should be taken, the practical steps for saving and increasing the material base of social infrastructure should be worked out, in particular trade and restaurant economy.The article is concerned with research of the current situation in trade and restaurant economy in rural areas of Ukraine and determination of the problems of their development. The statistical analysis of data from the State committee of statistics was conducted, the indexes of development were calculated, a structural analysis was performed and basic progress of trade and restaurant economy trends in rural areas was determined.It is educed that the consumption market of rural locality in Ukraine is characterized by a limit of goods assortment, by in-depth tendency in relation to the problem of goods’ quality and its correspondence to the standards of food safety, by low purchasing power of villagers, and also by closing of retails’ networks.As for restaurant economy, it is well-proven that the change of the system of administrative management resulted in the redistribution of rights and duties of regional administrations and their vertical relations with central government bodies and enterprise structures. In the past the chain development, providing separate contingents of employees and students, was centrally planned. At present, when considerable amount of industrial enterprises has stopped working and the objects of social infrastructure became the communal property, regulation of food supply is controlled neither by the management of industrial enterprises nor by local authorities. Therefore, the development of restaurant economy under the new conditions requires the modernization of control system both on nation-wide and regional levels and at the level of separate enterprises and organizations.Thus, use of new approaches to management of trade and restaurant economy development, improving the state regulation methods will allow to renew and strengthen infrastructural potential, optimize financial flows, increase the level of satisfaction of respective necessities of rural population on this basis, promote the role of industries in providing the complex of social development of regions, to create background for attracting the investments.

  8. Rollende arztpraxis - first results of an ambulant mobile care model for rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartze, Jonas; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Von Bargen, Tobias; Rochon, Maike; Wagner, Markus; Bannenberg, Uwe; Drews, Markus; Fischer, Thomas; Hellwig, Torben; Hofmann, Stefan; Höft-Budde, Petra; Jäger, Ralf; Lorenz, Stefan; Naumann, Ruth; Plischke, Maik; Reytarowski, Jörg; Richter, Constanze; Steinbrügge, Christina; Ziegenspeck, Anja; Von Ingelheim, Julius; Haux, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    German medical care is going to suffer from a decreasing number of general practitioners due to demographic change. We study if ambulatory care in rural areas can be complementary ensured by a mobile care unit. A medical care van - the "rolling medical practice" (RMP) - has been constructed based on care scenarios created for rural communities in northern Germany. Performance and acceptance of the RMP is evaluated by constant monitoring of anonymized medical documentation and questionnaires. The RMP is visiting six villages on two days a week in a three-week interval. It is constructed from a standard van with a custom box body fully equipped for general care needs. Actually treated care cases meet expectations and are acute as well as chronicle symptoms. Case numbers range from 6 to 50 visits in 5 month. We showed that almost full ranged mobile medical care, as supplement to general medical supply is possible. PMID:25000075

  9. EFFECT OF CLEAN ENERGY ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.R.Sharifan [Graduate in Environmental pollution of Islamic Azad University of Tehran Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran); J.Farzadmehr; A.Davari; N.Banan; H. Malvandi

    2008-09-30

    Since world's requirement for energy is spreading we need alternative sources of renewable energy such as wind power for generation of electricity, its positive effects on the economy of developed countries and developing countries is obvious, because it prevents rising coal and gas prices, specially in rural areas without the use of fossil fuel sources in arid and semi arid areas. Wind is one of the clean energy sources that produces no emission which means, it doesn't contribute to acid rain, global climate change, and smog. This environmental benefits positively effects have became an international topic. This paper presents quality and quantity assessment of land for use of potential wind energy in the rural areas that suffer from potential drought and high cost of electrical energy and its prevent fluctuation. In this paper we studied land assessment for use of potential wind power in Darmian rural areas, in East central desert of Iran at Southern Khorasan Province. It has dry climate and famous seasonal wind known '120 days of Sistan' this area has adequate constant wind speed, in this method we used geographical information system (GIS)tools and statistical of regions climatology station, after analysis of maps derived by application unit (slope- elevation- direct) and erosion and geological unit and its bird migration root, we consider and discuses its results on the regional and social benefits such as reduction for demand of fossil fuels, reduction of pollution, employment, prevention of migration to the big cities, improvement farmer and rancher livelihood, sustainable development of agriculture and...

  10. Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Olivier; M, Urban; M, Chersich; M, Temmerman; D, Viljoen.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is common in parts of South Africa; rural residence is a frequently cited risk factor. We conducted a FAS school prevalence survey of an isolated rural community in a West Coast village of Western Cape Province, so obtaining the first directly measured rate, [...] focusing specifically on a South African rural area, of FAS and partial FAS (PFAS). METHODS: The study area (Aurora village), a community of about 2 500 people in a grain-producing region, has one primary school. All learners were eligible for study inclusion. Initial anthropometry screening was followed by a diagnostic stage entailing examination by a dysmorphologist for features of FAS, neurodevelopmental assessment, and an interview assessing maternal alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Of 160 learners screened, 78 (49%) were screen-positive, of whom 63 (81%) were clinically assessed for FAS. The overall FAS/PFAS rate among the screened learners was 17.5% (95% confidence interval 12.0 - 24.2%), with 16 (10.0%) children having FAS and 12 (7.5%) PFAS. High rates of stunting, underweight and microcephaly were noted in all learners, especially those with FAS or PFAS. Five (18%) mothers of affected children were deceased by the time of assessment. CONCLUSION: We describe very high rates of FAS/PFAS in an isolated rural part of the Western Cape that is not located in a viticultural region. Our study suggests that the prevalence of FAS may be very high in isolated communities, or in particular hot-spots. It adds to the growing evidence that FAS/PFAS is a significant, and underestimated, health problem in South Africa. Expanded screening and surveillance programmes, and preventive interventions, are urgently needed

  11. Agente comunitário de saúde: desafios do trabalho na zona rural / Community health agents: the challenges of working in the rural area

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renan Almeida, Baptistini; Tulio Alberto Martins de, Figueiredo.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudo de abordagem qualitativa objetivando conhecer os desafios do trabalho dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde na zona rural de Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar se estes ACS, no atendimento das demandas dos usuários rurais, além de suas atividades instituídas, buscam formas diferenciadas de prod [...] uzir a sua prática. A produção do material do estudo se deu através de entrevistas e da observação. A Análise Institucional norteou a análise deste estudo. O extenso território de abrangência das USF, a grande dispersão demográfica, os acessos distantes e difíceis aos domicílios, as formas de locomoção, os animais e as visitas domiciliares no período da colheita do café foram os principais desafios do cotidiano laboral do ACS rural. Diante destes desafios e na obrigação de cumprir as ações instituídas, os ACS rurais de Jerônimo Monteiro inovam e buscam formas diferenciadas de produzir a sua prática. Abstract in spanish Este estudio cualitativo busca identificar los retos de la labor de los trabajadores de salud comunitarios en las zonas rurales Jerônimo Monteiro - ES e identificar si estos ACS, para satisfacer las demandas de los usuarios rurales y sus actividades instituyó, buscando diferentes maneras de producir [...] su práctica. La producción del material de estudio se recogió a través de entrevistas y observación. El Análisis Institucional guiado el análisis de este estudio. La amplia cobertura de la USF territorio, la gran dispersión demográfica, la distante y difícil de acceder a viviendas, formas de locomoción, los animales y las visitas domiciliarias durante la cosecha de café fueron los principales desafíos de la labor diaria de la campo ACS. Ante estos retos y la obligación de cumplir con las medidas impuestas, la ACS rural Jerônimo Monteiro innovar y buscar diferentes maneras de producir su práctica. Abstract in english The purpose of this qualitative study is to identify the challenges Community Health Workers (CHW) face in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro - ES and assess whether in the course of meeting the demands of rural health service users, CHWs seek different ways of carrying out their activities, over [...] and above institutionalized practice. The study material was collected through interviews and observation, following an Institutional Analysis perspective. The extension of the Family Health Unit (FHU), its large demographic dispersion, the fact that homes are distant and difficult to access, forms of locomotion, animals, and home visits during the coffee harvest constituted the main challenges of the daily work of CHWs in rural areas. Given these challenges and the need to fulfil with their assigned activities, CHWs working in the rural areas of Jerônimo Monteiro innovate and seek different ways to develop their practice.

  12. Study of the Factor Involved in Non-farming Labor Supply in Rural Areas in Ghoochan Township

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mir Mohammad Sadeghi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering the population growth and limitation of expansion in cultivation areas, employment in non-agricultural jobs in rural areas is inevitable. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the supply of labor of the rural families on non-agricultural jobs in the rural areas. A sample of 300 families from rural areas of the Ghoochan Township in 2000-2001 was studied. The data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. The analysis used a multivariable regression equation. The results showed that: 1. The wage level of the non-agricultural experience of the person had positive effect on the supply of labors to non-agricultural jobs. 2. However, this effect was negative for the number of days the person worked on farm. Finally, since wages earned from non-agricultural jobs was higher than that of agricultural jobs. Therefore, it is suggested that for the purpose of increasing the income of rural people, non-agricultural jobs in rural areas be facilitated and encouraged

  13. Urinary iodine concentrations in urban and rural areas around Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2007, we screened urinary iodine (UI) concentrations in urban (Gomel city) and in rural areas (Hoiniki city) of the Gomel Region, Republic of Belarus, which was heavily contaminated by the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in order to evaluate the current state of iodine supplementation in these areas. Median levels of UI were 220.5 ?g/L (151.5-358.5) ?g/L in Gomel city, and 228.0 ?g/L (130.0-337.5) ?g/L in Hoiniki city. Urinary concentrations in Gomel city were significantly improved, as compared to our previous results in 2000 (p<0.001). There were no differences of UI concentrations between Gomel city and Hoiniki city (p=0.39), and none of the samples showed moderate (<50 ?g/L) or severe (<20 ?g/L) iodine deficiency in either city. These results suggest that the state of iodine supplementation has improved in rural areas, as well as in urban areas in the Republic of Belarus, probably due to appropriate fortification of iodized salt in this region. (author)

  14. CRIMES AND DISTRIBUTION OF CRIMES IN THE RURAL AREAS OF TURKEY (1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir TEMURÇ?N

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Crime is a phenomenon which results from the interaction between social, political, economic, physical, psychological conditions and geographical agents. Geographical site is important in the event of crime. Security forces should first know the geographical sites in order to protect people and then know the socio-economic aspects of the site in which crime occurs. This article aims at studying crimes, types of crimes, spatial analysis of crimes, the geographical factors which affect the crimes in rural areas (areas that are out of provinces and municipalities which account for 92% of Turkey. The study of “1997 Rural Envantery” which presents the problems of rural settlements and population is the data base of this article. In this study, crimes and their aspects have been examined in 37.368 villages and 922 towns which are affiliated with 80 provinces in 1997. 31.430 crimes occured in the rural areas of Turkey in that period. As a result of these events, 990 people were killed and 2.145 people were injured. Crime rate in coastal areas is higher than that in inner areas. In terms of the number of crimes and injures, Black Sea Region has the highest rate whereas Eastern Anatolia has the highest rate in terms of death rates. In terms of the number of events in every 100.000 people, Eastern Anatolia has the highest crime and death rates while Black Sea Region has the highest rate of injury. There are regional differences both when crimes are propotioned to the population and when types of crimes are taken into consideration. In terms of the types of crimes, abduction of girls, land conflicts and forestry crimes are the highest in Black Sea Region, while water conflicts in the Mediterranean Region and blood feud in Eastern Anatolia are common. In terms of crimes for per 100.000, the highest rates are: land conlicts and forestry crimes in Black Sea Region, abduction of girls in Marmara Region, water conflicts in Mediterranean Region, blood feud in Eastern Anatolia.

  15. Socio-economic Status to online Communication Services in Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Singh Parihar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available India is a developing country where agriculture is the main occupation of millions of people having several stratifications and various profiles of our social systems. The biggest proportion of population depends on it. Being a developing country, the development of agriculture is more essential as compared to other developed countries like U.S.A., Japan, U.S.S.R. and Germany etc. Our country is facing a lot of challenges in the rural sector. Majority of people belong to the downtrodden sector and have no promising source of Information. Resulting in poor decision making ability in innumerable indispensible areas of the rural society, which affects the quality of their life, since information plays a vital role to augment the agricultural production. All kinds of compatible and valuable information become helpful in decision making and planning the future strategy accordingly, meagre productions in agriculture enhance this problem profoundly. People are compelled to live in misery with fear. Uttar Pradesh is the second largest state-economy in India; It contributed 8.23 per cent to India's total Gross domestic product (GDP in the financial year 2013-2014.[1] Agriculture is a significant part of Uttar Pradesh's economy.5Study was conducted in Kanpur Dehat district of Uttar Pradesh. The district suffers from lack of rainfall, low soil fertility, traditional cropping pattern and poor communication facilities etc. Socio-economic status of respondents plays a vital role in online communication for rural development.

  16. Patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco exposure in tobacco cultivating rural areas of Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Le

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the patterns and socioeconomic influences of tobacco use among adults in tobacco-cultivating regions of rural southwest China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 8681 adults aged ?18 years in rural areas of Yunnan Province, China from 2010 to 2011. A standardized questionnaire was administered to obtain data about participants’ demographic characteristics, individual socioeconomic status, ethnicity, self-reported smoking habits, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS. The socioeconomic predictors of current smoking, nicotine addiction, and SHS exposure were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence rates of tobacco use were much higher in men compared with women (current smoking 68.5% vs. 1.3%; and nicotine dependence 85.2% vs. 72.7%. However, the rate of SHS exposure was higher in women compared with men (76.6% vs. 70.5%. Tobacco farmers had higher prevalence rates of current smoking, nicotine dependence, and SHS exposure compared with participants not engaged in tobacco farming (P Conclusions This study suggests that tobacco control efforts in rural southwest China must be tailored to address tobacco-cultivating status and socioeconomic factors.

  17. Formação dos profissionais das áreas de ciências agrárias em segurança do trabalho rural / Preparation of professionals in the area of agrarian sciences regarding safety in rural work

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adilson Luiz, Seifert; Débora Cristina, Santiago.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar se os futuros profissionais que serão engajados ao mercado de trabalho têm recebido orientações e treinamentos para atuar na questão da segurança no trabalho rural e estabelecer relações entre a formação profissional e a informação levada aos produtores rurais. [...] Foi utilizado como instrumento de pesquisa um questionário aplicado a 209 produtores/trabalhadores rurais, 156 discentes formandos, da área de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina e 75 discentes do Colégio Agrícola Estadual Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR). A coleta dos dados foi realizada nos meses de junho, julho e agosto de 2006. Os resultados mostraram que tanto os produtores/trabalhadores rurais como os futuros profissionais não estão conscientizados com relação à segurança no trabalho rural. Portanto, tornar a disciplina Segurança e Higiene do Trabalho Rural obrigatória nos currículos dos cursos da área de Ciências Agrárias, colocar em prática a prevenção de acidentes ocupacionais no meio rural e realizar uma reciclagem contínua dos profissionais que atuam na área, por meio de treinamentos e do acesso a informações atualizadas que poderiam se apresentar como alternativas para a prevenção de acidentes na área rural. Abstract in english The present paper had the objective of checking if the professional who will be engaged in the job market had received proper orientation and training to act in rural working safety, to establish relations between professional orientation and the information which will be given to rural growers. As [...] research instrument, a questionnaire was used and applied to 209 growers and farm works, 156 graduated students of crop science at the Londrina State University and 75 students of the Agriculture High School Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR). The data were collected during the months of June, July, and August 2006. The results showed that neither the farm works and growers nor the students were conscious of safety in rural labor. Therefore, we suggest the inclusion of the course Safety and Hygiene in Rural Labor in the core curriculum for the preparation of crop science students. It is also necessary to put into practice the rules of occupation accident prevention for rural labor and a permanent recycling of professionals working in this area through training program and access to current information to be alternatives in preventing accidents become a necessity.

  18. Formação dos profissionais das áreas de ciências agrárias em segurança do trabalho rural Preparation of professionals in the area of agrarian sciences regarding safety in rural work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luiz Seifert

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se verificar se os futuros profissionais que serão engajados ao mercado de trabalho têm recebido orientações e treinamentos para atuar na questão da segurança no trabalho rural e estabelecer relações entre a formação profissional e a informação levada aos produtores rurais. Foi utilizado como instrumento de pesquisa um questionário aplicado a 209 produtores/trabalhadores rurais, 156 discentes formandos, da área de Ciências Agrárias, da Universidade Estadual de Londrina e 75 discentes do Colégio Agrícola Estadual Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR. A coleta dos dados foi realizada nos meses de junho, julho e agosto de 2006. Os resultados mostraram que tanto os produtores/trabalhadores rurais como os futuros profissionais não estão conscientizados com relação à segurança no trabalho rural. Portanto, tornar a disciplina Segurança e Higiene do Trabalho Rural obrigatória nos currículos dos cursos da área de Ciências Agrárias, colocar em prática a prevenção de acidentes ocupacionais no meio rural e realizar uma reciclagem contínua dos profissionais que atuam na área, por meio de treinamentos e do acesso a informações atualizadas que poderiam se apresentar como alternativas para a prevenção de acidentes na área rural.The present paper had the objective of checking if the professional who will be engaged in the job market had received proper orientation and training to act in rural working safety, to establish relations between professional orientation and the information which will be given to rural growers. As research instrument, a questionnaire was used and applied to 209 growers and farm works, 156 graduated students of crop science at the Londrina State University and 75 students of the Agriculture High School Manoel Ribas, Apucarana (PR. The data were collected during the months of June, July, and August 2006. The results showed that neither the farm works and growers nor the students were conscious of safety in rural labor. Therefore, we suggest the inclusion of the course Safety and Hygiene in Rural Labor in the core curriculum for the preparation of crop science students. It is also necessary to put into practice the rules of occupation accident prevention for rural labor and a permanent recycling of professionals working in this area through training program and access to current information to be alternatives in preventing accidents become a necessity.

  19. Problemas en la extensión rural paraguaya: modelos de extensión en la encrucijada / Problèmes à l'intérieur de la vulgarisation rurale paraguayenne: modèles de vulgarisation au carrefour / Problems in Paraguayan Rural Areas: Extension Models at a Crossroads

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando, Landini.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La extensión rural constituye un factor clave en la mejora de la calidad de vida de los pequeños productores. Se llevó a cabo un estudio cualitativo de la problemática de extensión rural en Paraguay, con particular énfasis en el departamento de Caazapá. Para esto se realizaron entrevistas a pequeños [...] productores, extensionistas y referentes institucionales, las cuales fueron desgrabadas y su contenido categorizado. Se concluye que las dinámicas político-institucionales poseen un rol estructurante de la problemática en estudio; que la pobreza, la pérdida de fertilidad de los suelos y la escasa productividad de la agricultura campesina son fenómenos emergentes de un sistema complejo, y que la implementación de metodologías de extensión rural transferencistas constituye un elemento nodal del entramado problemático. Abstract in english The rural area constitutes a key factor for improving the quality of life of small producers. We conducted a qualitative study on the problems of the Paraguayan rural area, focusing particularly on the department of Caazapâ. To this purpose we conducted interviews with small producers, extension age [...] nts and institutions, which were transcribed and categorised according to contents. It was concluded that political-institutional dynamics play a leading role in the problem at hand; that poverty, the lack of fertility of the land and low agricultural productivity are phenomena that are part of a complex system, and that the implementation of transfer methods of rural extension constitute a key element in the problem under discussion.

  20. Las dinámicas de dominación capitalista en el espacio rural: la configuración de paisajes turísticos / Les dynamiques de domination capitaliste dans le milieu rural: la configuration des paysages touristiques / Capitalist Domination Dynamics in Rural Areas: the Configuration of Touristic Farmlands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erika, Cruz-Coria; Lilia, Zizumbo-Villarreal; Graciela, Cruz-Jiménez; Ana Luz, Quintanilla-Montoya.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida de significación económica de las actividades primarias en el ámbito rural mexicano ha venido acompañada de una marcada terciarización de las actividades productivas, el campo ha comenzado a ser vinculado a actividades no agrícolas como el turismo que, además de deteriorar los ecosistemas [...] , ha transformado el espacio rural en un tejido denso y tupido de infraestructuras o equipamientos destinados al ofrecimiento de servicios turísticos. El objetivo es reflexionar teóricamente sobre la configuración paisajística de los espacios rurales como resultado del proceso de dominación capitalista a través del turismo, lo cual no es más que un proceso histórico conformado por dos dinámicas fundamentales: la apropiación de los espacios y recursos estratégicos para el turismo y, la valorización del espacio. Abstract in english The economic downturn of primary activities in rural Mexico has brought about a shift of productive activities into a service economy, and the land is now the place for non-agricultural activities such as tourism which not only affects ecosystems but has transformed rural areas into a dense fabric f [...] ull of infrastructures and equipment for providing services to tourists. The aim of this paper is to conduct a theoretical reflection on the configuration of rural areas as a result of the process of capitalist domination through tourism, a historic process formed by two main dynamics: the appropriation of space and strategic resources for tourism, and the increase in value of such space.

  1. Characteristics and management of domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiyong; Liu, Dan; Lei, Yunhui; Wu, Jing; Li, Shulan

    2015-01-01

    With its rapid development, the rural area of Southwest China has been puzzled by the waste management problem, especially for increasing solid waste and water pollution from the domestic waste. Therefore, in order to efficiently and effectively manage the domestic waste in the rural area of Southwest China, 22 villages were selected randomly to analyse the characteristics of domestic waste, the influence factors of characteristics and resident's willingness of participation in domestic waste management by questionnaires, field samplings and laboratory tests. The results of the rural area of Southwest China indicated that the generation of domestic waste was 178?g?d(-1) per capita and it was mainly composed of kitchen waste, inert waste, plastics and paper with a total proportion of 81.98%. The waste bulk density, moisture, ash, combustible and lower calorific value were 107?kg?m(-3), 37.04%, 25.73%, 37.23% and 8008?kJ?kg(-1), respectively. These characteristics were influenced by the topography, the distance from towns or cities, the villagers' ethnicities and income sources to some extent. Moreover, the distance of 50-800?m between each collection facility and the disposal fee of around ¥5.00 per household per month could be accepted. The working hours of participation in waste management is suggested as 5?hours per day with the income of ¥1000 per capita per month. Based on the outcome of this survey, a waste management system consisting of classified collection, centralised treatment and decentralised treatment was proposed. It is important to ensure financial viability and practical considerations of this system. PMID:25423957

  2. A technical framework for costing health workforce retention schemes in remote and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stormont Laura

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing the availability of health workers in remote and rural areas through improved health workforce recruitment and retention is crucial to population health. However, information about the costs of such policy interventions often appears incomplete, fragmented or missing, despite its importance for the sound selection, planning, implementation and evaluation of these policies. This lack of a systematic approach to costing poses a serious challenge for strong health policy decisions. Methods This paper proposes a framework for carrying out a costing analysis of interventions to increase the availability of health workers in rural and remote areas with the aim to help policy decision makers. It also underlines the importance of identifying key sources of financing and of assessing financial sustainability. The paper reviews the evidence on costing interventions to improve health workforce recruitment and retention in remote and rural areas, provides guidance to undertake a costing evaluation of such interventions and investigates the role and importance of costing to inform the broader assessment of how to improve health workforce planning and management. Results We show that while the debate on the effectiveness of policies and strategies to improve health workforce retention is gaining impetus and attention, there is still a significant lack of knowledge and evidence about the associated costs. To address the concerns stemming from this situation, key elements of a framework to undertake a cost analysis are proposed and discussed. Conclusions These key elements should help policy makers gain insight into the costs of policy interventions, to clearly identify and understand their financing sources and mechanisms, and to ensure their sustainability.

  3. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors influenced diurnal periodicity of airborne fungal spores.

  4. Biodiversity conservation, ecotourism and rural liverlihoods in protected areas. Case study :the Mount Cameroon National Park

    OpenAIRE

    Nkengfack, Susan Nkendem

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out in the South West Province of Cameroon, specifically in the Mount Cameroon Region which encompasses the Mount Cameroon National park and its surrounding villages. The aim of the study was to assess how ecotourism is used as a tool to conserve the rich biodiversity of this area while improving the livelihoods of the local people and fostering development in the local communities. Focus was on the activities of the Mount Cameroon Inter-communal Ecotourism Board (Mt. C...

  5. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampi?

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  6. Seroepidemiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the rural area Okcheon-gun, Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Ha; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Hwang, Ok-Sun; Lee, Sang-Keol; Shin, Dae-Whan

    2000-01-01

    There have been some reports about the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody among Koreans, and most of all data were taken from patients visiting hospitals. However, the epidemiological data of the community-based study in Korea are rare. This study was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among the inhabitants of the rural area Okcheon-gun, Korea. A total of 1,109 serum samples (499 males, 610 females) were examined for the IgG antibodies by ELISA. To set up the...

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of nocturnal enuresis among school age children in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Solanki, Ashok N.; Desai, Sarzoo G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The word enuresis is derived from a Greek word (enourein) that means ?to void urine.? It can occur either during the day or at night (though some restrict the term to bedwetting that occurs at night). Enuresis can be divided into primary and secondary forms. Aim of current study was to find out the prevalence and underlying its risk factors of nocturnal enuresis in age groups 5 to 12 years in the rural areas of the district. Methods: The study was done during the yea...

  8. Is the LEADER Initiative a Real Contribution to Rural Development in Underdevelopment Areas in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M.  Perez-Fra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available he LEADER Community Initiative is a public programme that adopt on a local initiative approach, targeting rural areas as their field of intervention. The aim of this study is to provide elements for discussion regarding the applicability of such strategies for rural areas, which lag far behind European levels and to gauge the true bearing they have on the diversification of activities. The area chosen for the research is an Autonomous Region located in the Northwest of Spain: Galicia, which is a region which is considerably underdeveloped as compared with general European levels and where agriculture continues to play an important social and economic role. The two first phases of LEADER were applied in Galicia over the period 1991-1999, involving a total of 2,335 projects spread out over 13 different boroughs. In this study we carry out an assessment of the territorial effects produced by this Initiative, based on an analysis of the projects implemented and in the evolution of the main economic and demographic variables in these boroughs.

  9. Off-Grid Energy Technologies used in Rural Areas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Arora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy scenario in India is changing with a greater pace. Growth rate of villages has increased, likewise their energy demand. With the awareness of the decreasing natural resources, non conventional energy resources are gaining lots of interest in sparsely separated areas. The rural areas of India are having the huge scarcity of energy because of limited energy resources and Grid connectivity is not feasible due to economic factors and geographical situations. So we require to establish the off grid system for the benefit of the mass. Off-grid System’s commissioning and operation done as indigenous unit, and free from grid related problems like frequency and voltage regulations and they provides flexible operation because their emphasis is on extraction of energy and conversion into useful work. This paper discusses the potential use of off-grid energy technologies as an alternative for grid extension. Off-grid Energy systems provide the solutions to the basic energy needs in the rural areas of India. These indigenously build plants are not connected to any electrical utility and can be connected with the micro grid for the better reliable operation. Due to small size their demand and load management would be easy. Off-grid system utilizes the solar thermal radiation, wind energy, geothermal energy, tidal wave, Biomass etc. There is numerous numbers of applications where we can use this energy and decrease the dependence on conventional grid.

  10. Chapter D. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems in the Willamette River Basin and Surrounding Area, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Johnson, Henry M.; Hughes, Curt A.; Sarantou, Michael J.; Rinella, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 watersheds along a gradient of urbanization in the Willamette River basin and surrounding area, Oregon and Washington, from 2003 through 2005. The study that generated the report is one of several urban-effects studies completed nationally by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural variability caused by factors such as geology, elevation, and climate, and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among watersheds. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, a combination of land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated into a multimetric urban intensity index (UII) to represent the degree of urban development in each watershed. Physical characteristics studied include stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied include sulfate, chloride, nutrients, pesticides, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, and suspended sediment; and biological characteristics studied include algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages. Semipermeable membrane devices, passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization and (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities. Common effects documented in the literature of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased contaminants, increased streamflow flashiness, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure toward a more tolerant community associated with organically enriched conditions, generally were observed in this study. The strongest correlations to the UII and to many of the algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage metrics and community ordination involved water-chemistry metrics including the total pesticide concentration, toxic equivalents (extract assay from semipermeable membrane devices), and dissolved oxygen. Hydrologic variability metrics, such as flashiness, that normally are considered to be one of the main processes of urban disturbance had a strong association to the algal and fish assemblages in this study; however, the hydrologic variables for macroinvertebrates were secondary to the water-chemistry metrics mentioned above. Generally, the high urban intensity sites had high abundances of eutrophic and lower dissolved oxygen-indicating diatoms, high abundances of noninsects and tolerant insects, and high abundances of nonnative fish species. On the other hand, the low urban intensity sites had higher abundances of pollution sensitive diatoms, larger numbers of the sensitive macroinvertebrate EPT taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera Orders), and fish assemblages with higher abundances of sensitive salmonids. The percent salmonid and macroinvertebrate EPT richness metrics plotted against the UII indicated a possible threshold response at about 25 on the UII, which is equivalent to an impervious surface value of about 5 percent. However, due to the added agricultural land use at sites within the 25 to 60 UII range, this possible threshold probably is not solely due to urbanization, but a combination of urban and agricultural land use. The effects of agricultural and urban land use could not be distinguished from each other, yet combined they provide a good assessment of overall watershed disturbance.

  11. Demographic vitality and human resources as important factors for rural areas development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampi? Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneity and huge regional diversity as key determinant of Slovenian rural areas have not been considered enough in the case of regional development directing. Extensive and multilane questionnaire of case study areas (the survey included 10 selected problem areas pointed out the most evident development problems and future development opportunities. The latest ought to be respected with the planning and guidance of endogenous regional development. The demographic potential as the basis condition for "realistic planning" is upgraded with the de facto household vitality (i.e. demographic vitality, which enables the most reliable demographic structure review. Various forms of demographic vitality significantly determine the approaches and measures for regional development stimulation. The mentioned are successful only with the simultaneous identification of endogenous resources, stimulation of social capital and human resources as key factors of endogenous development as a whole.

  12. Social Enterprise Development-oriented Poverty Alleviation and Sustainable Development of Relative Poverty Groups in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Jianye Xing

    2014-01-01

    The relative poverty groups in rural areas have become main target of China’s poverty alleviation andto explore a long-term effective alleviation mechanismis now a significant topic for research. After thorough research, this paper examines the status and role of this new social organization in rural development-oriented poverty alleviation with the example of the self-service agencies in Xiapu County and Fu’an City founded by the China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation. These social ent...

  13. Change and Dilemma of School Feature Development of Three Junior High Schools in the Remote and Rural Areas of Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Shan-Hua Chen; Hsuan-Fu Ho; Cheng-Cheng Yang

    2012-01-01

    This research is based on qualitative approach and applies in-depth interview with three principals and administrators in three junior high schools located in the remote and rural areas of Taiwan. The aim of this paper was to explore the school feature development process in these three schools. The findings of this study were as follows: most of students’ parents in these three remote and rural schools are labors and have relatively lower social and economic status in the Taiwanese society...

  14. Assessing the Elasticities of Electricity Consumption for Rural and Urban Areas in Malaysia: A Non-linear Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Ali Bekhet; Nor Salwati bt Othman

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates and estimates the price and income elasticity of electricity consumption and then compares the level of sensitivity of demand for electricity in the rural and urban areas in Malaysia. The non linear model was employed to estimate the elasticity of electricity consumption. The electricity demand has been estimated as a function of tariff, real GDP, gas price and population in the rural and urban population. The gas price has been used as a proxy to measure the level of ...

  15. Developing experiment based science teaching skills : a lifelong learning opportunity for teachers in a rural area of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel F. M. Costa; Erol, Mustafa; Boyuk, Ugur; Sahingoz, Recep; Harrison, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Modular Mobile Education: Science Experiments (MOBILIM) is an innovative pilot project for the vocational training of science teachers in rural regions of central Turkey supported by the European Commission in the frames of the Leonardo da Vinci programme. In this project, a mobile science laboratory (MSL) was established in order to cope with the great disparities in opportunities between science teaching in urban and rural areas. Teacher training both in what concerns practical competencies...

  16. Perceptions of newly admitted undergraduate medical students on experiential training on community placements and working in rural areas of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugumisirize Joshua

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has an acute problem of inadequate human resources partly due to health professionals' unwillingness to work in a rural environment. One strategy to address this problem is to arrange health professional training in rural environments through community placements. Makerere University College of Health Sciences changed training of medical students from the traditional curriculum to a problem-based learning (PBL curriculum in 2003. This curriculum is based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based and services oriented. During their first academic year, students undergo orientation on key areas of community-based education, after which they are sent in interdisciplinary teams for community placements. The objective was to assess first year students' perceptions on experiential training through community placements and factors that might influence their willingness to work in rural health facilities after completion of their training. Methods The survey was conducted among 107 newly admitted first year students on the medical, nursing, pharmacy and medical radiography program students, using in-depth interview and open-ended self-administered questionnaires on their first day at the college, from October 28-30, 2008. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, motivation for choosing a medical career, prior exposure to rural health facilities, willingness to have part of their training in rural areas and factors that would influence the decision to work in rural areas. Results Over 75% completed their high school from urban areas. The majority had minimal exposure to rural health facilities, yet this is where most of them will eventually have to work. Over 75% of the newly admitted students were willing to have their training from a rural area. Perceived factors that might influence retention in rural areas include the local context of work environment, support from family and friends, availability of continuing professional training for career development and support of co-workers and the community. Conclusion Many first year students at Makerere University have limited exposure to health facilities in rural areas and have concerns about eventually working there.

  17. Seasonal and diurnal variation of outdoor radon (222Rn) concentrations in urban and rural area with reference to meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to investigate temporal variability of outdoor radon (222Rn) concentration registered in the center of Lodz (urban station), at Ciosny (rural station) and Krakow (suburban station) in relation to meteorological parameters (i.e. air temperature, temperature vertical gradient, wind speed, soil heat flux, volumetric water content in soil) with special consideration of urban-rural differences. Continuous measurements of 222Rn concentration (at 60 min intervals) were performed at a height of 2 m above the ground using AlphaGUARD PQ2000PRO (ionization chamber) from January 2008 to May 2009. 222Rn levels were characterized by a diurnal cycle with an early morning maximum and a minimum in the afternoon. The well-marked 24 h pattern of radon concentration occurred in summer at anticyclonic weather with cloudless sky, light wind and large diurnal temperature ranges. The urban measurement site was characterized by the lowest atmospheric 222Rn concentration and an urban-rural differences of radon levels increased from winter to summer and during the nighttime periods. The maximum contrasts of 222Rn levels between Lodz and Ciosny, reaching - 30 Bq m-3, were registered in June and July during the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon (a positive thermal anomaly of a city if compared to rural area) and strong thermal inversion near the ground in the rural area. (authors) rural area. (authors)

  18. Context counts: training health workers in and for rural and remote areas

    OpenAIRE

    Strasser, Roger; Neusy, Andre-jacques

    2010-01-01

    Access to well trained and motivated health workers is the major rural health issue. Without local access, it is unlikely that people in rural and remote communities will be able to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Studies in many countries have shown that the three factors most strongly associated with entering rural practice are: (i) a rural background; (ii) positive clinical and educational experiences in rural settings as part of undergraduate medical education; and (iii) targ...

  19. Integrated energy planning for sustainable development in rural areas: A case study from Eastern Uttar Pradesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Shweta; Bajpai, Usha [Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226 007 (India)

    2010-07-01

    Energy is required for every aspect of our daily life. At present, commercial energy consumption makes up about 65% of the total energy consumed in India. This includes coal with the largest share of 55%, followed by oil at 31%, natural gas at 11% and hydro energy at 3%. Non-commercial energy sources consisting of firewood, cow dung and agriculture wastes account for over 30% of the total energy consumption. The critical feature of India's energy sector and linkages to economy is the import dependence on crude and petroleum products. Import bill is likely to grow to more than 100% in the near future because of population explosion and improved living standard in the country. Being a tropical country India has unlimited potential for producing renewable energy sources. These sources of energy can play an important role in the sustainable development by providing basic energy needs of rural and remote areas. A survey of energy consumption pattern has been carried out in different sector domestic, agricultural, transport, rural industries and miscellaneous uses in a cluster of 3 villages, district Ballia, Uttar Pradesh India during 2008. The questionnaires have been filled by gram pradhan, respective old persons and head of the family of the surveyed households. This paper discusses the current energy status, choice of energy options and potential of renewable energy systems for creating sustainable livelihoods in rural areas. The outline plan at decentralized level was prepared with the objective of providing energy security in villages by meeting total energy needs for cooking, lighting and motive power through various forms of available renewable energy sources.

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP relating to avian influenza in urban and rural areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Xiaowen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs associated with avian influenza (AI. To determine the KAPs associated with AI among the Chinese general population, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in China. Methods We used standardized, structured questionnaires distributed in both an urban area (Shenzhen, Guangdong Province; n = 1,826 and a rural area (Xiuning, Anhui Province; n = 2,572 using the probability proportional to size (PPS sampling technique. Results Approximately three-quarters of participants in both groups requested more information about AI. The preferred source of information for both groups was television. Almost three-quarters of all participants were aware of AI as an infectious disease; the urban group was more aware that it could be transmitted through poultry, that it could be prevented, and was more familiar with the relationship between AI and human infection. The villagers in Xiuning were more concerned than Shenzhen residents about human AI viral infection. Regarding preventative measures, a higher percentage of the urban group used soap for hand washing whereas the rural group preferred water only. Almost half of the participants in both groups had continued to eat poultry after being informed about the disease. Conclusions Our study shows a high degree of awareness of human AI in both urban and rural populations, and could provide scientific support to assist the Chinese government in developing strategies and health-education campaigns to prevent AI infection among the general population.

  1. Cancer outcomes research in a rural area: a multi-institution partnership model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael; Almon, Lyn; Bayakly, Rana; Butler, Susan; Crosby, Carol; DiIorio, Colleen; Ekwueme, Donatus; Fletcher, Diane; Fowler, John; Gillespie, Theresa; Glanz, Karen; Hall, Ingrid; Lee, Judith; Liff, Jonathan; Lipscomb, Joseph; Pollack, Lori A; Richardson, Lisa C; Roberts, Phillip; Steenland, Kyle; Ward, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    Whereas, most cancer research data come from high-profile academic centers, little is known about the outcomes of cancer care in rural communities. We summarize the experience of building a multi-institution partnership to develop a cancer outcomes research infrastructure in Southwest Georgia (SWGA), a primarily rural 33-county area with over 700,000 residents. The partnership includes eight institutions: the Emory University in Atlanta, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Georgia Comprehensive Center Registry (the Registry), the Southwest Georgia Cancer Coalition (the Coalition), and the four community cancer centers located within the SWGA region. The practical application of the partnership model, its organizational structure, and lessons learned are presented using two specific examples: a study evaluating treatment decisions and quality of life among prostate cancer patients, and a study of treatment discontinuation among prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer patients. Our partnership model allowed us to (1) use the Coalition as a link between Atlanta-based researchers and local community; (2) collaborate with the area cancer centers on day-to-day study activities; (3) involve the Registry personnel and resources to identify eligible cancer cases and to perform data collection; and (4) raise community awareness and sense of study ownership through media announcements organized by the Coalition. All of the above activities were performed in consultation with the funding institution (CDC) and its project directors who oversee several other studies addressing similar research questions throughout the country. Our partnership model may provide a useful framework for cancer outcomes research projects in rural communities. PMID:18850070

  2. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Mariza Fordellone Rosa, Cruz; Eunice A Bianchi, Galati.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07: [...] 00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  3. Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae in rural and urban environments in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fordellone Rosa Cruz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7% and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3% were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2% and rural (42.8% areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5% and Ny. whitmani (31.4% were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors.

  4. A Comparative Study of Language Instructional Delivery System between Nursery Schools in Rural and Urban Areas in Osun State

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    Odejobi, Cecilia Omobola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the language instructional delivery system between the nursery schools in rural and urban areasin Osun state. The population consisted of all the nursery school teachers in Osun state. Proportionate randomsampling was used to prune down the population. In all 130 nursery school teachers, 68 in urban areas and 62 in ruralareas served as respondents of the study selected from 30 nursery schools located in rural and urban areas. Aresearcher made instrument named Teachers’ Questionnaire (TQ was designed for data collection. Thequestionnaire was validated before use and the reliability coefficient yielded 0.85 which is significant at 0.05 level ofsignificance. Data were analysed statistically using t-test analysis and percentages. Findings showed that there wasno significant difference between the methods adopted for implementing language curriculum in nursery schoolslocated in both rural and urban areas. A significant difference existed between the human resources available innursery schools located in both rural and urban areas. It was also found out that there was no curriculum for Yorùbálanguage in most of the nursery schools visited. The study concluded with recommendations for both proprietors ofnursery schools in rural and urban areas to improve on their present standard in terms of teaching personnel,instructional resources and teaching/learning process, nursery school teachers and the three-tiers of government.

  5. Evaluating Vulnerability and Resilience between Urban and Rural Area in a Regional Water Resources System under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.; Tsao, J. H.; Lin, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    To the threat of climate change, the risk of water resources vary in different area but the same system because of the structure of water supply system and the different sensitivity and exposure to climate for different urbanization area. For example, the urban area with high population density is sensitive to any disturbance from drought and the rural area with unpopular tap water system is insensitive to disturbance of drought but highly risk to water shortage. The resilience of water supply relies on water storage from reservoirs or lakes and water management in urban area but relies on intake from groundwater in rural area. The strategies to water resources should be considered with the water mass flow between urban and rural area. To strengthen the whole water resources system, also, it is important to find where the vulnerability from, how to reduce it and how to build up the resilience for both urban and rural area. This study aims to evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of water resources in different township and city but in the same system. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate risk of each township and city in a water supply system. The cause of vulnerability will be identified and discussed in both urban and rural. The strategies to reduce vulnerability of water resources for urban and rural will be proposed and discussed in this study.

  6. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271 were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (?313 m in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  7. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

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    Podstawski Robert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in ?wi?tajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  8. Rural youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesiji Gbolagade B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the level of youth participation in infrastructural development in Isin local government area of Kwara State, Nigeria. One hundred and five youths were randomly selected from seven rural communities, fifteen youths from each village. Data were collected with the aid of a questionnaire, which was analysed using frequency count and percentages. Chi-square analysis was used to test the hypothesis of significance between the socio-economic characteristics and the level of participation in infrastructural development. Findings revealed that 56.2% of respondents were within the age category of 21-30 years, 62.9% were male, and 60% were single, while 56.2% of the respondents had secondary school level education. The study revealed the various roles played by youths in participating in infrastructural development as well as the associated constraints which include finance, availability of materials, technical knowledge and time. Age, marital status, educational level and years of residence were found to be significantly related to the level of participation of youths in infrastructural development. The study recommended the adequate budget allocation to rural areas as well as intensive training and educative programmes for effective participative development.

  9. Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are common in the Third Age and increasing in Cuba. Among the life-style changes associated with increased prevalence of obesity and its related disorders, diet and activity patterns are prime candidates. The transition to this life-style model may induce a decrease in the energy needs. There is an urgent need for tools which have been validated for measuring diet and physical activity in nutritional studies in the developing world, but also a more urgent need for reference values for the total energy requirements of healthy elderly people. Regular physical activity reduces the likelihood to develop diseases that characterise the metabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Previous studies done in Havana showed values of physical activity level (PAL) which are lower than the reported for elderly subjects. Elderly people living in rural areas use to have physical activity levels which differ from the observed in urban areas. With the purpose of estimating the energy requirements, a group of 40 apparently healthy people older than 60 years of age living in a rural mountain community will be submitted to a medical, epidemiological, dietary, anthropometric and insulin resistance study. Physical activity will be determined by questionnaire and by the calculation of the PAL from the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) measured with the doubly-labelled water method (DLW). Associations with the prevalence of insulin resistance and obesity will be assessed. (author)

  10. THE POTENTIAL OF THE RURAL AREA DEVELOPMENT OF STEFAN VODA COMMUNE IN CALARASI COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena LASCAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of development means all forms and methods of socio-economic development, and it is based first of all on ensuring a balance between these socio-economic systems and the elements of natural capital. C?l?ra?i county is situated in the South-East part of the country and of the Romanian Plain, on the left shore of the Danube. It has a surface of 5088 sqkm and it occupies 2.1% of Romania surface. The relief is mainly represented by fields. The county depends on agriculture and economy in the rural area. In the rural area of C?l?ra?i county 49.1% of the total population in the country lives, most involved in agricultural activities or activities related to it. Communes are the most important category of administrative units, both numerically and in terms of population. The proposed paper presents aspects regarding the potential of sustainable development of Stefan Voda commune in C?l?ra?i county.

  11. "Everybody Is Just Fumbling along": An Investigation of Views Regarding EAL Training and Support Provisions in a Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research conducted in a rural area of England that has experienced a rise in the number of pupils who speak a language other than English as their first language. The research was motivated by a concern that EAL teacher training provisions in such areas are insubstantial. The data source for the study comes from…

  12. Investigation of low-level-jets over rural and urban areas using two sodars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is devoted to the experimental study of jet streams at heights up to 400 m agl (the so called Low-Level Jet, or LLJ) with the help of sodars. These LLJs, which are not connected either to catabatic winds or to synoptic front passing, but are regularly observed in the mid-latitudes over a flat terrain under nocturnal inversion conditions, are investigated. Preliminary results of simultaneous investigations of LLJs over the center of the Moscow megalopolis and over a nearby rural area are presented. Continuous sodar data on wind speed profiles collected during 27 days in July 2005 were analyzed together with in situ data from a meteorological mast. Empirical distributions of the maximum jet speed and the height of jet axis were obtained. The relationships between the LLJ parameters and some characteristics of the surface layer were found. Over the urban area, the jets appear less frequently and at greater heights than over the countryside

  13. Feasibility of LTE 700 MHz Digital Dividend for Broadband Development Acceleration in Rural Areas

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    Denny Setiawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The need of broadband services to reduce digital divide in rural areas had increased in the recent years. The government of the Republic Indonesia shared similar intention and had set guidance of ICT development in its "economic master plan" and "medium term development plan". This paper addressed feasibility and suitability of its implementation in Indonesia, by conducting assessment of possible solutions. Using mixed method, the study was started with qualitative approach to identify possible options, conducted benchmarking and case study analysis to narrow down the options and finally conducted quantitative calculation for the two remaining options and measure performance of the solutions. The results of analysis concluded that early implementation of LTE in 700 MHz Digital Dividend would be feasible in certain geographical areas to fasten the broadband plan development in Indonesia.

  14. IT&C COMPREHENSION IN THE URBAN AND RURAL AREA OF TIMIS COUNTY IN YEAR 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian B?ne?

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is presenting some statistics relating to knowledge in the field of information technology and communication in year 2012. Data presented were taken following the processing of 122 questionnaires from Timis county, urban and rural area. Questionnaires have tried to include a higher sphere on IT & C knowledge of the persons interviewed, from what is known as a simple user of programs considered usual, passing over aspects of knowledge minimum hardware and ending with the e-commerce. The study revealed a basic knowledge that allow writing, technical, calculations, surf the Internet and transmitting/receiving e-mails. In other areas (accounting, databases, CAD etc., only those who work day by day in that domain, have knowledge about the software. The situation is the same at hardware chapter, where the vast majority of persons interviewed are not interested in this type of knowledge, even though in most cases would save time and money.

  15. Mapping Rural Areas with Widespread Plastic Covered Vineyards Using True Color Aerial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eufemia Tarantino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plastic covering is used worldwide to protect crops against damaging growing conditions. This agricultural practice raises some controversial issues. While it significantly impacts on local economic vitality, plasticulture also shows several environmental affects. In the Apulia Region (Italy the wide-spreading of artificial plastic coverings for vineyard protection has showed negative consequences on the hydrogeological balance of soils as well as on the visual quality of rural landscape. In order to monitor and manage this phenomenon, a detailed site mapping has become essential. In this study an efficient object-based classification procedure from Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR true color aerial data was developed on eight test areas located in the Ionian area of the Apulia Region in order to support the updating of the existing land use database aimed at plastic covered vineyard monitoring.

  16. Dust Full Study In The Surrounding Area Of A Cement Factory And Determination Of The Major Elements Of The Dust Fall Using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust fall of the Tartous cement factory and the surrounding area at the Syrian coast were measured. The results show that the dust fall concentrations were higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) Standard in the factory site as well as in the surrounding area within 5 to 6 km in the diameter. The value of the dust fall at the Reference sites was abut 4.5 t/km2/month and in the surrounding area of the factory values reached between 18 and 120 t/km2/month. This means the values exceed the standard around 3 and 13 times. The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) of cement dust showed a percentage of 27.5% ± 1.6 of calcium. By the presence of humidity calcium silicate occurs, which immediately dries and becomes a hard salt crust. Therefore in the regions near by the factory cement dust formed this kind of salt coat on the surface of the leaves. (Authors)

  17. The Relevance of Cluster Initiatives in Rural Areas: Regional Policy in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lundmark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The relatively weak performance of sparsely populated areas has been given substantial attention in many regional, national and European Union initiatives. Many rural areas are struggling with development problems such as depopulation, advanced ageing, industrial restructuring and high levels of structural unemployment. In Sweden these issues are mainly associated with the difficulties in the non-metropolitan sparsely populated areas in the northern and southeastern parts. Here, the issue of implementing general cluster policies in sparsely populated regions in order to enhance their economic development is in focus. This research includes an overview of existing Swedish regional growth and development programmes that exemplify the current regional policies. It is found that the concepts of clusters and innovation systems have become important for policy on national and regional levels of government, but the understanding of the concepts is poor. In spite of regional variations in preconditions for cluster development, there are no clear regional modifications in the interpretation of clusters as described in the documents. One conclusion is that regional and local strategies to develop businesses in sparsely populated areas would benefit from using examples from non-metropolitan regions as a point of departure rather than using experiences drawn from high-tech industries located in metropolitan areas usually referenced in the international literature. The routine use of cluster and innovation systems in policy on the regional level underlines the need for more empirically based research on the preconditions for cluster development in sparsely populated areas.

  18. Uranium statistical and geological evaluation of airborne spectrometric data in the Al-Awabed region and its surroundings (Area-3), Northern Palmyrides, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis have been applied to the Airborne spectrometric data from the Al-Awabed region and its surroundings (Area-3), Northern Palmyrides, Syria. It was shown that equivalent uranium eU values vary between a minimum of 0.01 and a maximum of 22.33 ppm. The probability graph has been used to compute the threshold level of uranium in the study area. It was found that this threshold level of 5.54 ppm agrees well with that obtained by traditional statistical computation (X-bar+2 sigma). Uranium prospecting methodology is proposed in order to explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies related to the Al-Awabed region and its surroundings in Area-3, and to determine the dominant geological conditions that effectively contribute to the radioactive anomalies occurring in the study area. Four radioactive-geological profiles have been established in Area-3, where their analysis and study reveal that lowlands and basins, the unconformity between Palaeogene and Neogene, the contact between Cretaceous and Palaeogene and the phosphate beds themselves are considered favorable environments for uranium deposits. The proposed methodology is proven and field verified and can be therefore applied in other areas considered as promising for uranium deposits. (author)

  19. Oestrogenic activity in drinking waters from a rural area in the Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NH, Aneck-Hahn; MS, Bornman; C de, Jager.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, limited data are available regarding possible oestrogenic activity in the aquatic systems and especially drinking water. Water in the rural areas is often contaminated with a complex mixture of toxic compounds originating from nearby industries, agriculture and households. In these [...] rural areas the only access to drinking water is boreholes, natural springs and rivers. Thus human exposure to environmental contaminants in drinking water is potentially high. Two rural communities near Mokopane in the Waterberg district of the Limpopo Province were selected in order to screen for oestrogenic activity in drinking water sources in a rural area. Eleven 1 ? water samples (Molekane n= 4; Sekuruwe n= 7), were collected in prepared glass bottles and extracted on a SPE C18 cartridge and reconstituted into ethanol. The recombinant yeast oestrogen screen was used to determine the oestrogenic activity in the extracts. 17?-estradiol (E2) was used as a positive control and the results were expressed as estradiol equivalents (EEq). The EEq of the water from both the communities ranged between 0.63 - 2.48 x10-9 g/?. These concentrations are similar to other studies conducted in Korean river waters in rural and city areas and Flemish surface waters. The recombinant yeast screen confirmed oestrogenic activity in the drinking water samples; further investigation is necessary to determine the source of the contamination and association with impaired growth.

  20. Assessing the Elasticities of Electricity Consumption for Rural and Urban Areas in Malaysia: A Non-linear Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ali Bekhet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and estimates the price and income elasticity of electricity consumption and then compares the level of sensitivity of demand for electricity in the rural and urban areas in Malaysia. The non linear model was employed to estimate the elasticity of electricity consumption. The electricity demand has been estimated as a function of tariff, real GDP, gas price and population in the rural and urban population. The gas price has been used as a proxy to measure the level of sensitivity goods by using the annual data covering the 1980-2009 period. The results showed that the income elasticity ( was less than unity which indicated electricity as a necessity good to the people in Malaysia. The reaction of electricity consumption was found to be greater in the urban area compared to the rural area. The higher sensitivity of electricity consumption in the urban population was due to higher exposure to electricity appliances and facilities. 

  1. Assessment of dietary intake among pregnant women in a rural area of western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xueli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adequate maternal nutrient intake during pregnancy is important to ensure satisfactory birth outcomes. There are no data available on the usual dietary intake among pregnant women in rural China. The present study describes and evaluates the dietary intake in a cohort of pregnant women living in two counties of rural Shaanxi, western China. Methods 1420 pregnant women were recruited from a trial that examined the effects of micronutrient supplementation on birth outcomes. Dietary information was collected at the end of their trimester or after delivery with an interviewed-administrated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrients intake was calculated from the FFQ and compared to the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. The EAR cut-offs based on the Chinese Nutrition Society Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs were used to assess the prevalence of inadequate dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, zinc, riboflavin, vitamin C and folate. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis tests were used to compare nutrient intakes across subgroups. Results The mean nutrient intakes assessed by the FFQ was similar to those reported in the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey from women living in rural areas except for low intakes of protein, fat, iron and zinc. Of the participants, 54% were at risk of inadequate intake of energy. There were high proportions of pregnant women who did not have adequate intakes of folate (97% and zinc (91%. Using the "probability approach", 64% of subjects had an inadequate consumption of iron. Conclusion These results reveal that the majority of pregnant women in these two counties had low intakes of nutrients that are essential for pregnancy such as iron and folate. Trial registration ISRCTN08850194.

  2. Pilot solar hybrid power station in rural area, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaysia has considerable number of widely deployed small rural area. These hamlets are very much associated with Orang Asli residents. They get their source of energy by candle or kerosene light while some richer community can afford a generator set. The usual or normal system using solar as a source for electricity at rural area is standalone system for each house. As for this project, a pilot centralized solar power station will be the source of electricity to light up the fifteen houses at Kampung Denai, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia. This system will be the first ever built for the orang asli settlement at Pahang. The objectives of this project are to design and install the solar power station at remote location and to develop standard design of stand-alone solar power station suitable for Malaysia. Orang Asli residents at Kampung Denai was chosen because there is a school for the Orang Asli children. Moreover, the remote communities are living in stratification, which makes electrical wiring easier. Furthermore, the remote area is far from the last transmission line and cumbersome to bring diesel through the rough and unpredictable land road. The main domestic energy is for residential purposes (e.g. small lighting unit, radio, television, video, etc). The generator capacity is 18.6 kW. The solar sizing was done both for the home and school appliances at Kampung Denai. The maximum demand measured was 4195.35 kW. The pilot centralized solar power station consists of 1tralized solar power station consists of 10 kW photovoltaic panels, 10 kW inverter, 150 kWh battery and other balance of system. A generator set with capacity of 12.5 kVA is installed for back up and during monsoon season. This paper will present status of the system, operational and maintenance issues, load profile of the solar power station and economics and system design of the whole system

  3. Learning from the energetic rural area. Background report; Leren van het energieke platteland. Achtergrondrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnouts, R.; Van den Born, G.J.; Daalhuizen, F.; Farjon, H.; Pols, L.; Tekelenburg, T.; Tisma, S.; Van Veen, M. [Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Gerritsen, A.; Verburg, R. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Wiering, M. [Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Roovers, G. [Oranjewoud, Heerenveen (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Citizens and businesses start on a regular basis, and in cooperation with the Dutch government, initiatives to improve the living environment in rural areas. In this study, 32 examples are discussed to detect issues that can be improved. The examples concern more or less successful partnerships for sustainable rural development, in which the market, citizens and civil society play a prominent role. Four issues for improvement are identified: (1) Other accents are required in laws and regulations for the living environment; (2) The Dutch government must give smart directions by means of levies and incentives; (3) A vision of the governments is essential; and (4) Towards a proactive, facilitating government [Dutch] Burgers en bedrijven nemen regelmatig samen met overheden initiatieven om de leefomgeving op het platteland te verbeteren. In deze studie zijn 32 praktijkvoorbeelden onder de loep genomen om die verbeterpunten op te sporen. Het gaat om meer of minder succesvolle samenwerkingsverbanden voor duurzame plattelandsontwikkeling, waarin marktpartijen, burgers en het maatschappelijk middenveld een vooraanstaande rol spelen. Hierbij worden vier verbeterpunten gesignaleerd: (1) Andere accenten gewenst in wet- en regelgeving voor de leefomgeving; (2) Slimmer sturen met heffingen en vergoedingen door de overheid; (3) Visie van overheden is onontbeerlijk; en (4) Naar een proactieve, faciliterende overheid.

  4. Spatial and temporal trends of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in a rural area of northern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured at 40 rural sampling points in Navarre (northern Spain). Air samples were collected by means of sorbent passive sampling and analyzed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography/mass-selective detector (GC/MSD). A total of 140 VOCs were identified during the study, which was carried out between May to October 2004 for a total of a 10 biweekly sampling campaigns. Concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylenes, o-xylene (BTEX) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were determined in order to investigate their temporal and spatial distributions. Geostatistical analysis pointed to traffic as the main emission source of these compounds. Supporting this idea, BTEX and nitrogen oxides concentrations were found to be highly significantly correlated (r=0.495, P=0.001), whereas a strong negative correlation between BTEX and ozone was also observed (r=-0.355, P=0.025). The concentrations for the BTEX group were similar to the values that have been previously reported for other rural areas. (author)

  5. Biogas/photovoltaic hybrid power system for decentralized energy supply of rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano - IFSertao-PE, BR407, km 8, 56314-520 Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Electrical Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Carioca, J.O.B. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Food Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Canafistula, F.J.F. [Federal University of Ceara, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Caixa Postal 6001 - Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    Biomasses created from natural resources such as firewood, charcoal and forest crops are still the main source of energy in many communities in the developing countries of the world. The absence of modern techniques, in terms of energy conversion and the lack of resource planning, places a great burden on the environment, not only in terms of deforestation but the polluting residual emissions created by the burning of such fuels. Even in some developed countries, it is possible to find rural areas that have no access to the conventional national electrical grid. The lack of this facility is detrimental to the social and economic development of any country or community. Renewable energy systems have been used in many cases to mitigate these problems. The present paper introduces the concept of an alternative Hybrid Power System configuration that combines photovoltaic modules and digesters fuelled by goat manure as the basis for rural sustainable development. Attention is drawn to the Northeast Region of Brazil, one of the largest semi-arid regions in a single country. The regional conditions of Northeast of Brazil are not unique, suggesting that other countries of a similar nature would benefit from the same energy system. (author)

  6. Heritability of phenotypes associated with glucose homeostasis and adiposity in a rural area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Geórgia G; Dutra, Míriam Santos; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation between glucose homeostasis and adiposity traits in a population in a rural community in Brazil. The Jequitinhonha Community Family Study cohort consists of subjects aged ?18 years residing in rural areas in Brazil. The data on the following traits were assembled for 280 individuals (51.7% women): body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist and mid-upper arm circumferences, triceps skinfold, conicity index, insulin, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), triglycerides and C-reactive protein. Extended pedigrees were constructed up to the third generation of individuals using the data management software PEDSYS. The heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance component method. The age- and sex-adjusted heritability values estimated for insulin (h(2) = 52%), glucose (h(2) = 51%), HDLc (h(2) = 58%), and waist circumference (WC; h(2) = 49%) were high. Significantly adjusted genetic correlations were observed between insulin paired with each of the following phenotypes; (BMI; ?g = 0.48), WC (?g = 0.47) and HDLc (?g = -0.47). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was genetically correlated with BMI (?g = 0.53) and HDLc (?g = -0.58). The adjusted genetic correlations between traits were consistently higher compared with the environmental correlations. In conclusion, glucose metabolism and adiposity traits are highly heritable and share common genetic effects with body adiposity traits. PMID:24359477

  7. Effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® trap in rural areas in the southeastern tropical Atlantic Forest

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise Cristina, Sant& #8217; Ana; Ivy Luizi Rodrigues de, Sá; Maria Anice Mureb, Sallum.

    1021-10-01

    Full Text Available Traps are widely employed for sampling and monitoring mosquito populations for surveillance, ecological and fauna studies. Considering the importance of assessing other technologies for sampling mosquitoes, we addressed the effectiveness of Mosquito Magnet® Independence (MMI) in [...] comparison with those of the CDC trap with CO2 and Lurex3® (CDC-A) and the CDC light trap (CDC-LT). Field collections were performed in a rural area within the Atlantic Forest biome, southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil. The MMI sampled 53.84% of the total number of mosquitoes, the CDC-A (26.43%) and CDC-LT (19.73%). Results of the Pearson chi-squared test (?2) showed a positive association between CDC-LT and species of Culicini and Uranotaeniini tribes. Additionally, our results suggested a positive association between CDC-A and representatives of the Culicini and Aedini tribes, whereas the MMI was positively associated with the Mansoniini and Sabethini as well as with Anophelinae species. The MMI sampled a greater proportion (78.27%) of individuals of Anopheles than either the CDC-LT (0.82%) or the CDC-A traps (20.91%). Results of the present study showed that MMI performed better than CDC-LT or CDC-A in sampling mosquitoes in large numbers, medically important species and assessing diversity parameters in rural southeastern Atlantic Forest.

  8. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more prevalent among males (12.6% than females (4.4%; P Conclusions HIV positive individuals are more susceptible to co-infections with Cryptosporidium spp. than HIV negative people, particularly younger males with poor personal hygiene habits, indicating a need for targeted hygiene promotion, IPI surveillance and treatment.

  9. A Development of the dust deposition in the area surrounding the SMZ, a.s., Jel?ava plant

    OpenAIRE

    Hanèu¾ák Jozef

    2000-01-01

    The area of Jel?ava ? Lubeník ranks among the eight excessively polluted areas registered in Slovakia. The main cause of this situation is a hundred years of existence of the exploitation and processing of magnesite. The SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava is currently the biggest Slovak producer of brick and steel magnesite-based clinkers. The technological procedures used to process the raw material represent the main source of solid polluting substances as well as the primary dustiness in the area surro...

  10. Does Urbanization Help Poverty Reduction in Rural Areas? Evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Arouri, Mohamed El Hedi; Ben Youssef, Adel; Nguyen-viet, Cuong

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and poverty have a two-way relationship. Using fixed-effects regression andpanel data from household surveys, we estimate the effect of urbanization on welfare andpoverty of rural households in Vietnam. We find that urbanization tends to increaselandlessness of rural households and to reduce their farm income. However, urbanizationhelps rural households increase their wages and non-farm incomes. As a result, totalincome and consumption expenditure of rural households tend to be i...

  11. A study on immigration from rural to urban areas and the adaptation process of immigrants: Van example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Etlan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, events terror which occurred in the region after 1980 and the migrations due to the effects of these events the socio-cultural and economic conditions of immigrants their adaptation to the city other problems was analyzed. Acceleration in the migrations from rural to urban areas in Van coincides with the years after 1980. The insecure environment and the broken economic balance has made rural are completely unpopular and repulsive. In this process, one of the cities which people leaving from rural areas chose to live first was Van.Screening method was used in the study. For this purpose a poll of 50 questions was prepared. The poll constituted with 4 parts for measuring the immigrants demographic, social-cultural and economic aspects and their adaptation process. The poll was applied to 290 subjects from 7 quarters where immigrants live intensely, and SPSS program was used in their evaluation.Immigrants usually come from the rural areas of Hakkari, Siirt, Bitlis and Van and are settled in sub-urban neighborhoods. The urban infrastructure problems which had already existed previously became much more complicated in the city with migrations. In addition, migrations caused many social-cultural an economic problem in the city. The immigrants who brought with themselves their own culture and lifestyles transformed the city into a village with the slums they constructed. Though they got rid of their rural habits, they still could not become accustomed to the civic environment.

  12. Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Seidaiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1-IntroductionNowadays housing and its related issues are considered as a global issue and planners and policy makers in different countries are trying to solve its problems (Buckley, et al., 2005:237. Among different factors involved in rural settlement structures housing is one of the most important ones (Sartipipor, 2010:125. In Iran, the issue of rural housing, on different aspects, has been affected by urban housing. Despite the efforts made to improve it, and giving priority to it in rural development programs, housing provision has always been one of the problems of many people, especially low-income families in rural areas.Non-availability of suitable and standard housing, which is an index of rural development, causes psychological and social damage in rural people's lives, interruption and irregularity in rural housing structures, and ultimately social and economic crises in national level. Therefore, the issue of appropriate planning and policy making for housing and access to a desirable model for rural residents is a major concern of rural planners (Lotfi, 2010:105. One of the important ways of having knowledge of rural condition in the process of rural planning is the use of rural housing indicators (Azizi, 2006:26.2- Theoretical basesRural housing is a coordinated structure consistent with economic, social and cultural structure of rural area that has essential differences with urban housing. In fact, the expectations of two urban and rural societies from housing are not the same. In cities, nowadays, houses mostly have the role of dormitory or resort, while in rural areas people expect more from the housing. For a rural person, housing, besides being a resort unit, is also considered as an economic functional unit (Papoliyazdi, 1994:490. Based on the policies enforced and the amount of government intervention in the housing issue, there are two distinct lines of thought among housing scholars and researchers: market economy and planned economy. In view of market economy, housing problems are solved through the market mechanisms and housing needs are provided by private sector (Chadwick, 1987:88, Ziyari, et al., 210:4. In planned economy government has the role of planner, designer and manager (Aghasi, 1996:201, Chadwick, 1987:88, Shucksmith, 2003:213. In Islam's ideological system the importance of housing is as far as that the housing provision is considered as one of the bases of economic independency, and eradication of poverty in the society.3– DiscussionTo evaluate and analyze the housing indicators in the rural areas of Isfahan province, first data and the related variables are collected and based on them the desired indicators are obtained (Table-1; then, in line with goals of research, we will go through the following steps:Analysis of housing situation in rural areas of Isfahan province by using housing indicators,Determining effective factors in improving housing indicators,And stratification of rural areas based on these indicators.Applying statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster analysis, analysis of indicators and prioritization of rural areas of the province are performed. Table 1: Housing IndicatorsROWindicatorsROWindicators1The population of rural areas12The average of infrastructure lifetime2The number of households13The share of households that have a minimum electricity4The family size14The share of households that have a minimum telephone4The number of residential units,15The share of households that have a minimum water piping5The household density in residential units16The share of households that have a minimum gas piping6The density of people in residential units17The share of households that have a minimum central heating and cooling system7The housing shortages18The share of households that have a minimum kitchen8The average of number of rooms in the household19The share of households that have a minimum bathroom9The average of number of rooms per household member20The share of residential units from durable materials10The share

  13. Measuring potential access to food stores and food-service places in rural areas in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R

    2009-04-01

    Geographic access to healthy food resources remains a major focus of research that examines the contribution of the built environment to healthful eating. Methods used to define and measure spatial accessibility can significantly affect the results. Considering the implications for marketing, policy, and programs, adequate measurement of the food environment is important. Little of the published work on food access has focused on rural areas, where the burden of nutrition-related disease is greater. This article seeks to expand our understanding of the challenges to measurement of potential spatial access to food resources in rural areas in the U.S. Key challenges to the accurate measurement of the food environment in rural areas include: (1) defining the rural food environment while recognizing that market factors may be changing; (2) describing characteristics that may differentiate similar types of food stores and food-service places; and (3) determining location coordinates for food stores and food-service places. In order to enhance measurements in rural areas, "ground-truthed" methodology, which includes on-site observation and collection of GPS data, should become the standard for rural areas. Measurement must also recognize the emergence of new and changing store formats. Efforts should be made to determine accessibility, in terms of both proximity to a single location and variety of multiple locations within a specified buffer, from origins other than the home, and consider multipurpose trips and trip chaining. The measurement of food access will be critical for community-based approaches to meet dietary needs. Researchers must be willing to take the steps necessary for rigorous measurement of a dynamic food environment. PMID:19285206

  14. FACTORS RELATED TO THE MIGRATION OF RURAL YOUTH TO URBAN AREAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILBER, GEORGE L.

    THE TENDENCY FOR YOUNG AMERICANS TO ACHIEVE INDEPENDENCE, COMBINED WITH THE LONG-ESTABLISHED TREND OF RURAL-TO-URBAN MIGRATION, PROVIDES A BASE FOR THE MIGRATION OF RURAL YOUTH. THE BASE IS BROADENED BY THE PROCESSES OF CHANGE WHICH HAVE MADE THIS COUNTRY INCREASINGLY URBAN. THERE ARE FOUR FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE MIGRATION OF RURAL YOUTH TO CITIES…

  15. 77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...electronically to HAVAinfo@eac.gov with Urban/Rural study as the subject line. Written...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. Obtaining a Copy of the...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. FOR FURTHER...

  16. 77 FR 29320 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...EAC at HAVAinfo@eac.gov with Urban/Rural study as the subject line. Written...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. Obtaining a Copy of the...Washington, DC 20005, ATTN: Urban/Rural Study. FOR FURTHER...

  17. The New Squirearchy and Emergent Cultures of the New Middle Classes in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heley, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    In part prompted by a recent spate of media reports this paper explores the emergence of a "new squirearchy" in the English countryside. In doing so, it aims to both illuminate a particular facet of rural social life and help reignite interest in the cultures of rural class. Whilst relationships between rural class and culture were a source of…

  18. Magnitude of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Rural and Urban Areas in Benin: Findings from a Nationwide Steps Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houehanou, Yessito Corine Nadège; Lacroix, Philippe; Mizehoun, Gbedecon Carmelle; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Marin, Benoit; Houinato, Dismand Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Data on variations in the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in sub-Saharan populations are limited, particularly with regard to Benin. Objective To describe and compare the prevalences of CVRF in urban and rural populations of Benin. Methods Subjects were drawn from participants in the Benin Steps survey, a nationwide cross-sectional study conducted in 2008 using the World Health Organisation (WHO) stepwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. Subjects aged above 24 and below 65 years were recruited using a five-stage random sampling process within households. Sociodemographic data, behavioral data along with medical history of high blood pressure and diabetes mellitus were collected in Step 1. Anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured in Step 2. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in Step 3. CVRF were defined according to WHO criteria. The prevalences of CVRF were assessed and the relationships between each CVRF and the area of residence (urban or rural), were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of the 6762 subjects included in the study, 2271 were from urban areas and 4491 were from rural areas. High blood pressure was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 29.9% (95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 27.4, 32.5) and 27.5% (95% CI: 25.6, 29.5) respectively, p = 0.001 (p-value after adjustment for age and gender). Obesity was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 16.4% (95% CI: 14.4, 18.4) and 5.9% (95% CI: 5.1, 6.7), p<0.001. Diabetes was more prevalent in urban than in rural areas, 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1, 4.5) and 1.8% (95% CI: 1.2, 2.4), p = 0.004. Conversely, daily tobacco smoking was more prevalent in rural than in urban areas, 9.3% (95% CI: 8.1, 10.4) and 4.3% (95% CI: 3.1, 5.6), p<0.001. No differences in raised blood cholesterol were noted between the two groups. Conclusion According to our data, CVRF are prevalent among adults in Benin, and variations between rural and urban populations are significant. It may be useful to take account of the heterogeneity in the prevalence of CVRF when planning and implementing preventive interventions. PMID:25945498

  19. High gamma activity of 60–70?Hz in the area surrounding a cortical tuber in an infant with tuberous sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irahara Kaori

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To detect the epileptogenic region causing epileptic spasms in an infant with tuberous sclerosis (TS. Methods We applied a multiple band frequency analysis to video electroencephalographic (EEG recordings of the infant’s scalp. We also performed computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, and magnetoencephalography (MEG of the brain in order to ascertain the epileptic focus. Results During the periodic spasms, we identified fast ictal activity with frequencies of 60–70?Hz in the right centroparietal region. This region was part of the area surrounding the largest cortical tuber that was identified on CT and MRI and was located in the right frontal lobe. An area of increased blood perfusion that was observed with SPECT and dipole sources that were determined with interictal MEG were also located in this area. In addition, ictal frequency oscillations (FOs with high gamma activity were identified over the cortex surrounding the largest tuber. After a lesionectomy of this tuber, the periodic spasms disappeared, and no FOs were detected over this area. Conclusions Scalp EEG, which identified the ictal onset zone by detecting fast activity that was suggestive of FOs, was useful for detecting the epileptogenic region in an infant with TS.

  20. Tourism and new governance structures, a relation with potential to develop depressed rural areas: the example of the municipality of Almeida (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Fernando Pereira da; Ramos, Rui A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays in Portugal some rural areas are facing the challenges resulting from the reform of traditional economic activities and new markets’ characteristics. These challenges promote new local development policies that result in mobilising local resources and in expanding rural activities. In this context, tourism is considered, in many cases, a key sector for the economic growth of these territories. In rural areas tourism can include different types of tourist activi...

  1. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs

  2. Compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data, Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas of southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T.

    1994-12-31

    This document is a compilation of available radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data for volcanic rocks and episodes of hydrothermal activity in Yucca Mountain and the surrounding region of southwestern Nevada. Only the age determinations considered to be geologically reasonable (consistent with stratigraphic relations) are listed below. A number of the potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages of volcanic rocks given by Kistler, Marvin et al., Noble et al., Weiss et al., and Noble et al. are not included as these ages have been shown to be incorrect or disturbed by hydrothermal alteration based on subsequent stratigraphic and/or petrographic data and the recognition of errors in K-Ar age determinations related to incomplete extraction of argon. In cases where absolute ages are tightly constrained by high precision {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages and unequivocal stratigraphic relations, we have omitted the less precise K-Ar age data. Similarly, the more precise single-crystal laser-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age determinations of certain units are reported and less precise ages by multi-grain bulk-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are not included. This compilation does not include age data for basaltic rocks of Pliocene and Quaternary age in the Yucca Mountain region.

  3. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs.

  4. Household, Personal and Environmental Correlates of Rural Elderly’s Cycling Activity: Evidence from Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cycling is an important form of active transport and physical activity to provide substantial health benefits to the elderly. Among voluminous physical activity-related literature, few studies have investigated the correlates of active transport of the rural elderly in China. This study was the first attempt to investigate the impact of the household, personal, and environmental attributes on rural elderly’s cycling activity with data collected in 102 rural neighborhoods of Zhongshan Metropolitan Area, China. The negative binomial regression models suggest that, all else being equal, living in a neighborhood with low proportion of elderly population (over 60, abundant bike lanes, and a compact urban form related to high density and mixed development, are associated with the increase of frequency and duration of the rural elderly’s cycling trips. The models also detect that attitude towards cycling and household bicycle and motorized vehicle ownership are strongly related to cycling trips of the rural elderly in Zhongshan. The findings provide insights for transportation and public health agencies, practitioners, and researchers into the effective design of interventions from the prospective of attitudes, social and built environment on health promotion of the rural elderly in China.

  5. GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

    2010-01-01

    The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

  6. TECHNIQUES AND SYSTEMS OF INDICATORS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina VITALIA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article exposes the summary of a research project whose purpose is measuring sustainable development in Romania at the level of rural areas. Sustainable Development (Sustainable Development in English means better quality of life now and for future generations. According to the vision of sustainable development, progress integrates immediate and long-term objectives, local actions and global economic and environmental issues, all of which are inseparable. Such a vision of society can not be imposed only by political, society as a whole must adopt certain principles (political, economic, social, thinking. Sustainable development can be defined simply as a better quality of life for everyone, both now and for future generations. Sustainable development means: balanced and equitable economic development; high levels of employment, social cohesion and inclusion; a high level of environmental protection and responsible use of natural resources; generating a coherent political system open, transparent and accountable; effective international cooperation to promote global sustainable development (Gothenburg Strategy, 2001.

  7. Leisure Life of Elderly Residents in China: A Case Study of Difference between Rural and Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoren Su

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the current situation of leisure life of aging population in urban and rural area from an angle of history, policy, culture, and economy, revealing the differences in the leisure life between rural and urban elderly residents. While the Chinese government is proud of the achievement in making its people’s life longer, it has to tackle the challenge of how to make the leisure life of aging population as an important part of their later year’s life not just for the aged urban residents but especially for the aged rural residents. The underlying social and economic reasons that may account for such differences are discussed extensively. It is hoped the paper will be somewhat conducive to this area of study.

  8. Child's play: exposure to household pesticide use among children in rural, urban and informal areas of South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sandy, Tolosana; Hanna-Andrea, Rother; Leslie, London.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As part of a larger dermatological investigation undertaken in 1999 - 2001 involving the Department of Dermatology, Groote Schuur Hospital (Cape Town, South Africa) and Nottingham University (UK), household pesticide use was investigated among Xhosa-speaking families living in three area [...] s in South Africa (a rural area, an urban township and an informal settlement). OBJECTIVES: The aim was to characterise pesticide use patterns and potential exposures through skin absorption, ingestion and inhalation for this group of South African children. METHODS: A standardised questionnaire, which included a section investigating household pesticide use, was administered by four trained fieldworkers to the parents/guardians of the 740 children (25%) aged between 3 and 11 years identified as having atopic dermatitis either by clinical examination or according to the UK criteria (rural N=387, urban N=292, informal N=61). RESULTS: Of the children with atopic dermatitis, 539 (73%) had been exposed to household pesticides. Most childhood exposure (89%) occurred in the informal settlements, followed by 78% in the urban area and 63% in the rural area. CONCLUSIONS: This research highlighted considerable home environment pesticide exposure of South African children in lower socio-economic groups in rural, urban and informal areas. As children are particularly vulnerable to the short- and long-term health effects of pesticide exposure, further indepth investigation is needed to ascertain and document the health effects associated with such exposure in the home.

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site and surrounding area, Central Nevada. Date of survey: December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site was conducted in December 1993. An interim report described survey procedures and presented terrestrial exposure rate and wide-area-averaged plutonium isopleth plots. This letter report presents additional plutonium plots and some rule-of-thumb calculations which should help the reader to properly interpret the data presented. Attached to this report are three isopleth plots produced from the Double Track data. No one processing method provides all the answers regarding a particular surveyed area. Where peak vales are most important, a figure created from the original unsmoothed data is the presentation of choice. A figure from smoothed data is superior for the detection of areas of widespread low-level contamination. A figure , also smoothed data, satisfied a particular early mission goal but is not as useful for cleanup operations as the other two. This last figure is presented for historical completeness only

  10. Demography of domestic dogs in rural and urban areas of the Coquimbo region of Chile and implications for disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Cleaveland, S; Cunningham, A A; Bronsvoort, B M Dec

    2010-05-01

    A cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted along two transects (80 and 45km long) from Coquimbo and Ovalle cities to the Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in the Coquimbo region of Chile in 2005-2007 to investigate the demography of dogs in the context of a study of canine infectious diseases. Data were collected on the number of dogs per household, fecundity, mortality, and sex and age distribution. The results from 1021 households indicated that dog ownership was common, with a higher proportion of households owning dogs in rural areas (89%), than in towns (63%) or cities (49%). Dog density ranged from 1380+/-183 to 1509+/-972 dogs km(-2) in cities, from 119+/-18 to 1544+/-172 dogs km(-2) in towns, and from 1.0+/-0.4 to 15.9+/-0.4 dogs km(-2) in rural sites. The dog population was estimated to be growing at 20% in cities, 19% in towns and 9% in rural areas. The human:dog ratio ranged from 5.2 to 6.2 in cities, from 2.3 to 5.3 in towns, and from 1.1 to 2.1 in rural areas. A high percentage of owned dogs was always allowed to roam freely in the different areas (27%, 50% and 67% in cities, towns and rural areas, respectively). Observations of free-roaming dogs of unknown owner were reported from a greater proportion of respondents in cities (74%), followed by towns (51%) and finally by rural areas (21%). Overall only 3% of dogs had been castrated. In addition, only 29% of dogs were reported to have been vaccinated against canine distemper virus (CDV) and 30% against canine parvovirus (CPV). The higher population size and density, higher growth rate and a higher turnover of domestic dogs in urban than in rural areas and the poorly supervised and inadequately vaccinated dog populations in urban areas suggest that urban areas are more likely to provide suitable conditions for dogs to acts as reservoirs of pathogenic infections. PMID:20096943

  11. Oral health behaviour of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of dental knowledge and attitudes among 12 year-old children and 35-44 year-olds in Burkina Faso; to evaluate the pattern of oral health behaviour among these cohorts in relation to location, gender and social characteristics and; to evaluate the relative effect of social-behavioural risk factors on caries experience. DESIGN: Across sectional study including urban and rural subgroups of population. Sample and methods: Multistage cluster sampling of households in urban areas; in rural areas random samples of participants were based on the recent population census. The final study population covered two age groups: 12 years (n = 505) and 35-44 years (n = 493). RESULTS: For both children and adults, levels of oral health knowledge, attitudes and self-care were low; 36% of 12-year-olds and 57% of 35-44-year-olds carried out toothcleaning on a daily basis. Pain and discomfort from teeth were common while dental visits were infrequent. Tooth cleaning was mostly performed by use of chewsticks. Use of toothpaste was rare, particularly fluoridated toothpaste was seldom; 9% of 12-year-olds and 18% of 35-44-year-olds reported use of fluoride toothpaste. Significant differences were found in oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices according to location and gender. At age 12, important factors of high caries experience were location (urban), and consumption of soft drinks and fresh fruits. In 35-44-year-olds, gender (female), high education level, dental visit and occupation (government employee) were the significant factors of high dental caries experience whereas adults using traditional chewing sticks had lower DMFT. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes rather than traditional curative care. Community-oriented essential care and affordable fluoride toothpaste should be encouraged.

  12. Ende Diabetes Study: diabetes and its characteristics in rural area of East Nusa Tenggara

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    Sarwono Waspadji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are only few studies about diabetes in rural area in Indonesia. Epidemiological study are needed to formulate health policy of disease management in specific area. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of diabetes and knowledge of diabetes among the community in Nangapanda Village, Ende District, East Nusa Tenggara.Methods: A cross-sectional study “Ende Diabetes Study” was conducted in Nangapanda Village. This study use cluster random sampling method to a total number of 19756 residents in Nangapanda village. From the sampling frame of 1800 adult subjects who underwent screening with glucometer in 2008 and 2009, 125 subjects have been diagnosed as diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (IFG. All of the subjects who were diagnosed as diabetes or IFG from the previous screening and 218 subjects from control (normal subjects in the 2008 and 2009 screening were included in the present study. Each subject underwent general anamnesis, nutritional interview, complete physical examinations, and laboratory test (blood and urine. The data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0.Ressult: There were 343 subjects in this study. The prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda using blood glucose criteria (using fasting and post-glucose load values was 2%; using post glucose load criteria, the prevalence of DM was 1.56%; while with HbA1c criteria, the prevalence was 2.83%. The prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT was 2.2%, and IFG was 6.2%. A number of 71.1% Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes.Conclusion: Prevalence of diabetes in Nangapanda (using fasting and post-glucose load criteria was 2% and 1.56% (using post-glucose load values. As much as 71.1% of Nangapanda residents have sufficient knowledge about diabetes. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:30-8Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Ende Diabetes Study, prevalence, rural Indonesia

  13. Distribution of blood pressure in school going children in rural area of Wardha district, Maharashatra, India

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    Taksande Amar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the blood pressure of school going children in a rural area and its relationship with the anthropometric indices. Methods : A prospective, cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2006 to December 2007 in the school going children between the ages of 6-17 years from eight different schools in the rural areas of Wardha district. The height, weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were recorded in both sexes followed by complete clinical examination with special emphasis on cardiovascular system. Hypertension (HT was defined as SBP or DBP exceeding the 95th percentile for age, gender, and height on at least three separate occasions, 1-3 weeks apart. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Coefficient correlation tests were employed to assess the relation between BP and anthropometric variables. Results :Of 2643 school children, 1227 were boys and 1416 girls with a male to female ratio of 1:1.16. In boys, SBP and DBP increased with age except a marginal decline in SBP at the age of 17 years (-0.09 and decrease in the DBP (-1.29 at 16 years of age. In girls, SBP and DBP also increased with age except at 11 years, wherein there was a mild decrease in SBP (-0.09 as well as the DBP (-0.24. Correlation coefficient analysis showed highly significant positive correlation of height with SBP and DBP. There was a significant correlation of SBP and DBP with the weight, and body mass index (BMI. The prevalence of HT was 5.75% (i.e., 3.25% for systolic HT and 2.49% for diastolic HT. Conclusion : We recommend that there is a need for checking BP to detect HT in children, so that remedial measures can be initiated as early as possible.

  14. Metal identification in small rural areas of bovine creations by EDXRF methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wouk, Luana C.; Melquiades, Fabio L.; Biase, Gabriel E.V.; Antunes Junior, Osmar R. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Peres, Jayme A. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-07-01

    Full text: The purpose of this study was to verify the presence of metal pollution in the environment, from rural areas of bovine creation in the Rio das Pedras area in Serra da Esperanca, municipal district of Guarapuava - Parana. The analytical technique employed was Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Methodology with a portable equipment. Water, grass, soil, sediment and feed samples were collected from three small rural properties. Water samples were filtered for particulate matter retention and precipitation with APDC chelating agent was used for pre-concentration. For solid samples, between 0.3 g and 3 g, were placed in a cell covered with mylar film for irradiation and EDXRF direct analysis. Feed samples were analyzed without preparation. Soil and sediment samples were dried, ground and sieved for in natura EDXRF analysis. Grass samples were dried, crushed and ground up to powder form and then submitted to the same preparation as soil samples. The measurement system, from Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of UEL, consists in a Si-PIN X-ray detector (221 eV resolution for 5,9 keV line, 25 mum Be window) and a mini X-ray tube (4W, Ag target, 50 mum Ag filter). Sensitivity values were obtained from MicroMatter Standards and used for water and grass quantification. Calcium, Fe and Cu were found on water and K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Rb, Zr and Pb on grass samples. Potassium, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb,Sr, Y, Zr, Pb were identified on soil and sediment samples. In this case just Ti, Fe and Zr were quantified due to the standards available for sensitivity determination. Noting that the presence of lead was found in one of the analyzed places. (author)

  15. Assessment of Nutrition of Obese Primary Schools Children in Urban and Rural Area in El Bihera Governorate- Egypt

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    Hanaa H. Elsayed, Sahar Khairy, Mohamed K Abd El- Rahman and Effat A. Afifi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in both developed and developing countries. Obesity is associated with increased risks of many diseases. Obesity significantly affects the quality of life and reduces the average life expectancy. Objective: Investigate effect of different environment urban and rural areas in El Bihera governorate on blood glucose level and obesity of children aged 6-12 years to know possible associated risk factors. Study design: This study of a representative sample of children 6-12 y of age performed during 1 July 2004 till 20 June 2005. Methods: Anthropometric data were taken using standard methods, from 188 children. Certain diet and physical activities as well as other socioeconomic family parameters were assessed with the aid of a questionnaire. Obesity and overweight were defined usin