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Energy for rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In spite of Brazilian energy matrix being the one with the greatest renewable sources participation in the world, local authorities have been making efforts during the past two decades in order to enlarge this participation. As an example, the governmental program PROINFA aims to increase the use of windmills, biomass and small size hydro plants. The solar energy utilization, besides its traditional use on water heating in urban areas, can also contribute to maintain the rural population in the fields, since it offers comfort and improvements in production equipment. Additional actions intended to bring electric energy to rural population come from the program 'Luz para Todos' (Light for Everybody), launched in 2004 by the government. It is directed to poor families living in depleted regions, with the smallest Human Development Index, and without access to energy. 80% of those families live in rural areas. In this work, the Brazilian rural population was analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively, with special attention to Minas Gerais State. The state-of-the-art of the existing technologies for thermal or electric generation in rural area have been identified and compared to each other considering the social and environmental characteristics of the regions to be attended, mainly in North Region, and in Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley. The study showed that either wind energy or solar energy can be used for energy supply, rather than biogas and small size hydro plants. However, considering the rural population profile and also that the small scale windmills did not have experienced technological development since the beginning of twentieth century, the conclusion shows that the use of photovoltaic panels is promising. (author)

Souza, Angela Menin Teixeira de; Sales, Rosemary do Bom Conselho; Cortez, Marcio Fonte-Boa; Silva, Emanuel Barbosa; Fabrini, Wallison [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.]. E-mails: angelamenin@superig.com.br; rosebcs@gmail.com; fonteboa@demec.ufmg.br; emanuelribeiro@gmail.com; wallisson_fabrini@yahoo.com.br

2008-07-01

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RECREATION ISSUES IN RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our country it is difficult to start rural tourism activity because almost all times, especially when cities have become a special category of communities, towns, urban population,, escaped "always in rural areas where he met relatives where were the so-called,, country house "and where he could find peace in the midst of unspoiled nature atmosphere. In addition, those various actions that attracts individuals to travel in rural areas. Thus there Sanziene habits when, according to tradition, Maramures then proceeded to the monasteries of Moldova pilgrimages to places of worship, celebrate holidays in the Villages and monasteries, and the like. The concept of rural tourism has evolved, encompassing all tourism activities taking place in rural areas. Gradually the extent of diversification of tourism practiced in the rural areas has outlined some forms: actual rural tourism, rural tourism, green tourism.

Eduard Bianu; Claudia Sîrbulescu; Mariana Chiril?

2013-01-01

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Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural entrepreneurship can be considered as one of the solutions to reduce poverty, migration and develop employment in rural environments. In this study, the necessity of sustainable entrepreneurship, the effective factors and the barriers to entrepreneurship in rural area will be described. In this regard, a model has been considered to create a sustainable rural entrepreneurship area by establishing a logical connection between the effective factors in entrepreneurship. Some of the most important challenges that can be pointed out are: lack of access to capital and facilities, problems in supplying goods and services, emphasis on an industry or particular business, low possibility risk in villages and lack of supporting organizations. Review and analysis of rural entrepreneurship in order to achieve sustainability. This research in implementation process is qualitative and in objective is descriptive and then analytic. The results indicate that comprehensive development can never be obtained without rural development and in order to achieve this goal the best investment is creating a context for sustainable entrepreneurship and its promotion in rural area since the entrepreneurship has this ability to identify resources, opportunities and problems available in the context while devising new solutions to move toward developing of different aspects of village and environment.

Bahareh Ansari; Seyed Mehdi Mirdamadi; Azita Zand; Masoumeh Arfaee

2013-01-01

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Bronchoscopy in rural areas?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quality of bronchoscopy performed by one single pulmonologist in a scarcely populated subarctic area was compared to the guidelines provided by the British Thoracic Society (BTS). 103 patients underwent bronchoscopy. Diagnostic yield was increased to 76.6% when the first bronchoscopy was supplemented by bronchial washing fluid and brush cytology and to 86.7% (BTS guidelines >80%) after a second bronchoscopy. Median time from referral to bronchoscopy was 10 days and 8 days from positive bronchoscopy to operative referral to another hospital. 1% of patients that underwent transbronchial lung biopsy had minor complications. One pulmonologist had rate of correct diagnosis based on visible endobronchial tumors that was comparable to the rates of numerous pulmonologists at larger centers performing the same procedure. Time delay was short. Rate of complications was comparable. Bronchoscopy performed by one pulmonologist alone could, in organized settings, be carried out at local hospitals in areas of scattered settlement.

Berntsen R; Nielsen EW

2012-01-01

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EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN EUROPEAN UNION  

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Full Text Available Europe's rural areas face a common challenge: the creation of highquality, sustainable jobs. In this area, the gap between urban and rural areas continues to widen. Although rural areas make up 93% of theterritory of the European Union (EU), income per capita in these areas is little more than half that in urban areas. For this reason it is becoming increasingly difficult to attract and retain skilled individuals.

MADALINA NEACSU; CRISTINA BÂLDAN

2009-01-01

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A typology of rural areas in Serbia  

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Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to present a method to establish the typology of rural areas in Serbia. Initially the OECD rurality criterion was applied to define the rural areas in Serbia. Subsequently, relevant indicators were selected (demographic, geographic, economic, employment-related, human capital, agricultural, tourism and infrastructure) and used to define and distinguish relatively homogeneous rural regions, based on correlation analysis, factor analysis (VARIMAX method) and cluster analysis. Cluster analysis revealed six regions of different sizes and characteristics. Practical considerations reduced this to four types, resulting in a robust scheme which accurately reflects the heterogeneous nature of rural Serbia.

Bogdanov Natalija; Meredith David; Efstratoglou Sophia

2008-01-01

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Reconceptualising Child Care in Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study examining child care services in rural and remote areas conducted focus group interviews and distributed questionnaires to parents living in 15 towns in the Mallee region of Western Victoria (Australia). Barriers to accessing child care in rural areas included limited availability of formal services, costs, stereotypes associated with life…

Morda, Romana; Kapsalakis, Anthoula; Clyde, Margaret

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Integrated Pollutant Concentration Distribution Over Area Surrounding Elevated Point Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollutant dispersion from a continuous elevated point source in the atmosphere for a combination of varying meteorological parameters is studied in the frame of Gaussian plume model. The gaussian basic formula for the concentration is reformulated in polar coordinates. The study derives a general formula for the annual or seasonal integrated concentration over sixteen angular sectors surrounding the source. A computer program is developed to determine the frequency of occurrence of the wind velocity and direction together with the stability classes for the sake of evaluating the integrated pollutant concentration as a function of the distance from the source in the different angular sectors. The results have been applied to the area surrounding the reactor of the Nuclear Research at Inshas-Egypt

1999-01-01

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Ozone bioindication in Barcelona and surrounding area of Catalonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A field study was conducted from July to September 2000 to assess ozone (O{sub 3}) phytotoxicity in Barcelona and surrounding areas of Catalonia (NE Spain) by using tobacco plants Bel-W3 and Populus nigra 'Brandaris' as bioindicators. The study was conducted simultaneously at eight sites where ozone concentrations and meteorological variables were continuously monitored. The ozone levels correlated well with ozone injury on the Bel-W3 cultivar, especially at stations established in the urban area of Barcelona, and in the first months of summer. In the second half of summer plants showed a decreasing efficiency in its biomonitoring capacity. The behaviour of Populus as bioindicator or biomonitor was less satisfactory. For both species it is necessary to improve cultivation conditions since water deficits seem to play an important role in bioindication in the Mediterranean region. (orig.)

Ribas, A.; Penuelas, J. [Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Ecophysiology Unit of CSIC

2002-07-01

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Plastic surgery in rural area: A report  

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Full Text Available Most of our rural population does not seek the expensive specialist service of distant city hospitals due to social or financial reasons. Existing health system in rural area is not efficient enough to meet the health demands of such vast population. There is only one Government Plastic surgery unit covering the population of 40 lacs leading to huge backlog of patients waiting for reconstructive surgery. To evade this situation a team of Plastic surgeons from Government Medical College Jabalpur goes to rural areas twice a year and has operated in on nine occasions since last 4 years. The activities and experiences of the last nine visits are reported here.

Agarwal Pawan; Kain R; Raina V

2005-01-01

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Rural Areas Perceive Policy Tilt  

Science.gov (United States)

When U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan talks about using merit pay to attract the best teachers to the classroom, he probably doesn't have in mind a place like Richmond County, North Carolina. In this rural community where the unemployment rate is nearly 14 percent and there's no movie theater for miles around, school administrators say…

McNeil, Michele

2009-01-01

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Conditions of enterprise development in rural areas  

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Full Text Available The article shows the research results describing some motivating factors of enterprise development in rural areas and also the ones that limit them. The research was provided in the area of one commune of the Kujawsko-Pomorskievoivodeship. The information has been gathered from 179 businessmen in 6 countries. There was a questionnaire with closed questions used. The carried out research showed that there are chances of developing new types of activities other than those of typically rural character in the areas in focus. Owing to the conducted analysis of the data some inducement and deterrent factors appeared connected with business running in the country.

Zofia Wyszkowska

2012-01-01

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Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:  

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Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders) movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean) components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières) le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine).

Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

2009-01-01

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PREVALENCE OF HYPERTENSION AMONG POPULATION OF SULTANPUR KUNHARI AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA, HARIDWAR, UTTARAKHAND, INDIA  

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Full Text Available The average prevalence of hypertension in India is 25% in urban and 10% in rural inhabitants. Prevalence of hypertension has been found to increase in traditional populations undergoing innovation. There is a strong correlation between changing lifestyle factors and increase in hypertension. Objectives: 1.To study prevalence of hypertension among population of Sultanpur Kunhari and its surrounding area, Haridwar Uttarakhand. 2. To study association between various factors and hypertension in a rural community of the study area. A community based cross sectional study was carried out in the selected area for the study. The cross sectional field study involved 500 respondents, aged 30 years and above using simple random sampling technique. A study instrument which included behavioral risk factor questionnaire (Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and type of diet) and physical measurements of height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference and blood pressure was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze data. The overall prevalence of hypertension was found to be 11%. It was higher in females (12.1%) than males (10%). It was seen that prevalence of hypertension increased with age. Prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher among individuals, aged 40 years and above, with high body mass index and increased waist hip ratio, (P<.05). The prevalence of hypertension is high and is associated with socio-demographic factors. Hence there is need for primordial prevention efforts on large scale.

Izharul Hasan; Mahboob Ali; Mustaq Hussain

2012-01-01

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Protección social en ámbitos rurales Social Protection in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se pretende ofrecer un nuevo enfoque sobre los efectos sociales causados por los subsidios agrarios en las zonas rurales, tomando como caso el sur de España y los efectos del Plan de Empleo Rural, siendo estas unas medidas que han tratado de resolver los actuales desequilibrios intrarregionales en materia de ingresos y bienestar y que han ocasionado en la sociedad diferentes resultados. En este sentido, se ha pretendido profundizar en algunas de las razones fundamentales por las que los actores sociales perciben que el subsidio agrario no ha alcanzado el éxito esperado y sobre todo, como los actores sociales han organizado sus vida en torno a estas políticas a medio camino entre el empleo y la asistencia. This article intends to offer a new approach to the social effects caused by agrarian subsidies in rural areas, taking as example the case of Southern Spain and the Rural Employment Plan effects, as those measures have tried to solve the current inter-regional imbalances with regard to income and welfare, having different impacts on the population of this area. Also, we intend to explore the reason why the agrarian subsidy has not reached the expected success and, specially, how social actors have organised its life around these policies halfway through employment and assistance.

Eva Sotomayor-Morales

2012-01-01

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Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges  

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Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

Klüter H.; Levchenkov A. V.

2012-01-01

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Unemployment reduction in rural areas of Uzbekistan  

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Full Text Available The paper determines directions how to tackle with unemployment in rural areas in the country,particularly in period of world financial crisis. The author recommends several policy directions, including furtherdevelopment of small firms, farms and home-based work places.

Khamid Abdurakmanov

2009-01-01

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Rural-urban differences in the social climate surrounding environmental tobacco smoke: a report from the 2002 Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Although previous research has found smoking rates to be higher among residents of rural areas, few studies have investigated rural-urban differences in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). OBJECTIVE: This study contrasted the social climate surrounding ETS among Americans who resided in 5 levels of county urbanization. DESIGN: Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of 3,009 civilian, noninstitutionalized adults over age 18 in the United States. Households were selected using random digit dialing procedures. FINDINGS: Compared to residents of urban counties, rural residents reported fewer restrictions on smoking in the presence of children and lower incidences of smoking bans in households, family automobiles, work areas, convenience stores, fast-food restaurants, and restaurants. Interestingly, when rural-urban variations in knowledge and attitudes about ETS were examined, the magnitude of rural-urban differences was smaller or nonexistent for these indicators. Moreover, logistic regression models indicated that none of these rural-urban differences in knowledge and attitudes persisted after statistically controlling for region, smoking status, gender, race, age, and education factors. This suggests that the observed rural-urban differences in ETS bans could not be explained adequately by rural-urban differences in knowledge and attitudes about the dangers of ETS. CONCLUSIONS: The policy implications of this research point to a greater need in rural America for programs focusing on the restriction and elimination of ETS. They also suggest that programs focusing only on influencing the levels of ETS knowledge and attitudes among the general population may not be adequate in producing the desired change.

McMillen R; Breen J; Cosby AG

2004-01-01

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Composition of Waters from Ubol Province, Bangkok, and Surrounding Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bladder stone disease occurs with considerable frequency in the Northern and Northeastern Provinces of Thailand, whereas the Central and Penisular areas are relatively free of the disease. The present study was undertaken to determine the chemical composi...

S. Dhanamitta R. Van Reen A. Valyasevi

1968-01-01

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Ultrafine particle concentrations in the surroundings of an urban area: comparing downwind to upwind conditions using Generalized Additive Models (GAMs).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an urban area on ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration in nearby surrounding areas. We assessed how downwind and upwind conditions affect the UFP concentration at a site placed a few kilometres from the city border. Secondarily, we investigated the relationship among other meteorological factors, temporal variables and UFP. Data were collected for 44 days during 2008 and 2009 at a rural site placed about 3 kilometres from Bologna, in northern Italy. Measurements were performed using a spectrometer (FMPS TSI 3091). The average UFP number concentration was 11?776 (±7836) particles per cm(3). We analysed the effect of wind direction in a multivariate Generalized Additive Model (GAM) adjusted for the principal meteorological parameters and temporal trends. An increase of about 25% in UFP levels was observed when the site was downwind of the urban area, compared with the levels observed when wind blew from rural areas. The size distribution of particles was also affected by the wind direction, showing higher concentration of small size particles when the wind blew from the urban area. The GAM showed a good fit to the data (R(2) = 0.81). Model choice was via Akaike Information Criteria (AIC). The analysis also revealed that an approach based on meteorological data plus temporal trends improved the goodness of the fit of the model. In addition, the findings contribute to evidence on effects of exposure to ultrafine particles on a population living in city surroundings.

Sartini C; Sajani SZ; Ricciardelli I; Delgado-Saborit JM; Scotto F; Trentini A; Ferrari S; Poluzzi V

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
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Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

1991-01-01

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Climatic features of Ljig municipal and its surrounding area  

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Full Text Available Territory of Ljig municipal is located in Podrinje-Colubara region and belongs to the temperate continental climate with continental rain regime. This is hilly- mountainous area with 848 m altitude (Rajac Mountain) and 723 m relative height, in which are deeply incised (up to 500 m) valleys of Ljig River and its tributaries. These geomorphologic features cause airstreams direction in this territory, and because of that some parts of Ljig municipal have temperate continental climate (like valleys) and some of them have severe continental climate (like Rajac Mountain). The peak of precipitation is at the end of spring and beginning of summer - in May and June, and the driest months are February and October. The great influences on climatic changes in Ljig municipal and its area have north low parts of Panonian area, which are open for penetration of damp and cold air streams from north, northwest and west. This mountain area on south part of Ljig municipal is some kind of "dam" for cold air streams from south, so they are considerable colder on this territory. On the base of available data in period 1961-1990 from Meteorological Annuals of Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Serbia climatologic overview is presented.

Milanovi? Ana

2006-01-01

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Factual biosphere database for Dounreay and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Dounreay region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Dounreay area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

1991-01-01

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Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources.

Wang W; Massey Simonich SL; Xue M; Zhao J; Zhang N; Wang R; Cao J; Tao S

2010-05-01

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Niche energy markets in rural areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this project is the development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets. This has involved a number of steps including (i) identification of 3 niche markets for energy crops which are of common interest to the partners, (ii) application of the standard costing methodology to investigate these three niche markets and (iii) comparison of the results from this work in three workshops (one for each market). Three tightly defined niche markets were identified; these were chosen following an examination of the national energy marekts in each of the partners countries (Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Greece and Portugal). This paper gives an overview of the national energy markets which were examined. The three niche markets are introduced and the reasons for their selection given. The application of the methodology to each of the niche markets is presented along with the conclusions of the partners regarding the niche markets. (Author)

1996-06-26

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Niche energy markets in rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project is the development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets. This has involved a number of steps including (i) identification of 3 niche markets for energy crops which are of common interest to the partners, (ii) application of the standard costing methodology to investigate these three niche markets and (iii) comparison of the results from this work in three workshops (one for each market). Three tightly defined niche markets were identified; these were chosen following an examination of the national energy marekts in each of the partners countries (Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Greece and Portugal). This paper gives an overview of the national energy markets which were examined. The three niche markets are introduced and the reasons for their selection given. The application of the methodology to each of the niche markets is presented along with the conclusions of the partners regarding the niche markets. (Author)

Walsh, M.; McCarthy, S. [Hyperion Energy Systems Ltd., Watergrasshill (Ireland)

1996-09-01

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Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.

Raluca IGNAT

2012-01-01

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Logistic support in rural areas – the idea and challenges  

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Full Text Available Agricultural activities, specific to rural areas are a sphere of interest of agrologistics. It offers the possibility of using methods and techniques proved in supply chains management to agribusiness processes. Their identification is the basis of comprehensive development of logistic support system for rural areas.

Anna Bruska

2012-01-01

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Study on the Environmental Tritium in Surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah - Bandung Landfill Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The investigation of environmental tritium distribution in surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah landfill areas has been carried out. The aim of this investigation was to know tritium concentration in surrounding of both landfill areas. Normally, tritium concentration in the nature is around 0-5 TU. The results of this investigation showed that the tritium concentration in both shallow groundwater of both landfill areas were still in the range of its normal limit, whereas tritium concentration in stream along both landfill areas and leached water showed higher value. Tritium concentration in deep groundwater of Bantar Gebang landfill showed about the zero value, it means is the normal condition. (author)

2004-01-01

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Innovation centres as growth points for smaller towns and rural areas  

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Full Text Available This article addresses the role of innovative centres in the development of surrounding areas beyond large cities. At the same time, the innovative development of rural areas should be of a composite nature; municipality development strategies take innovations into account. International practices serve as a an argument in favour of establishing innovative centres in smaller and medium-sized towns in order to facilitate the socioeconomic development of the territory and surrounding rural areas. Science parks created in smaller towns give a boost to socioeconomic development. The authors analyse the case of the science park in the town of Gusev in the Kaliningrad region and emphasise the role of development and adoption of legal acts at regional and municipal levels, for example, the law «On the production policy of the Kaliningrad region».

Belova A. V.; Levchenkov A. V.

2012-01-01

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Planning research in rural and remote areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In order to set a regional research agenda, an interactive research workshop was planned by the joint University of Queensland and University of Southern Quennsland Centre for Rural and Remote Area Health (CRRAH), in which researchers and regional organisations would meet together to discuss and prioritise local research needs, then formulate constructive ideas and activities. METHODS: Selection of Participants: Organisations representing all key consumer, academic and health professionals within the Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia region were sent a letter inviting them to attend and to send at least one representative, resulting in a total of 75 workshop participants from 45 organisations representing 20 separate entities. The Design of the Workshop: The workshop was planned as an interactive research workshop, with a preliminary brainstorming to identify and prioritise topics, followed by facilitated small group discussions, and finally presentations to the reassembled total group. RESULTS: Forty three topics were put forward by participants during the plenary session, in which the following 12 major themes were evident: (1) health professional development and support; (2) mechanisms for identifying regional/local needs; (3) mental health; (4) health and interaction with the environment; (5) management of common conditions of which little is known; (6) post acute/aged care; (7) evidence based practice; (8) health workforce including volunteers; (9) indigenous health; (10) access to health service delivery; (11) economic impact of new programs; and (12) outcomes impact of research partnerships. Five subject areas from four of these themes were chosen for further small group discussion. A summary of the views, ideas and conclusions of each group, which were presented to a plenary session of reassembled participants over a 10-15 minute period by each group facilitators, are discussed below. Following each presentation, a 5-10 minute question session was provided after each topic. CONCLUSION: A workshop, enabling rural and remote organisations and regional researchers to meet and identify local research needs attracted strong local support. Although the final benefits of the workshop remain to be determined, a number of new collaborative research avenues are now being actively explored within the region, by a number of the participants.

Baker PG; Hegney D; Rogers-Clark C; Fahey P; Gorman D; Mitchell G

2004-04-01

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Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular dos parasitas através do sequenciamento dos produtos amplificados na PCR do gene SSU rRNA. Foram coletadas amostras fecais de animais domésticos criados para subsistência e estimação nas propriedades rurais do entorno de três fragmentos florestais. Amostras de bovinos (197), equinos (63), suínos (25), ovinos (11) e cães (28) foram coletadas de 98 propriedades rurais. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium para a espécie bovina foi de 3,0% (6/197); para os cães, de 10,7% (3/28); e para os demais animais os resultados foram negativos. Todas as sequências obtidas das seis amostras de bovinos apresentaram identidade molecular com Cryptosporidium andersoni, enquanto as sequências oriundas de amostras de fezes de cães revelaram-se similares ao C. canis. A ocorrência do Cryptosporidium entre os animais estudados foi baixa. Diante dos resultados do presente estudo, o ciclo zoonótico da criptosporidiose parece ter menos importância nesta região. A presença de espécies de Cryptosporidium ainda pouco relatadas em humanos pode ser, por outro lado, importante para a fauna silvestre, uma vez que estes animais podem ser considerados como uma fonte de infecção e disseminação deste protozoário. O impacto e a magnitude da infecção de C. andersoni, em ruminantes selvagens, e de C. canis, em cães silvestres, deve ser avaliado em estudos futuros, com intuito de verificar a real importância dessas espécies nesta região.

Anaiá da Paixão Sevá; Mikaela Renata Funada; Sheila de Oliveira Souza; Alessandra Nava; Leonardo José Richtzenhain; Rodrigo Martins Soares

2010-01-01

33

RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the lack of education among rural people etc. Under these circumstances, thepaper tries, through documentation, analysis and processing statistical data, to quantify the development level of entrepreneurship in rural areas in Romania, compared with developed EU countries (such as: Germany, Great Britain, France etc.), in order to reveal the gaps in this sector. To increase the relevance of the analysis, the paper also analyzes the possible causes that can stimulate or repress the expression of entrepreneurship and its implementation in Romanian and European rural areas, such as: different levels of fiscal pressure, the existence, effectiveness and efficiency of programs implementation for stimulating and supporting entrepreneurship in general and in rural areas, in particular, the different business culture etc. These results generated from the research will finally create a set of premises for adopting international best practices and develop pragmatic solutions and programs to increase entrepreneurship, which can leads to new business initiatives in the Romanian rural area.In conclusion, for a quality of life growth and a decrease of negative social and economic phenomena with medium and long-term impact, it is necessary an increase of the living standards, done by increasing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural areas. Specifically, there are needed investments in the development of human resources in rural areas and in supporting its entrepreneurial efforts and activities in order to generateprofitable activities that can ensure motivating financial and social rewards for medium and long terms.

Alexandru Costin CÎRSTEA; Ramona DOBRE

2013-01-01

34

[Comparative studies of airborne, cultivatable microorganisms at selected sites of waste managements, domestic animal husbandry and in the surrounding residential area  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the last years, sampling of airborne microorganisms (including mesophilic bacteria, moulds, thermophilic bacteria and A. fumigatus) in waste disposal, recycling industry and control sampling locations in the urban and rural districts of Graz was conducted using Andersen 6-stage viable cascade impactors. In the present study additional sampling in livestock buildings has been conducted. Except mesophilic bacteria the emission in the area of waste disposal and recycling industry was significantly higher than in livestock buildings. In the surroundings of the livestock buildings the number of microorganisms was not increased, while the normal background level in the surroundings of the waste proceeding plants was reached from a distance of 150 to 300 meters.

Wüst G; Reinthaler FF; Haas D; Marth E

1999-01-01

35

The social dimension of rural areas sustainable development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable development of rural areas can be seen as the desirable direction of the social and the economic model of the rural resources management. Its social dimension, understood as the seeking of new behaviour and thinking standards about needs not only in the one nation perspective, is one of the most important conditions of the sustainable development assumptions fullfiling.

Katarzyna Kokoszka

2009-01-01

36

[Approaches to reduce shortage of general practitioners in rural areas--results of an online survey of trainee doctors].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In times of shortage of general practitioners (GPs), especially in rural areas, it is of particular interest to explore expectations and interests of GP trainees relating to their future work. The aim of this study was, to survey the willingness of trainee doctors to work in or open a general practice, as well as their expectations and plans concerning future work as a GP in a rural area. METHODS: The survey was conducted online between April to October 2010 with trainee doctors. The questionaire contained 25 questions about the trainees' sociodemographic status, expectations and conception of their future work, factors influencing setting up a GP practice and their ideas about working in a rural area. RESULTS: 528 trainee doctors from across Germany responded. More than half of them were female, more than 40% older than 35 years. 89% could image themselves settling in a GP practice, 77% in a rural area. The three most important factors influencing working in a rural practice were family friendly surrounding, the rural village itself and cooperation with colleagues. Most trainees would accepted having to travel 30 minutes to work. CONCLUSION: As the basic willingness to set up practice in rural areas is quite high, relevant influencing factors such as family friendly surroundings, out-of-hour services arrangements und working models offering the opportunity to work in group handed practices should be emphasized in recruitment.

Steinhäuser J; Annan N; Roos M; Szecsenyi J; Joos S

2011-08-01

37

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil/ Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular dos parasitas através do sequenciamento dos produtos amplificados na PCR do gene SSU rRNA. Foram coletadas amostras fecais de animais domésticos criados para subsistên (more) cia e estimação nas propriedades rurais do entorno de três fragmentos florestais. Amostras de bovinos (197), equinos (63), suínos (25), ovinos (11) e cães (28) foram coletadas de 98 propriedades rurais. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium para a espécie bovina foi de 3,0% (6/197); para os cães, de 10,7% (3/28); e para os demais animais os resultados foram negativos. Todas as sequências obtidas das seis amostras de bovinos apresentaram identidade molecular com Cryptosporidium andersoni, enquanto as sequências oriundas de amostras de fezes de cães revelaram-se similares ao C. canis. A ocorrência do Cryptosporidium entre os animais estudados foi baixa. Diante dos resultados do presente estudo, o ciclo zoonótico da criptosporidiose parece ter menos importância nesta região. A presença de espécies de Cryptosporidium ainda pouco relatadas em humanos pode ser, por outro lado, importante para a fauna silvestre, uma vez que estes animais podem ser considerados como uma fonte de infecção e disseminação deste protozoário. O impacto e a magnitude da infecção de C. andersoni, em ruminantes selvagens, e de C. canis, em cães silvestres, deve ser avaliado em estudos futuros, com intuito de verificar a real importância dessas espécies nesta região. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties su (more) rrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.

Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Nava, Alessandra; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

2010-12-01

38

A conceptual model of suicide in rural areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Suicide is an important public health issue among rural communities although there is no single pattern of suicide in rural areas. Despite this, there are common themes in much of the research evidence on suicide in rural areas. From the published research in the area, a conceptual model of rural suicide has been developed which can be used by clinical and public health services when considering possible routes of intervention. ISSUE: A conceptual model can be defined as 'a type of diagram which shows a set of relationships between factors that are believed to impact or lead to a target condition'. The model presented here uses the 'Cry of pain/ Entrapment' model of suicide risk to build a framework of factors which are associated with suicide in rural areas. Cross-setting factors associated with suicide rates include gender, poverty, mental illness, substance use, biological factors including apparent genetic risk, coping skills and media coverage of suicide. There are, however, other factors that appear to have particular importance in rural areas. These include rural stressors, such as isolation and political and social exclusion; factors affecting support, including social support, cultural norms on help-seeking, stigma associated with mental illness service availability; factors affecting the decision to self-harm, including modelling and cultural views on self-harm, and issues affecting the likelihood of self-harm resulting in death, including method availability, norms on methods of self-harm and treatment availability after harm occurs. Identifying which of these areas are the greatest local priorities helps to target activity. LESSONS LEARNED: This model provides a way of considering suicide in rural areas. Local staff can use it to consider which issues are most relevant to their area. It allows classification of existing interventions, and deciding which other areas of work might be of local value. For researchers and service planners, it provides a way of classifying interventions and describing projects.

Stark CR; Riordan V; O'Connor R

2011-04-01

39

Fore shock activity and its probabilistic relation to earthquake occurrence in Albania and the surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper investigates some characteristics of fore shock activity of moderate and large earthquakes which occurred in the present century in Albania and the surrounding area. Using a prediction algorithm, based on possible fore shocks, the authors obtained a probabilistic relation between possible fore shocks and main shocks. Results recorded between 1901-1994 are analysed and discussed.

Peci, V. [Seismological Institute, Tirana (Albania); Maeda, K. [Meteorologial Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of Seismology and Volcanology Research; Matsmura, K.; Irikura, K. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Inst. of Disaster Prevention Research

1999-10-01

40

Developing Health Education Programs in Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

If primary medical care is to be provided to remote rural populations in developing countries, alternative and innovative delivery systems emphasizing community participation, use of paraprofessionals, and health education programs must be considered. A recent American Public Health Association study of 180 health projects in developing countries…

Colle, Royal D.

 
 
 
 
41

Territorial ordering in Toay area and surroundings, La Pampa province, Argentina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This present work aims to provide a territorial ordering in an area limited by the 36 grades 39 minutes and 36 grades 43 minutes Southern Parallels and the 64 grades 20 minutes and 64 grades 27 minutes. Meridians from the same hemisphere; within such area, the population from Toay and surroundings are held/contained. The empiric method employed was taken from Gomez Orea (1993). The area was divided into environmental synthesis units and through the use of different proposed tasks it was possible to reach an objective description of the area with the distribution of its varied units.

2004-01-01

42

APPEARANCE MOTIVATIONS OF RURAL TOURISM IN RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the trends developing tourism industry is returning to nature, already manifested in all countries, the current post-industrial civilization has created the need for withdrawal (for several days) of the metropolis. And for the huge tourism potential of our country, rural tourism is one of the most attractive travel packages and this from a multiple perspective: on the one hand, the tourist, Romanian or foreign, which will require increasingly more intense this tourist service, on the other hand, villagers who will use all the energy and skill to integrate into what will become the association's efforts to profile a network covering the whole country.It is no secret that beyond the obvious need to relax in nature, one that comes to rest here gladly participate in these habits. And because of its beautiful pictures plus original memories about a different way of life and a different culture, local efforts to justify open house to receive tourists, efforts will be rewarded in the future. Experience from other countries confirms most optimistic forecasts.

Eduard Bianu; Claudia Sîrbulescu; Daniel Chiril?

2013-01-01

43

Aspects on Healthcare Provision in Romanian Rural Areas, Geographical Accessibility  

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Full Text Available The accessibility of health services in rural areas represents a high priority for the Romanian Ministry of Public Health; in this context, the improvement of the access of rural population to primary care services (provided as much as possible in a continuously manner) and to emergency and pharmaceutical services, is considered a strategic objective in the health reform medium term plan of the Ministry of Public Health.

Marius CIUTAN; Carmen SASU

2008-01-01

44

An aerial radiological survey of the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity surrounding the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-mile) area that encompasses the plant site of which a large portion is located in the Mississippi River Basin. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that measures gamma radiation. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Estimated exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 6-8 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in the Mississippi River basin, (b) from 8-10 ?R/h in areas adjacent to the basin, and (c) below 6 ?R/h over the Mississippi River and the portions of the basin that were included in the survey area. Man-made radiation (22-1,600 ?R/h) was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site; cobalt-60 was the primary source of activity found at the Prairie Island site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. Estimated exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

1997-01-01

45

An aerial radiological survey of the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity surrounding the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 ?R/h in areas adjacent to these fields and along roadways, and (c) below 6 ?R/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (22-52 ?R/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 and cobalt-58 were the primary sources of man-made activity found at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

1997-01-01

46

Myths, perceptions, and incorrect knowledge surrounding epilepsy in rural Zimbabwe: a study of the villagers in Buhera District.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to assess the myths, perceptions, and incorrect knowledge that people in Buhera Rural District harbor about epilepsy. The study was conducted among people living with epilepsy (n=100) using a standardized questionnaire that was developed after two focus group discussions with the village health workers (n=20) and interviews with the key informants. Each respondent was interviewed during their monthly visit to Murambinda Mission Hospital. Focus group discussions and interviews identified 32 types of myths, perceptions, and incorrect knowledge relating to the causes, prevention, treatment, and effects of epilepsy. Most of the respondents agreed that epilepsy is a misunderstood condition that has stigmatizing myths, perceptions, and incorrect knowledge surrounding it. The study concludes that these myths, perceptions, and incorrect knowledge are a hindrance to the aim of reducing the treatment gap in epilepsy in Buhera, Zimbabwe and that desired quality of life for people with epilepsy can only be achieved after imparting accurate understanding of epilepsy in rural communities.

Mugumbate J; Mushonga J

2013-04-01

47

Issues and Models of Renal Supportive Care in Rural Areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Patients in rural areas are both economically and medically disadvantaged Access to specialist services in rural areas is limited. More care is likely to be out-sourced to local physicians, GPs and palliative care nurses who will need 'on the ground' outreach support from renal/palliative care services Referral to these services may low due to knowledge of availability and previous exposure of the referring physician to the use of these services. Developments in Information Technology are likely to play a significant role in management (telemedicine), education and advice in these specialist areas.

May S

2013-04-01

48

The Influence of Tourism on Rural Life in Minority Areas  

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Full Text Available In this paper, taking three ethnic minority areas as an example, through a questionnaire to obtain relevant data, according to the characteristics of the ethnic minority areas, using the factor analysis method, we analyse the tourism in ethnic areas of country life with various effects. We summarize the pros and cons, avoid or minimize the adverse impacts within the maximum limits, mitigate the conflicts between the value of resource and the development, find a balance between tourism development and rural construction, realize win-win tourism development and rural construction.

Cuiping Zhang; Guangming Deng; Xiaoling Yu

2013-01-01

49

SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their de...

Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan; Tanase Laura Daniela; Morar Mihai Gelu

50

[Mercury concentration of fish in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea area].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total mercury in the muscles of three fish species was analyzed in fish caught in Tokyo Bay and the surrounding sea areas, Sagami Bay and Choshi. Tokyo Bay is a semi-closed sea area surrounded by Tokyo, Kanagawa and Chiba prefectures. Sagami Bay and Choshi are open to the Pacific Ocean. A total of 412 fish consisting of northern whiting (Sillago japonica), flatfish (Limanda yokohamae) and sardine (Sardinops melanosticta) were caught in these areas over a 6 months period from November 1998 to April 1999. Total mercury concentration ranged from 0.008-0.092 microgram/g (wet wt.) in northern whiting, 0.006-0.065 microgram/g in flatfish and 0.001-0.045 microgram/g in sardine. All concentrations were below the restriction limit of fish mercury in Japan, 0.4 microgram/g of total mercury concentration. A significant correlation was found between mercury concentrations and body length or body weight in northern whiting and flatfish, irrespective of the sea area. A correlation was also found between mercury concentration in fish and their feeding habits: among the 3 species caught in the same area, crustacean feeding northern whiting had the highest, polychaete feeding flatfish moderate, and plankton feeding sardine had the lowest mercury concentration. In a comparison of mercury concentration in the same species caught in different sea areas, a higher concentration was noted in fish caught in the semi-closed sea area of Tokyo Bay, than in fish caught in the open sea areas of Sagami Bay and Choshi. This difference was most marked in fish caught at the bottom of Tokyo Bay and we considered that the mercury concentration of seawater and sediment in these areas was the cause of mercury accumulation in fish. These findings suggest that improved water quality control and environmental monitoring is necessary in semi-closed sea areas such as Tokyo Bay.

Zhang R; Kashima Y; Matsui M; Okabe T; Doi R

2001-07-01

51

An aerial radiological survey of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and surrounding area, Waxahachie, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) site from July 22 through August 20,1991. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 305 meters over a 1,036-square-kilometer (400-square-mile) area surrounding Waxahachie, Texas. The 70,000 terrestrial gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a United States Geological Survey (USGS) map of the area. The mean terrestrial exposure rate measured was 5.4 ?R/h at 1 meter above ground level. Comparison to ground-based measurements shows good agreement. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were detected

1993-01-01

52

Computer Usage and Achievement among Adults in Rural Area Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: Previous study showed that most of the adults especially from rural area they are not expert and do not have any knowledge in using computer. Besides that, they cannot afford to buy a computer at home. Due to this problem, Ministry if Rural Development organized the Computer Literacy Program to increase adult?s knowledge and skills in using computer. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to study the achievement of adult learners towards Computer Literacy Program which organized by Ministry of Rural Development in Malaysia to increase quality of life among adults in rural communities. Approach: A survey was carried out in Selangor state of Malaysia. A total number of 120 adults from the program were involved; 42 male adults and 78 female adults. Results: The survey showed that the participants have higher achievement in computer usage in the Computer Literacy Programme. Conclusion: It is suggested that a comprehensive assessment should be conducted by Ministry of Rural Development in order to increase quality of life among adults in rural area. The implications of these findings showed that participants have higher achievement in the aspect of knowledge, skills and motivation in computer usage.

Abdul R. Ahmad; Norhasni Z. Abiddin; Jamaludin Badusah; Pang S. Wai

2009-01-01

53

Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo) to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI). The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the four classified areas.

SOEJONO; SUGENG BUDIHARTA; ENDANG ARISOESILANINGSIH

2013-01-01

54

MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGE? COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Arge? County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through exceptions or total qualities), methods (of diagnostic analysis, foundation-optimization of decisions etc.) and different management techniques can be applied, depending on the characteristics aimed.The conditions which must be met by the effective rural tourism management are: observation and appreciation of nature as well as knowledge of cultural traditions, inventory of protected natural areas and of the cultural ones in a protected area, establishment of potential market of tourists, setting of support threshold based on the compliance with the consumption norms per tourist.

Florentina Miu

2013-01-01

55

The cultural tourism in the rural areas of Westpomeranian voivodeship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of cultural tourism in the rural areas of the Westpomeranian region is conditioned by possession of distinguished natural value, as well as significant historical and cultural heritage resources. Tourists who come to the village looking for traces of the past, learn the material and immaterial elements of the regional culture, become familiar with its natural environment, interact with the farms and the local population, participate in the economic life and folk events in rural areas, and thus discover the charm and tourist appeal of the region.

Ma?gorzata Matlegiewicz

2011-01-01

56

Fractal properties of landforms in the Ordos Block and surrounding areas, China  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the fractal properties of landforms in the Ordos Block and surrounding areas within China and discusses their geological and geomorphological implications. The Ordos Block is tectonically stable, but the surrounding areas are much more active and are affected by shear-extensional structures. We utilized the variogram method and the cellular fractal model to estimate parameters such as the fractal dimension (D), ordinate intercept (?), and range (R) from the SRTM3 DEM using a moving window operation. We suggest that the fractal dimension reflects the frequency of variation in elevation, while the ordinate intercept reflects the amplitude of relief. The fractal properties range from 90 m to 30 km. Geomorphological zones can be delineated using the fractal dimension and ordinate intercept. These zones are consistent with known qualitative types of topography. Some basins are characterized by high fractal dimensions and low ordinate intercepts, in contrast to mountainous areas with low fractal dimensions and high ordinate intercepts. Other areas such as the Loess Plateau and deserts also have unique values of fractal properties. The effects of geological and geomorphological processes on the fractal properties are also discussed.

Bi, Lisi; He, Honglin; Wei, Zhanyu; Shi, Feng

2012-11-01

57

Aerial radiological survey of the Brookhaven National Laboratory and surrounding area, May 1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was performed from 15 to 18 May 1980 over approximately a 21-square-kilometer (8-square-mile) area surrounding the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). BNL is located in the center of Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. All gamma radiation data were collected by flying north-south lines spaced 91 meters (300 feet) apart at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) above ground level. A total of 17 anomalous areas were identified. The dominant isotopes found over these areas were cesium-137, manganese-54, and cobalt-60. All anomalies identified by the aerial measurements were correlated to site activities and storage facilities. 4 references, 18 figures, 1 table.

Hobaugh, J.L.; Steiner, P.A.

1984-01-01

58

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of ±15%

1993-01-01

59

Water analysis from wells in Ezeiza and surrounding areas. Dissolved uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to give an answer to the different social sectors, we sampled water from previously existing wells that reaches the Puelche aquifer. The uranium concentration was determined in these samples to obtain a preliminary checkup of water quality situation. For the analysis we considered the samples obtained inside the CAE as well as those sampled in the surrounding areas as Monte Grande, Claypole and Burzaco. The results show a correlation between the amount of dissolved salts and the presence of dissolved uranium. (author)

2006-01-01

60

The identification of soil radionuclides in the area of Puspiptek and surrounding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of PUSPIPTEK and the surrounding are potentially exposed by radionuclides, because the operation of the nuclear research plant. The PPTN Serpong was operated long than 10 years, therefore soil radioactivity need to evaluate. The determination of radioactivity in the soil samples which be taken from research location using gamma spectrometry on June-August. The result of the research identified natural radionuclides K-40; Thorium decay series Ac-228, Bi-212, Pb-212, Tl-208, Ra-224 and Rn-220; Uranium decay series Bi-214, Pa-234, Pb-214 and Actinium decay series Bi-211, Po-211. There are no identification radionuclides produce from the activation of PPTN Serpong.

2002-02-19

 
 
 
 
61

Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labor market settle in the countryside due to low housing prices. This article explores which groups of people move to rural, peripheral areas and why they chose to do so.

NØrgaard, Helle; Andersen, Hans Skifter

2012-01-01

62

The shortage of pediatrician workforce in rural areas of Japan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The shortage of physicians is of great concern in Japan. We aim to assess the pediatrician workforce in rural areas of Japan. Data were obtained from a governmental survey that included the number of physicians and child population in each municipality (i.e., 888 cities and 1,466 towns, villages, or rural areas). The supply of pediatricians was evaluated by physician-to-child population ratios of pediatricians and non-pediatricians in pediatric practice, and geographical distributions using Lorenz curves and Gini indices. Lorenz curves are drawn to visualize geographical mal-distribution of physicians and the Gini indices range from 0 to 1, with higher values indicating larger inequity in physician distribution. Between 1996 and 2004, the numbers of pediatricians per 100,000 children increased from 69 to 84 and this increase was constantly observed both in cities, and towns/villages. Lorenz curves showed that both pediatricians and non-pediatricians in pediatric practice were relatively equally distributed in cities. The Gini indices in 1996 and 2004 were 0.337 and 0.321, respectively in pediatricians and 0.264 and 0.278, respectively in non-pediatricians in pediatric practice. In contrast, pediatricians were unequally distributed in rural areas (the Gini indices; 0.723 and 0.703, respectively). In such areas, non-pediatricians in pediatric practice were more equally distributed than pediatricians (0.419 and 0.482, respectively). These results suggest that non-pediatricians in pediatric practice have played a significant role in supporting pediatric care in rural areas. In conclusion, the absolute numbers of pediatricians increased in Japan between 1996 and 2004; however, they were mal-distributed in rural areas.

Nomura K; Inoue S; Yano E

2009-04-01

63

The shortage of pediatrician workforce in rural areas of Japan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shortage of physicians is of great concern in Japan. We aim to assess the pediatrician workforce in rural areas of Japan. Data were obtained from a governmental survey that included the number of physicians and child population in each municipality (i.e., 888 cities and 1,466 towns, villages, or rural areas). The supply of pediatricians was evaluated by physician-to-child population ratios of pediatricians and non-pediatricians in pediatric practice, and geographical distributions using Lorenz curves and Gini indices. Lorenz curves are drawn to visualize geographical mal-distribution of physicians and the Gini indices range from 0 to 1, with higher values indicating larger inequity in physician distribution. Between 1996 and 2004, the numbers of pediatricians per 100,000 children increased from 69 to 84 and this increase was constantly observed both in cities, and towns/villages. Lorenz curves showed that both pediatricians and non-pediatricians in pediatric practice were relatively equally distributed in cities. The Gini indices in 1996 and 2004 were 0.337 and 0.321, respectively in pediatricians and 0.264 and 0.278, respectively in non-pediatricians in pediatric practice. In contrast, pediatricians were unequally distributed in rural areas (the Gini indices; 0.723 and 0.703, respectively). In such areas, non-pediatricians in pediatric practice were more equally distributed than pediatricians (0.419 and 0.482, respectively). These results suggest that non-pediatricians in pediatric practice have played a significant role in supporting pediatric care in rural areas. In conclusion, the absolute numbers of pediatricians increased in Japan between 1996 and 2004; however, they were mal-distributed in rural areas. PMID:19346735

Nomura, Kyoko; Inoue, Satoshi; Yano, Eiji

2009-04-01

64

Urbanisation of rural areas: A case study from Jutland, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The growth of urban areas is one of the most important characteristics of spatial development in Europe during the past decades and is traditionally described with a few indicators on a relatively coarse spatial scale. However, urbanisation is not only a matter of land use change, but also socio-economic changes, which may or may not manifest itself as physical changes in built-up area and land use. It is therefore useful to analyse the urbanisation patterns along an urban-rural continuum, based on a broad range of indicators. This paper analyses urbanisation patterns in rural areas of Region Midtjylland, Denmark using socio-economic data from the entire rural population aggregated at parish level to investigate if this method may contribute to existing classifications. Through multivariate analysis and GIS analysis, five types of urbanization were identified and their spatial distribution analysed. The results indicate that rural areas of Region Midtjylland are very diverse, and generally reflect the patterndescribed in the 2006 Danish National Planning Report. However, our results offer a more fine-grained analysis based on scientifically selected indicators which is an important step to improve existing classifications. This is especially relevant in a Danish context following the administrative reform in 2007 which renders the traditional classifications less suited for locally adapted planning and policy formulation.

Madsen, Mette Fabricius; Kristensen, SØren Bech Pilgaard

2010-01-01

65

Rural area renewable energy implementation hampered by negative  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A current year-long project, run by the sustainable energy futures (SEF) research group of the natural resources and the environment unit of the Council for Science and Industrial Research (CSIR), to investigate the implementation of integrated energy systems in rural areas, has determined that powe...

Swanepoel, Esmarie

66

Gendered experiences of teaching in poor rural areas of Ghana  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The low presence of female teachers serving in schools in deprived rural areas is one of the main constraints militating against girls' access and achievement in basic education in Ghana. Studies suggest that low self-esteem among girls is a key factor preventing them from attaining higher levels of...

Casely-Hayford, Leslie; University of Cambridge, Faculty of Education, Research Consortium on Educational Outcomes and Poverty (RECOUP)

67

COASTAL PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY OF SURABAYA AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA TO SEA LEVEL RISE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study for coastal vulnerability to sea level rise was carried out in Surabaya and its surrounding area, it has focused on calculations of the physical vulnerability index were used coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methods. It was standardized by the multi criteria analysis (MCA) approach according to the study area. The score of each physical variable derived from remote sensing satellite data and the results of studies that have been done, such as modeling results and thematic maps, and then integrated into geographic information systems (GIS). Result of this study shows that the coastal areas of Gresik, Surabaya, and Sidoarjo in the very low to very high vulnerability level. Physically, the low land areas with open and slightly open coastal have a high vulnerability category. The high level vulnerability was found located in the northern of Madura Strait (Gresik Regency) that overlooks to the Java Sea is about 28.81% from the entire of study areas. Meanwhile, the moderate, low and very low levels of vulnerability were located on Surabayaand Sidoarjo Regency that have more protected coastal area, relatively. According to the physical condition, the coastal elevation is the most variable that contributes to the high of vulnerability index in the coastal of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo Regency.

Sayidah Sulma; Eko Kusratmoko; Ratna Saraswati

2012-01-01

68

COASTAL PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY OF SURABAYA AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA TO SEA LEVEL RISE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study for coastal vulnerability to sea level rise was carried out in Surabaya and its surrounding area, it has focused on calculations of the physical vulnerability index were used coastal vulnerability index (CVI) methods. It was standardized by the multi criteria analysis (MCA) approach according to the study area.The score of each physical variable derived from remote sensing satellite data and the results of studies that have been done, such as modeling results and thematic maps, and then integrated into geographic information systems (GIS). Result of this study showsthat the coastal areas of Gresik, Surabaya, and Sidoarjo in the very low to very high vulnerability level. Physically, the low land areas with open and slightly open coastal have a high vulnerability category. The high level vulnerability was found located in the northern of Madura Strait (Gresik Regency) that overlooks to the Java Sea is about 28.81% from the entire of study areas. Meanwhile, the moderate, low and very low levels of vulnerability were located on Surabaya and Sidoarjo Regency that have more protected coastal area,relatively. According to the physical condition, the coastal elevation is the most variable that contributes to the high of vulnerability index in the coastal of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo Regency.

Sayidah Sulma; Eko Kusratmoko; Ratna Saraswati

2012-01-01

69

The monitoring of ozone emissions in rural and urban areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been shown, by a statistical study of the concentrations of ozone in air as measured by two monitoring stations--one being situated in an urban and the other a rural area--that photochemical smog episodes to occur. The ratio O3 urban/O3 rural is normally less than 1. This ratio, however, has been shown to be greater than 1, when certain conditions prevail, notably on days of high solar radiation and low velocity winds. At nigh-time, in the absence of photochemical reactions, the higher concentrations of ozone observed in town as opposed to the country side has been attributed to air transport phenomena.

Landry, J.C.; Cupelin, F.

1981-01-01

70

Ensemble-Based Observation Targeting for Improving Ozone Prediction in Houston and the Surrounding Area  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effectiveness of targeted meteorological observations for improving ozone prediction in Houston and the surrounding area based on perfect-model simulation experiments. Supplementary observations are targeted for the location that has the highest impact factor (maximum Kalman gain) estimated from an ensemble and is expected to minimize ozone forecast uncertainty at the verification time. It is found that the observational impact factor field varies with time and is sensitive to ensemble resolutions and physics parameterizations. The efficiency of observation targeting is further examined through assimilating observations in areas with different impact factors using an ensemble Kalman filter. It is found that the ensemble sensitivity analysis is capable of locating supplementary observations that may reduce meteorological and ozone forecast error, but not as effectively as expected.

Bei, Naifang; Zhang, Fuqing; Nielsen-Gammon, John W.

2012-03-01

71

Bringing fiber to the home to rural areas in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In order to support development of rural areas, and avoid that these  areas are being depopulated, access to fast broadband networks can contribute by facilitating tele working, distance learning, ICT for industries and farming etc. In this paper we show how broadband and Fiber To The Home (FTTH) is developing in Denmark, and that FTTH is also being deployed in rural areas. A main reason for this is that consumer-owed utility companies have decided to invest heavily in the field, to a large extent with the philosophy that, since all consumers are a part of the investment, everybody should also benefit from it. As a result of these investments, FTTH availability and penetration has increased significantly over the last years. In the end of the paper, we highlight the importance of studying the actual impact of bringing FTTH to these areas.

Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, M. Tahir

2009-01-01

72

RURAL AREAS – THE PREMISE OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Year 2007 when Romania joins the European Union marked a new era in development and agricultural economy of our country. In this context Romania has had to quickly adapt its economy to take part in the EU internal market and to benefit fully from the positive effects of adopting the CAP. EU membership is perhaps the strongest factor of pressure for reform of agriculture and rapid rural Romanian economy given the necessity to integrate successfully in European rural economy. European model of agriculture is based on competitive sector oriented to market fulfilling also other function such as environmental protection, provision of residential settlements more convenient for people in rural areas and the integration of agriculture with the environment and forestry.

Claudia LEPADATU

2012-01-01

73

An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 (60Co)-the manufacture of commercial 60Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two 60Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as 60Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of 60Co or any other man-made radionuclide

1994-01-01

74

An aerial radiological survey of the Brookhaven National Laboratory and surrounding area, Upton, New York  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was performed from March 21 to March 24, 1990, over approximately a 65-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area surrounding the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which is located at the center of Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. All gamma radiation data were collected flying east-west lines spaced 76 meters (250 feet) apart at an altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) above ground level (AGL). Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground. The typical terrestrial-plus-cosmic background exposure rate in the survey area ranged from 5 to 10 microroentgens per hour ([mu]R/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 [mu]R/h. Ground-based measurements made two weeks later were compared to the aerial survey results. Pressurized ion chamber readings, soil samples, and in situ high purity germanium measurements were taken from 54 locations within the survey area. Exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in general agreement with those obtained from the aerial data. A total of 16 areas of man-made radioactivity were identified within the survey boundary. The dominant man-made radioisotopes found were cesium-137, sodium-22, manganese-54, cobalt-58, and cobalt-60. The BNL was previously surveyed in June 1983 and May 1980. The results of the present survey are in good agreement with the results of the previous surveys.

1992-09-01

75

Immigration of phytoseiid mites from surrounding uncultivated areas into a newly planted vineyard.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study reports (1) a faunistic survey of phytoseiid mites observed inside a vine plot and in neighbouring vegetation (other vine plots and uncultivated areas) and (2) dispersal of phytoseiid mites into the plot studied. These data aim to raise some hypotheses concerning natural colonisation of a vineyard by predatory mites. The study was carried out over 3 years (1999, 2000 and 2001) in an experimental plot planted with two cultivars (Grenache and Syrah) and with Sorbus domestica in a framework of agroforestry investigations. Phytoseiid mites were collected in both cultivated and uncultivated areas surrounding the experimental plot, and their dispersal into the plot studied using "aerial" traps. Densities remained quite low compared to previous studies. The main species encountered in the uncultivated areas and in the traps was Typhlodromus phialatus. Despite the low numbers of phytoseiid mites trapped, densities of phytoseiid mites into the vine field increased during 3 years. Typhlodromus phialatus, the species mainly found in the neighbouring uncultivated areas, was rarely found in vineyards. Another morphologically close species was predominant on vines: Typhlodromus exhilaratus. However, Kampimodromus aberrans the main phytoseiid mite species in vineyards of Southern France was not found in the present survey. Hypotheses for this colonisation process are discussed.

Tixier MS; Kreiter S; Cheval B; Guichou S; Auger P; Bonafos R

2006-01-01

76

Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of areas surrounding two transformer salvage companies, Colman, South Dakota--September 1977.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soil, corn plants, and foliage from areas surrounding two electrical salvage companies involved in reconditioning old transformers had unusually high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Levels decreased as distance from the factories increased. PCBs were dispersed into the air through incineration of waste oils; water and soil contamination was caused by runoff from the factories. PCBs found in the contaminated areas closely resembled Aroclor 1260 as did the PCBs in the waste oil, whereas PCBs in other areas were more similar to Aroclor 1254. PCBs on surface soils taken from an unplowed pasture near the factories also resembled Aroclor 1260, whereas samples taken from depths of 2-4 inches showed degradation of some PCB isomers. PCB concentrations in corn cobs and kernels were < 0.05 ppm, whereas leaves contained PCB levels of up to 2.2 ppm. PCB levels in earthworms and small rodents collected near the factories were considerably higher than levels in the same types of animals collected from other areas.

Greichus YA; Dohman BA

1980-06-01

77

An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 (60Co) and cesium-137 (137Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 (235U). Protactinium-234m (234mPa) and 60Co Were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data

1993-01-01

78

[Spatial and temporal variations of ambient carbonyl compounds in Beijing and its surrounding areas].  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of 23 carbonyl compounds were measured by DNPH/HPLC method at 38 sites within Beijing and its surrounding areas on June 24, July 22, August 22, September 14 in 2010 and January 13, 2011. The average mixing ratios of total carbonyl compounds in Beijing were (16.38 +/- 6.03) x 10(-9) and (8.50 +/- 5.27) x 10(-9) in summer and winter; and the average mixing ratios in surrounding cites were (13.19 +/- 5.71) x 10(-9) and (13.05 +/- 2.44) x 10(-9) in summer and winter, respectively. The most abundant carbonyl compound was formaldehyde, followed by acetaldehyde and acetone, the sum of these 3 species accounted for 78% to 91% of the total mixing ratio of carbonyl compounds. The average mixing ratio in summer was significant higher than that in winter, and higher in morning (09:00-12:00) hours than in afternoon (13:00-16:00). The spatial distributions for carbonyl compounds showed that: in summer, high mixing ratios were typically found in city center; while in winter, a building-up trend was found from northwest to southeast, driving by the prevailing northwest wind. In summer, vehicular exhaust had important contributions to ambient carbonyls, and combined with the adverse weather conditions and the strong photochemical production, resulted in carbonyls pollutions; in winter, directly emissions were the main sources of carbonyls, such as vehicular exhaust and coal burning. PMID:22468512

Wang, Qin; Shao, Min; Wei, Qiang; Chen, Wen-Tai; Lu, Si-Hua; Zhao, Yue

2011-12-01

79

[Spatial and temporal variations of ambient carbonyl compounds in Beijing and its surrounding areas].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Concentrations of 23 carbonyl compounds were measured by DNPH/HPLC method at 38 sites within Beijing and its surrounding areas on June 24, July 22, August 22, September 14 in 2010 and January 13, 2011. The average mixing ratios of total carbonyl compounds in Beijing were (16.38 +/- 6.03) x 10(-9) and (8.50 +/- 5.27) x 10(-9) in summer and winter; and the average mixing ratios in surrounding cites were (13.19 +/- 5.71) x 10(-9) and (13.05 +/- 2.44) x 10(-9) in summer and winter, respectively. The most abundant carbonyl compound was formaldehyde, followed by acetaldehyde and acetone, the sum of these 3 species accounted for 78% to 91% of the total mixing ratio of carbonyl compounds. The average mixing ratio in summer was significant higher than that in winter, and higher in morning (09:00-12:00) hours than in afternoon (13:00-16:00). The spatial distributions for carbonyl compounds showed that: in summer, high mixing ratios were typically found in city center; while in winter, a building-up trend was found from northwest to southeast, driving by the prevailing northwest wind. In summer, vehicular exhaust had important contributions to ambient carbonyls, and combined with the adverse weather conditions and the strong photochemical production, resulted in carbonyls pollutions; in winter, directly emissions were the main sources of carbonyls, such as vehicular exhaust and coal burning.

Wang Q; Shao M; Wei Q; Chen WT; Lu SH; Zhao Y

2011-12-01

80

Automation of radiation exposure dose calculation in the area surrounding reactor of Musashi Institute of Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The purpose of this study is to develop a system, by which the data on wind direction, wind velocity, temperature, humidity, sunshine, radiation balance, rain fall and others in the vicinity of the stack of the nuclear facility are collected every moment and analyzed, the information not measured so far is extracted, those are continuously digitally recorded, and if the release of radioactive materials out of the stack is assumed, its effects on the surrounding environment are immediately computed and indicated on a graphic display. The system to detect abnormality for the back up of reactor operators and to issue the appropriate instruction is also to be developed in parallel by collecting data on the operating status of the reactor and from the monitors watching the surrounding area. It is considered to unify the data format for carrying out easily mutual comparison of such data and their evaluation in future and to connect the reactor facilities of universities in Japan on-line if possible, by co-developing this system together with these universities making the reactor of Musashi Institute of Technology as a model. In this report, the system configuration and block diagrams and respective satellite functions and operations are described. These satellites include new MK system, reactor-related data collection, weather data collection, colored CRT display, operator console, and packet type data exchanger. Most noteworthy is the data collection with an ultrasonic anemometer, and its construction is illustrated. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Health literacy in rural areas of China: hypertension knowledge survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

Li X; Ning N; Hao Y; Sun H; Gao L; Jiao M; Wu Q; Quan H

2013-03-01

82

Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

Xia Li; Ning Ning; Yanhua Hao; Hong Sun; Lijun Gao; Mingli Jiao; Qunhong Wu; Hude Quan

2013-01-01

83

Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

2013-01-01

84

Health literacy in rural areas of China: hypertension knowledge survey.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population. PMID:23507738

Li, Xia; Ning, Ning; Hao, Yanhua; Sun, Hong; Gao, Lijun; Jiao, Mingli; Wu, Qunhong; Quan, Hude

2013-03-18

85

Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street), 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek), 1 located in a small town (??czna), 2 sites are rural cemeteries (?uszczów, Ostrówek). An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous) and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas.The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in ?uszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%), the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%). In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%), while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%). The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in ?uszczów (16.4%), and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%). Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %), similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%), and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%). The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek.Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in ?uszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin). The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and 7.2% in Lublin – Kalina, whereas that of kenophytes was between 15.1% in Ostrówek and 8.2% in ??czna. In the case of spontaneophytes, the percentage varied between 8.8% in Lublin – Majdanek and 2.7% in ?uszczów. The majority, 299 of the taxa found, proved invaluable to insects (polleniferous and nectariferous). Among the plants growing spontaneously in the analysed cemeteries, there were also 11 legally protected species..

Ewa Trzaskowska; Katarzyna Karczmarz

2013-01-01

86

An in situ survey of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An in situ survey of the area surrounding the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant was conducted between May 17 and 24, 1990. The survey consisted of in situ measurements and of ground sampling. A High Purity Germanium detector was used for the in situ measurements. The ground samples were taken to the, laboratory at EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc., in Santa Barbara, California, for a radionuclide assay on a laboratory system. Results of the in situ measurements found evidence of naturally occurring radioisotopes, cesium-137 from international fallout, and some evidence of anomalous uranium-238. The soil sampling results show only the presence of naturally occurring radioisotopes, cesium-137, and also anomalous uranium-238.

1994-01-01

87

90Sr and 137Cs in Environmental Samples at Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center and Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Determination of 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental samples collected around Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center (ONRC) and surrounding areas during 1997 - 1998 were obtained. Radioactivity of 90Sr in surface water leaf and fish were 0-3.0 mBq/l 0-0.2 Bq/kg fresh and 0-0.1 Bq/kg fresh. Radioactivity of 137Cs in the same samples were 0.8-3.3 mBq/l 0.2-0.9 Bq/kg fresh and 0.1-0.3 Bq/kg fresh respectively. The levels of the radioactivity show the base line levels of radioactivity at ONRC for preoperation situation which will benefit for radiation protection to the public

1998-01-01

88

Moving to the countryside - migrants in rural areas of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denmark is undergoing a process of centralisation and concentration of economic growth, employment and people in and around its larger cities. Other more peripheral areas have been stagnating and loosing both jobs and inhabitants over a long period of time. Important social, cultural and economic changes are taken place in the countryside due to various restructuring processes and more recently some of these changes are related to in-migration. There are few Danish studies on migration into rural and peripheral areas but e.g. Andersen (2008) Ærø et al. (2005) show how those moving to rural areas have very different reasons for moving and have different expectations and needs. Other international studies e.g. Boyle & Halfacree (1998), Chavez (2005), Clooke, Goodwin & Milbourne (1998), Cuba & Hummon (1993), Hidalgo & Hernandez (2001) Mesch & Manor (1998) rather focus on processes of change from the view of the local population, migrants and relations between them. This paper reports on a study on migrants who have moved long distances to settle in rural and peripheral areas of Denmark. The study focuses on moving motives, background and expectations of migrants in relation to living in rural and peripheral areas. One important theme is the relationship between migrants or newcomers and locals stressing social change, attachment and integration from the view of migrants. Our study is based on an understanding that there are multiple reasons and motivations that influence migration decision-making thereby applying a biographical approach inspired by e.g. Giddens (1984), Boyle and Halfacree (1998) seeking to 'demonstrate the complexity of the seemingly simple act of migration and its embeddedness within the everyday context of daily life for those involved'. Our study further finds inspiration in the concept of 'elective belonging' by Savage et al. (2005) in terms of understanding peoples sense of being at home as related to 'reflexive processes in which they can satisfactory account to themselves how they come to live where they do'.

NØrgaard, Helle

89

Solar water pumping clean water for Sudan rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Republic of Sudan in Eastern Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in Africa. However, its remotely isolated rural areas pose problems to rural energy management and development because of poor road links with the urban centres, and remoteness from the national electrical transmission grid. Development of renewable energy sources, therefore, has a vast potential in Sudan. Solar energy, with excellent sunshine of over 3000 h per year, is of paramount importance, the applications of which are already quite significant and are growing at steady rate. Solar energy is suitable for small-scale water pumping in remote areas where the demand is regular, such as for drinking water, but it may also be used for irrigation. Most areas in Sudan have climates suitable for solar pumping. A review is given of the use of solar energy for water pumping to improve the living conditions of the population in rural areas and to develop techniques for utilization of solar energy in a tropical environment condition. Results, suggests that, solar powered water pumping must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated by full scale in Sudan. (Author)

Omer, Abdeen Mustafa [NCMWE, Khartoum (Sudan)

2001-10-01

90

[Identification of vulnerable individuals in the area surrounding a university hospital: connecting vulnerability, solidarity and healthcare].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the area around a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo state people are found sleeping, eating or resting on the lawns and surrounding areas, and they linger in such sites for hours. This study sought to identify and characterize vulnerable individuals in the area around the hospital by offering help. Data were collected from November 2007 to October 2008, on a weekly basis and on randomly selected days and times. The people found in these places were identified, and 52 subjects were interviewed. The individuals were, predominantly, females (67.3%), white (51.9%), married (59.6%), had attended school for up to four years (44.2%) and did not have a defined profession (84.6%). Most of them were waiting for bus transportation provided by their hometown administration; the mean waiting time was approximately 90 minutes and most of the subjects had certain needs during the waiting period. Help was offered to 15 individuals who reported specific needs at the moment of the interview. It was concluded that these individuals were in a situation of individual, social and systematic vulnerability, especially in terms of socio-economic vulnerability. They showed reduced self-determination ability and submitted themselves to unfavorable conditions due to their dependence on public services. PMID:21808903

Sthal, Hellen Cristina; Berti, Heloisa Wey

2011-07-01

91

[Identification of vulnerable individuals in the area surrounding a university hospital: connecting vulnerability, solidarity and healthcare].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the area around a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo state people are found sleeping, eating or resting on the lawns and surrounding areas, and they linger in such sites for hours. This study sought to identify and characterize vulnerable individuals in the area around the hospital by offering help. Data were collected from November 2007 to October 2008, on a weekly basis and on randomly selected days and times. The people found in these places were identified, and 52 subjects were interviewed. The individuals were, predominantly, females (67.3%), white (51.9%), married (59.6%), had attended school for up to four years (44.2%) and did not have a defined profession (84.6%). Most of them were waiting for bus transportation provided by their hometown administration; the mean waiting time was approximately 90 minutes and most of the subjects had certain needs during the waiting period. Help was offered to 15 individuals who reported specific needs at the moment of the interview. It was concluded that these individuals were in a situation of individual, social and systematic vulnerability, especially in terms of socio-economic vulnerability. They showed reduced self-determination ability and submitted themselves to unfavorable conditions due to their dependence on public services.

Sthal HC; Berti HW

2011-07-01

92

A regional study of the radiation environment of Greenham Common, Newbury District and surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study was commissioned by Newbury District Council and Basingstoke and Deane Borough Council in response to public concern following disclosures about events at Greenham Common in the 1950s, and the suspicion that there may have been an accident involving a nuclear weapon leading to off-site contamination at the airbase. The Greenham Common airbase is at an advanced stage of decommissioning with parts of the site already re-developed for industrial and leisure purposes and material being removed for use in construction of the Newbury by-pass. The success of such developments is critically dependent on public confidence in the quality of the environment, both near the site, and more generally throughout the area. For this reason the study was commissioned with the aims of: I. defining the radiation environment of the whole district and parts of its surrounding areas. II. examining whether there is any evidence of radioactive contamination in the vicinity of the Greenham Common airbase. III. assessing the evidence that there may have been a release of nuclear material from the site. The work involved a collaboration between scientists from the Scottish Universities Research and Reactor Centre, who conducted gamma ray surveys to define the general radiation environment of the area, and Scientists from the University of Southampton who collected an extensive range of samples for high sensitivity radiochemical analyses. This report presents their findings and main conclusions, together with a discussion of the background to the study and its implications. (Author)

1997-01-01

93

Decadal-Scale Vegetation Dynamics of Kolkata and Its Surrounding Areas, India Using Fuzzy Classification Technique  

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Full Text Available Vegetation is an important component of any ecosystem. In urban areas, presence of vegetation is essential for reducing the effects of environmental pollution and maintaining the ecological balance. In the wake of excessive growth of population, the urban vegetation with parkland, especially in developing countries, are diminishing rapidly to provide additional space to various other types of land use. However, such reductions can have serious future implications. Therefore, an assessment of the vegetation cover of urban areas is essential. In this paper, Landsat satellite imageries have been used to study the changes in the vegetation cover of Kolkata, the largest metropolis in eastern India, from 1973 to 2011. The entire area of Kolkata and its surroundings (up to a distance of 10 km) has been divided into four quadrants according to the cardinal directions (northeast, southeast, southwest and northwest) and six concentric rings of 2 km radius each, and from these 24 sectors (four quadrants and six concentric circles), vegetated lands have been identified for analyzing the changes during the study period. There is a constant decrease of vegetation cover from 1973 till date. The outer periphery of the city is characterized by more urban vegetation as compared to the core of the city. Apart from this, the western sector is denser in terms of vegetation than the eastern one.

Arun Mondal; Anirban Mukhopadhyay; Subhanil Guha; Sananda Kundu; Sandip Mukherjee; Rajarshi Dasgupta

2012-01-01

94

An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from August 10-16, 1993, over a 78-square-kilometer (30-square-mile) area of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was performed at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with a line spacing of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on a set of United States Geological Survey topographic maps of the area and an aerial photograph of the plant. The terrestrial gamma exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour at 1 meter above the ground. Protactinium-234m was observed at six sites within the boundaries of the plant. At a seventh site, only uranium-235 was observed. No other man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was present in a detectable quantity, either on or off the plant property. Soil sample and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ± 7.5%

1994-01-01

95

The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes.Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital.The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country's need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals. PMID:20461139

Peña, Sebastian; Ramirez, Jorge; Becerra, Carlos; Carabantes, Jorge; Arteaga, Oscar

2010-05-01

96

The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes.Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital.The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country's need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals.

Peña S; Ramirez J; Becerra C; Carabantes J; Arteaga O

2010-05-01

97

An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted from September 12--29, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the site's terrestrial radiological environment for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) along a series of parallel lines 152 meters (500 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 440 square kilometers (170 square miles) as defined by the Tennessee Valley Authority Map S-16A of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation and adjacent area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) in the form of a radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 14 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). The man-made radionuclides, cobalt-60, cesium-137, and protactinium-234m (a radioisotope indicative of depleted uranium), were detected at several facilities on the site. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several locations within the survey boundary. In addition to the large scale aerial survey, two special flyovers were requested by the Department of Energy. The first request was to conduct a survey of a 1-mile x 2-mile area in south Knoxville, Tennessee. The area had been used previously to store contaminated scrap metals from operations at the Oak Ridge site. The second request was to fly several passes over a 5-mile length of railroad tracks leading from the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, north through the city of Oak Ridge. The railroad tracks had been previously used in the transport of cesium-137

1989-01-01

98

E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. This methodology supports the use of networking and communications technology in teaching and learning. E-Learning is generally meant for remote learning or distance learning, but can also be used in face-to-face mode. In this paper we have made study about the awareness and impact of E-Learning in selected rural areas in India, the providers and learners ratio and an analysis on the collected data has been made to find the advantages of E-Learning resources and their affect on social and mental development of the individuals belonging to rural areas.

Rimmi Anand; Sharad Saxena; Shilpi Saxena

2012-01-01

99

The Problem Of Youth Unemployment in Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of Czech agricultural labour market has been continuously predominantly negative since 1989 and recently, the problem of youth unemployment is acute in many countries, not only in the Czech Republic, but also in the Russian Federation, where most of graduates of agricultural universities work in non-agricultural sphere and in urban area. The present paper tries to consider the problems faced by youth in the labour market after graduating from the university, the reasons for working in any sphere but not in agriculture and not in rural area. It identifies the factors influencing the profession choice by young people. It considers the opportunities for attracting young people to work in agriculture and rural aria.

N. Grigoryeva

2012-01-01

100

SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a net exporter of organic production.

Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan; Tanase Laura Daniela; Morar Mihai Gelu

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Agrotourism - A Sustainable Development for Rural Area of Korca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term agro-tourism emerged in the late twentieth century. It includes agricultural farms that are related to tourism. This notion represents all activities related not only to tourists but also to the organizers of the holidays in general. Agro tourism is very important for rural communities as well as urban areas. It can provide several advantages: income, employment, use accommodation, activities, natural resource conservation, recreation and education. But the main problem for many countries is the low level of farm income. Agro tourism intends to obtain higher standards of living for rural communities especially through increased income for people who work in agriculture.There are five main forms of rural tourism which bring benefits both for tourists and for the local community.• Natural tourism, which is mainly preferred for its recreational value.• Cultural tourism, which is mainly related to culture, history and archeology of the area destination.• Ecotourism, as a form of tourism that presents natural resources while maintaining the values and local population welfare.• Village tourism, where visitors live and enjoy the various activities of peasant life.• Agro tourism, in which tourists see and participate in traditional agricultural practices without destroying the ecosystems, the host bases. Development in Korca region is one of the main priorities of the regional strategy. The study will be focused on four villages: Dardhe, Voskopoja, Vithkuq and Prespa. We will see the advantages and weaknesses of rural tourism development in these areas, as well as their benefits. We will also see a study about the residents’ perceptions of the tourism development in the area and of the agro- touristic behavior of the tourists there.

STELA ZOTO; ELEINA QIRICI; ESMERALDA POLENA

2013-01-01

102

Evaluation of development of social capital in rural areas  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the results of the research related to development of social capital in rural areas. Analysis of the obtained data indicated the reasons for participation in programmes of unemployed activation, the types of chosen forms of activation, the level of satisfaction from participation in the selected forms and finding work as a result of the activation of unemployed respondents.

Anna Michalska

2012-01-01

103

A procura do turismo em espaço rural The demand for tourism in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER) em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quotidiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas.This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA) in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

Luís Silva

2007-01-01

104

A procura do turismo em espaço rural/ The demand for tourism in rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER) em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quotidiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes (more) nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas. Abstract in english This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA) in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues be (more) lieved to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

Silva, Luís

2007-05-01

105

Exercise increases neural stem cell proliferation surrounding the area of damage following rat traumatic brain injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exercise enhances neuronal stem cell (NSC) proliferation and neurogenesis. However, the effect of exercise on NSC proliferation surrounding the area of damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of running on NSC proliferation following TBI in the rat. Wistar rats received TBI and were randomly divided into two groups: (1) non-exercise group and (2) exercise group. The exercise group ran on a treadmill for 30 min/day at 22 m/min for 7 consecutive days. Immunohistochemistry was used to monitor NSC proliferation around the damaged area, and ex vivo techniques were used to isolate NSCs from the damaged region in both groups. The number of nestin- and Ki67-positive cells observed at 3 and 7 days after TBI was significantly greater in the exercise group than in the non-exercise group (P < 0.01). Furthermore, most nestin-positive cells in the exercise group co-localized with Ki67-positive cells. In ex vivo studies, spheres could be isolated from injured brain tissue from the exercise group at 3 and 7 days following TBI, but at only 3 days in the non-exercise group. The number of spheres isolated from injured brain tissue was greater in the exercise group than in the non-exercise group. Spheres were immunopositive for nestin and comprised NSCs that could differentiate into neurons and glia. Exercise increases the proliferation of NSCs around the damaged area following TBI. Therefore, exercise therapy (rehabilitation) in the early phase following TBI is important for recuperation from cerebral dysfunction induced by TBI.

Itoh T; Imano M; Nishida S; Tsubaki M; Hashimoto S; Ito A; Satou T

2011-02-01

106

Statistical Analysis of Broadband Wireless Links in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Third-generation (3G) cellular systems are often considered as a promising strategy for high-speed internet deployment in rural areas. However, bandwidth in 3G systems is a limited resource and can be quite different from the advertised bandwidth. In addition, in wireless applications such as voice over IP, video-conference, remote monitoring and telemetry (e.g., for healthcare applications) the Quality of Service (QoS) is critical. It is therefore important to understand how different factors affect the QoS requirements of real-time applications. Focusing on the reverse link (or uplink), we performed an assessment of the bandwidth and packet loss rate in a real network environment, using test data collected with two wireless data cards from different providers, in both rural and urban locations. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of a formal statistical method – a Design of Experiments (DOE) analysis - that can be used to analyze the interactions between different variables, such as packet size, location, buffer size, and wireless provider. With a better understanding of the impact of such factors and their interactions, the end-user may be able to make the best selection of certain controllable parameters, in an effort to improve the QoS of the 3G connection. This is especially important for users located in rural areas, where cellular coverage is limited.

Wei Zhan; Ana E. Goulart

2009-01-01

107

Determination of the pollution with lead in the batteries factory in Al-Saffera (Aleppo) and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The study aimed to determine the lead concentrations in the ecosystem surrounding the batteries factory in Al-Saffera. The results showed that the lead levels were very high in both factory area and the surrounding agricultural area. Lead levels in air varied between 12 and 34 ?g/m3 in the area outside the factory. The same trends were in both soil and plant samples, and normal washing does not decrease the lead level in plant samples to acceptable levels. Mean lead levels in blood was also high and ranged between 55 and 28 ?g /dl for factory workers and village inhabitants respectively. In conclusion the authorities administration must take all necessary procedures to reduce the lead levels in the factory area and in the surrounding area.(Author)

2007-01-01

108

Measuring the equity of inpatient utilization in Chinese rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background As an important outcome of the health system, equity in health service utilization has attracted an increasing amount of attention in the literature on health reform in China in recent years. The poor, who frequently require more services, are often the least able to pay, while the wealthy utilize disproportionately more services although they have less need. Whereas equity in health service utilization between richer and poorer populations has been studied in urban areas, the equity in health service utilization in rural areas has received little attention. With improving levels of economic development, the introduction of health insurance and increasing costs of health services, health service utilization patterns have changed dramatically in rural areas in recent years. However, previous studies have shown neither the extent of utilization inequity, nor which factors are associated with utilization inequity in rural China. Methods This paper uses previously unavailable country-wide data and focuses on income-related inequity of inpatient utilization and its determinants in Chinese rural areas. The data for this study come from the Chinese National Health Services Surveys (NHSS) conducted in 2003 and 2008. To measure the level of inequity in inpatient utilization over time, the concentration index, decomposition of the concentration index, and decomposition of change in the concentration index are employed. Results This study finds that even with the same need for inpatient services, richer individuals utilize more inpatient services than poorer individuals. Income is the principal determinant of this pro-rich inpatient utilization inequity- wealthier individuals are able to pay for more services and therefore use more services regardless of need. However, rising income and increased health insurance coverage have reduced the inequity in inpatient utilization in spite of increasing inpatient prices. Conclusions There remains a strong pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilization in rural China. However, a narrowing income gap between the rich and poor and greater access to health insurance has effectively reduced income inequality, equalizing access to care. This suggests that the most effective way to reduce the inequity is to narrow the gap of income between the rich and poor while adopting social risk protection.

Zhou Zhongliang; Gao Jianmin; Fox Ashley; Rao Keqin; Xu Ke; Xu Ling; Zhang Yaoguang

2011-01-01

109

Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research  

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Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage”) evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in ?ódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in ?ódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in ?ódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

Pamela Jeziorska-Biel; El?bieta Psyk-Piotrowska

2012-01-01

110

Ordovician eunicid polychaetes of Estonia and surrounding areas: review of their distribution and diversification.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scolecodonts, the jaws of polychaete worms, are common and diverse palynomorphs in the Ordovician rocks of Estonia and surrounding areas. Some 120 apparatus-based species representing about 40 genera have been recorded thus far. Relatively long stratigraphical ranges of the majority of species reflect a low rate of evolution of jawed polychaetes. However, some individual species, as well as structural changes in the assemblages, appear to be useful for stratigraphical purposes. Environmental events like those in the middle Caradoc and late Ashgill had some impact on polychaete faunas, but less than on several other groups. In order to study the spatial distribution of eunicids, faunas of particular intervals of the Ordovician were investigated. Quantitative analysis revealed that polychaete assemblages with a very consistent qualitative and quantitative composition were widespread over long distances within the belts of similar facies conditions in the Baltoscandian Palaeobasin. On the other hand, it appears that species of Ordovician jawed polychaetes were strongly influenced by particular facies, and accordingly well differentiated along the palaeobasin gradient. The decrease in diversity and abundance towards the deeper-water part of the palaeobasin indicates that the majority of Ordovician eunicids preferred relatively shallow-water conditions. The increase in differentiation of environments is accompanied by an increase in differentiation of polychaete assemblages.

Hints O

2000-12-01

111

Aqua regia extracted metals in sediments from the industrial area and surroundings of Pancevo, Serbia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surface and buried sediments were analyzed for Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V, as well as for total carbon and hydrogen to assess the distribution of sediment pollution due to the vicinity of the petrochemical complex. The samples, collected from 20 locations within the petrochemical complex and from 16 locations outside the complex, were aqua regia extracted and analyzed by ICP/OES. Metals were determined with an acceptable accuracy for certified metals of 82-113%. The precision for the aqua regia extraction was satisfactory, less than 20%, except for Cd where it was 28%. Comparison of the data from the petrochemical with those from the non-petrochemical areas showed different distributions of the metals. Metals that exceeded the baseline range; Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, were detected in higher concentrations in sediments that were under the influence of the chlor-alkali plant within the petrochemical complex. Comparison with data from the petrochemical complex and its surroundings and their distribution demonstrated that the metal compositions of the sediments were modified by anthropogenic activities.

Reli? D; ?or?evi? D; Sakan S; An?elkovi? I; Mileti? S; ?uri?i? J

2011-02-01

112

Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil) were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence), the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

Janaina C. Santos; Alcina Magnólia Franca Barreto; Kenitiro Suguio

2012-01-01

113

Local earthquake tomography of the Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area in Turkey  

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Full Text Available In this study, selected travel time data from the aftershock series of the Erzincan earthquake (March, 1992, Ms=6.8) were inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D Vp and Vs structure. The general features of the 3D velocity structure of the upper crust of Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area, one of the most tectonically and seismically active regions in Turkey were investigated. The data used for this purpose were 2215 P-wave and 547 S-wave arrival times from 350 local earthquakes recorded by temporary 15 short-period seismograph stations. Thurber?s simultaneous inversion method (1983) was applied to the arrival time data to obtain a 3D velocity structure, and hypocentral locations. Both 3D heterogeneous P and S wave velocity variations down to 12 km depth were obtained. The acquired tomographic images show that the 3D velocity structure beneath the region is heterogeneous in that low velocity appears throughout the basin and at the southeastern flank, and high velocities occur at south and east of the basin. The low velocities can be related to small and large scale fractures, thus causing rocks to weaken over a long period of the active tectonic faulting process. The ophiolitic rock units mostly occurring around the basin area are the possible reason for the high velocities. The validity of 3D inversion results was tested by performing detailed resolution analysis. The test results confirm the velocity anomalies obtained from inversion. Despite the small number of inverted S-wave arrivals, the obtained 3D S velocity model has similar anomalies with lower resolution than the 3D P-wave velocity model. Better hypocenter locations were calculated using the 3D heterogeneous model obtained from tomographic inversion.

H. Gökalp

2007-01-01

114

Distribution of heavy elements in urban and rural surface soils: the Novi Sad city and the surrounding settlements, Serbia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Concentrations of ten heavy elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), as well as the pH values, organic matter contents, and electrical conductivities were measured in the surface soil samples collected from 21 sites of urban areas in the city of Novi Sad, the second largest city in Serbia, its suburban settlement and the nearby villages. Range of the heavy element concentrations was from 0.16 mg/kg (for Hg) to 18,994 mg/kg (for Fe). Significantly higher Hg and Mn concentrations were observed in subgroups with rural and market garden samples in comparison to the subgroups with urban and grassland samples, respectively, while the contents of Pb found in the grasslands subgroup were significantly higher than in the subgroup with market garden soils. Only one sample of urban soil exceeded the maximum permissible value for Zn set by the relevant Serbian legislation. According to the Dutch soil quality standard, the Cd and Co concentrations in majority of the examined soils were higher than the target values for unpolluted soil. The content of Hg was above the target value in 52% of the samples, most of them belonging to the subgroup of market garden soils. The results for the Novi Sad city area were compared to the relevant data available for other cities in the Western Balkan Countries. Principal component analysis of data revealed seven outlying samples, while the rest of the analyzed samples were grouped together indicating similar heavy element patterns most probably due to mixed emission sources.

Škrbi? B; ?uriši?-Mladenovi? N

2013-01-01

115

Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs.

Balagangatharathilagar, M. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India); Swarup, D. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India); Patra, R.C. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: patra@ivri.up.nic.in; Dwivedi, S.K. [Environmental Medicine Laboratory, Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Uttar Pradesh (India)

2006-04-15

116

Study on Nitrate Value in Rural Area in Amol City  

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Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Nitrate is considered as a major pollutant for groundwater resource. In recent years, the concentration of nitrate in subsurface water is increasing because du to utilization of the of using excessive amount of fertilizers and disposal of wastewater in soils. This research was carried out as descriptive study, in a rural area of Paeen Khiaban Litkooh in Amol City in 2005.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 300 samples were collected from 50 well drinking water in different weather (wet and dry) The samples was taken from each well, 3 times in the wet air and 3 times in the dry air. Nitrate analysis method was Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (Model Jesco 7800 U.V/Visible) at 220 and 275 nm according to "Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th edition)".Results: The results revealed that, nitrate maximum related to well number 38 in a rural qrea with code 8 and with 20.66 mg/l Nitrate as N. Maximum of Nitrate average concerned in rural code 8 with 9.66 mg/l and minimum of nitrate average related to rural code 2 with 1.257 mg/l nitrate as N. The results indicated that nitrate was reduced when the depth of water wells increased and ford ware, the value of nitrate in deep wells is more than surface wells.Conclusion: The statistical analysis showed, there is a significant difference between concentrations of nitrate in surface wells drinking water in wet and dry air conditions, but there is not a significant difference between deep well drinking water. The leakage of surface water to the low depth well and lack of sanitation, may be the cause of this difference.

Z. Yousefi, Ph.D.; O. Naeej. M.Bs

2007-01-01

117

[Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria and Hernandez's tables. RESULTS: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8) were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3) were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9) were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4) were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2) were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6) were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (<5,000 people), with OR = 1.49 (95%CI: 1.13-1.95) and OR = 1.33 (95%CI: 1.06-1.67), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas is very high and is even higher in towns with less than 5,000 inhabitants.

Coronado Vázquez V; Odero Sobrado D; Canalejo González D; Cidoncha Pérez J

2012-09-01

118

Clusters as a factor for sustainable development in rural areas  

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Full Text Available Sustainable development is one of the determinants of strategic thinking and current operation of modern companies. Sustainable development is a factor in other words, in which companies come to work. It is an important factor, and having far-reaching repercussions, but it is not the only one. Enterprises should therefore take in its action it into account, adapt to it and benefit from its existence, but that does not mean that this fact can and should be the only determinant of their performance. The determinant of its action should reflect the clusters, especially those operating in rural areas.

Justyna Soci?ska

2012-01-01

119

Wood as a primal fuel for rural areas of Estonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

About 20% of the population of Estonia has individual heating systems, mainly using domestic fuels such as wood and peat. This cheaper fuel is widely used in rural areas. The first studies of fuel consumption of households were made in Estonia in 1928 and 1934. At present there is a lack of reliable data. In 1995-1998 the authors carried out an investigation to analyze the situation nowadays. The data indicates that some wood used as fuel is not reflected in official statistics. This result means that the actual share of biofuels in the Estonian energy supply is bigger than that shown in official statistics. (author)

Muiste, P. [Estonian Agricultural University, Tartu (Estonia); Kask, U. [Tallinn Technical University (Estonia)

1999-07-01

120

Wood as a primal fuel for rural areas of Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 20% of the population of Estonia has individual heating systems, mainly using domestic fuels such as wood and peat. This cheaper fuel is widely used in rural areas. The first studies of fuel consumption of households were made in Estonia in 1928 and 1934. At present there is a lack of reliable data. In 1995-1998 the authors carried out an investigation to analyze the situation nowadays. The data indicates that some wood used as fuel is not reflected in official statistics. This result means that the actual share of biofuels in the Estonian energy supply is bigger than that shown in official statistics. (author)

1999-09-02

 
 
 
 
121

Age distribution of fossil landslides in the Tyrol (Austria) and its surrounding areas  

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Full Text Available Some of the largest mass movements in the Alps cluster spatially in the Tyrol (Austria). Fault-related valley deepening and coalescence of brittle discontinuities structurally controlled the progressive failure and the kinematics of several slopes. To evaluate the spatial and temporal landslide distribution, a first comprehensive compilation of dated mass movements in the Eastern Alps has been made. At present, more than 480 different landslides in the Tyrol and its surrounding areas, including some 120 fossil events, are recorded in a GIS-linked geodatabase. These compiled data show a rather continuous temporal distribution of landslide activities, with (i) some peaks of activity in the early Holocene at about 10 500–9400 cal BP and (ii) in the Tyrol a significant increase of deep-seated rockslides in the Subboreal at about 4200–3000 cal BP. The majority of Holocene mass movements were not directly triggered by deglaciation processes, but clearly took a preparation of some 1000 years, after ice withdrawal, until slopes collapsed. In view of this, several processes that may promote rock strength degradation are discussed. After the Late-Glacial, slope stabilities were affected by stress redistribution and by subcritical crack growth. Fracture propagating processes may have been favoured by glacial loading and unloading, by earthquakes and by pore pressure fluctuations. Repeated dynamic loading, even if at subcritical energy levels, initiates brittle fracture propagation and thus substantially promotes slope instabilities. Compiled age dating shows that several landslides in the Tyrol coincide temporally with the progradation of some larger debris flows in the nearby main valleys and, partially, with glacier advances in the Austrian Central Alps, indicating climatic phases of increased water supply. This gives evidence of elevated pore pressures within the intensely fractured rock masses. As a result, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations are induced by complex and polyphase interactions of lithological and structural parameters, morphological changes, subcritical fracture propagation, variable seismic activity and climatically controlled groundwater flows.

C. Prager; C. Zangerl; G. Patzelt; R. Brandner

2008-01-01

122

Clinical significance of low signal intensity area surrounding stent struts identified by optical coherence tomography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous intravascular ultrasound studies have shown that echolucent neointimal hyperplasia occasionally appears after bare-metal stent (BMS) or sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) studies have also demonstrated that paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) restenosis exhibited similar images showing low signal intensity areas (LSIA) surrounding stent struts and three-layer appearance (TLA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of LSIA on OCT images in various types of stents. Fifty nine consecutive patients who underwent scheduled follow-up coronary angiography and OCT were enrolled. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of LSIA among the 3 stent groups (BMS 30%, SES 19%, PES 28%, P = 0.70). LSIA thickness was larger in the PES group than in the other stent groups (BMS 0.51 ± 0.21 mm, SES 0.35 ± 0.06 mm, PES 0.87 ± 0.19 mm, P < 0.01). The ratio of LSIA thickness to the neointimal thickness was also larger in PES compared with other stents (BMS 53 ± 9 %, SES 57 ± 8 %, PES 77 ± 5 %, P < 0.01). Also, LSIA thickness in patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) was significantly larger than in those without ISR (0.37 ± 0.37 mm versus 0.12 ± 0.26 mm, P = 0.048). Our results suggest that LSIA might be involved in excessive neointimal formation, and that the healing response after PES implantation might be different from BMS or SES.

Ishibashi K; Tanaka A; Kitabata H; Kubo T; Kashiwagi M; Komukai K; Ino Y; Tanimoto T; Takemoto K; Takarada S; Hirata K; Mizukoshi M; Imanishi T; Akasaka T

2013-01-01

123

What interventions do rural doctors think will increase recruitment in rural areas: a survey of 2778 health workers in Beijing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A shortage of health professionals in rural areas is a major problem facing China, as more than 60% of the population lives in such areas. Strategies have been developed by the government to improve the recruitment of rural doctors. However, the inequitable distribution of doctors working in China has not improved significantly. The objective of this study was to explore the reasons for the poor recruitment and to propose possible strategies to improve the situation. METHODS: Between September 2009 and November 2009 data were collected from 2778 rural doctors in Beijing, China. A quantitative survey was used to explore health workers' perceptions as to what factors would have the greatest impact on recruitment and whether access to training had been effective in increasing their confidence, enhancing their interest in practicing medicine and increasing their commitment to recruitment. RESULTS: Rural doctors were generally older than average in China. Of the 2778 participants, only 7.23% had obtained a license as a qualified doctor. For 53% of the rural doctors, the job was part-time work. The survey showed that rural doctors considered the training strategy to be inadequate. In general, the initiatives identified by rural doctors as being of most value in the recruitment of doctors were those targeting retirement pension and income. CONCLUSIONS: From the perspective of rural doctors, specific initiatives that promised a secure retirement pension and an increased income were considered most likely to assist in the recruitment of rural doctors in Beijing.

Wang J; Su J; Zuo H; Jia M; Zeng Z

2013-01-01

124

SPECIFIC CONDITIONS AND FORMS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL AREA IN SOUTH MUNTENIA REGION  

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Full Text Available The development of the rural area refers to the modifications in the rural area and the specific forms that supports these modifications, represented by the technical and social infrastructure. The rural area of the region was formed from administrative point of view of 7 counties, in 2010, containing 519 communes, with 2019 villages. The rural area, by the development potential it has, plays and important role in the economic and social life of the region, being different by the urban area by the profile of the economic activities, occupational structures and available resources. In the rural area, the agriculture dominates as main activity, the percent owned by it at the regional level being of 35.5% of the total employed population in 2010. The proposed paper presents the aspects regarding the infrastructure for the development of the rural area in South Muntenia Region.

Elena LASCAR

2013-01-01

125

An aerial radiological survey of the Faultless Site and surrounding area. Final report, September 9, 1996 - September 12, 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Faultless site was measured during September 9-12, 1996, using aerial radiological survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the site and to identify any unexpected man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a four-mile (six-kilometer) radius of the site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Terrestrial exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on maps of the survey area. Terrestrial exposure rates in areas surrounding the site varied from 12-16 microroentgens per hour. No evidence of man-made radiation was detected at the site

1997-01-01

126

Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs) (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience). Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.

Mullei Kethi; Mudhune Sandra; Wafula Jackline; Masamo Eunice; English Michael; Goodman Catherine; Lagarde Mylene; Blaauw Duane

2010-01-01

127

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

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Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus Rutebemberwa; Sheila K. Katureebe; Sheba N. Gitta; Amos D. Mwaka; Lynn Atuyambe

2013-01-01

128

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

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Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus Rutebemberwa; Sheila K. Katureebe; Sheba N. Gitta; Amos D. Mwaka; Lynn Atuyambe

2013-01-01

129

Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Airborne dust is a major environmental hazard in Asia. Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO li...

Zhaoyan Liu; Dong Liu; Jianping Huang; M. Vaughan; Itsushi Uno; Nobuo Sugimoto; Chieko Kittaka; C. Trepte; Zhien Wang

130

The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future  

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Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

Ron Wimberley; Libby V. Morris

2006-01-01

131

ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR RURAL AREAS - SUSTAINABLE POTENTIAL IN THE NEW AND OLD EU MEMBER STATES  

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Full Text Available Environmental indicators are new instruments in the European Union to assess the impact of agriculture on the environment in rural areas. Using these indicators in the EU member states, changes in rural areas can be analysed and compared. Thus, strong and weak points in rural areas in terms of environmental protection can be investigated. The aim of the paper is to discus environmental indicators, recommended by the European Commission in 2006, for chosen new and old EU member countries. This indicator analysis can help to state about potentials in rural areas to protect natural resources. Thereby, fields and countries can be specified requiring higher potential of environmental protection.

JADWIGA ZIOLKOWSKA

2009-01-01

132

Solar cooling in rural areas; Solares Kuehlen in laendlichen Entwicklungsgebieten  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For rural areas in developing countries solar cooling can provide the technical base for development. As production of agricultural products is often sufficient and demand in the cities is high, irregular transport is the key problem of development. This problem could be solved by cooled storage, but for cooling techniques there is no power supply. Solar autonomous systems for cooling could bridge that gap. Recently new Lithium Bromid absorption chillers with low driving temperatures and small power scale have been developed for room climatisation. Aim of this paper is to investigate if these new techniques can be used for food cooling in rural areas. A simulation study is presented where an absorption chiller, driven by solar heat cools a storage for potatoes in India. The main problem is that with Lithium Bromid chillers the cooling temperatures are limited and therefore the potatoes are cooled only down to 7 C instead of the usual 3 C. The ratio of delivered cooling energy to solar irradiation (COPsolar) is below 0,1. This is dew to the seasonal character of the load profile, taken from a solar cooling study and to the fact that only flat plate collectors are used to deliver the heat. Vacuum tube collectors deliver higher temperatures and are therefore better suited for solar cooling, but the glas tubes often break during transport and are not considered as appropriate technology. Two differently sized collector fields are compared and it is shown, that with the larger collector area the store can be cooled almost throughout the season. The modell based on the characteristic equation can also be used to study different locations, other products or load profiles. Although different collectors or a cold storage can be used to improve the system performance. (orig.)

Schrag, T.; Yap, W.W. [dezentral GbR, Berlin (Germany)

2005-07-01

133

VA intensive mental health case management in urban and rural areas: veteran characteristics and service delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The availability of mental health services in rural areas--particularly intensive services such as assertive community treatment (ACT)--has been of increasing concern and was the focus of this study. In recent decades the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has developed a national network of ACT-like programs called mental health intensive case management (MHICM), which have served veterans from diverse locations across the country, including urban and rural areas. METHODS: This study used rural-urban commuting area codes and national VA administrative data to compare characteristics of veterans and patterns of MHICM service delivery among veterans with mental illness living in large urban, large rural, small rural, and isolated rural communities. RESULTS: Among veterans enrolled in MHICM from FY 2000 to FY 2005 (N=5,221), 84% (N=4,373) resided in urban areas, 8% (N=421) in large cities, 6% (N=291) in small rural towns, and 3% (N=136) in isolated rural areas. MHICM participants who lived in rural areas had clinical problems broadly similar to those in urban areas, although more rural veterans were unemployed, disabled, received VA disability compensation, and had a payee or fiduciary. MHICM clients in smaller or isolated rural areas received slightly less frequent and less intensive contacts and less recovery-oriented services than those in large urban locations. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight the need for intensive case management services in rural areas and note some challenges in providing them at the intensity and frequency observed in urban areas where travel distances and times are shorter.

Mohamed S; Neale M; Rosenheck RA

2009-07-01

134

The Effects of Non-Farm Business in Rural Sustainable Development: A Case Study in Sanandaj's Rural Areas, Kurdistan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural economy has an important role in rural sustainabledevelopment in every region or country. However, therural economy in Iran is too much depending on agricultureand development of other rural economy in particular nonfarmactivities, has been neglected by Iranian rural communities.Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the role ofnon-farm business on rural sustainable development in SanandajTownship. This study was a type of surveying research andemployed both questionnaire and interview tools. A four-partquestionnaire (with 48 questions) was developed in order tocollect data from the respondents. Likert-type responses withfive scales were used to assess different sections of the questionnaires.The questionnaires’ reliability was tested by Cronbach’sAlpha technique and it was 76% (?= 0.76). A numberof 279 families, 181 families with and 98 without non-farmbusiness were selected randomly in 2011. Results of the studyshowed that non-farm business can contribute to employmentgrowth, income generating, and prevent seasonal and permanentmigration from rural areas. Based on the results, non-farmbusiness and non-farm industries need to be strongly investedby financial facilities through rural cooperatives and unions.Additionally, encouraging rural participation is essential innon-farms and industrial activities.

Reza Movahedi; Hadi Fathi; Somaye Latifi

2012-01-01

135

Brazilian university technology transfer to rural areas Transferência de tecnologia de universidades brasileiras na área rural  

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Full Text Available In agriculture, there is a difference between average yield obtained by farmers and crop potential. There is technology available to increase yields, but not all farmers have access to it and/or use this information. This clearly characterizes an extension and technology transference problem. There are several technology transfer systems, but there is no system to fit all conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to create extension solutions according to local conditions. Another rural extension challenge is efficiency, despite continuous funding reductions. One proposal that has resulted from extension reform worldwide has suggested integration between the public and private sectors. The public universities could play the role of training and updating technical assistance of human resources, which is the one of the main aspects that has limited technology transfer. The objective of this study was to identify approaches to promote technology transfer generated in Brazilian public universities to rural areas through literature review. An experimental approach of technology transfer is presented here where a Brazilian university extension Vice-chancellor incorporates professionals from consolidated research groups according to demand. In this way, public universities take part of their social functions, by integrating teaching, research, and extension.Em agricultura, há diferenças entre a produtividade média obtida pelos produtores e o potencial produtivo dos cultivos. Há informação tecnológica disponível para aumentar a produtividade, mas nem todos os produtores têm acesso e/ou usam a informação. Isso caracteriza claramente um problema de extensão e transferência de tecnologia. Há vários sistemas de transferência de tecnologia, mas, como não há sistema que se ajuste a todas as condições, é necessário criar alternativas adequadas às condições de cada local. Outro desafio da extensão rural é ser eficiente, apesar da contínua redução de recursos. Uma proposta advinda das constantes reformas na extensão verificada ao redor do mundo é o trabalho integrado entre a iniciativa privada e o poder público. A universidade pública contribuiria para o treinamento e a atualização dos recursos humanos envolvidos com assistência técnica, apontado como um dos aspectos limitantes na transferência de tecnologia. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar, por meio de revisão bibliográfica, alternativas de promover a transferência de tecnologias geradas nas universidades públicas brasileiras para a área rural. Assim, é apresentada uma proposta de transferência de tecnologia a ser gerenciada pelas Pró-reitorias de extensão das universidades brasileiras, tendo como base os grupos consolidados de pesquisa, nos quais poderiam ser incorporados outros profissionais de acordo com a necessidade. Dessa forma, a universidade pública recuperaria parte da sua função social, integrando ensino, pesquisa e extensão.

Enio Marchesan; Scott Allen Senseman

2010-01-01

136

Outreach to health professionals in a rural area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An outreach project which juxtaposed technology (Grateful Med) and a human intermediary (a circuit librarian) to serve health professionals in a rural area of Illinois is described. The five goals of the project were: promote Grateful Med as a clinical tool; introduce circuit librarianship to Illinois; heighten the awareness of health professionals to the value of timely information services; increase the visibility of the resource library; and evaluate the impact of the two components, Grateful Med and circuit librarianship. While the project was well-received and enjoyed short-term success, sustaining the same level of information activity post-project has not been achieved. Insuring utilization of health information by remote health professionals may be characterized as a Sisyphean task.

Pifalo V

1994-01-01

137

Menstrual pattern among adolescent girls in rural area of Bijapur  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a crucial period in everyone’s life. This is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood. These are formative years when maximum amount of physical, psychological and behavioral changes takes place. For girls, adolescence is period of extreme stress and strain. Menarche and menstruation are bound to elicit tremendous psychological response in them. Objectives of the study: To know the menstrual pattern among adolescent girls. Material methods: Community based cross sectional study was done in rural field practice area of department of community medicine, BLDEA’S Shri B.M.Patil medical college, Bijapur. The study subjects include all adolescent girls who have attained menarche. Results: Mean age of menarche of adolescent girls in the present study was 14 years, mean duration of blood flow 3.9±5.07 days. Mean intermenstrual period 28.7±3.26 days and dysmenorrhoea was present in 27.9% of adolescent girls.

Manjula S. Patil; M.M. Angadi

2013-01-01

138

HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL AREA - AS A RURAL DEVELOPMENT COMPONENT - IN THE BUCHAREST-ILFOV REGION OF ROMANIA  

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Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the rural human resources development during the period 2007-2013 in the Bucharest –Ilfov Region of Romania, as a rural development component. It is based on the statistical data provided by our studies regarding HRD projects implemented in this area, financed from structural founds (European Social Found). The data have been processed into the following indicators: number of projects implemented in the Bucharest-Ilfov region promoting long term sustainability of rural areas in terms of human resources development and employment, number of participants from rural areas in the integrated programs, employment rate, HR development, Bucharest-Ilfov region, rural area. During the analyzed period, the number of projects implemented for the human resources development has continuously increased, thanks to the structural founds financing in the first programming period in Romania. As a conclusion, the Bucharest-Ilfov region has an important rural human resources, suitable for structural projects and structural fundraising, for the next programming period 2014-2020.

Alina STOICESCU; Ioan-Niculae ALECU

2012-01-01

139

LO RURAL. UN CAMPO INACABADO THE RURAL AREA: AN UNFINISHED “FIELD”  

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Full Text Available El surgimiento de nuevas lecturas de la realidad social rural latinoamericana, e incluso europea, y los efectos de las políticas internacionales sobre qué producir, cuánto, cómo y dónde, han puesto en la agenda académica el debate entorno al significado y contenido de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En el centro de esta controversia está la superación o ruptura entre lo rural y lo agrario, dos términos otrora considerados como sinónimos. Trascender esta dicotomía reduccionista abre la posibilidad de repensar los caminos y las estrategias mediante las cuales las sociedades en general, en sus esfuerzos por autoproducirse crean condiciones de vida, proveen recursos necesarios y pertinentes y movilizan las capacidades y las libertades de los pobladores rurales. Este documento recoge los elementos más sobresalientes de la investigación “Repensando lo rural y el desarrollo rural” en la que se hizo una revisión de literatura sobre el tema y se buscó, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas³, la participación de funcionarios institucionales, representantes gremiales y académicos. En términos generales se pretendía identificar los significados y los contenidos que se atribuyen a lo rural y al desarrollo rural. El texto se organiza en tres partes: En la primera parte, Reiteración o resignificación, se analizan los posibles avances y permanencias en los significados y contenidos de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En la segunda, denominada Elementos constitutivos del desarrollo rural, se hace referencia a las dimensiones, los indicadores y los actores identificados mediante la información obtenida. En la tercera parte, se establece una relación entre el discurso y las prácticas de desarrollo en Colombia y sus implicaciones en el diseño de políticas públicas. Finalmente se concluye que el desarrollo rural ha tenido como trasfondo una orientación modernizadora de la sociedad rural en general y del sector agrario en particular.The emergence of new readings about the Latin American and European rural social reality and the effects of international policies on what to produce, how much, how and where, has placed a debate around the significance and contents of the rural and the rural development. The core of this controversy is the improvement or breaking between the rural and the agrarian, two terms that were before considered to be synonyms. Going beyond this reductive dichotomy opens the possibility of rethinking the ways and the strategies through which societies in general, in their efforts to self-produce, create conditions of life, supply the necessary resources and move the capacities and freedom of the rural workers. This document collects the most outstanding elements of the research “Rethinking the rural and the rural development” in which an extensive revision of literature about the topic was made. This was made also through semi-structured interviews, participation of institutional officers, academic and association representatives. In general, it was sought to identify the meanings of the contents attributed to the rural and the rural development. The text is organized in three sections: In the first section, Reiteration, possible advances and continuance in the meanings and contents of the rural and the rural development are analyzed. In second, called Constitutive elements of the rural development, reference to dimensions, indicators and identified actors is made through the information obtained. In the third, Implications in the design of public policies are articulation between discourse and development practices in the country is established. Finally, it is concluded that the rural development has had an undercurrent modern orientation in rural society in general and the agrarian sector in particular.

Nelly del Carmen Suárez Restrepo; Isaías Tobasura Acuña

2008-01-01

140

Diabetes prevalence and its risk factors in rural area of Tamil Nadu  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To estimate the usefulness of the Indian diabetes risk score for detecting undiagnosed diabetes in the rural area of Tamil Nadu. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the field practice area of rural health centers (Chunampett and Annechikuppam, Tamil Na...

Gupta Sanjay; Singh Zile; Purty Anil; Kar M; Vedapriya D; Mahajan P; Cherian J

 
 
 
 
141

The Effects of Rent Restructuring on Social Housing in English Rural Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper discusses the impact of central government's rent restructuring policy on social housing in rural areas in England. It examines the effect that restructuring will have on the rents set by social landlords in a set of case study areas then considers some of the likely impacts on affordability and on new investment in rural social…

Walker, Bruce

2004-01-01

142

Migrant Integration in Rural and Urban Areas of New Settlement Countries: Thematic Introduction  

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Full Text Available A relatively new feature in European migration is the significant and growing impact it has had on peripheral and rural areas. In southern Europe there has been a relatively steady stream of migrants to rural areas since the 1990s, in part connected with their relatively large, labour-intensive agricultural sector (Kasimis 2005). In some northern European countries, such as Ireland and Scotland, rural areas have particularly benefited from the 2004 EU enlargement: increasing evidence suggests that the majority of migrant workers from the 2004 accession states have found employment in rural areas rather than the traditional migration centres (TUC 2004). Migration to rural and remote areas can counter depopulation trends that have afflicted those areas for decades, and can contribute to the sustainability of public and private services in rural communities. This can result in a virtuous cycle where well-serviced rural areas may be attractive to both groups, those who once left them as well as migrants. The current thematic issue of UNESCO’s International Journal on Multicultural Societies (IJMS) addresses these issues by exploring integration approaches and processes for different groups of migrants in new settlement countries at macro and micro levels. It pays particular attention to the geographical dimension of migrant integration by examining both urban and peripheral/rural contexts.

Birgit Jentsch

2007-01-01

143

An aerial radiological survey of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Decatur, Alabama  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 12 July to 17 July 1985 over a 97-square-kilometer (37-square-mile) area centered on the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station located near Decatur, Alabama. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with line spacings of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus the cosmic exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates north and east of Wheeler Lake ranged from approximately 11 to 18 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h), while the area south and west of the lake ranged from approximately 9 to 11 ..mu..R/h. Two areas of increased exposure rate were evident. One of these areas was associated with the main units of the reactor facility, while the other was associated with a temporary radiological waste holding area inside the plant's protected area. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of a third area within the plant facility. This area is utilized as a temporary low-level radioactive waste storage site. All three areas indicated the presence of Co-60. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations to support the aerial data. In addition, soil samples were also taken at six locations along the shore of Wheeler Lake. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

Berry, H.A.

1986-10-01

144

An aerial radiological survey of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Decatur, Alabama  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 12 July to 17 July 1985 over a 97-square-kilometer (37-square-mile) area centered on the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Station located near Decatur, Alabama. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with line spacings of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus the cosmic exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates north and east of Wheeler Lake ranged from approximately 11 to 18 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), while the area south and west of the lake ranged from approximately 9 to 11 ?R/h. Two areas of increased exposure rate were evident. One of these areas was associated with the main units of the reactor facility, while the other was associated with a temporary radiological waste holding area inside the plant's protected area. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of a third area within the plant facility. This area is utilized as a temporary low-level radioactive waste storage site. All three areas indicated the presence of Co-60. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations to support the aerial data. In addition, soil samples were also taken at six locations along the shore of Wheeler Lake. 8 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

1985-07-17

145

Innovacionnye centry kak tochki rosta dlja malyh gorodov i sel'skoj mestnosti [Innovation centres as growth points for smaller towns and rural areas  

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Full Text Available This article addresses the role of innovative centres in the development of surrounding areas beyond large cities. At the same time, the innovative development of rural areas should be of a composite nature; municipality development strategies take innovations into account. International practices serve as a an argument in favour of establishing innovative centres in smaller and medium-sized towns in order to facilitate the socioeconomic development of the territory and surrounding rural areas. Science parks created in smaller towns give a boost to socioeconomic development. The authors analyse the case of the science park in the town of Gusev in the Kaliningrad region and emphasise the role of development and adoption of legal acts at regional and municipal levels, for example, the law «On the production policy of the Kaliningrad region».

Belova Anna; Levchenkov Andrei

2012-01-01

146

Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas  

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Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS) while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR) between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

M. Chiappini; A. Meloni; E. Boschi; O. Faggioni; N. Beverini; C. Carmisciano; I. Marson

2000-01-01

147

Geology of the Šalek valley and the surrounding areas from written sources  

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Full Text Available In the paper are presented the oldest written records on Natural History, and especially the Earth Sciences concerning the [alek valley and surroundings, and that are of exceptionalcultural heritage value. We translated from archaic German a text by Hacquet from 1784 that discusses the Dobrna hot springs, and supplied it with explanations and comments.Added is the copy of a part of Hacquet’s lithohydrographic map with Šalek valley in its centre, and with our geologic explanations. Among the first geologists(geognosts)who studied the Šalek valley the German Keferstein should be mentioned, also author of the first geologic map of Germany,Studer,thewell-known Swiss geologist and founder of the Swiss Geologic Survey, and Ami Boué, one of founders of the French Geologic Society.The first modern geologic map of most of the [alek valley and Dobrna depression was elaborated between 1854 and 1856 by Marko Vincenc Lipold, the first geologist of Slovene origin and for many years the general manager of the Idrija mercury mine. The paper overs also the year 1875 when by drilling through the main lignite seam the rich Velenje coal deposit was recognized. This is considered the starting year of exploitation of the Velenje colliery.

Aleksander Brezigar

2007-01-01

148

Sustainable development of the Romanian rural areas within the present European context  

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Full Text Available The present concept of rural sustainable development is based on the European model and implies a multifunctional agriculture. The LEADER programme (a part of NRDP) represents an approach that offers new development opportunities for the rural areas. The rural development objectives can be fulfilled both by the locally available financing, and by accessing national and European non-refundable financing, on the basis of real projects.

Albu, R. G.; Nicolau, L. C.

2011-01-01

149

A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

150

An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site and surrounding area. Central Nevada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site was conducted in December 1993. An interim report was issued. That report described survey procedures and presented terrestrial exposure rate and wide-area-averaged plutonium isopleth plots. This letter report presents additional plutonium plots and some ''rule-of-thumb'' calculations which should help the reader to properly interpret the data presented. Attached to this report are three isopleth plots produced from the Double Track data. No one processing method provides all the answers regarding a particular surveyed area. Where peak values are most important, isopleth number-sign 1, created from the original unsmoothed data, is the presentation of choice. Isopleth number-sign 2, from smoothed data, is superior for the detection of areas of widespread low-level contamination. Isopleth number-sign 3, also smoothed data, satisfied a particular early mission goal but is not as useful for cleanup operations as the other two

1995-01-01

151

Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

2013-06-01

152

Drinking water quality assessment of rural wells from Aiud Area  

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Full Text Available The present paper presents the assessment of physico-chemical quality of drinking watercoming from rural wells of Aiud area (villages: M?gina, Livezile, Poiana Aiudului, V?li?oara). Water qualitywas evaluated through a research project conducted over a period of eight months (October 2009 - May2010). It consisted of a monthly monitoring of water physico-chemical characteristics of 27 drinking wellsfrom the villages mentioned above. There were monitored monthly in the laboratory the followingparameters: pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids,salinity, using WTW Multi-parameter inolab 720. In April and May, at the parameters mentioned abovewere added chemical measurements for the following indicators: Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2->, NO3 -, PO4 3-,HCO3 -, which analysis were performed with Dionex Ion Chromatograph System 2100. The results of thechemical analysis were processed using the following methods: linear regression, Pearson correlationcoefficient (r) and water quality index (WQI). This monitoring project was initiated from the premise of aproblematic quality of well waters, based on the well known contamination vulnerability of the drinkingwater in Romania, but the results of this study proved the opposite: the water from the monitored wellshad a proper quality for drinking

Diana I. C?lin; Cristina Ro?u

2011-01-01

153

Elder mistreatment in a rural area in Egypt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Mistreatment of the elderly is a hidden problem frequently cloaked under the shroud of family secrecy. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent of mistreatment of older people living at their homes in the rural area of Mansoura city, Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 1106 respondents, 518 men (mean age 67.6 ± 6.3 years) and 588 women (mean age 68.5 ± 8.4 years), who answered face-to-face survey questionnaires. The questionnaires used were; Questionnaire to elicit elder abuse, Actual abuse tool, Elder Assessment Instrument, Risk of abuse tool, Katz index and Geriatric depression scale 15 items. RESULTS: Of the respondents, 43.7% reported mistreatment by family members. The predominant type of reported mistreatment was neglect (42.4%) followed by physical abuse (5.7%), psychological abuse (5.1%) and financial abuse (3.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The independent risk factors for overall mistreatment of the elderly were older age, insufficient pension and caregiver other than spouse. Although being dependent, the number of children being three or less and caregiver other than spouse were significant independent attributes for "neglect" as a form of elder mistreatment.

Abdel Rahman TT; El Gaafary MM

2012-07-01

154

Changes in healthy childhood lifestyle behaviors in Japanese rural areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy lifestyles during childhood constitute a public health problem in Japan. However, current health education in Japan is ineffective in counteracting them. Previous studies contend that healthy lifestyles in children vary by academic grade and sex. This study examined changes throughout childhood suggests some intervention points for lifestyle education. METHODS: The participants were 2833 elementary and junior high school students living in Japanese rural areas. Data on 26 variables assigned to 5 subfactors were collected. We estimated the composite score of each subfactor on the basis of item response theory. A 2-way ANOVA and a graph review were performed to explore the differences and changes by sex and grade. RESULTS: Most of the main effects for sex and grade were statistically significant. Lifestyle behaviors acquired early in elementary school were lost as students progressed to higher grades. CONCLUSIONS: The research indicated the following emphases: (1) Physical activity and leisure habits should be focused on girls and hygiene habits on boys; (2) Continuous education for a healthy lifestyle is essential to maintain good health among children; (3) Education for healthy lifestyle can be classified into 2 important stages such as for dietary and sleeping habits, education from the upper grades of elementary school is important, whereas for other routine activities, reeducation in junior high school is effective.

Nakano T; Kasuga K; Murase T; Suzuki K

2013-04-01

155

The Study of Cultural Soft Power under the Construction of New Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Culture is the core element of soft power, and it is also closely related to the construction of new rural areas. To achieve the overall goal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the developing of country is not only the key point but also the difficult one. In this article, the authors firstly do a brief overview of the concept and meaning of soft power, and then show the importance and necessity of the cultural soft power to make a new sustainable development of country. But today the construction of rural cultural soft power is not optimistic, and the four key problems are as follows: the public cultural projects can not meet the demands of new rural construction, and the government show less attention to the cultural construction of rural areas .Besides, the defective management of rural culture and the insufficient quality of the peasants do exist in rural areas .Therefore, addressed the above issues, authors put forward several suggestions. At first, build and improve the new rural cultural soft power system. Furthermore, make the grassroots government work in the construction of cultural soft power. What’s more, increase the cultural resources and enhance the services of rural public culture. Finally, improve the overall quality of the peasants and cultivate new peasants.Key Words: New rural construction; Cultural soft power; Rural cultural construction.Résumé: La culture est l’élément central de la puissance douce, et de la culture et le développement rural sont étroitement liés atteindre l’objectif global du socialisme aux caractéristiques chinoises, en mettant l’accent sur les zones rurales, les zones rurales est également difficile dans le présent document, le concept. de la puissance douce et pour un bref aperçu du contenu, l’analyse de la puissance culturelle douce de la nouvelle importance du développement durable dans les zones rurales et la nécessité. Mais aujourd’hui, la construction des régions rurales du soft power culturel n’est pas optimiste, il ya un manque de public rural projets culturels ne peuvent pas répondre aux exigences strictes de la construction rurale nouvelle, la construction culturelle des cadres de base en milieu rural à l’attention et le niveau de sensibilisation ne suffit pas, la gestion de la culture en milieu rural doit être renforcée, la qualité globale en milieu rural la science retard scolaire, l’agriculteur n’est pas élevés quatre questions, afin d'aborder les questions ci-dessus pour construire et améliorer la nouvelle rurale système culturel soft power, à renforcer la capacité des ruraux aux services publics culturels, de changer leur façon de penser, faire jouer pleinement la population rurale du gouvernement local qui est de nourrir douce culturelle la construction de centrales de l'ordinaire, d'augmenter les ressources culturelles de la puissance douce pour les zones rurales de la force, d'accélérer la promotion des aspects culturels de la consommation rurale, améliorer la qualité globale des agriculteurs, la formation des nouveaux agriculteurs un total de quatre propositions visant à promouvoir vigoureusement la construction de la culture rurale et la puissance douce.Mots-clés: Nouvelle construction en milieu rural; Culturel de la puissance; la Construction culturelle en milieu rural.

Junjie LI; Konglai ZHU; Xiang WANG

2012-01-01

156

Standard and quality of life of rural areas population in the view of new paradigm of development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main tasks of modern civilization is development according to a New Paradigm, so-called sustainable development.It involves economic and social de-velopment with respect to the state of environment. Demands of sustainable development involve the notion of intergenerational justice, which provides the possibilities of meeting the requirements of humanity in the future. A man constitutes the centre of interest and is the main subject of sustainable development. Its superior aim is to fulfill the needs and aspirations of people, especially the improvement of their standard and quality of life. The work presents analysis of theoretical and empirical issues connected with the development, as well as the standard and quality of life of rural areas population in the region of Lower Silesia, taking into account its functional regions. The analysis made use of sustainable development indexes, basing on normalization method. The mentioned indexes involved housing conditions, as well as expenses connected with housing, health, culture and sport. Areas situated in the surrounding of larger urban agglomerations with higher potential of development, proved to acquire higher standards and quality of life. From the regional point of view the lowest values featured region I of rural character. Research results clearly defined the standard and quality of life of rural areas population in Lower Silesian voivodeship, as well as the changes in these two examined parameters, which confirmed the results of the research conducted in the territory of the whole country.

Adamska Hanna

2012-01-01

157

Radionuclide renography in rural areas of the Gambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A transportable renography apparatus has been used to study subjects in rural communities in the Gambia. The apparatus fits into six metal containers which can be sealed against dust and moisture and carried in the back of a Land-Rover. A small petrol generator can be used to supply power in the field. A three-detector renogram is recorded on a chart recorder whilst digital data are recorded on a C60 cassette for subsequent deconvolution analysis. Indices of renal function, such as mean renal transit time (MTT) and relative effective renal plasma flow (%ERPF), are obtained from the digital data, and a blood sample taken after the renogram is used to estimate overall effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). The apparatus has been reliable, with no serious breakdowns, but supplies of 131I-Hippuran have been a difficult problem. The short half-life of 131I and the short shelf-life of 131I-Hippuran limit the time spent in the field to a few days and delays in delivery from the United Kingdom have had serious consequences. Measurements in an area free from urinary schistosomiasis were used to establish normal values and relationships with other indices, such as time to peak counts and percentage uptake. Results from an area where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic showed a statistically significant difference in MTT and ERPF but not in %ERPF. MTT was longer in subjects aged 45 or less in the endemic area, but no statistically significant differences were found for older subjects. ERPF was lower for subjects aged 17 or above in the endemic area, but for subjects aged 16 or less it was higher with a positive correlation between ERPF and urinary egg count. Subjects who had a second renogram one year after treatment with metrifonate showed some improvement. By the time of a two-year follow-up nine subjects had died in the endemic area and four of them had abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF. Only one subject with abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF had survived. (author)

1986-01-01

158

An aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Rifle Mill sites, Rifle, Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gamma ray isopleth maps have been constructed from aerial data taken over the old and new Rifle tailing piles near Rifle, Colorado. Spectral data from the more active areas reveal anomalous concentrations of bismuth-214. Tables that convert these anomalous levels to ground concentrations and corresponding exposure rates are included.

Jobst, J.

1980-08-01

159

Aerial radiological survey of the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base and surrounding area, Tucson, Arizona.  

Science.gov (United States)

An aerial radiological survey, which was conducted from March 1 to 13, 1995, covered a 51-square-mile (132-square-kilometer) area centered on the Davis-Monthan Air Force Base (DMAFB) in Tucson, Arizona. The results of the survey are reported as contours o...

1995-01-01

160

Urban-to-Rural Environmental Gradients in Houston Metropolitan Area  

Science.gov (United States)

The Houston Metropolitan area composes an extensive urban heat island and is the largest emitter of atmospheric pollutants in Texas, affecting regional air quality far beyond its borders. Three self-powered weather stations that include carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) analyzers were set up to evaluate urban to rural environmental gradients in support of an NSF project investigating isoprene emissions and corresponding oak tree physiology. One station was installed at a participating high school in downtown Houston, one at a junior high school in The Woodlands, a forested suburban community about 40 km from downtown, and the third near the ranger station in Sam Houston National Forest (SHNF) 90 km from downtown. As a consequence of the sea breeze and typical summer wind patterns, these locations are often in line with the Houston urban pollution plume, allowing us to observe the development of ozone concentrations as winds move ozone precursors emitted in Houston toward the north. Here, we analyze the urban to rural gradients for the 2011 ozone season, a period of extreme high temperatures and exceptional drought. Night time (0:00-5:00 LT) temperatures indicated a 2°C gradient between downtown and SHNF; however, this gradient was not mirrored in daytime (10:00-18:00LT) temperatures, which were instead strongly influenced by the sea breeze typically arriving at the downtown station around 13:45 local time (LT), and in The Woodlands around 15:00 LT. Vapor pressure values also showed a gradient between downtown and SHNF with Houston being the more humid, as would be expected with its closer proximity to the Gulf of Mexico. O3 tended to be lowest in downtown for all time periods: night, morning (10:00-13:00 LT), and afternoon (13:00-18:00 LT). The largest O3 gradient, 9 ppb, occurred between downtown Houston and the Woodlands during the afternoon. CO2 gradients were detected as well with lowest daytime values at SHNF, and highest night time values in The Woodlands. Data will be acquired for several years to study the environmental effects on oak tree physiology along the gradient.

Gramann, J.; Schade, G. W.; Barta, C.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Problems of health education in rural areas in Poland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community. PMID:24069857

Charzy?ska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Go?dziewska, Ma?gorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; Ga??ziowska, Edyta

2013-09-20

162

Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes.

2007-01-01

163

Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes.

Ip, Carman C.M. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk; Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Wai, Onyx W.H. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li, Y.-S. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2007-05-15

164

Comparing supports for LGBT aging in rural versus urban areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies of rural populations typically underrepresent lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. This secondary analysis examined data from a nationwide sample of LGBT baby boomers (n = 1201). Geographic differences with respect to self-reported outness, acceptance of sexual identity, social and familial support, and household income were assessed with one-way analyses of variance. Guardedness about one's sexual identity and household asset levels were assessed with chi-square analyses. Rural individuals reported lower levels of outness, guardedness with people including siblings and close friends, and lower levels of household income. Providers should consider strategies for connecting older rural LGBT adults for potential care and support.

Lee MG; Quam JK

2013-02-01

165

Comparing supports for LGBT aging in rural versus urban areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of rural populations typically underrepresent lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. This secondary analysis examined data from a nationwide sample of LGBT baby boomers (n = 1201). Geographic differences with respect to self-reported outness, acceptance of sexual identity, social and familial support, and household income were assessed with one-way analyses of variance. Guardedness about one's sexual identity and household asset levels were assessed with chi-square analyses. Rural individuals reported lower levels of outness, guardedness with people including siblings and close friends, and lower levels of household income. Providers should consider strategies for connecting older rural LGBT adults for potential care and support. PMID:23350566

Lee, Michael G; Quam, Jean K

2013-02-01

166

Biological studies in the sea area surrounding the Loviisa nuclear power plant in the year 1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations of rise in water temperature caused by the plant's cooling water were made in a large area of Haestholmsfjaerden. The mean temperatures during the growth period and summer months were on average of the same magnitude as those in the 1970s, except very close to the outlet, where the mean temperatures were clearly increased by the cooling water. The salinity of the water increased to exceptionally high values in September in the whole study area. Salinities even exceeding 0.6% were measured in the surface water of Haestholmsfjaerden. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were clearly above the level found earlier in the area, but the increase in the nutrient level was similar at all stations (including the reference station at Pernajanlahti). The amount of oxygen in the bottom water of the deep part of Haestholmsfjaerden in late summer was lower than in previous years (1.2 ml/l, 14% of the saturation level). The phytoplankton biomass spring maximum was greater at all stations than in 1974-76. Differences in species composition were small compared with earlier years. The amounts of chlorophyll a during the spring maximum were higher in 1977 than in 1975-76. The level of phytoplankton primary production in the whole study area was lower in 1977 than in the 1970s on average. The annual production at station nearest the outlet, was about 10% greater than at station situated in the middle of Haestholmsfjaerden, owing to higher production in the middle of summer. No important differences in 'in vitro' primary production were observed between sampling places near the water intake and the outlet and the values were of the same magnitude as in 1976. (T.V.)

1980-01-01

167

Electric distribution infrastructures for rural areas in developing countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally defined. Chapter II describes the design method developed to compare the costs of different architectures and choose the most suitable. Chapter III shows a method of sizing systems Decentralized Rural Electrification including generators, batteries and windmills. Chapter IV describes the results of a reliability study was carried out on different solutions. Chapter V describes the work done to analyze the operation of a production center consists of a generator and a wind turbine. (author)

2004-01-01

168

Reduction and alleviation of the poverty in the rural areas of Viet Nam  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to obtain the target of to double the GDP/per capita by 2000 year that means 400 US dollar per capita. The Government of Viet Nam has accorded high priority to reduction and alleviation of the poverty in the rural areas, where the population occupies 80% of total population. This paper concentrates on the activities aimed to the reduction and alleviation of poverty at two typical areas in the rural areas of Viet Nam. (au)

Thuong, N. [Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Dept. of Technology Promotion, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

1994-12-01

169

Alternative futures of rural areas in the EU; A comparative analysis of scenaria studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What does rural Europe look like in 2030? Is agriculture still the main land user? In recent years, studies such as ESPON, Eururalis, SCENAR2020, SENSOR, SEAMLESS and PRELUDE have tried to address these questions. These studies resulted in a number of alternative futures of rural areas in the EU. In...

Jansson, K.M.; Terluin, I.J.

170

Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border  

Science.gov (United States)

|Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

2007-01-01

171

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children), micronucleus analysis (56 children), and hair Mn content (166 children). Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%). The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05), increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001) and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001). Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

Ykateryna D. Duka; Svetlana I. Ilchenko; Mykola M. Kharytonov; Tetyana L. Vasylyeva

2011-01-01

172

Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

2005-01-01

173

Effect of organic suspended solids and their sedimentation on the surrounding sea area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of sediment contamination was made in one of the 23 specific designated important ports in Japan, the inner part of which had been used as wood pool. The study focused on the relationship between contaminants and organic matter in terms of ignition loss and the impact of the wood pool on the port area. Organic matter exists in the form of suspended solids and deposits. Sediment samples were taken from the mouths of the rivers feeding into Shimizu Port, from the wood pool and from Shimizu Port. Samples within Shimizu Port showed that as the ignition loss decreased with distance from the wood pool, other properties including the concentrations of trace metals, ignition loss and sulfide content also decreased with the distance. In conclusion, Shimizu Port seems to function as a buffer area between the wood pool and Suruga Bay. - Suspended solids can act as adsorbents for hazardous substances in surface water and their sedimentation can prevent the pollutants from spreading into the ocean

2007-01-01

174

An aerial radiological survey of the Hanford Site and surrounding area, Richland, Washington  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Department of Energy's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, during the period 5 July through 26 August 1988. The survey was expanded, and additional flights were conducted to the east of the site and along the banks of the Columbia River down to McNary Dam near Umatilla. The survey was flown at altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) by a helicopter containing 17 liters (eight 2 in. x 4 in. x 16 in.) of sodium iodide detectors. Gamma ray data were collected over the survey area by flying north-south lines spaced 122 meters (400 feet) apart. The processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were generally consistent with those expected from normal background emitters and man-made fission/activation products resulting from activities at the site. External exposure rates were generally 10 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) with some operating areas over 1000 ?R/h. The radiation levels over more than 95% of the site are due to normal background exposure rates. 3 refs., 25 figs.

1988-08-26

175

Menarchial Age of Secondary School Girls in Urban and Rural Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The menarchial age of 859 secondary school girls consisting of 508 from urban and 351 from rural area of Rivers State, Nigeria were determined, using questionnaires and interview method. Data collation revealed that 69.2% (243) of the rural population were menstruating, while 70.1% (356) of the urban population were menstruating. Mean ages of menarche were 13.19±1.32 years and 14.22±1.47 years for urban and rural areas respectively .A statistically significant lower mean menarchial age was observed in urban area girls, compared to their rural counterparts. Girls from families of high socio-economic class has significantly lower mean menarchial age in both urban and rural area. The mean age of menarche was significantly higher in girls involved in vigorous sporting activity in rural areas compared to their non-sporting counterparts. Urban school girls attain menarche earlier than those in rural area. High socio-economic class and vigorous sporting activity can be predisposing factors to low and high age of menarche respectively. There is need for redefinition of high socio-economic class in Nigeria.

Ikaraoha CI; Mbadiwe IC; Igwe CU; Allagua DO; Mezie O; Iwo GTO; Ofori PI

2005-01-01

176

Diagnóstico ambiental e delimitação de Áreas de Preservação Permanente em um assentamento rural = Environmental diagnosis and delimitation of PPAs (Permanent Preservation Areas) in a rural settlement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leia-se neste artigo a tentativa de diagnosticar, delimitar e situar as Áreas de Preservação Permanentes e de Reserva Legal dentro de um assentamento rural, do Incra; visando à experimentação de ferramentas de geoprocessamento para a restauração das matas ribeirinhas, pela delimitação destas áreas, respeitando a legislação ambiental vigente, e partindo de uma ampla avaliação ambiental descritiva da paisagem, encontrada no Projeto de Assentamento Federal Capela. Um diagnóstico da paisagem local é apresentado na forma de um memorial fotográfico. Neste trabalho, serão delimitadas e quantificadas somente asAPP’s de entorno de corpos d’água.This article aims to diagnose, demarcate and situate Permanent Preservation Areas and Legal Reserves within an Incra Rural Settlement. This effort was conducted while testing the effective application of geoprocessing tools in the restoration of riparian forests and the delimitation of these areas, in accordance withexisting environmental legislation, and based on a broad descriptive environmental evaluation of the local landscape, located at the Capela Federal Settlement Project. A landscape diagnosis is shown in a photographic memorial as well. For this study, only the PPAs surrounding water bodies will be delimited and quantified.

Nelson Alexandre Fagundes; Cláudio Vinícius de Senna Gastal Júnior

2008-01-01

177

Mortality due to External Causes in Three Rural Areas of Senegal La mortalité violente dans trois régions rurales du Sénégal  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Mortality due to external causes was measured over the period 1985–2004 in three rural areas of Senegal—Bandafassi, Niakhar and Mlomp – whose populations have been under continuous demographic surveillance for many years. The standardized annual rate of deaths due to external cause...

178

Semi-arid savanna of the Potlake Nature Reserve and surrounding areas in Sekhukhuneland, South Africa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A hierarchical classification, description, and ecological and floristic interpretations are presented on the vegetation types of the semi-arid northern savanna of the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Plant Endemism. Relevés were compiled in 47 stratified random plots. A TWINSPAN classification, refined by Braun-Blanquet procedures, revealed eight plant communities, classified as four associations, one of which is subdivided into five sub-associations. For each plant community, the floristic richness, endemism and conservation status was determined. Much of the plant community distribution can be ascribed to environmental factors and anthropogenic disturbance. An ordination (DECORANA), based on floristic data, showed environmental gradients that possibly exist between plant communities and associated habitats. The floristic information, proposed classification, general description and vegetation key, can be used for the identification and monitoring of protected areas, land-use planning, and further conservation research.

S.J. Siebert; M. Matthee; A.E. van Wyk

2003-01-01

179

Assumption on the Reform of Social Security of Migrant Workers from Rural Areas from an Angle of Unified System in Urban and Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available China is making efforts to improve the social security for migrant workers from rural areas and that for farmers in rural areas. However, due to the strong mobility of migrant workers, the efforts are hard to coordinate. To establish a unified social security system for urban and rural areas is the most reasonable objective and can be put into practice at present. This system should cover a wide and comprehensive scope. In China, no matter whether city or countryside, every citizen should possess an only integrated account for social security. The account must move together with the citizen. The initial account of a migrant worker can be established in either city or countryside.

Anmin Chen

2009-01-01

180

Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Police Accident Reports (PAR) reveal that in a 5-year period between 1993 and 1997, there were 892 crashes at 87 two lane, undivided roadway sites in Strafford County, NH, a county consisting of suburban and rural communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (1) logistic regression model building efforts to identify statistically significant factors that predict the probabilities of crashes and injury crashes; and (2) to use these models to perform a risk assessment of the study region. The models are functions of factors that describe a site by its land use activity, roadside design, use of traffic control devices and traffic exposure. Comparative risk assessment results show village sites to be less hazardous than residential and shopping sites. Residential and shopping sites, which are distinctly different from village sites, reside in single-purpose, land-use zones consisting mostly of single-family dwelling units and roadside shopping units with ample off-street parking. Village sites reside in multi-purpose, land-use zones permitting a combination of activities found in residential, shopping and commercial areas. They are pedestrian friendly, that is, have sidewalks and crosswalks, permit onstreet parking, have speed limits and other amenities that promote walking. Adjusted odds ratios and other comparative risk measures are used to explain why one site is more hazardous than another one. For example, the probability of a crash is two times more likely at a site without a sidewalk than at a site with one. The implications on roadway design to improve safety are discussed.

Ossenbruggen PJ; Pendharkar J; Ivan J

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Roadway safety in rural and small urbanized areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Police Accident Reports (PAR) reveal that in a 5-year period between 1993 and 1997, there were 892 crashes at 87 two lane, undivided roadway sites in Strafford County, NH, a county consisting of suburban and rural communities. The purpose of this paper is to describe: (1) logistic regression model building efforts to identify statistically significant factors that predict the probabilities of crashes and injury crashes; and (2) to use these models to perform a risk assessment of the study region. The models are functions of factors that describe a site by its land use activity, roadside design, use of traffic control devices and traffic exposure. Comparative risk assessment results show village sites to be less hazardous than residential and shopping sites. Residential and shopping sites, which are distinctly different from village sites, reside in single-purpose, land-use zones consisting mostly of single-family dwelling units and roadside shopping units with ample off-street parking. Village sites reside in multi-purpose, land-use zones permitting a combination of activities found in residential, shopping and commercial areas. They are pedestrian friendly, that is, have sidewalks and crosswalks, permit onstreet parking, have speed limits and other amenities that promote walking. Adjusted odds ratios and other comparative risk measures are used to explain why one site is more hazardous than another one. For example, the probability of a crash is two times more likely at a site without a sidewalk than at a site with one. The implications on roadway design to improve safety are discussed. PMID:11426679

Ossenbruggen, P J; Pendharkar, J; Ivan, J

2001-07-01

182

[Community participation for a latrine project in Senegalese rural area].  

Science.gov (United States)

The rural community of Ngohé faces serious hygiene and sanitation problems because of the poor quality of water, and in particular due to the lack of latrines in shelters. As of 2003, a three-year project for the construction of latrines was initiated within the framework of a donor agency programme to support the health region of Diourbel. After three years of activity, the poor results recorded provided considerable justification for the analysis of community participation in the project. A cross-cutting descriptive and analytical survey was carried out from December 14 -17th, 2005. Two trained investigators collected the data through individual and group interviews. It was found that there was close community participation in the decision-making process to determine which activities would be undertaken; however, it was limited in the areas of need assessment, mobilization and management of resources as well as monitoring and evaluation. Community participation was considered average concerning the implementation of activities. The low rate of latrines (1.7%), correlated with the high proportion of diarrhea as one of the main reason for consultation in 2004 (33.4%) and 2005 (29.4%), expressed the non-achievement of the project's objectives, which was planned to end in 2006. Many projects have shortcomings and pitfalls in their participatory strategy at al phases, especially during that of implementation. Frequently, participation efforts are limited to the recruitment of community participants. The organization and coordination that should accompany and support strategies for community participation must be adapted to the context of the poor and disadvantaged populations, a majority of whom are illiterate, as they are less sensitized to the benefits of hygiene and health promotion. It is the responsibility of health professionals to organize community representatives and to strengthen their capabilities in the field of hygiene and health in order to ensure the community ownership and sustainability of such projects. PMID:20441631

Ndiaye, Papa; Ndiaye, Ndéye Magatte; Diongue, Mayassine; Faye, Adama; Dia, Anta Tal

183

[Community participation for a latrine project in Senegalese rural area].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rural community of Ngohé faces serious hygiene and sanitation problems because of the poor quality of water, and in particular due to the lack of latrines in shelters. As of 2003, a three-year project for the construction of latrines was initiated within the framework of a donor agency programme to support the health region of Diourbel. After three years of activity, the poor results recorded provided considerable justification for the analysis of community participation in the project. A cross-cutting descriptive and analytical survey was carried out from December 14 -17th, 2005. Two trained investigators collected the data through individual and group interviews. It was found that there was close community participation in the decision-making process to determine which activities would be undertaken; however, it was limited in the areas of need assessment, mobilization and management of resources as well as monitoring and evaluation. Community participation was considered average concerning the implementation of activities. The low rate of latrines (1.7%), correlated with the high proportion of diarrhea as one of the main reason for consultation in 2004 (33.4%) and 2005 (29.4%), expressed the non-achievement of the project's objectives, which was planned to end in 2006. Many projects have shortcomings and pitfalls in their participatory strategy at al phases, especially during that of implementation. Frequently, participation efforts are limited to the recruitment of community participants. The organization and coordination that should accompany and support strategies for community participation must be adapted to the context of the poor and disadvantaged populations, a majority of whom are illiterate, as they are less sensitized to the benefits of hygiene and health promotion. It is the responsibility of health professionals to organize community representatives and to strengthen their capabilities in the field of hygiene and health in order to ensure the community ownership and sustainability of such projects.

Ndiaye P; Ndiaye NM; Diongue M; Faye A; Dia AT

2010-01-01

184

A Development of the dust deposition in the area surrounding the SMZ, a.s., Jel?ava plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The area of Jel?ava ? Lubeník ranks among the eight excessively polluted areas registered in Slovakia. The main cause of this situation is a hundred years of existence of the exploitation and processing of magnesite. The SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava is currently the biggest Slovak producer of brick and steel magnesite-based clinkers. The technological procedures used to process the raw material represent the main source of solid polluting substances as well as the primary dustiness in the area surrounding the plant. The negative visual look of the surrounding country has its origin in the past, when a 25-times higher quantity of the currently produced solid emissions was released into the air in some years, while the current value of the pollution does not exceed 200 tons per year. The devastated, deforested and degrassed surfaces of the area surrounding the plant and roads became a significant source of secondary dustiness in the given area.Since 1994 ÚGt SAV Ko?ice in co-operation with SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava has been focusing on the monitoring of solid emissions in the form of dust deposition. 18 sampling points situated in the vicinity of the plant, mainly in surrounding villages and city Jel?ava were originally built for the purpose of sampling the dust deposition. The samples were taken monthly , analysed by the gravimetric method and the samples of dust deposition was determined in g.m-2.(30 days)-1. To analyse all samples, they were cumulated for a certain period and then the selected elements were analysed using the AAS method. The results of the dust deposition were averaged for each individual year of the period from 1996 to 1999 to make a better interpretation of the results. The results of the chemical analysis represent an average for a given period. The main component of the dust deposition, i.e. MgO is stated as an average value in individual years.The processed results from 1996 to 1999 show a decreasing trend in the total dust deposition in all localities, except for 1999, when a slight increase was observed in some localities. This increase observed in the most exposed sampling points in the vicinity of the main primary sources did not achieve the value recorded in 1996. In addition to the localities in the vicinity of the plant, the highest hygienic admissible dust deposition [12.5 g.m-2.(30 days)-1] was sporadically exceeded on the places located in the populated zone of Jel?ava, especially during summer dry seasons. The decrease observed in 1999 in the case of the most exposed places in the vicinity of the plant can be caused by an increase in the secondary dust deposition in the given area. The average yearly dust deposition in Jel?ava, representing ca. 10 g.m-2.(30 days)-1 was 2-3 times lower than the stated values of the dust deposition measured in the 80-ties. The MgO deposition follows the development in the total dust deposition. The average content of heavy metals in the dust deposition is relatively small and it increases proportionally with the distance from the main source confirming that SMZ, a.s. is not a big producer of these elements, the content of which has a decreasing trend probably due to a change in the fuel used in the plant. In spite of an increasing production, the plant implements measures to reduce a negative influence of the dust pollution on the surrounding area.

Hanèu¾ák Jozef

2000-01-01

185

Geohydrologic characterization of the area surrounding the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this investigation is to achieve regulatory compliance with the applicable ground-water monitoring requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC). An assessment-level compliance monitoring project was established for the 183-H Basins because hazardous waste constituents were known to have entered the ground water beneath the facility. Three phases were defined for this project, with work being concentrated in five areas: geology, hydrology, ground-water monitoring, geochemistry, and ground-water modeling. These characterization activities have resulted in the definition of principal lithologic and hydrostratigraphic units. Ground-water monitoring results indicated a contamination peak, which occurred between April and August 1986. Further monitoring has shown that nitrate, sodium, gross alpha, and gross beta are the clearest indicators of ground-water contamination attributable to the 183-H Basins. In addition, the concentrations of these contaminants are affected by variations in Columbia River stage. Future studies will focus on continued ground-water monitoring throughout the closure and post-closure periods for the 183-H Basins, sampling of the Columbia River and nearby ground-water springs, and soil sampling adjacent to the facility. 45 refs., 90 figs., 19 tabs.

Liikala, T.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Aimo, N.J.; Bates, D.J.; Gilmore, T.J.; Jensen, E.J.; Last, G.V.; Oberlander, P.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Oster, K.R.; Roome, L.R.; Simpson, J.C.; Teel, S.S.; Westergard, E.J.

1988-12-01

186

Extractability and mobility of mercury from agricultural soils surrounding industrial and mining contaminated areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study focussed on a comparison of the extractability of mercury in soils with two different contamination sources (a chlor-alkali plant and mining activities) and on the evaluation of the influence of specific soil properties on the behaviour of the contaminant. The method applied here did not target the identification of individual species, but instead provided information concerning the mobility of mercury species in soil. Mercury fractions were classified as mobile, semi-mobile and non-mobile. The fractionation study revealed that in all samples mercury was mainly present in the semi-mobile phase (between 63% and 97%). The highest mercury mobility (2.7 mg kg(-1)) was found in soils from the industrial area. Mining soils exhibited higher percentage of non-mobile mercury, up to 35%, due to their elevated sulfur content. Results of factor analysis indicate that the presence of mercury in the mobile phase could be related to manganese and aluminium soil contents. A positive relation between mercury in the semi-mobile fraction and the aluminium content was also observed. By contrary, organic matter and sulfur contents contributed to mercury retention in the soil matrix reducing the mobility of the metal. Despite known limitations of sequential extraction procedures, the methodology applied in this study for the fractionation of mercury in contaminated soil samples provided relevant information on mercury's relative mobility.

Reis AT; Rodrigues SM; Davidson CM; Pereira E; Duarte AC

2010-12-01

187

A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

1997-04-01

188

THE RURAL TERRITORIAL INFRASTRUCTURE, THE SUPPORT FOR RURAL TOURISM ECONOMY IN THE DANUBIAN AREA OF THE SOUTH MUNTENIA REGION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The scope of agritourism activities is related to the existent territorial infrastructure. For this reason there is a pronounced differentiation and diversification of rural tourism and agritourism types in the South-Muntenia Region which sometimes generate confusion. Meaning that, according to the economic character, the Danubian rural area can delimitate villages with agricultural functions (based on the production of cereals, as well as the viticultural and zootechnical productions), those with agri-industrial functions, with agricultural and fishing functions and villages with agricultural and tourism functions. As such, the agritourism of the area considered these very mixed types characterized by the irregularity of the touristic services. We refer to the uniqueness due to the Danubian geographic area, but also to the uniqueness in time (mostly due to the fact that the agritourism season is constantly different). This context brings out the need to know and evaluate the different types of infrastructure which limit the tourist's access in the area.

Iulian DR?GHICI; Ioana ?UGUI

2012-01-01

189

Carboniferous hydrocarbon geology: the southern North Sea and surrounding onshore areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The offshore Carboniferous, particularly the late Westphalia red bed sequence, has locally been the locus of considerable research by the hydrocarbon industry. However, the Carboniferous of much of the southern North Sea remains poorly known and under-explored. The conference brought together scientists working on the offshore area and those whose primary knowledge is of the Carboniferous of the adjacent onshore, which has been studied extensively for over two centuries. Over a hundred delegates attended, including many of the current key offshore and onshore researchers. The main aim of the conference - the promotion of the relevance of the well studied onshore Carboniferous to the understanding of the lesser-known offshore successions, with the objective of locating and producing additional hydrocarbon reserves - was a major underlying feature of most of the papers presented. This volume contains fourteen of the papers presented at the meeting by leading specialists in their fields. The papers range widely in stratigraphical and geographical extend, and review such topics as biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, regional tectonics, provenance, sedimentology and reservoir architecture, depositional systems and sequence stratigraphy, post-depositional uplift and geophysical imaging of coal-bearing strata. Much new information is presented on the offshore sequences and several papers summarize current knowledge of the onshore strata that will aid investigation offshore. A detailed review of remaining offshore prospects is included. An abstract of a talk by Bernard Besly on 'Late carboniferous redbeds of the UK southern North Sea, viewed in a regional context' which has become widely adopted and cited in the industry is included. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Collinson, J.D.; Evans, D.J.; Holliday, D.W.; Jones, N.S. (eds.) [John Collinson Consulting, Beech (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

190

Fossil Cercopithecidae from the Hadar Formation and surrounding areas of the Afar Depression, Ethiopia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hadar is well known as one of the most productive early hominin sites in the world. Between 1972 and 1994 a large sample of fossil cercopithecid specimens was collected from Hadar and the nearby sites of Geraru, Ahmado, and Leadu. At least five, and possibly six, species are present in the sample, including two chronological subspecies of Theropithecus oswaldi. T. o. cf. darti is known from the Middle Pliocene deposits in the Hadar area, along with Parapapio cf. jonesi, cf. Rhinocolobus turkanaensis, and a new species of Cercopithecoides, C. meaveae. There are also isolated molars from the Middle Pliocene of a large colobine which most likely represent cf. R. turkanaensis, but may also represent another large colobine known from the nearby site of Maka in the Middle Awash. T. o. oswaldi is represented from younger deposits of Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene age, along with the large colobine Cercopithecoides kimeui. Throughout the sequence Theropithecus oswaldi is by far the most abundant cercopithecid, with the other taxa being comparatively rare. The Parapapio material from Hadar is important as the only securely identifiable material of the genus in the East African Pliocene. Furthermore, the Hadar material includes the only associated postcranial remains for the genus. If the tentative identification of Rhinocolobus is correct, then the Hadar sample is the only known occurrence outside of the Turkana Basin. Cercopithecoides meaveae is a new species, currently only known from the Hadar region, most importantly by the associated partial skeleton from Leadu. It appears to show adaptations for terrestrial locomotion. Finally, Cercopithecoides kimeui, a very large colobine previously known from Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Rawi is recorded from the uppermost part of the Formation.

Frost SR; Delson E

2002-11-01

191

Fossil Cercopithecidae from the Hadar Formation and surrounding areas of the Afar Depression, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hadar is well known as one of the most productive early hominin sites in the world. Between 1972 and 1994 a large sample of fossil cercopithecid specimens was collected from Hadar and the nearby sites of Geraru, Ahmado, and Leadu. At least five, and possibly six, species are present in the sample, including two chronological subspecies of Theropithecus oswaldi. T. o. cf. darti is known from the Middle Pliocene deposits in the Hadar area, along with Parapapio cf. jonesi, cf. Rhinocolobus turkanaensis, and a new species of Cercopithecoides, C. meaveae. There are also isolated molars from the Middle Pliocene of a large colobine which most likely represent cf. R. turkanaensis, but may also represent another large colobine known from the nearby site of Maka in the Middle Awash. T. o. oswaldi is represented from younger deposits of Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene age, along with the large colobine Cercopithecoides kimeui. Throughout the sequence Theropithecus oswaldi is by far the most abundant cercopithecid, with the other taxa being comparatively rare. The Parapapio material from Hadar is important as the only securely identifiable material of the genus in the East African Pliocene. Furthermore, the Hadar material includes the only associated postcranial remains for the genus. If the tentative identification of Rhinocolobus is correct, then the Hadar sample is the only known occurrence outside of the Turkana Basin. Cercopithecoides meaveae is a new species, currently only known from the Hadar region, most importantly by the associated partial skeleton from Leadu. It appears to show adaptations for terrestrial locomotion. Finally, Cercopithecoides kimeui, a very large colobine previously known from Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora, and Rawi is recorded from the uppermost part of the Formation. PMID:12457855

Frost, Stephen R; Delson, Eric

2002-11-01

192

Study of indoor radon and its progeny concentration levels in the surrounding areas of Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Having studied the radon/thoron and their concentration levels in the urban Hyderabad (known for higher concentrations of uranium, thorium and 40K compared to other metropolitan cities of India), an attempt has been made to measure radon and its progeny levels in its surrounding areas covering the region beyond municipal limits, with an approximate radius of 50 km, using the technique of solid-state nuclear track detectors. The concentration levels of radon and its progeny varied from 3 to 47 Bq/m3 and 0.04 to 3.5 mWL with arithmetic mean of 11 Bq/m3 and 0.9 mWL, respectively. These airborne radioactivity levels in the surrounding areas of Hyderabad are found to be less than the activity levels of urban Hyderabad region. Seasonal variations of these activity levels have also been studied. Further, variation of radon and its progeny levels in different types of dwellings were investigated and it is found that the dwellings with bare flooring and mud walls were found to have higher concentration levels. Distribution of dwellings for different radon levels was carried out to unravel the effect of poor ventilation, type of the construction materials used, etc

2003-01-01

193

Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs) are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the huma...

Tian Li-Guang; Chen Jia-Xu; Wang Tian-Ping; Cheng Guo-Jin; Steinmann Peter; Wang Feng-Feng; Cai Yu-Chun; Yin Xiao-Mei

194

Non-natural conditions of development in rural areas of Middle Pomerania (synthetic measurement)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents non-natural conditions in rural areas of Middle Pomerania. The region was delimited into four different levels of natural conditions. The research was based on the synthetic indicator.

Natalia Bartkowiak; Luiza Ossowska

2010-01-01

195

Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring...) affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in training institutions are necessary, other types of professional support are needed. This experience suggests that professional associations dedicated to strengthening quality of care can contribute significantly to rural practitioners' morale.

Van Dormael Monique; Dugas Sylvie; Kone Yacouba; Coulibaly Seydou; Sy Mansour; Marchal Bruno; Desplats Dominique

2008-01-01

196

Comparison of Changes in Consumption Distribution in the Rural and Urban Areas of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Consumption of goods and services by households is an important index of their level of economic welfare. State of consumption distribution among households is an important index of equity in economic welfare. In this research, two important dimensions of consumption distribution have been studied: 1) Trend of changes of consumption distribution between Iranian rural and urban households; 2) Changes of consumption distribution among households within rural and urban areas in different provinces. Secondary data were used in this research from rural and urban households surveys of expenditure and income for different years. The results show that the ratio of urban household expenditures over rural household expenditures during 1965-96 has had a decreasing trend, though the gap is still high. To compare consumption expenditure distribution changes within rural and urban areas in different provinces, the data for the two years of 1986 and 1996 have been used. The results show that countrywide the Gini coefficients in 1986 and 1996 in rural areas were higher than those in urban areas; in rural areas the coefficients were 0.458 and 0.421 and in urban areas 0.430 and 0.403, respectively, which indicate a decrease of 8.08 and 6.28 percent, respectively. Among the rural areas of 24 provinces, the Gini coefficients of 9 provinces increased and those of 15 provinces decreased from 1986 to 1996. This is while the comparison for the urban areas in the same provinces and for the same period indicates that the Gini coefficient of 6 provinces increased but that of 17 provinces decreased. No change occurred in the case of Tehran Province.

M. Arsalanbod

2001-01-01

197

Water Pollution and its Effects on Human Health in Rural Areas of Faisalabad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was envisaged to assess the water pollution and its effects on human health in rural areas of Faisalabad. The study was conducted in three villages of Faisalabad district using simple random method. 150 respondents were selected from three villages (i.e. 50 from each village). The data were collected from the rural areas through well structured interviewing schedule by using face to face survey method. The collected data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical techniques.

Samina Farid; Mehnaz Gul; Asma Usman; Khuram Iqbal

2002-01-01

198

Side Activities of Non-Farmers in Rural Areas in the Netherlands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many rural areas, not only in The Netherlands but also elsewhere in Europe, has been observed a variety of employment opportunities for rural populations, following the decline in traditional agricultural employment. This contributes to the fact that the countryside is changing and rural areas can be viewed as new spaces of work. As a result, rural economy is no longer dominated by agricultural activities, but by activities such as small scale industrial production, service provision, landscape management, and residential use. To a certain extent these activities have the form of side-activities next to primary income sources. Most attention in both scientific literature and policies is focused on side-activities by farmers, such as agro-tourism and direct marketing. However, according to empirical data from The Netherlands, most side-activities are developed by non-farmers. In this paper the focus is on this last group. The amounts and types of non-farmers’ and farmers side-activities will be deployed, together with their motives to start new entrepreneurship endeavors and the impact on the local community. It will be argued that this type of activities will stimulate rural economic development offering new job opportunities for income generation to the rural inhabitants and create new economic spaces in rural geographical contexts transforming the rural economy.

Marianna Markantoni; Dirk Strijker

2012-01-01

199

Hepatitis C in rural areas of Islamabad, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatitis is recognized as significant public health problem worldwide. There are one hundred and seventy five million Hepatitis C virus carriers around the world. Global prevalence ranges from 0.1 to 5 % with an average of 3 %. There are very few studies done at national and international levels to find the prevalence of HCV in our population. It is a Picorna virus that may invade the body usually through, intra venous devices and contaminated instruments. It may remain silent for years or cause acute hepatitis to chronic liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma is well known complication. Most of the epidemiological studies have so far been carried out on the population with high socio-economic status attending tertiary care hospitals in the cities that have good sterilization techniques. Whereas rural dispensaries are the drainage zones for HCV due to unqualified and untrained technical staff and lack of sterilization procedures. We, therefore, selected some villages (Chirah, Tumair, Thanda pani and Alipur) around Islamabad to assess the prevalence of HCV and tried to compare different epidemiological factors with urban areas in this randomized cross-sectional study conducted from May to August 2009. Two hundred asymptomatic volunteers were randomly selected from patients attending local dispensaries in this study zone. The subjects were given a detailed questionnaire to study and fill accordingly. Details of study were explained to them. Patients included in the study were between 20-50 years of age, having gastrointestinal symptoms. Excluded subjects were pregnant women, patients on ant-viral therapy and known cases of HCV. 5 cc blood samples were taken and transported in ice containers to PINSTECH Complex Hospital laboratory within two hours for chromatographic analysis. We observed that 16.5% of the individuals were infected with HCV. Invasive procedures like D and C by dais and ear piercing were the major transmitting factors in females, whereas I/V devices, dental treatments and barber cutting in males was the dominant risk factors. The use of non disposable glass syringes for injection was also an important mode of transmission. (author)

2010-01-01

200

The Contribution of Rural Tourism to the Sustainable Development of the Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are some elements related to the concept of rural tourism which has nowadays become very important around the world. The rural tourism can revitalize the conventional concepts and views on tourism, and bring in a new dimension to the sustainable development of tourism. It has been realized that tourism can play a major role in many countries economies, especially in developing ones, where it can substantially contribute to the increase of the national income. In this respect, mention should be made that Romania has a lot of resources to develop this tourism branch:villages with well conserved traditions, folklore, wildlife, natural heritage. All these natural elements put in value together with investments in infrastructure have determined an increasing demand for the Romanian rural destinations.

Anca Gabriela TURTUREANU

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Measuring the Determinants of Relative Economic Performance of Rural Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the determinants of economic performance of 149 English rural Local Authority Districts (LADs). A Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) estimation procedure was employed to jointly determine the influence of a wide range of indicators representing economic, human, cultural and environmental capital, as well as less tangible or "soft"…

Agarwal, Sheela; Rahman, Sanzidur; Errington, Andrew

2009-01-01

202

Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 66...

Xia Li; Ning Ning; Yanhua Hao; Hong Sun; Lijun Gao; Mingli Jiao; Qunhong Wu; Hude Quan

203

Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

2008-01-01

204

Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5%) and 303 (4.3%) persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (? 30 disability days) was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3) and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2) but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

Moshiro Candida; Heuch Ivar; Åstrøm Anne; Setel Philip; Hemed Yusuf; Kvåle Gunnar

2005-01-01

205

Epidemiological Characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Rural and Urban Endemic Areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english To compare the epidemiological profile and socioeconomic factors associated to the infection by Schistosoma mansoni in a rural and an urban endemic area a cross-sectional study was performed in Água Branca de Minas (rural area) and Bela Fama (urban area), both situated in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two hundred and eighty eight individuals were surveyed in the rural area and 787 in the urban area. Water contact and socioeconomic questionnaires were used to identif (more) y risk factors for the infection. The prevalences of 38.8% and 9.7% and the geometric mean of eggs per gram of faeces of 117.8 and 62.3 were found in the rural and urban areas, respectively. By multivariate statistical analysis age groups over nine years old and previous specific treatment were associated with the infection in rural area. In urban area age over nine years old, low quality housing, weekly fishing and swimming were associated after adjustment by logistic regression

Amorim, Márcia N; Rabello, Ana; Contreras, Rabindranah Loyola; Katz, Naftale

1997-09-01

206

Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

2005-01-01

207

An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

1986-07-15

208

Aerial radiological survey of the Brookhaven National Laboratory and surrounding area, Upton, New York. Date of survey: June 1983  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed from 11 to 13 June 1983, over approximately a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area surrounding the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). BNL is located in the center of Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. All gamma radiation data were collected by flying east-west lines spaced 76 meters (250 feet) apart at an altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground. The average background exposure rate in the survey area ranged from 5 to 10 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 ?R/h. Ground-based measurements made during the same time period were compared to the aerial survey results. Pressurized ion chamber readings and soil samples were taken from two locations within the aerial survey boundaries. Exposure rate values obtained from these measurement techniques were in agreement with those obtained from the aerial data. A total of 23 areas of man-made radioactivity were identified. The dominant isotopes found over these areas were cesium-137, sodium-22, manganese-54, and cobalt-60. A similar survey was conducted in May 1980. The 1983 survey results were similar to the 1980 results. Three areas of low level man-made activity were not reproduced by the 1983 data. Ten new areas were detected. The major difference occurred because of the increased sensitivity and spatial reduction brought on by lowering the altitude and decreasing the line spacing. 8 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

1983-06-13

209

Aerial radiological survey of the Brookhaven National Laboratory and surrounding area, Upton, New York. Date of survey: June 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was performed from 11 to 13 June 1983, over approximately a 64-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area surrounding the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). BNL is located in the center of Suffolk County, Long Island, New York. All gamma radiation data were collected by flying east-west lines spaced 76 meters (250 feet) apart at an altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) above ground level. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground. The average background exposure rate in the survey area ranged from 5 to 10 microroentgens per hour (..mu..R/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 ..mu..R/h. Ground-based measurements made during the same time period were compared to the aerial survey results. Pressurized ion chamber readings and soil samples were taken from two locations within the aerial survey boundaries. Exposure rate values obtained from these measurement techniques were in agreement with those obtained from the aerial data. A total of 23 areas of man-made radioactivity were identified. The dominant isotopes found over these areas were cesium-137, sodium-22, manganese-54, and cobalt-60. A similar survey was conducted in May 1980. The 1983 survey results were similar to the 1980 results. Three areas of low level man-made activity were not reproduced by the 1983 data. Ten new areas were detected. The major difference occurred because of the increased sensitivity and spatial reduction brought on by lowering the altitude and decreasing the line spacing. 8 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

Hobaugh, J.L.

1985-02-01

210

Willingness and professional motivations of medical students to work in rural areas: a study in Alexandria, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retaining health workers in rural areas is challenging for a number of reasons, e.g. personal preferences, difficult work conditions and low remuneration. Our aim was to determine the effect of motivational factors on willingness to accept postings to rural underserved areas in Alexandria, Egypt and to identify perceived attributes of rural service.,A cross-sectional survey involving 302 4th-year medical students was conducted in March-July 2012. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between students’ willingness to accept rural postings and their professional motivations, rural exposure and family parental professional and educational status (PPES). Perceived attributes to rural service were also assessed. Over 85% students were born in urban areas and 41.4% came from affluent backgrounds. More than half students reported strong intrinsic motivation to study medicine. After controlling for demographic characteristics and rural exposure, motivational factors significantly influenced willingness to practice in rural areas. High-family PPES was consistently associated with lower willingness to work in rural areas. A sizable portion of medical students are motivated to study and practice medicine in rural areas. Efforts should be made to build on motivation during medical training and designing rural postings, as well as favor lower PPES students for admission and improving organizational and contextual issues of rural service.

Aida M. Mohamed

2013-01-01

211

Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas : Creative People and Social Network  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire, utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited.

Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

2013-01-01

212

The rural areas electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Depending on a daily load demand, distance from the utility grid and the available solar energy, the rural villages electrification with a hybrid photovoltaic (PV) system can be a cheaper solution than the classic electrification, by connecting them to the utility grid. Besides PV generator, the considered hybrid system is consisted of a battery and a diesel gen set. For the concrete case - rural village with estimated daily load demand of 15.5 kWh/day, with the computer program PVFORM, which is modified for such hybrid system, were simulated a few hundreds PV systems, with different sizes of the PV generator and of the battery capacity. Analyzing the obtained results, it can be foreseen the influence of the component size on the system functionality. From the mass of possible system combinations, it is chosen one that has 42 % lower initial investment, than the initial investment for connection of the village to the utility grid. (Original)

2001-01-01

213

Area-level risk factors for adverse birth outcomes: trends in urban and rural settings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Significant and persistent racial and income disparities in birth outcomes exist in the US. The analyses in this manuscript examine whether adverse birth outcome time trends and associations between area-level variables and adverse birth outcomes differ by urban-rural status. METHODS: Alabama births records were merged with ZIP code-level census measures of race, poverty, and rurality. B-splines were used to determine long-term preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) trends by rurality. Logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the relationships between ZIP code-level percent poverty or percent African-American with either PTB or LBW. Interactions with rurality were examined. RESULTS: Population dense areas had higher adverse birth outcome rates compared to other regions. For LBW, the disparity between population dense and other regions increased during the 1991-2005 time period, and the magnitude of the disparity was maintained through 2010. Overall PTB and LBW rates have decreased since 2006, except within isolated rural regions. The addition of individual-level socioeconomic or race risk factors greatly attenuated these geographical disparities, but isolated rural regions maintained increased odds of adverse birth outcomes. ZIP code-level percent poverty and percent African American both had significant relationships with adverse birth outcomes. Poverty associations remained significant in the most population-dense regions when models were adjusted for individual-level risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Population dense urban areas have heightened rates of adverse birth outcomes. High-poverty African American areas have higher odds of adverse birth outcomes in urban versus rural regions. These results suggest there are urban-specific social or environmental factors increasing risk for adverse birth outcomes in underserved communities. On the other hand, trends in PTBs and LBWs suggest interventions that have decreased adverse birth outcomes elsewhere may not be reaching isolated rural areas.

Kent ST; McClure LA; Zaitchik BF; Gohlke JM

2013-01-01

214

Dementia knowledge transfer project in a rural area.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Rural Scotland has an ageing population. There has been an increase in the number of people with dementia and as the proportion of people aged over 75 years continues to rise, this will increase still further. The Scottish Government has produced a dementia strategy and implementing this will be a challenge for rural Scotland. METHODS: Transferring academic knowledge into practice is challenging. A Knowledge Transfer Partnership was formed between NHS Highland and the University of Stirling. A literature review was undertaken of the rural dementia literature; local services were surveyed and described; and interviews were undertaken with people with dementia and carers. Work was conducted on training, diagnostic service provision and local policy. Throughout the project, a collaborative approach was used, which aimed at the joint production of knowledge. RESULTS: Involving University staff in local service development had a substantial impact. Reviewing existing research knowledge and setting it in the context of local services, and of experience of service use, allowed the relevant priorities to be identified. As well as identifying training needs and providing training, the work influenced local decisions on diagnostic service design and standards, and on policy. CONCLUSION: This embedded engagement model appeared to produce more rapid change than traditional models of use of academic knowledge.

Stark C; Innes A; Szymczynska P; Forrest L; Proctor K

2013-01-01

215

Cognitive Access to TVWS in India: TV Spectrum Occupancy and Wireless Broadband for Rural Areas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The digital transition of TV transmission will make available some TV frequencies which are to be geographically unused called as TV White Spaces. The important regulatory trend in the context of Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is the Cognitive access of TV white Spaces. In this context, we have performed spectrum measurements of TV band in Pune, India. Our result shows poor spectrum utilization in TV band, and good potential for Cognitive radio operation. Digital switchover in India will generate golden opportunity for empowering rural India. As majority of India’s population lives in rural part of India, we have proposed wireless broadband access to rural areas using TV White Spaces (TVWSs). This will help in bridging the digital divide by offering governance, banking, and health services online in the rural areas. .

Patil, Kishor P.; Skouby, Knud Erik

2013-01-01

216

ASSESSING SELF-CONSUMPTION IMPORTANCE ON THE INCOME IN RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Value of goods produced and consumed is an important part of the lifestyle of the rural population, own consumption delimiting subsistence economy size and living standards. Under these circumstances, this paper aims to assess the importance of self-consumption in population income and expenditure structure and its implications for different social groups in rural areas. In 2011, in rural areas, the equivalent consumption of agricultural products from own resources accounted for 37.4% of total revenues and 47.0% of the total food consumption. In this context, our main results emphasize that high values indicate an involution in own consumption from an economic perspective and a growing importance of agriculture in ensuring non-monetary income of the rural population

Adina IORGA; Elena TOMA

2013-01-01

217

Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m(3)) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m(3)) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively.

Wang C; Li W; Chen J; Wang H; Li T; Shen G; Shen H; Huang Y; Wang R; Wang B; Zhang Y; Tang J; Liu W; Wang X; Tao S

2012-12-01

218

Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China.  

Science.gov (United States)

High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m(3)) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m(3)) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. PMID:22955250

Wang, Chen; Li, Wei; Chen, Jiwei; Wang, Hongqijie; Li, Tongchao; Shen, Guofeng; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Tang, Jianhui; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Tao, Shu

2012-09-03

219

A framework for assessment of biomass energy resources and consumption in the rural areas of Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The different assessment/estimation methods and techniques regarding biomass energy resources are examined, and the associated problems and issues are discussed. A unitary but flexible conceptual framework is suggested aimed at contributing to national efforts to systematically collect and compile statistical information on biomass energy resources. Such a framework is expected to provide reliable inputs into energy balances in the rural areas, a pre-requisite for a coherent rural energy planning and policy formulation. (K.A.) 37 refs.

Venkata Ramana, P.; Bose, R.K. [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

1997-12-31

220

Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices Among Men and Women in Rural and Nonrural Areas of the United States, 1999  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have suggested that men and women in rural areas are less likely than those in urban areas to receive routine cancer screening. Methods: We examined the colorectal cancer screening practices of men (n = 23,565) and women (n = 37,847) aged >50 years living in rural areas and other areas of the United States using data from the 1999…

Coughlin, Steven S.; Thompson, Trevor D.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Survey of Bacteriological Quality of the Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Saqqez City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Safe drinking water providing is one of the main purposes in the community. Development and improvement of community is related to the public health. In this study !we studied the bacteriological quality of 116 villages under coverage of the water and wastewater companies in rural areas of Saqqez in.1386"nMaterial and Methods:Drinking water of these rural areas have provided of deep, semi-depth- wells and spring water sources. Because in numerous rural areas both sources of drinking water and in some of them different sources of drinking water were used (old and new storage water source), in general, 359 samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory for testing to evaluate its quality. We also used linear Regression statistical analysis for collected data."nResults:results show that residual chlorine in drinking water in 33.88 percent of rural areas population were in range 0.2-1 mg/l. For 98.3 percent of the seqqez rural population, the turbidity was lower than the maximum permissible levels of drinking water standards of Iran (5 NTU). There was no any E.coli contamination in 88 percent of drinking water in saqqez rural areas."nConclusion:Based on WHO guidelines concerning the microbial quality of water published in 2006! the average indicator for lack of E.coli in water of rural areas of seqqez was 88 percent and water is safe or good for drinking.

M.H Dehghani; M Ghaderpoori; M Fazlzadeh; S Golmohamadi

2009-01-01

222

Do features of public open spaces vary between urban and rural areas?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Parks are an important setting for physical activity and specific park features have been shown to be associated with park visitation and physical activity. Most park-based research has been conducted in urban settings with few studies examining rural parks. This study examined differences in features of parks in urban compared with rural areas. METHODS: In 2009/10 a tool was developed to audit 433 urban and 195 rural parks located in disadvantaged areas of Victoria, Australia. Features assessed included: access; lighting/safety; aesthetics; amenities; paths; outdoor courts/ovals; informal play spaces; and playgrounds (number, diversity, age appropriateness and safety of play equipment). RESULTS: Rural parks scored higher for aesthetics compared with urban parks (5.08 vs 4.44). Urban parks scored higher for access (4.64 vs 3.89), lighting/safety (2.01 vs 1.76), and diversity of play equipment (7.37 vs 6.24), and were more likely to have paths suitable for walking/cycling (58.8% vs 40.9%) and play equipment for older children (68.2% vs 17.1%). CONCLUSION: Although the findings cannot be generalized to all urban and rural parks, the results may be used to inform advocacy for park development in rural areas to create parks that are more supportive of physical activity for children and adults.

Veitch J; Salmon J; Ball K; Crawford D; Timperio A

2013-02-01

223

DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM AND AGRO-TOURISM INFRASTRUCTURE IN ROMANIAN RURAL AREAS DURING 2000 – 2012  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: More and more tourists from around the world are passionate about the beauty that nature has created. Romania has, including and especially in rural areas many attractions, some already known, others less known. Tourism practiced in various forms in rural areas of Romania offers people who want to relax, who loves nature, culture and folk art, a treasure chest of ancient rural civilization values and can save time and money is staying in reception of rural areas, be it by: peasant family farms, private farms, boarding houses and guesthouses. The evolution of these structures for tourism and agro-tourism in Romania recorded an upward trend during the period studied, respectively 2000 to 2012. This research paper is based on a complex processing and analysis of statistical data, the information from official sources, to central and local institutions, as well as numerous data and information obtained from the field. Rural tourism and agro-tourism potential in Romania have been created and developed numerous tourist accommodation, in order to practice both forms of tourism types: classic and unconventional, complementary, such as rural tourism, agro-tourism, ecotourism, cyclo-tourism, etc.

Daniela Ruxandra Andrei; Verginia Chiri?escu; Mihaela Kruzslicika; Manuela Rodica Gogonea; Mariana Sandu

2013-01-01

224

Denitrification and nitrogen fixation dynamics in the area surrounding an individual ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) burrow system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bioturbated sediments are thought of as areas of increased denitrification or fixed-nitrogen (N) loss; however, recent studies have suggested that not all N may be lost from these environments, with some N returning to the system via microbial dinitrogen (N(2)) fixation. We investigated denitrification and N(2) fixation in an intertidal lagoon (Catalina Harbor, CA), an environment characterized by bioturbation by thalassinidean shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis). Field studies were combined with detailed measurements of denitrification and N(2) fixation surrounding a single ghost shrimp burrow system in a narrow aquarium (15 cm by 20 cm by 5 cm). Simultaneous measurements of both activities were performed on samples taken within a 1.5-cm grid for a two-dimensional illustration of their intensity and distribution. These findings were then compared with rate measurements performed on bulk environmental sediment samples collected from the lagoon. Results for the aquarium indicated that both denitrification and N(2) fixation have a patchy distribution surrounding the burrow, with no clear correlation to each other, sediment depth, or distance from the burrow. Field denitrification rates were, on average, lower in a bioturbated region than in a seemingly nonbioturbated region; however, replicates showed very high variability. A comparison of denitrification field results with previously reported N(2) fixation rates from the same lagoon showed that in the nonbioturbated region, depth-integrated (10 cm) denitrification rates were higher than integrated N(2) fixation rates (?9 to 50 times). In contrast, in the bioturbated sediments, depending on the year and bioturbation intensity, some (?6.2%) to all of the N lost via denitrification might be accounted for via N(2) fixation.

Bertics VJ; Sohm JA; Magnabosco C; Ziebis W

2012-06-01

225

Ethnobotanical and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Floristic Diversity in Murari Devi and Surrounding Areas of Mandi District in Himachal Pradesh, India  

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Full Text Available Traditional uses of floristic diversity are the most important component of indigenous knowledge system, which is widely prcatised by human populations all across the world. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been conducted during 2010-2012, to study the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi Disrtict in Himachal Pradesh, India. Total 384 species (71 trees, 97 shrubs, 209 herbs and 07 ferns) belonging to 106 families and 285 genera were recorded and used by the inhabitants of the area. Different parts of these species, such as whole plants, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, seeds, stems, barks, etc. were used by the inhabitants for curing various ailments. Various anthropogenic activities, over exploitation and habitat degradation have led rapid population depletion of these species. Therefore, study on habitat ecology, development of conventional and in-vitro propagation protocols, development of agro techniques/plantation techniques and introduction in the akin habitats, education and awareness programs for the inhabitants are suggested. So that adequate planning for the conservation of these species could be done.

Pankaj Sharma; Pooja Patti; Ajit Agnihotri

2013-01-01

226

Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 11–12 km. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in Northwest India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar. Comparisons with the OMI and MODIS measurements show the unique capability of the CALIPSO lidar to provide unambiguous, altitude-resolved dust measurements.

Z. Liu; D. Liu; J. Huang; M. Vaughan; I. Uno; N. Sugimoto; C. Kittaka; C. Trepte; Z. Wang; C. Hostetler; D. Winker

2008-01-01

227

Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Airborne dust is a major environmental hazard in Asia. Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 10 km and higher. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in North India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar.

Zhaoyan Liu; Dong Liu; Jianping Huang; M. Vaughan; Itsushi Uno; Nobuo Sugimoto; Chieko Kittaka; C. Trepte; Zhien Wang; C. Hostetler; D. Winker

2008-01-01

228

An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background

1994-01-01

229

The “LEADER Approach” - New Development Opportunity for Rural Areas in Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrated rural development programmes, which are prepared with the active involvement of local citizens, have a long tradition in Slovenia. In the period 1991-2006, Slovenia introduced “Programmes of Integrated Rural Development and Village Renewal” and “Development Programmes for Rural Areas”, which were quite similar to the LEADER initiative in theEuropean Union. From the 2007-2013 programming period, the LEADER approach has been mainstreamed within the overall EU rural development policy. This means that LEADER is included in national and regional rural development programmes supported by the EU,alongside a range of other rural development axes. The main emphasis of the current paper is given to the implementation of the LEADER approach and establishment of local action groups in the 2007-2013 programming period. The paper consists of three parts. The first part presents the general characteristics of the LEADER approach and the measures which are carried out in the 2007-2013 Rural Development Programme. In the second part, an analysis of 33 Local Action Groups is described. The main focus is given to spatial-demographic characteristics, the partnership structure, and the organisation of the decision making body.The paper concludes with an analysis of 33 Local Development Strategies. We analysed the extent to which the strategic goals and priority tasks of Local Development Strategies follow the economic, social and spatial-environmental component of sustainable development.

Tomaž Cunder, B.Sc. Geography; Matej Bedra?, B.Sc. Agriculture

2010-01-01

230

Construcción de tipologías para el turismo en áreas rurales Development of Categories for Tourism in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante los últimos años han surgido en Brasil diversos emprendimientos en áreas rurales como contraoferta del turismo tradicional basado en el modelo sol y playa. Este nuevo tipo de turismo ha recibido diversas denominaciones en función de las distintas realidades de cada región geográfica en la cual se ubican y de los productos ofrecidos. Intentando profundizar el conocimiento de las tipologías, se consideró oportuno comprender mejor esta temática a partir de un caso concreto.Over the last few years a number of initiatives in Brazil have been developed in rural areas as a counterweight to traditional tourism based on the sun and beach paradigm. This new form of tourism has been variously designated, reflecting the different realities of distinct geographical locations and the products on offer. In an effort to achieve a more thorough understanding of categories, this subject is presented as a case study.

Luiz Carlos Leonardi Bricalli

2005-01-01

231

Construcción de tipologías para el turismo en áreas rurales/ Development of Categories for Tourism in Rural Areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Durante los últimos años han surgido en Brasil diversos emprendimientos en áreas rurales como contraoferta del turismo tradicional basado en el modelo sol y playa. Este nuevo tipo de turismo ha recibido diversas denominaciones en función de las distintas realidades de cada región geográfica en la cual se ubican y de los productos ofrecidos. Intentando profundizar el conocimiento de las tipologías, se consideró oportuno comprender mejor esta temática a partir de un caso concreto. Abstract in english Over the last few years a number of initiatives in Brazil have been developed in rural areas as a counterweight to traditional tourism based on the sun and beach paradigm. This new form of tourism has been variously designated, reflecting the different realities of distinct geographical locations and the products on offer. In an effort to achieve a more thorough understanding of categories, this subject is presented as a case study.

Leonardi Bricalli, Luiz Carlos

2005-09-01

232

The Utilization of Insect-resources in Chinese Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human beings'uncontrolled exploitation lead to the rapid consumption and depletion of many natural resources.Mankind is facing an unprecedented dilemma in survival and development which. Searching, development and utilization of new natural resources will be an important way to solve the current problems. Insects, as an important natural resource needing to be further exploited, have aroused wide concerns and may play an important role in tackling food crisis and natural resources depletion. In China, insects have been being utilized for a long time as an important natural resource and there were lots of practices and experiences in the use of insect, especially in the rural regions. In this paper, we presented the current situation of insect utilization in Chinese rural regions and introduced edible insects being used by ethnic people in Yunnan province of China, the place which is special for its diversity in ethnic culture and folkways. In addition, constraints and prospects in using insect resources were discussed and analyzed as well. It was expected that the experiences in using insect resources in China could be helpful for other countries to promote the utilization of insect resources in near future.

Chuanhui YI; Qiuju HE; Lin WANG; Rongping KUANG

2010-01-01

233

Integrated development – essential condition for modernisation of rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The inspiration to take up the issue of integrated development in the context of the modernization of the village was, on the one hand, the conviction of the urgent need of stimulation, on the other hand, there was a concern that it should not be identified entirely with the integrated management system. Although the idea of integrated development is no longer a novelty, but it still remains a declaration and not translated into effective mechanisms for the functioning of local communities. The need to popularise it further does not require an extensive justification. The essence of the modernisation of rural background, characteristics of the integrated management of development, its place in the future EU policy 2014-2020 and in the new system of integrated planning in Poland, will be presented: rural location in the system of integrated management development, declared in selected strategic documents, the role of smart specialization of regions, the Opolskie voivodeship good practice to stimulate development, recommendations for further actions conducive to integrated development, including modernization of the countryside.

Ma?gorzata S?odowa-He?pa

2012-01-01

234

Registro de Culicidae de importância epidemiológica na área rural de Manaus, Amazonas/ Record of epidemiologically important Culicidae in the rural area of Manaus, Amazonas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A biodiversidade da Região Amazônica inclui diversas espécies de vetores artrópodes em seus diferentes ecótopos, possibilitando o surgimento de doenças como malária, filarioses e arboviroses. De agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, realizou-se coletas de culicídeos no domicílio, peridomicílio e nas matas da Comunidade São João, área rural de Manaus, Amazonas. Foram capturados 1.240 culicídeos, pertencentes às subfamílias Culicinae (99%) e Anophelinae (1%), soma (more) ndo 50 espécies. O predomínio entre as tribos foi nitidamente de Culicini, com 904 (72,9%) exemplares, destacando-se as espécies Culex usquatus (22,6%) e Culex quinquefasciatus (17,7%). Do total de culicídeos, 1.077 (86,9%) exemplares foram capturados no interior das matas, 101 (8,1%) no peridomicílio e 62 (5%) no intradomicílio. O ecótopo com maior diversidade de espécies foi a mata. Assinalou-se a presença de Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Aedes aegypti, Haemagogus janthinomys e outros vetores comprovados ou potenciais. Abstract in english The biodiversity of the Amazon region includes many species of arthropod vectors in different ecotopes, thus enabling occurrences of diseases like malaria, filariasis and arbovirosis. From August 2001 to July 2002, we gathered culicids from inside homes, from areas surrounding these homes and from forested areas of the São João Community, in the rural zone of Manaus, State of Amazonas. 1240 specimens were collected, belonging to the Culicinae (99%) and Anophelinae (1%) (more) subfamilies, with 50 species. The Culicini tribe clearly predominated, with 904 specimens (72.9%), and the species Culex usquatus (22.6%) and Culex quinquefasciatus (17.7%) were prominent. Out of the total number of culicids, 1,077 (86.9%) were caught in the forests, 101 (8.1%) in the areas surrounding homes and 62 (5%) inside homes. Forests were the ecotope that presented the highest species diversity. The presence of Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles triannulatus, Aedes aegypti, Haemagogus janthinomys and other proven or potential vectors was recorded.

Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Marcião, Alexandre Herculano Ribera; Silva, Ana Paula Thomé da; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

2008-12-01

235

[Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae) in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area].  

Science.gov (United States)

As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or disseminators of infectious diseases (including parasites), coyotes (Canis latrans) may also serve as indicators of ecological health. In Costa Rica, little information exists on coyote parasites, making research necessary to identify potential zoonotic interactions. For this reason, a survey of the coyote parasites was performed in a mixed area of protected woodland and agricultural land, surrounding Irazú Volcano National Park (IVNP) in Cartago, Costa Rica. Over a one-year period, 209 fecal samples were collected directly from the ground. Collection took place on a monthly basis in a trail sectioned into three sub-areas named Irazú (closest to the volcano), potato fields (where potatoes were cultivated), and Prusia (a protected sector of IVNP). Sectioning the trail allowed separate collection and analysis of the samples, where 99 were obtained from Irazú, 11 from potato fields and 99 from Prusia. Using direct examination and mechanical concentration 36.84% positive samples containing at least one helminth were found. The presence of parasites was similar for both woodland areas (33.3% in Prusia and 37.4% in Irazú), but differed from the 63.6% observed in the potato fields. Hookworm parasites (probably Ancylostoma caninum), threadworms (possibly Strongyloides sp.), Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. and Taenia pisiformis were identified, as well as Hymenolepis diminuta, possible spurious parasite resulting from the ingestion of rodents by coyotes. Seasonal details are discussed, concluding that wet and dry seasons affect presence of parasites. Some remarks are made on the importance of these first findings for Costa Rica, especially considering the systematic way in which the collection of samples was carried out. PMID:23894947

Niehaus, Carmen; Valerio, Idalia; Blanco, Kinndle; Chinchilla, Misael

2012-06-01

236

[Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae) in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or disseminators of infectious diseases (including parasites), coyotes (Canis latrans) may also serve as indicators of ecological health. In Costa Rica, little information exists on coyote parasites, making research necessary to identify potential zoonotic interactions. For this reason, a survey of the coyote parasites was performed in a mixed area of protected woodland and agricultural land, surrounding Irazú Volcano National Park (IVNP) in Cartago, Costa Rica. Over a one-year period, 209 fecal samples were collected directly from the ground. Collection took place on a monthly basis in a trail sectioned into three sub-areas named Irazú (closest to the volcano), potato fields (where potatoes were cultivated), and Prusia (a protected sector of IVNP). Sectioning the trail allowed separate collection and analysis of the samples, where 99 were obtained from Irazú, 11 from potato fields and 99 from Prusia. Using direct examination and mechanical concentration 36.84% positive samples containing at least one helminth were found. The presence of parasites was similar for both woodland areas (33.3% in Prusia and 37.4% in Irazú), but differed from the 63.6% observed in the potato fields. Hookworm parasites (probably Ancylostoma caninum), threadworms (possibly Strongyloides sp.), Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. and Taenia pisiformis were identified, as well as Hymenolepis diminuta, possible spurious parasite resulting from the ingestion of rodents by coyotes. Seasonal details are discussed, concluding that wet and dry seasons affect presence of parasites. Some remarks are made on the importance of these first findings for Costa Rica, especially considering the systematic way in which the collection of samples was carried out.

Niehaus C; Valerio I; Blanco K; Chinchilla M

2012-06-01

237

Solar lighting system delivery models for rural areas in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many rural areas in developing countries will not have electricity access from the central grid for several years to come. Autonomous Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) are attractive and enviromentally friendly options for replacing kerosene lamps and providing basic lighting services to such areas. In order to highlight the benefits of these technologies, analysis of reduction in indoor air pollution due to replacement of kerosene lamp by SLS has been carried out. Use of SLS in place of kerosene lamps saves an equivalent of 1341 kg CO{sub 2} emissions per annum from each household. If a suitable mechanism is created, this amount of GHG emissions saving could alone be sufficient to finance solar lighting system for rural households. However, these technologies have not reached most of the poor population. In order to guarantee the access of solar lighting to the people at the Base of the Pyramid (BOP), strengths of different organizations working in the rural areas should be combined together to form successful business models. This paper will discuss business models to disseminate such services to needy people. A comparative study of SLS delivery models based on cash, credit, leasing, subsidy and service is performed. In addition, SWOT analysis for each model is employed. Further, Case studies of few projects to elaborate different models are also presented. If suitable business models for its delivery to rural people are considered, solar lighting systems are viable for providing basic lighting needs of rural areas in developing countries. (orig.)

Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ortiz, Brisa [Freiburg Univ. (DE). Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Modi, Anish [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Kafle, Nashib [Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), Kathmandu (Nepal)

2011-07-01

238

The Perceptions to Climate Change among Rural Farming Households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study focused on the perceptions to climate change among rural farming households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. The basic objective was to determine the rural farming household’s perception to climate change in the Area and the specific objective was to determine the direction of change of the climate change indicators (whether increasing, decreasing or constant). Multistage sampling procedure was sampled 739 rural farming households (respondents) for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic. Socio – economic profile of the respondents indicated that 37.69% of rural farming households falls between the age bracket of 47 to 51 years and majority (60.0%) having educational qualification below secondary school level. The study also reveals 76% had no extension contact during the farming season and 78.6% of respondents are not aware of the phenomenon of climate change. The study noticed an increasing change in the climate change indicators except longer raining season that is decreasing in the Area. The perception to the cause of climate indicators was mostly attributed to natural occurrence by God/gods (67.7%). Awareness campaign on climate change is recommended in the rural areas for climate change information.

Emaziye, P. O.

2013-01-01

239

[Lifestyles and self-rated health, in Portuguese elderly from rural and urban areas].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The perception of health status is essential for better planning in health, not only due to its role as a determinant of health, but also because it is related with the adoption of health-promoting behaviours. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyles and self-rated health, in Portuguese elderly, according to their residence in rural or urban areas. We evaluated 80 individuals from Rebordelo, Trás-os-Montes (rural area) and 383 from Porto (urban area), with 60 or more years and with four or less years of education. Data were collected by trained interviewers, through a structured questionnaire, to evaluate social, demographic, health and behavioural characteristics. Anthropometric measures were also obtained. Leisure-time physical activity, tobacco, alcohol and fruit and vegetable consumption were the lifestyles evaluated. To evaluate self-rated health, each person rated their health status, according to five options (excellent, very good, good, reasonable or poor), later grouped into two: poor versus the others. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression, after adjustment for sex and education. About 41% of the elderly from the rural area and 32% from the urban area rated their health status as poor. In multivariate analysis, in the rural area, poor self-rated health was inversely associated with the practice of leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.22, 95%CI 0.06-0.80). In urban area, alcohol consumption was associated with a lower probability of self-rating health as poor (considering not drinking as reference, >0-15 g alcohol/day: OR = 0.42, 95%CI 0.24-0.72; >15 g alcohol/day: OR = 0.60, 95%CI 0.32-1.11). In the rural area, a positive association between fruit and vegetable consumption and poor self-rated health was found (? 5 vs. <5 portions/day: OR = 5.21, 95%CI 1.14-23.83), while in the urban area there was an inverse association (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.45-1.25). Poor Self-rated health was inversely associated with leisure-time physical activity in the rural area, and with the consumption of alcoholic beverages in the urban area. The consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with self-rated health in both populations, but while in the rural area the consumption of 5 or more servings per day was associated with a poor perception of health, in the urban area this association was in the inverse direction.

Araújo J; Ramos E; Lopes C

2011-12-01

240

IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY ON DEMOGRAPHY IN THE NEIGHBOURING RURAL AREA OF DEJ MUNICIPIUM, BETWEEN 1930 AND 2004  

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Full Text Available Impact of the Industrial Activity on the Demography in the Neighbouring Rural Area of Dej Municipium, between 1930 and 2004. Our paper focuses upon population dynamic in Dej area, on the changes determined by the industrial activity of the urban centre, along with the other social and economic changes, especially after 1989. The urban and rural populations’ features and their behaviour highlight the suburbanisation process affecting the population in Dej area. The urban and rural populations’ decrease in the area came together with other two phenomena: the population ageing and tendency of feminisation especially in the neighbouring rural space.

Oana-Ramona ILOVAN; Lelia PAPP

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the 210Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

1000-01-00

242

Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the {sup 210}Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

Shi Jianbo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Ip, Carman C.M. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Li Xiangdong, E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.h [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2010-05-15

243

The Analysis Of The Heavy Metals Pollution In The River Water For Fishing Accusative The Surrounding UJUNG LEMAH ABANG Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metals are introduced into aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils or rocks, from volcanic eruptions and from a variety of human activities involving the mining, processing, or use of metals and/or substances that contain metal contaminants. The metal natural contents will changeable depends on the pollutant which is proportionally occurred in the environment. The extremely heavy metals absorption by organisms Directly or indirectly through the food chain will give the significant impact to the human lives. For this purpose an investigation was carried out to take samples of heavy metals from the river (Doplang, Balong, and Pacitran) surrounding the Ujung Lemah abang area, and to see how far was the impact of pollutants to the community who live nearby from the food-chain point of view. Results showed that the heavy metals content of Cd, Fe, Cu and Hg in the water and sediment are higher than the permissible concentration for fish nursery. It is found that the concentration of Cd between 0.91 - 1.85 ?g/ml, Cu: 0.03 ?g/ml, and Fe: 0.16 - 2.51 ?g/ml, whereas concentration of Hg in sediment between 0.036 - 0.118 mg/g. Up to now there are no report yet to the death fish caused by the more content of heavy metals in their body or the sickness related to it in the community around the location, but nevertheless this condition need to be took attention

2001-01-01

244

Analysis of the effects of aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport [paper in Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the perception of discomfort caused by aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport (SBBR). The study was divided into two parts. At first, noise measurements were conducted in four residentials zones and the sound pressure level determined by the parameters: Leq, Lmax, Lmin, RF, SEL and IPR. In the second part, we applied a questionnaire adapted from the project Eurocontrol (European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation). The results of field measurements indicate regions with soundscape compromised and with potential of nuisance, especially at night. Was obtained, from analysis of questionnaires, that the respondents female sex if showed more sensitive by the noise of cars and planes and realize more intensity the noise from road and air traffic. It was found dissatisfaction with the interference caused by the noise of aircraft in daily activities and indicated as reactions noise-related: headaches, sleep disorders, stress and difficulty concentrating. It is noteworthy, that in the region with lower noise, the respondents are more sensitive to the noise of airplanes and the values of acoustic parameters measured would justify the negative reactions of respondents to the air transportation noise. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between the perception of annoyance and discomfort with the sound pressure levels measured.

Edson Benício Carvalho Júnior; Sérgio Luiz Garavelli; Armando Mendonça Maroja

2012-01-01

245

Eye damage following radiotherapy in the surrounding area of the eyes. Its relation to local exposure doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation damage of the eyes was investigated in 233 patients who underwent radiotherapy (consisting of 204 with Linac x-ray, 13 with Linac electron beam and 16 with unknown kind of irradiation) for tumors in the eyes or their surrounding areas, with special reference to its relation to exposure doses to the cornea, lens and retina calculated. Corneal damage was seen in 66% of the total patients and in all patients irradiated with 5,000 rad or more. Cataract was seen in 48% of the total patients, in all patients with 6,000 rad or more and in 10% of patients with 3,000 rad or less. Retinopathy was seen in 45% of the total patients, in all patients with 8,000 rad or more and in 12% of patients with 4,000 rad or less. Iridocyclitis and glaucoma were seen in 15% of the total patietns, in 53% of patients with 6,000 rad or more and 8% of patients with 4,000 rad or less. These results suggest the possibility that eye damage can be prevented by precise radiotherapy techniques. (Namekawa, K.).

Tabuchi, Shoko; Oda, Itsuo

1984-12-01

246

Analysis of Home Safety of the Elderly Living in City and Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiological changes and chronic diseases arising during aging process increase risk of accident of the elderly, especially the elderly living alone at their homes. Home accidents are the most commonly health problem in the elderly. This study was carried out to describe home safety of the elderly living in a city or rural area using a home safety checklist. MEDHODS: 512 living in Turkey (330 in city; 182 in rural area) were evaluated via face-to-face interview using a home safety checklist during a period between December and March in 2007. In addition to sociodemographics, a questionnaire including home characteristics and life style of participants was applied. To describe home safety level, Home Safety Checklist was used. RESULTS: 51.8% of the participants living in a city and 42.8% living in rural area were aged 65-69 years. Of the participants living in a city, 59.4% were living with their partners (61.5% of the participants living in rural area). While 63.9% of the participants living in a city reported that they had a private room in their homes, 53.8% of the participants living in rural area reported that they had a private room in their homes. 2.1% of participants living in a city had an excellent home safety score. Percentage for participants living in rural area was 0.5. CONCLUSION: The results obtained from this study show that majority of houses of the elderly living in Turkey were unsafe and hazardous. Therefore, health providers and architects should work together to prevent home accidents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000): 297-300

Nihal Buker; Filiz Altug; Ali Kitis; Ugur Cavlak

2008-01-01

247

Multifunctional centers in rural areas : Fabrics of social and human capital  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually being abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces such a model: Multifunctional centers. Such a model reflects a long tradition of local centralization in rural areas, that is, a golden compromise between ruralization and urbanization. First, I argue that governments should actively invest in rural areas rather than practicing laissez-faire. Second, I trace ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnationalGarden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks, and facilities for local associations as theatre scenes and sports halls. The centers should be designed to secure both economies of scale and geographic proximity. Empirical evidence indicates that such large meeting places in fact foster physical and social cohesion, as well as human capital and informal learning. Also that the stock of beneficial bridging social capital thus created actually contributes to attract newcomers and counteract depopulation.

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

2009-01-01

248

Analysis of the Radiopollution of the City of Sarajevo and its Surrounding Area with Regard to Radionuclides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, great attention has been focused on the research of problems related to the environment and processes occurring within it. The accident that occurred at Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl (1986) unquestionably warned that global pollution with radioactive substances on a continent scale may be expected. The past twenty years have been marked with the utilization of metal uranium – a depleted isotope of uranium-235 for various purposes. Today, depleted uranium has found its use in modern armies and it is used as efficient ammunition against armored military systems.There are estimates about the usage of ammunition with depleted uranium deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war (1992–1995). The region of Bosnia and Herzegovina was exposed to the direct influence of the global dispersion processes that had occurred in May 1986 as a consequence of emissions originating from Nuclear Power Plant “Lenin” in Chernobyl. In thiswork the radionuclides fraction analysis (238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K i 137Cs) of surface samples (0–5 cm) originating from the City of Sarajevo and its surroundings has been presented. The soil samples were taken from nine locations in the city and the surrounding area: Blekin potok, Kobilja glava, Bentbaša, Vraca, Prirodno-matematieki fakultet (PMF), Aziai, Hrasnica, Butmir, and Blažuj. The analyses were performed at the Department for Environment of Jo?ef Štefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Ge HP detector connected to Ortec MCA Gamma Vision 32 Software was used in addition to the Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique (INAA).The results of the analysis were compared with data available for the City of Sarajevo (years 1986, 1987 and 1988) and Slovenia. Analyses were made after Chernobyl catastrophe. Almost all of radionuclides analysed have shown to have a slightly higher specific radioactivity when compared to the data obtained in 1986, 1987 and 1989 for the City of Sarajevo. Our results are in accordance with the values obtained in Slovenia except in the case of 137Cs at location Vraca, where a significantly higher concentration has been observed and reaching ? = 460 ± 20 Bq kg–1.

Huremovi?, J.; Horvat, M.; Ruždi?, E.; Ja?imovi?, R.

2009-01-01

249

Foreign immigration in spanish rural areas and small towns: current situation and perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors are currently coordinating a three-year researchproject on the changing settlement patterns and ways of life of foreign immigrant populations located in Spanish rural areas. This article offers a wide academic literature review, highlighting those issues that have been most studied and those under-researched or forgotten. Secondly, it approaches the rural areas where thereis a more significant presence of foreign immigrants, offering relevant data and indicating the main sources of information available for their study. Finally, some considerations that may be useful for carrying out future research are suggested.

Ricard Morén-Alegret; Miguel Solana

2004-01-01

250

Social structural model and voting behaviour under the conditions of Czech rural areas  

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Full Text Available From a social viewpoint, Czech rural areas are defined by joint, specific interests by which they differ from the urban environment. In relation to this, this article asks the fundamental question whether class polarization is the background factor of voting results, or if political conflict is based on different factors. The aim of this article is, through a case study of Zatec region, to verify the applicability of the social structural model of voting behaviour of citizens of Czech rural areas.

R. Kop?iva; P. Varvažovská

2011-01-01

251

Income Distribution in Rural Areas of Turkey: A Case Study in Adana Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, we have focused on income distribution in rural areas in Adana Province of Turkey. According to the research, the richest 20% of households receive 58.47% of the total income, while the poorest twenty percent receive 3.21% of total income earned in rural areas of Adana province. A Gini coefficient for the region is 0.539. Income distribution in the region is getting worse. The main reason for this is that, a 6.4% reduction in GNP in 1999.

Erdal Dagistan; Aykut Gül; Seval Mutlu

2005-01-01

252

Differences between health-related physical fitness profiles of Croatian children in urban and rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information about the regional distribution of health-related physical fitness status is necessary in order to tailor public health interventions, and due to a number of behavioral health risks caused by the increasing sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to find differences between Croatian children's health-related physical fitness profiles in urban and rural areas. The sample for this study consisted of 2431 fifth-grade students (1248 boys and 1183 girls) from urban and rural areas of Croatia. The mean age of participants was 11.3 +/- 6.1 years. The differences between the health-related physical fitness of school children from urban and rural areas was computed using series of univariant analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis. The reliability of the tests was determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Urban boys and girls significantly differ in body height from rural boys and girls. Body mass index and body fat percentage are slightly higher in the urban boys and girls but they do not differ significantly. Urban children perform significantly better in the 20 m dash, standing long jump and timed sit-ups. Urban and rural boys and girls do not differ significantly in the flexibility. This study determined if selected levels of urbanization affected the physical fitness status of children in Croatia. The results suggest that the differences in children's health-related physical fitness profiles are due to the level of urbanization. PMID:23697253

Ujevi?, Tihana; Sporis, Goran; Milanovi?, Zoran; Panteli?, Sasa; Neljak, Boris

2013-03-01

253

Online communities of practice to support collaborative mental health practice in rural areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The provision of quality mental health services in rural areas continues to be an ongoing challenge for nurses and the patients they serve. The use of computer mediated communication to construct collaborative learning environments similar to those suggested in Wenger's community of practice framework has the potential to mitigate a number of the difficulties faced by rural health care providers. The author presents a brief discussion of social learning theories, the communities of practice framework, and related concepts. Examples of current online communities of practice used as a means for knowledge construction in various professional disciplines are presented in building the case for the fit between online communities of practice and the needs of nurses in rural mental health. Nurses providing mental health care in rural areas have documented needs for interdisciplinary teamwork, access to a collaborative learning environment, and ongoing contact with expert resources. The construction of online communities of practice could potentially address a multitude of concerns identified by nurses practicing mental health care in rural areas.

Cassidy L

2011-01-01

254

Differences between health-related physical fitness profiles of Croatian children in urban and rural areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Information about the regional distribution of health-related physical fitness status is necessary in order to tailor public health interventions, and due to a number of behavioral health risks caused by the increasing sedentary lifestyle. This study aimed to find differences between Croatian children's health-related physical fitness profiles in urban and rural areas. The sample for this study consisted of 2431 fifth-grade students (1248 boys and 1183 girls) from urban and rural areas of Croatia. The mean age of participants was 11.3 +/- 6.1 years. The differences between the health-related physical fitness of school children from urban and rural areas was computed using series of univariant analysis of variance and canonical discriminant analysis. The reliability of the tests was determined by Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Urban boys and girls significantly differ in body height from rural boys and girls. Body mass index and body fat percentage are slightly higher in the urban boys and girls but they do not differ significantly. Urban children perform significantly better in the 20 m dash, standing long jump and timed sit-ups. Urban and rural boys and girls do not differ significantly in the flexibility. This study determined if selected levels of urbanization affected the physical fitness status of children in Croatia. The results suggest that the differences in children's health-related physical fitness profiles are due to the level of urbanization.

Ujevi? T; Sporis G; Milanovi? Z; Panteli? S; Neljak B

2013-03-01

255

Mapping permanent preservation areas and natural forest fragments as subsidy to the registration of legal reserve areas in rural properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The major objective of this work was to identify and quantify forest fragments suitable to be used as private protected land in rural properties located in the São Bartolomeu creek watershed, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological procedures included: mapping of 78 forest fragments through the visual interpretation of an Ikonos II satellite image; delineation of Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) from a hydrographically conditioned digital elevation model and mapping of 292 rural properties through interviews with owners, with the aid of a printed Ikonos II image. The generated maps were overlapped (crossed), allowing the identification of forest fragments that could be used as private protected land in rural property. The result indicated that, from the total of properties evaluated, only 41 (14.04%) have more than 20% of forest cover, and therefore, are in condition to attend the environmental law for private protected land.

Vicente Paulo Soares; Adelson de Azevedo Moreira; Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro; José Marinaldo Gleriani

2011-01-01

256

Addressing the barriers to accessing therapy services in rural and remote areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Purpose: Throughout the world, people with a disability who live in rural and remote areas experience difficulty accessing a range of community-based services including speech-, physio- and occupational therapy. This paper draws on information gathered from carers and adults with a disability living in a rural area in New South Wales (NSW), Australia to determine the extent to which people living in rural areas may receive a person-centred therapy service. Methods: As part of a larger study in rural NSW into the delivery of therapy services, focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 78 carers and 10 adults with a disability. Data were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results: Three related themes emerged: (i) travelling to access therapy; (ii) waiting a long time to get therapy; and (iii) limited access to therapy past early childhood. The themes overlaid the problems of recruiting and retaining sufficient therapists to work in rural areas. Conclusions: Community-based rehabilitation principles offer possibilities for increasing person-centred therapy services. We propose a person-centred and place-based approach that builds on existing service delivery models in the region and involves four inter-related strategies aimed at reducing travel and waiting times and with applicability across the life course. Implications for Rehabilitation Therapy service delivery in rural and remote areas requires: Place-based and person centred strategies to build local capacity in communities. Responsive outreach programs working with individuals and local communities. Recognition of the need to support families who must travel to access remotely located specialist services. Innovative use of technology to supplement and enhance service delivery.

Dew A; Bulkeley K; Veitch C; Bundy A; Gallego G; Lincoln M; Brentnall J; Griffiths S

2013-08-01

257

Addressing the barriers to accessing therapy services in rural and remote areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: Throughout the world, people with a disability who live in rural and remote areas experience difficulty accessing a range of community-based services including speech-, physio- and occupational therapy. This paper draws on information gathered from carers and adults with a disability living in a rural area in New South Wales (NSW), Australia to determine the extent to which people living in rural areas may receive a person-centred therapy service. Methods: As part of a larger study in rural NSW into the delivery of therapy services, focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 78 carers and 10 adults with a disability. Data were analysed using constant comparison and thematic analysis. Results: Three related themes emerged: (i) travelling to access therapy; (ii) waiting a long time to get therapy; and (iii) limited access to therapy past early childhood. The themes overlaid the problems of recruiting and retaining sufficient therapists to work in rural areas. Conclusions: Community-based rehabilitation principles offer possibilities for increasing person-centred therapy services. We propose a person-centred and place-based approach that builds on existing service delivery models in the region and involves four inter-related strategies aimed at reducing travel and waiting times and with applicability across the life course. Implications for Rehabilitation Therapy service delivery in rural and remote areas requires: Place-based and person centred strategies to build local capacity in communities. Responsive outreach programs working with individuals and local communities. Recognition of the need to support families who must travel to access remotely located specialist services. Innovative use of technology to supplement and enhance service delivery. PMID:23009191

Dew, Angela; Bulkeley, Kim; Veitch, Craig; Bundy, Anita; Gallego, Gisselle; Lincoln, Michelle; Brentnall, Jennie; Griffiths, Scott

2012-09-26

258

European Union funds as a stimulus of rural areas proenvironmental development – an example of rural communities in the wielkopolska voivodeship  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the opinion of rural communes of the Wielkopolskie voivodeship, about their participation in the EU funds for proenvironmental action development, scale and barriers of this phenomenon. Lack of financial resources has been recognised by the target communities as a major barrier to implementation of environmental protection activities, EU funds, in turn, an important source of support for this type of investment – up to 83% of the population has tried to obtain funds from the European Union for the environmental objectives. Funds from the European Union first of all served respondents to improve the area infrastructure of water and wastewater management.

Hanna Pondel

2012-01-01

259

Cervical cancer, a disease of poverty: mortality differences between urban and rural areas in Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine cervical cancer mortality rates in Mexican urban and rural communities, and their association with poverty-related factors, during 1990-2000. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed data from national databases to obtain mortality trends and regional variations using a Poisson regression model based on location (urban-rural). RESULTS: During 1990-2000 a total of 48 761 cervical cancer (CC) deaths were reported in Mexico (1990=4 280 deaths/year; 2000=4 620 deaths/year). On average, 12 women died every 24 hours, with 0.76% yearly annual growth in CC deaths. Women living in rural areas had 3.07 higher CC mortality risks compared to women with urban residence. Comparison of state CC mortality rates (reference=Mexico City) found higher risk in states with lower socio-economic development (Chiapas, relative risk [RR]=10.99; Nayarit, RR=10.5). Predominantly rural states had higher CC mortality rates compared to Mexico City (lowest rural population). CONCLUSIONS: CC mortality is associated with poverty-related factors, including lack of formal education, unemployment, low socio-economic level, rural residence and insufficient access to healthcare. This indicates the need for eradication of regional differences in cancer detection.

Palacio-Mejía Lina Sofía; Rangel-Gómez Gudelia; Hernández-Avila Mauricio; Lazcano-Ponce Eduardo

2003-01-01

260

Rural road improvement in desertification area. Sabakuka chiiki ni okeru chiho doro seibi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper introduces a road situation in the western Africa, and describes a necessity of road improvement in the prevention of desertification and examples of rural road improvement in the desertification area. Currently, international arterial roads connecting major cities in the western Africa have been accomplished, and major local roads have been improved. However, rural life roads have not been improved yet for vehicles. A law of causation is discussed among the population concentration in cities, the forest destruction in the suburbs due to an increase of firewood demand, and the rural road improvement in Niger. It is pointed out that the rural road improvement is compatible with the improvement of agricultural productivity, improvement of distribution, and the promotion of afforestation activities. In order to promote these projects synthetically, it is also pointed out that international cooperation of economy and technology is important. Furthermore, is described a status of rural road improvement, in which a measure against crossing wadi is main problem. It was shown that an improvement of life environment through the rural road improvement can be a part of the prevention of desertification. 2 refs., 6 figs.

Murayama, R. (Japan Agricultural Land Development Agency, Tokyo (Japan))

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Strategic management of utilization of new and renewable energy in the rural areas of Tunisia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Tunisia, the rural people have the smallest amounts of energy available. Their energy is used mainly for basic needs, and it often comes from non-commercial fuels, especially wood. The environmental impacts of intensified production processes aggravate the degradation of ecologic systems. The analysis of the energy situation in rural areas of Tunisia has shown that a growing energy consumption can be expected over the entire spectrum of economic and social activities. To cope with this crisis, technologies for energy requirements should not only meet energy needs; they must also be geared to particular economic, social and environmental conditions. Technically efficient, decentralized systems for the utilization of new and renewable energy can help in this by meeting the demand for high quality energy. This article attempts to propose precepts upon which a strategy can be formulated for a rational use of renewable energy in the rural areas. (Author)

Chaibi, M.T. (Centre de Recherche du Genie Rural, Ariana, Tunis (Tunisia))

1993-01-01

262

Domestic Water Consumption in Rural Areas: A Case Study  

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Full Text Available Having different patterns of life styles, water consumption facilities, culture and type of occupation of most of the people as well as different climate conditions in the villages of our country, have created various water requirements. So, performing separate regional studies throughout the country, it is necessary to take action to determine the design factors and elements, specially the consumed water per capita that is one of important and the most varying factors. With regard to this necessity, it has been taken action, through a studying plan, to determine the liter per capita per day (lpcd) in villages of Hamadan province and the outcome results showed that the extent of average lpcd on spring, summer, fall, winter and annual for total of statistical society were 100, 138, 110.2, 89.6 and 109.6 l per day, respectively. Also, the numerical value of seasonal fluctuation coefficient in different seasons were 0.91, 1.26, 1.01 and 0.82, respectively. One of these new effective factors that raised in villages of the country is the construction of private baths in the rural houses. According to this plan, it has been considered the effect of the this factor and its results shows increase in the average lpcd as much as 20.2 l per day for each individual and shall be considered in the further plans. Also, the results showed perceptible decrease in the average lpcd with increase on number of family’s individuals.

Amir Hossein Mahvi; Hossein Ali Norouzi

2005-01-01

263

Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1) examine the determinants of the likelihood of the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2) for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad que habían dado a luz en los tres años anteriores a la entre-vista, fueron: 1) examinar los factores que determinan la probabilidad de que las mu-jeres acudan a atención prenatal en las zonas rurales y urbanas del país y 2) dentro del grupo de mujeres con una o más consultas prenatales, examinar los factores que determinan el número de dichas consultas en las zonas rurales y urbanas. MÉTODOS: En el análisis multifactorial se emplearon modelos logísticos para deter-minar qué factores explicaban la decisión de acudir a control prenatal, y se usaron modelos binomiales negativos para determinar el número de consultas prenatales dentro del subgrupo de mujeres que consultaron por lo menos una vez. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad esperada de acudir a control prenatal, determinada según el valor medio de las variables de control, fue de 77,16% en las zonas rurales, en comparación con 85,83% en las zonas urbanas de Haití. Dentro del grupo de mu-jeres que acudieron a servicios de control prenatal, las madres en zonas rurales tuvieron un número esperado de consultas prenatales de 3,78, en comparación con 5,06 en las zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES: Un buen porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas tiene acceso a servicios de atención prenatal en Haití, pero las madres en zonas rurales que eligieron acudir a dichos servicios tuvieron un poco menos del mínimo de cuatro consultas recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El nivel educativo de las madres y de sus parejas es un factor pronóstico muy importante en relación con el uso de servicios de atención prenatal. Las consultas repetidas se vieron obstaculizadas en las zonas rurales por el mayor tiempo de desplazamiento y la mayor distancia hasta el centro de salud. Los formuladores de políticas y los proveedores de atención sanitaria deben tener en cuenta estos resultados a la hora de tomar decisiones sobre la prestación y administración de los servicios de salud en Haití.

Pierre Kébreau Alexandre; Gilbert Saint-Jean; Lee Crandall; Etzer Fevrin

2005-01-01

264

Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti/ El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad que habían dado a luz en los tres años anteriores a la entre-vista, fueron: 1) examinar los factores que determinan la probabilidad de que las mu-jeres acudan a atención prenatal en las zonas rurales y urbanas del país y 2) dentro del grupo de mujeres con una o más cons (more) ultas prenatales, examinar los factores que determinan el número de dichas consultas en las zonas rurales y urbanas. MÉTODOS: En el análisis multifactorial se emplearon modelos logísticos para deter-minar qué factores explicaban la decisión de acudir a control prenatal, y se usaron modelos binomiales negativos para determinar el número de consultas prenatales dentro del subgrupo de mujeres que consultaron por lo menos una vez. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad esperada de acudir a control prenatal, determinada según el valor medio de las variables de control, fue de 77,16% en las zonas rurales, en comparación con 85,83% en las zonas urbanas de Haití. Dentro del grupo de mu-jeres que acudieron a servicios de control prenatal, las madres en zonas rurales tuvieron un número esperado de consultas prenatales de 3,78, en comparación con 5,06 en las zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES: Un buen porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas tiene acceso a servicios de atención prenatal en Haití, pero las madres en zonas rurales que eligieron acudir a dichos servicios tuvieron un poco menos del mínimo de cuatro consultas recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El nivel educativo de las madres y de sus parejas es un factor pronóstico muy importante en relación con el uso de servicios de atención prenatal. Las consultas repetidas se vieron obstaculizadas en las zonas rurales por el mayor tiempo de desplazamiento y la mayor distancia hasta el centro de salud. Los formuladores de políticas y los proveedores de atención sanitaria deben tener en cuenta estos resultados a la hora de tomar decisiones sobre la prestación y administración de los servicios de salud en Haití. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1) examine the determinants of the likelihood of the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2) for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinan (more) ts of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.

Alexandre, Pierre Kébreau; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Crandall, Lee; Fevrin, Etzer

2005-08-01

265

Características de los suicidios de áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia, Colombia/ Characteristics of Suicides in Rural and Urban Areas in Antioquia, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar si existen diferencias entre áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia en las características asociadas con el suicidio. Método: Se compararon 79 sujetos provenientes de áreas rurales y 75 de áreas urbanas de Antioquia. Se hizo autopsia psicológica y se calcularon razones de prevalencia (RP) (frecuencia de la característica en zona rural/frecuencia de la característica en zona urbana). Resultados: Las características asociadas de manera independie (more) nte con provenir de área rural y urbana fueron: “momento del suicidio durante la noche” (RP = 0,65; IC 95%: 0,48-0,89) y “vivir solo” (RP = 0,40; IC 95%: 0,17-0,98), que fueron más frecuentes en zona urbana, y “envenenamiento con pesticidas”, que ocurrió más en zona rural (RP = 1,80; IC 95%: 1,39-2,34). Conclusiones: Los individuos suicidas provenientes de zonas rurales y urbanas tenían características diferentes. Ello puede tener implicaciones para el diseño de las estrategias de prevención del suicidio en cada una de las zonas. Se requieren otros estudios para determinar los factores de riesgo propios de cada área. Abstract in english Objective: To determine differences in characteristics associated with suicide between rural and urban populations from Antioquia. Method: 79 subjects from rural areas and 75 subjects from urban areas were compared. Psychological autopsy was done and prevalence ratios (PR) (frequency of characteristic in rural zone/frequency of characteristic in urban zone) were calculated. Results: The characteristics that associated independently with coming from rural or urban areas we (more) re: “suicide during the night” (PR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.89) and “living alone” (PR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.98), which were more frequent in urban areas, and “pesticide poisoning” which was more frequent in rural areas (PR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.39-2.34). Conclusions: Individuals who committed suicide from rural and urban areas have different characteristics. This finding might have implications for the design of preventive strategies in each zone. Additional studies are required to determine specific risk factors in urban and rural areas.

García Valencia, Jenny; Montoya Montoya, Gabriel Jaime; López Jaramillo, Carlos Alberto; López Tobón, María Cecilia; Montoya Guerra, Patricia; Arango Viana, Juan Carlos; Palacio Acosta, Carlos Alberto

2011-04-01

266

Quality and disinfection trials of consumption water in storage reservoirs for rural area in the Marrakech region (Assif El Mal).  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional reservoirs for water storage are important systems of water supply in rural areas of Morocco. These reservoirs are fed by rainwater and/or directly from rivers through open channels; the stored water is used without any treatment as drinking water by the surrounding population. The present study aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of stored water and the corresponding sediment in six traditional reservoirs (R1 to R6) located in the rural municipality of Assif El Mal. We tested two inexpensive methods of disinfecting the stored water: chlorination and solar disinfection in bottles. The results show a rise of organic and mineral concentrations. Regarding bacteriological quality, a critical contamination level was detected (8 × 10(5) CFU/100 ml in water and 9 × 10(7) CFU/g in sediment) according to the 2002 Moroccan Standards for drinking water (0 CFU/100 ml). In the disinfection tests, chlorine disinfection removed all studied germs after just 1 hour, and the solar exposure process removed the majority of bacteria (after 3 hours) except those with a resistant form (Clostridia). PMID:23428557

Aziz, Faissal; Mandi, Laila; Boussaid, Abdellatif; Boraam, Fatima; Ouazzani, Naaila

2013-03-01

267

Quality and disinfection trials of consumption water in storage reservoirs for rural area in the Marrakech region (Assif El Mal).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditional reservoirs for water storage are important systems of water supply in rural areas of Morocco. These reservoirs are fed by rainwater and/or directly from rivers through open channels; the stored water is used without any treatment as drinking water by the surrounding population. The present study aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of stored water and the corresponding sediment in six traditional reservoirs (R1 to R6) located in the rural municipality of Assif El Mal. We tested two inexpensive methods of disinfecting the stored water: chlorination and solar disinfection in bottles. The results show a rise of organic and mineral concentrations. Regarding bacteriological quality, a critical contamination level was detected (8 × 10(5) CFU/100 ml in water and 9 × 10(7) CFU/g in sediment) according to the 2002 Moroccan Standards for drinking water (0 CFU/100 ml). In the disinfection tests, chlorine disinfection removed all studied germs after just 1 hour, and the solar exposure process removed the majority of bacteria (after 3 hours) except those with a resistant form (Clostridia).

Aziz F; Mandi L; Boussaid A; Boraam F; Ouazzani N

2013-03-01

268

ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups of people interested in their development of social-economic scale, rural women are trying to adapt, to evolve, to overcome the barriers imposed at psychologically, socially and financially. The paper highlights the results of a survey on a sample of 979 women students in the project "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. An inter-regional model for women entrepreneurial school "(AntrES acronym), which certified mediators intention to initiate their own business.The results of questionnaires have provided important information about the character, ambition, motivation, courage, and moral support and financial support to women entrepreneurs based in Romania, including those in rural areas. The information obtained inetrmediul "I shattered" 7 myths about starting a business in our country. Romanian entrepreneur spirit, women in rural areas in Romania is not only a manifestation of strong desire to improve living standards in financial terms, but rather an "effort" to improve and "beauty" of the individual, family, environment and society we belong! In developed countries, at its home, female entrepreneurship is trying to reform, to seek new solutions to rethink the principles, to exercise imagination, to learn. Here, in Romania standard behavior still predominates. Female entrepreneurs are doing what everyone else in the same category does. The future however belongs to those who will opt diversity, surprise, excitement, personalization. How could this happen in the Romanian rural environment and take place in a sustainable way?

Botezat Elena Aurelia; Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

2011-01-01

269

From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English)  

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Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer very difficult in the Røros area around 1867. Reindeer calves died as a result of the long and cold springs, and her father had to borrow money in order to buy more animals. When climatic conditions during the 1860s had such a dramatic impact on the population of wild reindeer, it must have had at least as great consequences in the Røros area during the 16th and 17th century. Even though the reindeer in nomadic times were very tame and under continuous supervision, the herds were left to graze freely on open lands. With the presence of a large population of wild reindeer close to the tame herds, the risk of losing reindeer would be great, especially during winter and in the mating season. The wild reindeer population in Røros would therefore have to be reduced, either before or in parallel to an increase in the number of tame reindeer. The climate contributed to this reduction, and the Sami took care of the rest as far as it was necessary. This could take place in parallel to the building up of herds of tame reindeer. According to the sources there were at least 6 Sami villages in the 17th century, from Tydal in the north to Østerdalen in the south, which kept herds of tame reindeer, and at the same time the Sami population was accused of extinguishing the wild reindeer. A picture emerges. In sum, we can see that circumstances at the time were in favour of a change in strategy, from a hunting-based economy to nomadic reindeer herding.

Sverre Fjellheim

2005-01-01

270

Differential trend of leprosy in rural and urban area of western Maharashtra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leprosy, major public health problem in Satara District with prevalence rate of 61/10000 population in 1990. With a view to eliminate Leprosy, Government of India launched National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) in Satara district during July 1990 to overcome the burden of Leprosy with Multi-Drug Treatment and subsequently Modified Leprosy Elimination Campaign and Block Leprosy Awareness Campaign. The objective of the study is to assess the differential trend of Leprosy in rural and urban area of Satara district. Record based retrospective time series study was conducted in Urban Leprosy Control Units and Primary Health Centers of Satara district on NLEP evaluation indicators; prevalence rate, new case detection rate, percentage of cases released from treatment, proportion of female cases among new cases, proportion of multi bacillary cases among new cases, proportion of grade-II disability among new cases and proportion of child cases among new cases. Leprosy elimination was achieved in rural area i.e. prevalence rate < 1/10000 population but disease was still endemic in urban area of Satara district i.e. prevalence rate of leprosy was 1.3/10000 population in March 2007-08. Not a single case of grade-II disability was reported in both urban and rural area since March 2006-07 onward. New case detection rate was decreased to 0.7/10000 population in rural area but upward trend was recorded in urban area from 0.1/10000 population to 1.1/10000 population since March 2006-07 and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 37.26, p < 0.001*). Proportion of female cases among new cases decreased from 63% to 46.7% in rural area but reverse trend was observed in urban area from 39.6% to 52.8% with significant difference (chi2 trend = 5.42, p = 0.01*). Proportion of multi bacillary cases among new cases showed little fluctuation in rural area from 57% to 55.2% but proportion was decreased in urban area from 59.1% to 44.4% and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 29.82, p < 0.001*). Proportion of child cases among new cases decreased from 23.7% to 10.4% in rural but reverse trend was observed in urban area from 7% to 22.2% since March 2005-06 and proportion was significant (chi2 trend = 15.90, p = 0.0001*). More than 90% cases were released from treatment in rural area but proportion was low in urban area and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 19.38, p < 0.001*). The National Leprosy Eradication Programme showed favorable impact in rural area as compared to urban area in Satara District of Maharashtra.

Mohite RV; Mohite VR; Durgawale PM

2013-01-01

271

Structural changes in the rural planting areas of Belgrade region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Socio-economic development of the Belgrade region significantly affects the direction of the change of planting areas use. The increase in urban areas has adversely affected the direction of agricultural land use. Dynamics of change is significantly due to high production costs (high land prices and expensive labor force) gives rise to the high price of the product on the market, there is a constant "pressure" of urban areas to arable land, increasing the risk of "loss" of agricultural holdings; increased environmental pollution due to the concentration of industrial plants or road construction. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of structural changes in sowing area in the period from 1991 to 2011. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

Sibinovi? Mikica

2012-01-01

272

Nitrogen isotope ratios of dissolved organic nitrogen in wet precipitation in a metropolis surrounded by agricultural areas in southern Korea  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the importance of dissolved organic N (DON) in wet precipitation, the N isotope ratio (?15N) of DON has rarely been reported when compared to those of inorganic N (NH4+ and NO3?). This study was conducted to investigate seasonal variation of ?15N of DON in comparison with the ?15N of NH4+ and NO3? during wet precipitation in a metropolis area that is surrounded by agricultural areas in southern Korea. For two years (2007 and 2008), all effective precipitation events (>5mm) were collected and the ?15N of NH4+, NO3?, DON, and total N were analyzed, and the volume-weighted monthly mean N deposition and ?15N were calculated. The contribution of DON to total N deposition (41.0 and 37.3% in 2007 and 2008, respectively) was compatible to that of NH4+ and two times higher than that of NO3?. The annual mean ?15N of DON (0.3 and 0.2‰ in 2007 and 2008, respectively) was higher than that of NH4+ (?3.0 and ?6.8‰, respectively) but similar to that of NO3? (1.5 and ?0.5‰, respectively). The seasonal pattern of molar ratio of NH4+/NO3? in combination with ?15N of NH4+ and NO3? indicated that there were multiple diffuse sources of N deposition presented and seasonal shifting of main sources of N deposition occurred in the study site. These sources included fertilized agricultural fields in the spring and early summer, livestock excrements in the middle summer and fall, and coal-fired boilers in the winter. The intimate relationship between DON and NH4+ in terms of % portion in total N and their ?15N suggested that the source of DON was closely coupled with that of NH4+; e.g. fertilizer and livestock excretion. A direct measurement of N species emitted from fertilized agricultural field and livestock manure is necessary to confirm the source of DON.

Lee KS; Lee DS; Lim SS; Kwak JH; Jeon BJ; Lee SI; Lee SM; Choi WJ

2012-09-01

273

Hábitos de salud en escolares en ámbito urbano y rural/ Health habits in schoolchildren in urban and rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción. En los primeros años de vida se produce la asimilación e interiorización de los hábitos de salud que van a condicionar la vida adulta, siendo fundamentales las características socioambientales para la adquisición de los mismos. Objetivos Nos planteamos conocer los hábitos de salud que presentan los escolares de dos zonas geográficas contrapuestas: la urbana y la rural. Metodología. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo con alumnos de 10 y 11 años (more) de una zona urbana y de una rural, llevándose a cabo una prueba de comparación de dos proporciones de muestras independientes. Resultados. Se han recogido 104 encuestas (21.2% de ámbito rural) en las cuales se observa la existencia de un porcentaje importante en cuanto a la falta de hábito de lavado de manos e higiene dental se refiere. Respecto a la alimentación, existe un pequeño número de niños que acuden al colegio sin desayunar y, en caso de hacerlo, es considerable el porcentaje obtenido en el consumo de bollería y zumos envasados, apreciándose un déficit en el de verduras y pescados. Aunque mayoritariamente realizan actividad física, el 10% no la hacen nunca. Asimismo se aprecia un excesivo uso del televisor preferido frente a otros hábitos. En lo relacionado con el tabaquismo, cabe destacar que un 30% conviven con fumadores, y un 6% han probado el tabaco. En lo referente al alcohol un porcentaje importante (4.8%-19.5%) ya lo ha probado mayoritariamente en el ámbito familiar. Conclusiones. La finalidad del estudio es el de servir como punto de partida para la planificación de futuras actuaciones, ya que indica la existencia de situaciones de riesgo: alteraciones en la salud bucodental por déficit de cuidados e higiene, hábitos alimenticios incorrectos, hábitos sedentarios e inicio temprano de consumo o contacto con sustancias tóxicas. Abstract in english Introduction. ln the first years of life assimilation occurs and the understanding of health habits that will shape adult life, and these socio-environmental characteristics are fundamental for the acquisition of health habits. Objectives. This study is aimed at ascertaining the health habits of schoolchildren from two opposing geographical areas (urban and rural). Methodology. We performed a descriptive study of students aged 10/11 years old from urban and rural areas, p (more) erforming a comparison test of two proportions from independent samples. Results. 104 surveys were obtained (21.2% from rural areas). There is a significant percentage which refers to a lack of hand washing and dental hygiene habits. With regard to food there is a small percentage of children who come to school without breakfast, among those who did, it was found that a significant percentage have pastries and packaged juices showing a lack in consumption of vegetables and fish. Although largely physically inactive, 10% never take exercise. There is high television consumption and other habits are that, 30% live with smokers and 6% have tried snuff. A significant percentage (4.8% -19.5%) have tried alcohol, mostly in the family. Conclusions. The study should serve as a starting point for planning future actions, and indicates the existence of risk: changes in oral health due to a lack of care and hygiene, bad eating habits, sedentary habits and the early onset of contact with consumption, or with toxic substances.

Martínez Sabater, Antonio; Marzá Gascón, Asunción; Llorca Tauste, Julia; Martínez Puig, Cristina; Escrivá Aznar, Gema; Blasco Roque, Mercedes

2013-01-01

274

Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women of Rural Area of Vadodara District, Gujarat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: With the growing aged population in the country, postmenopausal health problems and needs are likely to become a great challenge to public health. This is more so related to the women with poor social background like those residing in rural areas. Material & Methods: Design: Cross-se...

Donald Christian, Manish Kathad, Bharat Bhavsar

275

B VITAMINS AND PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE CONCENTRATIONS IN AN URBAN AND RURAL AREA OF COSTA RICA  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the association between total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and folate, B12, and B6 status in the urban and rural areas of Costa Rica. We determined plasma tHcy concentrations and assessed dietary folate, B12 and B6 intake by a food frequency questionnaire in 462 subjects sele...

276

Water defluoridation, water denitrification and water desalination in rural areas in South Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many borehole waters in rural areas in South Africa are unfit for human consumption because the fluoride (>1,5 mg/?), nitrate-nitrogen (>6 mg/?) and salinity (>1 500 mg/?) concentrations are too high. Ion exchange (IX) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology are available that can be used for defluorida...

Schoeman, J.J. (Jakob Johannes)

277

Deaf and Hearing Impaired Children in Regional and Rural Areas: Parent Views on Educational Services  

Science.gov (United States)

The general trend for the inclusion of deaf and hearing impaired students in Australia involves placing students in a mainstream classroom setting alongside their hearing peers with regular support from a Visiting Teacher of the Deaf. The provision of educational services to deaf and hearing impaired students in regional and rural areas, however,…

Checker, Lisa J.; Remine, Maria D.; Brown, P. Margaret

2009-01-01

278

Water Pollution and its Effects on Human Health in Rural Areas of Faisalabad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was envisaged to assess the water pollution and its effects on human health in rural areas of Faisalabad. The study was conducted in three villages of Faisalabad district using simple random method. 150 respondents were selected from three villages (i.e. 50 from each village). The ...

Samina Farid; Mehnaz Gul; Asma Usman; Khuram Iqbal

279

Management of Covariant Risk in Rural Areas of Developing Economies: Opportunities and Challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims at exploring the possibilities to increase the satisfaction of the demand for financial services in rural areas through market based financial products allowing farmers to protect against major sources of risk. The focus is on developing economies, where farm specific and covariant r...

VIGANO', LAURA; BONOMO, LUCIANO

280

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALNUTRITION (UNDER NUTRITION) AMONG UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN A SECTION OF RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prevalence of malnutrition is very high in India; especially in rural area. A cross sectional study was done in randomly selected six villages to estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomicfactors associated with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the under five children was 50.46%.Children from lower socioeconomic status, with low birth weight were significantly malnourished.

Shubhada S. Avachat; Vaishali D. Phalke; Deepak B. Phalke

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, ...

Botezat Elena Aurelia; Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

282

Mortality and morbidity from malaria among children in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mortality and morbidity from malaria were measured among 3000 children under the age of 7 years in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa. Using a post-mortem questionnaire technique, malaria was identified as the probable cause of 4% of infant deaths and of 25% of deaths in children aged 1 to 4 ye...

Greenwood, BM; Bradley, AK; Greenwood, AM; Byass, P; Jammeh, K

283

Sporozoite antibodies and malaria in children in a rural area of The Gambia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sporozoite antibody levels were measured in a group of children aged one to nine years resident in a rural area of The Gambia, using an ELISA to the repeat peptide (NANP)40. The prevalence and titre of antibodies varied with age but not with sex or ethnic group. Significant variations in prevalence ...

Snow, RW; Shenton, FC; Lindsay, SW; Greenwood, BM; Bennett, S

284

Fluoride Concentration in Potable Groundwater in Rural Areas of Khaf City, Razavi Khorasan Province, Northeastern Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentratio...

AI Amouei; AH Mahvi; AA Mohammadi; HA Asgharnia; SH Fallah; AA Khafajeh

285

Typology of rural areas in the Central and Eastern European EU new member States  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural areas in Central and Eastern Europe are very often associated with a backwardness in terms of income and employment opportunities, a high dependency on agriculture, the outmigration of young, skilled people, a low population density and an insufficient infrastructure. In this paper 3 typologie...

Baum, Sabine; Trapp, Christian; Weingarten, Peter

286

Are Central Africa?s Protected Areas Displacing Hundreds of Thousands of Rural Poor?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An ongoing debate over the impacts of protected areas on rural communities in central Africa has become increasingly polarized in recent years, even as definitions of displacement have shifted from outright expulsion to economic dislocation precipitated by lost access to natural resources. Although...

Curran Bryan; Sunderland Terry; Maisels Fiona; Oates John; Asaha Stella; Balinga Michael; Defo Louis; Dunn Andrew; Telfer Paul

287

Participation of Rural People in Dairy Enterprise in a Selected Area of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to be participation of rural people in dairy enterprise in relation to their socio-economic characteristics in the selected areas of Bangladesh. The study was carried out at the five village of Bogra District of Bangladesh. From each village 20 farm families were selected wit...

M.S. Rabbani; M.M. Alam; M.Y. Ali; S.M.R. Rahman; B.K. Saha

288

A quantitative comparison of frugivorous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae) in tropical forests and rural areas of the Democratic Republic of Congo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most of the current knowledge about African tephritids originates from studies performed in agricultural areas, while information about their distribution in pristine or moderately disturbed environments is extremely scarce. This study aims at (i) describing levels of spatial variability of frugivorous tephritids in tropical forests and small rural villages of the Congo River basin and (ii) verifying if human-mediated activities, such as small-scale agriculture and trade, can affect their distribution patterns. Four locations were sampled along a 250?km stretch of the Congo River. At each location, pristine and disturbed habitats (i.e. tropical forests and small rural villages, respectively) were sampled, with three replicate sites in each combination of habitat and location. Sampling with modified McPhail traps baited with four different attractants yielded 819 tephritid specimens of 29 species from seven genera (Bactrocera, Carpophthoromyia, Ceratitis, Dacus, Celidodacus, Perilampsis, Trirhithrum). The three most abundant species sampled (Dacus bivittatus, D. punctatifrons, Bactrocera invadens) showed significant variations in abundance across locations and sites and accounted for 98.29% of the overall dissimilarity between habitats. Assemblages differed among locations and sites while they showed significant differences between pristine and disturbed habitats in two out of the four locations. This study shows that frugivorous tephritids in central Congo have remarkably patchy distributions with differences among locations and sites representing the main source of variability. Our data show that, in rural villages of central Democratic Republic of Congo, human activities, such as small-scale agriculture and local commerce, are not always sufficient to promote differences between the tephritid assemblages of villages and those of the surrounding tropical forests.

Virgilio M; Backeljau T; Emeleme R; Juakali JL; De Meyer M

2011-10-01

289

STUDY ON THE NATURAL AND ANTHROPIC TOURISM RESOURCES – FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE AREA HA?EG-RETEZAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rural area from ?ara Ha?egului – Retezat is one of the richest area in Romania in natural and anthropic tourism supplies, determined by the natural, socio-cultural, economic and historical potential that can be used for tourism purposes. As the tourism potential comprises few economic resources that can be used only “in situ”, their inclusion in the economic circuit of values represents the premise of a superior economic process of rural development in the rural area ?ara Ha?egului - Retezat.Starting from the great variety of the tourism supply, the specialists in economy and tourism management can find optimum solutions for the development of the rural and agro-tourism services as a sustainable rural development component, while the optimization of the rural tourism services activities can be based on mathematical models and adequate system analyses.

P?UN ION OTIMAN; GABRIELA BOTICI; VIOLETA FLORIAN; CORNEL IONESCU

2012-01-01

290

The prevalence of dementia in urban and rural areas of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The Chinese population has been aging rapidly and the country's economy has experienced exponential growth during the past three decades. The goal of this study was to estimate the changes in the prevalence of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) among elderly Chinese individuals and to analyze differences between urban and rural areas. METHODS: For the years 2008 to 2009, we performed a population-based cross-sectional survey with a multistage cluster sampling design. Residents aged 65 years and older were drawn from 30 urban (n = 6096) and 45 rural (n = 4180) communities across China. Participants were assessed with a series of clinical examinations and neuropsychological measures. Dementia, AD, and VaD were diagnosed according to established criteria via standard diagnostic procedures. RESULTS: The prevalence of dementia, AD, and VaD among individuals aged 65 years and older were 5.14% (95% CI, 4.71-5.57), 3.21% (95% CI, 2.87-3.55), and 1.50% (95% CI, 1.26-1.74), respectively. The prevalence of dementia was significantly higher in rural areas than in urban ones (6.05% vs. 4.40%, P < .001). The same regional difference was also seen for AD (4.25% vs. 2.44%, P < .001) but not for VaD (1.28% vs. 1.61%, P = .166). The difference in AD was not evident when the sample was stratified by educational level. Moreover, the risk factors for AD and VaD differed for urban and rural populations. CONCLUSIONS: A notably higher prevalence of dementia and AD was found in rural areas than in urban ones, and education might be an important reason for the urban-rural differences.

Jia J; Wang F; Wei C; Zhou A; Jia X; Li F; Tang M; Chu L; Zhou Y; Zhou C; Cui Y; Wang Q; Wang W; Yin P; Hu N; Zuo X; Song H; Qin W; Wu L; Li D; Jia L; Song J; Han Y; Xing Y; Yang P; Li Y; Qiao Y; Tang Y; Lv J; Dong X

2013-07-01

291

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DORNA BASIN, BY PROMOTING TOURISM ACTIVITIES IN RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Any strategy of diversification of non-agricultural economic activities and development of micro-enterprises in rural areas, aims to increase farms’ side incomes from non-agricultural activities, to create new job opportunities, new services for local people, to promote entrepreneurship and development of rural tourism. Sustainable developmentby promoting tourism should have as objective, besides recovery and sustainable promotion of cultural heritage the natural resources with tourism potential as well and the use of local products, which are marketed not only as raw materials but also as products with added value.

Andrei Lucian VINTIL?; Mioara BOC?NICI

2013-01-01

292

Techno-economic evaluation of various electric energy supply for rural areas Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A diagnostic study was carried out to evaluate the techno-economic viability of various electric supply sources for electrification of rural areas in Pakistan in present socio-economic conditions. The important influencing factors considered were: social needs, electric requirement and availability of energy resources. The electric requirements of model rural village were established at 20431 kw h per year. Prudent evaluations reveal that hydroelectric, photovoltaic and diesel systems are better options than an electric grid extension of more than 2 km. In order to become an economically meritorious energy source, photovoltaic system should attain cost level Rs. 100 per watt-peak of installed system. (author).

1994-01-01

293

Assessment of Nutritional Status among Type 2 Diabetics in Bangalore Rural and Urban areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is one of the major public health challenges of the 21st century, both in rural and urban population. According to WHO the occurring epidemic of diabetes is strongly related to lifestyle and economic changes. IFG and IGT are associated with obesity. Structured lifestyle intervention, aimed at increasing physical activity and producing 5–10% loss of body weight, have been demonstrated to prevent or delay the development of diabetes in people with IGT (ADA guidelines 2010). Hence, an attempt was made to compare the nutritional status among Type 2 Diabetics from Bangalore rural and urban areas.

Dr.Ushadevi.C; Ms.V.Shubhashini M.Sc, M.Phil.

2012-01-01

294

An epidemiological analysis of paediatric burns in urban and rural areas in south central China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyse the epidemiology of paediatric burns in south central China, illustrate the differences between rural and urban areas, and discern prevention measures to reduce paediatric burns. METHODS: Data were obtained from all paediatric patients admitted to Department of Burns unit of Xiangya Hospital during 2009-2012. A retrospective review was performed, including cause of burn, pre-hospital treatment, place of burn occurrence, anatomical areas involved, extent of burn, date of injury, number of operations, complications, length of hospital stay, hospitalisation cost and cure rate. RESULTS: A total of 278 hospitalised paediatric patients were admitted in this study. The majority (56.47%) were 1-3 years old. Rural patients accounted for 67.99% in total; the ratio of boys to girls was 2.05. Scalding with hot fluids was the most common cause of burns in children (62.59%), followed by flame (17.63), fireworks (9.71%), electricity (5.76%) and other factors such as contact and chemical (4.32%). The living room was the location with the highest frequency of burns in children (53.24%). Burns were more likely to happen in winter and the upper extremities were the most involved anatomic site (53.24%). Total burn surface area (TBSA) ranging from 0% to 9% accounted for 55.4% in total. Rural patients underwent more operations and had longer and costlier hospital stays than urban patients. CONCLUSION: Compared with treatment in urban areas, rural burn patients received less first-aid treatment, underwent more surgery, had more complications and longer and more costly hospital stays. This finding strongly suggests that it is necessary to make more efforts to prevent burns, especially in rural areas.

Zhou B; Zhou X; Ouyang LZ; Huang XY; Zhang PH; Zhang MH; Ren LC; Liang PF

2013-06-01

295

QUALITY OF LIFE AND HUMAN ISOLATION: THE CASE OF RURAL AREA OF PUGLIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research explores the socio-economic problems arising in a typical peripheral rural area - the Wide Area of Daunian Mountains (WADM)- in Southern Italy in order to analyse the concept of ‘well being’ through the analysis of the ‘quality of life’. For these purposes, we will develop an ‘Index of Human Isolation’ (UNDP, 1997), in order to take into account the multiple dimensions of isolation, that is a constant characteristic of rural areas, particularly the inter-generational, sociostructural, and geographical ones. This index will be employed to analyse the relationship between a set of variables representing the main economic, structural and social aspects of the area and the dynamics of the Value Added. The expected results are twofold; (a) the creation of VA should be decreasing at high levels of IHI; (b) the implementation of social-assistance network may actively contribute to the reduction of isolation.

Francesco Contò; Mariantonietta Fiore; Piermichele La Sala

2012-01-01

296

Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas : Individual Creativity and Social Network  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The entrepreneurial dynamics within urban and rural areas are often assumed to be very different. This study explores the importance of individual creativity and the social network in both places regarding the probability of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving the crucial three years after start-up. The results are based on longitudinal register data combined with a questionnaire survey from 2008, utilizing responses from 1,108 first-time entrepreneurs (out of which 670 survived) and 420 non-entrepreneurs (without previous entrepreneurial experience). Creativity is only found to lead to start-up in urban areas but it does not influence the chances of survival in any of the two areas. On the contrary, the social network matters particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment in the research design, common entrepreneurship beliefs are questioned which opens up for region specific policy initiatives..

Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

2011-01-01

297

Health Profile Of Aged Persons In Urban & Rural Field Practice Areas Of Medical College, Amrisar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: What is the health status of aged persons in urban and rural area? Objectives: 1. To study the socio-demographic profile. 2. To study the health status of aged persons in urban and rural areas and factors associated with it. Study design: Cross-sectional Participants: Persons aged 60 years and above. Sample size: 698 (423 males and 275 females) Study variables: Age, Sex, marital status, occupation, literacy status, addition, morbidity pattern and disability. Results: Among 698 aged persons, 423(60.60%) were males and 275(39.40%) were females, 393(56.3%) were in the age group of 60-65 years while only 34(4.8%) were more than 80 years. Majority (58.45%) belonged to Sikh community followed by Hindus (39.9%). 61.37% aged persons were literate and 38.63% were illiterate. 73.74% of all aged were living in joint families. 68.39% aged persons were engaged in one or other works while 31.61% were dependent on other family members. It was observed that 46.08% of rural aged and 32.97% of urban aged persons were going for morning/evening walk. 33.69% of urban aged and 20.69% of rural aged were reading newspapers or books. Out of total 423 males, 363(85.81%) were addicted to one or the other intoxicants. 374(53.58%) were feeling satisfactory at this age while 324(46.42%) were not feeling so. Majority of them were ill at the time of survey. Arthritis (60.60%) being the commonest cause of illness followed by cataract or visual impairment (54.01%). 16.62% of the aged were hypertensive, it was more (19.35%) in urban aged as compared to rural aged (13.79%). Diabetes mellitus was observed in 5.3% aged persons and it was more commonly seen in urban area (6.81%) than in rural area (2.51%). Prevalence of peptic ulcers/chromic gastritis was found to be 5.87% (6.09% in urban area (6.27%) in rural area aged). The problems due to socio-psychology causes were minimal, probably because majority (73.74%) of them were residing with their families

Padda A.S; Mohan V; Singh Jagjit; Deepti S.S; Singh Gurmeet; Dhillon H.S

1998-01-01

298

Activities of Youth Restiveness and Militancy in the Development of Rural Areas in Southern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined the effects of youth restiveness and militancy in the development of the rural areas in Rivers State. Data obtained from 100 randomly sampled respondents in two local government areas were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study revealed poverty (87.7%), unemployment (88%), use of youths for election purposes by politicians (69.4%) and cultism (60%) were the main causes of militancy and youth restiveness in the study area. The effects of this in rural development were, the abandonment of projects meant to help the rural people (M=2.80), insecurity (M=2.70), migration (M=2.70), cultural and social distortion (M=2.80) and high cost of project execution (M=2.65). Government and non-governmental agencies have intervened by providing skill acquisition programmes (70%), amnesty programme (60%) and providing military presence (80%) to arrest the situation. The factors militating against government and non-governmental agencies efforts were corruption (77%), its being a source of revenue for some (76%) and insincerity on the part of government (56%). It is therefore recommended that the faithfulness of government in the affairs of things would go a long way in bringing peace and security to the region for an enabling environment that would enhance rural growth.

C.O. Albert; F.E. Nlerum; S.N. Ozuruoke

2013-01-01

299

Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t� test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

Gandotra V.K; Gupta Satish; Kaur P

1998-01-01

300

Wireless Regional Access Networks: A Wise Choice for Internet Connectivity to Rural Areas of Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless Regional Access Network (WRAN) is increasingly becoming the focus architecture for future rural and remote area access networks. Firstly, we explain “the Zimbabwean problem”, and then give brief discussions of existing technologies deployed for rural communications elsewhere in the world. As we searched for solutions to the Zimbabwean problem, special attention was given to technologies such as cognitive radio networks. In the process, WRAN, which saves on deployment and license costs, has extended coverage range, increased cell capacity and utilises idle TV spectrum, was identified as a suitable broadband access candidate for providing connectivity to the rural areas of Zimbabwe. A design network structure suitable for rural areas in Zimbabwe is proposed and a basic cognitive radio (CR) simulation to show the possibility of harnessing idle Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation TV channels/frequency bands using CR technology was successfully run. Power spectrum density estimation model for sensing was used. A number of implementation challenges such as the effect of antenna height on the hidden terminal problem, MIMO incorporation in order to mitigate for such effects in WRAN networks, the investigation and mitigation of interference contribution from remote television stations, WRAN networks and other primary stations and users are discussed.

Mardeni Roslee; Rasty Last Chimheno

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Prevalence of Food Insecurity among Women in Rural Area of North West Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food insecurity is a public health concern among rural poor in Bangladesh. Food insecurity is the insufficiency of good quality foods, reduced access to foods and inadequate intake of foods to meet ones physiological demands. Food insecurity is inversely associated with health and nutritional status of rural women of Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted using an interview-based pre tested questionnaire. Data were collected from 500 women in low-income areas of Nageswari and Phulbari sub district of Kurigram district of Bangladesh; from February to October 2012. Both of them have border with India. From each of the sub district 250 women were selected for the interview. Food insecurity was assessed using the short form of the United States food security survey module. The prevalence of food insecurity was 32.4%. The socioeconomic factors that increase the risk of food insecurity are-income below the poverty line, illiteracy, women heading the household, unemployment and lack of own housing. No association was found between obesity and food insecurity. The food-insecure women with hunger had lower intake of all food-groups expect grains. This study determines that the food insecurity is present in the rural area of North West Bangladesh. Food-insecure women with hunger are at a risk of malnutrition. Interventions that target reduction of the factors associated with food insecurity are necessary in the rural food insecure area of Bangladesh.

Azizur Rahman; Rezaul Karim

2013-01-01

302

Community Creation by Residents and Tourists via Takachiho kagura in Japanese Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural communities are disappearing in Japan due to aging, depopulation, and changes in lifestyles. Recently, outsiders such as immigrants, volunteers, and tourists cooperate with residents to revive and maintain rural communities. This paper uses my fieldwork in the rural areas of Takachiho, where the Japanese traditional dance kagura is well-known, to consider the possibility that residents and tourists cooperatively create shared communities. Actually, an increasing number of tourists visit Takachiho to see kagura. Consequently, some dancers miss “classical” kagura, which involved almost exclusively local residents in intimate interactions. Nonetheless, many dancers welcome the influx of tourists and its stimulation of community festivals. Some tourists are attracted to kagura at community festivals, and some dancers and tourists have tried to forge bridges between their groups to create a shared community. The existence of kagura becomes an important common symbol that connects members of local communities.

Shiro Horiuchi

2012-01-01

303

Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

2004-07-01

304

Efficient public transport in rural and low density urban areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All European countries have large areas characterized by low population density, where agriculture and small-scale industry often play a predominant role. Here transport services are often restricted and this can affect the quality of life of the local inhabitants, so that an infrastructure and public transport system that can compete with motor car flexibility is required. The aim of the publication is to propose solutions to the lack of public transport in low population density areas, and these solutions should take socio-economic, environmental and energy saving considerations into consideration. Some of the solutions offered are the use of multi-purpose vehicles, transport coordination, removal of organizational barriers, the use of computer and communication technology and methods of decreasing energy consumption within the field of transportation. Motives for the development of public transport are also dealt with. (AB)

NONE

1995-07-01

305

Qualidade de água de uma lagoa rasa em meio rural no sul do Brasil/ Water quality of a shallow lagoon in rural area in Southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No seu entorno, a lagoa Caiubá apresenta regiões preservadas e áreas com cultura de arroz e de pecuária. Esta pesquisa descreve o padrão de variação sazonal e espacial das variáveis fisico-químicas e biológicas durante os anos de 2009 e 2010, em nove pontos distribuídos espacialmente na lagoa, representando suas partes norte, central e sul. A qualidade da água foi avaliada através da aplicação do índice de estado trófico (IET), do índice de qualidade de (more) água (IQA) e das classes da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005. Foram coletadas amostras de invertebrados bentônicos e determinados os Índices Bióticos (IB) de acordo com os modelos da Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA) e a adaptação do Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). Os resultados evidenciaram um sistema com alta turbidez e conteúdo de fósforo, além de baixa razão N:P, e com poucas alterações sazonais e espaciais nas variáveis medidas. Embora os resultados do IQA e CONAMA tenham classificado a lagoa Caiubá como águas de excelente a boa qualidade, os resultados do IET e dos IB foram opostos classificando a lagoa como sistema alterado e poluído. Conclui-se que esses índices devam ser readequados através de avaliações sistemáticas visando refletir as condições de qualidade de ecossistemas aquáticos em meio rural, na região subtropical do Brasil. Abstract in english The Caiubá lagoon has its surroundings with preserved areas and areas with rice cultivation and livestock. This study describes the pattern of seasonal and spatial variation of physico-chemical and biological variables during the years 2009 and 2010 at nine points, representing part of northern, central and southern regions. Water quality was evaluated by applying the trophic state index (TSI) and the water quality index (WQI), and classes according to CONAMA Resolution (more) 357/2005. Samples of benthic invertebrates were collected and determined the biotic index (BI), following the models of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA), and adaptation of Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). The results demonstrated a system with high turbidity and phosphorus content, and low N:P ratio, and with little seasonal and spatial changes in the measured variables. Although the results of WQI and the CONAMA have classified the lagoon waters with excellent to good quality, the results of the TSI and the BI were opposites, classifying the ecosystem as amended and polluted system. It is concluded that these indices should be readjusted through systematic evaluations in order to reflect the quality condition of aquatic ecosystems in rural areas in the subtropical region of Brazil.

Cunha, Raquel W.; Garcia Jr., Manoel D. N.; Albertoni, Edélti F.; Palma-Silva, Cleber

2013-07-01

306

Douglas County Rural Water Project Appraisal Report. Rural Water Supply Program. Eastern Colorado Area Office, Great Plains Region.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Douglas County Water Resource Authoritys Appraisal Investigation entitled Rural Water Supply for Douglas and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado is proposed for consideration under Reclamations Rural Water Supply Act by the Douglas County Water Resource Autho...

D. Donaldson D. Larsen J. Baysinger J. Foreman P. Mangan

2010-01-01

307

Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

2011-01-01

308

Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

2011-01-01

309

An aerial radiological survey of the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. Final report, October 29, 1996 - November 2, 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity surrounding the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area that encompasses the plant site of which a large portion is located in the Mississippi River Basin. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that measures gamma radiation. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Estimated exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 6-8 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in the Mississippi River Basin and (b) below 6 ?R/h over the Mississippi River and portions of its basin that were included in the survey area. Man-made radiation (22-1,600 ?R/h) was found at the plant site; nitrogen-1 6 was the primary source of activity found at the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. Estimated exposure rates measured in the area surrounding the site during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1970 preoperational survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

1997-01-01

310

Mothers? Perceptions & Ambitions About Their Daughters in Rural Area  

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Full Text Available Research question: What are the perceptions and ambitions of mothers about their daughters in relation to critical areas like literacy, age of marriage & child bearing, health risk due to early marriage etc. Objectives: To raise the level of awareness of mothers through ongoing programmes focused on women. Design: Before and after study in population. Participants: Mothers of girls aged 7-19 years. Study variables: Literacy, caste, communication, menstruation, food distribution in the family, age of marriage & childbirth, health risks, sources of information. Outcome variables: Raised level of awareness on critical areas as mentioned above. Statistical analysis: Simple proportions. Results: A little less than half (48%) of mother�s felt that their daughters could study as long as they desired. Though 73-82% of mothers knew the health risk of early marriage yet 67% of girls were married below the age of 18 years. Only 15% of mothers educated their daughters on the subject of menstruation. Female children were considered the last priority for nutritious food. The results of this study necessitate strengthening of women programmes for better awareness; favorable attitudes and sound practices.

Lal Sunder

1997-01-01

311

Time and space in long-term development of agriculture and rural areas – a retrospective approach  

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Full Text Available The development processes taking place in agriculture and rural areas have a causal relationship with time and the socio-economic space to which they belong. The subject of this discussion is an attempt to systematize some achievements of science relating to the above mentioned areas through the prism of the theory of location of economic activity in agriculture, welfare economics and neoclassical models of growth and conver-gence, and models of agricultural development worldwide, with an indication of the rela-tionship between the industrial agriculture, space and sustainable development. It is also an attempt to present the relationship: the farming – the rural areas – the environment, in the context of an active agricultural policy and spatial policy.

Marek Wigier

2012-01-01

312

Stated preferences of doctors for choosing a job in rural areas of Peru: a discrete choice experiment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Doctors' scarcity in rural areas remains a serious problem in Latin America and Peru. Few studies have explored job preferences of doctors working in underserved areas. We aimed to investigate doctors' stated preferences for rural jobs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A labelled discrete choice experiment (DCE) was performed in Ayacucho, an underserved department of Peru. Preferences were assessed for three locations: rural community, Ayacucho city (Ayacucho's capital) and other provincial capital city. Policy simulations were run to assess the effect of job attributes on uptake of a rural post. Multiple conditional logistic regressions were used to assess the relative importance of job attributes and of individual characteristics. A total of 102 doctors participated. They were five times more likely to choose a job post in Ayacucho city over a rural community (OR 4.97, 95%CI 1.2; 20.54). Salary increases and bonus points for specialization acted as incentives to choose a rural area, while increase in the number of years needed to get a permanent post acted as a disincentive. Being male and working in a hospital reduced considerably chances of choosing a rural job, while not living with a partner increased them. Policy simulations showed that a package of 75% salary increase, getting a permanent contract after two years in rural settings, and getting bonus points for further specialisation increased rural job uptake from 21% to 77%. A package of 50% salary increase plus bonus points for further specialisation would also increase the rural uptake from 21% to 52%. CONCLUSIONS: Doctors are five times more likely to favour a job in urban areas over rural settings. This strong preference needs to be overcome by future policies aimed at improving the scarcity of rural doctors. Some incentives, alone or combined, seem feasible and sustainable, whilst others may pose a high fiscal burden.

Miranda JJ; Diez-Canseco F; Lema C; Lescano AG; Lagarde M; Blaauw D; Huicho L

2012-01-01

313

Study of the radioactivity of drinking water in rural uraniferous area : Cases of Vinaninkarena and its surrounding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this work is to determine the radioactivity by using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) and to study the distrubition of radionuclides in drinking water from the Vinaninkarena region. The activities of radium and radon, the excess of short half life radionuclides with regard to radon are obtained from Maxilight cocktail. The alpha/beta total radioactivity is measured with OptiPhase Hisafe cocktail. The values obtained vary from (10±3)Bq.l-1 to (69+-3)Bq.l-1 for the 226Ra, from (24±5)Bq.l-1 to (183±5)Bq.l-1 for the excess of radon, from (134±5)Bq.l-1 to (1442±9)Bq.l-1 for the short half life radionuclides and from (106±26) Bq.l-1 to (479±29)Bq.l-1 for the long half life total alpha/beta activities. These results show that radioactivities in drinking waters from the region are high, especially for the short half life radionuclides. Drinking the waters immediately after the collect from well or natural sources may increase the ionising radiation exposure.

2003-01-01

314

A sociological analysis of the problem of the rural areas and rural development in Turkey: 17 years before and later Ankara-Güdül Kavaközü Willage  

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Full Text Available The rural development is one of the major problems of developing countries. As a developing country Turkish society is still strugling with this problem. The main aim of this study is to describe the social and economical problems of rural Turkey. Kavaközü Village selected as the research area. The data which was gathered in the field researches was used to achieve the aim. A couple of fieldworks were carried out in the field within last twenty years.

D. Ali Arslan

2010-01-01

315

Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales/ Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos (more) de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8) y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3), mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9) tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4) obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2) de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6) de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños ( Abstract in english Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Col (more) e's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8) were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3) were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9) were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4) were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2) were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6) were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (

Coronado Vázquez, Valle; Odero Sobrado, David; Canalejo González, David; Cidoncha Pérez, Jesús

2012-10-01

316

Primary surgery in rural areas of southern Sudan.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We report through a retrospective analysis our experience of providing surgical care and on-the-job training through mobile surgical missions in southern Sudan during the post conflict period between 2005 and 2009. METHODS: Three surgical teams conducted 23 missions in 5 primary health care centers sited in remote areas of southern Sudan. King's analytical framework for surgical care in developing countries is adopted to evaluate the appropriateness of services rendered. Exact logistic regression was performed to investigate differences in mortality depending on the level of training of the operators and anesthetists. RESULTS: A total of 1,543 patients were operated on during a 5 year period, of which 9 (0.58%) died. The majority of operations were elective surgery cases (which may help contextualize the exceptionally low mortality rate). Several adaptations to surgical techniques adopted and preoperative and postoperative care were required. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality between operations performed by expatriate specialists and local midlevel providers with lower level training. CONCLUSIONS: This experience in southern Sudan demonstrates that surgical services can be established utilizing simple facilities and equipment and employing local personnel selected and trained on-the-job by teams composed of a consultant surgeon, anesthetist, and scrub nurse. Delegation of tasks relating to anesthesia and surgery to midlevel health providers is an appropriate approach in developing countries facing shortage and maldistribution of more qualified health workers.

Cometto G; Belgrano E; De Bonis U; Giustetto G; Kiss A; Taliente P; Meo G

2012-03-01

317

Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8) y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3), mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9) tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4) obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2) de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6) de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños (Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8) were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3) were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9) were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4) were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2) were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6) were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (<5,000 people), with OR = 1.49 (95%CI: 1.13-1.95) and OR = 1.33 (95%CI: 1.06-1.67), respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas is very high and is even higher in towns with less than 5,000 inhabitants.

Valle Coronado Vázquez; David Odero Sobrado; David Canalejo González; Jesús Cidoncha Pérez

2012-01-01

318

Surveillance of Dengue Vectors Mosquito in Some Rural Areas of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 24 week survey was conducted in some rural areas of Bangladesh and found a total of 256 positive containers and a total of 9415 larvae. In an average a 25.80% larvae positive containers were found in Malikanda and 8.00% in Dohar sadar. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were found in all the study areas, but Aedes aegypti were found only in Jahangirnagar campus (Savar) and Zingera (Keranigonj) areas. Percentage of positive houses was highest in Pachimde (35%) and lowest in Jahangirnagar (6%). Aedes aegypti (L.) larvae were found mainly in tyres, bamboo stumps earthen pots and coconut shells, whereas Aedes albopictus in all types of containers.

Kabirul Bashar; Mohammed Samsuzzaman; Mohammad Shaef Ullah; Zaglul Haider Iqbal

2005-01-01

319

Farm Diversification in Rural Areas of the Västra Götaland County in Sweden : Are there Evidence of Scope Economies?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis studies the impact of the financial support of the Environmental and Rural Devel-opment Programme of 2000-2006 on farm diversification and other activities in the rural areas of the Västra Götaland County for the period 2000-2005. Furthermore, it analyses if diver-sification within the fi...

Paramanathan, Mathivathana

320

Digital Gap in Iranian Rural Areas (Case Study at Sistan and Baluchestan-Iran)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we have tried to evaluate four levels of accessibility (motivational level, physical level, professionallevel, and applied level) related to digital gap in rural areas at Sistan and Baluchestan in Iran. First of all weexpressed the concept of digital gap and its measurement yardsticks, and then we have introduced a model forcontinuous accessibility in digital gap and we explained all four levels in details. After that we came up withresearch model hypothesizes and the results of the statistical hypothesizes. Our findings show that rural areas inSistan and Baluchestan in term of motivational level are in good and suitable situation but in term of other levelsthey don’t have a suitable situation.

Noor Mohammad Yaghoobi; Habibollah Salarzehi; Hamed Aramesh; Roya Shakeri

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Limits of the applicability of the social structural model in Czech rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the voting behaviour of citizens in rural areas of the Czech Republic. Within thetheoretical embodiment of the relationships between the individual in a social structure and voting behaviour, aso-called social-structural model for voting behaviour is often mentioned. However, when explaining thebehaviour of the voting behaviour of citizens living under the conditions of the Czech Republic the applicabilityof this model is of course disputable. Due to the predominant inconsistencies of the social status of citizens ofrural areas, it is not at all possible to determine the hypothesis of the applicability of a social-structural model ofvoting behaviour for citizens living in the conditions of the Czech rural countryside. The aim of this article is,through a case study of Zatec region, to prove the predominant (in)consistency of the social status of the givenpopulation.

R. Kopriva

2010-01-01

322

Robust, multifunctional flood protection zones in the Dutch Rural Riverine area  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the possible functions of robust dikes in the rural riverine areas of the Netherlands. It furthermore reviews and analyses strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with robust, multifunctional flood defense zones in rural riverine zones. The study focused on recent plans and ideas for innovative dike reinforcement at five locations in the Netherlands, supplemented with information obtained in semi-structured interviews with experts and stakeholders. At each of the five locations, suitable robust flood defenses could be identified that would contribute to the envisaged functions and ambitions for the respective areas. Primary strengths of the robust, multifunctional approach were identified as combined uses of limited space, a longer-term focus, and greater safety. The new approach offers opportunities as well, in particular, with regard to tasks, problems, and objectives related to infrastructure, land-use planning, nature and landscape protection, and development. These provide possibilities for co-financing as well.

van Loon-Steensma, J. M.; Vellinga, P.

2013-08-01

323

Muslim women's experiences with health care providers in a rural area of the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study used phenomenology to explore the experience of Muslim women through descriptions of their encounters with health care providers in a rural area. Participants (N = 7) were eligible for inclusion if the foreign-born woman had lived in the area for at least 2 years, had interaction with a health care provider within the last 6 months, and was able to articulate her experience either in English or through a interpreter. Data were recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed for the emergence of reoccurring themes, employing decision trails. Constant comparative analysis was used to promote the integrity of the data. Three themes were identified: (1) perceived power of the provider, (2) religiously defined gender relations, and (3) being a stranger in the U.S. healthcare system. Education of the Muslim patient and the provider is needed to increase health care satisfaction and use by rural Muslim women. PMID:18165422

Simpson, Jennifer L; Carter, Kimberly

2008-01-01

324

Fluoride Concentration in Potable Groundwater in Rural Areas of Khaf City, Razavi Khorasan Province, Northeastern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is associated with several adverse effects on human including dental and skeletal fluorosis. We studied all the groundwater wells located in rural areas of Khaf city, Razavi Province, northeastern Iran between 2009 and 2010. Fluoride concentration of water samples was measured by SPADNS method. We found that in rural areas the fluoride concentration ranged from 0.11 to 3.59 ppm—the level was less than the permissible limit in 31% of studied samples, higher than the permissible limit in 4% of the samples, and within the optimum limit of 1 to 1.5 ppm in 65% of water samples.

AI Amouei; AH Mahvi; AA Mohammadi; HA Asgharnia; SH Fallah; AA Khafajeh

2012-01-01

325

Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

Vinhas, Denise Martins

2004-07-01

326

Evaluation of sustainable development of rural areas of the ?redzki district  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article discussed the aspects connected with sustainable development of rural areas. The evaluation of the of the ?redzki District communes utilizes the selected coefficients in agreement with the social order. In the analysis six fields relating to the level and the quality of life, public health, demography, economic activity, poverty and exclusion were considered. The method of the reduction of the multifunction space was used for the interpretation of results.

Hanna Adamska

2009-01-01

327

Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The (more) activated alumina and reverse osmosis processes are both processes that can be very effectively applied for water defluoridation. The activated alumina process, however, is considered to be a more simple and robust process for water defluoridation, especially in a rural area. Therefore, the activated alumina process was selected for water defluoridation. An activated alumina plant was designed, constructed and commissioned in the rural area. Fluoride in the feed water is removed from 6 to 8 mg/? to less than 1.5 mg/?. No reduction in plant output was experienced over 6 service cycles. Therefore, it appears that fouling of the activated alumina should not be a problem. Plant output varied between 940 and 1 296 m³ to a fluoride breakthrough of approximately 2.0 mg/?. No significant operational problems were experienced during commissioning and the plant is performing satisfactorily. Spent regenerant is disposed of into evaporation ponds. It was demonstrated that a 1st world technology could be effectively applied in a rural area with proper training and supervision of the operators. The capital and operational costs of the 200 m³/d defluoridation plant are estimated at approximately R1.2m. and R0.7/m³ treated water.

Schoeman, JJ

2009-01-01

328

Primary Health Care in the Rural Area of the Islamic Republic of Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary health care in the Islamic Republic of Iran was conceived and nurtured on the strength of scientific research, politi­cal commitment, and well thought out planning. Due to expansion of PHC network in rural areas of Iran health Indicators have significantly improved. The health care and network in this country is, however, in need of serious repair if all this endeav­ors hither to be wasted. 

H Malekafzali

2009-01-01

329

Evaluation of the composition of terrestrial invertebrates in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The terrestrial invertebrates participate actively in the formation of the soil, and can be utilized as bioindicators of environmental disturbance. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the fauna composition of terrestrial invertebrates, in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul. The collection was carried out in a single fragment of Araucaria Forest, with structurally differentiated two-point samplings, through pitfall traps. A total of 1,776 invertebrates was captured, pertaining to Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca and Plathyhelminthes phyla, of which Arthropoda and Hexapoda were the most representative groups. In Hexapoda, eleven orders were registered, and of those, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola and Diptera were the most abundant. Although the studied fragment had been under recuperation for about 10 years after approximately 40 years of antropic interference, and was therefore surrounded by areas utilized for farming, agriculture and highways, it contained different groups of terrestrial invertebrates on wide-ranging thropic levels, which were important for the spatial structure and the composition of litterfall of the fragment.

Fernando Willyan Trevisan Leivas; Marta Luciane Fischer

2008-01-01

330

The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims), the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus). Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

Md. M. Hossain

2010-01-01

331

Factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking of adolescent males in rural areas of Korea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescent males in rural areas of Korea has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking among adolescent males living in rural areas. METHODS: The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting cigarette smoking. We evaluated the linear time trends in the prevalence of factors that were related to current smoking status and the linear time trends in cigarette smoking in groups stratified by the exposure to each factor using logistic regression models. Finally, we examined the contributions of the factors to the time trends in cigarette smoking by adjusting for each of those factors in the baseline regression models and changes in the adjusted odds ratio by survey year. RESULTS: A statistically significant increasing trend in smoking was observed after adjusting for the factors affecting cigarette smoking. Significant factors related to cigarette use were perceived stress, experience with depression, current alcohol drinking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and academic performance. The factor related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking was academic performance. CONCLUSIONS: Stress about academic performance is an important factor affecting the increase in cigarette smoking among adolescent males in a rural area of Korea.

Hong NS; Kam S; Kim KY

2013-05-01

332

Eating habits and factors affecting food choice of adolescents living in rural areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To establish factors that affect food choices among adolescents living in rural areas and to identify their food choices. DESIGN: A random sample of adolescents living in a Greek rural area (n=382) aged 12-18 years were individually interviewed. Food consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED questionnaire. Information was collected regarding self-perceived body size, dieting, dietary knowledge, parental control, meal and snack frequency, eating out of home, eating takeaways and precooked meals, eating from the school canteen. RESULTS: Body image concerns, dieting, education about food, parental control, maternal education level and eating with family and peers are factors that were found to affect food choices in this group of Greek adolescents. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low (KIDMED index was 4.5±2.7). Regular family meals at home were frequent in this group and 99% of the adolescents ate lunch daily at home. Eating out with peers and eating from the school canteen was related with higher consumption of 'junk type of food'. Girls and younger adolescents and those whose mothers had a higher education level seem to make healthier choices. CONCLUSIONS: Factors such as personal issues, family and peer pressure significantly affect food choices among adolescents living in a Greek rural area and highlight the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescents.

Bargiota A; Pelekanou M; Tsitouras A; Koukoulis GN

2013-04-01

333

Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were 137Cs, 90 Sr and 131 I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

2004-01-01

334

Point of care investigations in pediatric care to improve health care in rural areas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The good quality laboratory services in developing countries are often limited to major urban centers. As a result, many commercially available high-quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases are neither accessible nor affordable to patients in the rural areas. Health facilities in rural areas are compromised and this limits the usability and performance of the best medical diagnostic technologies in rural areas as they are designed for air-conditioned laboratories, refrigerated storage of chemicals, a constant supply of calibrators and reagents, stable electrical power, highly trained personnel and rapid transportation of samples. The advent of new technologies have allowed miniaturization and integration of complex functions, which has made it possible for sophisticated diagnostic tools to move out of the developed-world laboratory in the form of a "point of care"(POC) tests. Many diagnostic tests are being developed using these platforms. However, the challenge is to develop diagnostics which are inexpensive, rugged and well suited to the medical and social contexts of the developing world and do not compromise on accuracy and reliability. The already available POC tests which are reliable and affordable, like for HIV infection, malaria, syphilis, and some neglected tropical diseases, and POC tests being developed for other diseases if correctly used and effectively regulated after rigorous evaluation, have the potential to make a difference in clinical management and improve surveillance. In order to use these tests effectively they would need to be supported by technically competent manpower, availability of good-quality reagents, and healthcare providers who value and are able to interpret laboratory results to guide treatment; and a system for timely communication between the laboratory and the healthcare provider. Strengthening the laboratories at the rural level can enable utilization of these diagnostics for improving the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases among children which require prompt treatment and thus, considerably reduce morbidity and mortality among the pediatric age group.

Walia K

2013-07-01

335

THE IMPORTANCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE ICT NETWORK IN ACHIEVING KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN THE RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently in Romania, the information sources available to farmers are limited and belong mostly to the public sector. The knowledge provided is relevant but insufficient in order to meet the needs of the Romanian farmers, especially since they are not oriented towards the market, as the main segment of interest. This paper has the intention to emphasize the need to introduce ICT as the main tool in supporting the decision making process and in resolving the specific issues faced by this sector In analyzing the current situation regarding this matter, in order to propose ways to resolve the problems encountered in achieving knowledge transfer, until now, were addressed issues such as: the evolution of the knowledge transfer concept, development milestones and actions that marked the RDI sector as the main producer of information, the main supporters of the farmers in their information actions (World Bank, IFAD), means, procedures and techniques used for transmitting knowledge (extension; consultancy). But what is most important is making all this resulted information available for the farmers, fact which can only be accomplished, in our opinion, by introducing and implementing ICT in the rural areas. The main method of research is the statistical data analysis of the data regarding the components involved in the knowledge transfer process and the current status of implementation of ICT in the rural areas. Among the expected results are included identifying the main restrictive factors in achieving knowledge transfer in rural and the main implications that implementing ICT would have on farmers' market position. Introducing ICT in the rural area is, in our opinion the best way to transform information, as a research result, into knowledge, becoming this way a real input for the farmer In practice, this will lead to lower production costs, lower prices for inputs, increased revenues by increasing the production’s prices and, not least, increased level of the European funding resources attracted for supporting investments.

Miron Andreea; Ciobanu Laura; Menda Teodora - Adriana; Matoschi (Cimpan) Oana

2011-01-01

336

Point of care investigations in pediatric care to improve health care in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The good quality laboratory services in developing countries are often limited to major urban centers. As a result, many commercially available high-quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases are neither accessible nor affordable to patients in the rural areas. Health facilities in rural areas are compromised and this limits the usability and performance of the best medical diagnostic technologies in rural areas as they are designed for air-conditioned laboratories, refrigerated storage of chemicals, a constant supply of calibrators and reagents, stable electrical power, highly trained personnel and rapid transportation of samples. The advent of new technologies have allowed miniaturization and integration of complex functions, which has made it possible for sophisticated diagnostic tools to move out of the developed-world laboratory in the form of a "point of care"(POC) tests. Many diagnostic tests are being developed using these platforms. However, the challenge is to develop diagnostics which are inexpensive, rugged and well suited to the medical and social contexts of the developing world and do not compromise on accuracy and reliability. The already available POC tests which are reliable and affordable, like for HIV infection, malaria, syphilis, and some neglected tropical diseases, and POC tests being developed for other diseases if correctly used and effectively regulated after rigorous evaluation, have the potential to make a difference in clinical management and improve surveillance. In order to use these tests effectively they would need to be supported by technically competent manpower, availability of good-quality reagents, and healthcare providers who value and are able to interpret laboratory results to guide treatment; and a system for timely communication between the laboratory and the healthcare provider. Strengthening the laboratories at the rural level can enable utilization of these diagnostics for improving the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases among children which require prompt treatment and thus, considerably reduce morbidity and mortality among the pediatric age group. PMID:23564518

Walia, Kamini

2013-04-07

337

An aerial radiological survey of the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. Final report, October 19, 1996 - October 24, 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity surrounding the Point Beach Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 ?R/h in adjacent areas and along roadways, and (c) below 6 ?R/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (102-202 ?R/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 was the primary source of activity found at the Point Beach site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1970 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

1997-01-01

338

Self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: small-area variations in incidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-poisoning is one of the most common methods of suicide worldwide. The intentional ingestion of pesticides is the main contributor to such deaths and in many parts of rural Asia pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health problem. To inform the development of preventive measures in these settings, this study investigates small-area variation in self-poisoning incidence and its association with area-based socioeconomic and agricultural factors. Methods Ecological analysis of intentional self-poisoning in a rural area (population 267,613) of Sri Lanka in 2002. The geographic distribution of cases was mapped to place of residence. Using administrative division (GN), median population size 1416, as unit of analysis, associations with socioeconomic and agricultural indicators were explored using negative binomial regression models. Results The overall incidence of intentional self-poisoning in the study area was 315 per 100,000 (range: 0 – 2168 per 100,000 across GNs). Socioeconomic disadvantage, as indexed by poor housing quality (p = 0.003) and low levels of education (p Conclusion Considerable small-area variation in incidence rates of intentional self-poisoning was found. The noteworthy concentration of cases in certain areas and the inverse association with socioeconomic deprivation merit attention and should be investigated using individual-level exposure data.

Manuel Celie; Gunnell David J; van der Hoek Wim; Dawson Andrew; Wijeratne Ishika K; Konradsen Flemming

2008-01-01

339

The prevalence of Parkinson's disease in a rural area of North-East England.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We have previously reported the age-adjusted prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) in North Tyneside, an urban area of North-East England, as 139 cases (95% CI 116 to 162) per 100,000. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of idiopathic PD in a rural area of North-East England. METHODS: The same case-finding methodology as that employed in North Tyneside was used to identify cases of PD in an area of North Northumberland with a population of 59,613 at the 2001 UK census. All GPs in the study area were asked to provide details of patients registered with their service that may have PD or were on PD medication. Furthermore, all patients registered with the local PD service or under the care of a consultant neurologist or other relevant secondary care specialist were considered for inclusion. Inclusion in the study required fulfillment of the UK Brain Bank criteria. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-six cases were identified (50 women and 56 men), giving crude and age-adjusted prevalence estimates of 178 cases (95% CI 144 to 212) and 142 cases (95% CI 118 to 165) per 100,000 respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence rate within our rural study area was remarkably similar to that seen in other urban UK studies. Only 71 cases (67.0%) were identified through GP records. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of PD rural and urban areas of North-East England is remarkably similar.

Walker RW; Hand A; Jones C; Wood BH; Gray WK

2010-11-01

340

Undergraduate social work programs as health resources in rural areas: needs assessment as an example.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Undergraduate social work programs in rural areas can meet their students' learning needs and function as integral parts of the community health system, at the same time. Based on open systems and exchange theories, the author advocates enhanced resource sharing between undergraduate programs and community social and health agencies. Within the context of the need for increased experiential learning opportunities for students and for planning activities appropriate for student participation, a successful deinstitutionalization needs assessment project is described. As a generic model, the project has applicability to other health problem areas and settings.

Maypole DE

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Undergraduate social work programs as health resources in rural areas: needs assessment as an example.  

Science.gov (United States)

Undergraduate social work programs in rural areas can meet their students' learning needs and function as integral parts of the community health system, at the same time. Based on open systems and exchange theories, the author advocates enhanced resource sharing between undergraduate programs and community social and health agencies. Within the context of the need for increased experiential learning opportunities for students and for planning activities appropriate for student participation, a successful deinstitutionalization needs assessment project is described. As a generic model, the project has applicability to other health problem areas and settings. PMID:6515523

Maypole, D E

1984-01-01

342

Urinary iodine concentrations in urban and rural areas around Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2007, we screened urinary iodine (UI) concentrations in urban (Gomel city) and in rural areas (Hoiniki city) of the Gomel Region, Republic of Belarus, which was heavily contaminated by the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, in order to evaluate the current state of iodine supplementation in these areas. Median levels of UI were 220.5 ?g/L (151.5-358.5) ?g/L in Gomel city, and 228.0 ?g/L (130.0-337.5) ?g/L in Hoiniki city. Urinary concentrations in Gomel city were significantly improved, as compared to our previous results in 2000 (p

2009-01-01

343

Wide-Area Interference Spectroscopy of the Ionized Gas Surrounding the OCL-352 (IC-1805) Stellar Association  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the global kinematics of the giant ionized shell IC1805 centred a (l,b)=(134.7deg,+0.92deg)at a distance of -2.3 Kpc and surrounding the Ocl352, within Cassiopeia OB6 stellar association. Fabry-Perot interference spectroscopy data in the light of [SIII]9530.9A have been used to obtain the radial velocity field of the IC1795/IC1805 (W3/W4) region as a means to probe the large scale gas motions around Cass Ocl-352. The observations are discussed and interpreted in conjuction with radioastronomical and optical data available. A new empirical model is proposed to account for the complex kinematical structure of the region. As was suggested by Solomos (Ph.D Thesis, 1991)the region is a leaking HII shell with the ionized gas flowing to the North escaping from the galactic plane.

Solomos, Nikolaos

344

Self-Interest in Innovation Diffusion Decision Process: The Case of Extending Broadband Internet Services to Rural Areas of Ghana  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper assesses the factors that would facilitate the diffusion and adoption of broadband internet services in rural areas using the internet café business model. The rural areas of developing countries are predominantly ignored or underserved with broadband Internet connectivity. However in the cities, the internet café business model has been a major driver in the diffusion of the internet services. This paper adopts an exploratory approach to investigate why Internet café entrepreneurs do not supply internet services to rural areas. It also explores the factors that would stimulate investments from the same who are currently investing in internet services provisioning in the cities. Ghana is used as a case study by surveying 25 Internet Café operators. The analysis of the data collected facilitated self-interest assessment and its influences on the decision for broadband service diffusion and adoption in the rural areas using the internet café business model.

Williams, Idongesit; Gyaase, Patrick Ohemeng Kwadwo

2013-01-01

345

USE OF MECHANICAL VAPOR COMPRESSION (MVC) SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF WATER RESOURCES IN RURAL AREAS OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  

Science.gov (United States)

Quality drinking water is scarce in many rural areas of developing countries. Currently, inland desalination for the supply of fresh water is not sustainable due to expensive and energy intensive desalination technologies. This project proposes the development of a renewable ...

346

Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Postmenopausal Women of Rural Area of Vadodara District, Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: With the growing aged population in the country, postmenopausal health problems and needs are likely to become a great challenge to public health. This is more so related to the women with poor social background like those residing in rural areas. Material & Methods: Design: Cross-sectional study, Participants: 147 post-menopausal women residing in Piparia village of Vadodara district were involved in the study, based on sample size calculation and necessary assumptions. Information was filled up in a pre-tested questionnaire. Objective: To study the social and demographic characteristics of the post-menopausal women in rural areas of Vadodara district, Gujarat. Results: Among a total of 147 respondents, the mean age was 58.32 (48-68) years, while the mean age of inception of menopause was 47.74 (44.84-50.64) years. Labor work (n=37, 25.2%) was the most common occupation. Among all the respondents, 98.5% belonged to social class 4 or below, 18.4% were widow and 40% were below poverty line (BPL). 74.8% were not literate and 42.9% were dependent on their children for daily living. Conclusion: Rural post-menopausal women in India suffer many social disadvantages which could make them more vulnerable to experience more frequent and more severe of menopausal symptoms. Along with geriatric care, this special group of women also needs a separate focus for health care provision.

Donald Christian, Manish Kathad, Bharat Bhavsar

2011-01-01

347

Impacts of biogas projects on agro-ecosystem in rural areas — A case study of Gongcheng  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid growth of agro-ecosystem has been the focus of "New Rural Construction" in China due to intensive energy consumption and environmental pollution in rural areas. As a kind of renewable energy, biogas is helpful for new energy development and plays an important role in the sustainable development of agro-ecosystem in China. To evaluate the effects of biogas on agro-ecosystem from a systematic angle, we discussed the status quo of household biogas and identified its main factors that may have impacts on agro-ecosystem. An indicator framework covering environmental, social and economic aspects was established to quantify the impacts exerted by biogas project on agro-ecosystem. A case study of Gongcheng was then conducted to evaluate the combined impact of biogas project using the proposed indicator framework. Results showed that there was a notable positive effect brought by the application of biogas, and the integrated benefit has been significantly improved by 60.36%, implying that biogas as a substitute energy source can promote the sustainable level of rural areas.

Yang, Jin; Chen, Weichao; Chen, Bin

2011-09-01

348

[Use of the resources in the diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus in a rural area  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The clinical records of 135 diabetics from the Amposta rural area were reviewed and distributed in two groups: Group A consisted of four rural nuclei; each of them had a population of less than 1000 and a team of basic health care, and their overall population was 2967 with 88 recognized diabetics. Group B consisted of a rural nucleus with a population of 3337, served by three basic health care teams and administrative support; the number of diabetics was 47. The prevalences of type I (2.62% and 1.1%) and type II diabetes (35.91% and 17.18% were compared in the groups A and B, respectively. Also were compared the use of the available resources for the evaluation of the degree of metabolic compensation and for the detection of complications; and the use of the clinical record during the first year of operation of the basic health area. The results showed a significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes (p less than 0.001), in the use of resources both for the evaluation of metabolic compensation (p less than 0.001) and for the detection of complications (p less than 0.001), and in the quality of the clinical record (p less than 0.001).

Clúa Espuny JL; Queralt Tomás ML

1989-05-01

349

[Use of the resources in the diagnosis and control of diabetes mellitus in a rural area].  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical records of 135 diabetics from the Amposta rural area were reviewed and distributed in two groups: Group A consisted of four rural nuclei; each of them had a population of less than 1000 and a team of basic health care, and their overall population was 2967 with 88 recognized diabetics. Group B consisted of a rural nucleus with a population of 3337, served by three basic health care teams and administrative support; the number of diabetics was 47. The prevalences of type I (2.62% and 1.1%) and type II diabetes (35.91% and 17.18% were compared in the groups A and B, respectively. Also were compared the use of the available resources for the evaluation of the degree of metabolic compensation and for the detection of complications; and the use of the clinical record during the first year of operation of the basic health area. The results showed a significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes (p less than 0.001), in the use of resources both for the evaluation of metabolic compensation (p less than 0.001) and for the detection of complications (p less than 0.001), and in the quality of the clinical record (p less than 0.001). PMID:2519001

Clúa Espuny, J L; Queralt Tomás, M L

1989-05-01

350

Surface ozone comparison conducted in two rural areas in central-southern Spain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to contribute to the understanding of the photochemical air pollution analysing the levels and temporal variations of surface ozone in two rural areas situated in central-southern Spain. METHOD: The study is based on ozone hourly data recorded during the overall period between January 2008 and November 2009. The seasonal and daily ozone cycles as well as the number of exceedances of the threshold established in the European Ozone Directive have been calculated and analysed. RESULTS: This study presents the first ozone data registered at these two rural sites in the Iberian Peninsula plateau. Ozone shows a clear seasonal variation with the lowest values in January and November. High ozone concentrations are interrelated with high radiation intensities, temperature and wind directions. The information threshold defined in the European Ozone Directives was exceeded six times, while the limit for protection of human health was exceeded more than 40 times. The limits to protect the vegetation were also exceeded. CONCLUSIONS: Porzuna (near Cabañeros National Park) presents higher ozone levels than Argamasilla during the night-time and during the daytime of the summer months. Ozone levels are lower in Argamasilla probably due to fresh emissions from the close industrial area of Puertollano. The ozone exceedances of the limits defined in the Ozone Directive point out an ozone problem in this rural region.

Notario A; Díaz-de-Mera Y; Aranda A; Adame JA; Parra A; Romero E; Parra J; Muñoz F

2012-01-01

351

Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. Results of pH tests indicated that 23.1% of the water sources were acidic, 7.7% were neutral and 69.2% were alkaline. Water collected from the unprotected wells tested acidic, had a pH of 5.96, implying that it is corrosive and might present health risks to humans and livestock. Sources with highly alkaline water were the borehole, spring, hot spring standpipes, and rivers. Survey findings show that colour, taste, smell and turbidity are the quality parameters mostly used by rural households to determine water suitability for domestic use. Most ground water sources were found to have saline water due to low ground water recharge in the area. Water quality remains a sustainable development challenge in the rural areas of Swaziland.

Khanyisile Gamedze; Daniel Silas Tevera; Amos Olutola Fadiran

2012-01-01

352

TRADE AND RESTAURANT BUSINESS SPHERE IN RURAL AREAS OF UKRAINE: STATE, PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rural social infrastructure is the material and organizational basis for satisfaction of vital needs of population. However, unsatisfactory economic and social conditions influence the extinction of village, extend the continuous unsettled zones of rural territories, scatter and reduce the level of provision of social infrastructure objects. In order to stop the negative processes in social infrastructures of village, the complex of measures in relation to the improvement of maintenance of villagers should be taken, the practical steps for saving and increasing the material base of social infrastructure should be worked out, in particular trade and restaurant economy.The article is concerned with research of the current situation in trade and restaurant economy in rural areas of Ukraine and determination of the problems of their development. The statistical analysis of data from the State committee of statistics was conducted, the indexes of development were calculated, a structural analysis was performed and basic progress of trade and restaurant economy trends in rural areas was determined.It is educed that the consumption market of rural locality in Ukraine is characterized by a limit of goods assortment, by in-depth tendency in relation to the problem of goods’ quality and its correspondence to the standards of food safety, by low purchasing power of villagers, and also by closing of retails’ networks.As for restaurant economy, it is well-proven that the change of the system of administrative management resulted in the redistribution of rights and duties of regional administrations and their vertical relations with central government bodies and enterprise structures. In the past the chain development, providing separate contingents of employees and students, was centrally planned. At present, when considerable amount of industrial enterprises has stopped working and the objects of social infrastructure became the communal property, regulation of food supply is controlled neither by the management of industrial enterprises nor by local authorities. Therefore, the development of restaurant economy under the new conditions requires the modernization of control system both on nation-wide and regional levels and at the level of separate enterprises and organizations.Thus, use of new approaches to management of trade and restaurant economy development, improving the state regulation methods will allow to renew and strengthen infrastructural potential, optimize financial flows, increase the level of satisfaction of respective necessities of rural population on this basis, promote the role of industries in providing the complex of social development of regions, to create background for attracting the investments.

T. Bulakh

2013-01-01

353

The importance of neurocysticercosis in stroke in rural areas of a developing latin american country.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract. There is limited information on the prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC) among stroke patients, and no community-based survey has addressed this issue. We performed a 3-Phase, population-based study, to assess the prevalence and pathogenesis of stroke in a rural village of coastal Ecuador, where cysticercosis is highly endemic. Twenty stroke patients were found among 642 individuals ? 40 years of age. Eighteen of these patients underwent neuroimaging studies and no patient had evidence of NCC or angiitis of intracranial vessels. The serum immunoblot test for the detection of anticysticercal antibodies, performed in 15 of these 20 patients during a previous survey, were negative in 13 cases and the remaining two had a normal computed tomography of the head. This study suggests that NCC is not responsible for the increasing burden of stroke in rural areas of developing countries.

Del Brutto OH; Lama J

2013-08-01

354

An aerial radiological survey of the Nine Mile Point and James Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plants and surrounding areas, Lycoming, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Nine Mile Point and James FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plants was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plants and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant sites. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant sites varied from below 5.5 to 9 microroentgens per hour. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant sites. Radiation due to nitrogen-16, which is produced in the steam cycle of boiling-water reactors, was the primary source of activity found at the plant sites. Areas away from the plant sites were free of detectable man-made radioactivity.

1997-01-01

355

EFFECT OF CLEAN ENERGY ON THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since world's requirement for energy is spreading we need alternative sources of renewable energy such as wind power for generation of electricity, its positive effects on the economy of developed countries and developing countries is obvious, because it prevents rising coal and gas prices, specially in rural areas without the use of fossil fuel sources in arid and semi arid areas. Wind is one of the clean energy sources that produces no emission which means, it doesn't contribute to acid rain, global climate change, and smog. This environmental benefits positively effects have became an international topic. This paper presents quality and quantity assessment of land for use of potential wind energy in the rural areas that suffer from potential drought and high cost of electrical energy and its prevent fluctuation. In this paper we studied land assessment for use of potential wind power in Darmian rural areas, in East central desert of Iran at Southern Khorasan Province. It has dry climate and famous seasonal wind known '120 days of Sistan' this area has adequate constant wind speed, in this method we used geographical information system (GIS)tools and statistical of regions climatology station, after analysis of maps derived by application unit (slope- elevation- direct) and erosion and geological unit and its bird migration root, we consider and discuses its results on the regional and social benefits such as reduction for demand of fossil fuels, reduction of pollution, employment, prevention of migration to the big cities, improvement farmer and rancher livelihood, sustainable development of agriculture and...

H.R.Sharifan [Graduate in Environmental pollution of Islamic Azad University of Tehran Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran); J.Farzadmehr; A.Davari; N.Banan; H. Malvandi

2008-09-30

356

Outdoor allergenic fungal spores: comparison between an urban and a rural area in northern Portugal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The frequency and concentration of many airborne fungal spores associated with respiratory allergy symptoms are influenced by geographical and climatic characteristics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to monitor the distribution of 11 potentially allergenic fungal spore types in 2 regions with different urbanization levels in Northern Portugal: Porto (urban area) and Amares (rural area). METHODS: Airborne fungal spore levels were monitored from 2005 to 2007 using Hirst-type spore traps. The Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the influence of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) on spore concentration. Meteorological data from both areas were compared using the t test, and spore concentrations were compared using the sign test. RESULTS: In both areas, Cladosporium, Agaricus, Aspergillus/Penincillium, Altemaria, Coprinus, and rusts were the most abundant fungal types observed. Most of the analyzed spore types presented maximum values during the summer months, with the exception of Polythrincium, Stemphylium, and Torula, which reached a peak earlier in the year, whereas Aspergillus/Penicillium and Botrytis showed a wider distribution. Temperature had a positive effect on most spore concentrations, and relative humidity and rainfall negatively influenced concentrations ofAlternaia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, and Torula. CONCLUSIONS: The concentration of all selected spore types was higher in the rural than in the urban area, with higher values registe summer and autumn and lower values found during winter and spring. rainfall, influence airborne concentrations of major allergenic fungal spores.

Oliveira M; Ribeiro H; Delgado L; Fonseca J; Castel-Branco MG; Abreu I

2010-01-01

357

Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is common in parts of South Africa; rural residence is a frequently cited risk factor. We conducted a FAS school prevalence survey of an isolated rural community in a West Coast village of Western Cape Province, so obtaining the first directly measured rate, focusing specifically on a South African rural area, of FAS and partial FAS (PFAS). METHODS: The study area (Aurora village), a community of about 2 500 people in a grain-produ (more) cing region, has one primary school. All learners were eligible for study inclusion. Initial anthropometry screening was followed by a diagnostic stage entailing examination by a dysmorphologist for features of FAS, neurodevelopmental assessment, and an interview assessing maternal alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Of 160 learners screened, 78 (49%) were screen-positive, of whom 63 (81%) were clinically assessed for FAS. The overall FAS/PFAS rate among the screened learners was 17.5% (95% confidence interval 12.0 - 24.2%), with 16 (10.0%) children having FAS and 12 (7.5%) PFAS. High rates of stunting, underweight and microcephaly were noted in all learners, especially those with FAS or PFAS. Five (18%) mothers of affected children were deceased by the time of assessment. CONCLUSION: We describe very high rates of FAS/PFAS in an isolated rural part of the Western Cape that is not located in a viticultural region. Our study suggests that the prevalence of FAS may be very high in isolated communities, or in particular hot-spots. It adds to the growing evidence that FAS/PFAS is a significant, and underestimated, health problem in South Africa. Expanded screening and surveillance programmes, and preventive interventions, are urgently needed

Olivier, L; Urban, M; Chersich, M; Temmerman, M; Viljoen, D

2013-06-01

358

Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is common in parts of South Africa; rural residence is a frequently cited risk factor. We conducted a FAS school prevalence survey of an isolated rural community in a West Coast village of Western Cape Province, so obtaining the first directly measured rate, focusing specifically on a South African rural area, of FAS and partial FAS (PFAS). METHODS: The study area (Aurora village), a community of about 2 500 people in a grain-producing region, has one primary school. All learners were eligible for study inclusion. Initial anthropometry screening was followed by a diagnostic stage entailing examination by a dysmorphologist for features of FAS, neurodevelopmental assessment, and an interview assessing maternal alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Of 160 learners screened, 78 (49%) were screen-positive, of whom 63 (81%) were clinically assessed for FAS. The overall FAS/PFAS rate among the screened learners was 17.5% (95% confidence interval 12.0 - 24.2%), with 16 (10.0%) children having FAS and 12 (7.5%) PFAS. High rates of stunting, underweight and microcephaly were noted in all learners, especially those with FAS or PFAS. Five (18%) mothers of affected children were deceased by the time of assessment. CONCLUSION: We describe very high rates of FAS/PFAS in an isolated rural part of the Western Cape that is not located in a viticultural region. Our study suggests that the prevalence of FAS may be very high in isolated communities, or in particular hot-spots. It adds to the growing evidence that FAS/PFAS is a significant, and underestimated, health problem in South Africa. Expanded screening and surveillance programmes, and preventive interventions, are urgently needed.

Olivier L; Urban M; Chersich M; Temmerman M; Viljoen D

2013-06-01

359

Compilation of radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data, Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas of southwestern Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a compilation of available radiometric age and trace-element geochemical data for volcanic rocks and episodes of hydrothermal activity in Yucca Mountain and the surrounding region of southwestern Nevada. Only the age determinations considered to be geologically reasonable (consistent with stratigraphic relations) are listed below. A number of the potassium-argon (K-Ar) ages of volcanic rocks given by Kistler, Marvin et al., Noble et al., Weiss et al., and Noble et al. are not included as these ages have been shown to be incorrect or disturbed by hydrothermal alteration based on subsequent stratigraphic and/or petrographic data and the recognition of errors in K-Ar age determinations related to incomplete extraction of argon. In cases where absolute ages are tightly constrained by high precision {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages and unequivocal stratigraphic relations, we have omitted the less precise K-Ar age data. Similarly, the more precise single-crystal laser-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age determinations of certain units are reported and less precise ages by multi-grain bulk-fusion {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are not included. This compilation does not include age data for basaltic rocks of Pliocene and Quaternary age in the Yucca Mountain region.

Weiss, S.I.; Noble, D.C.; Larson, L.T.

1994-12-31

360

Distribution of Typhoid fever in different rural and urban areas of Lakhimpur District of Assam  

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Full Text Available Typhoid is one of the infectious bacterial diseases ofhuman in Assam. Blood samples were collected from5474 patients suspected with enteric fever from differentrural as well as urban areas of Lakhimpur district ofAssam during the period from January to December,2012.Among the suspected patients 26.2% were foundtyphoid positive in Widal test. It was observed thatamong the typhoid positive patients, 2% had only Hflagellarantibodies, 40% had only O-somatic antibodiesand 58% had both O-somatic and H-flagellar antibodies.The H2S test of water sample collected from typhoidreporting areas also showed presence of sulphur producingbacteria. All age groups and both the sexes are equallyaffected. Muslim communities and Tea garden communitieswere highly afflicted with this fever. The proportion of caseswas higher in rural areas as compared to urban areas.

Jitendra Sharma; Mridul Malakar

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A Framework for Providing E-Services to the Rural Areas using Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks  

CERN Multimedia

In recent years, the proliferation of mobile computing devices has driven a revolutionary change in the computing world. The nature of ubiquitous devices makes wireless networks the easiest solution for their interconnection. This has led to the rapid growth of several wireless systems like wireless ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks etc. In this paper we have proposed a framework for rural development by providing various e-services to the rural areas with the help of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We have discussed how timely and accurate information could be collected from the rural areas using wireless technologies. In addition to this, we have also mentioned the technical and operational challenges that could hinder the implementation of such a framework in the rural areas in the developing countries.

Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Sayeed, Sabit Anjum; Ahmed, Farruk; Hong, Choong Seon

2007-01-01

362

Personal and family health in rural areas of Kentucky with and without mountaintop coal mining.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This study investigates health disparities for adults residing in a mountaintop coal mining area of Appalachian Kentucky. Mountaintop mining areas are characterized by severe economic disadvantage and by mining-related environmental hazards. METHODS: A community-based participatory research study was implemented to collect information from residents on health conditions and symptoms for themselves and other household members in a rural mountaintop mining area compared to a rural nonmining area of eastern Kentucky. A door-to-door health interview collected data from 952 adults. Data were analyzed using prevalence rate ratio models. FINDINGS: Adjusting for covariates, significantly poorer health conditions were observed in the mountaintop mining community on: self-rated health status, illness symptoms across multiple organ systems, lifetime and current asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypertension. Respondents in mountaintop mining communities were also significantly more likely to report that household members had experienced serious illness, or had died from cancer in the past 5 years. Significant differences were not observed for self-reported cancer, angina, or stroke, although differences in cardiovascular symptoms and household cancer were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to reduce longstanding health problems in Appalachia must focus on mountaintop mining portions of the region, and should seek to eliminate socioeconomic and environmental disparities.

Hendryx M

2013-08-01

363

Compliance to Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation among Pregnant Women in Urban and Rural Areas in Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Low compliance has been linked to the ineffectiveness of supplementation programme among p