WorldWideScience

Sample records for surrounding rural areas

  1. Walking Safely in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Walking Safely in Rural Areas Walking is great exercise and can be particularly ... and bustle of city streets. But walking in rural areas requires special care. Unpaved surfaces may provide uneven ...

  2. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Ansari; Seyed Mehdi Mirdamadi; Azita Zand; Masoumeh Arfaee

    2013-01-01

    Rural entrepreneurship can be considered as one of the solutions to reduce poverty, migration and develop employment in rural environments. In this study, the necessity of sustainable entrepreneurship, the effective factors and the barriers to entrepreneurship in rural area will be described. In this regard, a model has been considered to create a sustainable rural entrepreneurship area by establishing a logical connection between the effective factors in entrepreneurship. Some of the most im...

  3. 7 CFR 25.503 - Rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rural areas. 25.503 Section 25.503 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Special Rules § 25.503 Rural areas. (a) What constitutes “rural”. A rural area may consist of any area that lies...

  4. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Nava, Alessandra; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197), equine (63), pigs (25), sheep (11), and dogs (28) were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197) among cattle and 10.7% (3/28) among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region. PMID:21184703

  5. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural entrepreneurship can be considered as one of the solutions to reduce poverty, migration and develop employment in rural environments. In this study, the necessity of sustainable entrepreneurship, the effective factors and the barriers to entrepreneurship in rural area will be described. In this regard, a model has been considered to create a sustainable rural entrepreneurship area by establishing a logical connection between the effective factors in entrepreneurship. Some of the most important challenges that can be pointed out are: lack of access to capital and facilities, problems in supplying goods and services, emphasis on an industry or particular business, low possibility risk in villages and lack of supporting organizations. Review and analysis of rural entrepreneurship in order to achieve sustainability. This research in implementation process is qualitative and in objective is descriptive and then analytic. The results indicate that comprehensive development can never be obtained without rural development and in order to achieve this goal the best investment is creating a context for sustainable entrepreneurship and its promotion in rural area since the entrepreneurship has this ability to identify resources, opportunities and problems available in the context while devising new solutions to move toward developing of different aspects of village and environment.

  6. IT in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Rudgard, Stephen; Mangstl, Anton

    2004-01-01

    Many agree that knowledge is central to development, and that there are considerable resources of knowledge and information that could be made available to assist poor people deal more effectively with the root causes of their poverty. The new information and communications technologies (ICT), and increased priority and resources for information exchange, have the potential to improve the access to, and benefits from, this accumulated knowledge for the rural poor, as well as creating a more i...

  7. Rurality study of restricted areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rivaroli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areas’ rurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

  8. Youth Migration from Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Emil J.; Monk, David H.

    The persistent net loss of young people from rural areas has potentially contradictory implications for educational policy. Believing that youth migration to urban areas is inevitable, one school board might feel obligated to prepare students for urban jobs. Another board might view such actions as community suicide and attempt to slow…

  9. 7 CFR 1980.405 - Rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural areas. 1980.405 Section 1980.405 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.405 Rural areas. The business... both rural and non-rural areas will be limited to the amount necessary to finance the facility...

  10. Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

    1987-01-01

    Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

  11. ROLE OF RURAL TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Udovč; Anton Perpar

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …). The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa). The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development poss...

  12. Intelligent Carpooling in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Møller, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    to mitigate these challenges. This system uses ITS to plan and coordinate carpooling. A study in two Danish rural areas found that a markedly part of residents are interesting in Intelligent Carpooling, but also that they require knowledge of whom they are driving with and as well as planning the......Rural transportation is facing the challenges of the required mobility increasing and the public transportation parallel being limited to a deficient level. A new mobility application (app) based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), called Intelligent Carpooling, can be a significant contributor...

  13. Comparison of the vector potential of different mosquito species for the transmission of heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, in rural and urban areas in and surrounding Stillwater, Oklahoma, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paras, K L; O'Brien, V A; Reiskind, M H

    2014-08-01

    Dirofilaria immitis Leidy (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), or heartworm, is a mosquito-borne nematode that causes a fatal disease in carnivores. Although infection is preventable through prophylactic drugs, compliance and the spectre of resistance suggest vector control is a viable alternative. There were two main objectives in this study: (a) to evaluate the relationships between landscape and social factors and the number and species of heartworm-positive mosquitoes, with a specific focus on the importance of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), and (b) to test the hypothesis that dog heartworm is more prevalent in suburban than in rural areas. To achieve these objectives, mosquitoes were collected from May to November 2010 at 16 rural and 16 urban locations in Payne County, Oklahoma, U.S.A. using three trapping methods that utilized, respectively, resting boxes, carbon dioxide traps and BG Sentinel traps. Urban areas showed greater numbers of Ae.?albopictus and a higher overall likelihood of infection with D.?immitis. Because many species of mosquito are responsible for heartworm transmission, current prophylactic treatment remains the best method of controlling this parasite. PMID:24898348

  14. Multifunctional centers in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually bein...... and informal learning. Also that the stock of beneficial bridging social capital thus created actually contributes to attract newcomers and counteract depopulation....

  15. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng

    2015-07-01

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 - 2011. We found that: (1) the urban environment generated increasing negative impact on the surrounding areas, and the PM2.5 concentration difference between urban and rural areas was particularly high in large cities. (2) Nearly half of the Chinese prefectures (156 out of 350) showed increased impact of urban PM2.5 pollution on its surrounding areas. Those prefectures were mainly located along two belts: one from northeast China to Sichuan province, the other from Shanghai to Guangxi province. Our study demonstrates the deterioration in urban air quality and its potential impacts on its surrounding areas in China. We hope that the results presented here will encourage different approaches to urbanization to mitigate the negative impact caused by urban air pollution, both in China and other rapidly developing countries.

  16. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  17. Military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Sohl, T.

    2008-12-01

    Land use activities greatly affect the temporal trends and spatial patterns of regional land-atmospheric exchange of carbon. Military installations generally have drastically different land management strategies from surrounding areas, and the carbon consequences have never been quantified and assessed. Here, we used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to simulate and compare ecosystem carbon dynamics between Fort Benning and surrounding areas from 1992 to 2050. GEMS was driven by unique combinations of spatial and temporal dynamics of major driving forces, such as climate, soil properties, nitrogen deposition, and land use and land cover changes (predicted by FOREcasting SCEnarios of land cover change (FORE-SCE)). Our results indicated that the military installation sequestered more carbon than surrounding areas (0.77 vs. 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1 averaged from 1992 to 2007). Differences in land use activities were the primary cause behind the difference in carbon sequestration rates. From 1992 to 2007, no urban/residential expansion occurred at the installation, and transitional barren (primarily caused by forest harvesting) slightly increased from 0 to 0.2%. In contrast, urban land increased from 5.6 to 7.6% and transitional barren increased from 0.1 to 0.7% in the surrounding areas. Live biomass accumulation accounted for most of the carbon sink in both Fort Benning and surrounding areas (0.75 vs. 0.15 Mg C ha-1 y-1), while soil organic carbon accumulation was small (0.02 vs. 0.01 Mg C ha- 1 y-1), suggesting biomass removal caused by urbanization and harvesting resulted in much less carbon sequestration in surrounding areas. Fort Benning is likely to sequester more carbon in the future, although the rate of carbon sequestered per year will gradually reduce. The future carbon source/sink strength in the surrounding areas varied greatly, from a small sink to a strong source, depending on the path of land use change (e.g., increase of clear-cutting because of forest aging and/or biofuel opportunities). Our results suggest that public lands such as installations might play a significant role in carbon sequestration at the regional scale because some anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., urbanization, logging, and agriculture) can be minimal or absent at military training lands.

  18. Health care in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, L M

    1994-02-01

    In India, although the health care system infrastructure is extensive, the people often regard government facilities as family planning (FP) centers instead of primary health care centers. This problem has been compounded by the separation of health care and FP at all stages, even down to the storage of the same medication in two different locations depending upon whether it is to be used for "health" or for "FP." In rural areas where the government centers are particularly desolate, the community has chosen to erect its own health care system of private practitioners of all sorts and qualifications. Even in rural areas where a comprehensive health service is provided, with each household visited regularly by health workers, and where this service has resulted in a lowering of the crude death rate from 14.6 to 7 and the maternal mortality rate from 4.7 to 0.5/1000, people depend upon practitioners of various types. Upon analysis, it was discovered that the reason for using this multiplicity of practitioners had nothing to do with the level of satisfaction with the government service or with the accessibility of the services. Rather, when ill, the people make a diagnosis and then go to the proper place for treatment. If, for instance, they believe their malady was caused by the evil eye, they consult a magico-religious practitioner. These various types of practitioners flourish in areas with the best primary health care because they fulfill a need not met by the primary health care staff. If government agencies work with the local practitioners and afford them the proper respect, their skills can be upgraded in selected areas and the whole community will benefit. PMID:12288590

  19. ROLE OF RURAL TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Udovč

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …. The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa. The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development possibilities of studied rural areas. We analysed how different systems are able to maintain its functions in the context of identifi ed perturbations (socio-economic and geophysical. We analysed the infl uence of different factors on systems stability, its resilience, robustness and integrity. The gained results show that only the higher level of diversifi cation is not a guarantee for systems higher stability, resilience, robustness and integrity, but there also other

  20. Tectonics and seismicity of Baku and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : In this article it is described Baku and its surrounding areas, where the main tectonics are the Caucasus, strike-slip faults and reverse faults. The Caucasus is a part of the Alpine-Himalayan folding belt and situated between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The main faults in this region are the Pembak-Sevan fault, the Garni fault and the Talesh fault. The Pembak-Sevan fault and the Garni fault are characterized by right-leteral strike slip faults. The Talesh fault is characterized by reverse fault and the Talesh Mountains have been thrust over the south Caspian depression. Some earthquake catalogues for Baku and surrounding region had been prepared from different sources. The qreat earthquakes had been occured in the Caucasus, the Caspian sea and the Tales fault and around Baku.

  1. Welfare service in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    resources and place bound potentials are identified and how they are addressed in plans for future development. The paper draws on a study on service adjustments in rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are decided, how they are managed by rural......Many rural municipalities are challenged due to overall population decline and demographic changes and thus need to make adjustment to municipal services. Demographic profiles are central for assessing both needs, place bound resources and development potential of individual localities.......Assessment of development potential for individual localities using a place-based approach is in line with EU policies for rural development thereby setting a competitive framework for local development. This paper addresses place bound approaches in relation to service adjustment and discusses how local...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.312 - Rural area designation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.312 Rural area designation. A rural area is an area which is identified as rural by RHS in accordance with 7 CFR part 3550. Current county... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural area designation. 1980.312 Section...

  3. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants by rural communities surrounding the PARNASI, Sergipe, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maroti, Paulo Sérgio; Lima, Juliano S.; Silva-Mann, Renata; Gomes, Laura Jane

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out in the four rural communities (Pedrinhas, Ladeira, Caroba and Cajueiro) surrounding the National Park of Serra de Itabaiana - PARNASI, in order to assess which botanical species are recognized by local specialists as wild food plants. The methodology was based on stages of observation, questionnaires, performance-guided tours, and a floristic inventory. There were 31 specialties divided into three categories of emic wild food plants, those being for human consumptio...

  4. Directions for land management in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    DUDZIŃSKA, Małgorzata; Jasińska, Elżbieta; KOCUR-BERA, Katarzyna; Leń, Przemysław; Preweda, Edward; Sajnóg, Natalia; Sobolewska-Mikulska, Katarzyna; Steinsholt, Håvard; Walacik, Marek; Wójcik, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    The monograph presents directions and trends of real estate management in the rural areas in Poland and in Norway. Changes and transformation of the spatial structure of agricultural farms have been intensively developed since the Polish accession to the European Union. Real estate management in rural areas covers technical, procedural and legal aspects resulting from attempts aiming at solution of current problems. The amending legal regulations and the rules concerning the real estate trans...

  5. Recruiting and Retaining Physicians in Very Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Carolyn M.; Sandefer, Ryan H.; Gray, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Recruiting and retaining physicians is a challenge in rural areas. Growing up in a rural area and completing medical training in a rural area have been shown to predict decisions to practice in rural areas. Little is known, though, about factors that contribute to physicians' decisions to locate in very sparsely populated areas. Purpose:…

  6. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire......, utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment...

  7. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire......, utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment......, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited....

  8. Development Areas of Rural Tourism in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of rural tourism forms has increased in recent years. From the initiatives with individual character it has been reached a real alternative leisure. The reason? Authenticity of rural areas is a quality becoming more demanding in terms of current life. Synonymous with a holiday spent with little money in nature, rural tourism forms, like and are becoming increasingly popular. Folk heritage of folk architecture, folk customs and traditions, crafts, port and popular folklore, gastronomy specific is the most popular tourist attractions in rural tourism. Therefore, tourist villages and agro-tourist offer circumscribed, in particular, to Romanian folk brand areas, which fortunately, also benefits of natural attractions of great beauty.

  9. Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Leitner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

  10. Multifunctional character of rural areas in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sikora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Multifunctional development of rural areas involves implementation of new non-agricultural functions, such as production, commerce or services. This strategy results from social and economic difficulties in these areas, economic underdevelopment, ineffective agricultural farms and unemployment. The research material used in the paper included analysis of the related literature, analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in the area of Poland and the author’s own observations. As results from the study, rural areas should perform the functions of food production, environmental protection, culture, tourism and providing services for municipal areas. These functions should provide the basis for development of additional non-agricultural activity. This involves the plans made by people who live in the country for starting businesses in the area of services, commerce, transport, tourism and craftsmanship and handicraft. The non- -agricultural activities which have already been performed suggest, on the one hand, opti-mistic opportunities of growth in rural areas but, on the other hand, are not conducive to the development of agricultural functions, which are inherent in rural areas.

  11. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  12. Rural areas of Eastern Germany: modern challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klüter H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After the German reunification the agricultural development of eastern territories seemed to have picked up its pace. Yet the main problems those territories are facing today hatched already in the mid-1990s. In our study we address the problems and challenges that hinder sustainable development of East German rural areas. We analyse agricultural statistics and describe the structure of agricultural enterprises, land-use, and other critical dimensions of agriculture. We discuss pros and cons of modern rural areas spatial planning policy and take a critical look at the current status of rural areas. We also put forward a number of concrete proposals aimed at the development of the area and counteracting the negative trends it is now experiencing. Even taking into account all ‘positive’ development trends that are postulated to have occurred since the unification, we underline the crucial necessity of diversification of labour forces and of changing the spatial planning policies in the rural areas of East Germany.

  13. Smart work centres in rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne Birte

    This paper discusses the establishment of telework centres as an element in local development strategies in rural areas, with a particular view to two new telework centres in region North Denmark. The paper argues that telework centres do not represent an easy solution to problems of local...

  14. Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

    The entrepreneurial dynamics within urban and rural areas are often assumed to be very different. This study explores the importance of individual creativity and the social network in both places regarding the probability of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving the crucial three years after...... start-up. The results are based on longitudinal register data combined with a questionnaire survey from 2008, utilizing responses from 1,108 first-time entrepreneurs (out of which 670 survived) and 420 non-entrepreneurs (without previous entrepreneurial experience). Creativity is only found to lead to...... start-up in urban areas but it does not influence the chances of survival in any of the two areas. On the contrary, the social network matters particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment in the research design, common entrepreneurship beliefs are questioned which opens up for...

  15. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

  16. Business Productivity and Area Productivity in Rural England

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Don John; Curry, Nigel; Plumridge, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Rural area productivity and rural business productivity measure different things. This paper presents a empirical analysis of labour productivity differentials across the new DEFRA definition of rural. We find labour productivity is 21% (13%) lower in sparse (less sparse) rural areas compared to urban areas. Labour productivity in less sparse and urban areas appears to depend on similar factors. Labour productivity in sparse areas strongly relates to a different industrial...

  17. 7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identified Rural Areas. 4290.130 Section 4290.130 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the RBIC...

  18. Poverty in Rural Areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Alan R.

    The poverty problems in rural America are categorized and analyzed in terms of the extent and persistence of rural poverty, causes and costs of poverty, poverty characteristics of rural areas, and implications for anti-poverty programs. The report defines poverty and briefly traces the history of rural poverty over the past 20 years. Maps, charts,…

  19. SEISMIC RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptan, Kubilay

    2015-01-01

    Armenia is vulnerable to a number of disasters due to natural hazards, such as earthquake, drought, flood, landslide, mudslide, strong wind, snowstorm, frost and hail. In this study it is proposed a fast and simple seismic risk-assessment procedure for rural areas. Risk assessment is done by index-based method. The preliminary risk assessment is based on two types of data: geological and social.  The parameters describing geological conditions needed for this model are the following: seismic ...

  20. Development opportunities for rural areas of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekić Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large regional diversity, economic backwardness, unfavourable demographic trends as well as the dependence of agricultural production, represent the main characteristics of rural areas in Serbia. Halting further socio-economic decline of the village is possible only through the restoration of economic capacity, which is to a greater extent achievable through the development of non-agricultural activities. Diversification of income and activities of rural households would raise the quality of life for the rural population, especially in terms of income positions, while infrastructural improvement and development of the service sector, to some extent, would be a consequence of this process and a clearly formulated national rural policy. That policy in Serbia should be in line with the “European” model, where the focus is shifting from sectoral to regional approach and significant support for the achievement of the set goals represent the pre-accession EU funds. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46006: Održiva poljoprivreda i ruralni razvoj u funkciji ostvarivanja strateških ciljeva Republika Srbije u okviru dunavskog regiona

  1. Groundwater quality in Taiz City and surrounding area, Yemen Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty one water samples were collected from production wells used for human consumption from Taiz City and its surroundings, Yemen Republic. The water quality was investigated with respect to bacteriological and physico-chemical parameters. The achieved results revealed that most water samples, especially from private wells, contain a high number of total coliforms (TC) which exceed the permissible limit recommended by the World Health Organization, WHO (1996). Also faecal coliforms (FC) were recorded in the majority of polluted samples. A quantitative estimation was done for each of temperature (18-26C), pH (6.12-8.79), total hardness (58-2200 mg/L), electrical conductivity (218-4600 m.Mohs), total dissolved solids (117-3700mg/L), nitrate (10-187mg/L) and type of aquifer (rocky and alluvium). It is worthy to notice that from the total of fifty-one wells, there was pollution in (65%) of them. Recommendations were suggested for the treatment of the water of such polluted wells and rigid government control in a trial to prevent human and animal illness. (author)

  2. Investigating and analyzing the waste collection system in rural areas (The Case of Aqabad rural area)

    OpenAIRE

    AZMOON, Nahid; AZMOON, Nazli

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Due to the growing population and producing more diverse wastes in recent years, investigating the waste collection and management and disposal system is of great importance. Therefore, planning a proper waste management strategy and positioning to prevent environmental pollution in rural areas is essential. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the waste collection system in the villages of Aqabad rural district.  In this study, it was tried to collect required info...

  3. Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

  4. Factual biosphere database for Dounreay and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Dounreay region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Dounreay area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

  5. Climatic features of Ljig municipal and its surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanovi? Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Territory of Ljig municipal is located in Podrinje-Colubara region and belongs to the temperate continental climate with continental rain regime. This is hilly- mountainous area with 848 m altitude (Rajac Mountain and 723 m relative height, in which are deeply incised (up to 500 m valleys of Ljig River and its tributaries. These geomorphologic features cause airstreams direction in this territory, and because of that some parts of Ljig municipal have temperate continental climate (like valleys and some of them have severe continental climate (like Rajac Mountain. The peak of precipitation is at the end of spring and beginning of summer - in May and June, and the driest months are February and October. The great influences on climatic changes in Ljig municipal and its area have north low parts of Panonian area, which are open for penetration of damp and cold air streams from north, northwest and west. This mountain area on south part of Ljig municipal is some kind of "dam" for cold air streams from south, so they are considerable colder on this territory. On the base of available data in period 1961-1990 from Meteorological Annuals of Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Serbia climatologic overview is presented.

  6. Role-in Rural Areas of Shanxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-ju Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the income of rural residents per capita income grouping and panel data of 2001-2010 from "Shanxi Statistical Yearbook". The study uses the World Bank's software Povcal and the purchasing power of $ 1.25 per person per day as the poverty line to measure the index of the extent of poverty in rural areas in Shanxi Province. It was found that the poverty rate decreases exponentially significant effect, but the poverty gap index decreased to a lesser extent and the poverty gap squared index relatively rose. This suggests that economic growth to poverty reduction of the total population especially to the poor in the richer part of the population has a distinct role, but to the poor population living in extreme poverty has negative effects. Rapid economic growth will increase extreme poverty, resulting in further widening the gap between rich and poor.

  7. Increasing impact of urban fine particles (PM2.5) on areas surrounding Chinese cities

    OpenAIRE

    Lijian Han; Weiqi Zhou; Weifeng Li

    2015-01-01

    The negative impacts of rapid urbanization in developing countries have led to a deterioration in urban air quality, which brings increasing negative impact to its surrounding areas (e.g. in China). However, to date there has been rare quantitative estimation of the urban air pollution to its surrounding areas in China.We thus evaluated the impact of air pollution on the surrounding environment under rapid urbanization in Chinese prefectures during 1999 – 2011. We found that: (1) the urban en...

  8. Devonian palaeobiogeographic affinities of Afghanistan and surrounding areas (Iran, Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistiaen, B.; Brice, D.; Hubert, B. L. M.; Pinte, E.

    2015-04-01

    Palaeozoic (Devonian) outcrops in Afghanistan and neighbouring countries (Iran, Pakistan) are numerous but very sparsely distributed, and poorly known. The first interpretation, based on rare or poor data considered these North Gondwanan terranes as poorly connected and some authors have suggested the presence of large oceanic domains in palaeogeographical models. Increase in knowledge, especially of the distribution of main fossils groups, and also some lithological similarities, allow a review of the preliminary models and the identification of connections between the different terranes. For example the presence of Fistuliporid Bryozoan beds or rich Receptaculites levels in different sections of the three countries, especially in the Dasht-e Nawar and Central Iran areas, allows the preliminary models to be reviewed and the connections among the different terranes to be clarified.

  9. Satellite determination of regional aerosol properties over Paris and the surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Edith; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sogacheva, Larisa; Sundstrom, Anu-Maija

    2010-05-01

    One of the main objectives of the MEGAPOLI project is to assess impacts of megacities and large air-pollution hot-spots on local, regional and global air quality. Megacities are considered as more that ten million inhabitants or more than 2000 inhabitants /km2. Paris and London are the only cities in Europe that fit the definition of a megacity. As part of the activities at the MEGAPOLI project in summer 2009 a field campaign was performed in Paris and its surroundings. Paris was chosen for various scientific and logistical reasons, but mainly because it is a very concentrated European urban pollution hot spot surrounded by rural areas. The effects of air pollution in Palaiseau and Creteil generated from Paris have been analyzed. Palaiseau and Cretil are located 30 km southwest and 10 km southeast of Paris respectively. The instrumentation used for this study was: the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), flying on ENVISAT; and MODIS-Terra; sun photometer measurements obtained from the AERONET sun photometer network in Palaiseau and Creteil. AATSR and MODIS provide information on the regional distribution of aerosol properties; AERONET provides information on local aerosol properties which is used to validate the satellite data but also to study gradients in along-wind situations. The wind speed and direction, jointly with the back trajectories for the polluted day event specifically were used to determine gradients. To calculate the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and the Ångström Exponent (AE), with the AATSR data, we use a combination of coarse and fine mode aerosol models. AOD values at 550 nm were around 0.2 and AE (870-440) was higher than 1.2 for most of the days.

  10. Assessment of Livelihood Strategies in Selected Rural Areas in Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Kindah

    2014-01-01

    In Syria as well as in many parts in the developing world, agriculture is no longer the main source of income in rural areas, since it is not able to meet rural people’s needs, therefore, diversification of income sources becomes of major importance among rural households. The present study aims to assess the role of livelihoods strategies in rural development and poverty alleviation in selected areas in Syria, by discussing the role of income diversification in poverty reduction and income i...

  11. On Hiring Library Staff in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Sutherland

    2011-01-01

    There has been a great deal said in the literature about what would be librarians can do to find a job; less has been said about what would be employers can do if they are having problems recruiting. This article gives some ideas about things that libraries, especially those in rural areas, can do to help them find the employees they need. There are many possibilities discussed, including helping spouses of new hires get jobs in the community, hiring from out of region or country, hiring ol...

  12. Rural Areas Weaning Themselves from Farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    Farm policy alone is no longer a sufficient development policy for today's rural America. Rural economies have changed over the last 30-40 years from reliance on farming to greater reliance on manufacturing and service industries. Rural economic development policies need to reflect today's changed rural economy. (Author)

  13. 24 CFR 81.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and...) Housing Goals § 81.13 Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose... cities, rural areas, and other underserved areas is intended to achieve increased purchases by the...

  14. Urban-rural migration and cultural transformation of rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    loss but also due to in-migration. This paper addresses how rural communities change due to urban-rural migration by investigating reasons and motivations that influence migration decisions, studying relations between newcomers and local residents and exploring social relations and sense of belonging...

  15. Promoting energy conservation in the rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that more than 70% of the population of Ghana live in the rural areas. Cooking and heating in these areas are mainly achieved by fuelwood and other biomass. Although wood is a renewable energy resource, this is only so if it is grown faster than it is consumed. Firewood consumption exceeds forest growth in Ghana and other developing countries. Added to this, is the fact that the World's wood resource is used for such purposes as sawn timber, clearing of land and felling trees for agricultural purposes, etc. If our forests are to be preserved it is this population that has to be targeted. One method of reducing fuelwood demand is to encourage alternative supplies such as biogas (methane). Rural populations could be mobilized to construct bio-latrines in their communities to make use of the biogas generated to cook their food and also for heating purposes. Through levies, funds could be generated to undertake such projects in each community. Before this could be possible, a lot of education will have to be undertaken by the Renewable Energy unit of the Ministry of Mines and Energy. This is because many people are apprehensive of the idea of cooking with gas derived from their own feces. Some of the benefits to be derived from such a project are the use of the effluent slurry as high quality organic manure for farming. This will surely lead to increase food production and help to keep the environment clean (au)

  16. 12 CFR 1282.13 - Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Central Cities, Rural Areas, and Other..., Rural Areas, and Other Underserved Areas Housing Goal. (a) Purpose of the goal. This annual goal for the purchase by each Enterprise of mortgages on housing located in central cities, rural areas, and...

  17. Improving Rural Mobility : Options for Developing Motorized and Nonmotorized Transport in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Starkey, Paul; Ellis, Simon; Hine, John; Ternell, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Many inhabitants of rural areas in developing countries lack adequate and affordable access to transport infrastructure and services. Improving rural people's access to essential services requires better mobility through transport infrastructure and services as well as the location, price, and quality of facilities. This report focuses on improving rural mobility by facilitating the provis...

  18. Differences in Child Care Quality in Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Erin J.; Frestedt, Becki; Grace, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This study examines rural differences in one important indicator of quality for licensed child care settings--the number of children per adult. It also investigates the relationships between cost of child care, child care subsidy receipt, and child care quality for both rural and non-rural areas. We used representative child care survey data…

  19. Anemia associated with asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women in the rural surroundings of Arba Minch Town, South Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nega, Desalegn; Dana, Daniel; Tefera, Tamirat; Eshetu, Teferi

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia during pregnancy is a well known medical condition most of the time under-recognized as it is overshadowed by the normal physiological condition during pregnancy. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of anemia among pregnant women residing in the rural surroundings of Arbaminch Town, south Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional community based study was conducted between April and June, 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-economic...

  20. The Impact of Building Recreational Houses in Rural Areas. Case Study: Rânca Mountain Resort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoaneta-Carina POPESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at showing how the present-day rural space suffers modifications meant to produce different changes in terms of physiognomy and also at social and economic levels, focusing on the phenomenon of building recreational houses in rural areas, by population coming from urban areas. The case study we have chosen refers to the Rânca mountain resort, situated in the Southern Carpathians (in the Parâng Mountains. This place, which thirty years ago might have passed for a peripherally rural area, it is now characterized by incipient urbanization. It is interesting to observe that this process is not supported by the closest urban centre (the town of Novaci, but by the towns located at greater distances (the towns of Craiova and Târgu-Jiu, that have the social and economic power to extend their influence up to 150 km distance. Therefore, the flows caused, on the one hand by the urban population migrating during the week-ends to the rural areas and, on the other hand, by the investments made in utility infrastructures, have profound implications not only on the changing rural landscape, but also on peoples’ perception of traditional (rural versus modern (urban way of life. Hence, a new type of landscape appears in remote rural areas, which benefit from an extraordinary natural potential, as a result of town dwellers’ wish for natural surroundings and urban standards

  1. Idea of tourist management of the Radojewo palace park and surrounding areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Mikołajczak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to create a proper tourist trails in the palace park in Radojewo and surrounding areas, according to protected areas requirements, local space management plan, as well as with harmony with natural and landscape values. The ecotourism was found as the only possible kind of tourism in this area. The present areas management is not sufficient, hence the proposition of supplementation presented here, such as information tables and small architecture elements. Radojewo and its surroundings are a high tourism potential areas. The new bicycle trail is proposed in the neighbourhood of the park. It is meant to create a better communication with surrounding areas. Two kinds of pedestrian trails are suggested on the park area together with proper tourist infrastructure. There is also a necessity to assign the palace as a historical object.

  2. On Hiring Library Staff in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sutherland

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal said in the literature about what would be librarians can do to find a job; less has been said about what would be employers can do if they are having problems recruiting. This article gives some ideas about things that libraries, especially those in rural areas, can do to help them find the employees they need. There are many possibilities discussed, including helping spouses of new hires get jobs in the community, hiring from out of region or country, hiring older workers or new grads, reconsidering what competencies are core for the position and what tasks should be in the job description. The world has changed for job seekers, who must now show that they are more than competent to be competitive, and perhaps it needs to change for employers too. If you don’t think the job you are posting is a great opportunity, then potential applicants likely won’t either.

  3. Niche energy markets in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project is the development of a standard methodology for integrating non-food crops in rural areas with niche energy markets. This has involved a number of steps including (i) identification of 3 niche markets for energy crops which are of common interest to the partners, (ii) application of the standard costing methodology to investigate these three niche markets and (iii) comparison of the results from this work in three workshops (one for each market). Three tightly defined niche markets were identified; these were chosen following an examination of the national energy marekts in each of the partners countries (Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, UK, Greece and Portugal). This paper gives an overview of the national energy markets which were examined. The three niche markets are introduced and the reasons for their selection given. The application of the methodology to each of the niche markets is presented along with the conclusions of the partners regarding the niche markets. (Author)

  4. Study on the Environmental Tritium in Surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah - Bandung Landfill Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of environmental tritium distribution in surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah landfill areas has been carried out. The aim of this investigation was to know tritium concentration in surrounding of both landfill areas. Normally, tritium concentration in the nature is around 0-5 TU. The results of this investigation showed that the tritium concentration in both shallow groundwater of both landfill areas were still in the range of its normal limit, whereas tritium concentration in stream along both landfill areas and leached water showed higher value. Tritium concentration in deep groundwater of Bantar Gebang landfill showed about the zero value, it means is the normal condition. (author)

  5. Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca IGNAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that Romanian inhabitants from rural areas confront to? Entrepreneurial skills of Romanians in rural areas are a matter of national interest. The problem of entrepreneurships has, at least, two meanings in the present paper: the premises and challenges of the free manifestation of private initiative and the importance of this manifestation for national economy. The approach is pragmatic, for public policy. The main objectives of the research are: to identify the premises and challenges of the entrepreneurship in Romanian rural areas and to elaborate relevant solution for public policy in order to conduct to robust rural economy as a result of entrepreneurial expression. Therefore, next financial plan of the Romanian national Rural Development Programme 2014-2020 needs to take into consideration the premises and challenges of entrepreneurship, as this is the only pertinent solution for added value creation in rural economy. And the strategic approach is to define the future profile of Romanian rural inhabitant.

  6. On the future of local communities in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Krstan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and emotional connection of people living there. In other words, their participation and their self-identification with these communities is a key prerequisite. Although the renewal of our rural communities is an extremely difficult task, filled with many dilemmas, inconsistencies and objective contradictions, it is not unresolvable, at least for one type of these communities. With the well-thought strategy of planning and management of rural development, these processes can be accelerated and channelled in the desired direction. This paper discusses some possible solutions and gives more concrete propositions in relation to this problem.

  7. Electrification of rural areas by solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 2000 million people, mostly in developing countries, live in rural areas without access to grid connected power. Conventional approaches to supplying power, whether through extension of existing grids or through stand-alone 'mini-grids' based on diesel generator sets, or even on renewable energy minigrids, require large investments which are unlikely to receive priority in competition with more economically and politically attractive investments in urban areas. Domestic PV lighting and broadcast reception kits (DLKs), comprising, typically, a 30-60 W panel, an automotive battery, a charge indicator, and dc fluorescent lamps can be furnished and installed for about $500. DLKs are now used in the Dominican Republic, Kenya, Sri Lanka and many other countries. DLKs provide a minimum essential service with low overheads. Given the necessary credit facilities, they can give better service at comparable costs in comparison with kerosene lamps and dry cell powered radios. They also permit a substantial degree of local manufacture, thus saving on foreign exchange. This movement is starting in many countries on a purely commercial basis. The process could be greatly accelerated if 'seed money' in the form of revolving funds could be made available. (author). 1 fig., 11 tabs

  8. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197, equine (63, pigs (25, sheep (11, and dogs (28 were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197 among cattle and 10.7% (3/28 among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular dos parasitas através do sequenciamento dos produtos amplificados na PCR do gene SSU rRNA. Foram coletadas amostras fecais de animais domésticos criados para subsistência e estimação nas propriedades rurais do entorno de três fragmentos florestais. Amostras de bovinos (197, equinos (63, suínos (25, ovinos (11 e cães (28 foram coletadas de 98 propriedades rurais. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium para a espécie bovina foi de 3,0% (6/197; para os cães, de 10,7% (3/28; e para os demais animais os resultados foram negativos. Todas as sequências obtidas das seis amostras de bovinos apresentaram identidade molecular com Cryptosporidium andersoni, enquanto as sequências oriundas de amostras de fezes de cães revelaram-se similares ao C. canis. A ocorrência do Cryptosporidium entre os animais estudados foi baixa. Diante dos resultados do presente estudo, o ciclo zoonótico da criptosporidiose parece ter menos importância nesta região. A presença de espécies de Cryptosporidium ainda pouco relatadas em humanos pode ser, por outro lado, importante para a fauna silvestre, uma vez que estes animais podem ser considerados como uma fonte de infecção e disseminação deste protozoário. O impacto e a magnitude da infecção de C. andersoni, em ruminantes selvagens, e de C. canis, em cães silvestres, deve ser avaliado em estudos futuros, com intuito de verificar a real importância dessas espécies nesta região.

  9. Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

  10. Quality of life in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boki? Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of rural development (regardless of its theoretical perception is the improvement of quality of life for rural population. This issue is a complex one because it depends on multiple objective and subjective factors, community characteristics, but also its spatial, economic, social and cultural environment. Authors analyze the influence of socio-cultural individual characteristics and household characteristics, as well as their stay in Staniši? during evaluating quality of life of its rural population. The research confirmed a significant influence of socio-cultural (rural household characteristics on the evaluation of quality of life. The influence of spatial dimension of social structure is more obvious on socio-cultural (rural household characteristics.

  11. APPEARANCE MOTIVATIONS OF RURAL TOURISM IN RURAL AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Eduard Bianu; Claudia Sîrbulescu; Daniel Chirilă

    2013-01-01

    One of the trends developing tourism industry is returning to nature, already manifested in all countries, the current post-industrial civilization has created the need for withdrawal (for several days) of the metropolis. And for the huge tourism potential of our country, rural tourism is one of the most attractive travel packages and this from a multiple perspective: on the one hand, the tourist, Romanian or foreign, which will require increasingly more intense this tourist service, on the o...

  12. Increased Diversity in Rural Areas: One School's Response to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined the ways in which one rural Midwestern high school and its surrounding community responded to increased diversity. The purpose of the study was to explore how teachers, administrators, school staff, and community members in the district understood the character of the community's demographic changes and the…

  13. RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Costin CÎRSTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the lack of education among rural people etc. Under these circumstances, thepaper tries, through documentation, analysis and processing statistical data, to quantify the development level of entrepreneurship in rural areas in Romania, compared with developed EU countries (such as: Germany, Great Britain, France etc., in order to reveal the gaps in this sector. To increase the relevance of the analysis, the paper also analyzes the possible causes that can stimulate or repress the expression of entrepreneurship and its implementation in Romanian and European rural areas, such as: different levels of fiscal pressure, the existence, effectiveness and efficiency of programs implementation for stimulating and supporting entrepreneurship in general and in rural areas, in particular, the different business culture etc. These results generated from the research will finally create a set of premises for adopting international best practices and develop pragmatic solutions and programs to increase entrepreneurship, which can leads to new business initiatives in the Romanian rural area.In conclusion, for a quality of life growth and a decrease of negative social and economic phenomena with medium and long-term impact, it is necessary an increase of the living standards, done by increasing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural areas. Specifically, there are needed investments in the development of human resources in rural areas and in supporting its entrepreneurial efforts and activities in order to generateprofitable activities that can ensure motivating financial and social rewards for medium and long terms.

  14. Innovation centres as growth points for smaller towns and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belova A. V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the role of innovative centres in the development of surrounding areas beyond large cities. At the same time, the innovative development of rural areas should be of a composite nature; municipality development strategies take innovations into account. International practices serve as a an argument in favour of establishing innovative centres in smaller and medium-sized towns in order to facilitate the socioeconomic development of the territory and surrounding rural areas. Science parks created in smaller towns give a boost to socioeconomic development. The authors analyse the case of the science park in the town of Gusev in the Kaliningrad region and emphasise the role of development and adoption of legal acts at regional and municipal levels, for example, the law «On the production policy of the Kaliningrad region».

  15. Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca IGNAT

    2012-01-01

    The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that ...

  16. Perfluorinated compounds in soil, surface water, and groundwater from rural areas in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu; Jiao, Xing-Chun; Gai, Nan; Li, Xiao-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Lu, Guo-Hui; Piao, Hai-Tao; Rao, Zhu; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Little research on perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) has been conducted in rural areas, although rural PFC sources are less complicated than in urban and industrial areas. To determine the levels and geographical distribution of 17 PFC compounds, samples of soil, surface water, and groundwater were collected from eight rural areas in eastern China. The total PFC concentrations (∑PFCs) in soils ranged from 0.34 to 65.8 ng/g ∑PFCs in surface waters ranged from 7.0 to 489 ng/L and ∑PFCs in groundwater ranged from 5.3 to 615 ng/L. Ratios of perfluorononanoic acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFNA/PFOA), perfluoro-n-butyric acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFBA/PFOA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid/perfluorooctanoic acid (PFHpA/PFOA) in rainwater increased due to the fluorine chemical plants in the surrounding rural and urban areas, suggesting that atmospheric precipitation may carry PFCs and their precursors from the fluorochemical industrial area to the adjacent rural areas. PMID:26745397

  17. Development of non-agricultural enterprises in Rural areas in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    The rural areas in Europe have a significant role in achieving the EU goals of growth since over 56% of the inhabitants in the EU27 member states live in rural areas and 91% of the EU's surface area is classified as rural area (European Commission 2008). The rural enterprises in the member states are supported through different mechanisms one of them being rural development policy implemented through Rural Development Programmes (RDP). In this thesis the content of seven Rural Development...

  18. Who move to rural areas' Micro Evidence from Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Nivalainen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    This study uses a large individual-level dataset to investigate rural in-migration. Two separate samples are used: one consists of migrants and non-migrants, while the other contains only migrants. Empirical analyses are carried out using multinomial logit and logit models. First, rural in-migrants and non-migrants are compared. The results show that in-migration to rural areas is selective, but partly in an atypical way. The age profile of rural in-migrants is unusual, as the probability of ...

  19. Final Report. [Training of Physicians for Rural Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, Max, MD

    2004-07-23

    The purpose of the Southwest Alabama Medical Education Consortium (SAMEC) is to create an organization to operate a medical residency program focused on rural physician training. If successful, this program would also serve as a national model to address physician placement in other rural and underserved areas.

  20. Implications of Social and Economic Changes on Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Edward J.; Bradshaw, Ted K.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses implications of population turnaround, reverse migration for societal polarization, human resources based economy, and rural/urban segmentation on the new socioeconomic role of rural areas. Identifies an interrelated public policy model composed of local community, human resources, technical inputs, and integrating institutions to…

  1. Recruiting and Retaining High-Quality Teachers in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H.

    2007-01-01

    In examining recruitment and retention of teachers in rural areas, David Monk begins by noting the numerous possible characteristics of rural communities--small size, sparse settlement, distance from population concentrations, and an economic reliance on agricultural industries that are increasingly using seasonal and immigrant workers to minimize…

  2. Rural areas development – local needs and external forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšitel, Jan; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    Warsaw : Polish Academy of Sciences, 2006 - (Florianczyk, Z.; Czapiewski, K.), s. 87-97 ISBN 83-89666-60-X. - (European Rural Development Network. 4) R&D Projects: GA MŽP SM/610/3/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : rural development * local communities * marginality * tourism * protected areas Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.012...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Subpart E of... - Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 3 Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Northern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.009...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart E of... - Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 2 Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Southern Southeast Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.008...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Subpart E of... - Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to Subpart E of Part 300—Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.010 ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prince William Sound Rural and Non-Rural Areas 4 Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart E of... - Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rural and Non-Rural Areas 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 5 Figure 5 to Subpart E of Part 300—Anchorage, Matanuska-Susitna, and Kenai Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.011...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart E of... - Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas 7 Figure 7 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED... to Subpart E of Part 300—Western and Central Alaska Rural and Non-Rural Areas ER04NO09.013...

  9. Tidal propagation in the Gulf of Khambhat, Bombay High, and surrounding areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Michael, G.S.

    -diurnal and diurnal constituents at forty-two ports in the Gulf and surrounding areas is sued to define characteristics of the tides. A barotropic numerical model based on shallow water wave equations to simulate the sea level and circulation in the region is used...

  10. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation regarding the land use of the Natura 2000 buffer areas is contributing to the degradation of the services provide by these areas. Acknowledgments RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission, for the COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research) and COST Action IS1204 Tourism, Wellbeing and Ecosystem Services (TObeWELL) References Dasselaar, I.V. (2013) The impact of a buffer zone. The influence of the introduction of buffer zones surrounding Natura 2000 areas on local actors, the case of het Boetelerveld in the Netherlands. Master Thesis Forest and Nature Conservation, Forest and Nature Conservation Policy group, 69 p. Hansen, A.J. (2007) Ecological mechanisms linking protected areas to surrounding lands. Ecological Applications, 17, 974-978. McDonald, R.I., Kareiva, P., Forman, R.T.T. (2008) The implications of current and future urbanization for global protected areas and biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 141, 1695-1703. Pereira, P., Monkevicius, A., Siarova, A. (2014) Public perception of the Environmental, Social and Economic impacts of Urban Sprawl in Vilnius. Societal Studies, 6, 256-290. Salvati, L., Sabbi, A. (2011) Exploring long-term land cover changes in an urban region of southern of Europe. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 18, 273-282.

  11. The SSK recommendation 'planning areas for the surroundings of nuclear power plants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima nuclear accident the BMU asked the SSK to check the guidelines for radiation emergency preparedness. Based on the information gained by the Japanese experience the SSK recommended to plan nuclear emergencies irrespective of the calculated probability of occurrence, but according to the effects of an INES 7 event. The SSK has recommended new planning areas for the surroundings of nuclear power plants based on a method developed by the SSK. This approach requires enlarged planning areas.

  12. Territorial ordering in Toay area and surroundings, La Pampa province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This present work aims to provide a territorial ordering in an area limited by the 36 grades 39 minutes and 36 grades 43 minutes Southern Parallels and the 64 grades 20 minutes and 64 grades 27 minutes. Meridians from the same hemisphere; within such area, the population from Toay and surroundings are held/contained. The empiric method employed was taken from Gomez Orea (1993). The area was divided into environmental synthesis units and through the use of different proposed tasks it was possible to reach an objective description of the area with the distribution of its varied units

  13. Rural areas, land planning and heritage evaluation: some educational proposals

    OpenAIRE

    Mascarenhas, José Manuel de; Themudo Barata, Filipe; Capelo, Sofia; Maharjan, Monalisa

    2014-01-01

    Rural areas are frequently neglected in development politics and processes. This problem has become especially important in peri-urban zones affecting a large amount of people in what concerns mainly basic resources as well as livelihoods, pattern of life, heritage and culture, and identity. Only with land planning it is possible to condition the rural areas deterioration and preserve heritage values that are a resource with a real economic potential, although they are usually seen as a burde...

  14. Urbanisation of rural areas: A case study from Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette Fabricius; Kristensen, Søren Bech Pilgaard; Fertner, Christian; Busck, Anne Gravsholt; Jørgensen, Gertrud

    2010-01-01

    -economic changes, which may or may not manifest itself as physical changes in built-up area and land use. It is therefore useful to analyse the urbanisation patterns along an urban-rural continuum, based on a broad range of indicators. This paper analyses urbanisation patterns in rural areas of Region Midtjylland......, Denmark using socio-economic data from the entire rural population aggregated at parish level to investigate if this method may contribute to existing classifications. Through multivariate analysis and GIS analysis, five types of urbanization were identified and their spatial distribution analysed. The...... results indicate that rural areas of Region Midtjylland are very diverse, and generally reflect the pattern described in the 2006 Danish National Planning Report. However, our results offer a more fine-grained analysis based on scientifically selected indicators which is an important step to improve...

  15. Socio-economic aspects development of the rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Skubiak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a change in the urban-rural relations in recent decades, as a result of increased mobility and intensity of information flow, changes in the production processes and the growing globalization of markets. The old urban-rural division lost its importance for the new ones: the metropolitan areas and those beside metropolitan. This can lead to the end of the traditional urban-rural relations, some signs are already seen. This is already observed in the process of “growing” the cities with their territories to rural areas. The risk of loss of the relationship between urban and rural areas is high because of the growing disproportion between these areas and decreased territorial cohesion. It requires strengthening new and deliberate efforts in regional policy, those that are not “fighting with windmills”, ie will take into account the objective processes already taking place. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to characterise the development of economic and social processes in rural areas and proposals for further action in the context of sustainable development.

  16. Representative and Diverse Image Set Gathering for Geographic Area and its Surrounding Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali B. Ulape

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geo-tagging is becoming famous in today’s era of web 2.0 technologies. Geo-tagging is a concept in which we are adding information about location to the image. In proposed approach such geo-tagged images are used for making visual summary. Generally, visual summary of geographic location provides images of dominate location and ignore surrounding areas of that location which are potentially valuable. Multiple images of the same location suppress other places close to the dominant location and can be visited. In this proposed approach automatic visual summary of geographic area and its surrounding location is generated. For this community contributed images and their associated metadata are extracted from popular social websites such as Flickr [11]. Proposed approach generate visual summary which contains representative and diverse image set of given geographic location and its surrounding areas. For automatic generation of visual summary four layer graph of images and its associated metadata is formed. Proposed edge weight calculation method in this system is novel. With the help of random walk with restarts representative and diverse image set is selected which is visual summary of the given geographic location. Such visual summary can motivate a person to visit nearby areas of given geographic location.

  17. Trachoma prevalence in rural areas of eastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, J.; Fallah, F.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of trachoma in rural areas of eastern Iran. We collected swabs from 150 children in three areas. Results of PCR showed presence of chlamydia in four boys (5.97%) and nine girls (10.84%). We suggest that in assessing the elimination of trachoma, WHO must consider border areas between countries.

  18. Guidelines for entrepreneurship training in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, Marita

    2015-01-01

    The partners in the European Flagship project called Sustainable rural development through youth participation, innovation and entrepreneurship 2012-2015 identified a lack of common knowledge of efficient education and research on entrepreneurship and on involving the youth. As a result, a Nordplus Horizontal project, SURE, was launched and conducted within the Flagship network. This project aimed at developing a framework for entrepreneurial education, and thus enhancing innovation and entre...

  19. The Role of Rural Tourism on the Development of Rural Areas: The Case of Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Giannakis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas in the European Union are currently undergoing significant economic and social changes, mostly induced by the international trade liberalization and the strengthening of the role of rural development policy. There is an increasing awareness of the need to accompany changes in rural areas through the diversification of their economic base that seems to be the only answer to their socioeconomic survival. Rural tourism has been considered a means of achieving such economic and social development due to its capacity to generate local employment and stimulate external investment into the communities. Within this context, the objective of this paper is to investigate the economic role of tourism on the development of rural areas in Cyprus. Tourism economic impact assessment is based on a constructed input-output table for rural Cyprus followed by a tourism-centered multiplier analysis. Model results suggest that tourism creates significant backward linkages in the rural economy of Cyprus and offers great potential for improving economic activity.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity surrounding the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-mile) area that encompasses the plant site of which a large portion is located in the Mississippi River Basin. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that measures gamma radiation. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Estimated exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 6-8 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) in the Mississippi River basin, (b) from 8-10 μR/h in areas adjacent to the basin, and (c) below 6 μR/h over the Mississippi River and the portions of the basin that were included in the survey area. Man-made radiation (22-1,600 μR/h) was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site; cobalt-60 was the primary source of activity found at the Prairie Island site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. Estimated exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity surrounding the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 μR/h in areas adjacent to these fields and along roadways, and (c) below 6 μR/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (22-52 μR/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 and cobalt-58 were the primary sources of man-made activity found at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the former Chemetron factory site and surrounding area, Newburgh Heights, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period April 15--27, 1991, over an area surrounding the former location of a Chemetron Corporation factory and an associated disposal site. The area surveyed is situated in Newburgh Heights, Ohio, 3 kilometers south of Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the former factory and dump site and surrounding area. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region were generally uniform and typical of natural background: 3--7 microroentgens per hour (μR/h), excluding an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over three areas within the survey region. Two areas, both within the boundary of a sewage processing plant, showed evidence of cobalt-60 (60CO). A third area, measured over a chemical factory, showed evidence of thorium-232 (232Th). Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ionization chamber measurements were obtained at seven locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements are in agreement with the aerial data

  3. Neutron activation analysis of thermal power plant ash and surrounding area soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Masri, M S; Haddad, Kh; Alsomel, N; Sarhil, A

    2015-08-01

    Elemental concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, and Zn have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results showed that all elements were more concentrated in fly ash than in the fly ash; there was a clear increasing trend of the elemental concentrations in the fly ash along the flue gas pathway. The annual emission of elements was estimated. Elemental concentrations were higher inside the campus area than in surrounding areas, and the lowest values were found in natural-gas-fired power plant. In addition, the levels have decreased as the distance from power plant campus increases. However, the levels in the surrounding villages were within the Syrian standard for agriculture soil. PMID:26220782

  4. Summertime ozone formation in Xi'an and surrounding areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tian; Bei, Naifang; Huang, Ru-Jin; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Weijian; Tie, Xuexi; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Ting; Su, Xiaoli; Lei, Wenfang; Molina, Luisa T.; Li, Guohui

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the ozone (O3) formation in China's northwest city of Xi'an and surrounding areas is investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting atmospheric chemistry (WRF-Chem) model during the period from 22 to 24 August 2013, corresponding to a heavy air pollution episode with high concentrations of O3 and PM2.5. The model generally performs well compared to measurements in simulating the surface temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed and direction, near-surface O3 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, and aerosol constituents. High aerosol concentrations in Xi'an and surrounding areas significantly decrease the photolysis frequencies and can reduce O3 concentrations by more than 50 µg m-3 (around 25 ppb) on average. Sensitivity studies show that the O3 production regime in Xi'an and surrounding areas is complicated, varying from NOx to VOC (volatile organic compound)-sensitive chemistry. The industrial emissions contribute the most to the O3 concentrations compared to biogenic and other anthropogenic sources, but neither individual anthropogenic emission nor biogenic emission plays a dominant role in the O3 formation. Under high O3 and PM2.5 concentrations, a 50 % reduction in all the anthropogenic emissions only decreases near-surface O3 concentrations by about 14 % during daytime. The complicated O3 production regime and high aerosol levels pose a challenge for O3 control strategies in Xi'an and surrounding areas. Further investigation regarding O3 control strategies will need to be performed, taking into consideration the rapid changes in anthropogenic emissions that are not reflected in the current emission inventories and the uncertainties in the meteorological field simulations.

  5. Aerial radiological survey of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and surrounding area, San Clemente, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne radiological survey of an 11 km2 area surrounding the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station was made 9 to 17 January 1980. Count rates observed at 60 m altitude were converted to exposure rates at 1 m above the ground and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the plant

  6. Use of internet in rural areas of Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorik, P. van; Mweetwa, F.

    2008-01-01

    Access to information and, more importantly, the internet is not evenly distributed in this world. But if they had it, would people in rural Africa want to use the internet? How would they use it and benefit from it? Will internet influence culture and how can communities prepare themselves when the internet comes in their village? To support the rollout of internet in more rural areas in Zambia and to improve the effectiveness of ICT in rural environments, a clear view on the adoption and us...

  7. MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGEŞ COUNTY

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Miu

    2013-01-01

    Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Argeş County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through exceptions or total qualities), methods (o...

  8. Methods of employee rating in cultural institutions in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Lelyuk Yu. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the nature, role and importance of personnel evaluation in terms of development of modern society and economy. The authors describe aspects of the formation of staffing cultural institutions in rural areas. The possible methods of creative worker’s evaluation in cultural institutions are analyzing. The innovative method for artists estimating was considered. The form of questioning by visitors of rural cultural institution for effective evaluation of the creative worker...

  9. Indian approaches to retaining skilled health workers in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Sundararaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PROBLEM: The lack of skilled service providers in rural areas of India has emerged as the most important constraint in achieving universal health care. India has about 1.4 million medical practitioners, 74% of whom live in urban areas where they serve only 28% of the population, while the rural population remains largely underserved. APPROACH: The National Rural Health Mission, launched by the Government of India in 2005, promoted various state and national initiatives to address this issue. Under India's federal constitution, the states are responsible for implementing the health system with financial support from the national government. LOCAL SETTING: The availability of doctors and nurses is limited by a lack of training colleges in states with the greatest need as well as the reluctance of professionals from urban areas to work in rural areas. Before 2005, the most common strategy was compulsory rural service bonds and mandatory rural service for preferential admission into post-graduate programmes. RELEVANT CHANGES: Initiatives under the National Rural Health Mission include an increase in sanctioned posts for public health facilities, incentives, workforce management policies, locality-specific recruitment and the creation of a new service cadre specifically for public sector employment. As a result, the National Rural Health Mission has added more than 82 343 skilled health workers to the public health workforce. LESSONS LEARNT: The problem of uneven distribution of skilled health workers can be solved. Educational strategies and community health worker programmes have shown promising results. Most of these strategies are too recent for outcome evaluation, although this would help optimize and develop an ideal mix of strategies for different contexts.

  10. Wine Tourism on Rural Areas - Polish Conditions after the Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena KUBAL; Bartosz PIZIAK

    2010-01-01

    The socio-economic transformations after 1989 have brought huge changes in the administration of personal properties and made it possible to manage the private property. Centrally planned economy has been replaced by the market economy, in which single farm households became the subjects of the market. It opened a new way to realize modern ideas and plans, especially on rural areas. As a result, rural households from being solely the attribute of the national agriculture sector, have now beco...

  11. Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhaeuser, Jost; Otto, Petra; Goetz, Katja; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to...

  12. Summertime ozone formation in Xi'an and surrounding areas, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, T.; Bei, N.; Huang, R.; Cao, J.; Zhang, Q.; Zhou, W.; Tie, X.; Liu, S.; Zhang, T.; Su, X.; Lei, W.; Molina, L. T.; Li, G.

    2015-11-01

    In the study, the ozone (O3) formation is investigated in Xi'an and surrounding areas, China using the WRF-CHEM model during the period from 22 to 24 August 2013 corresponding to a heavy air pollution episode with high concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm). The WRF-CHEM model generally performs well in simulating the surface temperature and relative humidity compared to the observations and also reasonably reproduces the observed temporal variations of the surface wind speed and direction. The convergence formed in Xi'an and surrounding areas is favorable for the accumulation of pollutants, causing high concentrations of O3 and PM2.5. In general, the calculated spatial patterns and temporal variations of near-surface O3 and PM2.5 are consistent well with the measurement at the ambient monitoring stations. The simulated daily mass concentrations of aerosol constituents, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, elemental and organic carbon, are also in good agreement with the filter measurements. High aerosol concentrations in Xi'an and surrounding areas significantly decrease the photolysis frequencies and can reduce near-surface O3 concentrations by more than 50 μg m-3 (around 25 ppb) on average. Sensitivity studies show that the O3 production regime in Xi'an and surrounding areas is complicated, varying from NOx to VOC-sensitive chemistry. The industry emissions contribute the most to the O3 concentrations compared to the natural and other anthropogenic sources, but still do not play a determined role in the O3 formation. The complicated O3 production regime and high aerosol levels constitute a dilemma for O3 control strategies in Xi'an and surrounding areas. In the condition with high O3 and PM2.5 concentrations, decreasing various anthropogenic emissions cannot efficiently mitigate the O3 pollution, and a 50 % reduction of all the anthropogenic emissions only decreases near-surface O3 concentrations by less than 14 % during daytime. Further studies need to be performed for O3 control strategies considering manifest changes of the emission inventory and uncertainties of meteorological field simulations.

  13. Bringing fiber to the home to rural areas in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, M. Tahir

    2009-01-01

    In order to support development of rural areas, and avoid that these  areas are being depopulated, access to fast broadband networks can contribute by facilitating tele working, distance learning, ICT for industries and farming etc. In this paper we show how broadband and Fiber To The Home (FTTH......) is developing in Denmark, and that FTTH is also being deployed in rural areas. A main reason for this is that consumer-owed utility companies have decided to invest heavily in the field, to a large extent with the philosophy that, since all consumers are a part of the investment, everybody should...

  14. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOEJONO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the four classified areas.

  15. Consequences of Promoting Less-Populated Rural Areas to Urban Areas: A Case Study, Bushehr Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bastin

    2014-01-01

    The modified law of Iranian Administrative divisions has greatly altered the pattern of settlement in recent decades. The promotion of rural areas to urban areas has shifted from mere population standard to combined population-administrative standards. However, all censuses suggest that many rural areas reported as smaller than the minimum population standard have been promoted to urban areas. In the last two decades, this is a clearly prominent phenomenon in the urban system of Iran. This pa...

  16. Wine Tourism on Rural Areas - Polish Conditions after the Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena KUBAL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The socio-economic transformations after 1989 have brought huge changes in the administration of personal properties and made it possible to manage the private property. Centrally planned economy has been replaced by the market economy, in which single farm households became the subjects of the market. It opened a new way to realize modern ideas and plans, especially on rural areas. As a result, rural households from being solely the attribute of the national agriculture sector, have now become prominent players in the services sector, particularly in the hospitality - tourism industry. One of the means to diversify profile of rural households is to transform an agriculture household into an agro-tourism household. Nowadays, rural communities face new, market-oriented requirements, which make them respond by joining the tradition and modernity. Rural areas are not only obliged to produce and supply food for the cities. Their image is now created by a tourism product, which includes: natural environment, natural and cultural landscape and local culture. Over the last years wine tourism has become more and more popular, even in those countries, which were not traditionally considered wine countries. In Poland wine tourism is a new and dynamic phenomenon copying successfully the resolution from the West. Setting up particularly oriented agro-tourism farms (e.g. wine agro-tourism farms can be a means to transform and modernize the rural households and, equally, a great opportunity for the owners to improve their financial situation and status of life.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 μR/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation

  18. Evaluation of municipal solid waste management in egyptian rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Messery, Mamdouh A; Ismail, Gaber A; Arafa, Anwaar K

    2009-01-01

    A two years study was conducted to evaluate the solid waste management system in 143 villages representing the Egyptian rural areas. The study covers the legal responsibilities, service availability, environmental impacts, service providers, financial resources, private sector participation and the quality of collection services. According to UN reports more than 55% of Egyptian population lives in rural areas. A drastic change in the consumption pattern altered the quantity and quality of the generated solid wastes from these areas. Poor solid waste management systems are stigmata in most of the Egyptian rural areas. This causes several environmental and health problems. It has been found that solid waste collection services cover only 27% of the surveyed villages, while, the statistics show that 75% of the surveyed villages are formally covered. The service providers are local villager units, private contractors and civil community associations with a percentage share 71%, 24% and 5% respectively. The operated services among these sectors were 25%, 71% and 100% respectively. The share of private sector in solid waste management in rural areas is still very limited as a result of the poverty of these communities and the lack of recyclable materials in their solid waste. It has been found that direct throwing of solid waste on the banks of drains and canals as well as open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are the common practice in most of the Egyptian rural areas. The available land for landfill is not enough, pitiable designed, defectively constructed and unreliably operated. Although solid waste generated in rural areas has high organic contents, no composting plant was installed. Shortage in financial resources allocated for valorization of solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas and lower collection fees are the main points of weakness which resulted in poor solid waste management systems. On the other hand, the farmer's participation in solid waste management through the composting of organic matter and using of food waste as an animal feed are considered strength points. However, throwing of solid waste on the banks of water streams, open dumping and uncontrolled burning of solid waste are environmental damaging behaviors that need to be changed. Integrated solid waste management in the Egyptian rural areas is not yet among the priorities of the Egyptian government. PMID:19712653

  19. Composition of Trees Grown Surrounding Water Springs at Two Areas in Purwosari Pasuruan, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soejono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to find out the composition of trees grown surrounding water springs at two areas in Purwosari, Pasuruan, East Java. Eleven plots for each area were observed. The data were analyzed using Mueller-Dombois’s method to calculate their importance value indexes, while Shannon-Wiener’s formula was used for determining the diversity index. The coordinate and altitude of every water spring or its group’s site was determined using Geographical Position System (GPS to know their positions on the map. The result indicated that there were at least 30 families, 49 genera which consisted of 68 species of trees grown surrounding water springs at the first area with 5.49 of diversity index, while the second area, consisted of 34 families, 63 genera and 79 species of trees with 5.24 diversity index. The diversity of trees species from Moraceae was the highest among other families, both at the first and the second area, whereas, trees species having a significant important value index included Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Ficus racemosa, Horsfieldia irya and Ficus virens. The position of the springs in the two areas within the sub-districts of Purwosari is in the range of 7º44'448 " south latitude; 112º44'353" east longitude up to 7º46'339 " south latitude; 112º41’190" east longitude at an altitude between 251 and 522 m above sea level. We hope that the information can be used as an alternative guidance to restore or to conserve such areas in order to save and sustain trees diversity and their habitat.

  20. 7 CFR 25.301 - Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection factors for designation of nominated rural areas. 25.301 Section 25.301 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES... rural areas. In choosing among nominated rural areas eligible for designation as Empowerment...

  1. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinojosa, H. [comp.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  2. Wind energy for water pumping in rural areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 1980, as the supply of conventional energy has not been able to follow the tremendous increase of the production demand in rural areas of China, a renewed interest for the application of wind energy was shown in many places. Therefore, the Chinese government began to pay more attention to wind energy utilization in rural areas. During the last ten years, several R ampersand D tasks for new modern wind pumps were carried out. Among them, three projects are the developments of wind energy screw pump systems (FDG-5 wind pump, FDG-7 wind pump and TFS-5 wind pump). At present, 50 of these wind pumps are working successfully in the rural areas for farmland drainage, salt ponds water lifting and aquatic product breeding, etc. The field tests show that these wind energy screw pump systems are suitable for low lifting head (< 3 meter) and large water flow (50 m/hr to 120 m/hr) operation in the coastal areas. Because the wind energy resource in many rural areas is sufficient for attractive application of wind pumps, and the supply of electricity as well as fuels is insufficient in these areas, the wind pumps will be spread on a rather large scale in the near future. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  3. An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of ±15%

  4. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namdoo Moon

    2007-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (~41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source.

  5. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and Surrounding Area, Portsmouth, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the 16 square-mile (∼41 square-kilometer) area surrounding the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The survey was performed in August 2007 utilizing a large array of helicopter mounted sodium iodide detectors. The purpose of the survey was to update the previous radiological survey levels of the environment and surrounding areas of the plant. A search for a missing radium-226 source was also performed. Implied exposure rates, man-made activity, and excess bismuth-214 activity, as calculated from the aerial data are presented in the form of isopleth maps superimposed on imagery of the surveyed area. Ground level and implied aerial exposure rates for nine specific locations are compared. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters. At specific plant locations described in the report, man-made activity was consistent with the operational histories of the location. There was no spectral activity that would indicate the presence of the lost source

  6. Water analysis from wells in Ezeiza and surrounding areas. Dissolved uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to give an answer to the different social sectors, we sampled water from previously existing wells that reaches the Puelche aquifer. The uranium concentration was determined in these samples to obtain a preliminary checkup of water quality situation. For the analysis we considered the samples obtained inside the CAE as well as those sampled in the surrounding areas as Monte Grande, Claypole and Burzaco. The results show a correlation between the amount of dissolved salts and the presence of dissolved uranium. (author)

  7. Dietary aluminium Intake Level for Rent Animals in a Primary and Secondary Aluminium Industry Surrounding Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mărioara Drugă

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in an aluminium industry surrounding area on purpose to evaluate dietary aluminium intake level for rent animals originated from fodder and water consumed by them. There were taken feed and water samples in different periods and from increasing distances from industrial platform, determined the aluminium level by atomic spectroscopy and calculated the rations for cattle and poultry. Conclusions: aluminium dietary intake level by ration depends by forage period for studied species, rations structure and distance from industrial platform and didn’t reach toxic level in any case.

  8. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enforcement order provides for grants concerning the arrangement of various public facilities in the areas surrounding a power generating facility; the public facilities in the arrangement for which the grants are given include communication, recreation activities, environmental sanitation, culture, medicine, etc. The prefectural governor concerned submits his plan for the arrangement to the Government, which then decides on the grants. Then, the grants are given to local governments concerned. The sums of the grants are determined on the basis of the output, construction cost of the nuclear power facility. (Mori, K.)

  9. Selected problems of socioeconomic changes in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kociszewska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains the approach of description of premises related to labour resources use improvement. It is based on characteristics of changes in the number of people living in the countryside on the background of the tendencies of employment in agriculture, as well as of rural areas unemployment specificity. The author tended to verify the thesis that multifunctional development of rural areas is one of directions towards unemployment diminishing. On the other hand, it was concluded that important barriers for such a solution are both infrastructure underdevelopment and low level of professional skills of rural society. It was pointed out that a great chance for positive socioeconomic changes of the countryside is rational use of financial sources available after Poland’s EU accession.

  10. COASTAL PHYSICAL VULNERABILITY OF SURABAYA AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA TO SEA LEVEL RISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayidah Sulma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study for coastal vulnerability to sea level rise was carried out in Surabaya and its surrounding area, it has focused on calculations of the physical vulnerability index were used coastal vulnerability index (CVI methods. It was standardized by the multi criteria analysis (MCA approach according to the study area.The score of each physical variable derived from remote sensing satellite data and the results of studies that have been done, such as modeling results and thematic maps, and then integrated into geographic information systems (GIS. Result of this study showsthat the coastal areas of Gresik, Surabaya, and Sidoarjo in the very low to very high vulnerability level. Physically, the low land areas with open and slightly open coastal have a high vulnerability category. The high level vulnerability was found located in the northern of Madura Strait (Gresik Regency that overlooks to the Java Sea is about 28.81% from the entire of study areas. Meanwhile, the moderate, low and very low levels of vulnerability were located on Surabaya and Sidoarjo Regency that have more protected coastal area,relatively. According to the physical condition, the coastal elevation is the most variable that contributes to the high of vulnerability index in the coastal of Surabaya City and Sidoarjo Regency.

  11. Research Regarding the Impact of Rural Tourism Forms on the Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The twentieth century is the century of speed, large transformation of civilization, of great discoveries, but also the period that puts more emphasis on return to roots, the unpolluted environment, relaxation, traditional products. Many EU governments recognize that agrotourism and rural tourism are one way that can save agriculture, also that "in the next 20 years tourism will be part of the economy and rural tourism and agrotourism will become the tourism of future." The reason? Authenticity of rural areas is a quality becoming more demanding in terms of present life. In his development, rural tourism, had periods of growth but also of decline. Certainly that was never endangered. Unknown forms of rural tourism know so far, the large momentum dating at the desire for freedom and lack of rigid programs. Conducted as complementary activities, rural tourism forms not break peasant life balance, not cause loss of existing activities before, but allow the high-grade products obtained and hence their development, together with the development of others.

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singman, L.V.

    1994-11-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent

  14. Radiation survey in Beatty, Nevada, and surrounding area (March 1976). Final technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the State of Nevada, a radiation survey was initiated in the Beatty, Nevada, area on March 10, 1976, to identify and locate radioactive materials which might have been removed from the Nuclear Engineering Company low-level radioactive waste burial site located near Beatty. Approximately 280 locations including dwellings, storehouses, schools, saloons, hotels, motels, businesses, ranches, and mines were inspected. Seventeen residences in Beatty and the surrounding area were identified where the sole radioactive items found were radium-dial clocks, compasses, and instrument gauges which had been distributed from the burial site. An additional 25 locations were identified where other radioactive items originating from the Beatty site were found. Radiation exposures to persons possessing the various radioactive materials appear to have been generally and fortuitously minimal

  15. Delivering Nutrition Services in Early Intervention in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarr, Bethany; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses general issues in the provision of early intervention as well as nutrition services in rural areas and presents a case study to illustrate these issues. Barriers identified include transportation, long-distance travel, lack of specialized personnel, and poverty. Recommendations to overcome barriers are highlighted. (JDD)

  16. AIDS in Rural Areas: Challenges to Providing Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Kathleen A.

    1988-01-01

    Examined the development and provision of social services to persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and their families in rural areas and barriers to the delivery of care. Subjects (N=15) were persons who coordinated or provided services to AIDS victims. Found structural factors, confidentiality, fear of contagion, and homophobia…

  17. Teacher Training Colleges in the Rural Areas of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsiangengo, Pedro; Diasala, Andre Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the rural areas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…

  18. Uruguaian rural area: energy demand and sources supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is about the energy demand in rural areas and its electrification like one of the factors of its residents maintenance, in the means that they are essential for the development but intensive of agrarian intensity, nevertheless we will try to determine their quantity and the character one of them

  19. Teacher Training Colleges in the Rural Areas of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsiangengo, Pedro; Diasala, Andre Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    The Aid for the Development of the People by the People (ADPP), a non-governmental organization (NGO), in collaboration with Angola's Ministry of Education, has set up a network of secondary schools to train teachers to work in primary schools in the rural areas of Angola. These schools, called Training Colleges for the Teachers of the Future…

  20. Factors That Influence the Attrition of Mentors in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Sharon Leenese

    2012-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study exploring the factors that influence the attrition of mentors in rural areas. Mentoring initiatives and programs have proliferated throughout schools in an effort to provide students with positive role models, increase graduation rates and improve overall performance Mentoring programs are an increasingly…

  1. Methods of employee rating in cultural institutions in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelyuk Yu. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the nature, role and importance of personnel evaluation in terms of development of modern society and economy. The authors describe aspects of the formation of staffing cultural institutions in rural areas. The possible methods of creative worker’s evaluation in cultural institutions are analyzing. The innovative method for artists estimating was considered. The form of questioning by visitors of rural cultural institution for effective evaluation of the creative workers was worked out. The main advantages of the proposed assessment method were characterized.

  2. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining—the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained promine...

  3. Domestic dogs in rural area of fragmented Atlantic Forest: potential threats to wild animals

    OpenAIRE

    Edilberto Martinez; Clarice Cesário; Silva, Ita de Oliveira e; Vanner Boere

    2013-01-01

    Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild anim...

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 (60Co) and cesium-137 (137Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 (235U). Protactinium-234m (234mPa) and 60Co Were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data

  5. Aerial radiological survey of the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area Brookhaven, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Shoreham Nuclear Power Station during 5 to 9 June 1983. The survey, which covered an area of 338 square kilometers (131 square miles), also encompassed the entire Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) facility. The highest radiation exposure rate, over 1 milliroentgen per hour (mR/h), was inferred from data measured directly over the BNL facility. This detected activity was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60 and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal BNL operations. With the exception of the BNL facility, the only detected man-made radioactivity was found near a cottage in Moriches, New York and was due to the presence of cobalt-60. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied generally from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 ?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted concurrently with the aerial survey, were compared to the inferred aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired from five locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were consistent with those inferred from the aerial results. 11 references, 12 figures, 3 tables

  6. Spontaneous vascular flora of selected cemeteries in Lublin and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Trzaskowska

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in 2011–2012. It included an analysis of the spontaneous flora of 7 cemeteries: 3 cemeteries located in the centre of Lublin (Lipowa Street, Unicka Street, and Kalina Street, 1 on the outskirts of the city (Majdanek, 1 located in a small town (??czna, 2 sites are rural cemeteries (?uszczów, Ostrówek. An inventory was made of spontaneous vascular flora present at the investigated sites. The plants were described in respect of their affiliation to geographical-historical groups, life forms as well as the presence of honey species (polleniferous and nectariferous and protected species. Within the area of these 7 necropolises, the presence of 382 taxa was found. The number of taxa observed at the individual sites varied between 124 and 274 in the metropolitan zone, 146 in the urban zone, and between 110 and 146 in the rural areas.The area richest in terms of flora was Majdanek where 274 species of plants were found, while the cemetery in ?uszczów was the least rich – 110 species. The highest precentage of hemicryptophytes was observed in Ostrówek (50.7%, the lowest in Lublin – Kalina (40.3%. In the case of therophytes, the greatest variation was observed in the urban cemetery in Unicka Street (32.6%, while the least varied site was the cemetery in Ostrówek (23.3%. The average precentage of geophytes was 12.1%, with the greatest number in ?uszczów (16.4%, and the smallest one in Majdanek (8.4%. Chamaephytes were characterised by a small percentage (between 5.1% and 4.4 %, similarly to nanophanerophytes (6.2% to 2.7%, and megaphanerophytes (9.6%–1.8%. The investigated sites were dominated by apophytes, the percentage of which varied between 52.3% in the Lublin cemeteries on Lipowa and Unicka Streets, and 44.5% in Ostrówek.Among anthropophytes, there were mostly archeophytes (between 26.3% in ?uszczów and 13.1% on Lipowa St. in Lublin. The percentage of diaphytes varied between 16.5% in Ostrówek and 7.2% in Lublin – Kalina, whereas that of kenophytes was between 15.1% in Ostrówek and 8.2% in ??czna. In the case of spontaneophytes, the percentage varied between 8.8% in Lublin – Majdanek and 2.7% in ?uszczów. The majority, 299 of the taxa found, proved invaluable to insects (polleniferous and nectariferous. Among the plants growing spontaneously in the analysed cemeteries, there were also 11 legally protected species..

  7. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study

  8. Earthquake hypocenter relocation using double difference method in East Java and surrounding areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C, Aprilia Puspita [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency (MCGA) of Indonesian, Jakarta (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Geophysical Engineering Program, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia); Puspito, Nanang T [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Determination of precise hypocenter location is very important in order to provide information about subsurface fault plane and for seismic hazard analysis. In this study, we have relocated hypocenter earthquakes in Eastern part of Java and surrounding areas from local earthquake data catalog compiled by Meteorological, Climatological, and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (MCGA) in time period 2009-2012 by using the double-difference method. The results show that after relocation processes, there are significantly changes in position and orientation of earthquake hypocenter which is correlated with the geological setting in this region. We observed indication of double seismic zone at depths of 70-120 km within the subducting slab in south of eastern part of Java region. Our results will provide useful information for advance seismological studies and seismic hazard analysis in this study.

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area, Cordova, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station in Cordova, Illinois, during the period May 9 through May 18, 1989. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) over a 65-square-kilometer (25-square-mile) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the Quad Cities Power Station and surrounding area and to determine any radiological impact on the area over the past twenty years. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 5 and 15 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and radioactive potassium gamma emitters. The aerial data were compared to ground-based ''benchmark'' exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assay of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system

  10. An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 μR/h plus an approximate 6 μR/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey's gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within ± 5%

  11. An aerial radiological survey of the Fernald Environmental Management Project and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from May 17--22, 1994, over a 36 square mile (93 square kilometer) area centered on the Fernald Environmental Management Project located in Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the survey was to detect anomalous gamma radiation in the environment surrounding the plant. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) with a line spacing of 250 feet (76 meters). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter (3.3 feet) above ground was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph of the area. Analysis of the data for man made sources showed five sites within the boundaries of the Fernald Environmental Management Project having elevated readings. The exposure rates outside the plant boundary were typical of naturally occurring background radiation. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to supplement the aerial data. It was concluded that although the radionuclides identified in the high-exposure-rate areas are naturally occurring, the levels encountered are greatly enhanced due to industrial activities at the plant

  12. An aerial radiological survey of the Salmon Site and surrounding area, Lamar County, Mississippi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former Atomic Energy Commission Test Site at the Salmon Site and surrounding area between April 20 and May 1, 1992. The Salmon Site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 20 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma-ray environment of the Salmon Site and adjacent lands. A contour map showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a rectified aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates within the area are between 5 and 8 ?R/h. The reported exposure rates include a cosmic-ray contribution estimated to be 3.7 ?R/h. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and in situ measurements, taken with a pressurized ion chamber and a high-purity germanium detector, were obtained at 4 locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of and are in agreement with the aerial data

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted from August 10-16, 1993, over a 78-square-kilometer (30-square-mile) area of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant and surrounding area located near Portsmouth, Ohio. The survey was performed at a nominal altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) with a line spacing of 76 meters (250 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on a set of United States Geological Survey topographic maps of the area and an aerial photograph of the plant. The terrestrial gamma exposure rates varied from about 7 to 14 microroentgens per hour at 1 meter above the ground. Protactinium-234m was observed at six sites within the boundaries of the plant. At a seventh site, only uranium-235 was observed. No other man-made, gamma ray-emitting radioactive material was present in a detectable quantity, either on or off the plant property. Soil sample and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within ± 7.5%

  14. Health Literacy in Rural Areas of China: Hypertension Knowledge Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hude Quan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We conducted this study to determine levels and correlates of hypertension knowledge among rural Chinese adults, and to assess the association between knowledge levels and salty food consumption among hypertensive and non-hypertensive populations. This face-to-face cross sectional survey included 665 hypertensive and 854 non-hypertensive respondents in the rural areas of Heilongjiang province, China. Hypertension knowledge was assessed through a 10-item test; respondents received 10 points for each correct answer. Among respondents, the average hypertension knowledge score was 26 out of a maximum of 100 points for hypertensive and 20 for non-hypertensive respondents. Hypertension knowledge was associated with marital status, education, health status, periodically reading books, newspapers or other materials, history of blood pressure measurement, and attending hypertension educational sessions. Hypertension knowledge is extremely low in rural areas of China. Hypertension education programs should focus on marginal populations, such as individuals who are not married or illiterate to enhance their knowledge levels. Focusing on educational and literacy levels in conjunction with health education is important given illiteracy is still a prominent issue for the Chinese rural population.

  15. Geo electric resistivity survey in Aloban area and its surroundings, Sibolga, North Sumatera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research was carried out geophysical investigation using geo electric resistivity measurements and geological mapping conducted in purpose to know form, distribution and depth of basement in Aloban Basin include its level of uranium mineralization. Methodologies which used in this survey are topographical mapping, geological mapping, geo electrical measurement and radiometric mapping. Topographical mapping conducted in a coverage area of 2 km2 include 126 location of geo electric measurements and 5 existing borehole, which is WK 17, WK 9, WK 42, WK 29 and WK 30. Geological setting of Aloban area and its surroundings consist of granite unit, base conglomerate, conglomerate sandstone, and alluvium deposit. Radiometric value start from 48 c/s to 3000 c/s and grouped into two value groups which is 700 c/s to 3000 c/s distributed in east part and <700 c/s distributed in west of working area. Uranium accumulation occurred in a fine fraction of fine sandstone to silt in the end of base conglomerate unit sedimentation. Geo electric survey conducted using profiling method in Wenner configuration at 6 lines which is line A, B, C, D, E and F with total line length is 6 km. From geo electric data processing, anomaly resistivity value has been recognized, with the value of 278 ohm-m to 2274 ohm-m from surface to more than 100 m depth which is occurred in each lines, interpreted as basement. Generally, basement in eastern area is shallower than others and becoming deeper in the center and south-west area, at the elevation of -121.01 m to 170.72 m from sea level. Information of granite depth will be considered in drilling plan especially for drilling depth and drilling machine selection. (author)

  16. The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Sebastian; Ramirez, Jorge; Becerra, Carlos; Carabantes, Jorge; Arteaga, Oscar

    2010-05-01

    Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes.Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital.The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country's need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals. PMID:20461139

  17. The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Peña

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes. Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional, but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital. The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country's need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before.This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals.

  18. Water and Soil Pollution in Punjab with Special Reference to Mandi Gobindgarh & Surrounding Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shalini Gupta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mandi Gobindgarh is an industrial town in Fatehgarh District of Punjab, India, located on NH-1 at an equi-distance of 55 kms from Ambala, Ludhiana and Chandigarh. It is the second biggest industrial town in Punjab and its industry includes 475 units generating hazardous waste making it as one among the list of 43 critically polluted industrial hubs of the country on which the ministry had imposed a moratorium. (Indian Express: 09 Dec 2012. The population showed a higher prevalence of symptoms of respiratory problems, angina, cardiovascular and skin diseases. The rural area around the city too stands polluted due to industrial smoke, dust and ‘the burning of over 20 million tons of paddy husk by Punjab's farmers’ triggered smog.’ (Times of India 12 Dec 2012. The Commutative Environment Pollution Index for land (soil and ground water has been calculated as 62 for Mandi Gobindgarh and it has been declared as critical as per the analysis results of the samples of ground water collected by the Punjab Pollution Board from different localities of the town.

  19. Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnykh, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was developed. It reflects a modern system of relationships to the land in the laws and regulations on the federal, regional and local levels. It is a tool for informational and legal support in the decision-making process in the field of the wildlife management. The federal laws regulate the situation in general, and the departmental regulations govern its adjustment by components. The analysis of legal acts' dynamics in the sphere of wildlife management and environmental protection was conducted in order to monitoring the situation and evaluate the changes of relationships to the territory for 10 years (2001-2011 years). As the result with the use of GIS-technology a map of legal zoning was created. This electronic map has become a GIS model of the legal zoning, besides the informational content each contour includes cadastral data and information about its legal status. The model is created as a form of refraction of legislative base through a natural and economic basis of the territory. It allows shifting to the analysis of strategy of the territorial use, choice of optimal strategy of regional development, and decision-making and its realization.

  20. Schooling and Factors Affecting Decisions on Schooling by Household Members in the Rural Areas of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Akin; Gumus, Sevtap Guler; Adanacioglu, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that rural education has always been one of the most important means of rural development, it has been ignored in many developing countries, with the result that rural development has not achieved great success. The problems of education in rural areas are not only related to the amount the country spends on education or to the…

  1. 7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plan to invest in Rural Areas. 4290.120 Section 4290.120 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the RBIC...

  2. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in soils surrounding oil waste disposal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianling; Wang, Hanxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ma, Mengchao; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Xiaoxue; Zong, Meihan

    2016-02-01

    More attention is being devoted to heavy metal pollution because heavy metals can concentrate in higher animals through the food chain, harm human health and threaten the stability of the ecological environment. In this study, the effects of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Hg) emanating from oil waste disposal on surrounding soil in Jilin Province, China, were investigated. A potential ecological risk index was used to evaluate the damage of heavy metals and concluded that the degree of potential ecological damage of heavy metals can be ranked as follows: Hg > Cd > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cr > Zn. The average value of the potential ecological harm index (Ri) is 71.93, thereby indicating light pollution. In addition, this study researched the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals by means of ArcGIS (geographic information system) spatial analysis software. The results showed that the potential ecological risk index (R) of the large value was close to the distance from the oil waste disposal area; it is relatively between the degree of heavy metals in soil and the distance from the waste disposal area. PMID:26832722

  3. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

  4. Thorium prospect of placer deposits in Koba area and its surroundings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study of the thorium in placer of Koba, Central Bangka District. Bangka Belitung Province and its surrounding is to find out thorium prospect in alluvial deposits. The study method are geological and radiometrical mapping, grain counting and thorium grade analysis of pan concentrated. Result of the research reveals that lithology of the investigation area compose of meta sandstone unit with radiometric value of 35 c/s - 200 c/s, granite intrusion with radiometric value of 140-550 c/s and alluvial with radiometric value of 40-300 c/s SPP2NF. Content of monazite in the pan concentrated is approximately 7.54 %, content of thorium in pan concentrated of 1410 ppm, covered alluvial deposits of about 400 kilometers square with average thickness 3.77 meters. According to the study thorium prospect in Koba area is feasible to be Based on the type of deposit (placer) which are relatively easy to be mined at low cost, high content of monazite and thorium so that the prospect thorium Koba feasible to develop. (author)

  5. Stable isotope and lead isotope study of the Cortez, Nevada, gold deposit and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, R.O.; Doe, B.R.; Wells, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    Isotope studies of sulfur, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and lead were carried out to clarify the age and origin of the Cortex gold deposit and the surrounding mineralized area. The hydrogen isotope data indicate that meteoric water was the dominant component of the ore-forming fluids at Cortez. The hydrogen isotope data support geologic evidence for a Tertiary age for the deposit. The oxidation of the ore probably occurred during the deposition of postore calcite and was caused by waters whose oxygen isotopic composition was distinctly different from that of the ore fluids. The carbon isotope data suggest that the only carbon present in the ore fluids was derived from solution of the host rock. The lead and sulfur data are consistent with a possible sedimentary derivation for the gold in the ore. Lead and sulfur isotope distributions indicate that much of the galena mineralization in the area occurred during the Jurassic.

  6. E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimmi Anand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. This methodology supports the use of networking and communications technology in teaching and learning. E-Learning is generally meant for remote learning or distance learning, but can also be used in face-to-face mode. In this paper we have made study about the awareness and impact of E-Learning in selected rural areas in India, the providers and learners ratio and an analysis on the collected data has been made to find the advantages of E-Learning resources and their affect on social and mental development of the individuals belonging to rural areas.

  7. Energizing rural areas of developing countries using IRES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakumar, R. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Renewable energy resources can play a significant role in supplying the energy needed in the rural areas of developing countries for improving the living environment and for economic development. The concept of energization in which all the available renewable resources are used in an integrated fashion with proper resource-need matching is preferable to straight-forward electrification. This paper discusses the application and design of Integrated Renewable Energy Systems (IRES) for energizing the rural areas of developing countries. The design tool IRES-KB that has been developed has the potential for on-site interaction with local populace and can serve both as a design tool and as a planning tool.

  8. SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a net exporter of organic production.

  9. Incidence of convulsive epilepsy in a rural area in Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    Ngugi, AK; Bottomley, C.; Scott, JA; Mung'ala-Odera, V; Bauni, E; Sander, JW; Kleinschmidt, I.; Newton, CR

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purpose There are only a few studies of incidence of epilepsy in low and middle income countries (LMICs). These are often small and conducted in specific age groups or areas where the prevalence of risk factors is high; therefore, these studies are not representative of the wider populations. We determined the incidence of convulsive epilepsy (CE) in a large rural population in Kenya. Methods We conducted two cross‐sectional surveys 5 years apart within a health and demographic survei...

  10. Environmental impact of photovoltaic electrification in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Varho, V.

    2002-01-01

    The environmental impact of photovoltaics (PV) is discussed to ascertain how well it can aid solving the dual problem of meeting the demand for electricity in rural areas and of mitigating the energy-related environmental problems. It is noted that all emissions from PV are indirect and result mainly from the energy used in producing PV equipment. They are compared with the emissions that can be offset by the use of PV. It is concluded that PV is environmentally benign, and in ...

  11. Self medication pattern in rural areas in Pune, India

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Keche; Radha Yegnanarayan; Shraddha Bhoyar; Rashi Agrawal; Roshani Chavan; Priyanka Mahendrakar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried to analyze the self medication pattern in rural areas of Pune. Method: Semi-structured questionnaire was used for collection of data. Information about age, sex, name of the self medication, diagnosis for the use of self medication, source of information about the self medication and adverse effects reported to self medications was collected. Results: NSAIDs (33.33), antibiotics (10.32), vitamins (14.08) and GIT ailment drugs (13.61) are most comm...

  12. Agrotourism - A Sustainable Development for Rural Area of Korca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STELA ZOTO

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The term agro-tourism emerged in the late twentieth century. It includes agricultural farms that are related to tourism. This notion represents all activities related not only to tourists but also to the organizers of the holidays in general. Agro tourism is very important for rural communities as well as urban areas. It can provide several advantages: income, employment, use accommodation, activities, natural resource conservation, recreation and education. But the main problem for many countries is the low level of farm income. Agro tourism intends to obtain higher standards of living for rural communities especially through increased income for people who work in agriculture.There are five main forms of rural tourism which bring benefits both for tourists and for the local community.• Natural tourism, which is mainly preferred for its recreational value.• Cultural tourism, which is mainly related to culture, history and archeology of the area destination.• Ecotourism, as a form of tourism that presents natural resources while maintaining the values and local population welfare.• Village tourism, where visitors live and enjoy the various activities of peasant life.• Agro tourism, in which tourists see and participate in traditional agricultural practices without destroying the ecosystems, the host bases. Development in Korca region is one of the main priorities of the regional strategy. The study will be focused on four villages: Dardhe, Voskopoja, Vithkuq and Prespa. We will see the advantages and weaknesses of rural tourism development in these areas, as well as their benefits. We will also see a study about the residents’ perceptions of the tourism development in the area and of the agro- touristic behavior of the tourists there.

  13. 48 CFR 1852.219-74 - Use of rural area small businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... encouraged to use their best efforts to award subcontracts to small business concerns located in rural areas... regarding their status as small business concerns located in rural areas. (d) The Contractor agrees to... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Use of rural area...

  14. 78 FR 19586 - Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO01 Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas AGENCY... in highly rural areas through innovative transportation services to travel to VA medical centers, and... transportation options to veterans in highly rural areas, to comply with section 307 of title III of...

  15. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Ross

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas.Aim: The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation.Setting: Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time.Methods: This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas.Results: The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1 contribution to service delivery; (2 professional development (3 the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4 the impact of working as an HCP.Conclusion: Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be along-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs. 

  16. Working in rural areas – the experiences of Umthombo Youth Development Foundation graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals (HCPs) for rural areas is challenging throughout the world. Although rural origin HCPs have been identified as being the most likely to work in rural areas, only a small number of rural-origin South African scholars are trained as HCPs each year and many do not return to work in rural areas. Aim The aim of this article was to present the experiences of rural-origin HCPs who returned to work in a rural area after graduation. Setting Umthombo Youth Development Foundation has been running an innovating rurally-based scholarship scheme since 1999. By December 2013, 184 students supported by the scheme had graduated and all had returned to work in a rural area for a period of time. Methods This was a qualitative study using a life history methodology to explore the educational experience of six rural-origin HCPs working in rural areas. Results The four themes that emerged from the data were: (1) contribution to service delivery; (2) professional development (3) the challenges and frustrations of working in rural hospitals; and (4) the impact of working as an HCP. Conclusion Rural-origin HCPs are willing to return and work in rural areas. However, context and content factors need to be addressed if a work-back scholarship scheme is to be a long-term strategy for the recruitment and retention of HCPs. PMID:26245423

  17. Assumption on the Reform of Social Security of Migrant Workers from Rural Areas from an Angle of Unified System in Urban and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Anmin Chen

    2009-01-01

    China is making efforts to improve the social security for migrant workers from rural areas and that for farmers in rural areas. However, due to the strong mobility of migrant workers, the efforts are hard to coordinate. To establish a unified social security system for urban and rural areas is the most reasonable objective and can be put into practice at present. This system should cover a wide and comprehensive scope. In China, no matter whether city or countryside, every citizen should pos...

  18. Irradiation of Population in the Surrounding Area of Nuclear Power Plant Temelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In monitoring the impact of nuclear facilities operation on ecosystem, it is necessary to consider, what part of biota irradiation can be caused by an artificial source. For the estimation of an effective dose from natural sources were used measurements of dosimetric and gamma spectrometric characteristics of photon fields, (performed in the area of NPP Temelin since year 2000) and data from the Czech Republic radiometric chart, including the results from radon volume activity measurements in dwellings. For gamma spectrometric measurements in situ were selected two methodologies and for measurement were used corresponding types of equipment (Tesla NB3201 and spectrometer NaI(TI) 3''x3'') at selected locations within the monitored area: i) determination of air kerma rate (through direct measurement and by calculationfrom spectrometric data); ii) measurement of photon spectra by an scintillating spectrometer. For a dose assessment from artificial sources resulting from past or present operation of NPP Temelin, were used records from all so far performed laboratory and field measurements of NPP releases, food baskets and also results of a 6 year ecosystem monitoring in the surrounding area of NPP Temelin. The ecosystem monitoring is based on studying the contamination of the following bioindicators: forest humus, Pine bark, Schreber's Moss, the Bay Bolete (mushroom) and forest berries. Each year 220 samples are collected and mass activity (Bq/kg) for eventual contaminants is determined using laboratory gamma spectroscopy. For measurements is used a coaxial HPGe detector, with samples in the geometry of 'Marinelli' container. For evaluation of the laboratory results obtained is used trend analysis. The above described monitoring has been performed from the year 2000 until now (the year 2000 is pre-operational). In all measured laboratory spectra, of all analyzed samples, were not identified any non-natural radionuclides, with the exception of 137Cs, for which maesured activities correspond, within allowed measurement error, to the conditions before the start of NPP Temelin operation

  19. Probability impact analysis of potential radioactive release from Fukushima accident to surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper simulated the potential impact of radioactive material from the Fukushima accident to the surrounding areas with China as an area of special concern. Using the five-year meteorological data in Spring during 2004-2008 as input, the forward 3D trajectories started 8 times a day at 50 m high above four simulated releasing points, which were ± 0.2 degree latitude and longitude centering around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was calculated with an interval of 3 h and a trajectory length of 5 d. By means of cluster analysis to results of trajectory calculation, the atmospheric transport pathways of all the 14720 trajectories derived were obtained that enabled the following statistical analysis to the frequency of radioactive material in reaching interest region as well the probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration. The results showed a relatively low frequency in Spring with its peak appeared in May. For instance the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Harbin in May is 0.9%, Shanghai 0.6%, Taiwan 0.2%, and Beijing 0.1% with an average migration time of 3.2 d, 4.2 d , 4.5 d and 4.6 d respectively. The lowest frequency showed in March, the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Taiwan in March is merely 0.1%, for Harbin is 0.1% and 0 for the rest of areas concerned in our country. The probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are consistent with the impact analysis results of trajectories. Meanwhile, the impact of probability field to other regions can be observed from the results. (authors)

  20. Impacts of soil moisture on precipitation over Bangladesh and its surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Shiori; Takahashi, Hiroshi G.

    2015-04-01

    Soil moisture is an important contributor for regional-scale precipitation. Over Bangladesh and its surrounding area, we can clearly find seasonal variations of wetness in land surface and atmosphere depending on a transition of summer Asian monsoon. Under this atmospheric condition, sensitivities of precipitation to soil moisture are expected to differ with the season. Hence, in this study, a seasonal variation in effects of soil moisture on precipitation are investigated using a regional climate model; Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5.1. Horizontal mesh size is 20 km for outer domain and 5 km for inner domain without cumulus convective scheme. The numerical experiment is conducted from 20 March through 1 October for each year during 2003-2007 to analyze the seasonal transition of soil moisture impacts on precipitation from April to September. Under the same conditions of atmospheric and SST forcing by reanalysis datasets, three kinds of simulations were performed to examine the precipitation sensitivity to soil moisture; (1) A land surface condition including soil moisture was calculated by a land surface scheme coupled with the WRF (control; CTL run), (2) and (3) soil moisture was fixed for 0.1 or 0.6 kg/kg over Bangladesh and its surrounding area (22-27N, 88-93E) for sensitivity experiments (DRY or WET run). The CTL run could successfully simulate diurnal variations of intensity and frequency of precipitation for each month. In April and May, i.e., pre-monsoon season, differences of three-hourly precipitation between WET and DRY runs indicated precipitation decrease during afternoon and evening and its increase from night to next morning in the WET run. This diurnal variation in differences of precipitation amount was strongly controlled by differences in precipitation frequency. Precipitation intensity also weakened during daytime in pre-monsoon season without significant changes during nighttime. On the other hand, in July, August, and September, i.e., mature monsoon season, only daytime increases in precipitation amount and frequency were recognized in the WET run. We need to examine a relationship between seasonal transition of atmospheric wetness and seasonal variations in soil moisture impacts on precipitation.

  1. Indoor and outdoor BTX levels in Barcelona City metropolitan area and Catalan rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, E; Roca, F X; Guardino, X; Rosell, M G

    2008-01-01

    Five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, and three isomeric xylenes) were monitored in indoor and outdoor air of 7 public buildings and 54 private homes, located in Barcelona City metropolitan area and in several rural areas of Catalonia. The sampling was carried out over four periods: spring-summer and winter of 2000, and summer and winter of 2001. Passive ORSA 5 Dräger samplers were used for benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) adsorption. BTX were extracted with carbon disulphide and analysed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a FID detector. In Barcelona metropolitan area the outdoor average concentrations of BTX were 3.5, 34.2, and 31.3 microg/m3 in urban areas, and 1.4, 9.2, and 9.2 microg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. Average indoor air concentrations of BTX were respectively 4.3, 64.8, and 47.6 microg/m3 in urban areas and 5.8, 67.0, and 51.4 microg/m3 in rural areas, respectively. A direct connection between the house and garage was one of the most influential factors for indoor BTX concentrations in rural areas. In urban areas, diffuse traffic sources were the predominant BTX source, slightly influenced by tobacco smoke in indoor air. PMID:19143312

  2. The extent of shifts in vegetation phenology between rural and urban areas within a human-dominated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major environmental challenges facing the world today. One of its particularly pressing effects is alterations to local and regional climate through, for example, the Urban Heat Island. Such changes in conditions are likely to have an impact on the phenology of urban vegetation, which will have knock-on implications for the role that urban green infrastructure can play in delivering multiple ecosystem services. Here, in a human-dominated region, we undertake an explicit comparison of vegetation phenology between urban and rural zones. Using satellite-derived MODIS-EVI data from the first decade of the 20th century, we extract metrics of vegetation phenology (date of start of growing season, date of end of growing season, and length of season) for Britain's 15 largest cities and their rural surrounds. On average, urban areas experienced a growing season 8.8 days longer than surrounding rural zones. As would be expected, there was a significant decline in growing season length with latitude (by 3.4 and 2.4 days/degree latitude in rural and urban areas respectively). Although there is considerable variability in how phenology in urban and rural areas differs across our study cities, we found no evidence that built urban form influences the start, end, or length of the growing season. However, the difference in the length of the growing season between rural and urban areas was significantly negatively associated with the mean disposable household income for a city. Vegetation in urban areas deliver many ecosystem services such as temperature mitigation, pollution removal, carbon uptake and storage, the provision of amenity value for humans and habitat for biodiversity. Given the rapid pace of urbanization and ongoing climate change, understanding how vegetation phenology will alter in the future is important if we wish to be able to manage urban greenspaces effectively. PMID:27099705

  3. Consequences of Promoting Less-Populated Rural Areas to Urban Areas: A Case Study, Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bastin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The modified law of Iranian Administrative divisions has greatly altered the pattern of settlement in recent decades. The promotion of rural areas to urban areas has shifted from mere population standard to combined population-administrative standards. However, all censuses suggest that many rural areas reported as smaller than the minimum population standard have been promoted to urban areas. In the last two decades, this is a clearly prominent phenomenon in the urban system of Iran. This paper evaluates the effects and consequences of promoting small and sparsely populated rural areas to urban areas in the Bushehr province. The used methodology is analytic-descriptive using a questionnaire distributed among 380 members of the target population. Data analysis is conducted in physical, economic, social and urban servicing domains using one-sample T-test and the utility range. The results show that promotion of rural areas to urban areas has positive outcomes such as improved waste disposal system, improved quality of residential buildings, increased monitoring of the construction, increased income, prevented migration and improved health services. However, the results of utility range show that the negative consequences of this policy are more than its positive outcomes, which have been studied in detail.

  4. Determination of the pollution with lead in the batteries factory in Al-Saffera (Aleppo) and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aimed to determine the lead concentrations in the ecosystem surrounding the batteries factory in Al-Saffera. The results showed that the lead levels were very high in both factory area and the surrounding agricultural area. Lead levels in air varied between 12 and 34 μg/m3 in the area outside the factory. The same trends were in both soil and plant samples, and normal washing does not decrease the lead level in plant samples to acceptable levels. Mean lead levels in blood was also high and ranged between 55 and 28 μg /dl for factory workers and village inhabitants respectively. In conclusion the authorities administration must take all necessary procedures to reduce the lead levels in the factory area and in the surrounding area.(Author)

  5. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

  6. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  7. Eye damage following radiotherapy in the surrounding area of the eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation damage of the eyes was investigated in 233 patients who underwent radiotherapy (consisting of 204 with Linac x-ray, 13 with Linac electron beam and 16 with unknown kind of irradiation) for tumors in the eyes or their surrounding areas, with special reference to its relation to exposure doses to the cornea, lens and retina calculated. Corneal damage was seen in 66% of the total patients and in all patients irradiated with 5,000 rad or more. Cataract was seen in 48% of the total patients, in all patients with 6,000 rad or more and in 10% of patients with 3,000 rad or less. Retinopathy was seen in 45% of the total patients, in all patients with 8,000 rad or more and in 12% of patients with 4,000 rad or less. Iridocyclitis and glaucoma were seen in 15% of the total patietns, in 53% of patients with 6,000 rad or more and 8% of patients with 4,000 rad or less. These results suggest the possibility that eye damage can be prevented by precise radiotherapy techniques. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Local earthquake tomography of the Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Gökalp

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selected travel time data from the aftershock series of the Erzincan earthquake (March, 1992, Ms=6.8 were inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D Vp and Vs structure. The general features of the 3D velocity structure of the upper crust of Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area, one of the most tectonically and seismically active regions in Turkey were investigated. The data used for this purpose were 2215 P-wave and 547 S-wave arrival times from 350 local earthquakes recorded by temporary 15 short-period seismograph stations. Thurber’s simultaneous inversion method (1983 was applied to the arrival time data to obtain a 3D velocity structure, and hypocentral locations. Both 3D heterogeneous P and S wave velocity variations down to 12 km depth were obtained. The acquired tomographic images show that the 3D velocity structure beneath the region is heterogeneous in that low velocity appears throughout the basin and at the southeastern flank, and high velocities occur at south and east of the basin. The low velocities can be related to small and large scale fractures, thus causing rocks to weaken over a long period of the active tectonic faulting process. The ophiolitic rock units mostly occurring around the basin area are the possible reason for the high velocities. The validity of 3D inversion results was tested by performing detailed resolution analysis. The test results confirm the velocity anomalies obtained from inversion. Despite the small number of inverted S-wave arrivals, the obtained 3D S velocity model has similar anomalies with lower resolution than the 3D P-wave velocity model. Better hypocenter locations were calculated using the 3D heterogeneous model obtained from tomographic inversion.

  9. Measuring the equity of inpatient utilization in Chinese rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As an important outcome of the health system, equity in health service utilization has attracted an increasing amount of attention in the literature on health reform in China in recent years. The poor, who frequently require more services, are often the least able to pay, while the wealthy utilize disproportionately more services although they have less need. Whereas equity in health service utilization between richer and poorer populations has been studied in urban areas, the equity in health service utilization in rural areas has received little attention. With improving levels of economic development, the introduction of health insurance and increasing costs of health services, health service utilization patterns have changed dramatically in rural areas in recent years. However, previous studies have shown neither the extent of utilization inequity, nor which factors are associated with utilization inequity in rural China. Methods This paper uses previously unavailable country-wide data and focuses on income-related inequity of inpatient utilization and its determinants in Chinese rural areas. The data for this study come from the Chinese National Health Services Surveys (NHSS conducted in 2003 and 2008. To measure the level of inequity in inpatient utilization over time, the concentration index, decomposition of the concentration index, and decomposition of change in the concentration index are employed. Results This study finds that even with the same need for inpatient services, richer individuals utilize more inpatient services than poorer individuals. Income is the principal determinant of this pro-rich inpatient utilization inequity- wealthier individuals are able to pay for more services and therefore use more services regardless of need. However, rising income and increased health insurance coverage have reduced the inequity in inpatient utilization in spite of increasing inpatient prices. Conclusions There remains a strong pro-rich inequity of inpatient utilization in rural China. However, a narrowing income gap between the rich and poor and greater access to health insurance has effectively reduced income inequality, equalizing access to care. This suggests that the most effective way to reduce the inequity is to narrow the gap of income between the rich and poor while adopting social risk protection.

  10. Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in Łódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in Łódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in Łódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

  11. Domestic dogs in rural area of fragmented Atlantic Forest: potential threats to wild animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilberto Martinez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs' skills such as hunting and herding shifted as man migrated from rural areas to developing urban centers and led to a change in human-dog relationship and in the purpose of these animals in the properties. The countryside of Viçosa is characterized by small coffee farms surrounded by borders with fragments from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The close proximity of these environments favors the encounter between domestic and wild animals which may lead to dog attacks to wild animals and, consequently, disease transmission. The aim of this study was to understand the role of dogs in the rural environment and assess the possible risks they offer to native fauna. The data were obtained from structured questionnaires answered by dogs' owners from rural Viçosa. Results regarding the socioeconomic status of the owners revealed that the majority belonged to either the middle class or low educational level categories. In addition, it was observed that there is a preference for male dogs due to its guard activity and that most dogs live unconstrained. Even though most dogs are provided with good food management, 58% of them prey on wildlife. However, more than half of the dogs do not consume their prey which can be explained by the inherited ability of artificial selection but 36.5% of them have scavenger diet. Most of the dogs were immunized against rabies, whereas, only 28.8% were immunized against infectious diseases such as leptospirosis, distemper and parvovirus. In conclusion, the management of dogs by rural owners, mainly unrestrained living, and allied to inadequate vaccination coverage suggest that dogs are predators of Viçosa's rural wildlife and potential disseminators of disease.

  12. Migration to Less-Popular Rural Areas in the Netherlands: Exploring the Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijker, Rixt A.; Haartsen, Tialda; Strijker, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Migration into rural areas is often explained in terms of the rural idyll, the attraction of the countryside with its less hurried way of life in a quiet, spacious and green environment. However, this migration phenomenon has mostly been researched in attractive, amenity-rich, popular rural areas. This paper investigates the characteristics and…

  13. 42 CFR 412.230 - Criteria for an individual hospital seeking redesignation to another rural area or an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... redesignation to another rural area or an urban area. 412.230 Section 412.230 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... urban area. (a) General—(1) Purposes. Except as specified in paragraph (a)(5)— (i) For fiscal years prior to fiscal year 2005, an individual hospital may be redesignated from a rural area to an urban...

  14. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining-the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of intense conflict. PMID:26136238

  15. Frac Sand Mines Are Preferentially Sited in Unzoned Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Shifting markets can cause unexpected, stochastic changes in rural landscapes that may take local communities by surprise. Preferential siting of new industrial facilities in poor areas or in areas with few regulatory restrictions can have implications for environmental sustainability, human health, and social justice. This study focuses on frac sand mining—the mining of high-quality silica sand used in hydraulic fracturing processes for gas and oil extraction. Frac sand mining gained prominence in the 2000s in the upper midwestern United States where nonmetallic mining is regulated primarily by local zoning. I asked whether frac sand mines were more commonly sited in rural townships without formal zoning regulations or planning processes than in those that undertook zoning and planning before the frac sand boom. I also asked if mine prevalence was correlated with socioeconomic differences across townships. After creating a probability surface to map areas most suitable for frac sand mine occurrence, I developed neutral landscape models from which to compare actual mine distributions in zoned and unzoned areas at three different spatial extents. Mines were significantly clustered in unzoned jurisdictions at the statewide level and in 7 of the 8 counties with at least three frac sand mines and some unzoned land. Subsequent regression analyses showed mine prevalence to be uncorrelated with land value, tax rate, or per capita income, but correlated with remoteness and zoning. The predicted mine count in unzoned townships was over two times higher than that in zoned townships. However, the county with the most mines by far was under a county zoning ordinance, perhaps indicating industry preferences for locations with clear, homogenous rules over patchwork regulation. Rural communities can use the case of frac sand mining as motivation to discuss and plan for sudden land-use predicaments, rather than wait to grapple with unfamiliar legal processes during a period of intense conflict. PMID:26136238

  16. Protected areas and their surrounding territory: socioecological systems in the context of ecological solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevet, Raphaël; Thompson, John D; Folke, Carl

    2016-01-01

    The concept of ecological solidarity (ES) is a major feature of the 2006 law reforming national park policy in France. In the context of biodiversity conservation, the objectives of this study are to outline the historical development of ES, provide a working definition, and present a method for its implementation that combines environmental pragmatism and adaptive management. First, we highlight how ES provides a focus on the interdependencies among humans and nonhuman components of the socioecological system. In doing so, we identify ES within a framework that distinguishes ecological, socioecological, and sociopolitical interdependencies. In making such interdependencies apparent to humans who are not aware of their existence, the concept of ES promotes collective action as an alternative or complementary approach to state- or market-based approaches. By focusing on the awareness, feelings, and acknowledgement of interdependencies between actors and between humans and nonhumans, we present and discuss a learning-based approach (participatory modeling) that allows stakeholders to work together to construct cultural landscapes for present and future generations. Using two case studies, we show how an ES analysis goes beyond the ecosystem management approach to take into account how human interactions with the environment embody cultural, social, and economic values and endorse an ethically integrated science of care and responsibility. ES recognizes the diversity of these values as a practical foundation for socially engaged and accountable actions. Finally, we discuss how ES enhances academic support for a socioecological systems approach to biodiversity conservation and promotes collaboration with decision-makers and stakeholders involved in the adaptive management of protected areas and their surrounding landscapes. PMID:27039505

  17. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elizeus, Rutebemberwa; Sheila K., Katureebe; Sheba N., Gitta; Amos D., Mwaka; Lynn, Atuyambe.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. METHOD: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive stud [...] y in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. RESULTS: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people's thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  18. Study on Nitrate Value in Rural Area in Amol City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yousefi, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Nitrate is considered as a major pollutant for groundwater resource. In recent years, the concentration of nitrate in subsurface water is increasing because du to utilization of the of using excessive amount of fertilizers and disposal of wastewater in soils. This research was carried out as descriptive study, in a rural area of Paeen Khiaban Litkooh in Amol City in 2005.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 300 samples were collected from 50 well drinking water in different weather (wet and dry The samples was taken from each well, 3 times in the wet air and 3 times in the dry air. Nitrate analysis method was Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (Model Jesco 7800 U.V/Visible at 220 and 275 nm according to "Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th edition".Results: The results revealed that, nitrate maximum related to well number 38 in a rural qrea with code 8 and with 20.66 mg/l Nitrate as N. Maximum of Nitrate average concerned in rural code 8 with 9.66 mg/l and minimum of nitrate average related to rural code 2 with 1.257 mg/l nitrate as N. The results indicated that nitrate was reduced when the depth of water wells increased and ford ware, the value of nitrate in deep wells is more than surface wells.Conclusion: The statistical analysis showed, there is a significant difference between concentrations of nitrate in surface wells drinking water in wet and dry air conditions, but there is not a significant difference between deep well drinking water. The leakage of surface water to the low depth well and lack of sanitation, may be the cause of this difference.

  19. Foreshock activity and its probabilistic relation to earthquake occurrence in Albania and the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Irikura

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate some characteristics of foreshock activity of moderate and large earthquakes which occurred in the present century in Albania and the surrounding area. Using a prediction algorithm, based on possible foreshocks, we obtained a probabilistic relation between possible foreshocks and mainshocks. From documentary and instrumental data for the period 1901-1994 for the area between 39.0°- 43.0°N and 18.5°-21.5°E we evaluated the probability of the occurrence of mainshocks immediately after their possible foreshocks. The result shows that the probability that mainshocks with magnitude M ³ 6.0 are preceded by a foreshock with magnitude M ³ 4.4, distance £ about 50 km and time £ 10 days is 38% (6/16. The probability that one earthquake with M ³ 4.4 will be followed by a larger earthquake with M ³ 6.0 within about 50 km and 10 days is 1.3% (6/468, but the probability increases to 33% (1/3 if 7 earthquakes with M ³ 4.4 occur within about 50 km and 10 days. From instrumental data for the period 1971-1994, the probability that mainshocks with M ³ 5.0 are preceded by a foreshock with magnitude M ³ 4.0 is 33% (5/15. The probability that one earthquake with M ³ 4.0 will be followed by a larger earthquake with M ³ 5.0 within about 50 km and 10 days is 1.9% (5/262, but the probability increase to 5.6% (1/18 if 3 earthquakes with M ³ 4.0 occur within about 50 km and 10 days. We also found a regional variation of foreshock activity with activity decreasing from the Vlora-Elbasani-Dibra transversal seismic belt to the Ionian-Adriatic seismic zone to the interior part of Albania seismic zone.

  20. A Study on Water Utilization in Chinese Rural Areas

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    Rong TAN

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available
    In China, because rural population is great and agriculture is very important in national economy, rural areas have becomes a main sphere of water consume. There exist the problems of water shortage and water waste in the countryside. The conflicts of water resource supply and demand between industry and agriculture are very conspicuous. Various factors that include ideology, finance, technology, management and policy restrict the rational and effective use of water resource. The survey on the villages of Jia Ge Zhuang and Yao Bai Zhuang in Ji County, Tianjin reflects these problems. The government tries to solve the problems by making laws and policies, as well as affording financial and technology support to towns and villages. At the same time, it is necessary for the government to make officials and farmers realize the importance of rational water usage and saving by doing propaganda, coordinating the inter-governments relations, and defining the departments’ duties. For realizing the objective of rational water usage, it is necessary to take measures to construct and perfect irrigation installations by both superior and local governments’ investment and farmers’ labor force.
    Key Words: Chinese Rural Areas, Water Resource, Rational Use, Farmland, Irrigation System
    Résumé: En Chine,la population est grande et l’agriculture est très importante dans l’économie nationale. Les régions rurales sont devenues un sphère principal de la consommation d’eau. Il existe les problèmes d’insuffisance d’eau et le gaspillage d’eau dans la campagne. Les conflits sur les resources d’eau fournie et demandée entre industrie and agriculture sont très fréquents. Les facteurs variés tels qu’idéologie, finance, technologie, management et politique limitent l’usage rationel et effectif de ressources d’eau. L’enquête sur les villages de Jia Ge Zhuang et Yao Bai Zhuang dans le pays Ji, Tianjin reflète ces problèmes. Le government tente de résoudres les problèmes par l’élabortion des lois et les poliques, ainsi que le support financierl et technologique aux bourgs et villages. Au meme temps, il est nécessaire pour le government à render conscients les officiels et les paysans l’ importance de l’usage rationel en économisant par la publicité, en coordonnant les relations inter-governmentaux, et en déterminant les tâches des départments. Pour la realiser l’objectif de l’usage d’eau rational, il est nécessaire de prendre des mesures pour construire et perfectionner l’ installations d’irrigation par l’investissement des governements supérieurs et locaux ainsi que les forces des labeurs.
    Mots clés: Les régions rurales chionoises, Ressource d’eau, usage rationel, fermier, Système d’ Irrigation

  1. Impacts of Religious and Pilgrimage Tourism in Rural Areas: The Case of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Pourtaheri; Khalil Rahmani; Hassan Ahmadi

    2012-01-01

    Rural tourism has speedily developed and become an engine for economic development and plays a great role towards socio-economic changes in rural areas. However, its impact is controversial and not always obvious. To examine these issues, this research presents an empirical analysis of pilgrimage and religious tourism and the impacts of these types of travel in rural areas in Iran. The paper provides examples of these impacts and transformations in the three rural centers as Tourism Model Vil...

  2. The importance of using renewable wind energy for the development of Romanian rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mari-Isabella Stan; Dragoş-Florian Vintilă; Diana-Doina Ţenea

    2016-01-01

    The problem of rural development and planning is complex because rural areas have a high development potential arising from their diversity and specificity. In this context, Romanian rural communities, therefore, must adapt to identify new opportunities for sustainable economic development, one of them being the renewable energy sources. This article discusses the importance of using wind energy potential in rural areas having as a case study the development of the wind farm/park in Poarta Al...

  3. Ocular Morbid Conditions in the Rural Area of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali K Shrote (Brahmapurkar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular morbid conditions are responsible for partial or total blindness. Ocular morbidities by its sheer magnitude form an enormous problem, not only in human suffering, but also in terms of economical loss and social burden. Aim: The aim of present study was to find the prevalence of ocular morbidities in rural area. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study in area covered by Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC, Hingna which is under the administrative control of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College [IGGMC], Nagpur, was carried out in 194 families with 925 study subjects during February 2005-December 2005. The study focuses on ocular examination and diagnosis of ocular morbid conditions. Both eyes were examined and all the relevant clinical findings were recorded in predesigned proforma. Chi Square test was used for the analysis of data .Results: The results revealed that out of 925 study subjects 297(32.11% were had ocular morbidity. Common ocular morbidity was Myopia (13.62%, Conjunctival xerosis (12.11%, Hypermetropia (11.68%, Xerophthalmia (3.46%, Pterygium (2.92%, immature senile cataract (2.70%, Eye strain (2.49%, mature senile cataract (1.84% and Presbyopia (0.86%. Females were more affected (36.58% as compared to males (28.37%, [χ2 = 7.09; d.f. =1, P< 0.05]. It was observed that as the age increases the prevalence of ocular morbidity increases [χ2=318.03; d.f =7, p<0.001].Higher prevalence of ocular morbid conditions was found in Illiterates 122 (40.94% [χ2 = 16.47; d.f. =3, p<0.001] Conclusion: High prevalence of ocular morbidities was found in rural areas of central India with greater predominance among women and illiterates.

  4. Photovoltaic power systems for rural areas of developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Hein, G. F.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) applications for rural areas of underdeveloped countries are discussed in relation to PV system technology, reliability, and present and projected cost. The information presented is derived mainly from NASA, Lewis Research Center experience with PV systems deployed with a variety of users for applications relevant to LDCs. A detailed description of two village power systems is included. Energy cost comparisons are presented for PV systems versus alternative energy sources. It is concluded, based on present PV system technology, reliability and cost that photovoltaics provides a realistic energy option for LDCs in both the near- and far-term.

  5. EU policy for agriculture, food and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Oskam, A.J.; Meester, G.; Silvis, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The European Union, now of 27 member states, varies widely within its boundaries. Still, there are common policies for agriculture, food and rural areas, although with many differences in relation to specific conditions in member states. Starting with the Mac Sharry reform in 1992, the EU is on a long-term path to freer and more open markets, with increased attention at EU and member-state levels to food quality, food safety and animal welfare as well as the environment and the development of...

  6. Exploiting Digital Switchover for Broadband Services Access in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Charalabos Skianis; Charalampos Mantakas; George Kormentzas; Evangelos Pallis; George Mastorakis

    2006-01-01

    The paper discuses how the imminent transition to the digital terrestrial television in UHF (DigitalSwitchover) could be employed towards enabling always-on connectivity and triple-play services access even from rural and dispersed locations, i.e. in areas where no termination/connecti...

  7. Wood as a primal fuel for rural areas of Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 20% of the population of Estonia has individual heating systems, mainly using domestic fuels such as wood and peat. This cheaper fuel is widely used in rural areas. The first studies of fuel consumption of households were made in Estonia in 1928 and 1934. At present there is a lack of reliable data. In 1995-1998 the authors carried out an investigation to analyze the situation nowadays. The data indicates that some wood used as fuel is not reflected in official statistics. This result means that the actual share of biofuels in the Estonian energy supply is bigger than that shown in official statistics. (author)

  8. NEUTRALIZING WASTEWATER FROM PUBLIC UTILITIES ON RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bugajski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at determining a potential use of domestic sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge for the disposal of wastes drained from schools in rural areas. Selected pollutant indicators, such as: BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and phosphates were the basis for determining the composition of raw sewage discharged by public utility objects and the quality of treated sewage considering the days when lessons were taking place at school and days free from classes. The analysis of the results revealed that household sewage treatment plants based on activated sludge may be used for waste disposal from public facilities, such as schools.

  9. E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Rimmi Anand; Sharad Saxena; Shilpi Saxena

    2012-01-01

    E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. This methodology supports the use of networking and communications technology in teaching and learning. E-Learning is generally meant for remote learning or distance learning, but can also be used in face-to-face mode. In this paper we have made study about the awareness and impact of E-Learning in selected rural areas in India, the providers and learners ratio and an analysis on the collected data has been made to...

  10. Transport for the elderly - what happens in rural areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahern, Aoife; Hine, Julian; Begley, Emer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes work being carried out in Northern Ireland and in the Republic of Ireland to examine the transport needs of older people in rural areas both north and south of the border. The project commenced in July 2009 and will be completed in July 2010. Therefore, at the time of writing of this paper the project is still on-going. This paper is structured as follows. The first section sets out a literature review of research into the transport needs of older people. The paper wi...

  11. The human health impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira eruptions on Goma city and its surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michellier, C.; Dramaix, M.; Arellano, S. R.; Kervyn, F.; Kahindo, J. B.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira are two of the most active volcanoes in Africa. Nyiragongo last erupted in January 2002 and Nyamulagira in November 2011. Even if only a small number of victims resulted directly from these eruptions (notably because they both happened in the day-time), the town of Goma (approx. 700 000 inhabitants) is directly threatened by the fluid lava flows, of which the speed can reach several tens of km/h. But this is not the only menace. Indeed, Nyiragongo hosts a permanent lava lake that produces a plume of gases rich in sulphur (SO2), carbon (CO2), and halogen compounds (HCl, HF). As for Nyamulagira, it makes a major contribution to these emissions during its frequent and regular periods of eruptive activity (approx. every two years). Although the region under study is densely populated (up to 250 inh/km2), and basic volcanic hazard mapping exists, an updated and long-term evaluation of the specific impact of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira semi-permanent volcanic plumes on the population health has not been done to date. It is the objective of this study. Michigan Technological University (MTU, USA) provides satellite data retrievals of volcanogenic SO2 gas columns. These remote sensing data provide insights about the spatial distribution of Nyiragongo and Nyamulagira plumes, which are used to select the sampling areas for studying the human health impact of volcanic emissions. Based on the Congolese Health Information System (HIS) data provided by the CEMUBAC, our study is focused on the 1999-2010 time period. Scientific studies carried out on other active volcanoes suggest that certain pathologies could be linked to a high concentration of SO2 in the atmosphere. These include Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI), conjunctivitis, skin diseases, and ear-nose-throat infections. Using Poisson regression analysis, we determine a Relative Risk Index (IRR) that allows us to identify the years of higher health risk for the population living under the plume. Additionally, time series analysis helps us to disregard any seasonal effect of certain pathologies and to derive a 12-year risk trend. For 2004-2010, our results are compared to SO2 gas emission rates and plume location data measured by using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopic (DOAS) sensors located around Nyiragongo volcano. Finally, the areas identified as more hazardous are highlighted through a geographical approach (using GIS tools), to generate maps and other relevant information that can be of direct use for risk assessment authorities. Our preliminary analysis suggests that the impact of SO2 emissions doesn't seem to be severe, being its most important effect an increase of ARI in the area surrounding the volcanoes (up to 50km). Our on-going study will help us to better determine the magnitude and geographical extent of the impact of volcanic plumes on the health of the population, as well as locate the areas that are most affected. This will contribute to provide the appropriate sanitation recommendations (water treatment, early warning system, etc.) and lead to a more effective volcanic impact reduction on human health.

  12. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 μg/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  13. Promoting Productive Uses of Electricity in Rural Areas of Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Finucane, James; Bogach, V. Susan; Garcia, Luis Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The Government of Peru is committed to improving rural electrification coverage, aiming to increase rural coverage from an estimated 55 percent at the end of 2010 to 88 percent by 2020. To achieve this goal, the Directorate General of Rural Electrification (DGER) of the Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) has been implementing and executing the National Plan for Rural Electrification, prepa...

  14. Dry deposition in rural and in urban areas in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the dry deposition velocity is very useful in assessing the dose to a population in a situation where an area has been exposed to a cloud of radioactive material under dry weather conditions. The dry deposition velocities in city, suburban, and rural areas following the Chernobyl accident have been measured and compared. It is concluded that the deposition velocities of caesium on house surfaces have shown very small values of about 10-5 m.s-1. On road surfaces values were 5 times higher. They rose further by a factor of 5-10 when considering rough surfaces such as bare soil, roof and mown grass. The values for bushy and forested areas are even higher. The deposition of other isotopes is 5-10 times higher except for ruthenium. (author)

  15. Crustal thickness and images of the lithospheric discontinuities in the Gibraltar arc and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Flor de Lis; Stich, Daniel; Morales, José; Martín, Rosa; Diaz, Jordi; Pazos, Antonio; Córdoba, Diego; Pulgar, Javier A.; Ibarra, Pedro; Harnafi, Mimoun; Gonzalez-Lodeiro, Francisco

    2015-12-01

    The Gibraltar arc and surrounding areas are a complex tectonic region and its tectonic evolution since Miocene is still under debate. Knowledge of its lithospheric structure will help to understand the mechanisms that produced extension and westward motion of the Alboran domain, simultaneously with NW-SE compression driven by Africa-Europe plates convergence. We perform a P-wave receiver function analysis in which we analyse new data recorded at 83 permanent and temporary seismic broad-band stations located in the South of the Iberian peninsula. These data are stacked and combined with data from a previous study in northern Morocco to build maps of thickness and average vP/vS ratio for the crust, and cross-sections to image the lithospheric discontinuities beneath the Gibraltar arc, the Betic and Rif Ranges and their Iberian and Moroccan forelands. Crustal thickness values show strong lateral variations in the southern Iberia peninsula, ranging from ˜19 to ˜46 km. The Variscan foreland is characterized by a relatively flat Moho at ˜31 km depth, and an average vP/vS ratio of ˜1.72, similar to other Variscan terranes, which may indicate that part of the lower crustal orogenic root was lost. The thickest crust is found at the contact between the Alboran domain and the External Zones of the Betic Range, while crustal thinning is observed southeastern Iberia (down to 19 km) and in the Guadalquivir basin where the thinning at the Iberian paleomargin could be still preserved. In the cross-sections, we see a strong change between the eastern Betics, where the Iberian crust underthrusts and couples to the Alboran crust, and the western Betics, where the underthrusting Iberian crust becomes partially delaminated and enters into the mantle. The structures largely mirror those on the Moroccan side where a similar detachment was observed in northern Morocco. We attribute a relatively shallow strong negative-polarity discontinuity to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. This means relatively thin lithosphere ranging from ˜50 km thickness in southeastern Iberia and northeastern Morocco to ˜90-100 km beneath the western Betics and the Rif, with abrupt changes of ˜30 km under the central Betics and northern Morocco. Our observations support a geodynamic scenario where in western Betics oceanic subduction has developed into ongoing continental subduction/delamination while in eastern Betics this process is inactive.

  16. Object detection in rural areas using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Safak; Emre Esin, Yunus; Artan, Yusuf

    2015-10-01

    Object detection has gained considerable interest in remote sensing community with a broad range of applications including the remote monitoring of building development in rural areas. Many earlier studies on this task performed their analysis using either multispectral satellite imagery or color images obtained via an aerial vehicle. In recent years, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has emerged as an alternative technique for remote monitoring of building developments. Unlike other imaging techniques, HSI provides a continuous spectral signature of the objects in the field of view (FOV) which facilitates the separation among different objects. In general, spectral signature similarity between objects often causes a significant amount of false alarm (FA) rate that adversely effects the overall accuracy of these systems. In order to reduce the high rate of FA posed by the pixel-wise classification, we propose a novel rural building detection method that utilizes both spatial information and spectral signature of the pixels. Proposed technique consists of three parts; a spectral signature classifier, watershed based superpixel map and an oriented-gradient filters based object detector. In our analysis, we have evaluated the performance of proposed approach using hyperspectral image dataset obtained at various elevation levels, namely 500 meters and 3000 meters. NEO HySpex VNIR-1800 camera is used for 182 band hyperspectral data acquisition. First 155 band is used due to the atmospheric effects on the last bands. Performance comparison between the proposed technique and the pixel-wise spectral classifier indicates a reduction in sensitivity rate but a notable increase in specificity and overall accuracy rates. Proposed method yields sensitivity, specificity, accuracy rate of 0.690, 0.997 and 0.992, respectively, whereas pixel-wise classification yields sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy rate of 0.758, 0.983, 0.977, respectively. Note that the sensitivity reduction is due to sparseness of buildings in rural areas, however, increase in overall accuracy is considered more important in our study.

  17. Poverty and social exclusion in urban and rural areas of Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Nick; Bramley, Glen; Gannon, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the PSE-UK 2012 survey results in Scotland, comparing levels of poverty and social exclusion in urban and rural areas and between remote and accessible areas; within the rural category. Using low income, deprivation and subjective poverty measures, it finds significant poverty in every kind of location, with on most measures, poverty highest in the large urban areas and lowest in remote towns with remote rural areas showing higher poverty than remote towns. The report...

  18. An aerial radiological survey of the Faultless Site and surrounding area. Final report, September 9, 1996 - September 12, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Faultless site was measured during September 9-12, 1996, using aerial radiological survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the site and to identify any unexpected man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a four-mile (six-kilometer) radius of the site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Terrestrial exposure-rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on maps of the survey area. Terrestrial exposure rates in areas surrounding the site varied from 12-16 microroentgens per hour. No evidence of man-made radiation was detected at the site

  19. Exploiting Digital Switchover for Broadband Services Access in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalabos Skianis

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper discuses how the imminent transition to the digital terrestrial television in UHF (DigitalSwitchover could be employed towards enabling always-on connectivity and triple-play services access even from rural and dispersed locations, i.e. in areas where no termination/connection exists between the local PSTN exchanger and the optical fibre core backbone. Exploiting the European digital video broadcasting standard in regenerative configurations, the paper introduces an architecture that utilises the television stream as a common broadband infrastructure, capable to deliver not only custom digital television bouquets, but also and most predominant, to provide access to triple-play services. Utilising this television beam in backhaul (middle-mile configurations it extends the core backbone to reach rural and dispersed locations, enabling therefore the immediate and cost-effective deployment (in these areas of technologies that provide for always-on connectivity, such as WLAN, xDSL, etc.

  20. Radiological survey of the area surrounding Arkansas Nuclear One, Russellville, Ark. Date of survey: 31 May--2 June 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS) was used to perform an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Arkansas Nuclear One Power Station from May 31 through June 2, 1973. The terrestrial background gamma radiation was measured during the survey

  1. Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Kenitiro Suguio; Alcina Magnólia Franca Barreto; Janaina C. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil) were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also coll...

  2. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.

  3. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman Catherine; English Michael; Masamo Eunice; Wafula Jackline; Mudhune Sandra; Mullei Kethi; Lagarde Mylene; Blaauw Duane

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTC...

  4. Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizeus Rutebemberwa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

  5. The Impact Of Shopping Centers In Rural Areas And Small Towns In The Outer Metropolitan Zone (The Example Of The Silesian Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heffner Krystian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shopping centers in the Silesian Voivodeship have a significant impact on smaller settlement units located in outer areas of agglomerations. It consists mainly in changes related to social, economic, as well as functional and spatial spheres. Studies shows that shopping centers take over more and more functions of higher order (services, public culture, administration and restrict the economic activity in rural areas outer areas of agglomerations. At the stage of the irrepressible process of suburbanisation of rural areas surrounding large urban agglomerations and structural changes in towns, it is difficult to conclusively assess the consequences of the operation of shopping centers in outer metropolitan areas. The impact of shopping centers on small towns and rural areas is a very dynamic process and requires systematic research.

  6. Migrant Integration in Rural and Urban Areas of New Settlement Countries: Thematic Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Birgit Jentsch

    2007-01-01

    A relatively new feature in European migration is the significant and growing impact it has had on peripheral and rural areas. In southern Europe there has been a relatively steady stream of migrants to rural areas since the 1990s, in part connected with their relatively large, labour-intensive agricultural sector (Kasimis 2005). In some northern European countries, such as Ireland and Scotland, rural areas have particularly benefited from the 2004 EU enlargement: increasing evidence suggests...

  7. European Union Membership Process of Turkey: Perspective of Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sema GÜN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the knowledge level and the perceptions of rural society that would be affected from the EU membership in many ways, basically as the practitioners and beneficiaries, and constitute 30% of the population of the country are investigated. The standpoint of individuals living in rural areas, their expectations from membership and their opinions about the membership are analysed. The study encloses the results of questionnaires administered between the last quarter of 2005 and the first quarter of 2006 with 795 women and 795 men in 18 provinces. In the study 55% of the 1590 individuals surveyed know what the EU means and 67% of these individuals lean towards the membership. It is determined that the level of consciousness of men is higher than for women. The quality enhancement in agricultural production appears to be the most remarkable expectations of both women and men from the membership. Besides it is also determined that the expectations of better employment opportunities and the attainment of an increase in income are higher among women.

  8. Experiences during the decontamination process of areas surrounding to Fukushima; Experiencias durante el proceso de descontaminacion de areas aledanas a Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, G., E-mail: gustavo.molina@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    In this work the experience gained during the decontamination of areas surrounding to Fukushima NPP, rugged during the earthquake and tsunami in 2011 and caused the contamination with fission products in these areas is described. Actions taken by the Japanese government are reported and some of the techniques used, the intervention levels and the progress made and disposal techniques considered are presented. (Author)

  9. 47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... residential rates in rural areas of the state served by non-rural incumbent local exchange carriers to urban... areas within the state served by non-rural incumbent local exchange carriers. If a state certifies that... purposes of its certification, a state may presume that the residential rates in rural areas served by...

  10. The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wimberley

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

  11. The Development of Early Childhood Education in Rural Areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lin; Hu, Xinyun

    2008-01-01

    Early childhood education has developed greatly in rural areas in China since the 1980s. Recognising the status of early childhood education as "the foundation of basic education", the authorities in China have set up challenging objectives for rural areas. However, the development of early childhood education in these areas has been facing…

  12. Study on depressurizing control of the surrounding rock of a roadway along gob area in sub-level caving mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, F.; Chen, J.; Zou, X.; Qu, Q.; Liang, Y.; Ling, B.; Yang, Y. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2000-12-01

    Through computerised simulation calculation and in-situ observation, and in conjunction with the 'loosening' blasting technique, the basic mechanism of the in-coal depressursing roadway layout on the depressurising of the surrounding rock of a roadway along the gob area in sub-level caving mining is analysed. The essence of the depressurising control of a roadway along the gob area is that the high stress zone of the roadway's surrounding rock is transferred to the interior of the coal body along the dip of the coal seam. The layout of a depressurising roadway and the degree of 'loosening' blasting are the key of the depressurising technology. The practical results have shown that the depressurising control is a reasonable and effective method of controlling the serious deformation of the roadway along the gob area, and the technical and economic benefit is remarkable. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  13. An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

  14. Rural energy assessment and potential alternative energy resources & technologies in rural areas of Abbottabad, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    This report provides an in-depth review and critical analysis of the various rural energy resources and their socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods in Abbottabad, Pakistan. It also explores the potential alternative energy resources and affordable technologies for rural people and as well as their potential socio-economic, health and indoor environmental impacts on rural people and their livelihoods. The review of the consumption aspect ...

  15. PROBLEMS IN SPEAKING ENGLISH WITH VERNACULAR MEDIUM STUDENTS OF RURAL AREAS: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TIRORA TAHSIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibha B. Agrawal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English to the students, who hail from rural areas and study in vernacular medium schools and colleges, is a herculean task for the teachers of English. Students’lack of exposure to the target language is a big hurdle on their way to learn English speaking. Surrounding plays a pivotal role in learning a language, be it mother tongue or any foreign language. If the surrounding is congenial the learners pick up the language fast. We learn our mother tongue in this way only. In vernacular medium schools and colleges where English is only one of the subjects, students lack such surrounding. They are not exposed to the target language hence, not able to pick it up from their surrounding and have to put a lot of effort to learn this second language. The present study investigates the problems encountered by the rural vernacular medium students of Tirora Tahsil in speaking English and suggests them remedies to enhance their English communication ability

  16. The Effects of Non-Farm Business in Rural Sustainable Development: A Case Study in Sanandaj's Rural Areas, Kurdistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Movahedi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural economy has an important role in rural sustainabledevelopment in every region or country. However, therural economy in Iran is too much depending on agricultureand development of other rural economy in particular nonfarmactivities, has been neglected by Iranian rural communities.Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the role ofnon-farm business on rural sustainable development in SanandajTownship. This study was a type of surveying research andemployed both questionnaire and interview tools. A four-partquestionnaire (with 48 questions was developed in order tocollect data from the respondents. Likert-type responses withfive scales were used to assess different sections of the questionnaires.The questionnaires’ reliability was tested by Cronbach’sAlpha technique and it was 76% (α= 0.76. A numberof 279 families, 181 families with and 98 without non-farmbusiness were selected randomly in 2011. Results of the studyshowed that non-farm business can contribute to employmentgrowth, income generating, and prevent seasonal and permanentmigration from rural areas. Based on the results, non-farmbusiness and non-farm industries need to be strongly investedby financial facilities through rural cooperatives and unions.Additionally, encouraging rural participation is essential innon-farms and industrial activities.

  17. Biorefineries: Relocating Biomass Refineries to the Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franka Papendiek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The field for application of biomass is rising. The demand for food and feeding stuff rises while at the same time energy, chemicals and other materials also need to be produced from biomass because of decreasing fossil resources. However, the biorefinery ideas and concepts can help to use the limited renewable raw materials more efficiently than today. With biorefineries, valuable products, such as platform chemicals, can be produced from agricultural feedstock, which can subsequently be further processed into a variety of substances by the chemical industry. Due to the role they play as producers of biomass, rural areas will grow in importance in the decades to come. Parts of the biorefinery process can be relocated to the rural areas to bring a high added value to these regions. By refining biomass at the place of production, new economic opportunities may arise for agriculturists, and the industry gets high-grade pre-products. Additionally, an on-farm refining can increase the quality of the products because of the instant processing. To reduce competition with the food production and to find new possibilities of utilisation for these habitats, the focus for new agricultural biomass should be on grasslands. But also croplands can provide more renewable raw materials without endangering a sustainable agriculture, e.g. by implementing legumes in the crop rotation. To decide if a region can provide adequate amounts of raw material for a biorefinery, new raw material assessment procedures have to be developed. In doing so, involvement of farmers is inevitable to generate a reliable study of the biomass refinery potentials.

  18. Migration from rural to urban areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K

    1990-12-01

    During the regime of Mao Zedong the migration of rural population to urban areas was forbidden. In 1982 the people's communes were dissolved creating surplus labor. In 1984 permission was given to peasants to move to towns of 100,000 inhabitants or less. In 1986 the state allocation of jobs and lifetime employment practices were abolished leading to the migration of peasants. Urban population has increased 30-50 million annually since 1985. In 1988-89 urban population consisted of urban registry holders numbering 200 million protected by the government, 100 million new residents unqualified for food rations who had moved into towns of 100,000 population, and the so-called floating population getting no government services numbering about 60-80 million in February 1990. Rural towns grew as a result of promotion of smaller sized cities. In 1983 there were 62,310,000 people in such cities, and by 1984 there were over 134 million mainly in the 15-29 age group. The increasing inflow of population into major cities also occurred in 1984-5 owing to the dissolution of communes. 23 cities with populations over 1 million received 10 million migrants/year, and 50 million migrate to towns and cities every year. In 1988 Shanghai had a mostly male floating population of 2.08 million/year, and Beijing had 1,310,000. This phenomenon led to the emergence of surplus agricultural labor. Village and township enterprises absorbed this surplus: in 1988 there were 18,888,600 such entities employing 95,454,600 people or 23.8% of the labor force. Surplus labor totals 220 million out of 400 million agricultural labor force. The gap between the hinterland and the rich coastal areas with special economic zones is widening, reminiscent of the north-south problem. This phenomenon is the harbinger of the transformation of China into a freer society with higher population mobility. PMID:12285849

  19. Frequency dependent attenuation of seismic waves for Delhi and surrounding area, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The attenuation properties of Delhi & surrounding region have been investigated using 62 local earthquakes recorded at nine stations. The frequency dependent quality factors Qa (using P-waves and Qb (using S-waves have been determined using the coda normalization method. Quality factor of coda-waves (Qc has been estimated using the single backscattering model in the frequency range from 1.5 Hz to 9 Hz. Wennerberg formulation has been used to estimate Qi (intrinsic attenuation parameter and Qs (scattering attenuation parameter for the region. The values Qa, Qb, Qc, Qi and Qs estimated are frequency dependent in the range of 1.5Hz-9Hz. Frequency dependent relations are estimated as Qa=52f1.03, Qb=98f1.07 and Qc=158f0.97. Qc estimates lie in between the values of Qi and Qs but closer to Qi at all central frequencies. Comparison between Qi and Qs shows that intrinsic absorption is predominant over scattering for Delhi and surrounding region. 

  20. A Development of the dust deposition in the area surrounding the SMZ, a.s., Jelava plant

    OpenAIRE

    Hanèu¾ák Jozef

    2000-01-01

    The area of Jelava Lubeník ranks among the eight excessively polluted areas registered in Slovakia. The main cause of this situation is a hundred years of existence of the exploitation and processing of magnesite. The SMZ, a.s. Jelava is currently the biggest Slovak producer of brick and steel magnesite-based clinkers. The technological procedures used to process the raw material represent the main source of solid polluting substances as well as the primary dustiness in the area surrounding ...

  1. Energy use in the rural areas of India: setting up a rural energy data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggregating and forecasting demand are crucial parts of energy planning. While a large number of energy consumption surveys have been conducted in the past in the rural energy sector of India, the lack of sufficient data and its compilation, coupled with doubt about the quality of data, has made the task extremely difficult. This paper summarizes recent efforts to compile, computerize and analyze data from 638 village energy consumption surveys covering over 39,000 households, carried out by different organisations between 1985 and 1989. The details of the level of information provided in the survey reports, area of survey, land use pattern, asset ownership, etc., of the collated studies are presented. Results based on the analysis of the energy consumption data compiled are then discussed. The paper also compares the estimates with those based on other surveys in India. (author)

  2. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Irohibe Ifeoma; Agwu Agwu

    2014-01-01

    Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, t...

  3. Can Skill Diversification Improve Welfare in Rural Areas? Evidence from the Rural Skills Development Project in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Natalie; Watanabe, Makiko

    2011-01-01

    Income growth in rural areas may be one of the greatest challenges to further poverty reduction and economic development. Using a new survey of rural Bhutanese households we investigate the short-term economic, social, and psychosocial benefits of a vocational skills training program that was intended to help diversify incomes into sources outside of agriculture; and the determinants of participation. We find limited positive impacts of the program along various economic, social, and psychoso...

  4. THE RURAL TERRITORIAL INFRASTRUCTURE, THE SUPPORT FOR RURAL TOURISM ECONOMY IN THE DANUBIAN AREA OF THE SOUTH MUNTENIA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Iulian DRĂGHICI; Ioana ŢUGUI

    2012-01-01

    The scope of agritourism activities is related to the existent territorial infrastructure. For this reason there is a pronounced differentiation and diversification of rural tourism and agritourism types in the South-Muntenia Region which sometimes generate confusion. Meaning that, according to the economic character, the Danubian rural area can delimitate villages with agricultural functions (based on the production of cereals, as well as the viticultural and zootechnical productions), those...

  5. Analysis of the effects of aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport [paper in Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Mendonça Maroja; Sérgio Luiz Garavelli; Edson Benício de Carvalho Júnior

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the perception of discomfort caused by aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport (SBBR). The study was divided into two parts. At first, noise measurements were conducted in four residentials zones and the sound pressure level determined by the parameters: Leq, Lmax, Lmin, RF, SEL and IPR. In the second part, we applied a questionnaire adapted from the project Eurocontrol (European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigati...

  6. People not Print: Exploring Engineering Future Possible Self Development in Rural Areas of Tennessee's Cumberland Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Boynton, Matthew Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how students in rural areas of Tennessee's Cumberland Plateau area perceive engineering as a future career. This area is a portion of the greater Appalachian region, which has historically, faced disproportionate economic struggles when compared to other areas of the United States. However, little research on career choice exists outside of the coal producing areas of Central Appalachia. This research, in contrast, focuses on rural counties without interstate access, situa...

  7. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric PM10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m3, respectively. The similarities in PM10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  8. Climate Adaptation for Rural arEas (CARE); Midterm review report; Knowledge for Climate Theme 3

    OpenAIRE

    Brink, van den, W.; Bakker, M. M.; Vos, C.C.; Witte, J. P. M.

    2012-01-01

    This midterm review report presents the structure, progress and first results of the Knowledge for Climate Theme 3 research programme Climate Adaptation for Rural arEas (CARE). This research programme aims to generate the fundamental knowledge that is necessary to design and evaluate adaptation strategies to cope with the impacts of climate change on rural areas in the Netherlands.

  9. Health Promotion Intervention for Hygienic Disposal of Children's Faeces in a Rural Area of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinadu, M. K.; Adegbenro, C. A.; Esmai, A. O.; Ojo, A. A.; Oyeleye, B. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Community-based health promotion intervention for improving unhygienic disposal of children's faeces was conducted in a rural area of Nigeria. Setting: The study was conducted in Ife South Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Design: The study was conducted in 10 randomly selected rural villages: five control and five active.…

  10. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  11. 78 FR 41195 - Fund Availability Under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Areas Program requirements, see the Final Rule published in the Federal Register (78 FR 19586) on April... AFFAIRS Fund Availability Under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas AGENCY... announcing the availability of funds under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural...

  12. Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

    2014-01-01

    The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, and…

  13. 7 CFR 1737.61 - Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... incidental to furnishing and improving telephone service in rural areas. Cost estimates shall be provided by.... (a) Pursuant to the requirements in 7 CFR part 1735, if loan funds are proposed for facilities to... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost allocation for rural and nonrural areas....

  14. 41 CFR 102-83.55 - What is a rural area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a rural area? 102-83.55 Section 102-83.55 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space Rural Areas § 102-83.55 What is a...

  15. Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

  16. 78 FR 59415 - Formula Grants for Rural Areas: Guidance and Application Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR... Federal Transit Administration Formula Grants for Rural Areas: Guidance and Application Instructions... implementation of the section 5311 Rural Area Formula Program. The purpose of this proposed circular is...

  17. Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Carmisciano

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

  18. Aerial radiological survey of the Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant and surrounding area, Dothan, Alabama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was performed during the period 8 to 19 December 1979 over a 2000 square kilometer area centered on the two unit Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant near Dothan, Alabama. Radiological data were collected by flying north-south lines spaced 900 meters apart at an altitude of 150 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma rays detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring radionuclides. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of a radiation contour map. The observed exposure rates were between 4 and 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), with most of the area ranging between 4 and 10 ?R/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 ?R/h but do not include any contribution from airborne radionuclides, i.e., radon. Exposure rates obtained from ground measurements taken within the survey area were in close agreement with the aerial data. The data were also in close agreement with those obtained from a similar survey conducted during March 1977. Comparison of the results from both surveys indicated that no detectable change in the radiological characteristics of the survey area has occurred due to the operation of unit number 1 during the intervening period. The same equipment and procedures were utilized for both surveys

  19. A regional water balance for the WIPP site and surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A water balance or budget is developed as an accounting of the components of a closed hydrologic system. In the WIPP study area, water-budget techniques have previously been used to compute leakage from Lake Avalon and from potash refinery spoil ponds. A general expression for a closed hydrologic system is presented. In a developed area like the WIPP region, the water budget must include many usage factors, such as municipal or industrial pumpage. In the WIPP water-budget study area, inflows are precipitation, surface- and ground-water inflow, and the artificial addition of surface and ground water. Outflows are surface runoff, evaporation and transpiration, and ground-water outflow. Changes in storage in the WIPP region have also been documented. The WIPP water balance described here is based on a combination of long-term averages and figures for 1980. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  20. Preparation of Potentially Site Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Java Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)

  1. Strategic Alliances to Scale Up Financial Services in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gallardo, Joselito; Goldberg, Michael; Randhawa, Bikki

    2006-01-01

    Firms have employed strategic alliances with other firms to effectively manage costs, overcome resource and technology constraints, and enhance competitive position. Strategic alliances can lead to productive institutional collaborations in rural financial markets, thereby expanding the array of financial products, and scaling up access of rural households and micro-businesses to financial...

  2. An Intensive Cultural Experience in a Rural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Durand; Olivares, Sergio A.; Kim, Hyun Jung; Beilke, Cheryle

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, following an intensive 2-day clinical experience for nursing students in a rural, culturally diverse region, student evaluations and papers showed evidence of cultural learning and increased knowledge of rural health care systems. Includes reflections by a teaching associate and two students. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  3. Challenges of Recruitment and Retention in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Chris

    2016-01-01

    There have long been rural health care workforce shortages; however, the urgency to find real solutions has increased with the changing health care landscape. The evidence makes a compelling case to be intentional in the candidates we support and to align educational resources across multiple systems. Programs need to continually evolve, utilizing workforce data, best practices, and new technological advances. This leads the Office of Rural Health (ORH) to secure funding for therapists practicing in integrated settings and to expand loan repayment to general surgeons and providers creating access through telehealth. While access is ORH's core mission, North Carolina's rural health plan reframed the discussion around creating healthy rural communities. This will require further refinement of the critical workforce definition, and it brings to the forefront the fact that a variety of new partnerships will be key to achieving the objective of healthy rural communities. PMID:26961829

  4. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Crystal River Power Plant, Red Level, Florida. Date of survey: March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An airborne radiological survey of an 1100 km2 area surrounding the Crystal River Power Plant was conducted 11-15 March 1977. Detected radioisotopes, and their associated gamma ray exposure rates, were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. Count rates observed at 150 m altitude are converted to equivalent exposure rates at 1 m above the ground, and are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Exposure rates measured with small portable instruments and soil sample analysis agreed with the airborne data. Geological data are presented in an isopleth map of rock and soil types. A brief description of the vegetation and terrain surrounding the site is also included

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the Seabrook Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Seabrook, New Hampshire, July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Seabrook Nuclear Station, Seabrook, New Hampshire, during the period 6 July through 14 July 1988. The purpose of the 247-square-kilometer (96-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the station and surrounding area. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates measured in the area typically ranged form 9 to 12 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). In areas where water shielded the earth, lower exposure rates were measured. Ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. Oblique aerial photographs of the station were also acquired during the survey. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  6. Mapping of the cumulative β-ray dose on the ground surface surrounding the Fukushima area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Kajimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nguyen, Thanh T; Hayashi, Gohei; Imanaka, Tetsuji

    2015-12-01

    A large amount of the fission products released by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March 2011 was deposited in a wide area from Tohoku to northern Kanto. A map of the estimated cumulative β-ray dose (70 μm dose equivalent) on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident has been prepared using previously reported calculation methods and the 2-km mesh survey data by MEXT. From this map of estimated dose, areas with a high cumulative β-ray dose on the soil surface for one year after the FDNPP accident were found to be located in the Akogi-Teshichiro to Akogi-Kunugidaira region in Namie Town, and in the southern Futaba Town to the northern Tomioka Town region. The highest estimated cumulative β-ray dose was 710 mSv for one year at Akogi-Teshichiro, Namie Town. PMID:26519736

  7. Biological studies in the sea area surrounding the Loviisa nuclear power plant in the year 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations of rise in water temperature caused by the plant's cooling water were made in a large area of Haestholmsfjaerden. The mean temperatures during the growth period and summer months were on average of the same magnitude as those in the 1970s, except very close to the outlet, where the mean temperatures were clearly increased by the cooling water. The salinity of the water increased to exceptionally high values in September in the whole study area. Salinities even exceeding 0.6% were measured in the surface water of Haestholmsfjaerden. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were clearly above the level found earlier in the area, but the increase in the nutrient level was similar at all stations (including the reference station at Pernajanlahti). The amount of oxygen in the bottom water of the deep part of Haestholmsfjaerden in late summer was lower than in previous years (1.2 ml/l, 14% of the saturation level). The phytoplankton biomass spring maximum was greater at all stations than in 1974-76. Differences in species composition were small compared with earlier years. The amounts of chlorophyll a during the spring maximum were higher in 1977 than in 1975-76. The level of phytoplankton primary production in the whole study area was lower in 1977 than in the 1970s on average. The annual production at station nearest the outlet, was about 10% greater than at station situated in the middle of Haestholmsfjaerden, owing to higher production in the middle of summer. No important differences in 'in vitro' primary production were observed between sampling places near the water intake and the outlet and the values were of the same magnitude as in 1976. (T.V.)

  8. Feeding practices of infants and children in rural and urban areas of Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattal, M S; Sharma, S L; Verma, J S; Kaushal, R K

    1984-03-01

    Feeding practices in rural and urban areas of Himachal Pradesh were studied. Almost all children were given breastfeeding and administration of colostrom was not considered harmful for the child's health. The supplementary foods were diluted and urban women tended to introduce supplementary milk feeds earlier than rural women. The feeding bottles were often not properly sterilized. 52% urban and 37% rural children started receiving semisolids/solids during infancy. The rural women practiced more prolonged breastfeeding as compared to their urban counterparts and many rural mothers continued breastfeeding beyond 2 years. Majority of women both from rural and urban areas believed in hot and cold foods and wanted to impose restrictions on the type and quantity of the food of children suffering from diarrhea or respiratory infections for varying periods. PMID:6548464

  9. Rural Area Deprivation and Hospitalizations Among Children for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Nathan; Probst, Janice; Robertson, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the intersection of rurality and community area deprivation using a nine-state sample of inpatient hospitalizations among children (interaction of rurality and area deprivation. The study found rural counties are disproportionality represented among the most deprived. Within the least deprived counties, the likelihood of an ACSC hospitalization was significantly lower in rural than among their urban counterparts. However, this rural advantage declines as the level of deprivation increases, suggesting the effect of rurality becomes more important as social and economic advantage deteriorates. We also found ACSC hospitalization to be much higher among racial/ethnic minority children and those with Medicaid or self-pay as an anticipated source of payment. These findings further contribute to the existing body of evidence documenting racial/ethnic disparities in important health related outcomes. PMID:26516019

  10. Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chagas, Claudio Jose; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Rodrigues, Paulo C. Horta [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Augustin, Cristina Helena R. Rocha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias

    2013-07-01

    To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095?Sv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

  11. Definition of priority areas for monitoring of gamma radiation on the surroundings of the CDTN installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To demonstrate compliance with regulations and legal requirements, the Environmental Monitoring Program of the - Development Center of Nuclear Technology - PMA/CDTN was created in 1985. However, at that time, no data was available to represent the background - the natural level for the pre operational period in terms of Gamma radiation. Thus, the lowest value obtained among the sentinel point sites from the early period of the environmental monitoring was adopted as benchmark. As these measurements were performed by procedures and conditions other than that currently in use, this reference value may not correspond to reality. Therefore, it may not be appropriate to use it as background in assessing the possible environmental impact generated by the activities of the facilities. The goal of this study is to propose an area of geographic distribution for 12 monitoring points, outside the CDTN facilities, so that the real natural Gamma radiation levels can be accurately measured without the interference of the radioactivity levels originating from the institution, enabling the determination of the most representative values of the natural gamma radiation in the area. This survey of the natural radiation determination in the study area, with the use of modern equipment and the application of methodology taking into account historical data, as well the geological, geomorphological and geographical studies of the region, pointed to an average background value of 0.095μSv/h. This result, together with other studies, indicated a maximum range of 25m beyond the CDTN boundaries to distribute the monitoring points. (author)

  12. Methodology of seismotectonic zoning in an intraplate low seismicity domain. Examples of France surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until now, the dominant factor in seismic hazard assessments has been historical seismicity. This approach is justified if the data derived from historical seismicity in a region are representative of its seismic activity and if we consider that in areas where damaging earthquakes have happened, they may happen again. This can be seen when seismotectonic relationships are well established in areas such as well localised plate boundaries (subduction zones, transform faults) and/or with a high rate of deformation. In these cases, the areas where future earthquakes might occur are usually well determined and the recurrences short enough on the time scale of historical observations. However, in areas where recent tectonic deformations are diffused and moderate, the historical period of seismicity data (a few centuries) is not long enough to observe a sample of historical seismicity representative of the present-day tectonic activity of the area. The studies on the most recent damaging earthquakes (El Asnam 1980, Spitak 1988, Cherchell Tipasa 1989) show that it would have been extremely difficult to predict the magnitude and the localisation of these events considering historical seismicity alone. It is the same in Provence (south of France) where the risk of occurrence of a damaging earthquake would have been underestimated before the June 1909 event. In all these cases, seismotectonic studies 'a posteriori' show that the geometry and kinematic of the faults responsible for these earthquakes can be identified and that all of them have presented seismic activity in the last thousand years. So it is necessary to emphasis a global approach of the problem through specific studies such as neotectonics, teledetection, geodesy, present-day stress field, strain field, paleoseismology etc. These studies will enlarge the period of observation compared with the data derived only from historical and present-day seismicity. In France seismicity is moderate and recent tectonic deformations are slight in comparison to neighbouring countries (Italy, Greece, Turkey). Only a few important earthquakes have been studied and the relationship between quakes and faults are still unknown. So it seems necessary to 'regionalise' the seismic hazard and to introduce concepts like 'seismotectonic domains' more than 'active faults'

  13. Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206Pb/207Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes

  14. Peru : Impact of the Rural Roads Program on Democracy and Citizenship in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Remy Simatovia, María Isabel

    2008-01-01

    The rural roads program, overseen by Provias Descentralizado (subdivision of Peru's Ministry of Transportation and Communications), began in 1995, and has received funds from the Peruvian Government, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. It is a national program for the rehabilitation and maintenance of roads that link rural communities and villages with secondary and pri...

  15. Drinking water quality assessment of rural wells from Aiud Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ro?u

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents the assessment of physico-chemical quality of drinking watercoming from rural wells of Aiud area (villages: M?gina, Livezile, Poiana Aiudului, V?li?oara. Water qualitywas evaluated through a research project conducted over a period of eight months (October 2009 - May2010. It consisted of a monthly monitoring of water physico-chemical characteristics of 27 drinking wellsfrom the villages mentioned above. There were monitored monthly in the laboratory the followingparameters: pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids,salinity, using WTW Multi-parameter inolab 720. In April and May, at the parameters mentioned abovewere added chemical measurements for the following indicators: Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2->, NO3 -, PO4 3-,HCO3 -, which analysis were performed with Dionex Ion Chromatograph System 2100. The results of thechemical analysis were processed using the following methods: linear regression, Pearson correlationcoefficient (r and water quality index (WQI. This monitoring project was initiated from the premise of aproblematic quality of well waters, based on the well known contamination vulnerability of the drinkingwater in Romania, but the results of this study proved the opposite: the water from the monitored wellshad a proper quality for drinking

  16. Rural flour mills. farmer promotion tool m the Sahel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audroing, M.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grameen Bank is a specialized financial institution in Bangladesh that was established to provide credit to the rural poor for the purpose of improving their economic conditions with the hypothesis that if the poor are supplied with working capital they can generate productive self-employment without external assistance. Loans from the Grameen Bank are used primarily for undertaking noncrop activities. The loan repayment performance is excellent. Only 0.5 percent of loans to 975 borrowers surveyed were overdue beyond one year, and overdue weekly installments (before the expiration of the one-year repayment period were only 3.3 percent of the total amount borrowed. The Grameen Bank concept of credit without collateral should work in other countries with widespread poverty and underemployment. But elements like taking the bank to the people and intensive interaction of bank staff with borrowers may be inappropriate and highly expensive for sparsely settled areas with underdeveloped transport systems. For such environments, an appropriate delivery mechanism has to be worked out.

  17. THE KNOWLEDGE USER PROFILE IN THE RURAL AREA OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Claudia PREDA (DIACONEASA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic entities today are struggling to find the most effective way of combining the resources they have, tangible or intangible, in order to produce and sale the most wanted products, their purpose is to gain and keep the highest share of the market. These intangible resources, in our era, which is changing from industry based to knowledge based, are represented by knowledge, brain capacity and the power to use it at the highest rate. Knowledge has started to be considered a primordial factor, along with energy and matter, factors that hold the origin of the universe. The economic agents have realized that holding the latest information, in any domain or activity, and its proper use, also means holding a greater share of the market for a longer time, which leads to the final purpose of every economic unit, the profit. They can be called knowledge consumers. In Romania’s rural area things are not the same, the knowledge consumer is theoretically represented by any economical unit activating here, but, as shall be presented further in this paper, things are far from theory. Those who should be knowledge consumers are using old methods and technologies, they are based on their own experience and do not know how to use the information that regards them directly, things that have to be changed in order to be an active and competitive member of the E.U.

  18. Radionuclide renography in rural areas of the Gambia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A transportable renography apparatus has been used to study subjects in rural communities in the Gambia. The apparatus fits into six metal containers which can be sealed against dust and moisture and carried in the back of a Land-Rover. A small petrol generator can be used to supply power in the field. A three-detector renogram is recorded on a chart recorder whilst digital data are recorded on a C60 cassette for subsequent deconvolution analysis. Indices of renal function, such as mean renal transit time (MTT) and relative effective renal plasma flow (%ERPF), are obtained from the digital data, and a blood sample taken after the renogram is used to estimate overall effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). The apparatus has been reliable, with no serious breakdowns, but supplies of 131I-Hippuran have been a difficult problem. The short half-life of 131I and the short shelf-life of 131I-Hippuran limit the time spent in the field to a few days and delays in delivery from the United Kingdom have had serious consequences. Measurements in an area free from urinary schistosomiasis were used to establish normal values and relationships with other indices, such as time to peak counts and percentage uptake. Results from an area where Schistosoma haematobium is endemic showed a statistically significant difference in MTT and ERPF but not in %ERPF. MTT was longer in subjects aged 45 or less in the endemic area, but no statistically significant differences were found for older subjects. ERPF was lower for subjects aged 17 or above in the endemic area, but for subjects aged 16 or less it was higher with a positive correlation between ERPF and urinary egg count. Subjects who had a second renogram one year after treatment with metrifonate showed some improvement. By the time of a two-year follow-up nine subjects had died in the endemic area and four of them had abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF. Only one subject with abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF had survived. (author)

  19. Reasons and Solutions for Insufficient Financial Supply in Shandong Rural Area of China

    OpenAIRE

    Shujuan Ding

    2014-01-01

    According to the survey in Shandong rural area from China inclusive finance center, a prominent problem in Shandong is that the credit from rural financial institutions is insufficient because of the high interest rate, the baffle from mortgage and guarantee, and the reluctance or disability for financial institutions to supply more and proper products to peasants. In order to supply more and proper financial service to peasants, suitable financial institutions are needed. In Shandong rural a...

  20. Sustainable development of the Romanian rural areas within the present European context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present concept of rural sustainable development is based on the European model and implies a multifunctional agriculture. The LEADER programme (a part of NRDP represents an approach that offers new development opportunities for the rural areas. The rural development objectives can be fulfilled both by the locally available financing, and by accessing national and European non-refundable financing, on the basis of real projects.

  1. The impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural areas in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Velvin, Jan; Kvikstad, Tor Martin; Drag, Eivind; Krogh, Erling

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Over recent decades, rural–urban migration and a decrease in wealth have been major challenges faced by European rural areas. Maintaining urban and rural settlements throughout the country has been an important aim of Norwegian regional politics. This paper assesses the impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural municipalities in Norway. The study is based on data collected as part of an ongoing research project initiated in 2002. Having developed and teste...

  2. Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ykateryna D. Duka

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

  3. Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

  4. Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps)

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Pedrini; Claudio Prigioni; Gilberto Volcan

    1995-01-01

    Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 19...

  5. Problems of health education in rural areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charzyńska-Gula, Marianna; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Goździewska, Małgorzata; Dobrowolska, Beata; Gałęziowska, Edyta

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion is aimed at the reduction of the differences in society's access to factors determining the frequency of occurrence of pro-health behaviours. This means the construction of health resources and increase in the level of egalitarianism in access to these resources. Health education carried out on a high level in rural schools provides actual possibilities for gaining these resources. Many examples of educational practices confirm that the establishment of health conditioning and health behaviours of schoolchildren, and the diagnosis of rural school on the background of the specificity of the community in which it functions. These are a basis for the construction of effective educational programmes, and not analysis of the differences between urban and rural children and adolescents. In Poland, the performance of health education in rural schools encounters many problems associated both with the lack of infrastructure for health promotion, insufficient perception of the importance of health education at school by the educational authorities, underestimation of primary health care, low activity of the local governments, and lack of qualified rural health promoters. Current health education in Polish rural schools deepens inequalities in access to health, and postpones the moment of providing equal opportunities for rural and urban schoolchildren with access to the resources which condition the maintenance or even an enhancement of health. The objective of the study is to present selected problems in the performance of health education in a Polish rural school in the light of international trends, experiences and discussions related with an optimum form of health promotion in the environment of rural a school and the community. PMID:24069857

  6. The Study of Cultural Soft Power under the Construction of New Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie LI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Culture is the core element of soft power, and it is also closely related to the construction of new rural areas. To achieve the overall goal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the developing of country is not only the key point but also the difficult one. In this article, the authors firstly do a brief overview of the concept and meaning of soft power, and then show the importance and necessity of the cultural soft power to make a new sustainable development of country. But today the construction of rural cultural soft power is not optimistic, and the four key problems are as follows: the public cultural projects can not meet the demands of new rural construction, and the government show less attention to the cultural construction of rural areas .Besides, the defective management of rural culture and the insufficient quality of the peasants do exist in rural areas .Therefore, addressed the above issues, authors put forward several suggestions. At first, build and improve the new rural cultural soft power system. Furthermore, make the grassroots government work in the construction of cultural soft power. What’s more, increase the cultural resources and enhance the services of rural public culture. Finally, improve the overall quality of the peasants and cultivate new peasants.

    Key Words: New rural construction; Cultural soft power; Rural cultural construction.

    Résumé: La culture est l’élément central de la puissance douce, et de la culture et le développement rural sont étroitement liés atteindre l’objectif global du socialisme aux caractéristiques chinoises, en mettant l’accent sur les zones rurales, les zones rurales est également difficile dans le présent document, le concept. de la puissance douce et pour un bref aperçu du contenu, l’analyse de la puissance culturelle douce de la nouvelle importance du développement durable dans les zones rurales et la nécessité. Mais aujourd’hui, la construction des régions rurales du soft power culturel n’est pas optimiste, il ya un manque de public rural projets culturels ne peuvent pas répondre aux exigences strictes de la construction rurale nouvelle, la construction culturelle des cadres de base en milieu rural à l’attention et le niveau de sensibilisation ne suffit pas, la gestion de la culture en milieu rural doit être renforcée, la qualité globale en milieu rural la science retard scolaire, l’agriculteur n’est pas élevés quatre questions, afin d'aborder les questions ci-dessus pour construire et améliorer la nouvelle rurale système culturel soft power, à renforcer la capacité des ruraux aux services publics culturels, de changer leur façon de penser, faire jouer pleinement la population rurale du gouvernement local qui est de nourrir douce culturelle la construction de centrales de l'ordinaire, d'augmenter les ressources culturelles de la puissance douce pour les zones rurales de la force, d'accélérer la promotion des aspects culturels de la consommation rurale, améliorer la qualité globale des agriculteurs, la formation des nouveaux agriculteurs un total de quatre propositions visant à promouvoir vigoureusement la construction de la culture rurale et la puissance douce.

    Mots-clés: Nouvelle construction en milieu rural; Culturel de la puissance; la Construction culturelle en milieu rural.

  7. Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m3) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m3) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Concentration of PBDEs at each site of the studied area. Highlights: ► High levels of PBDEs with BDE-209 domination were detected in air in northern China. ► PBDE concentrations in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in rural open fields. ► Proportions of BDE-209 in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ► PBDE concentrations were correlated to local population density and Gross Domestic Production. - In northern China, PBDEs in air in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in open fields.

  8. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar: Herbert Hoover Dike Project Area (Southeastern Florida, Lake Okeechobee Surrounding Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was collected by Merrick & Company from September through December of 2007 for the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM). The project area...

  9. 2007 Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) Lidar: Herbert Hoover Dike Project Area (Southeastern Florida, Lake Okeechobee Surrounding Area)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data was collected by Merrick & Company from September through December of 2007 for the Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM). The project area...

  10. Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Pedrini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 1970 respectively, were not checked. From the analysis of 201 records (sightings, signs of presence, animals found dead and skins, we found that the badger, weasel and stone marten selected middle-low altitude (since 1000 m a.s.l., the pine marten and stoat the middle-high altitude. The former species frequented mainly agricultural lands of bottom of the valley with built-up areas, the latter ones occurred mainly in forest habitat of secluded valleys (the pine marten, and in stony ground and alpine prairies (the stoat. The badger was the most diffuse species, the pine marten the least one. On a total of 46 grids of the study area, 32.6% presented three mustelid species, 17.4% five species. The badger and the stone marten were the species with the greatest overlapping range (61.7% of the grids, the weasel and the stoat with the smallest one (23.4% of the grids. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mustelidi nel Parco Adamello-Brenta e aree limitrofe (Trentino, Alpi centrali - L'indagine, condotta nel 1991-93, ha interessato un'area di 1085 km² e ha permesso di definire le mappe di distribuzione, secondo una griglia di 6,4x5,5 km desunta dalla Carta Topografica generale (scala 1:10000 edita dalla Provincia Autonoma di Trento, di cinque specie: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina e Martes martes. La presenza di Mustela putorius e di Lutra lutra, accertata fino intorno agli anni '60 e '70 rispettivamente, non è stata invece confermata. Dall'analisi di 201 segnalazioni (osservazioni dirette, segni di presenza, animali trovati morti o imbalsamati è stato rilevato che le fasce altitudinali medio-basse (fino a 1000 m sono selezionate da tasso, donnola e faina che frequentano soprattutto ambienti coltivati di fondovalle con presenza di centri abitati, quelle medio-alte da martora e ermellino che utilizzano rispettivamente comprensori forestali delle vallate interne e ambienti con presenza di versanti detritici, praterie alpine e malghe. La specie più diffusa è risultata il tasso, quella meno diffusa la martora. Il 32,6% delle 46 griglie, in cui è stata suddivisa l'area di studio, mostra la presenza di 3 specie, il 17,4% di 5 specie. I1 tasso e la faina sono risultate le specie con maggior sovrapposizione di areale di distribuzione (61,7% delle griglie, la donnola e l'ermellino quelle con minor sovrapposizione (23,4% delle griglie.

  11. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khathutshelo P. Mashige

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas.Aim: To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence theirdecisions.Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions.Results: Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate. Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66% or second practices (64.6% in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2% or second (79.4% practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areaswere financial concerns (81.2%, personal safety (80.1% and poor living conditions (75.3%, with a significantly higher number (p < 0.05 being from urban respondents for the latter twoissues only.Conclusion: Many students were not in favour of opening practices in rural areas, but were willing to work for the government or a non-governmental organisation after graduation. Efforts should be made to address financial incentives, safety and living conditions in the rural areas. The results of this study have implications for the future of availability and accessibility of eye care services to those living in the rural and remoteareas of the country.

  12. Electric distribution infrastructures for rural areas in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the thesis was to study the architecture (network topology, mode of distribution, operation of energy sources, etc) distribution networks possible and adapted to the problem of rural electrification. Chapter I sets the context of rural electrification by detailing first the challenges of rural electrification for sustainable economic development and energy resources of these countries and the various existing network architectures. Specifications for the study is finally defined. Chapter II describes the design method developed to compare the costs of different architectures and choose the most suitable. Chapter III shows a method of sizing systems Decentralized Rural Electrification including generators, batteries and windmills. Chapter IV describes the results of a reliability study was carried out on different solutions. Chapter V describes the work done to analyze the operation of a production center consists of a generator and a wind turbine. (author)

  13. Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana / School performance of rural area students in urban school

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Stella Maris Cortez, Bacha; Carla Castro Rezende Diniz, Brandão; Leandro, Sauer; Adriano Viana, Bednaski; Marcos Yuri, Camparoto.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato [...] Grosso do Sul (MS), sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural), turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno), tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual) e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / [...] MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of residence (urban/rural), period of study (day / night), type of school (municipal/state) and gender. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in the performances of the students from series 1 to 4, in none of the disciplines. From series 5 to 8 we found a slightly better performance in the students who lived in the urban area, measured by t-Student test. However, if upon jointly analyzing all the variable, none of them was preponderant in explaining the performance of the student, measured by multiple lineal regression. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were found in the school performance between students in the urban and rural area.

  14. Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana School performance of rural area students in urban school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Cortez Bacha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural, turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno, tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas.PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of residence (urban/rural, period of study (day / night, type of school (municipal/state and gender. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in the performances of the students from series 1 to 4, in none of the disciplines. From series 5 to 8 we found a slightly better performance in the students who lived in the urban area, measured by t-Student test. However, if upon jointly analyzing all the variable, none of them was preponderant in explaining the performance of the student, measured by multiple lineal regression. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were found in the school performance between students in the urban and rural area.

  15. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P 10, SO2, and NO2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM10, SO2 and NO2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM10, SO2, and NO2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  16. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps

  17. Variability of zooplankton communities at Condor seamount and surrounding areas, Azores (NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Vanda; Santos, Mariana; Menezes, Gui M.; Loureiro, Clara M.; Lambardi, Paolo; Martins, Ana

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are common topographic features around the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). Recently there has been increasing research effort devoted to the ecology of these ecosystems. In the Azores, the mesozooplankon is poorly studied, particularly in relation to these seafloor elevations. In this study, zooplankton communities in the Condor seamount area (Azores) were investigated during March, July and September 2010. Samples were taken during both day and night with a Bongo net of 200 µm mesh that towed obliquely within the first 100 m of the water column. Total abundance, biomass and chlorophyll a concentrations did not vary with sampling site or within the diel cycle but significant seasonal variation was observed. Moreover, zooplankton community composition showed the same strong seasonal pattern regardless of spatial or daily variability. Despite seasonal differences, the zooplankton community structure remained similar for the duration of this study. Seasonal variability better explained our results than mesoscale spatial variability. Spatial homogeneity is probably related with island proximity and local dynamics over Condor seamount. Zooplankton literature for the region is sparse, therefore a short review of the most important zooplankton studies from the Azores is also presented.

  18. Study of indoor radon and thoron progeny levels in surrounding areas of Nalbari, Assam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the growing understanding of the role of radon and its daughter products as major sources of radiation exposure, the importance of large number of estimation of radon concentration in various parts of the country is realized. Inhalation of radon, thoron and their decay products is the major source of the total radioactive dose received by the human population from natural radiation. The indoor radon and thoron progeny levels in Nalbari area of Assam are studied by using the LR-115 Type II Solid State Nuclear Tack Detector in Plastic Twin Chamber dosimeter. Radon and thoron progeny levels in different types of dwellings for one full calendar year are presented in this paper. For Assam Type (A.T.) houses, indoor radon progeny concentrations vary from 0.17 to 0.64 mWL with an annual geometric mean of 0.27 mWL and that for Reinforced Cement Concrete (R.C.C.) houses vary from 0.22 mWL to 0.60 mWL with the annual geometric mean of 0.37 mWL. The thoron progeny levels in A.T. houses also vary from 0.01 to of 0.05 mWL with an annual geometric mean of 0.02 mWL and that for R.C.C. houses vary from 0.02 to 0.08 mWL with the annual geometric mean of 0.04 mWL. (author)

  19. LO RURAL. UN CAMPO INACABADO THE RURAL AREA: AN UNFINISHED “FIELD”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly del Carmen Suárez Restrepo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El surgimiento de nuevas lecturas de la realidad social rural latinoamericana, e incluso europea, y los efectos de las políticas internacionales sobre qué producir, cuánto, cómo y dónde, han puesto en la agenda académica el debate entorno al significado y contenido de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En el centro de esta controversia está la superación o ruptura entre lo rural y lo agrario, dos términos otrora considerados como sinónimos. Trascender esta dicotomía reduccionista abre la posibilidad de repensar los caminos y las estrategias mediante las cuales las sociedades en general, en sus esfuerzos por autoproducirse crean condiciones de vida, proveen recursos necesarios y pertinentes y movilizan las capacidades y las libertades de los pobladores rurales. Este documento recoge los elementos más sobresalientes de la investigación “Repensando lo rural y el desarrollo rural” en la que se hizo una revisión de literatura sobre el tema y se buscó, mediante entrevistas semiestructuradas³, la participación de funcionarios institucionales, representantes gremiales y académicos. En términos generales se pretendía identificar los significados y los contenidos que se atribuyen a lo rural y al desarrollo rural. El texto se organiza en tres partes: En la primera parte, Reiteración o resignificación, se analizan los posibles avances y permanencias en los significados y contenidos de lo rural y del desarrollo rural. En la segunda, denominada Elementos constitutivos del desarrollo rural, se hace referencia a las dimensiones, los indicadores y los actores identificados mediante la información obtenida. En la tercera parte, se establece una relación entre el discurso y las prácticas de desarrollo en Colombia y sus implicaciones en el diseño de políticas públicas. Finalmente se concluye que el desarrollo rural ha tenido como trasfondo una orientación modernizadora de la sociedad rural en general y del sector agrario en particular.The emergence of new readings about the Latin American and European rural social reality and the effects of international policies on what to produce, how much, how and where, has placed a debate around the significance and contents of the rural and the rural development. The core of this controversy is the improvement or breaking between the rural and the agrarian, two terms that were before considered to be synonyms. Going beyond this reductive dichotomy opens the possibility of rethinking the ways and the strategies through which societies in general, in their efforts to self-produce, create conditions of life, supply the necessary resources and move the capacities and freedom of the rural workers. This document collects the most outstanding elements of the research “Rethinking the rural and the rural development” in which an extensive revision of literature about the topic was made. This was made also through semi-structured interviews, participation of institutional officers, academic and association representatives. In general, it was sought to identify the meanings of the contents attributed to the rural and the rural development. The text is organized in three sections: In the first section, Reiteration, possible advances and continuance in the meanings and contents of the rural and the rural development are analyzed. In second, called Constitutive elements of the rural development, reference to dimensions, indicators and identified actors is made through the information obtained. In the third, Implications in the design of public policies are articulation between discourse and development practices in the country is established. Finally, it is concluded that the rural development has had an undercurrent modern orientation in rural society in general and the agrarian sector in particular.

  20. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  1. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saud, T. [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi-110006 (India); Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi-110006 (India); Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P. [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Pathak, H. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  2. A Development of the dust deposition in the area surrounding the SMZ, a.s., Jelšava plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanèu¾ák Jozef

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The area of Jelšava – Lubeník ranks among the eight excessively polluted areas registered in Slovakia. The main cause of this situation is a hundred years of existence of the exploitation and processing of magnesite. The SMZ, a.s. Jelšava is currently the biggest Slovak producer of brick and steel magnesite-based clinkers. The technological procedures used to process the raw material represent the main source of solid polluting substances as well as the primary dustiness in the area surrounding the plant. The negative visual look of the surrounding country has its origin in the past, when a 25-times higher quantity of the currently produced solid emissions was released into the air in some years, while the current value of the pollution does not exceed 200 tons per year. The devastated, deforested and degrassed surfaces of the area surrounding the plant and roads became a significant source of secondary dustiness in the given area.Since 1994 ÚGt SAV Košice in co-operation with SMZ, a.s. Jelšava has been focusing on the monitoring of solid emissions in the form of dust deposition. 18 sampling points situated in the vicinity of the plant, mainly in surrounding villages and city Jelšava were originally built for the purpose of sampling the dust deposition. The samples were taken monthly , analysed by the gravimetric method and the samples of dust deposition was determined in g.m-2.(30 days-1. To analyse all samples, they were cumulated for a certain period and then the selected elements were analysed using the AAS method. The results of the dust deposition were averaged for each individual year of the period from 1996 to 1999 to make a better interpretation of the results. The results of the chemical analysis represent an average for a given period. The main component of the dust deposition, i.e. MgO is stated as an average value in individual years.The processed results from 1996 to 1999 show a decreasing trend in the total dust deposition in all localities, except for 1999, when a slight increase was observed in some localities. This increase observed in the most exposed sampling points in the vicinity of the main primary sources did not achieve the value recorded in 1996. In addition to the localities in the vicinity of the plant, the highest hygienic admissible dust deposition [12.5 g.m-2.(30 days-1] was sporadically exceeded on the places located in the populated zone of Jelšava, especially during summer dry seasons. The decrease observed in 1999 in the case of the most exposed places in the vicinity of the plant can be caused by an increase in the secondary dust deposition in the given area. The average yearly dust deposition in Jelšava, representing ca. 10 g.m-2.(30 days-1 was 2-3 times lower than the stated values of the dust deposition measured in the 80-ties. The MgO deposition follows the development in the total dust deposition. The average content of heavy metals in the dust deposition is relatively small and it increases proportionally with the distance from the main source confirming that SMZ, a.s. is not a big producer of these elements, the content of which has a decreasing trend probably due to a change in the fuel used in the plant. In spite of an increasing production, the plant implements measures to reduce a negative influence of the dust pollution on the surrounding area.

  3. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  4. Area-Based Partnerships in Rural Poland: The Post-Accession Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furmankiewicz, Marek; Thompson, Nicola; Zielinska, Marta

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the characteristics of area-based partnerships in rural Poland. It is based on the study of partnerships created after the accession to the European Union in 2004. Partnership structures have been rapidly adopted in rural Poland due to opportunities provided by the LEADER+ Pilot Programme. However, the research showed that…

  5. Alcohol and Drug Use in Rural Colonias and Adjacent Urban Areas of the Texas Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Richard T.; Wallisch, Lynn S.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Little is known about substance use and treatment utilization in rural communities of the United States/Mexico border. Purpose: To compare substance use and need and desire for treatment in rural colonias and urban areas of the border. Methods: Interviews were conducted in 2002-2003 with a random sample of adults living in the lower Rio…

  6. 76 FR 50540 - Pilot Program of Enhanced Contract Care Authority for Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Pilot Program of Enhanced Contract Care Authority for Veterans in Highly Rural Areas AGENCY... providers to provide health services to highly rural veterans. This program will assist veterans who...

  7. Into Another Kind of Country: The College Matriculation of Youth from Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Sarah Armstrong

    2010-01-01

    Youth from rural areas are consistently under-represented in 4-year college institutions. This is particularly true for those whose parents did not go to college. Historically, a high school degree was sufficient for employment in rural communities. However, as blue-collar jobs continue to disappear, lesser educated residents are increasingly…

  8. Population Migration in Rural Areas, January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

    This bibliography consists of 87 entries of materials related to population trends in rural and nonmetropolitan areas. This collection is the result of a computerized search of the AGRICOLA database. The bibliography covers topics of rural population change, migration and migrants, farm labor supplies and social conditions, and different patterns…

  9. 20 CFR 645.525 - What special consideration will be given to rural areas and cities with large concentrations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of poverty? 645.525 Section 645.525 Employees' Benefits... Welfare-To-Work Competitive Grants § 645.525 What special consideration will be given to rural areas and... rural areas and cities with large concentrations of residents living in poverty. (b) Grant...

  10. 78 FR 72753 - Notice of Funds Availability for Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... AFFAIRS Notice of Funds Availability for Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas... deadline for funds available under the Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas program... assist veterans in highly rural areas through innovative transportation services to travel to VA and...

  11. Built Environments and Active Living in Rural and Remote Areas: a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anush Yousefian; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Lenardson, Jennifer D; Hartley, David

    2015-12-01

    Rural children and adults are more likely to have obesity than their urban counterparts even after adjustment for individual-level behaviors, suggesting that rural environments may promote obesity. The rural built environment may be an important area of research that can help us understand rural-urban disparities in obesity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the rural built environment and active living literature, and to address key issues, gaps, and observations in the field. A literature review was conducted in spring 2015 to identify research published from 2000 to 2015. Our review suggests that limited active living built environments in rural communities and unique rural barriers to physical activity may contribute to a higher prevalence of obesity compared to urban populations. More empirical research is needed to build the evidence-base for the association between rural built environments, active living, and obesity. School- and community-based policies that expand active living opportunities in rural areas should also be closely examined. PMID:26364307

  12. Menarchial Age of Secondary School Girls in Urban and Rural Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaraoha CI

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The menarchial age of 859 secondary school girls consisting of 508 from urban and 351 from rural area of Rivers State, Nigeria were determined, using questionnaires and interview method. Data collation revealed that 69.2% (243 of the rural population were menstruating, while 70.1% (356 of the urban population were menstruating. Mean ages of menarche were 13.19±1.32 years and 14.22±1.47 years for urban and rural areas respectively .A statistically significant lower mean menarchial age was observed in urban area girls, compared to their rural counterparts. Girls from families of high socio-economic class has significantly lower mean menarchial age in both urban and rural area. The mean age of menarche was significantly higher in girls involved in vigorous sporting activity in rural areas compared to their non-sporting counterparts. Urban school girls attain menarche earlier than those in rural area. High socio-economic class and vigorous sporting activity can be predisposing factors to low and high age of menarche respectively. There is need for redefinition of high socio-economic class in Nigeria.

  13. CLIMACTERIC SYMPTOMS AMONG WOMEN IN A RURAL AREA IN KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Bindhu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Every woman who lives beyond 50 years goes through a period of transition from reproductive to non-reproductive stages of life. Meno pause is considered as a clinical marker of declining ovarian function. The common climacteric symptoms experienced by women during this period can be group into: vasomotor, somatic, psy chological and sexual complaints. The aim of the study was to compare the climacteric symptoms among rural women who attained menopause and those who did not attaine d menopause in the age group of 43-55 years. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cross-sectional study design was conducted in a r ural area in Kerala. Data were collected from 320 women by interviewing with the help of a structured questionnaire consisting of a socio-demo graphic data, and the Greene’s Climacteric Scale. The Statistical Package for the Social Scien ces software Version 16.0 was used for statistical analyses. Mann Whitney U test was used to compare the total score of climacteric symptoms and each sub-scale symptom scores (psycholo gical, somatic, and sexual scores among women who attained and not attained menopause. The X² test was applied to compare the proportion of the different grades of symptoms bet ween the different menopausal statuses. The level P < 0.05 was considered as the cut-off va lue for significance RESULTS: The total Greene’s climacteric scale score (p: 0.001, the psyc hological subscale scores (p: 0.007, the somatic subscale scores (p : 0.022 , the vasomotor subscale scores (p: 0.011 and the sexual subscale scores (p: 0.001 were significantly higher in women who attained menopause compared to those who did not. CONCLUSION: The climacteric symptoms vary significantly between women who attained menopause and women who d id not attained menopause

  14. International cooperation on wind energy for rural areas in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the recent wind energy activities in China is given. China has a long history in harnessing the wind; modern development started during the late seventies. The Chinese wind potential is mainly in the coastal regions (North East and South East) and in Inner Mongolia. The actual total installed wind power is estimated to be 15 MW. For low lift (within 2 meters), high volume applications, e.g. salt making in salt pans along the coast, of mechanical windmills coupled to screw pumps have been developed. In Inner Mongolia, small portable wind generators (50-200 MW) charging car batteries are supplying some 100,000 farmer and herdsman families with electricity for television and lighting. The average energy consumption is between 200 and 300 kWh per year and the corresponding kWh price 0.40 to 0.50 US$. Since 1988 the demand for small wind generators declined due to the lower wool prices on the world market, affecting the income of the herdsman, and due to the fact that the machines have to be marketed in remote, less accesible rural areas. Various demonstration projects have been set up, f.e. a decentralized energy system on Dachen Island, including a wind diesel hybrid system. On Kongdon Island a 60 kW wind turbine and a 60 kW diesel generator were installed. With several foreign wind turbine manufacturers cooperations have been set up for licensed production in China. Also wind farms have been installed. The largest Chinese prototype at the moment is a 32 meter diameter, 200 kW machine. Western organizations or manufacturers are involved in most of the cooperatives. For the next five years the focus is on development of a large 150 and 200 kW machine and a windmill coupled to a centrifugal pump for lifting heads between 2 and 5 meter. 1 fig., 3 refs

  15. The importance of social capital in rural development, networking and decision-making in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Wiesinger

    2009-01-01

    Rural decline is frequently explained in economic terms by unfavourable conditions and by missing resources or support. But this link is not entirely clear and does not apply in all regions. Some particularly remote rural regions with a very sparse population, a lack of policy support, poor economic performance and unfavourable climatic conditions prove more viable than some regions with more plentiful economic resources and support. The presentation will discuss the issue whether the concept...

  16. Assumption on the Reform of Social Security of Migrant Workers from Rural Areas from an Angle of Unified System in Urban and Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmin Chen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available China is making efforts to improve the social security for migrant workers from rural areas and that for farmers in rural areas. However, due to the strong mobility of migrant workers, the efforts are hard to coordinate. To establish a unified social security system for urban and rural areas is the most reasonable objective and can be put into practice at present. This system should cover a wide and comprehensive scope. In China, no matter whether city or countryside, every citizen should possess an only integrated account for social security. The account must move together with the citizen. The initial account of a migrant worker can be established in either city or countryside.

  17. Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Nørgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labor market settle in the countryside due to......Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older...

  18. The role of higher education in the process of integration and introduction of refugees in small municipalities in rural areas in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Sand, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will present a project carried out by Kirsti Kuusela, University of Karlstad, Sweden and Sigrun Sand, Hedmark University College, Norway in 2003 – 2006. The project was funded by the Interreg IIIA Sweden-Norway-program and focused on integration and the introduction of refugees in small municipalities in rural areas in Scandinavia. The paper is about how the project was undertaken, and represents an example of cooperation between higher education institutions and surrounding s...

  19. The importance of social capital in rural development, networking and decision-making in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Wiesinger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rural decline is frequently explained in economic terms by unfavourable conditions and by missing resources or support. But this link is not entirely clear and does not apply in all regions. Some particularly remote rural regions with a very sparse population, a lack of policy support, poor economic performance and unfavourable climatic conditions prove more viable than some regions with more plentiful economic resources and support. The presentation will discuss the issue whether the concept of social capital could lead to a better understanding of these patterns. The role of social capital will be demonstrated by means of a model connecting it with rural development, multifunctionality, local governance and environmental perception and national policies. The findings of several case studies within the EUROLAN project (Strengthening the Multifunctional Use of Land: Coping with marginalisation, suggest that social capital should be more recognized by policy makers as a key issue in the rural development process, hampering (when weak or supporting (when strong and well-rooted the implementation of rural development policies.La marginalisation rurale peut en grande partie s’expliquer par les conditions peu favorables et un manque de ressources, mais pas uniquement et pas dans toutes les régions. Certaines régions de faible densité, aux conditions économiques et climatiques peu favorables, et qui ne font pas l’objet de politiques locales d’envergure, s’avèrent plus viables que certaines régions bien plus aisées. Dans le présent article, nous nous demanderons si le capital social peut aider à combler ce fossé, et si tel est le cas, dans quelle mesure. Le rôle du capital social sera démontré en tant que vecteur d’un modèle le reliant avec le développement rural, la plurifonctionnalité, la gouvernance locale, la perception environnementale et les politiques nationales. Les résultats de certaines études de cas inclues dans le projet EUROLAN (Renforcement de l’usage multifonctionnel du Sol, prendre en charge la marginalisation laissent entendre que le capital social devrait être mieux pris en compte par les acteurs politiques comme une question clé dans le processus de développement rural, freinant (lorsqu’elles sont faibles ou encourageant (lorsqu’elles sont fortes et bien enracinées la mise en œuvre de politiques de développement rural.

  20. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  1. 77 FR 9905 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with...

  2. 77 FR 29320 - Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ELECTION ASSISTANCE COMMISSION Proposed Information Collection; Election Administration in Urban and Rural Areas; Comment Request AGENCY: U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC). ACTION: Notice. ] SUMMARY: On February 21, 2012,...

  3. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, Rural area resolution, Published in 2006, Mahaska County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2006. It is described as 'Rural area...

  4. Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ) Urban-Rural Population and Land Area Estimates, Version 2 data set consists of country-level estimates of urban population,...

  5. Appropriate training and retention of community doctors in rural areas: a case study from Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulibaly Seydou

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While attraction of doctors to rural settings is increasing in Mali, there is concern for their retention. An orientation course for young practicing rural doctors was set up in 2003 by a professional association and a NGO. The underlying assumption was that rurally relevant training would strengthen doctors' competences and self-confidence, improve job satisfaction, and consequently contribute to retention. Methods Programme evaluation distinguished trainees' opinions, competences and behaviour. Data were collected through participant observation, group discussions, satisfaction questionnaires, a monitoring tool of learning progress, and follow up visits. Retention was assessed for all 65 trainees between 2003 and 2007. Results and discussion The programme consisted of four classroom modules – clinical skills, community health, practice management and communication skills – and a practicum supervised by an experienced rural doctor. Out of the 65 trained doctors between 2003 and 2007, 55 were still engaged in rural practice end of 2007, suggesting high retention for the Malian context. Participants viewed the training as crucial to face technical and social problems related to rural practice. Discussing professional experience with senior rural doctors contributed to socialisation to novel professional roles. Mechanisms underlying training effects on retention include increased self confidence, self esteem as rural doctor, and sense of belonging to a professional group sharing a common professional identity. Retention can however not be attributed solely to the training intervention, as rural doctors benefit from other incentives and support mechanisms (follow up visits, continuing training, mentoring... affecting job satisfaction. Conclusion Training increasing self confidence and self esteem of rural practitioners may contribute to retention of skilled professionals in rural areas. While reorientations of curricula in training institutions are necessary, other types of professional support are needed. This experience suggests that professional associations dedicated to strengthening quality of care can contribute significantly to rural practitioners' morale.

  6. General Health in the Elderly and Younger Adults of Rural areas in Fars Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zare, Najaf; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Dehesh, Tania; Moradi, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are critical gaps in assessment and research on health among the elderly living in rural communities. The state of aging and health in rural areas provides a snapshot of our older adults’s need to necessary public health measures .The aim of this study was to determine the self-rated general health of adults residing in rural areas and compare the general health of the elderly with younger adults. Methods: In this population based study using multistage random sampling, 2259...

  7. Injuries in rural and urban areas of Agra district: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, M.; A Srivastava; Singh, B; SC Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Background: Injuries are becoming major public health problem worldwide and since India is also passing through a major socio-demographic, epidemiological and technological transition; injuries are coming up as an emerging health problem. Objectives: To find out prevalence of “Injuries”, causative mechanism, place of injury & distribution in rural & urban area of Agra district. Material & Methods: It is type of observational study in rural & urban area of Agra district. The ar...

  8. Water Pollution and its Effects on Human Health in Rural Areas of Faisalabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Farid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was envisaged to assess the water pollution and its effects on human health in rural areas of Faisalabad. The study was conducted in three villages of Faisalabad district using simple random method. 150 respondents were selected from three villages (i.e. 50 from each village. The data were collected from the rural areas through well structured interviewing schedule by using face to face survey method. The collected data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical techniques.

  9. Water Pollution and its Effects on Human Health in Rural Areas of Faisalabad

    OpenAIRE

    Samina Farid; Mehnaz Gul; Asma Usman; Khuram Iqbal

    2002-01-01

    The present study was envisaged to assess the water pollution and its effects on human health in rural areas of Faisalabad. The study was conducted in three villages of Faisalabad district using simple random method. 150 respondents were selected from three villages (i.e. 50 from each village). The data were collected from the rural areas through well structured interviewing schedule by using face to face survey method. The collected data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical techniq...

  10. Prevalence and Determinants of Metabolic Syndrome among Adults in a Rural Area of Northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yaling; Yan, Hong; Yang, Ruihai; Li, Qiang; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among adults in a rural area of Northwest China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 among adults aged 18 to 80 years in rural areas of Hanzhong, in Northwest China. Interview, physical and clinical examinations, and fasting blood glucose and lipid measurements were completed for 2990 adults. The definitions of MetS proposed by the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Edu...

  11. Can Skill Diversification Improve Welfare in Rural Areas? Evidence from Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Natalie; Watanabe, Makiko

    2012-01-01

    Income growth in rural areas is a considerable challenge to further poverty reduction and economic development. Using a survey of rural Bhutanese households, we investigate the impacts of a vocational skills training programme that was intended to diversify incomes outside agriculture. We find that the programme had limited positive impacts along various economic and psychosocial dimensions, but that it diversified household incomes into the basic construction skill areas that it provided. No...

  12. Research on the Identity Construction of the Disabled Elderly in Rural Areas of China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Chen

    2014-01-01

    The identity construction is a very important aspect among the problems of the disabled elderly in rural areas of China. Based on the method of case study and theoretical analysis, this research studies the contents and the process of the identity construction of the disabled elderly in rural areas. It suggests that the identity consists of three elements: personal identity, group identity and social identity, and the characteristics of which include the “high recognition on the disability”, ...

  13. Smart Specialisation and Innovation in Rural Areas. S3 Policy Brief Series No. 09/2014

    OpenAIRE

    ROSA PIRES Artur; PERTOLDI MARTINA; EDWARDS JOHN HUW; HEGYI FATIME BARBARA

    2014-01-01

    This Policy Brief has the twin aims of showing that Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (S3), despite their sectoral origins, provide a favourable and supportive framework for innovation in rural areas and, on the other hand, that there is a wide range of innovation activities in rural areas, often unmentioned in the innovation policy literature, which can strongly benefit from and reinforce the impact of the new generation of European Regional Policy. The paper dis...

  14. TOURISM AND PROTECTED AREAS: POLITICAL ECOLOGY OF THE RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIAN DANUBE DELTA

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru IORGA

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how tourism takes various shapes in a rural protected area from Romania (one of the typical, most vulnerable of the post-socialist period). Though tourism is advocated by Romanian officials and economists as a powerful tool, which provides economic and community development in rural, deindustrialized and protected areas, ethnographic examples presented in this paper show that ‘real tourism’, still regarded as a panacea, is far from fulfilling the locals’ needs and expe...

  15. Mathematics Anxiety and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Rural Area: A Correlational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Engin Karadag; Ishak Karadeniz

    2014-01-01

    Correlation between mathematics anxiety and attitude of children who are educated in rural areas were analyzed in this research. Research was premeditated as a correlational design because it was presumed that there was correlation between two main variables. The population of the study was consisted of secondary school students who were educated in a region called rural areas in the central district of Meram/Konya in the school year of 2012-2013. 726 students who were educated in five second...

  16. Hepatitis C in rural areas of Islamabad, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis is recognized as significant public health problem worldwide. There are one hundred and seventy five million Hepatitis C virus carriers around the world. Global prevalence ranges from 0.1 to 5 % with an average of 3 %. There are very few studies done at national and international levels to find the prevalence of HCV in our population. It is a Picorna virus that may invade the body usually through, intra venous devices and contaminated instruments. It may remain silent for years or cause acute hepatitis to chronic liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma is well known complication. Most of the epidemiological studies have so far been carried out on the population with high socio-economic status attending tertiary care hospitals in the cities that have good sterilization techniques. Whereas rural dispensaries are the drainage zones for HCV due to unqualified and untrained technical staff and lack of sterilization procedures. We, therefore, selected some villages (Chirah, Tumair, Thanda pani and Alipur) around Islamabad to assess the prevalence of HCV and tried to compare different epidemiological factors with urban areas in this randomized cross-sectional study conducted from May to August 2009. Two hundred asymptomatic volunteers were randomly selected from patients attending local dispensaries in this study zone. The subjects were given a detailed questionnaire to study and fill accordingly. Details of study were explained to them. Patients included in the study were between 20-50 years of age, having gastrointestinal symptoms. Excluded subjects were pregnant women, patients on ant-viral therapy and known cases of HCV. 5 cc blood samples were taken and transported in ice containers to PINSTECH Complex Hospital laboratory within two hours for chromatographic analysis. We observed that 16.5% of the individuals were infected with HCV. Invasive procedures like D and C by dais and ear piercing were the major transmitting factors in females, whereas I/V devices, dental treatments and barber cutting in males was the dominant risk factors. The use of non disposable glass syringes for injection was also an important mode of transmission. (author)

  17. Aerial radiological survey of the Feed Materials Production Center and surrounding area, Fernald, Ohio. Date of survey: April 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Feed Materials Production Center, located near Fernald, Ohio, during the period April 24 to 27, 1985. The survey covered a 70-square-kilometer (27-square-mile) area centered on the plant. The highest exposure rates, in excess of 0.35 milliroentgens per hour (mR/h), were inferred from the data measured directly over the plant. This radiation was due to the presence of nuclides which were consistent with normal plant operations. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates, varying from 6 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), were due to naturally-occurring potassium, uranium, thorium, and daughter products. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the inferred aerial results. Soil sample results showed several areas just outside the site boundary with slightly elevated amounts of U-238. The levels, however, were well below the detection limit of the aerial system. The only off-site area that showed apparent above background activity in the aerial data was directly west of the storage silos. The symmetric shape of the contours, however, suggests that these elevated levels are due to ''shine'' from material stored on-site in the silos and not to actual off-site contamination. Detailed comparison of the 1985 aerial survey data with a previous survey conducted in 1976 showed no significant change in any area outside the plant boundary. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

  19. Factor analysis of rock, soil and water geochemical data from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area, Salem, southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayanan, M.; Eswaramoorthi, S.; Subramanian, S.; Periakali, P.

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical analytical data of 15 representative rock samples, 34 soil samples and 55 groundwater samples collected from Salem magnesite mines and surrounding area in Salem, southern India, were subjected to R-mode factor analysis. A maximum of three factors account for 93.8 % variance in rock data, six factors for 84 % variance in soil data, five factors for 71.2 % in groundwater data during summer and six factors for 73.7 % during winter. Total dissolved solids are predominantly contributed by Mg, Na, Cl and SO4 ions in both seasons and are derived from the country rock and mining waste by dissolution of minerals like magnesite, gypsum, halite. The results also show that groundwater is enriched in considerable amount of minor and trace elements (Fe, Mn, Ni, Cr and Co). Nickel, chromium and cobalt in groundwater and soil are derived from leaching of huge mine dumps deposited by selective magnesite mining activity. The factor analysis on trivalent, hexavalent and total Cr in groundwater indicates that most of the Cr in summer is trivalent and in winter hexavalent. The gradational decrease in topographical elevation from northern mine area to the southern residential area, combined regional hydrogeological factors and distribution of ultramafic rocks in the northern part of the study area indicate that these toxic trace elements in water were derived from mine dumps.

  20. ENTERTAINMENT SERVICES IN RURAL AREAS – PART OF TOURISM ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisie Marian TURCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to highlight the niche forms of tourism (active tourism and ecotourism, showing similarities and differences between them. However it argues the need to introduce the occupation of rural tourism entertainer, showing the main tasks incumbent upon it to organize leisure tourists. The research was conducted by studying the latest articles in the field and by consulting specific websites.

  1. Treating Swallowing Disorders in Rural Areas: Preservice Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Dennis M.; Werner, Jeffrey; Price, Kari; Williams, Diane

    2000-01-01

    A West Virginia preservice program prepares professionals in a variety of fields to work with rural children with swallowing disorders. Program features include graduate assistantships, interdisciplinary academic coursework, a practicum in a swallowing disorders clinic under supervision of a faculty mentor, and a technology project related to…

  2. Draft report of energetic sector in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work about the main line of action identify at national level to improve the rural energy development, list of the energy sector, current situation of the energy and actions and its promotion.Suggestion of improvements in the structures and functions of the energy sector

  3. Age, Trust, and Perceived Safety from Crime in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Robert E.; Donnermeyer, Joseph F.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the relationship of age and trust to perceived safety from crime among 891 rural residents from a statewide victim study. Trust was found to be a more important predictor of perceived safety than age, isolation, and income. Age had a direct, independent effect on perceived safety. (Author/NRB)

  4. Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajah LO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. Keywords: prevalence, perception, domestic violence, rural, urban 

  5. An aerial radiological survey of Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho and surrounding area, June--July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three aerial radiological surveys were conducted during the period 16 June through 15 July 1986 over the towns of Pocatello, Soda Springs, and Fort Hall, Idaho and the surrounding areas. The surveys were performed for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) by the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), utilizing the Aerial Measuring System (AMS). This work was completed in cooperation with a study by the EPA to conduct a dose assessment of human radiation exposure for industrial sources in Pocatello and Soda Springs, Idaho. The aerial surveys were performed to document the natural terrestrial radiological environment of the three localities and to map the spatial extent and degree of contamination due to phosphate milling operations. The results of these surveys will be used for planning ground-based measurements in addition to being incorporated into the dose assessment document. 4 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  7. The contribution of agriculture to rural development in France. What role for public action in supporting joint production of public goods required for the development of rural areas?

    OpenAIRE

    Vollet, D.

    2005-01-01

    Using selected case studies, representing the full diversity of French rural areas, this document indicates the degree to which agricultural and agri-food activities contribute to the development of rural areas, essentially in the environmental, but also in the social fields. More precisely, using regional-economy models, estimations of direct and indirect jobs created by rural activities (and of the upstream and downstream linkages) show the great diversity of the basic activities in French...

  8. Research on Rural Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Process of Urban-Rural Integration in the Economically-Developed Area in China Based on the Improved STIRPAT Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hongjun Dai; Tao Sun; Kun Zhang; Wen Guo

    2015-01-01

    The process of urban-rural integration has led to severe ecological environmental pollution in rural areas of China, particularly in the economically-developed areas. This is an urgent issue to be solved. We select Jiangsu Province as a case study. From the perspective of the population, economic scale, energy consumption and financial support, we perform an empirical study of rural non-point source pollution problems in the process of urbanization based on the improved STIRPAT model. We appl...

  9. A Synthesis: Industrialization of Rural Areas - Location and Growth of Manufacturing Firms in Sub-Metropolitan Areas. Rural Development Series No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eldon D.; And Others

    Research literature bearing on factors related to industrialization in rural areas is reviewed in order to identify information that might be useful in improving cost-effectiveness of public programs at local, state, and national levels as well as of private action taken by voluntary organizations in an effort to increase manufacturing employment…

  10. Mathematics Anxiety and Attitudes of Secondary School Students in Rural Area: A Correlational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Karadağ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between mathematics anxiety and attitude of children who are educated in rural areas were analyzed in this research. Research was premeditated as a correlational design because it was presumed that there was correlation between two main variables. The population of the study was consisted of secondary school students who were educated in a region called rural areas in the central district of Meram/Konya in the school year of 2012-2013. 726 students who were educated in five secondary schools comprised of research sample which was designated as stratified sampling method according to educational regions. Research data were collected by the Mathematics Anxiety Scale, and Mathematics Attitude Scale. Correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to examine data. Findings show that correlation between anxiety and attitude of secondary school students from rural area is in negative direction.Key Words:    Rural education, mathematics attitude, mathematics anxiety

  11. Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

  12. Difficulties and Countermeasures of Rural Human Resources Development in Minority Areas - A Case Study of Xinjiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the development status of human resources in rural Xinjiang of China, analyze its obstacles and difficulties, and finally put forward related countermeasures for the rural human resources development in minority areas.

  13. Geological mapping and fault identification in nuclear power plant site candidate at Ketapang area and its surroundings, Madura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of economical study about demand of water supply and electric in Madura Island concludes that in 2016 Madura Island will need nuclear desalination plant to process sea water becomes fresh water. In order to support the installation of nuclear desalination plant, it is required site free from active fault, because active fault is mainly rejection factor criteria on site selection process. Aim of the research is to get geological information and identify of active fault in the site candidate of nuclear desalination plant at Ketapang area and its surrounding by interpretation of aerial photograph and land sat imagery, geological and structure geological mapping as well as trenching. The lithology of Ketapang (Md.01) and Sokobana (Md.02) site candidate consists of reef and chalky limestone forming undulating hills morphology. Structurally, research area forms a monocline with East-West trending axis, plunging 10° to East, the direction of strike is West-East, dip 10° - 30° to North. Geological structure analysis show that research area is free from active fault. (author)

  14. Injury morbidity in an urban and a rural area in Tanzania: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setel Philip

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are becoming a major health problem in developing countries. Few population based studies have been carried out in African countries. We examined the pattern of nonfatal injuries and associated risk factors in an urban and rural setting of Tanzania. Methods A population-based household survey was conducted in 2002. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. A total of 8,188 urban and 7,035 rural residents of all ages participated in the survey. All injuries reported among all household members in the year preceding the interview and resulting in one or more days of restricted activity were included in the analyis. Results A total of 206 (2.5% and 303 (4.3% persons reported to have been injured in the urban and rural area respectively. Although the overall incidence was higher in the rural area, the incidence of major injuries (≥ 30 disability days was similar in both areas. Males were at a higher risk of having an injury than females. Rural residents were more likely to experience injuries due to falls (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.3 and cuts (OR = 4.3; 95% CI = 3.0 – 6.2 but had a lower risk of transport injuries. The most common causes of injury in the urban area were transport injuries and falls. In the rural area, cuts and stabs, of which two thirds were related to agriculture, formed the most common cause. Age was an important risk factor for certain types of injuries. Poverty levels were not significantly associated with experiencing a nonfatal injury. Conclusion The patterns of injury differ in urban and rural areas partly as a reflection of livelihoods and infrastructure. Rural residents are at a higher overall injury risk than urban residents. This may be important in the development of injury prevention strategies.

  15. Pubertad en adolescentes de áreas rurales y urbanas Puberty in adolescent of rural and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Caridad Osorio Mora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los factores genéticos determinan un crecimiento potencial, pero el medio ambiente, inhibe o acelera su expresión. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento según procedencia urbana o rural, de variables relacionadas con el desarrollo puberal: telarquia, pubarquia, menarquia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional en adolescentes urbanas y rurales con edades entre 12 a 15 años. En los municipios Urbano Noris, Cacocum y la zona urbana de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido de enero 2009 a enero 2010; previo consentimiento informado y en ambiente acogedor se les realizó encuesta en modelo semiestructurado. Se creó una base de datos con su posterior procesamiento estadístico descriptivos como: análisis porcentual, desviación estándar, media aritmética y t de Student, cálculos necesarios para obtener los resultados. Resultados: en las adolescentes de procedencia rural la telarquia aparece a los 11,36 años y en la urbana a los 10,36 años. La pubarquia se manifestó a los 11,18 y 10,36 años en el área rural y urbana respectivamente. La menarquia a los 12,4 y 11,14 años, en el área rural y urbana, o sea la pubertad aparece un año antes en el área urbana. Conclusión: resultó significativa la diferencia de la edad media en el área urbana y el inicio de la pubertad.Introduction: the genetic factors determine a potential growth, but the environment inhibits and to speed up its expression. Objective: to determine the behavior according the urban or rural origin of the variables related to the pubertal development: telarche, pubarche and menarche. Methods: a correlation and descriptive study was conducted in urban and rural adolescents from the Holguín province from January, 2009 to January, 2010 subject to informed consent and in suitable environment they were polled in a semistructured form. A database was created with its latter statistic descriptive processing including: percentage analysis, standard deviation (SD, arithmetic mean and t-Student test; estimation necessary to obtain the results. Results: in adolescents from rural the telarche appears at the 11,36 years old and in the urban ones at 10,36 years old. The pubarche was manifested at 11,18 and 10,36 years old in the rural and urban area, respectively. The menarche appears at 12,4 and 11,14 years old in the rural and urban areas, that is, the puberty appears a year before in the urban area. Conclusion: it was significant the difference in mean age in the urban area and the onset of puberty.

  16. Epidemiological Characteristics of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Rural and Urban Endemic Areas of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim Márcia N

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the epidemiological profile and socioeconomic factors associated to the infection by Schistosoma mansoni in a rural and an urban endemic area a cross-sectional study was performed in Água Branca de Minas (rural area and Bela Fama (urban area, both situated in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two hundred and eighty eight individuals were surveyed in the rural area and 787 in the urban area. Water contact and socioeconomic questionnaires were used to identify risk factors for the infection. The prevalences of 38.8% and 9.7% and the geometric mean of eggs per gram of faeces of 117.8 and 62.3 were found in the rural and urban areas, respectively. By multivariate statistical analysis age groups over nine years old and previous specific treatment were associated with the infection in rural area. In urban area age over nine years old, low quality housing, weekly fishing and swimming were associated after adjustment by logistic regression

  17. Financing and disseminating small energy systems in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The viability of small energy systems, primarily photovoltaic systems, is discussed as an alternative for rural electrification via traditional grid extension. A dissemination model that incorporates financing to allow access to a much larger population of users and technology support (e.g. training for sales and service and small business development) is described. The experience of two successful programs is presented to illustrate the keys to effective program development and implementation. (author)

  18. Screening impacts of EU policies on rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, B.; Laplana, R; Kopeva, D.; Baqueiro, O.; Hautdidier, B.; Raley, M.

    2011-01-01

    The report on ―Screening impacts of EU policies on rural areas‖ (PRIMA Deliverable 6.1.) discusses the title topic in the context of the different contex-tual and methodological aspects taken into account in PRIMA with special emphasis on the screening of policies impacts. The report starts with the definition of the terms of screening and impact assessment for EU applica-tions. Several screening approaches are differentiated and the screening re-quirements are named for the scree...

  19. Rural flour mills. farmer promotion tool m the Sahel area

    OpenAIRE

    Audroing, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Grameen Bank is a specialized financial institution in Bangladesh that was established to provide credit to the rural poor for the purpose of improving their economic conditions with the hypothesis that if the poor are supplied with working capital they can generate productive self-employment without external assistance. Loans from the Grameen Bank are used primarily for undertaking noncrop activities. The loan repayment performance is excellent. Only 0.5 percent of loans to 975 borrowers...

  20. Child labor and school decisions in urban and rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire

    2002-01-01

    "Child labor is widespread in developing countries, but its causes are debatable. Poverty is considered the primary reason, but many theoretical and empirical analyses show that other factors, such as lack of access to credit, poor school quality, and labor market opportunities play equal or even greater roles in the decision to have children work. This study surveys the existing literature and, taking into account urban-rural divides, aims to shed light on the debate with empirical evidence ...

  1. Information and Communication Technologies for Regional Development in the Czech Republic – Broadband Connectivity in Rural Areas

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    J. Van?k

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces chosen results of an ICT development survey in the regions of the Czech Republic. The survey was primarily focused on broadband connectivity and its adoption by agricultural enterprises operating in rural areas. The survey was conducted in the context of both the EU strategy "Digital Agenda for Europe" and the national program document "National Policy in Electronic Communications - Digital Czech Republic". It stems from the enquiries that the situation is not – in spite of a certain improvement – satisfactory and the digital divide remains highly topical in rural areas of the Czech Republic. Broadband connectivity reaches practically 100% in urban areas and more than 85% in suburban areas whereas the rural areas show only about 75% availability. In many parts of the Czech Republic, a high quality Internet connection is quite questionable and sometimes even unavailable until present.

  2. An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background

  3. Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyan Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Airborne dust is a major environmental hazard in Asia. Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 10 km and higher. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in North India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar.

  4. Airborne dust distributions over the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas derived from the first year of CALIPSO lidar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Using an analysis of the first full year of CALIPSO lidar measurements, this paper derives unprecedented, altitude-resolved seasonal distributions of desert dust transported over the Tibetan Plateau (TP and the surrounding areas. The CALIPSO lidar observations include numerous large dust plumes over the northern slope and eastern part of the TP, with the largest number of dust events occurring in the spring of 2007, and some layers being lofted to altitudes of 11–12 km. Generation of the Tibetan airborne dusts appears to be largely associated with source regions to the north and on the eastern part of the plateau. Examination of the CALIPSO time history reveals an "airborne dust corridor" due to the eastward transport of dusts originating primarily in these source areas. This corridor extends from west to east and shows a seasonality largely modulated by the TP through its dynamical and thermal forcing on the atmospheric flows. On the southern side, desert dust particles originate predominately in Northwest India and Pakistan. The dust transport occurs primarily in dry seasons around the TP western and southern slopes and dust particles become mixed with local polluted aerosols. No significant amount of dust appears to be transported over the Himalayas. Extensive forward trajectory simulations are also conducted to confirm the dust transport pattern from the nearby sources observed by the CALIPSO lidar. Comparisons with the OMI and MODIS measurements show the unique capability of the CALIPSO lidar to provide unambiguous, altitude-resolved dust measurements.

  5. An aerial radiological survey of the River Bend Station and surrounding area, St. Francisville, Louisiana: Date of survey: March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period 19 through 31 March 1987 over a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area surrounding the River Bend Station located near St. Francisville, Louisiana. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) with line spacings of 152 meters (500 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 8 to 10 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) at 1 meter above the ground. The levels over the nuclear power reactor were above background. A machine-aided search of the data for man-made sources of radiation indicated the presence of a man-made source of radiation to the west of the River Bend Station. This source proved to be a 70-curie Co-60 source belonging to the Gulf States Utilities coal-fired electric power plant. Spectra of the River Bend reactor did not show the presence of unexpected radioisotopes. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data. 7 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  6. An exploration of revitalization strategies for rural areas : the case of the Northern Free State / Daniel Francois Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Daniel Francois

    2013-01-01

    Rural areas, globally, are characterized as poor regions, with two-thirds of the world’s poor people residing in rural areas. In South Africa, 70 percent of the poor population or 3.6 million households, live in rural areas. In the last three State of the Nation Addresses (SONA) in South Africa by President Zuma since 2011, rural development has been placed high on government’s developmental agenda. The formulation of a comprehensive rural development policy, with coordinated implementation b...

  7. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF RURAL AREAS IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICATION OF LEADER PROGRAM IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural development policy is an important component of the Common Agricultural Policy. LEADER is an innovative approach to rural development policy in the European Union to improve the quality of life in rural areas. LEADER is a very effective way to support "smart" and to increase "sustainable" and "inclusive" rural areas, encouraging rural territories to explore new ways to become competitive, to capitalize at maximum their assets and overcome difficulties encountered, encouraging the socio-economic factors to collaborate in order to produce quality goods and services in their local area

  8. Built heritage-making and socioeconomic renewal in declining rural areas: evidence from Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luís

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the connections between built heritage-making and socioeconomic renewal in declining rural areas. Drawing on fieldwork in twelve rural villages in eastern Portugal, it sheds light on the outcomes of a State-led programme, the objectives of which were to renovate the historic built fabric and generate tourism revenue for a region with declining population levels. Overall, the programme was successful in terms of preservation / conservation of monuments and the built fab...

  9. Domestic use of biomass fuel in the rural Meghna floodplain areas of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Akther S; Miah MD; Koike M

    2010-01-01

    Rural households in the developing countries constitute the largest share of the biomass fuel consumption. It is also a major source of energy in the low income country. However, this energy consumption pattern varies from region to region. Different case studies on the biomass fuel consumption will certainly contribute to the understanding on the energy uses of a nation. The present study was conducted in the rural areas of the Meghna floodplain zone in Bangladesh, with a total of 80 sampled...

  10. Prevalence of Obesity among College Students in Rural Area of Bangalore

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay T Varadappa, Prashanth Kumar S Prakash, Gangaboraiah, Ramesh Masthi N Raju, Lakshmeesha Y Subbanna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing trend of obesity among adolescents is a worldwide phenomenon. There is a scarcity of research on obesity in the later part of adolescence from rural part of India. Objective: To find out the prevalence and factors associated with obesity among college students studying 11th& 12th standard between 15 – 19 years of age. Methods: A cross sectional study was undertaken by involving all the colleges located within the rural field practice area of Kempegowda Inst...

  11. Appraisal of the housing, renewal and sustainability needs of rural areas of Gateshead

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Gill; Dodds, Lyn; Affleck, Arthur; Woodford, Graham; Jane, Alison; Din, Freda

    2006-01-01

    Gateshead Council commissioned Sustainable Cities Research Institute (SCRI) and Banks of Wear Community Projects Ltd (BOW) to carry out a housing, renewal and sustainability appraisal of rural areas of Gateshead Borough between May and August 2006. The work involved: A desk-based review of relevant strategies and documents. A door-to-door survey of 2,342 households in Gateshead’s six rural wards (Birtley; Lamesley; Ryton, Crookhill and Stella; Crawcrook and Greenside; Chopwel...

  12. The Contribution of Organic Livestock to Sustainable Rural Development in Sensitive Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano, AJ; Gaspar, P.; Mesias, FJ; Escribano, M.

    2015-01-01

    Organic production may contribute positively to rural development. However, there is a gap of knowledge with regard to the livestock sector that the present work is aimed at filling by means of a multidisciplinary and participatory approach. The results suggest that ‘fully organic’ holdings (organic farms that sell products as organic) have the highest potential to contribute to the rural development in the area under study. Nevertheless, its implementation requires higher levels of education...

  13. Towards an interpretation of economic inequality in rural areas: a conceptual and empirical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cristiano Perugini; Gaetano Martino

    2007-01-01

    Towards an Interpretation of Economic Inequality in Rural Areas: a Conceptual and Empirical Approach (by Gaetano Martino and Cristiano Perugini) - ABSTRACT: Department of Economic Sciences and Rural Appraisal, University of Perugia 1 Department of Economics, Finance and Statistics, University of Perugia 2 (Paper first received, April 2005; in final form, April 2006) Abstract Economic inequality among European regions has been widely investigated, and a large number of empirical results have e...

  14. Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in rural area of Amravati District of Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod R. Wasnik; Ajay K. Jawarkar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is responsible for 57% of stroke deaths and 24% of coronary heart disease deaths in India. Cardiovascular disease will be the largest cause of death and disability in India by 2020. Hypertension is emerging as a major health problem. The prevalence of hypertension has increased in rural people. The objectives were to find the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in rural area of Amravati District and to study association between various factors and hypertens...

  15. Delivering Job Search Services for Unemployed People in Rural Areas: the Role of ICT

    OpenAIRE

    McQuaid, Ronald William; Lindsay, Colin

    2003-01-01

    The geographical remoteness of many rural communities from major centres of economic activity clearly affects the availability of public services, which tend to be concentrated in highly populated areas of industrial development. The potential benefits accruing from the use of remote, ICT-based services are therefore particularly apparent in more isolated rural communities, which are often characterised by weak physical service infrastructures. As a result, policy makers are increasingly turn...

  16. Poverty and Inequality Maps for Rural Vietnam : An Application of Small Area Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Cuong, Nguyen Viet; Truong, Tran Ngoc; Van der Weide, Roy

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to update the small area estimates of poverty and inequality for rural Vietnam. The new estimates of province and district level poverty for the year 2006, when combined with estimates available for 1999, allow for examination of how poverty has changed in rural Vietnam over the past seven years. The analysis finds that all provinces across the country experie...

  17. Quality of life in urban-classified and rural-classified English local authority areas

    OpenAIRE

    Josep M. Campanera; Paul Higgins

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of the Audit Commission’s local quality-of-life indicators dataset to compare reported outcomes amongst 208 urban-classified and 144 rural-classified English local authority areas. We contextualise the demarcation of the urban and rural by reference to the transformational politics of the previous Labour government and its establishment of the sustainable communities initiative, whose controversial ‘place-based’ revitalisation essence continues t...

  18. The devil is in the detail: Prevention of diabetic foot ulceration in rural area is possible

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Mou Lee; Chang-Cheng Chang; Chien-Ming Chen; Li-Ju Lai; Chyong-Fang Chang; Mei-Yen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Foot self-care capability is an important factor in diabetic foot ulceration, especially in disadvantaged rural areas. Aim: To explore the causes of foot ulceration and practice foot self-care behaviors before and after diabetic foot ulceration. Method: A descriptive, retrospective design was conducted in a rural hospital in southern Taiwan. Results: A total of 49 participants with diabetic foot ulcers participated in this study. More than half were male (63.3%), still working in...

  19. ACTIVE MEASURES AS PART OF DIALOGUE MARKETING PROMOTING THE USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    KLEMENTSCHITZ, Roman; Oliver ROIDER

    2015-01-01

    The SmartMove project is working to advance innovative marketing and mobility solutions in eight rural and peripheral European regions and is co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union. Through tailor-made strategies, it aims to provide information and encourage people to use public transport in their region. Sparsely populated rural areas in Europe are facing tremendous social changes due to shrinking and ageing populations. Because of the scattered settlement...

  20. Survey of Bacteriological Quality of the Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Saqqez City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Golmohamadi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Safe drinking water providing is one of the main purposes in the community. Development and improvement of community is related to the public health. In this study !we studied the bacteriological quality of 116 villages under coverage of the water and wastewater companies in rural areas of Saqqez in.1386"nMaterial and Methods:Drinking water of these rural areas have provided of deep, semi-depth- wells and spring water sources. Because in numerous rural areas both sources of drinking water and in some of them different sources of drinking water were used (old and new storage water source, in general, 359 samples were collected and transferred to the laboratory for testing to evaluate its quality. We also used linear Regression statistical analysis for collected data."nResults:results show that residual chlorine in drinking water in 33.88 percent of rural areas population were in range 0.2-1 mg/l. For 98.3 percent of the seqqez rural population, the turbidity was lower than the maximum permissible levels of drinking water standards of Iran (5 NTU. There was no any E.coli contamination in 88 percent of drinking water in saqqez rural areas."nConclusion:Based on WHO guidelines concerning the microbial quality of water published in 2006! the average indicator for lack of E.coli in water of rural areas of seqqez was 88 percent and water is safe or good for drinking.

  1. Quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Jadranka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The number of elderly people in the world is growing, in Serbia as well. Serbia is already among the top ten countries with the oldest population, it is the fact. Aging influences the quality of life in different ways. The aim of this study was to assess the health-related quality of life of the elderly in urban and rural areas in Serbia. Methods. The study included 100 elderly people aged 65 years and above in urban and rural areas in Serbia. The next questionnaires were used: a sociodemographic questionnaire and a Serbian version of standardized European Euro-QoL questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L, as a basic index for the assessment and description of the quality of life. Results. In the structure of the respondents, according to the achieved social contacts (p = 0.012, the life of those with family members (p = 0.009, and health status (p = 0.000, in relation to the place of residence there was a statistically significant difference. There was a significant difference (p = 0.040, predominantly poor score for anxiety/depression within the rural population. The average value of quality of life in urban and rural areas was not statistically significant (p = 0.720. For those living in rural areas there was a statistically significant positive correlation between anxiety/depression and age, wealth status, marital status, living with family members and achieving social contacts, while a negative correlation was observed between anxiety/depression and education. Conclusion. On the basis of the data of our study, we can say that the presence of anxiety/depression among older people is greater in rural than in urban areas. The results of this study show that the perception of anxiety/depression among older in rural areas is bigger with the age and poverty increasing, the loss of a spouse, life without family members, lack of achievement of social contacts and lower education.

  2. [Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae) in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Carmen; Valerio, Idalia; Blanco, Kinndle; Chinchilla, Misael

    2012-06-01

    As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or disseminators of infectious diseases (including parasites), coyotes (Canis latrans) may also serve as indicators of ecological health. In Costa Rica, little information exists on coyote parasites, making research necessary to identify potential zoonotic interactions. For this reason, a survey of the coyote parasites was performed in a mixed area of protected woodland and agricultural land, surrounding Irazú Volcano National Park (IVNP) in Cartago, Costa Rica. Over a one-year period, 209 fecal samples were collected directly from the ground. Collection took place on a monthly basis in a trail sectioned into three sub-areas named Irazú (closest to the volcano), potato fields (where potatoes were cultivated), and Prusia (a protected sector of IVNP). Sectioning the trail allowed separate collection and analysis of the samples, where 99 were obtained from Irazú, 11 from potato fields and 99 from Prusia. Using direct examination and mechanical concentration 36.84% positive samples containing at least one helminth were found. The presence of parasites was similar for both woodland areas (33.3% in Prusia and 37.4% in Irazú), but differed from the 63.6% observed in the potato fields. Hookworm parasites (probably Ancylostoma caninum), threadworms (possibly Strongyloides sp.), Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. and Taenia pisiformis were identified, as well as Hymenolepis diminuta, possible spurious parasite resulting from the ingestion of rodents by coyotes. Seasonal details are discussed, concluding that wet and dry seasons affect presence of parasites. Some remarks are made on the importance of these first findings for Costa Rica, especially considering the systematic way in which the collection of samples was carried out. PMID:23894947

  3. Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Oun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the waterborne disease outbreaks observed in North America are associated with rural drinking water systems. The majority of the reported waterborne outbreaks are related to microbial agents (parasites, bacteria and viruses. Rural areas are characterized by high livestock density and lack of advanced treatment systems for animal and human waste, and wastewater. Animal waste from livestock production facilities is often applied to land without prior treatment. Biosolids (treated municipal wastewater sludge from large wastewater facilities in urban areas are often transported and applied to land in rural areas. This situation introduces a potential for risk of human exposure to waterborne contaminants such as human and zoonotic pathogens originating from manure, biosolids, and leaking septic systems. This paper focuses on waterborne outbreaks and sources of microbial pollution in rural areas in the US, characterization of the microbial load of biosolids and manure, association of biosolid and manure application with microbial contamination of surface and groundwater, risk assessment and best management practice for biosolids and manure application to protect water quality. Gaps in knowledge are identified, and recommendations to improve the water quality in the rural areas are discussed.

  4. Do women in rural areas of Serbia rarely apply preventive measures against cervical cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anti? Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The incidence of cervical cancer in Central Serbia has the higher rate as compared with that in other European countries. Considering mortality rate for cervical cancer, the standardized rate in Serbia is 10.1 per 10,000 females, which is the second highest one after that in Romania with 13.0. The aim of this study was to examine application of preventive measures for cervical cancer in women both from rural and urban areas in Serbia and if they are associated with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Methods. We analyzed secondary data of the 2006 National Health Survey of the population of Serbia focused on characteristics of adult females aged 25 to 65 years (5.314 in total taking into consideration that programme of the organized screening will include female population aged over 25 years. Results. Respondents from rural areas have gynecological examination less than once a year in comparison with those from urban areas (OR = 0.60, 95% Cl 0.54-0.68. Less women from rural areas did Pap test during the last 12 months in comparison with respondents from urban areas (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.48- 0.64. Respondents from urban areas less often do the Pap test on doctor's advice in comparison with those from rural one (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.42-0.62. Conclusion. This study shows that women in rural areas rarely implement preventive gynecological measures againt cervical cancer in comparison with those in urban areas. Implementation of preventive measures among rural women is conditioned by lower levels of education and lower socioeconomic status. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025

  5. The “LEADER Approach” - New Development Opportunity for Rural Areas in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Cunder, B.Sc. Geography

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated rural development programmes, which are prepared with the active involvement of local citizens, have a long tradition in Slovenia. In the period 1991-2006, Slovenia introduced “Programmes of Integrated Rural Development and Village Renewal” and “Development Programmes for Rural Areas”, which were quite similar to the LEADER initiative in theEuropean Union. From the 2007-2013 programming period, the LEADER approach has been mainstreamed within the overall EU rural development policy. This means that LEADER is included in national and regional rural development programmes supported by the EU,alongside a range of other rural development axes. The main emphasis of the current paper is given to the implementation of the LEADER approach and establishment of local action groups in the 2007-2013 programming period. The paper consists of three parts. The first part presents the general characteristics of the LEADER approach and the measures which are carried out in the 2007-2013 Rural Development Programme. In the second part, an analysis of 33 Local Action Groups is described. The main focus is given to spatial-demographic characteristics, the partnership structure, and the organisation of the decision making body.The paper concludes with an analysis of 33 Local Development Strategies. We analysed the extent to which the strategic goals and priority tasks of Local Development Strategies follow the economic, social and spatial-environmental component of sustainable development.

  6. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Jianbo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Ip, Carman C.M. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Li Xiangdong, E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.h [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-15

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the {sup 210}Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

  7. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the 210Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

  8. Quaternary deposits in the Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding area, Southeastern Piauí state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenitiro Suguio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Serra da Capivara National Park and surrounding areas in Southeastern Piau State (Brazil were subjected to morphostratigraphical, sedimentological, and geochronological studies about superficial deposits in order to interpret quaternary paleoenvironmental events. The following sedimentary deposits associated with morphostructural units were identified: colluvial fans at Serra Branca Valley and Structural Staircases, and eluvial-colluvial deposits at Reverse of the Cuesta. There are also colluvial and alluvial deposits outside Serra da Capivara National Park. Many colluvial and alluvial deposits are contemporaneous and indicate a semiarid climate. According to luminescence dating (thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, the present landscape evolution began around 436 51.5 ka when the Piau River deposited clayey sediments. From 296.55 46.95 ka to 116.3 19.52 ka, the fluvial channel likely exhibited a braided pattern and deposited sand and gravel bars. Penecontemporaneous sands and muds with ages ranging from 202.75 32.81 ka, 135 16.4 ka to 117 14.5 ka were deposited on Serra da Capivara National Park hillslopes. A colluviation episode occurred between 84.7 13.4 ka to 76.2 9.35 ka, which lacks correlatable alluvial deposits. In the Northern hemisphere last glacial maximum, the colluviation and alluviation processes intensified. These depositional processes likely occurred between 15.8 1.9 and 10.35 1.76 ka, during the Holocene-Pleistocene transition.

  9. Analysis of the effects of aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport [paper in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Mendonça Maroja

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the perception of discomfort caused by aircraft noise in residential areas surrounding the Brasilia International Airport (SBBR. The study was divided into two parts. At first, noise measurements were conducted in four residentials zones and the sound pressure level determined by the parameters: Leq, Lmax, Lmin, RF, SEL and IPR. In the second part, we applied a questionnaire adapted from the project Eurocontrol (European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation. The results of field measurements indicate regions with soundscape compromised and with potential of nuisance, especially at night. Was obtained, from analysis of questionnaires, that the respondents female sex if showed more sensitive by the noise of cars and planes and realize more intensity the noise from road and air traffic. It was found dissatisfaction with the interference caused by the noise of aircraft in daily activities and indicated as reactions noise-related: headaches, sleep disorders, stress and difficulty concentrating. It is noteworthy, that in the region with lower noise, the respondents are more sensitive to the noise of airplanes and the values of acoustic parameters measured would justify the negative reactions of respondents to the air transportation noise. Moreover, there was a direct relationship between the perception of annoyance and discomfort with the sound pressure levels measured.

  10. The Analysis Of The Heavy Metals Pollution In The River Water For Fishing Accusative The Surrounding UJUNG LEMAH ABANG Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals are introduced into aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils or rocks, from volcanic eruptions and from a variety of human activities involving the mining, processing, or use of metals and/or substances that contain metal contaminants. The metal natural contents will changeable depends on the pollutant which is proportionally occurred in the environment. The extremely heavy metals absorption by organisms Directly or indirectly through the food chain will give the significant impact to the human lives. For this purpose an investigation was carried out to take samples of heavy metals from the river (Doplang, Balong, and Pacitran) surrounding the Ujung Lemah abang area, and to see how far was the impact of pollutants to the community who live nearby from the food-chain point of view. Results showed that the heavy metals content of Cd, Fe, Cu and Hg in the water and sediment are higher than the permissible concentration for fish nursery. It is found that the concentration of Cd between 0.91 - 1.85 ?g/ml, Cu: 0.03 ?g/ml, and Fe: 0.16 - 2.51 ?g/ml, whereas concentration of Hg in sediment between 0.036 - 0.118 mg/g. Up to now there are no report yet to the death fish caused by the more content of heavy metals in their body or the sickness related to it in the community around the location, but nevertheless this condition need to be took attention

  11. Maternal child-rearing behaviors and correlates in rural minority areas of Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Liu, J; Liu, F; Guo, G; Anme, T; Ushijima, H

    2000-04-01

    An epidemiological survey of maternal child-rearing behaviors was conducted in the rural minority areas of Yunnan, China. An interview of 2019 rural mothers of Hani, Yi, Hui, Miao, and Han and 544 urban mothers with children younger than 7 years of age showed that 51.7% of these rural mothers placed their infants in swaddling clothes. In the rural sample, exclusive breastfeeding occurred at frequency rates of 76.7% and 34.2% during 3 and 6 months postpartum, respectively. Maternal training and playing behaviors were reported less frequently, whereas physical punishment for children's misbehavior was more commonly found in the child-rearing behavior of rural mothers. Maternal child-rearing behaviors differed significantly among ethnic groups as well as between urban and rural areas. Maternal child-rearing behaviors were significantly associated with maternal education level, family type, family income, maternal age at delivery, and number of children in the family. Children's gender had no significant association with maternal child-rearing behaviors. PMID:10791479

  12. Analysis of the Radiopollution of the City of Sarajevo and its Surrounding Area with Regard to Radionuclides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huremovi?, J.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great attention has been focused on the research of problems related to the environment and processes occurring within it. The accident that occurred at Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl (1986 unquestionably warned that global pollution with radioactive substances on a continent scale may be expected. The past twenty years have been marked with the utilization of metal uranium – a depleted isotope of uranium-235 for various purposes. Today, depleted uranium has found its use in modern armies and it is used as efficient ammunition against armored military systems.There are estimates about the usage of ammunition with depleted uranium deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war (1992–1995. The region of Bosnia and Herzegovina was exposed to the direct influence of the global dispersion processes that had occurred in May 1986 as a consequence of emissions originating from Nuclear Power Plant “Lenin” in Chernobyl. In thiswork the radionuclides fraction analysis (238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K i 137Cs of surface samples (0–5 cm originating from the City of Sarajevo and its surroundings has been presented. The soil samples were taken from nine locations in the city and the surrounding area: Blekin potok, Kobilja glava, Bentbaša, Vraca, Prirodno-matematieki fakultet (PMF, Aziai, Hrasnica, Butmir, and Blažuj. The analyses were performed at the Department for Environment of Jo?ef Štefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Ge HP detector connected to Ortec MCA Gamma Vision 32 Software was used in addition to the Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique (INAA.The results of the analysis were compared with data available for the City of Sarajevo (years 1986, 1987 and 1988 and Slovenia. Analyses were made after Chernobyl catastrophe. Almost all of radionuclides analysed have shown to have a slightly higher specific radioactivity when compared to the data obtained in 1986, 1987 and 1989 for the City of Sarajevo. Our results are in accordance with the values obtained in Slovenia except in the case of 137Cs at location Vraca, where a significantly higher concentration has been observed and reaching ? = 460 ± 20 Bq kg–1.

  13. The Perceptions to Climate Change among Rural Farming Households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emaziye, P. O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the perceptions to climate change among rural farming households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. The basic objective was to determine the rural farming household’s perception to climate change in the Area and the specific objective was to determine the direction of change of the climate change indicators (whether increasing, decreasing or constant. Multistage sampling procedure was sampled 739 rural farming households (respondents for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic. Socio – economic profile of the respondents indicated that 37.69% of rural farming households falls between the age bracket of 47 to 51 years and majority (60.0% having educational qualification below secondary school level. The study also reveals 76% had no extension contact during the farming season and 78.6% of respondents are not aware of the phenomenon of climate change. The study noticed an increasing change in the climate change indicators except longer raining season that is decreasing in the Area. The perception to the cause of climate indicators was mostly attributed to natural occurrence by God/gods (67.7%. Awareness campaign on climate change is recommended in the rural areas for climate change information.

  14. Solar lighting system delivery models for rural areas in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ortiz, Brisa [Freiburg Univ. (DE). Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Modi, Anish [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Kafle, Nashib [Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2011-07-01

    Many rural areas in developing countries will not have electricity access from the central grid for several years to come. Autonomous Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) are attractive and enviromentally friendly options for replacing kerosene lamps and providing basic lighting services to such areas. In order to highlight the benefits of these technologies, analysis of reduction in indoor air pollution due to replacement of kerosene lamp by SLS has been carried out. Use of SLS in place of kerosene lamps saves an equivalent of 1341 kg CO{sub 2} emissions per annum from each household. If a suitable mechanism is created, this amount of GHG emissions saving could alone be sufficient to finance solar lighting system for rural households. However, these technologies have not reached most of the poor population. In order to guarantee the access of solar lighting to the people at the Base of the Pyramid (BOP), strengths of different organizations working in the rural areas should be combined together to form successful business models. This paper will discuss business models to disseminate such services to needy people. A comparative study of SLS delivery models based on cash, credit, leasing, subsidy and service is performed. In addition, SWOT analysis for each model is employed. Further, Case studies of few projects to elaborate different models are also presented. If suitable business models for its delivery to rural people are considered, solar lighting systems are viable for providing basic lighting needs of rural areas in developing countries. (orig.)

  15. Study of Effective Factors on Income Inequality Decrease in Rural Areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the Ahlowalia hypothesis (1995, the growth oftotal factor productivity (TFP beside infrastructure investmentsof government lead to income inequality decrease in ruralareas of countries. The main objective of this study is toinvestigate the effects of public investments such as agriculturalR&E, road, education and irrigation on income inequality inrural areas of Iran. In order to get results, we used ARDLmethod and time series data of 1980 to 2008. However, thisresearch attempts to survey the direction of causality betweenthe income inequality and total factor productivity (TFP inIran. Empirical results show there is a negative relation betweenincome inequality and agricultural TFP in rural areas of Iran.Hence, additional investments on rural education and agriculturalR&E have significance and different impacts on income inequality.Findings showed Ahlowalia hypothesis developed forthe relation among income inequality, TFP and investment inelectricity is not rejected in case of Iran`s rural areas.

  16. The island rurality as local development potential of the LAG "Škoji" area

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    Veni Marinkovi?

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research of the selected elements of rurality on the example of the Croatian islands of Vis and Hvar, gathered in the Local action group (LAG "Škoji" and possibilities of their (reevaluation. The revitalization of rural areas is the fundamental task of local action groups, the associations which bring together representatives of public, private and civil sector of a specific area. Their main objective is to jointly design and implement a local development strategy, based on the specific developmental opportunities of the area which they live in. Rurality of the islands is analyzed through main demographic structures and trends, agricultural resources, land use and fisheries. The selected elements are analyzed as an incentives or limited developmental factors.

  17. Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

    In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

  18. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  19. Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

  20. A procura do turismo em espaço rural The demand for tourism in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Silva

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quotidiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas.This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

  1. LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosora Liviu - Cosmin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009, which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education and training (leading to the underutilization of labor in rural areas, while major shortages in the labor market and increased migration phenomenon manifests.\\r\

  2. Income Distribution in Rural Areas of Turkey: A Case Study in Adana Province

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal Dagistan; Aykut Gül; Seval Mutlu

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we have focused on income distribution in rural areas in Adana Province of Turkey. According to the research, the richest 20% of households receive 58.47% of the total income, while the poorest twenty percent receive 3.21% of total income earned in rural areas of Adana province. A Gini coefficient for the region is 0.539. Income distribution in the region is getting worse. The main reason for this is that, a 6.4% reduction in GNP in 1999.

  3. Income Distribution in Rural Areas of Turkey: A Case Study in Adana Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Dagistan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we have focused on income distribution in rural areas in Adana Province of Turkey. According to the research, the richest 20% of households receive 58.47% of the total income, while the poorest twenty percent receive 3.21% of total income earned in rural areas of Adana province. A Gini coefficient for the region is 0.539. Income distribution in the region is getting worse. The main reason for this is that, a 6.4% reduction in GNP in 1999.

  4. Health Status of Elderly in A Rural Area of North East Region of India

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Ghosh, Arun Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The health status of elderly people is neglected in different parts of the Country. This study will reflect the condition of health status of elderly people of rural areas of remote hilly state like Tripura. Material and Methods: This is a cross sectional study of elderly people having the age 60 years. The study was carried out among the elderly people of a Bridya Ashram, named “Sandhyanir” at Gandhigram Village in a rural area of West Tripura district, 10 km from Agartala Cit...

  5. Preschool Education in the Rural Areas of Ukraine: Problems and Solution Approach ?????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????: ???????? ? ???? ???????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulakh Tatyana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study of the condition of pre-school education in the rural areas of Ukraine and defining problems of its development. It gives the statistical analysis of the data from State Statistics Committee of Ukraine, calculates the indexes of development, makes structural analysis and reveals the main tendencies of development of pre-school education in the rural areas of Ukraine. Based on results of mentioned analysis the desirable directions of its development were defined.?????? ????????? ???????????? ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????? ??????? ? ??????????? ??????? ?? ????????. ???????? ?????????????? ?????? ?????? ???????????????? ???????? ??????????, ?????????? ?????????? ????????, ????????? ??????????? ?????? ? ???????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ??????????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????. ?? ??????????? ?????????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ????????.

  6. Analysis of the factors affecting the poverty in rural areas around gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim; M. Baiquni; S. Ritohardoyo; Setiadi

    2016-01-01

    West Sumbawa Regencyis one of the regencies that are rich of natural resources managed by PT. Newmont Nusa Tenggara. However, local communities around the gold mine areas have generally to date been poor. This study was aimed to (1) examine the effect of material poverty, physical weakness, isolation, vulnerability, and powerlessness on poverty, and (2) describe the distribution of rural povertybased on land slope mapsin gold mine areas in West Sumbawa Regency.This study applied a survey tech...

  7. Effects of human activities on karst groundwater geochemistry in a rural area in the Balkans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geochemistry of three drinking water sources (wells, springs, and tap) in the Vratza region of northern Bulgaria was investigated to gain an understanding of how human activities influence natural geochemical processes in a carbonate aquifer system. Numerous villages have been identified within this highly agricultural area as endemic for the environmental disease Balkan endemic nephropathy, with some suggesting a link to the geochemistry of the region. We observe that water quality varies significantly as a function of source. Hydrochemical facies analysis reveals trends not typical for limestone systems, with cation trajectories falling along the Ca2+–Mg2+ axis and the anion trajectories lying along the HCO3-–SO42- axis. R-mode factor analysis reveals: (i) an increasing dominance of a Cl?–Na+–SO42-–NO3- association from tap to spring to well waters, (ii) a strong association between Mg2+ and U, and (iii) a lack of associations between Ca2+ and Mg2+ and between Ca2+ and HCO3- that is atypical for limestone systems. These observations are interpreted to indicate that human activities have influenced all sources across the Vratza region and that Mg and U concentrations result from the dissolution of limestone, which is enhanced due to the input of anthropogenic chemicals. Geochemical modeling indicates that Ca2+ concentrations are in equilibrium with calcite, but that Mg2+ concentrations remain conservative, resulting in the decoupling of a Ca2+ and Mg2+, association. Uranium concentrations also appear to be conservative, aided by a poised redox state due to high concentrations of NO3- and the formation of CO32- and PO43- ion pairs. The similar source and conservative nature of both Mg2+ and U can account for their association. Finally, cluster analysis indicates that the pattern of water geochemistry in the endemic area differs from the surrounding non-endemic area, may be explained by differences in the underlying geology. This study has shown that the general water quality in this rural area, whether in endemic or non-endemic villages, is poor and that agricultural activities have not only added chemicals to the groundwater system, but that these chemicals have likely disrupted geochemical processes. More work is required to understand the specific details of anthropogenic influences on geochemical processes on water quality in karstic terrains.

  8. Mapping permanent preservation areas and natural forest fragments as subsidy to the registration of legal reserve areas in rural properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Paulo Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this work was to identify and quantify forest fragments suitable to be used as private protected land in rural properties located in the São Bartolomeu creek watershed, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological procedures included: mapping of 78 forest fragments through the visual interpretation of an Ikonos II satellite image; delineation of Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs from a hydrographically conditioned digital elevation model and mapping of 292 rural properties through interviews with owners, with the aid of a printed Ikonos II image. The generated maps were overlapped (crossed, allowing the identification of forest fragments that could be used as private protected land in rural property. The result indicated that, from the total of properties evaluated, only 41 (14.04% have more than 20% of forest cover, and therefore, are in condition to attend the environmental law for private protected land.

  9. Molecular fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and risk factors for tuberculosis transmission in Paris, France, and surrounding area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M C; Vincent, V; Aubert, D; Bizet, J; Gaillot, O; Lebrun, L; Le Pendeven, C; Le Pennec, M P; Mathieu, D; Offredo, C; Pangon, B; Pierre-Audigier, C

    1998-02-01

    Forty-three percent of the tuberculosis cases reported in France are from the Ile de France region. The incidence of tuberculosis in this region is 33 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, twice the national average. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed with clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated during 1995 in 10 hospitals in Paris and surrounding areas to detect tuberculosis transmission and define the factors associated with clustering in this population. The molecular markers used were the insertion sequence IS6110 and the direct repeat (DR) sequence. Social, demographic, and clinical data were collected from the patients' medical files. Ten patients with isolates with a single copy of IS6110 were excluded from further analysis. Twenty-four patients with false-positive cultures due to laboratory contamination (based on RFLP analysis with IS6110 and examination of patient data) were also excluded. The study was then conducted with 272 strains isolated from 272 patients. Further fingerprinting was performed by using the DR element with strains with patterns by RFLP analysis with IS6110 that differed by one band only and strains with identical patterns by RFLP analysis with IS6110 and with low numbers of copies of IS6110. The combined use of both markers identified unique patterns for 177 strains and clustered 95 (35.7%) strains in 26 groups, each containing isolates from 2 to 12 patients. The clustering was strongly associated with homelessness and the male sex. It was not associated with age, birth in a foreign country, human immunodeficiency virus positivity, or residence in hostels or prison. Isolates from homeless people were often included in large clusters, and homeless people could be the source of tuberculosis transmission for more than 50% of the clustered patients. These results suggest that homeless people play a key role in the spread of M. tuberculosis in the community and that poor socioeconomic conditions are the main risk factors associated with active tuberculosis transmission. PMID:9466764

  10. Molecular Fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Risk Factors for Tuberculosis Transmission in Paris, France, and Surrounding Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M. C.; Vincent, V.; Aubert, D.; Bizet, J.; Gaillot, O.; Lebrun, L.; Le Pendeven, C.; Le Pennec, M. P.; Mathieu, D.; Offredo, C.; Pangon, B.; Pierre-Audigier, C.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-three percent of the tuberculosis cases reported in France are from the Ile de France region. The incidence of tuberculosis in this region is 33 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, twice the national average. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed with clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated during 1995 in 10 hospitals in Paris and surrounding areas to detect tuberculosis transmission and define the factors associated with clustering in this population. The molecular markers used were the insertion sequence IS6110 and the direct repeat (DR) sequence. Social, demographic, and clinical data were collected from the patients’ medical files. Ten patients with isolates with a single copy of IS6110 were excluded from further analysis. Twenty-four patients with false-positive cultures due to laboratory contamination (based on RFLP analysis with IS6110 and examination of patient data) were also excluded. The study was then conducted with 272 strains isolated from 272 patients. Further fingerprinting was performed by using the DR element with strains with patterns by RFLP analysis with IS6110 that differed by one band only and strains with identical patterns by RFLP analysis with IS6110 and with low numbers of copies of IS6110. The combined use of both markers identified unique patterns for 177 strains and clustered 95 (35.7%) strains in 26 groups, each containing isolates from 2 to 12 patients. The clustering was strongly associated with homelessness and the male sex. It was not associated with age, birth in a foreign country, human immunodeficiency virus positivity, or residence in hostels or prison. Isolates from homeless people were often included in large clusters, and homeless people could be the source of tuberculosis transmission for more than 50% of the clustered patients. These results suggest that homeless people play a key role in the spread of M. tuberculosis in the community and that poor socioeconomic conditions are the main risk factors associated with active tuberculosis transmission. PMID:9466764

  11. Distributions of n-alkanes and their hydrogen isotopic composition in plants from Lake Qinghai (China) and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various aquatic plants from Lake Qinghai, the largest inland saline lake in China, and terrestrial plants from the surrounding area were investigated for the distribution of n-alkanes and their δD values. The n-alkanes in the samples range from C15 to C33 with C preference index (CPI) values of 4.0–29.7. The n-C23 or n-C25 alkane is the dominant compound in the aquatic submerged plants. The aquatic emergent and terrestrial plants have an abundance maximum at n-C27, n-C29 or n-C31. The average chain length (ACL) values, ranging from 26.0 to 29.6, are closely related to the plant species. The n-alkanes from the aquatic plants have mean δD values of −169‰ to −121‰ and those from the terrestrial plants values of −173‰ to −109‰. The H isotopic composition (δD) and fractionation differ significantly among the plants studied. Comparison shows that additional evaporative enrichment of the lake water associated with saline lakes and humidity influence the δD values of the n-alkanes in aquatic and terrestrial plants, respectively. The mean δD values of n-alkanes in the plants decrease with increasing ACL value. The n-alkanes from the different types of plants are more depleted in D relative to environmental water and those from aquatic plants (with a mean value of −143‰) have a greater isotopic fractionation than terrestrial plants (mean value −113‰).

  12. SOME GEOGRAPHICAL FACTORS ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF EXAMPLE ANDRIJEVICA (MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajovic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the economic and geographical factors of rural settlements of Andrijevica. Isolated traffic and geographical position adversely affect the economic and social development of rural settlements. Natural features indicate that rural areas of Andrijevica economy do not comply with all the natural conditions. Incompatibility between the available natural and current conditions of the rural economy determine by the overall socio-economic factors of development. The percentage decrease in rural population in the municipality Andrijevica period 1948-2003 amounted to - 49.44%. The main characteristic of the modern development of rural settlements are give industrialization and urbanization processes. Age groups, due to migration and the reduction of fertility change and take on unfavorable characteristics, reduces the proportion of younger and older increases the proportion of the population. In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations types of economic development.

  13. Demographic vitality and human resources as important factors for rural areas development

    OpenAIRE

    Lampi?, Barbara; Poto?nik Slavi?, Irma

    2015-01-01

    The heterogeneity and huge regional diversity as key determinant of Slovenian rural areas have not been considered enough in the case of regional development directing. Extensive and multilane questionnaire of case study areas (the survey included 10 selected problem areas) pointed out the most evident development problems and future development opportunities. The latest ought to be respected with the planning and guidance of endogenous regional development. The demographic potential as the b...

  14. The Relevance of Cluster Initiatives in Rural Areas: Regional Policy in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Lundmark; Örjan Pettersson

    2012-01-01

    The relatively weak performance of sparsely populated areas has been given substantial attention in many regional, national and European Union initiatives. Many rural areas are struggling with development problems such as depopulation, advanced ageing, industrial restructuring and high levels of structural unemployment. In Sweden these issues are mainly associated with the difficulties in the non-metropolitan sparsely populated areas in the northern and southeastern parts. Here, the issue of ...

  15. Opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduntan, Olalekan A.; Hansraj, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    Background Eye and vision problems have been reported to be more prevalent in rural than urban areas; and a large proportion of South Africans live in the rural areas. Aim To investigate the opinions of South African optometry students about working in rural areas after completion of their training and to identify factors that may influence their decisions. Method This was a cross-sectional quantitative study using a survey instrument containing both closed and open-ended, semi-structured questions. Results Four hundred and thirty-eight students responded to the questionnaire (85.4% response rate). Overall, many of the respondents did not want to open their first (66%) or second practices (64.6%) in the rural areas. However, most respondents from rural backgrounds reported that they would open their first (77.2%) or second (79.4%) practice in the rural areas. The main reasons cited by the respondents for their unwillingness to work in the rural areas were financial concerns (81.2%), personal safety (80.1%) and poor living conditions (75.3%), with a significantly higher number (p nombre de répondants ne voulaient pas ouvrir leur premier (66%) ou deuxième cabinet (64.6%) dans les zones rurales. Cependant, la plupart des répondants originaires de la campagne ont répondu qu’ils ouvriraient leur premier cabinet (77.2%) ou leur second (79.4%) dans les zones rurales. Les raisons principales citées par les répondants pour ne pas vouloir travailler dans les zones rurales étaient des préoccupations financières (81.2%), la sécurité personnelle (80.1%) et les mauvaises conditions de vie (75.3%), avec un plus grand nombre (p < 0.05) de la part des répondants urbains pour les deux derniers problèmes. Conclusion Beaucoup d’étudiants ne voulaient pas ouvrir de cabinet dans les zones rurales, mais étaient prêts à travailler pour le gouvernement ou une organisation non-gouvernementale après l’obtention de leur diplôme. Il faudra s’occuper des incitations financières, de la sécurité et des conditions de vie dans les zones rurales. Les résultats de cette étude ont des implications pour le futur de la disponibilité et de l’accessibilité des services de soins oculaires pour ceux qui vivent dans les zones rurales et les régions reculées du pays. PMID:26245620

  16. Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti / El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pierre Kébreau, Alexandre; Gilbert, Saint-Jean; Lee, Crandall; Etzer, Fevrin.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad que habían dado a luz en los tres años anteriores a la entre-vista, fueron: 1) examinar los factores que [...] determinan la probabilidad de que las mu-jeres acudan a atención prenatal en las zonas rurales y urbanas del país y 2) dentro del grupo de mujeres con una o más consultas prenatales, examinar los factores que determinan el número de dichas consultas en las zonas rurales y urbanas. MÉTODOS: En el análisis multifactorial se emplearon modelos logísticos para deter-minar qué factores explicaban la decisión de acudir a control prenatal, y se usaron modelos binomiales negativos para determinar el número de consultas prenatales dentro del subgrupo de mujeres que consultaron por lo menos una vez. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad esperada de acudir a control prenatal, determinada según el valor medio de las variables de control, fue de 77,16% en las zonas rurales, en comparación con 85,83% en las zonas urbanas de Haití. Dentro del grupo de mu-jeres que acudieron a servicios de control prenatal, las madres en zonas rurales tuvieron un número esperado de consultas prenatales de 3,78, en comparación con 5,06 en las zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES: Un buen porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas tiene acceso a servicios de atención prenatal en Haití, pero las madres en zonas rurales que eligieron acudir a dichos servicios tuvieron un poco menos del mínimo de cuatro consultas recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El nivel educativo de las madres y de sus parejas es un factor pronóstico muy importante en relación con el uso de servicios de atención prenatal. Las consultas repetidas se vieron obstaculizadas en las zonas rurales por el mayor tiempo de desplazamiento y la mayor distancia hasta el centro de salud. Los formuladores de políticas y los proveedores de atención sanitaria deben tener en cuenta estos resultados a la hora de tomar decisiones sobre la prestación y administración de los servicios de salud en Haití. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1) examine the determinants of the likelihood o [...] f the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2) for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.

  17. Prenatal care utilization in rural areas and urban areas of Haiti El uso de servicios de atención prenatal en áreas rurales y urbanas de Haití

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Kébreau Alexandre

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study is based on the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS conducted in Haiti. Using the DHS information on women aged 15 to 49 who had given birth during the three years preceding the survey interview, this study was intended to: (1 examine the determinants of the likelihood of the women using prenatal care in the rural areas and in the urban areas of the country and (2 for the women who made at least one prenatal care visit, examine the determinants of the number of prenatal visits in the rural areas and the urban areas. METHODS: The multivariate analysis used logistic models to identify which factors explained the decision to seek prenatal care, and negative binomial models were used to determine how many prenatal visits were conducted by the subgroup of women who did make prenatal care visits. RESULTS: Estimated at the mean values of the control variables, the expected probability of using prenatal care services in rural Haiti was 77.16%, compared to 85.83% in urban Haiti. Among users of prenatal care services, mothers in rural areas made an expected number of 3.78 prenatal care visits, compared to 5.06 visits for the women in urban areas. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial percentage of pregnant women have access to prenatal care services in Haiti, but mothers in rural areas who decided to seek care still fell slightly below the four visits recommended by the World Health Organization. The education levels of both mothers and their partners is a dominant predictor of prenatal care use. Longer travel times and greater distances to health centers in rural areas constituted barriers to repeated visits. Policymakers and health care providers need to take these findings into consideration as they decide on the delivery and management of health care services in Haiti.OBJETIVOS: El presente estudio se basa en la Encuesta de Demografía y Salud del año 2000 en Haití. Los objetivos del estudio, que se basó en información sobre las mujeres de 15 a 49 años de edad que habían dado a luz en los tres años anteriores a la entre-vista, fueron: 1 examinar los factores que determinan la probabilidad de que las mu-jeres acudan a atención prenatal en las zonas rurales y urbanas del país y 2 dentro del grupo de mujeres con una o más consultas prenatales, examinar los factores que determinan el número de dichas consultas en las zonas rurales y urbanas. MÉTODOS: En el análisis multifactorial se emplearon modelos logísticos para deter-minar qué factores explicaban la decisión de acudir a control prenatal, y se usaron modelos binomiales negativos para determinar el número de consultas prenatales dentro del subgrupo de mujeres que consultaron por lo menos una vez. RESULTADOS: La probabilidad esperada de acudir a control prenatal, determinada según el valor medio de las variables de control, fue de 77,16% en las zonas rurales, en comparación con 85,83% en las zonas urbanas de Haití. Dentro del grupo de mu-jeres que acudieron a servicios de control prenatal, las madres en zonas rurales tuvieron un número esperado de consultas prenatales de 3,78, en comparación con 5,06 en las zonas urbanas. CONCLUSIONES: Un buen porcentaje de mujeres embarazadas tiene acceso a servicios de atención prenatal en Haití, pero las madres en zonas rurales que eligieron acudir a dichos servicios tuvieron un poco menos del mínimo de cuatro consultas recomendado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El nivel educativo de las madres y de sus parejas es un factor pronóstico muy importante en relación con el uso de servicios de atención prenatal. Las consultas repetidas se vieron obstaculizadas en las zonas rurales por el mayor tiempo de desplazamiento y la mayor distancia hasta el centro de salud. Los formuladores de políticas y los proveedores de atención sanitaria deben tener en cuenta estos resultados a la hora de tomar decisiones sobre la prestación y administración de los servicios de salud en Haití.

  18. LAN Modeling in Rural Areas Based on Variable Metrics Using Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ak. Ashakumar Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The global scenario of the present world highly needs the communication between the urban areas and the rural areas. To motivate a new system for rural broadband access, there needs the integration of LAN and IEEE 802.11 WLAN technologies. The variable metrics such as Access Protocol, User traffic profile, Buffer size and Data collision and retransmission are involved in the modeling of such LAN. In the paper, a fuzzy logic based LAN modeling technique is designed for which the variable metrics are imprecise. The technique involves the fuzzification of the variable metrics to be input, rule evaluation, and aggregation of the rule outputs. The implementation is done using Fuzzy Inference System (FIS based on Mamdani style in MatLab 7.6 for the representation of the reasoning and effective analysis. Four LAN systems are tested to analyze potential variable metrics to bring a smooth communication in the rural societies.

  19. Strategies for reducing visual impairment and blindness in rural and remote areas of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalekan O. Oduntan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of visual impairment (VI and blindness in Africa is one of the highest in the world; a large proportion of the causes are preventable. The prevalence is particularly high in rural and remote areas, where many of the continent’s inhabitants live. This is of great concern because of the low number and poor distribution of primary eye care practitioners, as well as poor eye care infrastructure services in those areas. Uncorrected refractive errors are a major cause of avoidable VI and blindness, and optometrists play a major role in refractive error correction on the continent. However, as with other healthcare providers in Africa, optometrists are few and tend to be mainly in major cities. This paper highlights possible strategies, in alignment with the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, that can reduce VI in rural and remote areas of the continent. The strategies include increasing the eye care workforce, attracting them to rural areas and retaining them there, improving the eye care infrastructure, service improvement such as equitable distribution of eye care practitioners, implementing preventive measures such as vision screening and affordable spectacles, and eye health education such as eye health promotions, school health programmes and eye care awareness campaigns. Such strategies could drastically reduce the prevalence of VI and blindness in rural and remote areas of Africa.

  20. “A STUDY OF BRAND AWARENESS & CONSUMER BEHAVIOR TOWARDS FMCG PRODUCTS IN RURAL AREA OF SOLAPUR DISTRICT”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatray P. More

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In papers is researcher has made effort to know the basic characteristics of consumer behavior in rural market about FMCG (Fast Moving Consumer Goods products. While arriving at any purchasing decision, the rural customers are depends upon certain factors. In present study researcher wants to understand the characteristics buying pattern, brand awareness, and factor involved in decision making in case of FMCG products in rural market. With rising awareness level and mass availability of information rural demand is increasing significantly hence, rural market offers tremendous potential for growth and expansion for all the companies merely they have to overcome the challenge of consumer expectations, brand awareness, and their behavior. FMCG products have tremendous demand in rural area as mass population is resides in rural area they are contributing significantly towards the total demand of all the companies.

  1. Evaluation of rural areas in terms of landscape quality: Salacik Village (Trabzon/Turkey) example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzgüneş, Ertan; Demirel, Öner

    2015-06-01

    As a result of the increasing urbanization and fast pace of work life, people started to turn to rural areas so as to regenerate both socially and psychologically. Increasing interest in the rural areas made the importance of landscape quality of these areas more significant. This improvement gave way to the idea of the necessity of preserving the resourceful landscape areas in terms of visual characteristics and bringing them under the spotlight, and it became the driving power in reconciling the planners and administrators. From this point of view, a study was conducted in Salacık Village of Akçaabat district of Trabzon (Turkey) in order to identify the visually resourceful landscape areas and maintain the sustainability of the resource values by preserving them. In this respect, the area was divided into seven individual landscape types, visual landscape evaluation including the opinions of the experts, and a survey that is used in planning of the rural areas was implemented. It is thought that the results attained with the evaluations made taking the principles of Gestalt theory into consideration will constitute an essential fundamental for urban and regional planners, natural resource administrators, and other planning parties in their planning decisions relating the specific area. Apart from that, among the goals of this study are contributing in the preservation of visually resourceful landscapes, maintaining their sustainability, and integration of these areas into the development strategies. PMID:25934050

  2. ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcza Teodora Mihaela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups of people interested in their development of social-economic scale, rural women are trying to adapt, to evolve, to overcome the barriers imposed at psychologically, socially and financially. The paper highlights the results of a survey on a sample of 979 women students in the project "Entrepreneurship and Equal Opportunities. An inter-regional model for women entrepreneurial school "(AntrES acronym, which certified mediators intention to initiate their own business.The results of questionnaires have provided important information about the character, ambition, motivation, courage, and moral support and financial support to women entrepreneurs based in Romania, including those in rural areas. The information obtained inetrmediul "I shattered" 7 myths about starting a business in our country. Romanian entrepreneur spirit, women in rural areas in Romania is not only a manifestation of strong desire to improve living standards in financial terms, but rather an "effort" to improve and "beauty" of the individual, family, environment and society we belong! In developed countries, at its home, female entrepreneurship is trying to reform, to seek new solutions to rethink the principles, to exercise imagination, to learn. Here, in Romania standard behavior still predominates. Female entrepreneurs are doing what everyone else in the same category does. The future however belongs to those who will opt diversity, surprise, excitement, personalization. How could this happen in the Romanian rural environment and take place in a sustainable way?

  3. Syphilis Screening among 27,150 Pregnant Women in South Chinese Rural Areas Using Point-of-Care Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Li-Gang; Tucker, Joseph D.; Liu, Feng-Ying; Ren, Xu-Qi; HONG, XUAN; Wang, Cheng; McLaughlin, Megan M; Bien, Cedric H; Chen, Xiang-sheng; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and correlates of syphilis among pregnant women in rural areas of South China. Methods Point-of-care syphilis testing was provided at 71 health facilities in less developed, rural areas of Guangdong Province. Positive samples were confirmed at a local referral center by toluidine red unheated serum tests (TRUST) and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) tests. Results Altogether 27,150 pregnant women in rural Guangdong were screened for syphil...

  4. Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

  5. An Evaluation of Ascertainment Data Collection Methods Appropriate to Rural Areas. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James A.

    Five data collection techniques and two sampling methods were examined in terms of costs, rates of return, quality of the data collected, and degree of representativeness in assessing needs and interests of public television viewers in rural areas. Data collection techniques were (1) mail only, (2) mail incentive, (3) telephone only, (4) mail and…

  6. Air quality in urban, industrialized and rural french areas in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality measurements in urban, industrial and rural areas in 1991 have shown different trends. It turned out that lead and carbon monoxide concentrations have recently decreased. The concentrations of black smoke and sulphur dioxide have however remained constant since 1988, whereas nitrogen oxide and ozone have decreased in most sites. (TEC). 23 figs., 34 tabs., 40 refs

  7. Food Consumption Frequency at Students from Rural Areas from Moldova Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zepca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our study aim to evaluate the characteristics of nutrition behavior at teenagers from Moldova’s rural area schools in order to make a profile of risk behavior related to diet and to implement efficient community intervention programs.

  8. 76 FR 82212 - Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations under 38 CFR... collection techniques or other forms of information technology, e.g., permitting electronic submission of... entities to assist veterans in highly rural areas through innovative transportation services to travel...

  9. Differences in Employee Motivation at Slovak Primary Schools in Rural and Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitka, Miloš; Stachová, Katarína; Balážová, Žaneta; Stacho, Zdenko

    2015-01-01

    In spite of turbulent urbanisation in Slovakia we assume that the 21st century is also a period of differences in value criteria of people living in rural and urban areas. The level of urbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from the countryside to towns and the level of suburbanisation, i.e. inhabitant movement from towns to the countryside, are…

  10. Local Instruction Theory on Division in Mathematics GASING: The Case of Rural Area's Student in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra; Suwasti, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on learning mathematics for rural area's student indicate that students have difficulty in understanding the concept of division operation. Students are more likely to be introduced by the use of the formula without involving the concept itself and learning division separate the concrete situation of learning process. This…

  11. An Empirical Study on the Effect of School Consolidation in Rural Areas on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dong; Fang, Chang; Yuanyan, Bai

    2013-01-01

    With Shaanxi province as an example, this study presents empirical evidence on the effect of primary school consolidation in rural areas on student achievement, using the difference-in-differences method. The results show no significant differences in student achievement between consolidated schools and nonconsolidated schools. If student…

  12. Perspectives of Faculty and Staff Regarding College Access for Underrepresented Students in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Tynisa

    2012-01-01

    Compared to urban/suburban secondary school students, traditionally underrepresented students in rural areas often do not enroll or attend 4-year colleges and universities because of limited high school resources. To address this problem, higher education experts have suggested that high school faculty may serve as catalysts to encourage increased…

  13. 41 CFR 102-83.90 - Do Executive Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do Executive Orders 12072 and 13006 apply to rural areas? 102-83.90 Section 102-83.90 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 83-LOCATION OF SPACE Location of Space...

  14. Ageing-Related Experiences of Adults with Learning Disability Resident in Rural Areas: One Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Stuart; Canon-Vanry, Miranda; Ryan, Peta; Hussain, Rafat; Knox, Marie; Edwards, Meaghan; Parmenter, Marie; Parmenter, Trevor; Janicki, Matthew; Leggatt-Cook, Chez

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to support services in rural areas is known to be problematic both in Australia, and in other countries around the world, but the majority of research on the population of people ageing with learning disability has so far focussed on metropolitan residents. The authors report about select aspects of the lived experience of older…

  15. Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Rhys

    2011-01-01

    Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

  16. Dropping out: Why Are Students Leaving Junior High in China's Poor Rural Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Chen, Xinxin; Brinton, Carl; Rozelle, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Despite requirements of and support for universal education up to grade 9, there are concerning reports that poor rural areas in China suffer from high and maybe even rising dropout rates. Although aggregated statistics from the Ministry of Education show almost universal compliance with the 9-year compulsory education law, there have been few…

  17. Evaluated strategies to increase attraction and retention of health workers in remote and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Dolea

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The lack of health workers in remote and rural areas is a worldwide concern. Many countries have proposed and implemented interventions to address this issue, but very little is known about the effectiveness of such interventions and their sustainability in the long run. This paper provides an analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to attract and retain health workers in remote and rural areas from an impact evaluation perspective. It reports on a literature review of studies that have conducted evaluations of such interventions. It presents a synthesis of the indicators and methods used to measure the effects of rural retention interventions against several policy dimensions such as: attractiveness of rural or remote areas, deployment/recruitment, retention, and health workforce and health systems performance. It also discusses the quality of the current evidence on evaluation studies and emphasizes the need for more thorough evaluations to support policy-makers in developing, implementing and evaluating effective interventions to increase availability of health workers in underserved areas and ultimately contribute to reaching the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals.

  18. A STUDY OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE OF YOUNG PEOPLES OF THE RURAL AREA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Vishnu Lokhande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Background: In this study, researcher has studied the significance difference between male and female young peoples of rural area in the terms of their overall emotional intelligence, self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skill.

  19. Microbiological aspects of underground water quality for human consumption in rural area

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Chirila; Luminita Minea; Luminita-Smaranda Iancu

    2010-01-01

    Underground water sources from rural area of Northeast of Romania are frequently polluted with fecal contaminants. Surface and groundwater sources used as drinking water were affected in 2005-2007 by natural disasters (floods, drought). In the period 2007-2009 were analyzed 321 samples of water from underground sources for human consumption. Descriptive statistics for 1038 microbiological indicators are presented in this paper

  20. Atmospheric heavy metal input to forest soils in rural areas of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M F; Kemp, Kaare

    Atmospheric bulk deposition of heavy metals (HM) was measured from 1972/73 to the present time at five to ten forest sites in rural areas of Denmark. From 1979, HM in aerosols were measured at one to four forest sites. On the basis of these long-term continuous measurements, the atmospheric inputs...

  1. Phlebotomine fauna in a rural area of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga-Miranda Lourdislene Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify among the phlebotomine fauna potential leishmaniasis vectors. The study was carried out in Corumbá county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mid-West Brazil (18º59'S, 56º39'W. Sand fly captures were undertaken fortnightly with automatic light traps at 11 sites in forested environments and anthropic areas from April 2001 to July 2003. A total of only 41 specimens were captured. Thirty-one percent of the specimens were captured in forests and 68.3% in anthropic areas. The predominance of non-anthropophilic groups and the low density of N. whitmani, a known cutaneous leishmaniasis vector, does not seem to indicate any actual risk of the transmission of this disease in the study area.

  2. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

  3. Zoning Rural Area For The Development Of Annual Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariot Hafif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One strategy to protect land from degradation is to use the land according to their capability. Zoning of commodities is an effort in that direction and determination of commodities is based on the suitability of land with agronomic needs of crops and farming feasibility analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the development zone of annual crops, based on the analysis of agro-ecological characteristics and agricultural viability. Analysis of land suitability for the cultivation of coffee, vanilla, pepper, cocoa, banana, durian, mango, and melinjo, found that land can be recommended for the development of the annual crops is about 29,230 ha from an area of 54,764 ha. The land was divided into six agro-ecological zones i.e. two zones at area with land slope of 3- 8%, each covering an area of 2,737 ha at an altitude of 15-50 m above sea level (asl, and 12,008 ha at an altitude of 50-300 m asl, the two zone at area with land slope of 8-15%, each covering 6119 ha at an altitude of 25-250 m asl and 1,221 ha at an altitude of 15-50 m asl, and two zones at area with land slope of 16-40% , each covering an area of 1,101 ha at an altitude of 400-700 m asl, and 6,134 ha at an altitude of 400-500 m asl. The soil types found are Typic /Vitrandic Eutrudepts, Typic Hapludands, and Vitrandic Hapludalfs. This study recommends that the banana is a perennial plant with the most potential to be developed and has good economic prospects in almost all agro-ecological zones. Other commodities are also preferred, coffee and vanilla.

  4. Sociocultural Differences Among Three Areas in Kentucky as Determinants of Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of Rural Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogie, Donald Wayne

    In an effort to determine whether there are differences in areas of residence that affect the aspirations and expectations of young people living therein, this study examined occupational and educational aspirations of 1,835 rural high school seniors from 3 sociocultural contexts in Kentucky: (1) a low-opportunity, rural-poverty area in central…

  5. Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

  6. Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

  7. Analysis and Comparison of Under Five Child Mortality between Rural and Urban Area in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Raheen AFZAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of factors that affect the under-five year child mortality is important because it pertains to policy and programs. Causes and differences of under-five mortality between rural and urban area help decision makers to assess programmatic needs and prioritize interventions. This paper investigates the causes and differences of under-five mortality between rural and urban area in Bangladesh using Kaplan-Meier, Cox Proportional Hazard (Cox-PH and Accelerated Failure Time (AFT Regression model. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS-2007 data are used for the study. The results show that for both the areas, survival probability for children whose mothers have higher education is very high and in urban area the failure rate is very high for children of poor economic status. The Cox-PH analysis reveals that risk of death was lower for children whose mothers were matured and higher educated than younger and no educated mother in rural area. In urban area, children from rich family and the 2nd or 3rd child have lower risk of death compared to poor and 1st child. The AFT analysis shows that for both the areas Weibull distribution better fits the data.

  8. Critical Socio-Cultural Elements of the Intercultural Endeavour of English Teaching in Colombian Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ximena Bonilla

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study done with five English language teachers in Colombian rural areas. Questionnaires and interviews were used to see how these teachers understand their professional practice considering the contextual features of their regional workplaces. Amongst the findings, we noticed that these teachers have to mediate between local and global tensions and also deal with socio-cultural matches and mismatches in their labours. It is hoped this work raises awareness of critical socio-cultural factors involved in the teaching of English in rural settings and of the complexity of its intercultural dimension.

  9. THE STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF POPULATION BY AGE GROUPS IN THE RURAL AREAS OF BUCOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ILEANA MORAR (BUMBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure analysis of population by age groups in the rural area of Bucovina desires to create a recent image of the rural population by age groups in the region of Bucovina , provided that after the year 2000 have occurred socio – economic changes with repercussions on the demographic component. The structure analysis by age group will be based on the share of population indicators on the major age groups, the share of population by age and quinquennial gender illustrated by age pyramid, the index of demographic aging and age-dependency ratio. This study is definitely needed in forecasting future regional development objectives and measures.

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of various electric energy supply for rural areas Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic study was carried out to evaluate the techno-economic viability of various electric supply sources for electrification of rural areas in Pakistan in present socio-economic conditions. The important influencing factors considered were: social needs, electric requirement and availability of energy resources. The electric requirements of model rural village were established at 20431 kw h per year. Prudent evaluations reveal that hydroelectric, photovoltaic and diesel systems are better options than an electric grid extension of more than 2 km. In order to become an economically meritorious energy source, photovoltaic system should attain cost level Rs. 100 per watt-peak of installed system. (author)

  11. Aging population in change – a crucial challenge for structurally weak rural areas in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides population decline, structurally weak rural areas in Austria face a new challenge related to demographic change: the increasing heterogeneity of their aging population. From the example of the so-called ‘best agers’ - comprising people aged 55 to 65 years - this contribution makes visible patterns and consequences of growing individualized spatial behaviour and spatial perception. Furthermore, contradictions between claims, wishes and expectations and actual engagement and commitment to their residential rural municipalities are being pointed out. These empirically-based facts are rounded off by considerations on the best agers’ future migration-behaviour and the challenges for spatial planning at the municipal level.

  12. SANITATION PREVAILING IN WEAKER SECTIONS OF THE SOCIETY LIVING IN RURAL AREAS OF KRISHNA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thokala

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Hither i t o , majority of health problems are related to the poor sanitary conditions prevailing in the premises of households major parts of which are in the rural areas in India. RESEARCH QUESTION : what is the sanitary condition and its impact on the health of weaker sections of the society living in rural area of the Krishna District? OBJECTIVES: 1. To know the sanitary condition prevailing in weaker sections of the society in rural area of Krishna Distrct. 2. To identify the impact of poor sanitation on the health of the study group . STUDY DESIGN: C ross sectional study. SETTING: Rural area of Krishna District , Andhara Pradesh. PARTICIPANTS : People belong to BPL (Below Poverty Line residing in rural area of Krishna district. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P roportions , percentages and chi - square test. RESULTS: In this study group access to safe water source was observed to be 86.18% and access to improved sanitation is 27.21%. About 50% of the study people are practicing open field defection; about 37% of households treat the water at domestic level. Our study findings related to hand washing practices with reference to after defection , before eating and before preparing food are 43% , 41% and 28% respectively. The current study has relived overcrowding (69% , lack of adequacy of ventilation(73% , lake of adequacy of lightening (75.45% lack of adequacy of water supply(57.58% , absence of separate kitchen(86% , no sewage drains (47%. In this study about 54% adults and 57% of children are found to be suffering from malnutrition , 25% have history of diarrhoea , 46.21% fever and 31.82% passing worms in stools. And significantly 46.97% of study subjects suffering from Anaemia.

  13. Anti-urbanisation as development chance for rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Anti-urbanisation is a form of counter-urbanisation, which means migration from the city to the countryside. Three variants can be distinguished by the motives of the migrants: A search for a radical often self-sufficient lifestyle, a relocation to enhance one’s quality of life and amenity driven...... less stressful life, freedom and peace and quiet; a better quality of life. Anti-urbanisation might be a development chance for more remote areas in the metropolitan region. Some in-migrants start a micro-business in knowledge or creative services at their new home in the countryside in order to...... combine a dwelling far from the city, life style considerations with a continued carrier. By statistical analysis based on age-related migration data for municipalities we studied the extent of anti-urbanisation in the case area. The data indicates an ongoing and amplifying trend of amenity...

  14. Bio energies: a new boost for rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornell, P.K.

    1993-12-31

    Renewable energies will ensure for the next century a stable, sure supply of energy and will be as respectful of the environment as possible. The EC shows the way of a possible development. In Germany and especially in Bavaria the conditions are favorable for renewable energy channels. The paper explains the bavarian situation. In this area, the use of bio-energies is encouraged by the local authorities. (TEC). 1 fig.

  15. Passenger transport in rural and sparsely populated areas in France

    OpenAIRE

    Saroli, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Improving mobility is a major issue in sparsely populated areas. The low population density in these localities often means that longer journeys are required to access services, carry out everyday activities or maintain social links. Whole sections of the population - in particular older people, young people, stay-at-home parents in single-car households, and seasonal workers - are effectively handicapped in mobility terms by inadequate public transport provision and an overdependence on peop...

  16. Decontamination efficiency of the individual farms in rural area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for estimation of efficiency of the different techniques of individual farms decontamination directed on decrease of population dose loads is proposed. The correlation between outlays and advantages was a criteria for efficiency. The calculations of the decontamination efficiency for a number of populated areas are given. It was shown that any decontamination methods is effective for individual farms were exposure dose rate is more 120 micro R/h

  17. Hymenolepis diminuta Infection in a Child from a Rural Area: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Shreekant; Karuna, Tadepalli; Rautaraya, Bibhudutta

    2014-01-01

    In humans, infection with Hymenolepis diminuta is usually uncommon but has been reported from various areas of the world. Parasitization rates ranging between 0.001% and 5.5% have been reported according to different surveys. We report a rare case of H. diminuta infection in a 10-year-old female from the rural area of Kendrapada district of Odisha. The patient came to our pediatrics outpatient department with the chief complain of intermittent abdominal pain, anal pruritus and nocturnal restl...

  18. Off-Grid Energy Technologies used in Rural Areas of India

    OpenAIRE

    Krishan Arora; Amardeep Singh Virdi

    2013-01-01

    Energy scenario in India is changing with a greater pace. Growth rate of villages has increased, likewise their energy demand. With the awareness of the decreasing natural resources, non conventional energy resources are gaining lots of interest in sparsely separated areas. The rural areas of India are having the huge scarcity of energy because of limited energy resources and Grid connectivity is not feasible due to economic factors and geographical situations. So we require to establish the ...

  19. Fall-out of pollutants from distant industrial areas in a rural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Louvain-la-Neuve, a semi-rural area, one frequently observes the fall-out of sulphur dioxide attributable to various industrial areas within Belgium. Two techniques are employed for finding the sources: meteorological studies of the trajectories of the polluted air masses; elemental analysis of aerosols collected at the time of dioxide fall-out. With the latter technique it is possible to characterize the emitting industries and thus to determine the origin of the detected sulphur dioxide. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Nickel in Paints Scrapings Obtained from Selected Rural Areas in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obidi Olayide Folashade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and concentrations of nickel in painted walls of selected rural residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria with a view to determine the health risk of the occupants. Microorganisms isolated were Bacillus subtilis, B. brevis, B. megaterium, B. circulans and Enterobacter gergoviae with population density ranging from 1.0 - 2.1 and 0.5 -1.9 x 105 cfu/g in the outdoor and indoor samples respectively. Nickel concentration was determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS. Here we reported the detection of nickel in all samples obtained from thirteen rural locations with concentrations ranging from 2.240 to 11.353 and from 1.241 to 13.309 mg/l in outdoor and indoor samples respectively. Nickel concentrations showed the levels were above the maximum permissible limits recommended by USEPA. The rural populace in these areas may be at risk.

  1. Development Of A Surveillance System For Potability Of Water In Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandotra V.K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether establishment of a water surveillance system in rural areas and concomitant action in event of detection of contamination will have an impact on diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Hypothesis: 1. It is possible to establish water testing laboratories in selected schools in rural areas. 2. If water samples are found contaminated, immediate corrective action will result in reduction of diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality. Objectives: 1. To study the feasibility of establishing water testing facility in the science laboratories of schools. 2. To study the impact of preventive measures in the community if immediate steps for household purification of water and treatment of diarrhoea cases are taken. Study design: Interventional study. Setting: A rural block. Participants: Science teachers of high schools and field workers. Interventions: 1. Training of schoolteachers for water testing and field workers for collection of water samples and diarrhoea control measures. 2. Establishing of water testing laboratories in schools. 3. In case of detection of water contamination, corrective action at different levels. 4. Propagation of ORS for management of diarrhoeas. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Paired ‘t’ test, Chi square test. Results: Reduction in diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality was observed. Conclusions: It is feasible to develop a water surveillance system in rural areas utilizing local resources. If combined with educational measures, it will significantly reduce diarrhoea related morbidity and mortality.

  2. Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

  3. Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. Final report, October 29, 1996 - November 2, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity surrounding the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area that encompasses the plant site of which a large portion is located in the Mississippi River Basin. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that measures gamma radiation. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Estimated exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 6-8 microroentgens per hour (μR/h) in the Mississippi River Basin and (b) below 6 μR/h over the Mississippi River and portions of its basin that were included in the survey area. Man-made radiation (22-1,600 μR/h) was found at the plant site; nitrogen-1 6 was the primary source of activity found at the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. Estimated exposure rates measured in the area surrounding the site during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1970 preoperational survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

  5. Relationships between population and environment in rural areas of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, T I

    1991-01-01

    Studies that have assessed the impact of population change on the environment in rural areas of selected developing countries are reviewed. The implications are that both developed and developing countries might focus on single aspects of a much larger global problem. Rural areas were selected because the bulk of the world's population lives in rural areas. Population environment interactions are 1st discussed at the global level. Studies on changing import patterns of developing countries are usless in accounting for agricultural policy shifts or other factors that may be unrelated to population growth but may be related to food imports. When the magnitude of food production and population growth is examined, there is a balance established between the two. However, analysis of the spatial distribution of desertification and soil degradation shows greater local level effects. Population/environment relationships are examined in critical ecological zones: tropical deforestation, desertification, land degradation in resource poor zones, and responses to population pressures and resource degradation. The conclusions reached are that better statistics on degradation are needed and that the trends in the human ecology of rural populations have clear implications for government policies on the environment. Agricultural development has been uneven and inequitable such that many peasant populations have suffered a decline in standards of living, particularly in Africa. There has also been an accelerated increase in rates of land degradation in resource poor areas, which are densely populated. The population response has been migration shifts out of resource poor areas to ecologically marginal areas, which has resulted in extensive desertification and deforestation. Expansion of the areas under cultivation has not just increased agricultural production but agriculture and population have invaded ecologically marginal zones in deserts and rain forests. Measurement of the magnitude and geographic distribution of deforestation is enhanced with the use of remote sensing techniques, such as those used in the 1982 UN Food and Agriculture baseline study. Soil degradation is not so easily measured. The implications are that regional development funds need to directed away from critical zones or areas adjacent to critical zones. Research is needed to understand rural to rural migration. PMID:12343671

  6. Role of tourism in development of rural marginal areas (region of Å umava Mts. in Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšitel, Jan; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    Polsko : Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics, 2003 - (Banski, J.; Owsinski, J.), s. 10 ISBN 83-86815-98-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : marginality * marginal area * rural areas Subject RIV: AE - Management ; Administration

  7. Mobile radio alternative systems study. Volume 2: Terrestrial. [rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, N.; Lester, H. L.; Anderson, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Terrestrial systems for satisfying the markets for mobile radio services in non-urban areas of the United States in the years from 185 to 2000 were investigated. Present day mobile communication technologies, systems and equipment are described for background in evaluating the concepts generated. Average propagation ranges are calculated for terrestrial installations in each of seven physiographic areas of the contiguous states to determine the number of installations that would be required for nationwide coverage. Four system concepts are defined and analyzed to determine how well terrestrial systems can fulfill the requirements at acceptable costs. Nationwide dispatch, telephone and data services would require terrestrial installations in many locations where they would be used infrequently and would not recover their investment. Access to a roaming vehicle requires that the vehicle location be known within the range limit of the terrestrial installation in which the vehicle is present at the time of the call. Access to that installation must be made through the public switched telephone network, usually involving a long-distance toll charge, and requiring costly means to track or locate the vehicle as it moved through the network of installations.

  8. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  9. Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

  10. Chapter D. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems in the Willamette River Basin and Surrounding Area, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Johnson, Henry M.; Hughes, Curt A.; Sarantou, Michael J.; Rinella, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 watersheds along a gradient of urbanization in the Willamette River basin and surrounding area, Oregon and Washington, from 2003 through 2005. The study that generated the report is one of several urban-effects studies completed nationally by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural variability caused by factors such as geology, elevation, and climate, and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among watersheds. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, a combination of land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated into a multimetric urban intensity index (UII) to represent the degree of urban development in each watershed. Physical characteristics studied include stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied include sulfate, chloride, nutrients, pesticides, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, and suspended sediment; and biological characteristics studied include algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages. Semipermeable membrane devices, passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization and (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities. Common effects documented in the literature of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased contaminants, increased streamflow flashiness, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure toward a more tolerant community associated with organically enriched conditions, generally were observed in this study. The strongest correlations to the UII and to many of the algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage metrics and community ordination involved water-chemistry metrics including the total pesticide concentration, toxic equivalents (extract assay from semipermeable membrane devices), and dissolved oxygen. Hydrologic variability metrics, such as flashiness, that normally are considered to be one of the main processes of urban disturbance had a strong association to the algal and fish assemblages in this study; however, the hydrologic variables for macroinvertebrates were secondary to the water-chemistry metrics mentioned above. Generally, the high urban intensity sites had high abundances of eutrophic and lower dissolved oxygen-indicating diatoms, high abundances of noninsects and tolerant insects, and high abundances of nonnative fish species. On the other hand, the low urban intensity sites had higher abundances of pollution sensitive diatoms, larger numbers of the sensitive macroinvertebrate EPT taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera Orders), and fish assemblages with higher abundances of sensitive salmonids. The percent salmonid and macroinvertebrate EPT richness metrics plotted against the UII indicated a possible threshold response at about 25 on the UII, which is equivalent to an impervious surface value of about 5 percent. However, due to the added agricultural land use at sites within the 25 to 60 UII range, this possible threshold probably is not solely due to urbanization, but a combination of urban and agricultural land use. The effects of agricultural and urban land use could not be distinguished from each other, yet combined they provide a good assessment of overall watershed disturbance.

  11. Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

  12. Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

  13. Considerations for decision-making on distributed power generation in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy resources for rural electrification are variable and widely dispersed, such that a solution for one region might not be appropriate for another. This study evaluates the feasibility of renewable energy technologies, centralized grid extension and local coal-fired power for rural areas that currently do not have sufficient access to electricity. The renewable power generation options considered are solar photovoltaic and wind power, with battery storage or fossil fuel generator backup. New local coal-fired power, as well as extension of the grid from an existing centralized power system, are considered to compare the impacts of scale and traditional approaches to power generation. A case study for a rural area in Northwestern China demonstrates the complexity of energy decision-making when faced with low peak demands and non-ideal renewable resource availability. Economic factors, including cost of electricity generation, breakeven grid extension distance, capacity shortage fraction (the ratio of the annual capacity shortage to the annual electric load) and land use are evaluated. - Highlights: • Considerations include technical and non-technical factors for energy decisions. • Coal and renewable power are compared based on cost and availability of resources. • Key factors for renewable power generation are capacity shortage and availability of resources. • Rural China case study evaluates the viability of distributed wind or solar power relative to coal

  14. Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irohibe Ifeoma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

  15. Diarrhoeal disease outbreak in a rural area of Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana R Hiremath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute diarrhoea is the passage of 3 or more loose or watery stools in the past 24 hours with or without dehydration. Owing to WASH strategy (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene the burden of diarrheal diseases has seen a tremendous decline over the past 2 decades. Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. Objectives: 1. To document the factors responsible for the outbreak. 2. To provide recommendations for prevention and control of such outbreaks in future. Methods: After receiving verbal information from district office regarding outbreak of diarrhoeal disease (cholera in a town of Bijapur district, we independently conducted a cross sectional study in the affected area and collected information regarding no. of people affected since the outbreak, their age and sex distribution. A total of 3802 people were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire on 28th and 29th July, 2012. We also conducted environmental investigation regarding the source of contamination and collected 2 water samples from drinking water source. Results: All the cases were clustered in the five streets, which were consuming water from contaminated two water tanks. A total of 121 cases of diarrhoea were identified affecting 3.18% of the population. Attack rate of cholera was highest (4.5% in 25-34 years age group followed by 4.22% in 15-24 years age group. Attack rates was higher among females (3.4% compared to males (2.9%. Laboratory report stated that water samples were unfit for drinking purpose. V. Cholera (Ogawa serotype was isolated from water sample. Conclusion: Consumption of contaminated water from a newly dug bore-well had led to the diarrhea outbreak. Lack of sanitation and hygiene had worsened the situation.

  16. RURAL LANDSCAPE MULTIFUNCTIONALITY: A GIS BASED APPROACH FOR ASSESSING AREAS CHARACTERISED BY ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizia Sigura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of multifunctional agriculture refers to the idea that agriculture has many functions in addition to producing food and fiber, like environmental protection, landscape preservation, and rural employment. The UE Common agricultural policy substains multifunctionality in agriculture by rural development plans that provide relevant frameworks to integrate environmental aims into agriculture. Integration of environmental instances with socio economical development is an important element also in natural resources conservation strategies. Recently, a new view of the ecological network concept has been developed to produce a more multiobjective vision that defines the ecological network as a system of natural and/or semi-natural landscape elements, that is configured and managed with the objective of maintaining or restoring ecological functions, while also providing opportunities for the sustainable use of natural resources. The study refers to a method, based on the Geographical Information System (GIS, for assessing the ecological network model in a rural landscape, where human activities are involved. Two models were developed: the landscape model and the connectivity model. The application in the study area showed the capacity of models to identify strategic places for ecological functions. The results pointed out the natural values of the area (matching the protected areas and the most favourable expected ways of connection, or interruptions, between suitable areas. Agricultural and woodland areas were the main land uses involved in the ecological network structure. The maps which have been obtained can be useful instruments in order to involve policy makers, and other stakeholders, in the decision process on land use planning. In this way, the ecological network model can be a useful instrument in order to give valuable knowledge about environmental functions of rural landscape and to show constraints and possibilities to change the landscape in the boundaries of sustainability.

  17. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas: New actors in the regulation arena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moragues-Faus, Ana M., E-mail: anmofau@doctor.upv.es; Ortiz-Miranda, Dionisio

    2010-08-15

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks.

  18. A Smart Teaching System for Autistic Children in Rural Area using MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available These The most challenging and stressful issue faced by schools and parents in efforts to provide appropriate education for autistic children .The purpose of this research work was to contribute to the knowledge and implementation of best practices for children with autism and normal children in rural area using manet. Autism is development disability that affects the normal functioning of brain. It means that children with autism think differently because brains work differently. They may have different talking, learning or playing ability. Many software systems are good enough for a class for normal children, but the autistic fail to understand the teaching methodology. Hence the autistic children face various challenges in combining with normal children in the same class. We implement the novel web based teaching system which takes care of the field of interest and taste among the autistic children of a class and helps the teacher to teach in a class in a effective way to understand the concept for normal and autistic children in rural area using manet .Every village will be connected to mobile access point, were MAP will connect the rural area with the central database server which is located in urban area to provide e-learning.

  19. Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas: New actors in the regulation arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks.

  20. Surveillance of Dengue Vectors Mosquito in Some Rural Areas of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabirul Bashar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24 week survey was conducted in some rural areas of Bangladesh and found a total of 256 positive containers and a total of 9415 larvae. In an average a 25.80% larvae positive containers were found in Malikanda and 8.00% in Dohar sadar. Aedes albopictus (Skuse were found in all the study areas, but Aedes aegypti were found only in Jahangirnagar campus (Savar and Zingera (Keranigonj areas. Percentage of positive houses was highest in Pachimde (35% and lowest in Jahangirnagar (6%. Aedes aegypti (L. larvae were found mainly in tyres, bamboo stumps earthen pots and coconut shells, whereas Aedes albopictus in all types of containers.

  1. Family planning among women in urban and rural areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family planning is an important aspect of population policy at the state level, because the demographic trends in Serbia are very unfavorable. Objective. The objective of this study was to examine the differences in family planning between the women in rural and urban areas of Serbia. Methods. This study represents the secondary analysis of the National Health Survey of the population in Serbia from 2006, which was conducted as a cross sectional study, on a representative sample of the population. Results. The respondents who used condoms as a method of contraception, were often younger, better educated, had better financial status, lived in Vojvodina, and had no children. Conclusion. Our study showed that there were differences in terms of family planning between the women of urban and rural areas, however, these differences could be explained by differences in age and education. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025: National Health Survey of the Population of Serbia

  2. TOURISM AND PROTECTED AREAS: POLITICAL ECOLOGY OF THE RURAL TOURISM IN ROMANIAN DANUBE DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru IORGA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss how tourism takes various shapes in a rural protected area from Romania (one of the typical, most vulnerable of the post-socialist period. Though tourism is advocated by Romanian officials and economists as a powerful tool, which provides economic and community development in rural, deindustrialized and protected areas, ethnographic examples presented in this paper show that ‘real tourism’, still regarded as a panacea, is far from fulfilling the locals’ needs and expectances (in terms of economic and social development in the Danube Delta. By using a political ecology perspective I will emphasize various local practices regarding tourism, demonstrating that there are several political layers of legality that do affect the perception and the tourism practice.

  3. Differentiating Countryside: Social Representations and Governance Patterns in Rural Areas with High Social Density--The Case of Chianti, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Gianluca; Rossi, Adanella

    2007-01-01

    One of the key factors for the success of development strategies in rural areas is the setting up of appropriate governance patterns, whose main outcome is a fluid communication between public and private organisations and an effective integration of objectives and policies. Through a "post-rural" approach, this paper aims to analyse an attempt to…

  4. 42 CFR 412.102 - Special treatment: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic redesignation. 412.102 Section 412...: Hospitals located in areas that are reclassified from urban to rural as a result of a geographic... additional amount that equals two-thirds of the difference between the urban standardized amount...

  5. The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

  6. The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

  7. Framework for utilizing angling as a tourism development tool in rural areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 10 (2009), s. 508-518. ISSN 0139-570X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB300860902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rural areas * development * angling Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-72349089553&origin=resultslist&sort

  8. Impact of the food safety policies on the reduction of poverty in Tunisian rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Khaldi, Raoudha; Dhraief, Mohamed Zied; Haddad, Samia; Rached, Zouhair; PADILLA, Martine; European Association of Agricultural Economists

    2007-01-01

    The observed trend of decreasing poverty in Tunisian rural areas, where agriculture is still dominated by family and where illiteracy rate and family size are high, questions may be raised about the economic policies adopted by the state. This article puts the analyses of these policies in the framework of food safety issue as food and poverty are tightly related and as food safety objective is multi-sectorial and multi-disciplinary. In economic development plans, food safety objective took t...

  9. The Sensing Internet—A Discussion on Its Impact on Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred Heller

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the experience of introducing wireless sensor networks (WSNs) into the building industry in Denmark and in a rural area of Greenland. There are very real advantages in the application of the technology and its consequences for the life cycle operation of the building sector. Sensor networks can be seen as an important part of the Internet of Things and may even constitute an Internet of Sensors, since the communication layers can differ from the Internet standards. The ...

  10. Sociodemographic Characteristics of Tobacco Consumers in a Rural Area of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, Kaneta; Hanifi, S.M.A.; Mahmood, Shehrin Shaila; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    Bangladesh typifies many developing countries experiencing an increasing trend in tobacco consumption. However, little is known about the general pattern of tobacco consumption and about population groups who are more prone to tobacco consumption. This paper aimed at generating knowledge on tobacco consumption, especially emphasizing the identification of sociodemographic groups who are more prone to tobacco consumption vis-à-vis tobacco-related health consequences in a remote rural area in B...

  11. Case-Control Study of Diarrheal Disease Etiology in a Remote Rural Area in Western Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; McDaniel, Philip; Sornsakrin, Siriporn; Srijan, Apichai; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Mason, Carl J.

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to assess the association of enteric pathogens in diarrheal disease in a remote rural area in Thailand. Stool specimens were collected from 236 children aged 3 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea (cases) and from 236 asymptomatic controls. Standard microbiologic methods, and enzyme immunoassay for viral pathogens, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium, were used to identify enteric pathogens with susceptibility testing by disk diffusion. Campylobacter, Plesiomonas, Salmonella, and ...

  12. Sustainable Development Problems of Rural Areas: Tariff Policy in Energy Power Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Michurina Frida Zakharovna; Latysheva Anna Ivanovna

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted both to stability theory forming as an important economic conception and tariff policy in energy supply for rural areas as a part of the program to achieve sustainability. Policy evaluation is made on the statistics materials on Permskii Krai. The authors show that government, business and society collaborating can achieve economic efficiency, also through tariff regulation for electric energy payment and due to energy saving. This will have a positive impact on the soc...

  13. Peculiarities of the New Architectural Interventions in Rural Area. Case Study: Trascau Depression, Alba County, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Viorel PUIU; Ana-Maria POP

    2010-01-01

    The new construction trends have manifested in the rural area, as well. The perpetuation of certain traditional elements represents a challenge for the beneficiaries of these houses. The new architectural adjustments introduced in the local architecture of the Trascau Depression have built the central idea of this paper. First of all, one distinguished an inventory of the building types and the applied changes according to the partial or complete restoration works, respecting the local urban ...

  14. Clinical profile and management of head injury at tertiary health care center in rural area, India

    OpenAIRE

    Nandkishor Narwade; Pradnya Narwade; Mithilesh Ghosalkar; Tanveer Parvez Shaikh; Yashashvi Sharma; Naseem Khan; Sharique Ansari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trauma is a major public health issue and head injury is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Head injury is the injury on head with alteration in the level of consciousness with or without vomiting. Alcohol is the major contributing factor causing majority of cases. Methods: This study analyzes the increasing occurrence of head injury in the developing rural area in India. Because of increasing trend of head injury, a total of 100 cases were studied from a pe...

  15. Diabetes screening and the distribution of blood glucose levels in rural areas of North India

    OpenAIRE

    Tomi Thomas; Shalini Prabhata; Sameer Valsangkar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Genetics and environment have both been implicated in the exponential rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus that affects 65.1 million people, and leads to a mortality of 1 million people every year in India. This study was devised to obtain the trends of the distribution of blood glucose, and sociodemographic characteristics in rural areas of a North Indian state. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at eight centers in five districts. ...

  16. RURAL AREA OF MARAMUREŞ SUPPORT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND PRACTICE OF VARIOUS FORMS OF TOURISM

    OpenAIRE

    ALINA SIMONA SIMION

    2014-01-01

    Rural Area of Maramureş Support for the Development and Practice of Various Forms of Tourism. In Maramureș the tourist can find a comprehensive tourist offer based on the diversity of tourism potential, natural and anthropogenic, which can be exploited throughout the year regardless of the season for all age groups. Here are all types of tourism (recreational, cultural, curative and mixed), conducted under various forms, the importance of this is variable spatial and temporal through the volu...

  17. Risk Factors of Postpartum Depression in Rural Areas of Isfahan Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Kheirabadi, Gholam-Reza; Maracy, Mohamad-Reza; Barekatain, Majid; Casey, Patricia R.; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is defined as a major depressive episode that occurs within four weeks after delivery. However, investigators describe a dramatic increase in the incidence of mood disorders after childbirth with the largest risk during 90 days after delivery. We aimed to study the risk factors of postpartum depression in women living in rural areas of Isfahan Province in Iran. Methods: We assessed 6627 women, two to 12 months after delivery, for depression and putati...

  18. Rural Areas and Gross Domestic Product in Some Countries of the Mediterranean Sea Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Galluzzo

    2013-01-01

    The transition from an agricultural productivist to a post productivist model has implied a change about the function and role of rural areas, that have an active part in reducing, through the multifunctionality, the social and economic exclusion in the countryside. This paper studies by a quantitative approach in some countries of the basin of the Mediterranean Sea which variables have been pivotal to improve the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and per capita GDP over 8 years. The ...

  19. "Growth Chart Study in Children Under 5 Years Old in Rural Area of Khoramabad Province"

    OpenAIRE

    F Majlesi; B. Nikpoor; Golestan, B.; F Sadre

    2001-01-01

    Growth chart is the best measure for weight monitoring of children. Most factors that affect child heath show their effect on child weight. This cross sectional and descriptive analytical study was achieved to estimate malnutrition prevalence and effective factors in children under 5 years old in rural area of Khoramabad province. 555 girls and 570 boys were chosen from health houses by cluster sampling. Data were gathered through questionnaires. verbal interviews and child weighing. Nutritio...

  20. Nutritional Status and School Achievements in a Rural Area of Anti-Atlas, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed El Hioui; Fatima-Zahra Azzaoui; Ahmed Omar Touhami Ahami; Youssef Aboussaleh

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional status is the best indicator of the global well-being of children. However, malnutrition affects physical growth, cognitive development, physical work capacity, and it consequently influences human performance and health. The present study was designed to identify factors that may influence the nutritional status and educational achievements of the children in a rural area of ANTI Atlas of Morocco. The nutritional status of 162 children (12 to 15 years of age) was assessed by nutr...