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1

The constraints of antiretroviral uptake in rural areas: the case of Thamaga and surrounding villages, Botswana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract This article examines the constraints of antiretroviral (ARV) uptake in the villages of Thamaga, Kumakwane, Mankgodi and Gakgatla which are in the Kweneng District of Botswana. The social interactionist approach and theories of health behaviour provided the theoretical basis of the study. Data were obtained by using interviewer-administered questionnaires which were applied to a sample of 145 respondents and 61 people living with HIV/AIDS in the four villages. The results of the study showed that people aged 30-39 years represented the highest proportion of the persons on ARV treatment in the villages. Some of the people living with HIV believed that ARV therapy could better their lives during the initial stages of introduction, but with time, they lost hope and gave up the treatment. Culturally, parents and children in the villages do not discuss sexual matters at home and it was found in the study that there was little communication between parents and children on AIDS and ARV issues. Some churches in the area discouraged the use of ARV. There were also traditional doctors who made their patients mix traditional herbs treatment with ARV treatment. Distance, travel costs, cultural beliefs, stigma and discrimination among others were found to be important socio-economic factors inhibiting ARV uptake. Even though there were constraints on ARV uptake in the villages, efforts were being made by Government and non-governmental organizations to overcome them. The Ministry of Health provided information and education to the public using its strategy known as Information, Education and Communication. Nurses, doctors and chiefs taught people at kgotlas (traditional courts) in the villages about the dangers of the epidemic. Free HIV testing, ARVs and condoms were provided to the villagers. The outlook for ARV uptake looks generally promising for the future. However, if HIV/AIDS is to be contained, sexual behaviour of people in the villages needs to change. PMID:25365702

Bene, Matlhogonolo; Darkoh, Michael B K

2014-12-01

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Attracting and Retaining Teachers in Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the problem varies across the United States, overall there is a shortage of rural teachers, especially in the subject areas of math, science, and special education. Recruiting teachers for rural settings requires targeting persons with rural backgrounds, attacking the negative stereotypes surrounding rural schools, and stressing the…

Harmon, Hobart L.

3

RECREATION ISSUES IN RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our country it is difficult to start rural tourism activity because almost all times, especially when cities have become a special category of communities, towns, urban population,, escaped "always in rural areas where he met relatives where were the so-called,, country house "and where he could find peace in the midst of unspoiled nature atmosphere. In addition, those various actions that attracts individuals to travel in rural areas. Thus there Sanziene habits when, according to tradition, Maramures then proceeded to the monasteries of Moldova pilgrimages to places of worship, celebrate holidays in the Villages and monasteries, and the like. The concept of rural tourism has evolved, encompassing all tourism activities taking place in rural areas. Gradually the extent of diversification of tourism practiced in the rural areas has outlined some forms: actual rural tourism, rural tourism, green tourism.

Mariana Chiril?

2013-05-01

4

Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural entrepreneurship can be considered as one of the solutions to reduce poverty, migration and develop employment in rural environments. In this study, the necessity of sustainable entrepreneurship, the effective factors and the barriers to entrepreneurship in rural area will be described. In this regard, a model has been considered to create a sustainable rural entrepreneurship area by establishing a logical connection between the effective factors in entrepreneurship. Some of the most im...

Bahareh Ansari; Seyed Mehdi Mirdamadi; Azita Zand; Masoumeh Arfaee

2013-01-01

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OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL YOUTH IN RURAL AREAS.  

Science.gov (United States)

AGRIBUSINESS IS DEFINED AS THE SUM TOTAL OF ALL OPERATIONS INVOLVED IN THE MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM SUPPLIES, PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ON THE FARM, AND THE STORAGE, PROCESSING, AND DISTRIBUTION OF FARM COMMODITIES AND ITEMS MADE FROM THEM. WITHIN THESE THREE AREAS ARE SEEN MANY JOB OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL AND URBAN YOUTH HAVING COLLEGE…

DOWLER, LLOYD

6

Sn Attenuation in Iran and Surrounding Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have proposed a complex seismic attenuation structure across the Middle East. In order to improve the knowledge of the uppermost mantle in Iran and surrounding areas, we collected a large data set consisting of 16 years (1996-2011) of waveforms recorded by 305 permanent and temporary stations. The high frequency Sn phase is blocked for much of the northern Middle East therefore we have looked to identify low frequency Sn waveforms. We used a bandpass filter (0.1-0.5Hz) to identify efficient longer period Sn phases. In order to determine Sn Q we applied a Two station Method (TSM) to eliminate the source effects. We have used the LSQR algorithm to tomographically map Sn attenuation tomography across the Iranian plateau. Our preliminary results indicate very low Q values within the central Iranian plateau down to less than 100. The pattern we observe is roughly consistent with tomographic Pn velocity models from prior studies. We also hope to compare our results with studies in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau to have a better understanding of the propagation characteristics of long period Sn. In both the Tibetan and Iranian plateaus we appear high uppermost mantle attenuation beneath the highest topography indicating a thin and hot uppermost mantle.

Ku, W.; Bao, X.; Kaviani, A.; Sandvol, E. A.

2012-12-01

7

Overhead View of Area Surrounding Pathfinder  

Science.gov (United States)

Overhead view of the area surrounding the Pathfinder lander illustrating the Sojourner traverse. Red rectangles are rover positions at the end of sols 1-30. Locations of soil mechanics experiments, wheel abrasion experiments, and APXS measurements are shown. The A numbers refer to APXS measurements as discussed in the paper by Rieder et al. (p. 1770, Science Magazine, see image note). Coordinates are given in the LL frame.The photorealistic, interactive, three-dimensional virtual reality (VR) terrain models were created from IMP images using a software package developed for Pathfinder by C. Stoker et al. as a participating science project. By matching features in the left and right camera, an automated machine vision algorithm produced dense range maps of the nearfield, which were projected into a three-dimensional model as a connected polygonal mesh. Distance and angle measurements can be made on features viewed in the model using a mouse-driven three-dimensional cursor and a point-and-click interface. The VR model also incorporates graphical representations of the lander and rover and the sequence and spatial locations at which rover data were taken. As the rover moved, graphical models of the rover were added for each position that could be uniquely determined using stereo images of the rover taken by the IMP. Images taken by the rover were projected into the model as two-dimensional 'billboards' to show the proper perspective of these images.NOTE: original caption as published in Science MagazineMars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

1997-01-01

8

Rurality study of restricted areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areasrurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

Sergio Rivaroli

2009-10-01

9

Rurality study of restricted areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two main perspectives of investigation emerge from the study of a territory’s rurality: a geographical approach and a sociological approach. The research examines the sub-regional study case of ‘Nuovo circondario imolese’. The analysis shows that the combination of traditional institutional criteria with detailed informations about the territory, generates more accurate results which determine a better comprehension of the characteristics of restricted areasrurality. Over the period 1991-2001, the study highlights an increase in rural areas. This result could be interpreted as an effect of urban sprawl’s intensification, that increases the competition between non-farm residences and agricultural activities.

Sergio Rivaroli

2011-02-01

10

Rural Areas Feel Effects of Macroeconomic Policy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diversification of rural economies and changes in financial markets and world trade have broken down many barriers that insulated rural areas in the past. United States rural areas--the rural South and Northeast in particular--now appear to be affected slightly more than urban areas by national monetary and fiscal policies. (JHZ)

Malley, James R.; Hady, Thomas F.

1987-01-01

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Comparison of the vector potential of different mosquito species for the transmission of heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, in rural and urban areas in and surrounding Stillwater, Oklahoma, U.S.A.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dirofilaria immitis Leidy (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), or heartworm, is a mosquito-borne nematode that causes a fatal disease in carnivores. Although infection is preventable through prophylactic drugs, compliance and the spectre of resistance suggest vector control is a viable alternative. There were two main objectives in this study: (a) to evaluate the relationships between landscape and social factors and the number and species of heartworm-positive mosquitoes, with a specific focus on the importance of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), and (b) to test the hypothesis that dog heartworm is more prevalent in suburban than in rural areas. To achieve these objectives, mosquitoes were collected from May to November 2010 at 16 rural and 16 urban locations in Payne County, Oklahoma, U.S.A. using three trapping methods that utilized, respectively, resting boxes, carbon dioxide traps and BG Sentinel traps. Urban areas showed greater numbers of Ae.?albopictus and a higher overall likelihood of infection with D.?immitis. Because many species of mosquito are responsible for heartworm transmission, current prophylactic treatment remains the best method of controlling this parasite. PMID:24898348

Paras, K L; O'Brien, V A; Reiskind, M H

2014-08-01

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EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS IN EUROPEAN UNION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Europe's rural areas face a common challenge: the creation of highquality, sustainable jobs. In this area, the gap between urban and rural areas continues to widen. Although rural areas make up 93% of theterritory of the European Union (EU, income per capita in these areas is little more than half that in urban areas. For this reason it is becoming increasingly difficult to attract and retain skilled individuals.

MADALINA NEACSU

2009-05-01

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ROLE OF RURAL TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …. The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa. The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development possibilities of studied rural areas. We analysed how different systems are able to maintain its functions in the context of identifi ed perturbations (socio-economic and geophysical. We analysed the infl uence of different factors on systems stability, its resilience, robustness and integrity. The gained results show that only the higher level of diversifi cation is not a guarantee for systems higher stability, resilience, robustness and integrity, but there also other

Andrej Udov?

2001-09-01

14

Hemodynamic changes in the areas surrounding arteriovenous malformations after embolization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hemodynamic changes in eleven patients with supratentorial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated by embolization were studied by means of single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine. In all the patients, the pre-embolization SPECTs showed a low perfusion in the zone adjacent to the nidus. In five patients with a 50?100% obliteration of the nidus, and with little or no new low-density area (LDA) on CT after embolization, low-perfusion area surrounding the nidus in SPECT image become smaller. In four patients who had moderate-sized new LDA on the post-embolization CT, however, the low-perfusion area was extended. In two patients with a 20% obliteration of the large AVM, no change was found in the SPECT images. The ischemic state surrounding the AVM nidus is considered to be caused mainly by the cerebral steal phenomenon; it can be improved by appropriate embolization. (author)

15

Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

An operational definition for "rural area" is pivotal if proposals, policies and decisions aimed at optimising the distribution of resources, closing the gap on inequity between areas and raising standards of living for the least advantaged populations are to be put in place. The concept of rurality, however, is often based on alternative and…

Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen

2005-01-01

16

Integrated Pollutant Concentration Distribution Over Area Surrounding Elevated Point Source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Air pollutant dispersion from a continuous elevated point source in the atmosphere for a combination of varying meteorological parameters is studied in the frame of Gaussian plume model. The gaussian basic formula for the concentration is reformulated in polar coordinates. The study derives a general formula for the annual or seasonal integrated concentration over sixteen angular sectors surrounding the source. A computer program is developed to determine the frequency of occurrence of the wind velocity and direction together with the stability classes for the sake of evaluating the integrated pollutant concentration as a function of the distance from the source in the different angular sectors. The results have been applied to the area surrounding the reactor of the Nuclear Research at Inshas-Egypt

17

Tectonics and seismicity of Baku and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : In this article it is described Baku and its surrounding areas, where the main tectonics are the Caucasus, strike-slip faults and reverse faults. The Caucasus is a part of the Alpine-Himalayan folding belt and situated between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The main faults in this region are the Pembak-Sevan fault, the Garni fault and the Talesh fault. The Pembak-Sevan fault and the Garni fault are characterized by right-leteral strike slip faults. The Talesh fault is characterized by reverse fault and the Talesh Mountains have been thrust over the south Caspian depression. Some earthquake catalogues for Baku and surrounding region had been prepared from different sources. The qreat earthquakes had been occured in the Caucasus, the Caspian sea and the Tales fault and around Baku.

18

Biomass energy management in rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This conference discussed the energy consumption patterns of rural areas of developing countries, especially India, the potential of biomass sources for energy, solutions to deforestation, demonstration programs for integrating agriculture, forestry, and biogas plants, economics of social forestry, and constraints and recommendations for rural development in South Asian countries. Thirty-three papers have been abstracted separately. 268 references, 44 figures, 100 tables.

1983-01-01

19

Plastic surgery in rural area: A report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of our rural population does not seek the expensive specialist service of distant city hospitals due to social or financial reasons. Existing health system in rural area is not efficient enough to meet the health demands of such vast population. There is only one Government Plastic surgery unit covering the population of 40 lacs leading to huge backlog of patients waiting for reconstructive surgery. To evade this situation a team of Plastic surgeons from Government Medical College Jabalpur goes to rural areas twice a year and has operated in on nine occasions since last 4 years. The activities and experiences of the last nine visits are reported here.

Agarwal Pawan

2005-01-01

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Irish Rural Structure and Gaeltacht Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the report on a background study for the National Spatial Strategy (NSS) regarding the Irish Rural Structure. The main objective of the study was to "develop, using demographic, economic and geographical data, a typology of rural areas in Ireland and their main characteristics. The typology should be developed at a geographical scale that enables practical regional and subregional comparisons to be made". The study also examined: trends within these areas and the outlook for the...

Walsh, Jim

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Rural Areas Perceive Policy Tilt  

Science.gov (United States)

When U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan talks about using merit pay to attract the best teachers to the classroom, he probably doesn't have in mind a place like Richmond County, North Carolina. In this rural community where the unemployment rate is nearly 14 percent and there's no movie theater for miles around, school administrators say…

McNeil, Michele

2009-01-01

22

Development Areas of Rural Tourism in Romania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The popularity of rural tourism forms has increased in recent years. From the initiatives with individual character it has been reached a real alternative leisure. The reason? Authenticity of rural areas is a quality becoming more demanding in terms of current life. Synonymous with a holiday spent with little money in nature, rural tourism forms, like and are becoming increasingly popular. Folk heritage of folk architecture, folk customs and traditions, crafts, port and popular folklore, gastronomy specific is the most popular tourist attractions in rural tourism. Therefore, tourist villages and agro-tourist offer circumscribed, in particular, to Romanian folk brand areas, which fortunately, also benefits of natural attractions of great beauty.

Ramona Ciolac

2012-05-01

23

Medical library support in rural areas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Physicians in rural areas often feel professionally isolated due to lack of access to medical center services, particularly library services. To test the need for and use of medical library services, an experimental program was established for physicians in southeastern Kentucky. Physicians were given a toll-free number to call for assistance or to make requests, and persons in two rural locations were trained in the use of basic library reference sources. A communication procedure to a unive...

Cooper, J. K.; Cooper, D.; Johnson, T. P.

1983-01-01

24

Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

2009-07-01

25

Disseminating Ambient Assisted Living in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future.

Gerhard Leitner

2014-07-01

26

Disseminating ambient assisted living in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The smart home, ambient intelligence and ambient assisted living have been intensively researched for decades. Although rural areas are an important potential market, because they represent about 80% of the territory of the EU countries and around 125 million inhabitants, there is currently a lack of applicable AAL solutions. This paper discusses the theoretical foundations of AAL in rural areas. This discussion is underlined by the achievements of the empirical field study, Casa Vecchia, which has been carried out over a four-year period in a rural area in Austria. The major goal of Casa Vecchia was to evaluate the feasibility of a specific form of AAL for rural areas: bringing AAL technology to the homes of the elderly, rather than moving seniors to special-equipped care facilities. The Casa Vecchia project thoroughly investigated the possibilities, challenges and drawbacks of AAL related to this specific approach. The findings are promising and somewhat surprising and indicate that further technical, interactional and socio-psychological research is required to make AAL in rural areas reasonable in the future. PMID:25068862

Leitner, Gerhard; Felfernig, Alexander; Fercher, Anton J; Hitz, Martin

2014-01-01

27

Multifunctional character of rural areas in Poland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Multifunctional development of rural areas involves implementation of new non-agricultural functions, such as production, commerce or services. This strategy results from social and economic difficulties in these areas, economic underdevelopment, ineffective agricultural farms and unemployment. The research material used in the paper included analysis of the related literature, analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in the area of Poland and the author’s own observations. As results from the study, rural areas should perform the functions of food production, environmental protection, culture, tourism and providing services for municipal areas. These functions should provide the basis for development of additional non-agricultural activity. This involves the plans made by people who live in the country for starting businesses in the area of services, commerce, transport, tourism and craftsmanship and handicraft. The non- -agricultural activities which have already been performed suggest, on the one hand, opti-mistic opportunities of growth in rural areas but, on the other hand, are not conducive to the development of agricultural functions, which are inherent in rural areas.

Jan Sikora

2012-04-01

28

Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

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7 CFR 4290.130 - Identified Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the RBIC Program Organizing A Rbic § 4290.130 Identified Rural Areas. A RBIC must identify the...

2010-01-01

30

Effects of land use on the cooling effect of green areas on surrounding urban areas  

Science.gov (United States)

The spatial distribution of the cooling effect of the green area on surrounding urban area in Nagoya, central Japan was examined by applying ASTER data. First, we clarified the correlation between surface temperature and land use in a green area. Second, we also examined the extent of the cooling effect of the green area on the surrounding urban area. Third, we extracted the land-use factors that significantly affect the extent of the cooling effect. Finally, we referred to new knowledge about the effect of terrain on the cooling effect. The surface temperature differed with land use in the green area. Surface temperatures for green areas were lower than those for other categories, except ponds. In green areas, the temperature in forest lands was lower than that in lawn and agricultural land, suggesting that the forest contributes strongly to the cooling effect of the green area. The surface temperature differences among the categories were small in October, compared to the other analysed days during summer. The extent of the cooling effect of the green area on the surrounding urban area averaged in all directions reached about 200m in the surrounding urban area from July to October. However, the surface temperature difference between the urban area and the green area decreased in October. This phenomenon indicated that the cooling effect of the green area was weaker during autumn than during summer. By examining the spatial distribution of the surface temperature, the cooling effect was shown to stretch in almost all directions of the urban area, and it appears unlikely that wind direction affected the extent of the cooling effect (Fig.1). The cooling effect of Heiwa Park was affected by the roads and buildings. Their effect on the cooling effect depended on their layout and size. It is desirable to have green areas scattered throughout an urban environment rather than concentrated at one spot because the cooling range of a single green area is limited to a few hundred metres. In addition to the land-use factor, it was found that terrain affected the cooling effect of a green area. The green area in the current study site is located on a hill, and the cold air generated over the green area was effectively advected downslope towards the surrounding urban area. The effect of the hill on the cooling effect had not been presumed, and they might be highly significant. Therefore, We suggest accounting for these results during the planning the layout of the urban block and the urban canyon to effectively use the cooling effect of an urban green area.

Hamada, S.; Tanaka, T.

2011-12-01

31

Business Incubator Development in Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

One viable economic development option for rural areas is the creation of business incubators--facilities that aid in the early stages of growth of an enterprise by providing rental space, services, and business assistance. Business incubators promote community development by diversifying the economic base, enhancing the community's image as a…

Weinberg, Mark

32

Unemployment reduction in rural areas of Uzbekistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper determines directions how to tackle with unemployment in rural areas in the country,particularly in period of world financial crisis. The author recommends several policy directions, including furtherdevelopment of small firms, farms and home-based work places.

Khamid Abdurakmanov

2009-01-01

33

Ground-water records for the area surrounding the Chickasaw National Recreation Area, Murray County, Oklahoma  

Science.gov (United States)

This report is a compilation of ground-water records, water levels, and water-quality field determinations, for wells in a 132 square-mile (342 square kilometer) area surrounding the Chickasaw National Recreational Area in south-central Oklahoma. This information was collected in cooperation with the National Park Service. The location of the study area is shown on figure 1; the well locations are shown on figure 2. Data from 101 wells are summarized in this report.

Goemaat, Robert L.; Willard, Cass C.

1983-01-01

34

Business productivity and area productivity in rural England  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Rural area productivity and rural business productivity measure different things. This paper presents a empirical analysis of labour productivity differentials across the new DEFRA definition of rural. We find labour productivity is 21% (13%) lower in sparse (less sparse) rural areas compared to urban areas. Labour productivity in less sparse and urban areas appears to depend on similar factors. Labour productivity in sparse areas strongly relates to a different industrial...

Webber, Don John; Curry, Nigel; Plumridge, Anthony

2009-01-01

35

ECG ABNORMALITIES IN RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was carried out in the summer of 1972 in east Azerbaijan, northwest Iran, to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. ECG tracings were prepared from 198 women and 178 men aged 40-60. Only 45% of the tracings were completely normal. Q/QS abnormalities were found in 4.7% of tracings, left axis deviation in 4% tall R wave in 37%, ST depression in 3.9% of men and 14.1% of women and T wave inversion in 2.2% of men and 11.6% of women. Further studies are recommended to explain this high prevalence of ST depression and T wave inversion in the women of this area.

M. Daneshapjooh

1975-08-01

36

Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote-rural village-urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. - The concentration, profiles and possible sources of PAHs in Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding area soils were studied and related to population density and gross domestic product (GDP).

37

Role-in Rural Areas of Shanxi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study uses the income of rural residents per capita income grouping and panel data of 2001-2010 from "Shanxi Statistical Yearbook". The study uses the World Bank's software Povcal and the purchasing power of $ 1.25 per person per day as the poverty line to measure the index of the extent of poverty in rural areas in Shanxi Province. It was found that the poverty rate decreases exponentially significant effect, but the poverty gap index decreased to a lesser extent and the poverty gap squared index relatively rose. This suggests that economic growth to poverty reduction of the total population especially to the poor in the richer part of the population has a distinct role, but to the poor population living in extreme poverty has negative effects. Rapid economic growth will increase extreme poverty, resulting in further widening the gap between rich and poor.

Zhan-ju Cui

2013-01-01

38

Algae of Lima ground and its surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with the systematic study of some species of Microcoleus, Nodularia, Cylindrospermum, Botrydium, Vaucherio and Stichococcus identified on soil samples from some places of Lima city and adjacent areas.

Reina Zúñiga A.

2014-06-01

39

Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

2010-01-01

40

Catawba Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Lake Wylie, South Carolina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial gamma survey was conducted over the Catawba Nuclear Station, located near Lake Wylie, South Carolina, during the period 31 May through 7 June 1984. The survey covered a 260-square-kilometer (100-square-mile) area centered on the Station. A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate plus cosmic exposure rate at the 1-meter level was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a USGS topographic map of the area. The terrestrial plus cosmic gamma exposure rate ranged from 3.7 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), the cosmic level over Lake Wylie, to 17.4 ?R/h just east of the Catawba River below the dam site. A search of the gamma data showed no man-made gamma emitters in the survey area. Soil samples and ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations on the ground to support the aerial data. 8 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

 
 
 
 
41

Surveillance Of Vital Events In Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: Which system of registration of vital events is more efficient? Objective: To ascertain the efficiency and quality of vital events registration in the rural community. Study design: Population based cross-sectional. Settings: Rural areas. Sample size: All births and deaths which occurred during the year 96-97 in the community development block were incorporated in the study. Study variables: Births, deaths, cause of death, events missed by different agencies and quality of registration. Analysis: Simple proportions Results: During the reference period of one year 2617 births and 855 deaths were reported in rural population of 96242. Anganwadi workers were most efficient as they could record 96% of births and 83.2% of deaths. Multipurpose health workers (female and village chowkidar could record 77.7% and 51.0% of births and 75% and 64%. 6% of deaths respectively. Correctness of causes of death matched to the extent of 31-36%, which was quite discouraging. Health system and system of integrated child Development Services do not use mortality data for local planning and seldom share this information with the community, whose lives.

Lal Sunder

1998-01-01

42

Factual biosphere database for Dounreay and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Dounreay region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Dounreay area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

43

Factual biosphere database for Sellafield and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents from open published sources a factual database appropriate to the Sellafield region including the coastal marine environment for present day biosphere conditions. A detailed description of the present day environment in the Sellafield area is provided. This includes a description of the natural environment and climate. Site specific data required for biosphere modelling are also outlined. (author)

44

Climatic features of Ljig municipal and its surrounding area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Territory of Ljig municipal is located in Podrinje-Colubara region and belongs to the temperate continental climate with continental rain regime. This is hilly- mountainous area with 848 m altitude (Rajac Mountain and 723 m relative height, in which are deeply incised (up to 500 m valleys of Ljig River and its tributaries. These geomorphologic features cause airstreams direction in this territory, and because of that some parts of Ljig municipal have temperate continental climate (like valleys and some of them have severe continental climate (like Rajac Mountain. The peak of precipitation is at the end of spring and beginning of summer - in May and June, and the driest months are February and October. The great influences on climatic changes in Ljig municipal and its area have north low parts of Panonian area, which are open for penetration of damp and cold air streams from north, northwest and west. This mountain area on south part of Ljig municipal is some kind of "dam" for cold air streams from south, so they are considerable colder on this territory. On the base of available data in period 1961-1990 from Meteorological Annuals of Republic Hydrometeorological Institute of Serbia climatologic overview is presented.

Milanovi? Ana

2006-01-01

45

An Ethnographic Study of Special Education Services in a Rural Area of Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overviews the current status of special education programs in Mexico in general and in Ciudad Juarez (Chihuahua) and surrounding rural areas. Two special education administrators employed in the Ciudad Juarez school system discuss problems associated with teacher training and lack of administrative support, and the importance of parental and…

Argus-Calvo, Beverley; And Others

1996-01-01

46

Key Drivers of Economic Development and Inclusion in Rural Areas  

result of strong rural economies, but rather the effect of wealthy people ... \\entrepreneurs move to rural areas because of the desirable residential ..... report \\on rural economies produced by the Performance and Innovation Unit. 20. ..... in \\the service sector – for example 21% in distribution and catering and 28% in '\\other.

47

Rural Areas Attract Young Families and College Graduates.  

Science.gov (United States)

From 1995 through 1997, the rural population increased, especially in the South and West, due to net migration from urban areas. The largest rural gains were among people ages 26 to 30, including many young families. College graduates were well represented among rural in-migrants. Includes migration data by age group, educational attainment,…

Nord, Mark; Cromartie, John

1999-01-01

48

Differences in ozone photochemical characteristics between the megacity Tianjin and its rural surroundings  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground level ozone and its precursors were measured from July 10 to September 30, 2009 within Tianjin. The data were used to analyze differences in ozone photochemical oxidant production in urban and rural areas. Results showed more pronounced risk of O3 exposure at the rural site, Wuqing. During the observation period, ozone varied monthly, peaking in Jul. and reaching a minimum in Sep. The daily maximum ozone concentration was found to exceed 80 ppb for 28 days 100 ppb for 12 days, 120 ppb for 7 days at Wuqing, while it exceeded 80 ppb for 10 days, 100 ppb for 2 days, and 120 ppb for 1 day at the urban site, Tieta. The daily maximum ozone concentrations at Wuqing and Tieta were 193.7 ppb and 130.4 ppb. The daily maximum ozone concentration occurred at noon in Tieta and at 14:00 in Wuqing. NO and NOx peaked in September and reached minimum values in Jul., CO showed little variation at both sites. NOx and CO showed similar double-peak diurnal cycles resulted from a combination of diurnal variation of emission and the Planetary Boundary Layer During the VOCs (volatile organic compounds) sampling period, the average total VOCs concentration showed considerable day to day variation, which was 87.91 ppb with a range of 27.2 ppb-437.3 ppb at Tieta, and the average total VOCs was 197.95 ppb with a range of 63.48 ppb-473.97 ppb at Wuqing. A sensitivity study performed with the NCAR-MM model showed alkenes to be the most numerous contributors to O3 production, accounting for 53.3% of the total. Aromatics and alkanes accounted for 35.1% and 9.2%, respectively.

Han, Su-qin; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Chun-sheng; Lu, Xue-qiang; Ran, Liang; Han, Meng; Li, Pei-yan; Li, Xiang-jin

2013-11-01

49

The Impact of Building Recreational Houses in Rural Areas. Case Study: Rânca Mountain Resort  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper aims at showing how the present-day rural space suffers modifications meant to produce different changes in terms of physiognomy and also at social and economic levels, focusing on the phenomenon of building recreational houses in rural areas, by population coming from urban areas. The case study we have chosen refers to the Rânca mountain resort, situated in the Southern Carpathians (in the Parâng Mountains. This place, which thirty years ago might have passed for a peripherally rural area, it is now characterized by incipient urbanization. It is interesting to observe that this process is not supported by the closest urban centre (the town of Novaci, but by the towns located at greater distances (the towns of Craiova and Târgu-Jiu, that have the social and economic power to extend their influence up to 150 km distance. Therefore, the flows caused, on the one hand by the urban population migrating during the week-ends to the rural areas and, on the other hand, by the investments made in utility infrastructures, have profound implications not only on the changing rural landscape, but also on peoples’ perception of traditional (rural versus modern (urban way of life. Hence, a new type of landscape appears in remote rural areas, which benefit from an extraordinary natural potential, as a result of town dwellers’ wish for natural surroundings and urban standards

Antoaneta-Carina POPESCU

2010-12-01

50

Changes in Rural Areas and Regional Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study examines how regional development has been affected by social, economic and environmental changes in three regions located in central Greece. These regions were affected significantly by social and economic changes, because of substantial new infrastructure development that took place related to a ski resort and agritourism establishments. Sample data were collected on the characteristics of residents and land use in these three rural areas. The results of the study show that tourist development is very important for the socio-economic improvement of these regions. Using cross-tabulation statistical methods it was found that regions with better infrastructure attract more tourists than regions with inferior infrastructure (p-value = 0.000 and residents with higher education have better income than residents with lower education (p-value = 0.000.

Helen Theodoropoulou

2008-01-01

51

Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo) to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (...

SOEJONO; SUGENG BUDIHARTA; ENDANG ARISOESILANINGSIH

2013-01-01

52

On the future of local communities in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When discussing the future of rural areas for rural sociology (which aims at developing a holistic approach, the most important issue is certainly the question of fate of local communities in rural areas. Reviewing the enormous literature on countryside and agriculture, one can notice an overwhelming dominance of articles that focus on the agrarian and economic policy, often written fairly in the form of agro-economic reductionism. The totality of human life in rural communities is often lost in the fragmentary analysis of individual scientific disciplines. That is why there is a lack of knowledge on the meaning and content of (new rurality, rural relationships, rural values, rural communities, rural ways of life and on integral rural development in conceptual-theoretical as well as in practical-empirical sense. This problem, understandably, affects different aspects of the complex phenomenon of "rurality" in our situation. However, regardless of the evident insufficiency of synthetic knowledge about our countryside as a social community, it is clearly evident that rural areas are in deep crisis. Local communities in the majority of our rural areas are completely marginalised. Great number of these communities are in the process of disintegration and disappearance. They have lost a "spirit of time" and identity and have not acquired a new one. Furthermore, in some rural areas local communities have literally vanished. In other words, it is difficult to find in our society any active rural communities with a clear future prospects. That is why the crucial question for social theory as well as for social practice is: Which are the economic, demographic, technological and especially socio-cultural prerequisites of renewal and development of local communities in the near future? Without their revitalisation there is no development of rural areas and vice versa. In the focus of this renewal there should be an adequate spatial, functional, organic and emotional connection of people living there. In other words, their participation and their self-identification with these communities is a key prerequisite. Although the renewal of our rural communities is an extremely difficult task, filled with many dilemmas, inconsistencies and objective contradictions, it is not unresolvable, at least for one type of these communities. With the well-thought strategy of planning and management of rural development, these processes can be accelerated and channelled in the desired direction. This paper discusses some possible solutions and gives more concrete propositions in relation to this problem.

Maleševi? Krstan

2003-01-01

53

78 FR 59415 - Formula Grants for Rural Areas: Guidance and Application Instructions  

Science.gov (United States)

...the basis of rural area population, and the...within the rural area. Under...number of low-income individuals...areas and rural areas to suburban...and eligible low-income individuals...the target populations; such...

2013-09-26

54

Study on the Environmental Tritium in Surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah - Bandung Landfill Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation of environmental tritium distribution in surrounding of Bantar Gebang - Bekasi and Leuwigajah landfill areas has been carried out. The aim of this investigation was to know tritium concentration in surrounding of both landfill areas. Normally, tritium concentration in the nature is around 0-5 TU. The results of this investigation showed that the tritium concentration in both shallow groundwater of both landfill areas were still in the range of its normal limit, whereas tritium concentration in stream along both landfill areas and leached water showed higher value. Tritium concentration in deep groundwater of Bantar Gebang landfill showed about the zero value, it means is the normal condition. (author)

55

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197, equine (63, pigs (25, sheep (11, and dogs (28 were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197 among cattle and 10.7% (3/28 among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular dos parasitas através do sequenciamento dos produtos amplificados na PCR do gene SSU rRNA. Foram coletadas amostras fecais de animais domésticos criados para subsistência e estimação nas propriedades rurais do entorno de três fragmentos florestais. Amostras de bovinos (197, equinos (63, suínos (25, ovinos (11 e cães (28 foram coletadas de 98 propriedades rurais. A ocorrência de Cryptosporidium para a espécie bovina foi de 3,0% (6/197; para os cães, de 10,7% (3/28; e para os demais animais os resultados foram negativos. Todas as sequências obtidas das seis amostras de bovinos apresentaram identidade molecular com Cryptosporidium andersoni, enquanto as sequências oriundas de amostras de fezes de cães revelaram-se similares ao C. canis. A ocorrência do Cryptosporidium entre os animais estudados foi baixa. Diante dos resultados do presente estudo, o ciclo zoonótico da criptosporidiose parece ter menos importância nesta região. A presença de espécies de Cryptosporidium ainda pouco relatadas em humanos pode ser, por outro lado, importante para a fauna silvestre, uma vez que estes animais podem ser considerados como uma fonte de infecção e disseminação deste protozoário. O impacto e a magnitude da infecção de C. andersoni, em ruminantes selvagens, e de C. canis, em cães silvestres, deve ser avaliado em estudos futuros, com intuito de verificar a real importância dessas espécies nesta região.

Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

2010-12-01

56

Quality of life in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of rural development (regardless of its theoretical perception is the improvement of quality of life for rural population. This issue is a complex one because it depends on multiple objective and subjective factors, community characteristics, but also its spatial, economic, social and cultural environment. Authors analyze the influence of socio-cultural individual characteristics and household characteristics, as well as their stay in Staniši? during evaluating quality of life of its rural population. The research confirmed a significant influence of socio-cultural (rural household characteristics on the evaluation of quality of life. The influence of spatial dimension of social structure is more obvious on socio-cultural (rural household characteristics.

Boki? Jelena

2014-01-01

57

RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the lack of education among rural people etc. Under these circumstances, thepaper tries, through documentation, analysis and processing statistical data, to quantify the development level of entrepreneurship in rural areas in Romania, compared with developed EU countries (such as: Germany, Great Britain, France etc., in order to reveal the gaps in this sector. To increase the relevance of the analysis, the paper also analyzes the possible causes that can stimulate or repress the expression of entrepreneurship and its implementation in Romanian and European rural areas, such as: different levels of fiscal pressure, the existence, effectiveness and efficiency of programs implementation for stimulating and supporting entrepreneurship in general and in rural areas, in particular, the different business culture etc. These results generated from the research will finally create a set of premises for adopting international best practices and develop pragmatic solutions and programs to increase entrepreneurship, which can leads to new business initiatives in the Romanian rural area.In conclusion, for a quality of life growth and a decrease of negative social and economic phenomena with medium and long-term impact, it is necessary an increase of the living standards, done by increasing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural areas. Specifically, there are needed investments in the development of human resources in rural areas and in supporting its entrepreneurial efforts and activities in order to generateprofitable activities that can ensure motivating financial and social rewards for medium and long terms.

Alexandru Costin CÎRSTEA

2013-01-01

58

Premises and Challenges of Entrepreneurship in Romanian Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rural inhabitants need to face and survive structural changes in rural economy and, thus, to become more market oriented. Traditions and old skills were somehow lost and new activities were approached. In order to reach them, public policy intervened and supported several types of activities. The public authorities demand Romanian inhabitants from rural areas to be truly competitive in a fully shacked economy. Therefore, the research question is: what are the premises and challenges that ...

Ignat, Raluca

2012-01-01

59

Concept and Planning of Site Preparation for Radioactive Waste Disposal in Jawa and Surrounding Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concept and planning for radioactive waste disposal in Jawa and surrounding area have been done. These activities were part of the investigation for preparation of repository location in Jawa. In this report, the summary of previous sitting activities, the waste inventory in Radioactive Waste Technology Centre, and list of important factors for sitting on radioactive waste disposal location. Several potential areas such as Karawang, Subang, Majalengka, Rembang, Tuban, Madura will be the focus for next activities. The result will be part of activities report regarding the preparation of repository location in Jawa and surrounding area, that will be used as recommendation prior to radioactive waste management policy. (author)

60

The social dimension of rural areas sustainable development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable development of rural areas can be seen as the desirable direction of the social and the economic model of the rural resources management. Its social dimension, understood as the seeking of new behaviour and thinking standards about needs not only in the one nation perspective, is one of the most important conditions of the sustainable development assumptions fullfiling.

Katarzyna Kokoszka

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

HIV in Predominantly Rural Areas of the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The burden of HIV/AIDS has not been described for certain rural areas of the United States (Appalachia, the Southeast Region, the Mississippi Delta, and the US-Mexico Border), where barriers to receiving HIV services include rural residence, poverty, unemployment, and lack of education. Methods: We used data from Centers for Disease…

Hall, H. Irene; Li, Jianmin; McKenna, Matthew T.

2005-01-01

62

Determinants of Food Security in Rural Areas of Pakistan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract: Out of 120 districts of Pakistan (for rural areas) only 40 are food secure while 80 (67 percent) are food insecure. Within these food insecure districts, 38 (46 percent) are extremely food insecure. The matter of food security in rural areas is of immense nature and needs to be probed. A number of factors are responsible for the situation. The current paper examines the determinants of three aspects of food security in rural areas of Pakistan, i.e. food availability, accessibility a...

Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali; Azid, Toseef; Toseef, Mohammad Usama

2009-01-01

63

Inversion of CO emissions over Beijing and its surrounding areas with ensemble Kalman filter  

Science.gov (United States)

The carbon monoxide (CO) emissions over Beijing and surrounding areas in the summer of 2010 are inversely estimated through using a regional chemical transport model, hourly surface CO observations of 13 sites, and an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). A joint adjustment for both CO concentrations and emissions are employed. The estimates of CO emissions for Beijing, Tianjin, Tangshan and Baoding are 4.11, 3.75, 3.17 and 4.08 Tg/year, respectively. They are higher than the a priori estimates in the Regional Emission inventory in Asia Version 1.1 (REAS V1.1) by 50%, 80%, 120% and 150% respectively. Use of the inverse emission inventory reduces the bias of CO simulation by 64% at assimilation sites and 48% at validation sites. This study supports the underestimation of the regional CO emissions, reported by some previous studies, especially over Beijing and surrounding areas in REAS1.1. Estimates of CO emission rates in the summer of 2010 over Beijing and surrounding areas in the inversion emission inventory (IEI) Estimates of CO emission rates over Beijing and surrounding areas in REAS1.1 for the emission scenario of 2006

Tang, X.; ZHu, J.; Wang, Z.; Wang, M.; Gbaguidi, A.; Jie, L.; Shao, M.; Tang, G.; Ji, D.

2013-12-01

64

ARCHIVE: Defra, UK - Rural and Countryside - Living in rural areas ...  

Mar 24, 2010 ... Cultural heritage and sport ... National Lottery distributors work at arm's length \\from central Government, complying with relevant ... the need to ensure that all \\areas of England or the UK have access to the money distributed.

65

Stratigraphy and tectonics of Permo-Triassic basins in the Netherlands and surrounding areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis addresses different aspects of the geological development during the Permian and Triassic (300 to 200 Ma) of the Netherlands and surrounding areas. The study area encompasses the Southern Permian Basin (SPB), a large intracratonic basin stretched out from the United Kingdom in the west to Lithuania in the east. This study revealed that, rather than one basin, the SPB actually comprised three basins, separated by subtle swells. The basins each originated differently with specific ...

Geluk, M. C.

2005-01-01

66

Composition of Trees Grown Surrounding Water Springs at Two Areas in Purwosari Pasuruan, East Java  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the research was to find out the composition of trees grown surrounding water springs at two areas in Purwosari, Pasuruan, East Java. Eleven plots for each area were observed. The data were analyzed using Mueller-Dombois’s method to calculate their importance value indexes, while Shannon-Wiener’s formula was used for determining the diversity index. The coordinate and altitude of every water spring or its group’s site was determined using Geographical Position System (GPS) to...

Soejono

2012-01-01

67

Structural transformations from rural area in the Republic of Moldova  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the links between rural transformations and sustainable livelihoods, looking in particular at the impact of the structural changes over the national economy. In order to achieve this, there were used the following research methods such as: analysis of the economic indicators, methods of comparative analysis, assessment of the public policies’ impact on the rural development.The agri-food sector in the Republic of Moldova is based on extensive farming and is insufficiently adapted to market economy conditions. There is a growing understanding in the country that the rural economy is not confined to the agricultural sector, but embraces the broad spectrum of needs of all rural people including living standards, economic activities and natural resources. The paper contains conclusions and proposals on diversification of agriculture and non farm activities in rural areas

Lucasenco Eugenia

2013-01-01

68

STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS FROM RURAL AREA IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the links between rural transformations and sustainable livelihoods, looking in particular at the impact of the structural changes over the national economy. In order to achieve this, there were used the following research methods such as: analysis of the economic indicators, methods of comparative analysis, assessment of the public policies’ impact on the rural development. The agri-food sector in the Republic of Moldova is based on extensive farming and is insufficiently adapted to market economy conditions. There is a growing understanding in the country that the rural economy is not confined to the agricultural sector, but embraces the broad spectrum of needs of all rural people including living standards, economic activities and natural resources. The paper contains conclusions and proposals on diversification of agriculture and non farm activities in rural areas.

Victor MOROZ

2013-01-01

69

Socio-economic aspects development of the rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There has been a change in the urban-rural relations in recent decades, as a result of increased mobility and intensity of information flow, changes in the production processes and the growing globalization of markets. The old urban-rural division lost its importance for the new ones: the metropolitan areas and those beside metropolitan. This can lead to the end of the traditional urban-rural relations, some signs are already seen. This is already observed in the process of “growing” the cities with their territories to rural areas. The risk of loss of the relationship between urban and rural areas is high because of the growing disproportion between these areas and decreased territorial cohesion. It requires strengthening new and deliberate efforts in regional policy, those that are not “fighting with windmills”, ie will take into account the objective processes already taking place. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to characterise the development of economic and social processes in rural areas and proposals for further action in the context of sustainable development.

Beata Skubiak

2013-06-01

70

Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labour market settle in rural, peripheral areas due to low housing prices. This article explores which groups of people move to rural areas in Denmark and why they chose to do so.

Helle Nørgaard

2013-01-01

71

Assessment of land degradation and its spatial and temporal variation in Beijing surrounding area  

Science.gov (United States)

The indulgence in willful persecution of sandstorm had made great attention of many countries around the world. Chinese government and the Chinese academy of science going with some other countries have devoted a large amount of vigor to study the crucial environment problem. Due to the main source areas of sandstorm all located in the arid and semi-arid regions where there have great area, hard natural condition and bad traffic condition, it's very difficult to accomplish source area and the reason of sandstorm. For this destination, a international cooperation organization has been established to clarify the occur mechanism, transfer process and the following environment impact of sandstorm. The organization includes many researchers come form USA, Japan, Korea, and so on. Beijing surrounding area is one of the main sandstorm sources in recent years. In order to understand fully of the sandstorm form and development, we analyzed the land use degradation of Beijing surrounding area during the last ten years. 71 scenes Landsat TM/ETM, 611 scenes DRG and DEM data had been processed in our study. This paper made a detail describe of using Landsat image data and high resolution DEM data to construe the soil erosion and vegetation degenerate. The result shows that the irrational human activities and land use style are the main factors of land use degradation. In case of Beijing surrounding area, the land degradation directly impacted the frequency and intensity of sand & dust storm in Northern China. The case study region of Beijing surrounding area includes 51 counties that belong to three provinces and autonomous regions.

Li, Shuang; Dong, Suocheng; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhiqiang, Gao

2005-08-01

72

MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGE? COUNTY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Arge? County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through...

Florentina Miu

2013-01-01

73

Energy and rural areas; Energie und Laendliche Raeume  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the 1st Goettinger talks on agricultural legislation at 5th November, 2010, the following lectures were held: (1) Energy supply and rural municipality (Johann-Christian Pielow); (2) Legal issues and practical handling of the compensation of provider rights (Hubertus Schmitte); (3) Energy economic plan approval in the rural area using natural gas pipelines as an example (Mathias Wolkewitz), (4) Maritime regional planning - Instrument for conflict resolution between wind power and fishery (Nico Nolte); (5) Energy and agriculture (Jose Martinez).

Martinez, Jose (ed.)

2013-02-01

74

Aspects on Healthcare Provision in Romanian Rural Areas, Geographical Accessibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The accessibility of health services in rural areas represents a high priority for the Romanian Ministry of Public Health; in this context, the improvement of the access of rural population to primary care services (provided as much as possible in a continuously manner) and to emergency and pharmaceutical services, is considered a strategic objective in the health reform medium term plan of the Ministry of Public Health.

Sasu, Carmen; Ciutan, Marius

2008-01-01

75

Aspects on Healthcare Provision in Romanian Rural Areas, Geographical Accessibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accessibility of health services in rural areas represents a high priority for the Romanian Ministry of Public Health; in this context, the improvement of the access of rural population to primary care services (provided as much as possible in a continuously manner and to emergency and pharmaceutical services, is considered a strategic objective in the health reform medium term plan of the Ministry of Public Health.

Carmen SASU

2008-03-01

76

An aerial radiological survey of the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity surrounding the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area, which encompasses the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employed sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure-rate measurements were made for comparison with the aerial survey results. Exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 10-14 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in cultivated fields, (b) from 8-10 ?R/h in areas adjacent to these fields and along roadways, and (c) below 6 ?R/h over waterways and wetland areas. Man-made radiation (22-52 ?R/h) was found at the plant site; cobalt-60 and cobalt-58 were the primary sources of man-made activity found at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. The exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

77

An aerial radiological survey of the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity surrounding the Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-mile) area that encompasses the plant site of which a large portion is located in the Mississippi River Basin. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that measures gamma radiation. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Estimated exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 6-8 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in the Mississippi River basin, (b) from 8-10 ?R/h in areas adjacent to the basin, and (c) below 6 ?R/h over the Mississippi River and the portions of the basin that were included in the survey area. Man-made radiation (22-1,600 ?R/h) was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site; cobalt-60 was the primary source of activity found at the Prairie Island site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. Estimated exposure rates measured during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1971 survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

78

An aerial radiological survey of the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Plymouth, Massachusetts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Terrestrial radioactivity surrounding the Pilgrim Station Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiolog- ical survey techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates near the plant and to identify unexpected, man-made radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included land areas within a three-mile radius of the plant site. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that employs sodium iodide, thallium-activated detectors. Exposure rate and photopeak counts were computed from these data and plotted on aerial photographs of the survey area. Several ground-based exposure measurements were made for comparison with the,aerial survey results. Exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied from 6 to 10 microroentgens per hour, with exposure rates below 6 microroentgens per hour occurring over bogs and marshy areas. Man-made radiation was found to be higher than background levels at the plant site. Radation due to nitrogen-1 6, which is produced in the steam cycle of a boiling-water reactor, was the primaty source of activity found at the plant site. Cesium-137 activity at levels slightly above those expected from natural fallout was found at isolated locations inland from the plant site. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found.

Proctor, A.E.

1997-06-01

79

Computer Usage and Achievement among Adults in Rural Area Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: Previous study showed that most of the adults especially from rural area they are not expert and do not have any knowledge in using computer. Besides that, they cannot afford to buy a computer at home. Due to this problem, Ministry if Rural Development organized the Computer Literacy Program to increase adult?s knowledge and skills in using computer. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to study the achievement of adult learners towards Computer Literacy Program which organized by Ministry of Rural Development in Malaysia to increase quality of life among adults in rural communities. Approach: A survey was carried out in Selangor state of Malaysia. A total number of 120 adults from the program were involved; 42 male adults and 78 female adults. Results: The survey showed that the participants have higher achievement in computer usage in the Computer Literacy Programme. Conclusion: It is suggested that a comprehensive assessment should be conducted by Ministry of Rural Development in order to increase quality of life among adults in rural area. The implications of these findings showed that participants have higher achievement in the aspect of knowledge, skills and motivation in computer usage.

Abdul R. Ahmad

2009-01-01

80

Wine Tourism on Rural Areas - Polish Conditions after the Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The socio-economic transformations after 1989 have brought huge changes in the administration of personal properties and made it possible to manage the private property. Centrally planned economy has been replaced by the market economy, in which single farm households became the subjects of the market. It opened a new way to realize modern ideas and plans, especially on rural areas. As a result, rural households from being solely the attribute of the national agriculture sector, have now become prominent players in the services sector, particularly in the hospitality - tourism industry. One of the means to diversify profile of rural households is to transform an agriculture household into an agro-tourism household. Nowadays, rural communities face new, market-oriented requirements, which make them respond by joining the tradition and modernity. Rural areas are not only obliged to produce and supply food for the cities. Their image is now created by a tourism product, which includes: natural environment, natural and cultural landscape and local culture. Over the last years wine tourism has become more and more popular, even in those countries, which were not traditionally considered wine countries. In Poland wine tourism is a new and dynamic phenomenon copying successfully the resolution from the West. Setting up particularly oriented agro-tourism farms (e.g. wine agro-tourism farms can be a means to transform and modernize the rural households and, equally, a great opportunity for the owners to improve their financial situation and status of life.

Magdalena KUBAL

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Breastfeeding supplements in urban and rural areas of Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1982, a researcher studied breast feeding practices and supplementation of rice among 621 infants in Dhaka and 4 rural areas of Dhaka district, Bangladesh. At this time, the mean age for all the infants was 35.2 months. 3.3% of breast feeding urban mothers supplemented rice to their infants' diet within 3 months, while no rural mothers did so. Urban mothers were more likely to supplement earlier than rural mothers up until 21 months when the 2 sets of mothers were relatively equal (54.6 and 50.5% respectively). Thereafter the pattern switched to rural mothers being more likely to supplement rice to the diet of breast milk than were urban mothers. Further, 8% of urban mothers and 2.8% of rural mothers gave no rice at all to their infants up to the time of the survey. The younger the age at which the infant was given rice the more education the mother had, for example, urban: no education, 26.3 months; secondary school, 18.1; rural: no education, 23.8; secondary school, 22.1. Furthermore, if mothers worked, they were more likely to add rice to the diet at an earlier age than were those who stayed at home. The survey also indicated that both lower and higher family income groups in urban areas gave rice to their infants at higher ages than those in middle brackets. In rural areas, however, an erratic trend in the mean age of infant for rice by family income was observed. As for religion in urban areas, Hindu mothers supplemented rice to their infants' diet somewhat earlier than Moslem mothers, but in rural areas, the situation was opposite this. Older mothers in urban areas gave rice to their infants at a relatively lower age than the younger mothers. As for rural areas, the researcher noted no regular trend for age of mothers in the average age of the infants at which rice was supplemented. PMID:12281025

Kabir, M H

1986-01-01

82

MANAGEMENT OF RURAL TOURISM IN MOUNTAIN AREA OF ARGE? COUNTY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Management of rural tourism in the mountain area of Arges County is the leading anticipation, organization, coordination, control process of all tourism resources to achieve maximum efficiency, without prejudice to the environment and to ensure at the same time the relaxation of the  tourist.In rural tourism, in Arge? County as in other tourist activities, systems (management through objectives, projects, on product, participative management, through exceptions or total qualities, methods (of diagnostic analysis, foundation-optimization of decisions etc. and different management techniques can be applied, depending on the characteristics aimed.The conditions which must be met by the effective rural tourism management are: observation and appreciation of nature as well as knowledge of cultural traditions, inventory of protected natural areas and of the cultural ones in a protected area, establishment of potential market of tourists, setting of support threshold based on the compliance with the consumption norms per tourist.

Florentina Miu

2013-05-01

83

An aerial radiological survey of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and surrounding area, Waxahachie, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) site from July 22 through August 20,1991. Parallel lines were flown at intervals of 305 meters over a 1,036-square-kilometer (400-square-mile) area surrounding Waxahachie, Texas. The 70,000 terrestrial gamma energy spectra obtained were reduced to an exposure rate contour map overlaid on a United States Geological Survey (USGS) map of the area. The mean terrestrial exposure rate measured was 5.4 ?R/h at 1 meter above ground level. Comparison to ground-based measurements shows good agreement. No anomalous or man-made isotopes were detected

84

7 CFR 4290.120 - Plan to invest in Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the RBIC Program Organizing A Rbic § 4290.120 Plan to invest in Rural Areas. An Applicant must...

2010-01-01

85

Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding springs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soejono, Budiharta S, Arisoesilaningsih E. 2013. Proposing local trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland areas surrounding water spring. Biodiversitas 14: 37-42. This study was aimed to propose alternative trees diversity for rehabilitation of degraded lowland area surrounding spring. Data were collected by vegetation analysis of three sampling sites (1st. Cowek, 2nd Gajahrejo, 3rd Parerejo to determine density, frequency, dominancy, diversity index and Important Value Index (IVI. The lists of plants in three sites were then compiled into an integrated list and used as reference for developing questionnaire. The questionnaire was then distributed to respondents who were chosen randomly. We recorded their preferences of tree species in rehabilitation program based on socio-economical and ecological aspects. Selected species were then proposed as alternative plants for rehabilitation of degraded spring area based on landscape topography and remaining vegetation coverage. The results showed that species diversity of Moracecae family was the highest than other families. In term of ecological aspect, Ficus racemosa, Artocarpus elasticus, Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Gigantochloa atter, Ficus benjamina, Syzygium samarangensis and Ficus virens showed high Important Value Index. On the other hand, based on socio-economic aspects, Ficus benjamina, Artocarpus elasticus, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus altilis “Seedless”, Durio zbethinus, Ficus drupacea, Pangium edule, Ficus varigata, Michelia champaca, Aleurites moluccana and Ficus racemosa were the most preferred species by local community. Based on topography and vegetation coverage, spring surrounding areas were were classified into four: steep and open, flat and open, steep and dense, and flat and dense. Therefore among of 120 species found in all sampling sites, there were respectively 63.3%, 95%, 25% and 44.16% species to be proposed and planted for rehabilitation in the four classified areas.

SOEJONO

2013-04-01

86

The cultural tourism in the rural areas of Westpomeranian voivodeship  

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Full Text Available The development of cultural tourism in the rural areas of the Westpomeranian region is conditioned by possession of distinguished natural value, as well as significant historical and cultural heritage resources. Tourists who come to the village looking for traces of the past, learn the material and immaterial elements of the regional culture, become familiar with its natural environment, interact with the farms and the local population, participate in the economic life and folk events in rural areas, and thus discover the charm and tourist appeal of the region.

Ma?gorzata Matlegiewicz

2011-01-01

87

Pubertad en adolescentes de áreas rurales y urbanas / Puberty in adolescent of rural and urban areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: los factores genéticos determinan un crecimiento potencial, pero el medio ambiente, inhibe o acelera su expresión. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento según procedencia urbana o rural, de variables relacionadas con el desarrollo puberal: telarquia, pubarquia, menarquia. Métodos: se [...] realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional en adolescentes urbanas y rurales con edades entre 12 a 15 años. En los municipios Urbano Noris, Cacocum y la zona urbana de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido de enero 2009 a enero 2010; previo consentimiento informado y en ambiente acogedor se les realizó encuesta en modelo semiestructurado. Se creó una base de datos con su posterior procesamiento estadístico descriptivos como: análisis porcentual, desviación estándar, media aritmética y t de Student, cálculos necesarios para obtener los resultados. Resultados: en las adolescentes de procedencia rural la telarquia aparece a los 11,36 años y en la urbana a los 10,36 años. La pubarquia se manifestó a los 11,18 y 10,36 años en el área rural y urbana respectivamente. La menarquia a los 12,4 y 11,14 años, en el área rural y urbana, o sea la pubertad aparece un año antes en el área urbana. Conclusión: resultó significativa la diferencia de la edad media en el área urbana y el inicio de la pubertad. Abstract in english Introduction: the genetic factors determine a potential growth, but the environment inhibits and to speed up its expression. Objective: to determine the behavior according the urban or rural origin of the variables related to the pubertal development: telarche, pubarche and menarche. Methods: a corr [...] elation and descriptive study was conducted in urban and rural adolescents from the Holguín province from January, 2009 to January, 2010 subject to informed consent and in suitable environment they were polled in a semistructured form. A database was created with its latter statistic descriptive processing including: percentage analysis, standard deviation (SD), arithmetic mean and t-Student test; estimation necessary to obtain the results. Results: in adolescents from rural the telarche appears at the 11,36 years old and in the urban ones at 10,36 years old. The pubarche was manifested at 11,18 and 10,36 years old in the rural and urban area, respectively. The menarche appears at 12,4 and 11,14 years old in the rural and urban areas, that is, the puberty appears a year before in the urban area. Conclusion: it was significant the difference in mean age in the urban area and the onset of puberty.

María de la Caridad, Osorio Mora; Ariana, González Balmaceda; María de los Ángeles, Mora de Zayas; Juana, Olivero Pupo.

2012-06-01

88

Pubertad en adolescentes de áreas rurales y urbanas Puberty in adolescent of rural and urban areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción: los factores genéticos determinan un crecimiento potencial, pero el medio ambiente, inhibe o acelera su expresión. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento según procedencia urbana o rural, de variables relacionadas con el desarrollo puberal: telarquia, pubarquia, menarquia. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional en adolescentes urbanas y rurales con edades entre 12 a 15 años. En los municipios Urbano Noris, Cacocum y la zona urbana de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido de enero 2009 a enero 2010; previo consentimiento informado y en ambiente acogedor se les realizó encuesta en modelo semiestructurado. Se creó una base de datos con su posterior procesamiento estadístico descriptivos como: análisis porcentual, desviación estándar, media aritmética y t de Student, cálculos necesarios para obtener los resultados. Resultados: en las adolescentes de procedencia rural la telarquia aparece a los 11,36 años y en la urbana a los 10,36 años. La pubarquia se manifestó a los 11,18 y 10,36 años en el área rural y urbana respectivamente. La menarquia a los 12,4 y 11,14 años, en el área rural y urbana, o sea la pubertad aparece un año antes en el área urbana. Conclusión: resultó significativa la diferencia de la edad media en el área urbana y el inicio de la pubertad.Introduction: the genetic factors determine a potential growth, but the environment inhibits and to speed up its expression. Objective: to determine the behavior according the urban or rural origin of the variables related to the pubertal development: telarche, pubarche and menarche. Methods: a correlation and descriptive study was conducted in urban and rural adolescents from the Holguín province from January, 2009 to January, 2010 subject to informed consent and in suitable environment they were polled in a semistructured form. A database was created with its latter statistic descriptive processing including: percentage analysis, standard deviation (SD, arithmetic mean and t-Student test; estimation necessary to obtain the results. Results: in adolescents from rural the telarche appears at the 11,36 years old and in the urban ones at 10,36 years old. The pubarche was manifested at 11,18 and 10,36 years old in the rural and urban area, respectively. The menarche appears at 12,4 and 11,14 years old in the rural and urban areas, that is, the puberty appears a year before in the urban area. Conclusion: it was significant the difference in mean age in the urban area and the onset of puberty.

María de la Caridad Osorio Mora

2012-06-01

89

Pubertad en adolescentes de áreas rurales y urbanas / Puberty in adolescent of rural and urban areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: los factores genéticos determinan un crecimiento potencial, pero el medio ambiente, inhibe o acelera su expresión. Objetivo: determinar el comportamiento según procedencia urbana o rural, de variables relacionadas con el desarrollo puberal: telarquia, pubarquia, menarquia. Métodos: se [...] realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional en adolescentes urbanas y rurales con edades entre 12 a 15 años. En los municipios Urbano Noris, Cacocum y la zona urbana de Holguín, en el periodo comprendido de enero 2009 a enero 2010; previo consentimiento informado y en ambiente acogedor se les realizó encuesta en modelo semiestructurado. Se creó una base de datos con su posterior procesamiento estadístico descriptivos como: análisis porcentual, desviación estándar, media aritmética y t de Student, cálculos necesarios para obtener los resultados. Resultados: en las adolescentes de procedencia rural la telarquia aparece a los 11,36 años y en la urbana a los 10,36 años. La pubarquia se manifestó a los 11,18 y 10,36 años en el área rural y urbana respectivamente. La menarquia a los 12,4 y 11,14 años, en el área rural y urbana, o sea la pubertad aparece un año antes en el área urbana. Conclusión: resultó significativa la diferencia de la edad media en el área urbana y el inicio de la pubertad. Abstract in english Introduction: the genetic factors determine a potential growth, but the environment inhibits and to speed up its expression. Objective: to determine the behavior according the urban or rural origin of the variables related to the pubertal development: telarche, pubarche and menarche. Methods: a corr [...] elation and descriptive study was conducted in urban and rural adolescents from the Holguín province from January, 2009 to January, 2010 subject to informed consent and in suitable environment they were polled in a semistructured form. A database was created with its latter statistic descriptive processing including: percentage analysis, standard deviation (SD), arithmetic mean and t-Student test; estimation necessary to obtain the results. Results: in adolescents from rural the telarche appears at the 11,36 years old and in the urban ones at 10,36 years old. The pubarche was manifested at 11,18 and 10,36 years old in the rural and urban area, respectively. The menarche appears at 12,4 and 11,14 years old in the rural and urban areas, that is, the puberty appears a year before in the urban area. Conclusion: it was significant the difference in mean age in the urban area and the onset of puberty.

María de la Caridad, Osorio Mora; Ariana, González Balmaceda; María de los Ángeles, Mora de Zayas; Juana, Olivero Pupo.

90

Sino German program - renewable energies in rural areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to national statistics, there are still about 250 to 300 million people living below the poverty limit, especially in the rural areas of the Western provinces of the country. At the same time, economic growth speeded up in the Eastern cities and provinces. The main reason is that the rural population have limited access to social and technical infrastructure, information and mechanization, financing and technical skills. One major requirement for socio-economic development is the availability of appropriate energy supply. Up to now, there are still about 20,000 villages with more than 7 million households not connected to the national or regional electricity grid. In this context, the Government of the P.R. of China has decided to launch the Brightness Program as a part of the comprehensive development program for the Western Provinces, aiming at providing electricity to about 23 million people in remote rural areas until 2010, using so-called renewable energies e.g., solar, wind and small hydropower for decentralized electricity generation. In 1999, the German Government was approached to provide technical assistance in the dissemination of renewable energy systems for decentralized rural electricity supply. After an appraisal mission in November 2000, the program ''Renewable Energies in Rural Areas'' was launched in October 2001. (orig.)

Hu Qiying [E.ON UK Renewables (United Kingdom)

2007-07-01

91

Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of areas surrounding two transformer salvage companies, Colman, South Dakota--September 1977.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil, corn plants, and foliage from areas surrounding two electrical salvage companies involved in reconditioning old transformers had unusually high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Levels decreased as distance from the factories increased. PCBs were dispersed into the air through incineration of waste oils; water and soil contamination was caused by runoff from the factories. PCBs found in the contaminated areas closely resembled Aroclor 1260 as did the PCBs in the waste oil, whereas PCBs in other areas were more similar to Aroclor 1254. PCBs on surface soils taken from an unplowed pasture near the factories also resembled Aroclor 1260, whereas samples taken from depths of 2-4 inches showed degradation of some PCB isomers. PCB concentrations in corn cobs and kernels were PCB levels of up to 2.2 ppm. PCB levels in earthworms and small rodents collected near the factories were considerably higher than levels in the same types of animals collected from other areas. PMID:6775281

Greichus, Y A; Dohman, B A

1980-06-01

92

An aerial radiological survey of the Millstone Nuclear Power Station and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of September 10 to 18, 1990, over a 40-square-mile (104-square-kilometer) area surrounding the Millstone Nuclear Power Station (MNPS). The MNPS is located on the Long Island Sound shoreline, three kilometers south of Waterford, Connecticut. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial gamma ray environment of the plant and surrounding areas. A contour map showing radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates within the survey region are quite uniform. The area is characterized by an exposure rate of 10-12 microroentgens per hour including an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.6 ?R/h. This is typical of natural background. The only exception to the natural background readings is the Millstone station itself, which is characterized by an exposure rate consistent with the standard operation of the reactor units. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized-ion-chamber gamma ray measurements were obtained at five locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of, and are in agreement with, the aerial data. The radiological environment near the plant is consistent with normal plant operation

93

Composition of Trees Grown Surrounding Water Springs at Two Areas in Purwosari Pasuruan, East Java  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the research was to find out the composition of trees grown surrounding water springs at two areas in Purwosari, Pasuruan, East Java. Eleven plots for each area were observed. The data were analyzed using Mueller-Dombois’s method to calculate their importance value indexes, while Shannon-Wiener’s formula was used for determining the diversity index. The coordinate and altitude of every water spring or its group’s site was determined using Geographical Position System (GPS to know their positions on the map. The result indicated that there were at least 30 families, 49 genera which consisted of 68 species of trees grown surrounding water springs at the first area with 5.49 of diversity index, while the second area, consisted of 34 families, 63 genera and 79 species of trees with 5.24 diversity index. The diversity of trees species from Moraceae was the highest among other families, both at the first and the second area, whereas, trees species having a significant important value index included Bambusa blumeana, Dendrocalamus asper, Ficus racemosa, Horsfieldia irya and Ficus virens. The position of the springs in the two areas within the sub-districts of Purwosari is in the range of 7º44'448 " south latitude; 112º44'353" east longitude up to 7º46'339 " south latitude; 112º41’190" east longitude at an altitude between 251 and 522 m above sea level. We hope that the information can be used as an alternative guidance to restore or to conserve such areas in order to save and sustain trees diversity and their habitat.

Soejono

2012-12-01

94

Research Regarding the Impact of Rural Tourism Forms on the Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The twentieth century is the century of speed, large transformation of civilization, of great discoveries, but also the period that puts more emphasis on return to roots, the unpolluted environment, relaxation, traditional products. Many EU governments recognize that agrotourism and rural tourism are one way that can save agriculture, also that "in the next 20 years tourism will be part of the economy and rural tourism and agrotourism will become the tourism of future." The reason? Authenticity of rural areas is a quality becoming more demanding in terms of present life. In his development, rural tourism, had periods of growth but also of decline. Certainly that was never endangered. Unknown forms of rural tourism know so far, the large momentum dating at the desire for freedom and lack of rigid programs. Conducted as complementary activities, rural tourism forms not break peasant life balance, not cause loss of existing activities before, but allow the high-grade products obtained and hence their development, together with the development of others.

Ramona Ciolac

2011-10-01

95

Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labor market settle in the countryside due to low housing prices. This article explores which groups of people move to rural, peripheral areas and why they chose to do so.

Andersen, Hans Skifter; NØrgaard, Helle

2012-01-01

96

ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC GAPS BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL ROMANIAN AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural and to identify the factors that determine these gaps. The economic differences between rural and urban areas and their impact on the peoples standard of living represent an important issue for international institutions like IFRC, UNICEF or OECD. Also, this topic represents a frequent subject in the economic literature from poor and developing countries. Studies conducted by Huong and Booth (2010, Alister, Alana and Ayele (2007, Chao, Zhidong and Mingxing (2008, Mateoc-Srb, Mateoc, Darva?i and Manescu (2008 or Sahn and Stifel (2002 are representative examples. Most of these papers focus on the living standards differences generated by the differences between income and expenditures between urban and rural areas. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the economic indicators household incomes, value and structure of household expenditures, structure of household expenditures the social indicators residential area, education level, age and occupation. The highlight of the gaps between the rural and urban areas will be the main objective during this analysis. We conclude that in Romania there are substantial differences between rural and urban areas. The income differences are determining different consumption patterns between rural and urban persons. In rural areas, the population is spending less in all goods and services aspect that reduce their standard of living. Anyway, the results obtained are the subject of at least two possible limits. The fact that the data series are too short may affect the results we have obtained. Also, the economic gaps analyzed represent an average for the whole country, what means that in some regions these differences may be even higher.

Toader Valentin

2011-07-01

97

A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

Hinojosa, H. [comp.

1998-02-01

98

Working Together for Older People in Rural Areas  

Minister with responsibility ... central to ensuring that older people at risk of social \\exclusion in rural areas ... Promote access to and quality of cultural and leisure \\activities and ... National Housing Strategy in an Ageing Society (2008) ... chosen \\in recognition of the importance of preparing early for later life and to capture the.

99

Urbanisation of rural areas: A case study from Jutland, Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The growth of urban areas is one of the most important characteristics of spatial development in Europe during the past decades and is traditionally described with a few indicators on a relatively coarse spatial scale. However, urbanisation is not only a matter of land use change, but also socio-economic changes, which may or may not manifest itself as physical changes in built-up area and land use. It is therefore useful to analyse the urbanisation patterns along an urban-rural continuum, based on a broad range of indicators. This paper analyses urbanisation patterns in rural areas of Region Midtjylland, Denmark using socio-economic data from the entire rural population aggregated at parish level to investigate if this method may contribute to existing classifications. Through multivariate analysis and GIS analysis, five types of urbanization were identified and their spatial distribution analysed. The results indicate that rural areas of Region Midtjylland are very diverse, and generally reflect the patterndescribed in the 2006 Danish National Planning Report. However, our results offer a more fine-grained analysis based on scientifically selected indicators which is an important step to improve existing classifications. This is especially relevant in a Danish context following the administrative reform in 2007 which renders the traditional classifications less suited for locally adapted planning and policy formulation.

Madsen, Mette Fabricius; Kristensen, SØren Bech Pilgaard

2010-01-01

100

Water analysis from wells in Ezeiza and surrounding areas. Dissolved uranium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to give an answer to the different social sectors, we sampled water from previously existing wells that reaches the Puelche aquifer. The uranium concentration was determined in these samples to obtain a preliminary checkup of water quality situation. For the analysis we considered the samples obtained inside the CAE as well as those sampled in the surrounding areas as Monte Grande, Claypole and Burzaco. The results show a correlation between the amount of dissolved salts and the presence of dissolved uranium. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

Local earthquake tomography of the Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, selected travel time data from the aftershock series of the Erzincan earthquake (March, 1992, Ms=6.8) were inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D Vp and Vs structure. The general features of the 3D velocity structure of the upper crust of Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area, one of the most tectonically and seismically active regions in Turkey were investigated. The data used for this purpose were 2215 P-wave and 547 S-wave arrival ...

Go?kalp, H.

2007-01-01

102

The identification of soil radionuclides in the area of Puspiptek and surrounding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The area of PUSPIPTEK and the surrounding are potentially exposed by radionuclides, because the operation of the nuclear research plant. The PPTN Serpong was operated long than 10 years, therefore soil radioactivity need to evaluate. The determination of radioactivity in the soil samples which be taken from research location using gamma spectrometry on June-August. The result of the research identified natural radionuclides K-40; Thorium decay series Ac-228, Bi-212, Pb-212, Tl-208, Ra-224 and Rn-220; Uranium decay series Bi-214, Pa-234, Pb-214 and Actinium decay series Bi-211, Po-211. There are no identification radionuclides produce from the activation of PPTN Serpong

103

Transmission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from broiler chicken farms to surrounding areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although previous studies have demonstrated high carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock, especially in broiler chickens, data on emission sources of these bacteria into the environment are still rare. Therefore, this study was designed to systematically investigate the occurrence of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in slurry, air (inside animal houses), ambient air (outside animal houses) and on soil surfaces in the areas surrounding of seven ESBL/AmpC-positive broiler chicken fattening farms, including investigation of the possible spread of these bacteria via the faecal route and/or exhaust air into the environment. Seven German broiler fattening farms were each investigated at three points in time (3-36 h after restocking, 14-18 and 26-35 days after housing) during one fattening period. The occurrence of ESBL/AmpC genes in the investigated samples was confirmed by PCR, detecting blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCMY-genes, and, if necessary, by sequencing and/or the disc diffusion method. The results showed a wide spread of ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in broiler farms, as well as emissions into the surroundings. 12 out of 14 (86%) slurry samples were positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. Additionally, 28.8% (n=23/80) of boot swabs taken from various surfaces in the areas surrounding of the farms as well as 7.5% (n=3/40) of the exhaust air samples turned out to be positive for these microorganisms. Moreover, a small proportion of air samples from inside the barns were ESBL/AmpC-positive. By comparing selected isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis, we proved that faecal and airborne transfer of ESBL/AmpC-producing microorganisms from broiler fattening farms to the surrounding areas is possible. Two isolates from farm G2 (slurry and boot swab 50 m downwind), two isolates from farm G3 (slurry and individual animal swab) as well as two isolates from farm G6 (air sample in the barn and air sample 50 m downwind) showed 100% similarity in PFGE analysis. PMID:25035165

Laube, H; Friese, A; von Salviati, C; Guerra, B; Rösler, U

2014-08-27

104

SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in R...

Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan; Tanase Laura Daniela; Morar Mihai Gelu

2012-01-01

105

An aerial radiological survey of the project Rio Blanco and surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas, Nevada, conducted an aerial radiation survey of the area surrounding ground zero of Project Rio Blanco in the northwestern section of Colorado in June 1993. The object of the survey was to determine if there were man-made radioisotopes on or near the surface resulting from a nuclear explosion in 1972. No indications of surface contamination were found. A search for the cesium-137 radioisotope was negative. The Minimum Detectable Activity for cesium-137 is presented for several detection probabilities. The natural terrestrial exposure rates in units of Roentgens per hour were mapped and are presented in the form of a contour map over-laid on an aerial photograph. A second team made independent ground-based measurements in four places within the survey area. The average agreement of the ground-based with aerial measurements was six percent.

Singman, L.V.

1994-11-01

106

An aerial radiological survey of the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation facility and surrounding area, Saxton, Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period July 5 to 22, 1989, over an 83-square kilometer (32-square-mile) area surrounding the Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC) facility which is owned by General Public Utilities and located near Saxton, Pennsylvania. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph and a set of United States Geological Survey (USGS) topographic maps of the area. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from about 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) over most of the survey area. The levels over the SNEC family did not differ from the exposure rates seen over the entire survey area. Cesium-137 (Cs-137) levels typical of worldwide fallout deposition were detected throughout the surveyed area. No other trends of Cs-137 were observed. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at six locations within the survey boundaries to support the aerial data

107

Effects of energy development in rural areas: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy development is changing the social and economic climate throughout the western United States. In western North Dakota, large energy development projects are springing up in small, rural areas that are often not prepared for the changes these projects can bring. The results of a case study of a small, rural area affected by construction of a large mine-mouth electric power plant (the Coal Creek Station) are reported here to demonstrate how one area dealt with these changes. The socioeconomic effects of power plant construction and operation during the period 1975-1981 were examined and the actual change in key economic and social indicators compared with those projected in two impact studies conducted during the early stages of project development. (JMT)

Maki, K.C.; Leistritz, F.L.

1983-01-01

108

An aerial radiological survey of the neutron products company and surrounding area  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from November 1-10, 1993, over the Neutron Products Company and neighboring areas. The company, located in Dickerson, Maryland, has two major operations involving the radioisotope cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co)-the manufacture of commercial {sup 60}Co sources and the sterilization of medical products by exposure to radiation. The sterilization facility consists of two {sup 60}Co sources with activities of approximately 500,000 and 1,500,000 Ci, respectively. The purpose of the aerial survey was to detect and document any anomalous gamma-emitting radionuclides in the environment which may have resulted from operations of the Neutron Products Company. The survey covered two areas: the first was a 6.5- by 6.5-kilometer area centered over the Neutron Products facility; the second area was a 2- by 2.5-kilometer region surrounding a waste pumping station on Muddy Branch in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This site is approximately fifteen kilometers southeast of the Neutron Products facility and was included because sanitary and other liquid waste materials from the plant site are being disposed of at the pumping station. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level, overlaid on an aerial photo of the area, were constructed from the data measured during the flights. The exposure rates measured within the survey regions were generally uniform and typical of rates resulting from natural background radiation. Only one area showed an enhanced exposure rate not attributable to natural background. This area, located directly over the Neutron Products facility, was analyzed and identified as {sup 60}Co, the radioisotope used in the irradiation and source production operations conducted at the Neutron Products Company. The measurements over the Muddy Branch area in Gaithersburg were typical of natural background radiation and showed no evidence of {sup 60}Co or any other man-made radionuclide.

Vojtech, R.J.

1994-12-01

109

Menstrual-related changes expected by premenarcheal girls living in rural and urban areas of Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most women experience changes surrounding the start of menstruation. These changes are influenced by sociocultural context. Consequently, certain changes are more pronounced in some cultures than in others. Girls enter menarche with a clear set of paramenstrual expectations that may alter their menstrual cycle-related experiences when they become postmenarcheal. This study explored expectations concerning the paramenstrual changes of 1,173 premenarcheal girls living in rural and urban areas of Mexico. In accordance with the findings of studies conducted in other countries, Mexican premenarcheal girls associate menstruation with a set of mostly negative expectations. A comparison of the results from urban and rural girls revealed that urban girls expected negative paramenstrual changes more, while rural ones expected positive changes more. These differences suggest that the cultures in which girls are brought up have an impact on their expectations. Urban girls are more exposed to media which present a picture of menses as a debilitating event, while rural girls link menses with health because it is associated with the ability to have children. PMID:12560018

Marván, María Luisa; Vacio, Angeles; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela

2003-02-01

110

78 FR 19586 - Grants for Transportation of Veterans in Highly Rural Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

...veterans in highly rural areas''). The population of individuals...services in highly rural areas would require...the very sparse population requirement imposed...available to ``low-income people...veterans with a low income. Although...

2013-04-02

111

Automation of radiation exposure dose calculation in the area surrounding reactor of Musashi Institute of Technology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study is to develop a system, by which the data on wind direction, wind velocity, temperature, humidity, sunshine, radiation balance, rain fall and others in the vicinity of the stack of the nuclear facility are collected every moment and analyzed, the information not measured so far is extracted, those are continuously digitally recorded, and if the release of radioactive materials out of the stack is assumed, its effects on the surrounding environment are immediately computed and indicated on a graphic display. The system to detect abnormality for the back up of reactor operators and to issue the appropriate instruction is also to be developed in parallel by collecting data on the operating status of the reactor and from the monitors watching the surrounding area. It is considered to unify the data format for carrying out easily mutual comparison of such data and their evaluation in future and to connect the reactor facilities of universities in Japan on-line if possible, by co-developing this system together with these universities making the reactor of Musashi Institute of Technology as a model. In this report, the system configuration and block diagrams and respective satellite functions and operations are described. These satellites include new MK system, reactor-related data collection, weather data collection, colored CRT display, operator console, and packet type data exchanger. Most noteworthy is the data collection with an ultrasonic anethe data collection with an ultrasonic anemometer, and its construction is illustrated. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

112

An aerial radiological survey of the Babcock and Wilcox Nuclear Facilities and surrounding area, Lynchburg, Virginia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted from July 18 through July 25, 1988, over a 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) area surrounding the Babcock and Wilcox nuclear facilities located near Lynchburg, Virginia. The survey was conducted at a nominal altitude of 61 meters (200 feet) with line spacings of 91 meters (300 feet). A contour map of the terrestrial gamma exposure rate extrapolated to 1 meter above ground level (AGL) was prepared and overlaid on an aerial photograph. The terrestrial exposure rates varied from 8 to 12 microroentgens per hour (?R/h). A search of the data for man-made radiation sources revealed the presence of three areas of high count rates in the survey area. Spectra accumulated over the main plant showed the presence of cobalt-60 (60Co) and cesium-137 (137Cs). A second area near the main plant indicated the presence of uranium-235 (235U). Protactinium-234m (234mPa) and 60Co Were detected over a building to the east of the main plant. Soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries in support of the aerial data

113

The Chilean Rural Practitioner Programme: a multidimensional strategy to attract and retain doctors in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing countries currently face internal and external migration of their health workforce and interventions are needed to attract and retain health professionals in rural areas. Evidence of multidimensional interventions, however, is scarce. This study explores a long-standing strategy to attract and retain doctors to rural areas in Chile: the Rural Practitioner Programme. The main objective is to describe the programme, characterize its multidimensional set of incentives and appraise preliminary programme outcomes.Retrospective national data were employed to examine recruitment, retention and incentives provided to extend the length of stay and motivate non-clinical work. The programme has successfully recruited a large number of applicants, with acceptance rates close to 100%. Retention rates are nearly 100% (drop-outs are exceptional), but only 58% of participants stay for the maximum period. Areas with greater work difficulty are attracting the best-ranked applicants, but incentives to engage in community projects, management responsibilities, continuous medical education and research have achieved mixed results. Rural doctors are satisfied with their experience and 70% plan to practise as specialists in a referral hospital.The programme has successfully matched the interests of physicians in specialization with the country's need for rural doctors. However, a gap might be forming between the demand for certain specialties and what the programme can offer. There is a need to conciliate both parties, which will require a more refined strategy than before. This should be grounded in robust knowledge based on programme outcomes and evidence of the interests and motivations of health professionals. PMID:20461139

Peña, Sebastian; Ramirez, Jorge; Becerra, Carlos; Carabantes, Jorge; Arteaga, Oscar

2010-05-01

114

Moving to the countryside - migrants in rural areas of Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denmark is undergoing a process of centralisation and concentration of economic growth, employment and people in and around its larger cities. Other more peripheral areas have been stagnating and loosing both jobs and inhabitants over a long period of time. Important social, cultural and economic changes are taken place in the countryside due to various restructuring processes and more recently some of these changes are related to in-migration. There are few Danish studies on migration into rural and peripheral areas but e.g. Andersen (2008) Ærø et al. (2005) show how those moving to rural areas have very different reasons for moving and have different expectations and needs. Other international studies e.g. Boyle & Halfacree (1998), Chavez (2005), Clooke, Goodwin & Milbourne (1998), Cuba & Hummon (1993), Hidalgo & Hernandez (2001) Mesch & Manor (1998) rather focus on processes of change from the view of the local population, migrants and relations between them. This paper reports on a study on migrants who have moved long distances to settle in rural and peripheral areas of Denmark. The study focuses on moving motives, background and expectations of migrants in relation to living in rural and peripheral areas. One important theme is the relationship between migrants or newcomers and locals stressing social change, attachment and integration from the view of migrants. Our study is based on an understanding that there are multiple reasons and motivations that influence migration decision-making thereby applying a biographical approach inspired by e.g. Giddens (1984), Boyle and Halfacree (1998) seeking to 'demonstrate the complexity of the seemingly simple act of migration and its embeddedness within the everyday context of daily life for those involved'. Our study further finds inspiration in the concept of 'elective belonging' by Savage et al. (2005) in terms of understanding peoples sense of being at home as related to 'reflexive processes in which they can satisfactory account to themselves how they come to live where they do'.

NØrgaard, Helle

115

WAP Based An Alternative Solution for Traffic Transportation Problem in Sidoarjo Surrounding Area Using AHP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In line with the increasing interest on Lapindo mud disaster which causes several roadway covered by mud, there is a need to give an alternative solution for traffic transportation problem in surrounding area. The possible criteria for the solution of this road way are length, surface, traffic, and width of the road. Types of vehicle across the road also give a contribution to the criteria. By using Geography Information System (GIS, it is easy to all drivers to take decision which way has to be chosen based on the real condition. GIS is used to visualize the alternative road, which is possible to take. Analytic Hierarchy Processing (AHP is a decision method which is based on many criteria and alternatives. The input of AHP can be a preference or real value. Applied AHP to decide value of each alternative is based on application of Wireless Application Protocol (WAP assessment.

Arna Fariza

2009-08-01

116

The results of oological investigations in the 30-km area surrounding the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigations were carried out with the purpose of clarification of probable changes in some oological characteristics in numerous birds nesting in hollows. The data were collected in 1990-1991 in plots of 30-km area surrounding the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant where the different degree of radioactive contamination takes place (first plot 1.5 m R/h, second - 5-7 m R/h, third - 3 m R/h). The dimensions were analyzed on 1078 eggs of Parus major L., Parus caeruleus L., Sturnus vulgaris L., Hirundo rustica L., Muscicapa hypoleuca Pall. The obtained results were compared with those from literature. The general tendencies for all the species are marked: the mean value of egg length, the coefficient of variation of egg length and maximum diameter on contaminated plots are much higher than in control (from literature) or less contaminated plots. And vice versa, the mean value of egg maximum diameter is smaller. The shape is lengthened

117

[Fluoride content in well water in rural areas in Morocco].  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of our study was to determine fluorides (F-) content in the well water consumed as drinking water by some Moroccan populations in rural areas. All samples were collected between April and October 2011. Measurements were performed by an ion selective electrode. Thirty wells spread to cover most of the country and locally chosen based on the number of inhabitants who consume its water. All wells were in rural areas. The mean (+/- SD) of F- was 1.84 +/- 1.6 mg/L with a range from 0.42 to 8.95 mg/L Concentrations of F- in phosphate regions were higher than those found in other regions. More than half of the samples exceeded the current standard. Our study showed that water of some Moroccan regions is naturally rich in F-exposing people who consume it at high risk of fluorosis. PMID:25223146

El Jaoudi, R; El Cadi, M Ait; Bouslimane, Y; Fekhaoui, M; Bouklouze, A; Cherrah, Y

2014-06-01

118

E-Learning and Its Impact on Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-Learning is referred to as teaching and learning by using electronic media. This methodology supports the use of networking and communications technology in teaching and learning. E-Learning is generally meant for remote learning or distance learning, but can also be used in face-to-face mode. In this paper we have made study about the awareness and impact of E-Learning in selected rural areas in India, the providers and learners ratio and an analysis on the collected data has been made to find the advantages of E-Learning resources and their affect on social and mental development of the individuals belonging to rural areas.

Rimmi Anand

2012-06-01

119

The Problem Of Youth Unemployment in Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of Czech agricultural labour market has been continuously predominantly negative since 1989 and recently, the problem of youth unemployment is acute in many countries, not only in the Czech Republic, but also in the Russian Federation, where most of graduates of agricultural universities work in non-agricultural sphere and in urban area. The present paper tries to consider the problems faced by youth in the labour market after graduating from the university, the reasons for working in any sphere but not in agriculture and not in rural area. It identifies the factors influencing the profession choice by young people. It considers the opportunities for attracting young people to work in agriculture and rural aria.

N. Grigoryeva

2012-03-01

120

SMALL FARMERS FROM RURAL AREAS ATTITUDE ON ORGANIC FOOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is one of the few marketing research done in rural areas of attitudes towards green products. Even if the subject is generally treated at the international level, Romania has an important specific is to be taken into account in the European area. Size of agricultural holdings and their degree of technology do not have the desired agricultural economic efficiency of modern economies. But by applying marketing techniques and by approaching customer needs, the agricultural sector in Romania can develop in another direction no longer going through the business model of major West European farmers. We are referring here to transition to a agriculture on small areas, intensively exploited and ecology and a system of distributed in the markets with a big search for such products. But he must know how people in rural areas see these green products and how they are trained to understand the concepts of green marketing and marketing organic products. These issues have been dealt with in the first part of the work. The second part of this paper aims to describe the attitude of small agricultural producers towards organic products and the degree in which they are willing to go to such a production. Research is based on a survey an explorer in two rural areas of Romania one at the mountain and the other in lowlands and shows the degree of adaptation for small producers to new market requirements. Results have been contradictory. Some of them have confirmed the assumptions, namely the opening to such a grown for, and others have shown a much greater degree of the use of chemical compounds in agriculture than expected. Also the degree of taking the initiative in rural areas was an issue that came out at a level lower than expected. This is a worrying conclusion but worth being taken into account. This research gives the image concept in rural areas being the starting point for further research and strategies which to propose turning Romania into a net exporter of organic production.

Ron#537;ca Mihai Ioan

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Evaluation of development of social capital in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the results of the research related to development of social capital in rural areas. Analysis of the obtained data indicated the reasons for participation in programmes of unemployed activation, the types of chosen forms of activation, the level of satisfaction from participation in the selected forms and finding work as a result of the activation of unemployed respondents.

Anna Michalska

2012-09-01

122

Agrotourism - A Sustainable Development for Rural Area of Korca  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term agro-tourism emerged in the late twentieth century. It includes agricultural farms that are related to tourism. This notion represents all activities related not only to tourists but also to the organizers of the holidays in general. Agro tourism is very important for rural communities as well as urban areas. It can provide several advantages: income, employment, use accommodation, activities, natural resource conservation, recreation and education. But the main problem for many coun...

STELA ZOTO; ELEINA QIRICI; ESMERALDA POLENA

2013-01-01

123

Agrotourism - A Sustainable Development for Rural Area of Korca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The term agro-tourism emerged in the late twentieth century. It includes agricultural farms that are related to tourism. This notion represents all activities related not only to tourists but also to the organizers of the holidays in general. Agro tourism is very important for rural communities as well as urban areas. It can provide several advantages: income, employment, use accommodation, activities, natural resource conservation, recreation and education. But the main problem for many countries is the low level of farm income. Agro tourism intends to obtain higher standards of living for rural communities especially through increased income for people who work in agriculture.There are five main forms of rural tourism which bring benefits both for tourists and for the local community.• Natural tourism, which is mainly preferred for its recreational value.• Cultural tourism, which is mainly related to culture, history and archeology of the area destination.• Ecotourism, as a form of tourism that presents natural resources while maintaining the values and local population welfare.• Village tourism, where visitors live and enjoy the various activities of peasant life.• Agro tourism, in which tourists see and participate in traditional agricultural practices without destroying the ecosystems, the host bases. Development in Korca region is one of the main priorities of the regional strategy. The study will be focused on four villages: Dardhe, Voskopoja, Vithkuq and Prespa. We will see the advantages and weaknesses of rural tourism development in these areas, as well as their benefits. We will also see a study about the residents’ perceptions of the tourism development in the area and of the agro- touristic behavior of the tourists there.

STELA ZOTO

2013-05-01

124

An aerial radiological survey of the Salmon Site and surrounding area, Lamar County, Mississippi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the former Atomic Energy Commission Test Site at the Salmon Site and surrounding area between April 20 and May 1, 1992. The Salmon Site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, approximately 20 miles southwest of Hattiesburg, Mississippi. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma-ray environment of the Salmon Site and adjacent lands. A contour map showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level was constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a rectified aerial photograph of the area. The exposure rates within the area are between 5 and 8 ?R/h. The reported exposure rates include a cosmic-ray contribution estimated to be 3.7 ?R/h. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and in situ measurements, taken with a pressurized ion chamber and a high-purity germanium detector, were obtained at 4 locations within the survey boundaries. These measurements were taken in support of and are in agreement with the aerial data

125

An aerial radiological survey of the Sandia National Laboratories and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the Sandia National Laboratories and Kirtland Air Force Base in Albuquerque, New Mexico, during March and April 1993. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey includes the areas covered by a previous survey in 1981. The results of the aerial survey show a background exposure rate which varies between 5 and 18 ?R/h plus an approximate 6 ?R/h contribution from cosmic rays. The major radioactive isotopes found in this survey were: potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228, which are all naturally-occurring isotopes, and cobalt-60, cesium-137, and excess amounts of thallium-208 and actinium-228, which are due to human actions in the survey area. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from this survey's gamma ray measurements agree almost exactly with the exposure rates inferred from the 1981 survey. In addition to the aerial measurements, another survey team conducted in situ and soil sample radiation measurements at three sites within the survey perimeter. These ground-based measurements agree with the aerial measurements within ± 5%

126

Aerial radiological survey of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Middletown, Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was performed over the area surrounding the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station during October 26 to 30, 1982. The survey covered an 82-square-kilometer area centered on the nuclear plant and encompassed the communities of Middletown, York Haven, Goldsboro and Royalton, Pennsylvania. The highest radiation exposure rates, up to a maximum of 200 microroentgens per hour (?R/h), were inferred from data measured directly over the TMI facilities. This detected radiation was due to the presence of cobalt-58, cobalt-60 and cesium-137, which was consistent with normal plant operations. Similar activity is routinely observed in aerial surveys over nuclear power plants which have been or are presently in an operational mode. For the remainder of the survey area, the inferred radiation exposure rates varied from 6 to 14 ?R/h. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 3.7 ?R/h. Ground-based measurements, conducted during the time of the aerial survey, were compared to the aerial results. Pressurized ionization chamber readings and a group of soil samples were acquired at several locations within the survey area, along the river banks upstream and downstream of the survey area, and at the ground-based locations used for a previous aerial survey which was conducted in 1976. The exposure rate values obtained from these measurements were in agreement with the corresponding aerial data. With the exception of the activity observed within the TMI facilities, no evidence of any contamination which might have occurred as a result of past reactor operations or the 1979 TMI Unit 2 accident was detected from the aerial survey data. This was further supported by the results of the soil sample analyses and the comparison with the 1976 aerial survey data. 7 references, 12 figures, 4 tables

127

INTEGRATED TOOLS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OF LARGE HYDROELECTRIC RESERVOIRS AND THEIR SURROUNDING AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Brazil has the largest electricity market in South America and has the largest capacity for water storage in the world. However, the recent economic growth in Brazil has resulted in a strong demand for expansion and modernization of the nation's electric infrastructure. In order to meet these needs, power companies are increasingly looking for Information Technology (IT solutions that can ensure more efficiency in their business. Moreover, new regulatory rules directly impacts the way companies should acquire, maintain and report information about concession areas, and demand the modernization of companies' information systems. This paper presents a corporate IT solution developed in our Labs to the Sao Francisco's Hydroelectric Company (CHESF, a unit of Brazil’s state-run power utility that generates and transmits electric power to all of the cities in the northeast of Brazil. This project aimed to facilitate the monitoring of concession areas to meet a new normative resolution that establishes particular procedures to be followed by the concessionaires for collecting and maintaining georeferenced information in the granting areas of hydroelectric plants, including all properties around the explored reservoirs. The main aim of monitoring reservoirs and their surrounding areas is to prevent the occurrence of undesired events of land-use or water-use, such construction of buildings and aquaculture; and undesired environmental events, such as fish mortality and water contamination by waste. Our solution provides means of managing different types of information about the properties located within the monitored area; comprises a mobile application that helps collect in-loco information about events; and provides a GIS-based module to facilitate the access and management of georeferenced information.

Cláudio Elízio Calazans Campelo

2014-11-01

128

A procura do turismo em espaço rural The demand for tourism in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quotidiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas.This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

Luís Silva

2007-05-01

129

A procura do turismo em espaço rural / The demand for tourism in rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo estuda a procura do turismo em espaço rural (TER) em Portugal, tomando como referência dados recolhidos no território continental e, particularmente, em três aldeias. Conclui-se que a procura é composta por citadinos de classe média que se deslocam para o campo a fim de romper com o quot [...] idiano e de obter uma experiência revigorante. O campo é para estes citadinos uma espécie de paraíso na terra, que integra muitas virtudes que se crêem inexistentes nos meios urbanos, como a tranquilidade, a natureza, a tradição e a autenticidade. A sua estadia em unidade de TER contribui decisivamente para a desejada imersão no idílio rural, quer se trate de casas rústicas quer de solares e casas apalaçadas. Abstract in english This article deals with the demand for tourism in rural areas (TRA) in Portugal, presenting the results of research developed in Continental Portugal and, particularly, in three village contexts. We conclude that the demand is mainly performed by middle class urbanites with two main goals: to break [...] free from everyday life and to reenergize in the countryside. The countryside is, for these urban dwellers, a kind of paradise on Earth that incorporates many of the virtues believed to be inexistent in the cities: tranquillity, nature, tradition and authenticity. Lodging in TRA houses is a decisive step for their desired immersion in rural idyll, wether in rustic houses, manor-houses or palace-like houses.

Luís, Silva.

130

Rural area in a European country from a health care point of view: an adaption of the Rural Ranking Scale  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In many countries, rural areas are facing a shortage of general practitioners (GPs). Appropriate strategies to address this challenge are needed. From a health care delivery point of view, the term rural area is often poorly defined. However rural areas have to be adequately defined to ensure specific strategies are tailored to these environments. The aims of this study were to translate the New Zealand 6-item Rural Ranking Scale (RRS), to culturally adapt it and to implement it to identify rural areas from a health care delivery perspective. Therefore we aimed to validate the RRS by defining cut-off scores for urban, semi-rural and rural areas in Germany. Methods After receiving permission, two researchers independently translated the RRS. In a consensus meeting, four items were identified that had to be culturally adapted. The modified RRS-Germany (mRRS-G) was sent to 724 GPs located in urban, semi-rural and rural areas to validate the “rurality” scoring system for conditions in Germany. Results Four items, “travelling time to next major hospital”, “on-call duty”, “regular peripheral clinic” and “on-call for major traumas” had to be adapted due to differences in the health care system. The survey had a response rate of 33.7%. A factor analysis showed a three dimensional structure of the mRRS-G scale with a poor internal consistency. Nevertheless, the three items regarding “on-call duty”, “next major hospital” and “most distant boundary covered by your practice” were identified as significant predictors for rurality. The adapted cut-off point for rurality in Germany was 16. From this study’s participants, 9 met the RRS cut-off point for rurality (a score of 35 or more). Conclusion Compared with New Zealand rurality scores based on this tool, German scores are far less rural from a health care delivery point of view. We consider that the construct of rurality has more aspects than those assessed by the mRRS-G. Nevertheless, rural areas from a health care delivery viewpoint can be effectively defined using mRRS-G and therefore it can support tailored strategies against GPs shortage. PMID:24694262

2014-01-01

131

Information support of territorial wildlife management of Lake Baikal and the surrounding areas (Russia)  

Science.gov (United States)

The UNESCO World Heritage Committee inscribed Lake Baikal in the World Heritage List under all four natural criteria as the most outstanding example of a freshwater ecosystem. It is the oldest and deepest lake in the world, which is the main freshwater reserve surrounded by a system of protected areas that have high scientific and natural values. However, there is a conflict between three main interests within the territory: the preservation of the unique ecosystem of the lake and its surrounding areas, the need for regional economic development, and protection of interests of the population, living on the shores of Lake Baikal. Solutions to the current challenges are seen in the development of control mechanisms for the wildlife management to ensure sustainable development and conservation of lake and the surrounding regions. For development mechanisms of territorial management of the complex and valuable area it is necessary to analyze features of its functioning and self-control (adaptable possibilities), allowing ecosystems to maintain their unique properties under influence of various external factors: anthropogenic (emissions, waste water, streams of tourists) and natural (climate change) load. While determining the direction and usage intensity of the territory these possibilities and their limits should be considered. Also for development of management strategy it is necessary to consider the relation of people to land and water, types of wildlife management, ownership, rent, protection from the negative effects, and etc. The relation of people to the natural area gives a chance to prioritize the direction in the resource use and their protection. Results of the scientific researches (reaction of an ecosystem on influence of various factors and system of relations to wildlife management objects) are the basis for the nature protection laws in the field of wildlife management and environmental protection. The methodology of legal zoning of the territory was developed. It reflects a modern system of relationships to the land in the laws and regulations on the federal, regional and local levels. It is a tool for informational and legal support in the decision-making process in the field of the wildlife management. The federal laws regulate the situation in general, and the departmental regulations govern its adjustment by components. The analysis of legal acts' dynamics in the sphere of wildlife management and environmental protection was conducted in order to monitoring the situation and evaluate the changes of relationships to the territory for 10 years (2001-2011 years). As the result with the use of GIS-technology a map of legal zoning was created. This electronic map has become a GIS model of the legal zoning, besides the informational content each contour includes cadastral data and information about its legal status. The model is created as a form of refraction of legislative base through a natural and economic basis of the territory. It allows shifting to the analysis of strategy of the territorial use, choice of optimal strategy of regional development, and decision-making and its realization.

Lesnykh, Svetlana

2013-04-01

132

An Analysis of Ict Development Strategy Framework in Chinese Rural Areas  

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development strategy in Chinese rural areas is an indispensable part of national development strategies. This paper reviews the ICT framework in agriculture and rural areas launched by the Department of Agriculture in China. It compares the rural ICT policies and strategies between China and the European Union (EU). The ICT development strategy framework is analyzed based on the situation in Chinese rural area and the experiences of the EU. Some lessons and suggestions are provided.

Duan, Meiying; Warren, Martyn; Lang, Yunwen; Lu, Shaokun; Yang, Linnan

133

The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

134

Analysis of radionuclides from Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Machida and the surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radioactivity in surface soil at Kanagawa, Tokyo, Chiba and the surrounding area have been measured during the period from March to July 2011 after the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant arising from the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. The soil samples were dried at 97degC for 20-24 h, and weighted. The ?-ray spectra were measured with a high-purity germanium semiconductor detector equipped with a multichannel analyzer. The radioactivity level of 137Cs was found to be a few Bq/kg to one hundred in 15 samples with the average of 43 Bq/kg on April 1 as the compassion date, and that of 134Cs to be nearly the same range (0.5-142 Bq/kg) with the average of 49 Bq/kg. The radioactivity level of 131I was 20-60 Bq/kg at lower limit and several hundred Bq/kg at upper limit, and found to be higher than that of the cesium isotopes. The radioactivity ratio of 134Cs/137Cs was found to be 0.9-1.2 for all the samples, while that of 131I/137Cs was likely to be characteristic for the sampling area. (author)

135

Domestic Dogs in Rural Communities around Protected Areas: Conservation Problem or Conflict Solution?  

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Although domestic dogs play many important roles in rural households, they can also be an important threat to the conservation of wild vertebrates due to predation, competition and transmission of infectious diseases. An increasing number of studies have addressed the impact of dogs on wildlife but have tended to ignore the motivations and attitudes of the humans who keep these dogs and how the function of dogs might influence dog-wildlife interactions. To determine whether the function of domestic dogs in rural communities influences their interactions with wildlife, we conducted surveys in rural areas surrounding protected lands in the Valdivian Temperate Forests of Chile. Sixty percent of farm animal owners reported the use of dogs as one of the primary means of protecting livestock from predators. The probability of dog–wild carnivore interactions was significantly associated with the raising of poultry. In contrast, dog–wild prey interactions were not associated with livestock presence but had a significant association with poor quality diet as observed in previous studies. Dog owners reported that they actively encouraged the dogs to chase off predators, accounting for 25–75% of the dog–wild carnivore interactions observed, depending on the predator species. Humans controlled the dog population by killing pups and unwanted individuals resulting in few additions to the dog population through breeding; the importation of predominantly male dogs from urban areas resulted in a sex ratios highly dominated by males. These results indicate that dog interactions with wildlife are related to the role of the dog in the household and are directly influenced by their owners. To avoid conflict with local communities in conservation areas, it is important to develop strategies for managing dogs that balance conservation needs with the roles that dogs play in these rural households. PMID:24465930

Sepulveda, Maximiliano A.; Singer, Randall S.; Silva-Rodriguez, Eduardo; Stowhas, Paulina; Pelican, Katharine

2014-01-01

136

Social aspects of revitalization of rural areas. Implementation of the rural revival programme in lodzkie voivodeship. Assumptions for sociological research  

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Full Text Available Essential elements of the process of rural renovation programme are: stimulating activity of local communities, cooperation for development, while preserving social identity, cultural heritage and natural environment. Implementing a rural revival programme in Poland: Sectoral Operational Programme “The Restructuring and Modernisation of the Food Sector and the Development of Rural Areas in 2004-2006” (action 2.3 “Rural renovation and protection and preservation of cultural heritage” evokes criticism. A wide discussion is carried amongst researchers, politicians, social activists, and local government practitioners. The main question remains: “is rural renovation process in Poland conducted in accordance with the rules in European countries or it is only a new formula of rural modernisation with the use of European funds?” The authors are joining the discussion and in the second part of the article they are presenting the assumption of sociological research. The aim of the analysis is to grasp the essence of revitalization of rural areas located in ?ódzkie voivodeship, and analyse the question of specificity of rural Revival Programmes. What is the scope and manner of use of local capital? If so, are the results obtained from implementing a rural revival programme in 2004-2006 within the scope of sustainable development? What activities are predominant in the process of project implementation? Is it rural modernisation, revitalization of the rural areas, barrier removal and change in Infrastructure, or creation of social capital and subjectivity of the local community? Has the process of rural renovation in ?ódzkie voivodeship got the so called “social face” and if so, to what extent? The major assumption is that rural renovation programme in ?ódzkie voivodeship relates more to revitalization material aspects than “spirituality”.

Pamela Jeziorska-Biel

2012-04-01

137

Probability impact analysis of potential radioactive release from Fukushima accident to surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper simulated the potential impact of radioactive material from the Fukushima accident to the surrounding areas with China as an area of special concern. Using the five-year meteorological data in Spring during 2004-2008 as input, the forward 3D trajectories started 8 times a day at 50 m high above four simulated releasing points, which were ± 0.2 degree latitude and longitude centering around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was calculated with an interval of 3 h and a trajectory length of 5 d. By means of cluster analysis to results of trajectory calculation, the atmospheric transport pathways of all the 14720 trajectories derived were obtained that enabled the following statistical analysis to the frequency of radioactive material in reaching interest region as well the probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration. The results showed a relatively low frequency in Spring with its peak appeared in May. For instance the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Harbin in May is 0.9%, Shanghai 0.6%, Taiwan 0.2%, and Beijing 0.1% with an average migration time of 3.2 d, 4.2 d , 4.5 d and 4.6 d respectively. The lowest frequency showed in March, the frequency of radioactive material arriving in Taiwan in March is merely 0.1%, for Harbin is 0.1% and 0 for the rest of areas concerned in our country. The probability field of atmospheric transport and rapid migration from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant are consistent with the impact analysis results of trajectories. Meanwhile, the impact of probability field to other regions can be observed from the results. (authors)

138

Determination of the pollution with lead in the batteries factory in Al-Saffera (Aleppo) and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study aimed to determine the lead concentrations in the ecosystem surrounding the batteries factory in Al-Saffera. The results showed that the lead levels were very high in both factory area and the surrounding agricultural area. Lead levels in air varied between 12 and 34 ?g/m3 in the area outside the factory. The same trends were in both soil and plant samples, and normal washing does not decrease the lead level in plant samples to acceptable levels. Mean lead levels in blood was also high and ranged between 55 and 28 ?g /dl for factory workers and village inhabitants respectively. In conclusion the authorities administration must take all necessary procedures to reduce the lead levels in the factory area and in the surrounding area.(Author)

139

The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

140

The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

 
 
 
 
141

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people's thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes. PMID:23718775

Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Katureebe, Sheila K; Gitta, Sheba N; Mwaka, Amos D; Atuyambe, Lynn

2013-01-01

142

Local earthquake tomography of the Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area in Turkey  

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Full Text Available In this study, selected travel time data from the aftershock series of the Erzincan earthquake (March, 1992, Ms=6.8 were inverted simultaneously for both hypocenter locations and 3D Vp and Vs structure. The general features of the 3D velocity structure of the upper crust of Erzincan Basin and the surrounding area, one of the most tectonically and seismically active regions in Turkey were investigated. The data used for this purpose were 2215 P-wave and 547 S-wave arrival times from 350 local earthquakes recorded by temporary 15 short-period seismograph stations. Thurber?s simultaneous inversion method (1983 was applied to the arrival time data to obtain a 3D velocity structure, and hypocentral locations. Both 3D heterogeneous P and S wave velocity variations down to 12 km depth were obtained. The acquired tomographic images show that the 3D velocity structure beneath the region is heterogeneous in that low velocity appears throughout the basin and at the southeastern flank, and high velocities occur at south and east of the basin. The low velocities can be related to small and large scale fractures, thus causing rocks to weaken over a long period of the active tectonic faulting process. The ophiolitic rock units mostly occurring around the basin area are the possible reason for the high velocities. The validity of 3D inversion results was tested by performing detailed resolution analysis. The test results confirm the velocity anomalies obtained from inversion. Despite the small number of inverted S-wave arrivals, the obtained 3D S velocity model has similar anomalies with lower resolution than the 3D P-wave velocity model. Better hypocenter locations were calculated using the 3D heterogeneous model obtained from tomographic inversion.

H. Gökalp

2007-06-01

143

Magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas, San Luis Obispo County, central California  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnetic map of the Irish Hills and surrounding areas was created as part of a cooperative research and development agreement with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company and is intended to promote further understanding of the areal geology and structure by serving as a basis for geophysical interpretations and by supporting geological mapping, mineral and water resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on magnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals can be related to either lithologic or structural boundaries. Magnetic susceptibility measurements from the area indicate that bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense magnetic anomalies, but such generalizations must be applied with caution because some sedimentary units also can produce measurable magnetic anomalies. Remanent magnetization does not appear to be a significant source for magnetic anomalies because it is an order of magnitude less than the induced magnetization. The map is a mosaic of three separate surveys collected by (1) fixed-wing aircraft at a nominal height of 305 m, (2) by boat with the sensor at sea level, and (3) by helicopter. The helicopter survey was flown by New-Sense Geophysics in October 2009 along flight lines spaced 150-m apart and at a nominal terrain clearance of 50 to 100 m. Tie lines were flown 1,500-m apart. Data were adjusted for lag error and diurnal field variations. Further processing included microleveling using the tie lines and subtraction of the reference field defined by International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2005 extrapolated to August 1, 2008.

Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.; Denton, K.M.

2012-01-01

144

Study on Nitrate Value in Rural Area in Amol City  

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Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Nitrate is considered as a major pollutant for groundwater resource. In recent years, the concentration of nitrate in subsurface water is increasing because du to utilization of the of using excessive amount of fertilizers and disposal of wastewater in soils. This research was carried out as descriptive study, in a rural area of Paeen Khiaban Litkooh in Amol City in 2005.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 300 samples were collected from 50 well drinking water in different weather (wet and dry The samples was taken from each well, 3 times in the wet air and 3 times in the dry air. Nitrate analysis method was Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (Model Jesco 7800 U.V/Visible at 220 and 275 nm according to "Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th edition".Results: The results revealed that, nitrate maximum related to well number 38 in a rural qrea with code 8 and with 20.66 mg/l Nitrate as N. Maximum of Nitrate average concerned in rural code 8 with 9.66 mg/l and minimum of nitrate average related to rural code 2 with 1.257 mg/l nitrate as N. The results indicated that nitrate was reduced when the depth of water wells increased and ford ware, the value of nitrate in deep wells is more than surface wells.Conclusion: The statistical analysis showed, there is a significant difference between concentrations of nitrate in surface wells drinking water in wet and dry air conditions, but there is not a significant difference between deep well drinking water. The leakage of surface water to the low depth well and lack of sanitation, may be the cause of this difference.

Z. Yousefi, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

145

Impacts of Religious and Pilgrimage Tourism in Rural Areas: The Case of Iran  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rural tourism has speedily developed and become an engine for economic development and plays a great role towards socio-economic changes in rural areas. However, its impact is controversial and not always obvious. To examine these issues, this research presents an empirical analysis of pilgrimage and religious tourism and the impacts of these types of travel in rural areas in Iran. The paper provides examples of these impacts and transformations in the three rural centers as Tourism Model Vil...

Mehdi Pourtaheri; Khalil Rahmani; Hassan Ahmadi

2012-01-01

146

Ocular Morbid Conditions in the Rural Area of Central India  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular morbid conditions are responsible for partial or total blindness. Ocular morbidities by its sheer magnitude form an enormous problem, not only in human suffering, but also in terms of economical loss and social burden. Aim: The aim of present study was to find the prevalence of ocular morbidities in rural area. Methods: Community based cross-sectional study in area covered by Rural Health Training Centre (RHTC, Hingna which is under the administrative control of Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Indira Gandhi Government Medical College [IGGMC], Nagpur, was carried out in 194 families with 925 study subjects during February 2005-December 2005. The study focuses on ocular examination and diagnosis of ocular morbid conditions. Both eyes were examined and all the relevant clinical findings were recorded in predesigned proforma. Chi Square test was used for the analysis of data .Results: The results revealed that out of 925 study subjects 297(32.11% were had ocular morbidity. Common ocular morbidity was Myopia (13.62%, Conjunctival xerosis (12.11%, Hypermetropia (11.68%, Xerophthalmia (3.46%, Pterygium (2.92%, immature senile cataract (2.70%, Eye strain (2.49%, mature senile cataract (1.84% and Presbyopia (0.86%. Females were more affected (36.58% as compared to males (28.37%, [?2 = 7.09; d.f. =1, P< 0.05]. It was observed that as the age increases the prevalence of ocular morbidity increases [?2=318.03; d.f =7, p<0.001].Higher prevalence of ocular morbid conditions was found in Illiterates 122 (40.94% [?2 = 16.47; d.f. =3, p<0.001] Conclusion: High prevalence of ocular morbidities was found in rural areas of central India with greater predominance among women and illiterates.

Vaishali K Shrote (Brahmapurkar

2012-09-01

147

Essays on the Public Employment Program in Rural Areas. Center for Rural Manpower and Public Affairs Special Paper No. 17.  

Science.gov (United States)

These eight essays on the Public Employment Program (PEP) were written by members of the Rural Manpower Policy Research Consortium. Essays are titled as follows: (1) "Public Service Employment and Manpower Policies in Rural Areas: Limitations of the Emergency Employment Act--EEA" (argument for integration of PEP with manpower, educational, and…

Johnson, Deborah, Ed.; Moser, Collette, Ed.

148

Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 ?g/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 ?g/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 ?g/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 ?g/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

149

Clusters as a factor for sustainable development in rural areas  

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Full Text Available Sustainable development is one of the determinants of strategic thinking and current operation of modern companies. Sustainable development is a factor in other words, in which companies come to work. It is an important factor, and having far-reaching repercussions, but it is not the only one. Enterprises should therefore take in its action it into account, adapt to it and benefit from its existence, but that does not mean that this fact can and should be the only determinant of their performance. The determinant of its action should reflect the clusters, especially those operating in rural areas.

Justyna Soci?ska

2012-09-01

150

Wood as a primal fuel for rural areas of Estonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

About 20% of the population of Estonia has individual heating systems, mainly using domestic fuels such as wood and peat. This cheaper fuel is widely used in rural areas. The first studies of fuel consumption of households were made in Estonia in 1928 and 1934. At present there is a lack of reliable data. In 1995-1998 the authors carried out an investigation to analyze the situation nowadays. The data indicates that some wood used as fuel is not reflected in official statistics. This result means that the actual share of biofuels in the Estonian energy supply is bigger than that shown in official statistics. (author)

151

Age distribution of fossil landslides in the Tyrol (Austria and its surrounding areas  

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Full Text Available Some of the largest mass movements in the Alps cluster spatially in the Tyrol (Austria. Fault-related valley deepening and coalescence of brittle discontinuities structurally controlled the progressive failure and the kinematics of several slopes. To evaluate the spatial and temporal landslide distribution, a first comprehensive compilation of dated mass movements in the Eastern Alps has been made. At present, more than 480 different landslides in the Tyrol and its surrounding areas, including some 120 fossil events, are recorded in a GIS-linked geodatabase. These compiled data show a rather continuous temporal distribution of landslide activities, with (i some peaks of activity in the early Holocene at about 10 500–9400 cal BP and (ii in the Tyrol a significant increase of deep-seated rockslides in the Subboreal at about 4200–3000 cal BP. The majority of Holocene mass movements were not directly triggered by deglaciation processes, but clearly took a preparation of some 1000 years, after ice withdrawal, until slopes collapsed. In view of this, several processes that may promote rock strength degradation are discussed. After the Late-Glacial, slope stabilities were affected by stress redistribution and by subcritical crack growth. Fracture propagating processes may have been favoured by glacial loading and unloading, by earthquakes and by pore pressure fluctuations. Repeated dynamic loading, even if at subcritical energy levels, initiates brittle fracture propagation and thus substantially promotes slope instabilities. Compiled age dating shows that several landslides in the Tyrol coincide temporally with the progradation of some larger debris flows in the nearby main valleys and, partially, with glacier advances in the Austrian Central Alps, indicating climatic phases of increased water supply. This gives evidence of elevated pore pressures within the intensely fractured rock masses. As a result, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations are induced by complex and polyphase interactions of lithological and structural parameters, morphological changes, subcritical fracture propagation, variable seismic activity and climatically controlled groundwater flows.

C. Prager

2008-04-01

152

Exploiting Digital Switchover for Broadband Services Access in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available

The paper discuses how the imminent transition to the digital terrestrial television in UHF (DigitalSwitchover could be employed towards enabling always-on connectivity and triple-play services access even from rural and dispersed locations, i.e. in areas where no termination/connection exists between the local PSTN exchanger and the optical fibre core backbone. Exploiting the European digital video broadcasting standard in regenerative configurations, the paper introduces an architecture that utilises the television stream as a common broadband infrastructure, capable to deliver not only custom digital television bouquets, but also and most predominant, to provide access to triple-play services. Utilising this television beam in backhaul (middle-mile configurations it extends the core backbone to reach rural and dispersed locations, enabling therefore the immediate and cost-effective deployment (in these areas of technologies that provide for always-on connectivity, such as WLAN, xDSL, etc.

Charalabos Skianis

2006-09-01

153

SPECIFIC CONDITIONS AND FORMS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RURAL AREA IN SOUTH MUNTENIA REGION  

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Full Text Available The development of the rural area refers to the modifications in the rural area and the specific forms that supports these modifications, represented by the technical and social infrastructure. The rural area of the region was formed from administrative point of view of 7 counties, in 2010, containing 519 communes, with 2019 villages. The rural area, by the development potential it has, plays and important role in the economic and social life of the region, being different by the urban area by the profile of the economic activities, occupational structures and available resources. In the rural area, the agriculture dominates as main activity, the percent owned by it at the regional level being of 35.5% of the total employed population in 2010. The proposed paper presents the aspects regarding the infrastructure for the development of the rural area in South Muntenia Region.

Elena LASCAR

2013-01-01

154

Ecology of small mammals in a Brazilian rural area  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A small mammal study was carried out in Pamparrão valley, Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 1991 to July 1996. The area was characterised by small rural properties with vegetable plantations, pasture lands and small forest fragments. Small mammals were captured in seven line tran [...] sects along the valley. Eleven small mammal species were captured: the didelphid marsupials Didelphis aurita, Philander frenata and Monodelphis americana, and the rodents Nectomys squamipes, Akodon cursor, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Bolomys lasiurus, Oecomys concolor (Sigmodontinae), Rattus ratlus (Murinae), Proechimys iheringi and Euryzygo-matomys guiara (Echimyidae). The heterogeneous habitat configuration probably allowed the occurrence of marsupials and more rodent species when compared to studies in monoculture areas.

Paulo Sergio, D' Andrea; Rosana, Gentile; Rui, Cerqueira; Carlos Eduardo V, Grelle; Claudia, Horta; Luis, Rey.

155

Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location. Other interventions highlighted included provision of decent housing, and more rapid career advancement. However, recently introduced short term contracts in named locations were not favoured due to their lack of pension plans and job security. Conclusions This study identified a range of potential interventions to increase rural recruitment and retention, with those most favored by nursing students being additional rural allowances, and allowing choice of rural location. Greater investment is needed in information systems to evaluate the impact of such policies.

Goodman Catherine

2010-07-01

156

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. METHOD: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive stud [...] y in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. RESULTS: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. CONCLUSION: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people's thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus, Rutebemberwa; Sheila K., Katureebe; Sheba N., Gitta; Amos D., Mwaka; Lynn, Atuyambe.

2013-01-01

157

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

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Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas.Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used.Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus Rutebemberwa

2013-05-01

158

Perceptions of diabetes in rural areas of Eastern Uganda  

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Full Text Available Background: People diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are increasing in sub-Saharan Africa and prompt care seeking depends on perceptions of the illness. Objective: The objective was to explore perceptions of diabetes in rural areas. Method: We conducted a qualitative, explorative and descriptive study in rural eastern Uganda. Eight focus group discussions with community members were conducted. Community members were presented with a story about a person with diabetes symptoms and their perceptions of the diagnosis and treatment elicited. Four focus group discussions with people with diabetes and seven key informant interviews with health workers were conducted. Respondents were asked how the community interpreted symptoms of diabetes, its causes and whether it was curable. Manifest content analysis was used. Results: Some respondents thought people with diabetes symptoms had HIV or were bewitched. Causes of diabetes mentioned included consuming too much fatty food. Some respondents thought diabetes is transmitted through air, sharing utensils with or sitting close to people with diabetes. Some respondents thought that diabetes could heal fast whilst others thought it was incurable. Conclusion: Misdiagnosis may cause delay in seeking proper care. Preventive programmes could build on people’s thinking that too much fatty food causes diabetes to promote diets with less fat. The perception of diabetes as a contagious disease leads to stigmatisation and affects treatment seeking. Seeing diabetes as curable could create patient expectations that may not be fulfilled in the management of diabetes. Rural communities would benefit from campaigns creating awareness of prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and management of diabetes.

Elizeus Rutebemberwa

2013-01-01

159

ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS FOR RURAL AREAS - SUSTAINABLE POTENTIAL IN THE NEW AND OLD EU MEMBER STATES  

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Environmental indicators are new instruments in the European Union to assess the impact of agriculture on the environment in rural areas. Using these indicators in the EU member states, changes in rural areas can be analysed and compared. Thus, strong and weak points in rural areas in terms of environmental protection can be investigated. The aim of the paper is to discus environmental indicators, recommended by the European Commission in 2006, for chosen new and old EU member countries. This...

JADWIGA ZIOLKOWSKA

2009-01-01

160

The Poor Rural Areas That Must Support The City of the Future  

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Full Text Available Cities have exported poverty to rural areas, yet we forget that cities do not exist in nature. Sociologists and others often seem to forget that. Cities are a product of social behavior. Neither do cities exist in self-sustained vacuums unto themselves. Cities are dependent and interdependent with rural areas and through forms of social interaction that link people living in urban and rural areas. While cities are a product of social behavior, they are dependent upon natural resources. It is from rural areas that the natural resources which sustain cities are produced and extracted.

Ron Wimberley

2006-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

The Effects of Non-Farm Business in Rural Sustainable Development: A Case Study in Sanandaj's Rural Areas, Kurdistan  

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Full Text Available Rural economy has an important role in rural sustainabledevelopment in every region or country. However, therural economy in Iran is too much depending on agricultureand development of other rural economy in particular nonfarmactivities, has been neglected by Iranian rural communities.Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the role ofnon-farm business on rural sustainable development in SanandajTownship. This study was a type of surveying research andemployed both questionnaire and interview tools. A four-partquestionnaire (with 48 questions was developed in order tocollect data from the respondents. Likert-type responses withfive scales were used to assess different sections of the questionnaires.The questionnaires’ reliability was tested by Cronbach’sAlpha technique and it was 76% (?= 0.76. A numberof 279 families, 181 families with and 98 without non-farmbusiness were selected randomly in 2011. Results of the studyshowed that non-farm business can contribute to employmentgrowth, income generating, and prevent seasonal and permanentmigration from rural areas. Based on the results, non-farmbusiness and non-farm industries need to be strongly investedby financial facilities through rural cooperatives and unions.Additionally, encouraging rural participation is essential innon-farms and industrial activities.

Reza Movahedi

2012-06-01

162

Menstrual pattern among adolescent girls in rural area of Bijapur  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a crucial period in everyone’s life. This is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood. These are formative years when maximum amount of physical, psychological and behavioral changes takes place. For girls, adolescence is period of extreme stress and strain. Menarche and menstruation are bound to elicit tremendous psychological response in them. Objectives of the study: To know the menstrual pattern among adolescent girls. Material methods: Community based cross sectional study was done in rural field practice area of department of community medicine, BLDEA’S Shri B.M.Patil medical college, Bijapur. The study subjects include all adolescent girls who have attained menarche. Results: Mean age of menarche of adolescent girls in the present study was 14 years, mean duration of blood flow 3.9±5.07 days. Mean intermenstrual period 28.7±3.26 days and dysmenorrhoea was present in 27.9% of adolescent girls.

Manjula S. Patil

2013-01-01

163

Anemia among children and adolescents in a rural area  

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Full Text Available Background Anemia in children and adolescents affects growth and development. It is a preventable disease, but unfortunately is often ignored until the symptoms occur. There have been limited reports on the prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents in Indonesia, especially from rural areas. Objective To describe the prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents in district of Malinau, a rural area in Eeast Kalimantan Province. Methods This cross-sectional study was done in June 2010 using laboratory records between July 2009 to January 2010. Laboratory records of patients aged between 6 months and 18 years which investigated were complete blood count (CBC from ambulatory, inpatient, and emergency care of Malinau Public Hospital in Eeast Kalimantan. Mentzer and England & Fraser indices were used to differentiate iron deficiency anemia (IDA and thalassemia among microcytic hypochromic anemic patients. Results This study involved 709 laboratory records. Prevalence of anemia was 53.9% (95% CI 50.2% to 57.5%. The prevalence of IDA among age groups were as follows: 29.4% (95% CI 24.3 to 34.5% in 6–59 months group, 16% (95% CI 11 to 21% in 5–11.9 years, and 15.2% (95% CI 10.2 to 20.2% in 12–18 years. Children aged 6–59 months tended to have more anemia than those aged 5–11.9 years (OR 2.184, 95% CI 1.398 to 3.413 or aged 12-18 years (OR 2.319, 95% CI 1.464 to 3.674. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia in children and adolescents of the Malinau Regency is 53.9% (95% CI 50.2 to 57.5%, quite similar to that of other developing countries. A government program to overcome anemia is recommended, not only for pregnant women, but also for children and adolescents.

Ivan Riyanto Widjaja

2014-03-01

164

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and surrounding area, West Valley, New York  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the West Valley Demonstration Project and the surrounding area was conducted from mid-August through early September 1984 by EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. for the United States Department of Energy. The radiological survey was part of the United States Department of Energy Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which provides state-of-the-art remote sensing to support the needs of the various DOE facilities. The survey consisted of airborne measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. These measurements allowed an estimate of the distribution of isotopic concentrations in the area surrounding the project site. Results are reported as isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radionuclides. 8 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs

165

Measuring social well-being in the rural areas of the Kaliningrad region  

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This article evaluates the social wellbeing of rural municipalities of the Kaliningrad region. The degree of social wellbeing is assessed on the basis of an analysis of statistical data and expert evaluations. Rural districts were identified in the Kaliningrad region on the basis of the following criteria: the share of population residing in the rural areas (threshold value of 50 %); the share of non-residential areas (threshold value of 75 %), the share of agricultural lands (threshold value...

Romanova E. A.; Vinogradova O. L.

2014-01-01

166

Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria  

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Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, t...

Irohibe Ifeoma; Agwu Agwu

2014-01-01

167

Designing a Mobile Training System in Rural Areas with Bayesian Factor Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The facts that the wireless technologies (1) are more convenient; and (2) need less skill than desktop computers, play a crucial role to decrease digital gap in rural areas. This study employed the Bayesian Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to design a mobile training system in rural areas of Iran. It categorized challenges, potential, and…

Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Mirdamadi, Seyed Mehdi; Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir Teimour

2014-01-01

168

Transition Management and Social Innovation in Rural Areas: Lessons from Social Farming  

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Purpose: The article reflects on transition management in rural areas and the possible implications for extension services able to support social innovation and rural change, starting from experiences on social farming in different areas of Italy. Design/methodology/approach: By presenting three case studies we investigate the role of social…

Di Iacovo, Francesco; Moruzzo, Roberta; Rossignoli, Cristiano; Scarpellini, Paola

2014-01-01

169

A model for community health service development in depressed rural areas in China  

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Abstract Background To introduce a model of community health service organization (as implemented in urban areas) to less developed rural areas in China and evaluate the impact of this model on health care utilization. Methods The intervention involved developing leadership at county level, training rural health practitioners, providing clinical management guidelines and standards, encouraging clinic improvements and providing access to subsidies for public heal...

Zhaokang Yuan; Yuxi Liu; Yong Liu; Yunchang Xiao; Yuanjun Guo; Harris Mark

2012-01-01

170

Increasing cocoa productivity and farmer capacity in surrounding area of PT Kaltim Prima Coal and PT Berau Coal  

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Full Text Available Based on agro-climate factors, most of surrounding area of coal mining sites in Indonesia is suitable for cocoa cultivation. However, most of cocoa farmers in the environs of coal mining sites have little access both to new technology of cocoa cultivation and to market of their cocoa products. Therefore, productivity of cocoa farms and the income of cocoa farmers are low, which may disturb social responsibility of the coal mining companies present in their surroundings. These are the consequences of poor interaction between the government, private sector and research sector. The aim of this study is to transfer and to implement good agricultural practices of cocoa in surrounding area of mining sites of Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC and Berau Coal (BC, East Kalimantan, in order to increase farmer capacity and cocoa productivity. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute as the developing agent of cocoa technology has established collaboration with corporate social responsibility program of KPC (already 7 years and BC (already 2 years to improve productivity and farmer capacity of cocoa farms surroundings the two cocoa mining companies. This paper discusses the aspects of natural, economic and human resources; baseline study; technology transfers; marketing partnership; cocoa productivity; farmer income after technology implementing; study of cocoa growth on post-coal-mining. It is concluded that improvement of the cocoa productivity and farmer capacity surroundings the two mining sites associated with high adoption of technology by farmers, better access to availability of knowledge for good agricultural practices, extension officers, demonstration plots, cocoa price, and length of market chains, partnership, and competition with oil palm plantations.

J B Baon

2014-01-01

171

Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, Pviolence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05). In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03). Conclusion The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. PMID:25336992

Ajah, Leonard Ogbonna; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Nkwo, Peter Onubiwe; Nwakoby, Boniface; Ezeonu, Paul

2014-01-01

172

Drinking water quality assessment of rural wells from Aiud Area  

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Full Text Available The present paper presents the assessment of physico-chemical quality of drinking watercoming from rural wells of Aiud area (villages: M?gina, Livezile, Poiana Aiudului, V?li?oara. Water qualitywas evaluated through a research project conducted over a period of eight months (October 2009 - May2010. It consisted of a monthly monitoring of water physico-chemical characteristics of 27 drinking wellsfrom the villages mentioned above. There were monitored monthly in the laboratory the followingparameters: pH, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids,salinity, using WTW Multi-parameter inolab 720. In April and May, at the parameters mentioned abovewere added chemical measurements for the following indicators: Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2->, NO3 -, PO4 3-,HCO3 -, which analysis were performed with Dionex Ion Chromatograph System 2100. The results of thechemical analysis were processed using the following methods: linear regression, Pearson correlationcoefficient (r and water quality index (WQI. This monitoring project was initiated from the premise of aproblematic quality of well waters, based on the well known contamination vulnerability of the drinkingwater in Romania, but the results of this study proved the opposite: the water from the monitored wellshad a proper quality for drinking

Cristina Ro?u

2011-08-01

173

SIGNIFICANCE OF STATISTICS IN HEALTH SCIENCES IN RURAL AREA  

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Full Text Available The present article is aimed at significance ofstatistics in growing health science industries. Health andstatistics are essential tools in demography; health care, medicalprofession and community services. Statistics plays verysignificant role to describe what is normal and healthy inpopulation and to find limits of normality in variables, such asweight and pulse rate, sex and haemoglobin, age andmenstruation cycle etc. Statistics in health sciences willarticulates leading causes of death, sickness, whether particulardiseases is rising or falling in severity and prevalence. Statisticaldata collected from measurements or surveillance that definesthe characteristics of specific population samples. Descriptivestatistics précis the utility, efficacy and expenses of medical goodsand facilities. Progressively, health care organizations employstatistical analysis to measure their performance outcomes. Thistype of study is important in finding the correlation between twovariables, comparison in the action of different drugs, to find anassociation between two attributes, in field of Anatomy &Physiology, Pharmacology, Medicines, and Public health &Community medicines respectively. By collecting the waitingtimes of five different patients chosen at random from Govtdispensary Mallewal, district Patiala, Govt dispensary Dhablan,district Patiala , Govt dispensary Todarpur, district Patiala Govtdispensary Bahadurgarh, district Patiala(treated as out-patientclinics A, B, C, and D to determine if there are differencesbetween the dispensaries using Kruskal-Wallis Application(statistics one can know how statistics is helpful in rural area.

Reetu Malhotra , Vandana Singh , Dr. Rajesh Kumar

2012-05-01

174

[Observations and comparison analysis of air pollution in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study regional air quality, evaluate the interaction of air quality among Beijing and four cities and assess the effects of regional collaborative emission abatement in Beijing and surrounding areas for the Olympic Games period on regional air quality, and seek an effective means of early warning of air pollution, a monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and four nearby cities which were Zhuozhou, Langfang, Xianghe and Yanjiao, was established to measure concentrations of NO(x), O3 and particulate matter in June 2008. The results show that the primary pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas are particulates during the study periods. The average mass concentrations of PM10 were (114 +/- 66) microg/m3 and (128 +/- 59) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively, while the average mass concentrations of PM2.5 were (77 +/- 47) microg/m3 and (81 +/- 51) microg/m3, respectively. The average maximum hourly mass concentrations of O3 were (164 +/- 52) microg/m3 and (165 +/- 55) microg/m3, as well as the average mass concentrations of NO(x) were (58 +/- 23) microg/m3 and (25 +/- 14) microg/m3 in Beijing and nearby cities, respectively. Compared to June, concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, O3, NO(x) decreased by 69%, 62%, 18% and 41% during the Olympic period (from August 8 to 24) and 56%, 49%, 17% and 16% during the Paralympic Games period (from September 6 to 17) in Beijing. The mass concentration of PM2.5 was affected by the surrounding areas of Beijing seriously. The relative high concentrations of NO(x) in Beijing implied NO(x) had the potential tendency to be transported to the surrounding areas. Ozone showed regional pollution characteristics in summer. It shows that the monitoring network on observation of atmospheric pollutants in Beijing and nearly surrounding areas is significant in early warning of air pollution, and could provide scientific support for interregional cooperation of air pollution control. PMID:21360871

Sun, Zhi-Qiang; Ji, Dong-Sheng; Song, Tao; Lin, Hong; Wang, Yue-Si; Jiang, Chang-Sheng

2010-12-01

175

Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas  

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Full Text Available Magnetic observations made onshore the Italian Peninsula, and across the adjacent seas, have been compiled in a new digital database that provides the first complete regional scale view of the crustal scale magnetic anomalies of the region at sea level. The offshore data were acquired between 1965-1972 by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale (OGS while the ground measurements were performed within the framework of the Progetto Finalizzato Geodinamica of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (PFG-CNR between 1977 and 1981. The new shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field for Italy and the surrounding seas has been produced at sea level, for the geomagnetic epoch 1979.0. The most remarkable result of this new map, with respect to the previous compilations and to the aeromagnetic map of Italy, is an unprecedented view of the magnetic signature of the major tectonic elements in their regional setting. There is good correlation between known structural geology and the magnetic anomalies, and now that the longer wavelength signatures have been corrected, deeper interpretations are possible.

C. Carmisciano

2000-06-01

176

Changes in the level and quality of life of the population in rural areas in Poland  

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Full Text Available One of the main priorities of the European Union is to strengthen the policy of rural areas in order to improve the level and quality of life. The aim of this study was to provide the level and quality of life in rural areas in Poland and analyse the changes that have occurred in this area since 2003. Coefficients of variation, asymmetry and dynamic factor were calculated utilizing the applied methods. On the basis of the analysis it can be stated that there were significant changes in the equipment in rural areas in the technical infrastructure. Improved housing conditions and increased satisfaction withmaterial and the housing situation were also observed.

Anna Murawska

2012-09-01

177

The Study of Cultural Soft Power under the Construction of New Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available

Culture is the core element of soft power, and it is also closely related to the construction of new rural areas. To achieve the overall goal of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the developing of country is not only the key point but also the difficult one. In this article, the authors firstly do a brief overview of the concept and meaning of soft power, and then show the importance and necessity of the cultural soft power to make a new sustainable development of country. But today the construction of rural cultural soft power is not optimistic, and the four key problems are as follows: the public cultural projects can not meet the demands of new rural construction, and the government show less attention to the cultural construction of rural areas .Besides, the defective management of rural culture and the insufficient quality of the peasants do exist in rural areas .Therefore, addressed the above issues, authors put forward several suggestions. At first, build and improve the new rural cultural soft power system. Furthermore, make the grassroots government work in the construction of cultural soft power. What’s more, increase the cultural resources and enhance the services of rural public culture. Finally, improve the overall quality of the peasants and cultivate new peasants.

Key Words: New rural construction; Cultural soft power; Rural cultural construction.

Résumé: La culture est l’élément central de la puissance douce, et de la culture et le développement rural sont étroitement liés atteindre l’objectif global du socialisme aux caractéristiques chinoises, en mettant l’accent sur les zones rurales, les zones rurales est également difficile dans le présent document, le concept. de la puissance douce et pour un bref aperçu du contenu, l’analyse de la puissance culturelle douce de la nouvelle importance du développement durable dans les zones rurales et la nécessité. Mais aujourd’hui, la construction des régions rurales du soft power culturel n’est pas optimiste, il ya un manque de public rural projets culturels ne peuvent pas répondre aux exigences strictes de la construction rurale nouvelle, la construction culturelle des cadres de base en milieu rural à l’attention et le niveau de sensibilisation ne suffit pas, la gestion de la culture en milieu rural doit être renforcée, la qualité globale en milieu rural la science retard scolaire, l’agriculteur n’est pas élevés quatre questions, afin d'aborder les questions ci-dessus pour construire et améliorer la nouvelle rurale système culturel soft power, à renforcer la capacité des ruraux aux services publics culturels, de changer leur façon de penser, faire jouer pleinement la population rurale du gouvernement local qui est de nourrir douce culturelle la construction de centrales de l'ordinaire, d'augmenter les ressources culturelles de la puissance douce pour les zones rurales de la force, d'accélérer la promotion des aspects culturels de la consommation rurale, améliorer la qualité globale des agriculteurs, la formation des nouveaux agriculteurs un total de quatre propositions visant à promouvoir vigoureusement la construction de la culture rurale et la puissance douce.

Mots-clés: Nouvelle construction en milieu rural; Culturel de la puissance; la Construction culturelle en milieu rural.

Junjie LI

2012-03-01

178

Utilization of photovoltaic for broadband satellite communications in rural area of Thailand  

Science.gov (United States)

Electricity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are very important not only in urban areas but also in rural areas. To provide ICTs service in rural areas, sources of electricity and communication infrastructures must be implemented. Electricity is a major condition due to the fact that all electronic devices needed it in order to power on, so that it is impossible to operate any forms of ICTs in areas where the main national grid line is unavailable. Almost rural areas of Thailand where the main national grid line is unavailable have very good sunlight intensity. Photovoltaic is the most effective renewable energy technologies in those areas for meeting electricity needed in areas that are not connected to the main national grid line. In this paper, the efficiency utilization of photovoltaic as source of electricity for broadband satellite communication systems as well as social and economic impact and quality of life of people in rural areas of Thailand are presented. The results show that most rural communities would be able to universally access to the basic telecommunications services such as internet access and public telephone via satellite communication systems. However, in some field case study, broadband internet access via satellite communication may be unnecessary for some rural communities and the most exactly rural communities needed are electricity for household usage and battery charger.

Jinayim, Theerawut; Mungkung, Narong; Kasayapanand, Nat

2013-06-01

179

Standard and quality of life of rural areas population in the view of new paradigm of development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the main tasks of modern civilization is development according to a New Paradigm, so-called sustainable development.It involves economic and social de-velopment with respect to the state of environment. Demands of sustainable development involve the notion of intergenerational justice, which provides the possibilities of meeting the requirements of humanity in the future. A man constitutes the centre of interest and is the main subject of sustainable development. Its superior aim is to fulfill the needs and aspirations of people, especially the improvement of their standard and quality of life. The work presents analysis of theoretical and empirical issues connected with the development, as well as the standard and quality of life of rural areas population in the region of Lower Silesia, taking into account its functional regions. The analysis made use of sustainable development indexes, basing on normalization method. The mentioned indexes involved housing conditions, as well as expenses connected with housing, health, culture and sport. Areas situated in the surrounding of larger urban agglomerations with higher potential of development, proved to acquire higher standards and quality of life. From the regional point of view the lowest values featured region I of rural character. Research results clearly defined the standard and quality of life of rural areas population in Lower Silesian voivodeship, as well as the changes in these two examined parameters, which confirmed the results of the research conducted in the territory of the whole country.

Adamska Hanna

2012-09-01

180

Preparation of Potentially Site Candidate of Radioactive Waste Disposal in Java Island and Its Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Introduction plan of NPP in Indonesia raised public attentions specially for its radwaste management and its disposal activity. In the next 5 year (2007-2011) will be provided some sites for radwaste disposal, both for near surface disposal and geological disposal systems with suitable and safely based on the IAEA standard. To find out a save and suitable location, field investigation programme is needed. Prior entering into investigation programme, preliminary activities are necessary to be arranged such as secondary data collecting: identification of host rock, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes. Through desktop study with limited references hopefully information of some areas in Java Island with widely enough, thick and exposed into surface of clay deposit indication could be obtained. Objective of the activity is to prepare important supporting data before actualize as a field survey programme. Results showed that secondary data such as rock identification, interest areas, objectives and investigation programmes are found out. (author)

 
 
 
 
181

An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site and surrounding area. Central Nevada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey of the Double Track Site was conducted in December 1993. An interim report was issued. That report described survey procedures and presented terrestrial exposure rate and wide-area-averaged plutonium isopleth plots. This letter report presents additional plutonium plots and some ``rule-of-thumb`` calculations which should help the reader to properly interpret the data presented. Attached to this report are three isopleth plots produced from the Double Track data. No one processing method provides all the answers regarding a particular surveyed area. Where peak values are most important, isopleth {number_sign}1, created from the original unsmoothed data, is the presentation of choice. Isopleth {number_sign}2, from smoothed data, is superior for the detection of areas of widespread low-level contamination. Isopleth {number_sign}3, also smoothed data, satisfied a particular early mission goal but is not as useful for cleanup operations as the other two.

Hendricks, T.J.

1995-07-01

182

AN ANALYSIS OF TEMPORAL CHANGES OF NIGDE CITY AND SURROUNDING AREAS USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS  

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Full Text Available Uncontrolled spatiotemporal changes in large urban areas can produce several problems such as environmental pollution, diminishing valuable agricultural lands; irregular industrialization and urbanization due to number and proportion of residents continue to increase. Recently, to evaluate uncontrolled temporal changes in urban areas, remote sensing and GIS have become important tools, because these techniques allow examination and management large amount of spatial and tabular data which would be impossible using manual interpretation. In this study, to protect limited resources, to prepare sustainable and suitable plans, urban dynamics of the Ni?de city was examined and evaluated.

Yakup K?z?lelma

2013-12-01

183

Aerial radiological survey of the areas surrounding the Big Rock Point nuclear plant, Big Rock Point, Michigan. September 1975  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An airborne radiological survey of a 1080 km2 area surrounding the Big Rock Point Nuclear Plant was made on 6 September 1975. Detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with that expected from the normal background emitters. The plant stack release plume was encountered; radionuclides found were typical of the fission products of such releases. Aerial average exposure rates equivalent to one meter above the ground are presented in the form of an isopleth map. Exposure rates measured with small portable instruments and soil sample analysis differed somewhat from the airborne data due to soil moisture differences between the time aerial and ground measurements were taken. Geological data are presented in an isopleth map of rock and soil types; a brief description of the vegetation and terrain surrounding the site is also attached

184

Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana / School performance of rural area students in urban school  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato [...] Grosso do Sul (MS), sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural), turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno), tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual) e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear Múltipla. CONCLUSÃO: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / [...] MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of residence (urban/rural), period of study (day / night), type of school (municipal/state) and gender. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in the performances of the students from series 1 to 4, in none of the disciplines. From series 5 to 8 we found a slightly better performance in the students who lived in the urban area, measured by t-Student test. However, if upon jointly analyzing all the variable, none of them was preponderant in explaining the performance of the student, measured by multiple lineal regression. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were found in the school performance between students in the urban and rural area.

Stella Maris Cortez, Bacha; Carla Castro Rezende Diniz, Brandão; Leandro, Sauer; Adriano Viana, Bednaski; Marcos Yuri, Camparoto.

185

Rendimento escolar de alunos da área rural em escola urbana School performance of rural area students in urban school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar e comparar as notas dos boletins de alunos residentes na área rural e na área urbana, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas. MÉTODOS: analisaram-se as notas do primeiro semestre de 2005 de 641 alunos do Ensino Fundamental das escolas públicas urbanas de Terenos, Mato Grosso do Sul (MS, sendo 81,1% residentes na área urbana e 18,9% na rural. Os alunos foram comparados segundo a sua performance nas disciplinas de Língua Portuguesa, Matemática, Ciências, Educação Física, Geografia, História e Educação Artística, considerando-se o local de residência (urbana e rural, turno de estudo (diurno ou noturno, tipo de escola (municipal ou estadual e gênero. RESULTADOS: não foram encontradas diferenças significativas nas performances dos alunos da primeira a quarta séries, em nenhuma disciplina. Da quinta a oitava séries encontraram-se performances ligeiramente melhores nos alunos que residem na área urbana, medido por meio do Teste t-Student. Contudo, ao se analisar conjuntamente todas as variáveis citadas acima, nenhuma delas foi preponderante na explicação da performance do aluno nas diversas disciplinas analisadas pela Regressão Linear M?ltipla. CONCLUS?O: no estudo realizado não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no rendimento escolar entre alunos da escola urbana e da rural, estando ambos estudando nas mesmas escolas urbanas.PURPOSE: to analyze and compare grades in bulletins of students who lived in rural area and in urban area, with both kinds studying in the same urban schools. METHODS: we analyzed the grades in the first semester of 2005 of 641 student in the basic education of the urban public schools of Terenos / MS, being 81.1% residents in urban area and 18.9% in rural area. The students were compared according to their performances in the discipline of Portuguese, Mathematics, Sciences, Physical Education, Geography, History and Artistic Education, considering the place of residence (urban/rural, period of study (day / night, type of school (municipal/state and gender. RESULTS: no significant difference was found in the performances of the students from series 1 to 4, in none of the disciplines. From series 5 to 8 we found a slightly better performance in the students who lived in the urban area, measured by t-Student test. However, if upon jointly analyzing all the variable, none of them was preponderant in explaining the performance of the student, measured by multiple lineal regression. CONCLUSION: no significant differences were found in the school performance between students in the urban and rural area.

Stella Maris Cortez Bacha

2006-12-01

186

An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey of the Beaver Valley Power Station was conducted during September 18 to 21, 1998, and encompassed a 53.1-square-kilometer area. The survey was conducted by the U. S. Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Laboratory, located in Las Vegas, Nevada, and maintained and operated by Bechtel Nevada. The purpose of the survey was to measure and map the general exposure-rate levels that existed within the survey area and to define the areas of man-made radionuclide activity. The inferred exposure rates were generally uniform and typical of the natural background radiation, which varied from less than 5 to 12 microroentgens per hour. Enhanced exposure rates, not attributable to natural background, and activity from man-made radionuclides were detected over the power station. The detected man-made radionuclide activity was due to the presence of cobalt-60, which is a nuclear activation product, and cesium-137, which is a long-lived fission product. The detected man-made radionuclides were generally consistent with those expected from routine plant operations. Areas outside of the power station boundaries were found to be free of any detectable man-made radionuclides. A series of ground-based, pressurized ionization chamber exposure-rate measurements were acquired at four locations within the survey boundaries. The results of these measurements were compared and found to be within 5 to 30 percent of the corresponding 1998 inferred aerial exposure-rate data

187

Aerial radiological survey of the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Station and surrounding area, Jenkinsville, South Carolina  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiologic survey was performed from 9 to 16 March 1981 over a 280 square kilometer area centered on the Virgil C. Summer Nuclear Power Station near Jenkinsville, South Carolina. All gamma-photon data were collected by flying North-South lines spaced 230 meters apart at an altitude of 122 meters above ground level. Processed data showed that all gamma-photons detected within the survey area were those expected from naturally occurring terrestrial background emitters. Count rates obtained from the aerial platform were converted to exposure rates at 1 meter above the ground and are presented in the form of an isoradiation contour map. The observed exposure rates over the land areas were between 6 and 30 microroengtens per hour (?R/h) with most of the area ranging from 6 to 15 ?R/h. These values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution of 4.0 ?R/h. The exposure rate obtained from soil samples taken at the survey site displayed positive agreement with the aerial data

188

Rural and Urban Area Classification 2004 An Introductory Guide  

Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), Office for National Statistics (ONS), the Office of ... \\exercise held in Spring 2004, to which approximately 100 people responded. .... \\How can the definition be applied to data sets that cover Great Britain or.

189

Regional water balance for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site and surrounding area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The WIPP water-balance study area defined here comprises approx.2000 mi2 in Eddy and Lea Counties, southeastern New Mexico. Inflows to the study area are precipitation (roughly 1.47 x 106 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.1 x 105 ac-ft/y), water imported by municipalities and industries (roughly 3 x 104 ac-ft/y), and ground water (volume not estimated). Outflows from the area are evapotranspiration (roughly 1.5 x 106 ac-ft/y), surface water (roughly 1.2 x 105 ac-ft/y), and possibly some ground water. The volume of surface and ground water in storage in Nash Draw has increased since the beginning of potash refining. Regional ground-water flow in aquifers above the Salado Formation is from the northeast to the southwest, although this pattern is interrupted by Clayton Basin, Nash Draw, and San Simon Swale. The Pecos River is the only important perennial stream. Most of the area has no integrated surface-water drainage. The available data suggest that approx.1600 mi2 of the study area are hydrologically separate from Nash Draw and the WIPP site. Ground water north of Highway 180 apparently discharges into Clayton Basin and evaporates. Water in San Simon Swale apparently percolates downward and flows to the southeast. Data are inadequate to create a water budget for the Nash Draw-WIPP site hydrologic system alone, although an attempt to do so can provide guidance for further study guidance for further study

190

Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

191

Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

Saud, T. [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi-110006 (India); Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi-110006 (India); Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P. [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Pathak, H. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012 (India)

2011-02-15

192

RURAL AREAS – THE PREMISE OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Year 2007 when Romania joins the European Union marked a new era in development and agricultural economy of our country. In this context Romania has had to quickly adapt its economy to take part in the EU internal market and to benefit fully from the positive effects of adopting the CAP. EU membership is perhaps the strongest factor of pressure for reform of agriculture and rapid rural Romanian economy given the necessity to integrate successfully in European rural economy. European model of ...

Lepadatu, Claudia

2012-01-01

193

Are mental disorders more common in urban than rural areas of the United States?  

Science.gov (United States)

Urban vs. rural residence is commonly cited as a risk factor for depression and other mental disorders, but epidemiological evidence for this relationship in the US is inconclusive. We examined three consecutive annual samples (2009-2011) of adolescents (age 12-17, N = 55,583) and adults (age 18 and over, N = 116,459) from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare the prevalence of major depression and other serious mental illness across four categories of urbanicity: (1) large metropolitan areas, (2) small metropolitan areas, (3) semi-rural areas, and (4) rural areas, with and without adjustment for other demographic risk factors. For adolescents, no association was observed between urbanicity and the prevalence of major depression, with or without statistical adjustments. For adults, no differences were found in the prevalence of major depression or serious mental illness between large metropolitan areas and rural areas, but the prevalence of both was slightly higher in the two intermediate urbanicity categories than in large metropolitan areas, with statistically significant odds ratios after adjustment ranging from 1.12 to 1.19. Contrary to expectations, the prevalence of mental disorders was not higher in the most urban compared with the most rural areas, suggesting that the move to identify mechanistic explanations for risk associated with the urban environment is premature. Evidence of slightly higher prevalence in small urban and semi-rural areas relative to large urban areas, reported for the first time, requires additional investigation. PMID:24857610

Breslau, Joshua; Marshall, Grant N; Pincus, Harold A; Brown, Ryan A

2014-09-01

194

Multicriteria method to evaluate the operation of technologies of renewable energy in rural areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the problem of the selection of renewable energy alternatives in rural regions in the developing world. We discuss a multicriteria method, map result, for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of the energy systems that have been installed in rural areas. The purpose is to improve the effectiveness of energization policies

195

Multicriteria focus to evaluate the operation of technologies of renewable energy in rural areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper evaluates the problem of the selection of renewable energy alternatives in rural regions in the developing world. We discuss a multicriteria method, MAP RESURL, for assessing the effectiveness and sustainability of the energy systems that have been installed in rural areas. The purpose is to improve the effectiveness of energization policies

196

Population Migration in Rural Areas, January 1979-December 1988. Quick Bibliography Series.  

Science.gov (United States)

This bibliography consists of 87 entries of materials related to population trends in rural and nonmetropolitan areas. This collection is the result of a computerized search of the AGRICOLA database. The bibliography covers topics of rural population change, migration and migrants, farm labor supplies and social conditions, and different patterns…

La Caille John, Patricia, Comp.

197

Science and Technology of Water Lifting Devices. Teaching of Science and Technology in Rural Areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most science curriculum innovations seem to have their origins and emphases in urban intellectual concerns and their content generally caters to university bound students. The reason for the failure of rural students in science subjects may be the lack of relevancy of the program to the needs of individuals living in rural areas. Chapter 1 of this…

Rao, P. Ramachandra; Rao, N. R. Nagaraja

198

Education and Change in Rural Areas in the 1990's--Chicken Little Was Not Wrong.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes past and present economic and social conditions of rural Victoria (Australia). Discusses disadvantage and advantage in rural areas and the need for lifelong learning. Analyzes the policy development of the Country Education Project (CEP) and obstacles to the implementation of the CEP. Outlines challenges and issues for the organization.…

Mason, Robb; Randell, Shirley

1992-01-01

199

Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

200

Biological studies in the sea area surrounding the Loviisa nuclear power plant in the year 1977  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Observations of rise in water temperature caused by the plant's cooling water were made in a large area of Haestholmsfjaerden. The mean temperatures during the growth period and summer months were on average of the same magnitude as those in the 1970s, except very close to the outlet, where the mean temperatures were clearly increased by the cooling water. The salinity of the water increased to exceptionally high values in September in the whole study area. Salinities even exceeding 0.6% were measured in the surface water of Haestholmsfjaerden. The concentrations of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were clearly above the level found earlier in the area, but the increase in the nutrient level was similar at all stations (including the reference station at Pernajanlahti). The amount of oxygen in the bottom water of the deep part of Haestholmsfjaerden in late summer was lower than in previous years (1.2 ml/l, 14% of the saturation level). The phytoplankton biomass spring maximum was greater at all stations than in 1974-76. Differences in species composition were small compared with earlier years. The amounts of chlorophyll a during the spring maximum were higher in 1977 than in 1975-76. The level of phytoplankton primary production in the whole study area was lower in 1977 than in the 1970s on average. The annual production at station nearest the outlet, was about 10% greater than at station situated in the middle of Haestholmsfjaerden, owing to higher production in the middle of summer. No important differences in 'in vitro' primary production were observed between sampling places near the water intake and the outlet and the values were of the same magnitude as in 1976. (T.V.)

 
 
 
 
201

The new integrated aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields volcano and surrounding areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present and analyze the new detailed aeromagnetic data set resulting from a recent survey carried out in the Phlegrean Fields volcanic area. The survey was aimed at gaining new insight into the volcanological characteristics of the region north of Phlegrean Fields (Parete-Villa Literno area where remarkable thickness of volcanic/sub- volcanic rocks were found in wells. Measurement of total magnetic field was performed on two different flight levels, 70 m and 400 m above the ground surface, along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Both aeromagnetic maps show the noisy effect of linear anomalies evidently due to the presence of railway lines. To filter out these local anomalies a method based on discrete wavelet transform was used, allowing an accurate local filtering and leaving the rest of the field practically unchanged. The filtered data set was integrated with the existing Agip aeromagnetic map of the Phlegrean Fields, leading to a new aeromagnetic map of the whole Phlegrean volcanic area. The compilation of the pole reduced map and of the maps of the Analytic Signal and of the Horizontal Derivative of the integrated data set represents a first step for the interpretation of the maps in terms of geological structures of the whole Phlegrean volcanic district.

A. Rapolla

2004-06-01

202

Diagnóstico ambiental e delimitação de Áreas de Preservação Permanente em um assentamento rural = Environmental diagnosis and delimitation of PPAs (Permanent Preservation Areas in a rural settlement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leia-se neste artigo a tentativa de diagnosticar, delimitar e situar as Áreas de Preservação Permanentes e de Reserva Legal dentro de um assentamento rural, do Incra; visando à experimentação de ferramentas de geoprocessamento para a restauração das matas ribeirinhas, pela delimitação destas áreas, respeitando a legislação ambiental vigente, e partindo de uma ampla avaliação ambiental descritiva da paisagem, encontrada no Projeto de Assentamento Federal Capela. Um diagnóstico da paisagem local é apresentado na forma de um memorial fotográfico. Neste trabalho, serão delimitadas e quantificadas somente asAPP’s de entorno de corpos d’água.This article aims to diagnose, demarcate and situate Permanent Preservation Areas and Legal Reserves within an Incra Rural Settlement. This effort was conducted while testing the effective application of geoprocessing tools in the restoration of riparian forests and the delimitation of these areas, in accordance withexisting environmental legislation, and based on a broad descriptive environmental evaluation of the local landscape, located at the Capela Federal Settlement Project. A landscape diagnosis is shown in a photographic memorial as well. For this study, only the PPAs surrounding water bodies will be delimited and quantified.

Nelson Alexandre Fagundes

2008-01-01

203

Electricity supply to rural areas of Argentina. Manuscript report No. 303e  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document contains reports of the first and second stages of the RETAIN (Rural Energy Technology Assessment and Innovation Network) project in the Misiones area in northern Argentina. The study analyzes the problems of meeting the electrical energy needs of the rural household sector in regions of the Third World to develop an analytical method that facilitates decision-making in projects of electrical supply to rural areas with a low level of development. The study describes the socio-economic and energy levels of the area; analyzes the present and future electric energy requirements and describes the energy resources; evaluates supply alternatives and costs; and describes the plans of the RETAIN project.

1993-01-01

204

Menarchial Age of Secondary School Girls in Urban and Rural Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The menarchial age of 859 secondary school girls consisting of 508 from urban and 351 from rural area of Rivers State, Nigeria were determined, using questionnaires and interview method. Data collation revealed that 69.2% (243 of the rural population were menstruating, while 70.1% (356 of the urban population were menstruating. Mean ages of menarche were 13.19±1.32 years and 14.22±1.47 years for urban and rural areas respectively .A statistically significant lower mean menarchial age was observed in urban area girls, compared to their rural counterparts. Girls from families of high socio-economic class has significantly lower mean menarchial age in both urban and rural area. The mean age of menarche was significantly higher in girls involved in vigorous sporting activity in rural areas compared to their non-sporting counterparts. Urban school girls attain menarche earlier than those in rural area. High socio-economic class and vigorous sporting activity can be predisposing factors to low and high age of menarche respectively. There is need for redefinition of high socio-economic class in Nigeria.

Ikaraoha CI

2005-08-01

205

The Contribution of Rural Tourism to the Sustainable Development of the Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are some elements related to the concept of rural tourism which has nowadays become very important around the world. The rural tourism can revitalize the conventional concepts and views on tourism, and bring in a new dimension to the sustainable development of tourism. It has been realized that tourism can play a major role in many countries economies, especially in developing ones, where it can substantially contribute to the increase of the national income. In this respect, mention sh...

Turtureanu, Anca Gabriela

2006-01-01

206

Impact of open manganese mines on the health of children dwelling in the surrounding area  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic manganese (Mn exposure is a health hazard associated with the mining and processing of Mn ores. Children living in an area with increased environmental exposure to Mn may have symptoms of chronic toxicity that are different from adults who experience occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to compare health outcomes in a pediatric population living near open Mn mines with a group of children from a reference area and then to develop and implement preventive/rehabilitation measures to protect the children in the mining region. Methods: After environmental assessment, a group of 683 children living in a Mn-rich region of Ukraine were screened by clinical evaluation, detection of sIgA (37 children, micronucleus analysis (56 children, and hair Mn content (166 children. Results: Impaired growth and rickets-like skeletal deformities were observed in 33% of the children. This was a significantly higher percentage than in children in the reference region (15%. The children from the Mn-mining region also had increased salivary levels of immunoglobulin A (104.4±14.2 mcg/ml vs. 49.7±6.1 mcg/ml among the controls (p<0.05, increased serum alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor levels (4.93±0.21 g/l compared with 2.91±0.22 g/l for controls; p<0.001 and greater numbers of micronuclei in the mucous cells of the oral cavity (0.070±0.008 vs. 0.012±0.009, p<0.001. Conclusions: These findings indicate the deleterious health consequences of living in a Mn-mining area. Medical rehabilitation programs were conducted and produced positive results, but further validation of their effectiveness is required. The study provided background information to formulate evidence-based decisions about public health in a region of high Mn exposure.

Ykateryna D. Duka

2011-05-01

207

Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 19...

Paolo Pedrini; Claudio Prigioni; Gilberto Volcan

1995-01-01

208

Preparation of Radwaste Disposal Site in Jawa Island and Its Surrounding Areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The task continuation and national needs indicate the important of starting for radioactive waste disposal preparation. As the IAEA procedures for the first step are to accomplished the conceptual and planning stage of radwaste disposal siting in Jawa island. Within the plan, the Milestone, the site important factors, the potential host rock, the possible areas, the aims and the investigation programs have been defined. From the procedures which are followed hopefully in the end of the activities, suitable site(s) to be able selected for radioactive waste disposal facility in near future. (author)

209

Effect of organic suspended solids and their sedimentation on the surrounding sea area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of sediment contamination was made in one of the 23 specific designated important ports in Japan, the inner part of which had been used as wood pool. The study focused on the relationship between contaminants and organic matter in terms of ignition loss and the impact of the wood pool on the port area. Organic matter exists in the form of suspended solids and deposits. Sediment samples were taken from the mouths of the rivers feeding into Shimizu Port, from the wood pool and from Shimizu Port. Samples within Shimizu Port showed that as the ignition loss decreased with distance from the wood pool, other properties including the concentrations of trace metals, ignition loss and sulfide content also decreased with the distance. In conclusion, Shimizu Port seems to function as a buffer area between the wood pool and Suruga Bay. - Suspended solids can act as adsorbents for hazardous substances in surface water and their sedimentation can prevent the pollutants from spreading into the ocean

210

Distribution of mustelids in Adamello-Brenta Park and surroundings areas (Central Italian Alps  

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Full Text Available Abstract The survey, conducted in 1991-93 on a study area of 1085 km², has permitted to define the distribution maps according to 6.4x5.5 km grid of the following species: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina and Martes martes. Mustela putorius and Lutra lutra, recorded since 1960 and 1970 respectively, were not checked. From the analysis of 201 records (sightings, signs of presence, animals found dead and skins, we found that the badger, weasel and stone marten selected middle-low altitude (since 1000 m a.s.l., the pine marten and stoat the middle-high altitude. The former species frequented mainly agricultural lands of bottom of the valley with built-up areas, the latter ones occurred mainly in forest habitat of secluded valleys (the pine marten, and in stony ground and alpine prairies (the stoat. The badger was the most diffuse species, the pine marten the least one. On a total of 46 grids of the study area, 32.6% presented three mustelid species, 17.4% five species. The badger and the stone marten were the species with the greatest overlapping range (61.7% of the grids, the weasel and the stoat with the smallest one (23.4% of the grids. Riassunto Distribuzione dei Mustelidi nel Parco Adamello-Brenta e aree limitrofe (Trentino, Alpi centrali - L'indagine, condotta nel 1991-93, ha interessato un'area di 1085 km² e ha permesso di definire le mappe di distribuzione, secondo una griglia di 6,4x5,5 km desunta dalla Carta Topografica generale (scala 1:10000 edita dalla Provincia Autonoma di Trento, di cinque specie: Meles meles, Mustela erminea, Mustela nivalis, Martes foina e Martes martes. La presenza di Mustela putorius e di Lutra lutra, accertata fino intorno agli anni '60 e '70 rispettivamente, non è stata invece confermata. Dall'analisi di 201 segnalazioni (osservazioni dirette, segni di presenza, animali trovati morti o imbalsamati è stato rilevato che le fasce altitudinali medio-basse (fino a 1000 m sono selezionate da tasso, donnola e faina che frequentano soprattutto ambienti coltivati di fondovalle con presenza di centri abitati, quelle medio-alte da martora e ermellino che utilizzano rispettivamente comprensori forestali delle vallate interne e ambienti con presenza di versanti detritici, praterie alpine e malghe. La specie più diffusa è risultata il tasso, quella meno diffusa la martora. Il 32,6% delle 46 griglie, in cui è stata suddivisa l'area di studio, mostra la presenza di 3 specie, il 17,4% di 5 specie. I1 tasso e la faina sono risultate le specie con maggior sovrapposizione di areale di distribuzione (61,7% delle griglie, la donnola e l'ermellino quelle con minor sovrapposizione (23,4% delle griglie.

Paolo Pedrini

1995-12-01

211

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area, Ames, Iowa. Date of survey: July 1991  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An aerial radiological survey of the Ames Laboratory and surrounding area in Ames, Iowa, was conducted during the period July 15--25, 1991. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment at the Ames Laboratory and the surrounding area for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 200 feet (61 meters) along a series of parallel lines 350 feet (107 meters) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 36 square miles (93 square kilometers) and included the city of Ames, Iowa, and the Iowa State University. The results are reported as exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (inferred from the aerial data) in the form of a gamma radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 7 to 9 microroentgens per hour ({mu}R/h). No anomalous radiation levels were detected at the Ames Laboratory. However, one anomalous radiation source was detected at an industrial storage yard in the city of Ames. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several sites within the survey perimeter. The results of the aerial and ground-based measurements were found to agree within the expected uncertainty of {+-}15%.

Maurer, R.J.

1993-04-01

212

A Development of the dust deposition in the area surrounding the SMZ, a.s., Jel?ava plant  

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Full Text Available The area of Jel?ava ? Lubeník ranks among the eight excessively polluted areas registered in Slovakia. The main cause of this situation is a hundred years of existence of the exploitation and processing of magnesite. The SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava is currently the biggest Slovak producer of brick and steel magnesite-based clinkers. The technological procedures used to process the raw material represent the main source of solid polluting substances as well as the primary dustiness in the area surrounding the plant. The negative visual look of the surrounding country has its origin in the past, when a 25-times higher quantity of the currently produced solid emissions was released into the air in some years, while the current value of the pollution does not exceed 200 tons per year. The devastated, deforested and degrassed surfaces of the area surrounding the plant and roads became a significant source of secondary dustiness in the given area.Since 1994 ÚGt SAV Ko?ice in co-operation with SMZ, a.s. Jel?ava has been focusing on the monitoring of solid emissions in the form of dust deposition. 18 sampling points situated in the vicinity of the plant, mainly in surrounding villages and city Jel?ava were originally built for the purpose of sampling the dust deposition. The samples were taken monthly , analysed by the gravimetric method and the samples of dust deposition was determined in g.m-2.(30 days-1. To analyse all samples, they were cumulated for a certain period and then the selected elements were analysed using the AAS method. The results of the dust deposition were averaged for each individual year of the period from 1996 to 1999 to make a better interpretation of the results. The results of the chemical analysis represent an average for a given period. The main component of the dust deposition, i.e. MgO is stated as an average value in individual years.The processed results from 1996 to 1999 show a decreasing trend in the total dust deposition in all localities, except for 1999, when a slight increase was observed in some localities. This increase observed in the most exposed sampling points in the vicinity of the main primary sources did not achieve the value recorded in 1996. In addition to the localities in the vicinity of the plant, the highest hygienic admissible dust deposition [12.5 g.m-2.(30 days-1] was sporadically exceeded on the places located in the populated zone of Jel?ava, especially during summer dry seasons. The decrease observed in 1999 in the case of the most exposed places in the vicinity of the plant can be caused by an increase in the secondary dust deposition in the given area. The average yearly dust deposition in Jel?ava, representing ca. 10 g.m-2.(30 days-1 was 2-3 times lower than the stated values of the dust deposition measured in the 80-ties. The MgO deposition follows the development in the total dust deposition. The average content of heavy metals in the dust deposition is relatively small and it increases proportionally with the distance from the main source confirming that SMZ, a.s. is not a big producer of these elements, the content of which has a decreasing trend probably due to a change in the fuel used in the plant. In spite of an increasing production, the plant implements measures to reduce a negative influence of the dust pollution on the surrounding area.

Hanèu¾ák Jozef

2000-09-01

213

Study on the Concept of Rural Tourism and Leverage of Some Specific Activities from Rural Areas through Rural Tourism  

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Full Text Available The popularity of the forms of rural tourism has grown in recent years. From the individual initiatives it become a real alternative for leisure. In the majority of rural settlements, defining emblematic is multiple: landscape quality and warmth of the people, works of art and folk technique, traditional occupations, costumes, customs, traditions, cuisine, local resources, etc. To these are added awareness, by farmers, of the need to diversify the activities by engaging in forestry, tourism or calling certain activities on specific period, within the local economy.

Ramona Ciolac

2011-10-01

214

Geohydrologic characterization of the area surrounding the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this investigation is to achieve regulatory compliance with the applicable ground-water monitoring requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Washington Administrative Code (WAC). An assessment-level compliance monitoring project was established for the 183-H Basins because hazardous waste constituents were known to have entered the ground water beneath the facility. Three phases were defined for this project, with work being concentrated in five areas: geology, hydrology, ground-water monitoring, geochemistry, and ground-water modeling. These characterization activities have resulted in the definition of principal lithologic and hydrostratigraphic units. Ground-water monitoring results indicated a contamination peak, which occurred between April and August 1986. Further monitoring has shown that nitrate, sodium, gross alpha, and gross beta are the clearest indicators of ground-water contamination attributable to the 183-H Basins. In addition, the concentrations of these contaminants are affected by variations in Columbia River stage. Future studies will focus on continued ground-water monitoring throughout the closure and post-closure periods for the 183-H Basins, sampling of the Columbia River and nearby ground-water springs, and soil sampling adjacent to the facility. 45 refs., 90 figs., 19 tabs.

Liikala, T.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Aimo, N.J.; Bates, D.J.; Gilmore, T.J.; Jensen, E.J.; Last, G.V.; Oberlander, P.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Oster, K.R.; Roome, L.R.; Simpson, J.C.; Teel, S.S.; Westergard, E.J.

1988-12-01

215

A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps

216

A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

1997-04-01

217

Thermal maturation in the Ellef Ringnes Island and surrounding area, Sverdrup Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Determining thermal maturity studies in the Ellef Ringnes Island area was complicated by numerous factors, such as the presence of cavings, bitumen staining, and igneous intrusions. Cavings are a problem in certain intervals in Hoodoo H-37, Dome Bay P-36, and Helicopter J-12. Bitumen staining resulting in suppression of reflectance has occurred in the lower part of the Jameson Bay shales in Elve M-40. Thick sills resulted in increase of Ro to 4.0%, whereas thin sills had a minimal impact on reflectance increase. Other features observed include overpressuring caused by hydrocarbon generation in the Schei Point source rocks as well as in the Jameson and Ringnes Shales, and a kinky Ro profile caused by the presence of low-permeability gas-bearing reservoirs in the Heiberg sandstones in Jackson Bay G-16A. The presence of sapropelic coals with HI up to 329 mg HC/gTOC in Heiberg sandstones in Elve M-40 containing Botryococcus algae should also be noted.

Gentzis, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, Alberta (Canada); Goodarzi, F. [National Resources Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada

1998-12-01

218

Areas of rural reservation in Bolivar's South: a proposal of rural territorial reordering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article describes by means of a methodological process and inside an analysis mark that picks up aspects tried from the perspective of agrarian economy and the human geography, the effects of the public politics of the rural reservations in Bolivar's south, as well as its advances and challenges in the territorial reorganization of the territory. In this context, the document evidences the process of the new territorial configurations, in Bolivar's south, result of a social construction exercised by its own rural communities. In a same way the document presents a brief analysis of the agrarian structure of the rural reservations, and it illustrates the new underlying classification, product of the territorial control that develop the illegal armed groups at the moment. The advances, difficulties and challenges of the rural reservations, are the central axis of the present text, since the figure is presents as an interesting project of public politics, not alone of colonization and of agrarian reformation, but of territorial rural ordination, stiller, when in the country it has not been possible to approve an organic law of territorial classification that involves in an integral way the territorial aspects with the agrarian ones, going outside of the conception of the agrarian things of the strictly agricultural thing

219

ANALYSIS OF LIVING INDICATORS IN RURAL AREA OF ROMANIA  

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Full Text Available Abstract: Method and living conditions of the rural population is determined based on of living indicators, which shows significant differences in the national territory. The way of living of the rural population is determined by many factors such as:traditional cultural models,socio-demographic characteristics,economic power of the population,localities resources for building materials etc.All this correlated with the level of development of the country as a whole determines certain developments related to the housing fund, property type, household size, housing equipment.The paper analyzes these developments between 1990-2011 based on the data provided by national and local authorities.

Iuliana Ioana Merce

2013-05-01

220

Carboniferous hydrocarbon geology: the southern North Sea and surrounding onshore areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The offshore Carboniferous, particularly the late Westphalia red bed sequence, has locally been the locus of considerable research by the hydrocarbon industry. However, the Carboniferous of much of the southern North Sea remains poorly known and under-explored. The conference brought together scientists working on the offshore area and those whose primary knowledge is of the Carboniferous of the adjacent onshore, which has been studied extensively for over two centuries. Over a hundred delegates attended, including many of the current key offshore and onshore researchers. The main aim of the conference - the promotion of the relevance of the well studied onshore Carboniferous to the understanding of the lesser-known offshore successions, with the objective of locating and producing additional hydrocarbon reserves - was a major underlying feature of most of the papers presented. This volume contains fourteen of the papers presented at the meeting by leading specialists in their fields. The papers range widely in stratigraphical and geographical extend, and review such topics as biostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy, regional tectonics, provenance, sedimentology and reservoir architecture, depositional systems and sequence stratigraphy, post-depositional uplift and geophysical imaging of coal-bearing strata. Much new information is presented on the offshore sequences and several papers summarize current knowledge of the onshore strata that will aid investigation offshore. A detailed review of remaining offshore prospects is included. An abstract of a talk by Bernard Besly on 'Late carboniferous redbeds of the UK southern North Sea, viewed in a regional context' which has become widely adopted and cited in the industry is included. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

Collinson, J.D.; Evans, D.J.; Holliday, D.W.; Jones, N.S. (eds.) [John Collinson Consulting, Beech (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

49 CFR 195.12 - What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas?  

Science.gov (United States)

...What requirements apply to low-stress pipelines in rural areas? 195.12 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2010-10-01

222

Impacts of Religious and Pilgrimage Tourism in Rural Areas: The Case of Iran  

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Full Text Available Rural tourism has speedily developed and become an engine for economic development and plays a great role towards socio-economic changes in rural areas. However, its impact is controversial and not always obvious. To examine these issues, this research presents an empirical analysis of pilgrimage and religious tourism and the impacts of these types of travel in rural areas in Iran. The paper provides examples of these impacts and transformations in the three rural centers as Tourism Model Villages (TMVs. A qualitative method and survey questionnaire was distributed to 300 households in the study area and the data analyzed by use of One-sample T-test, Kruskal-Wallis and tukey test in SPSS software. In this regards the social, physical and economic impacts on the transformation of rural households are discussed. The results revealed that pilgrims and religious tourists are strongly influenced in rural areas, but the social aspect of pilgrimage and religious tourism had the largest impacts on rural households. And also the results indicated that the villages related to “Religious tourism”, have registered statistically significant higher impacts of those villages related to “Pilgrimage tourism”.

Mehdi Pourtaheri

2012-06-01

223

The Contribution of Rural Tourism to the Sustainable Development of the Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are some elements related to the concept of rural tourism which has nowadays become very important around the world. The rural tourism can revitalize the conventional concepts and views on tourism, and bring in a new dimension to the sustainable development of tourism. It has been realized that tourism can play a major role in many countries economies, especially in developing ones, where it can substantially contribute to the increase of the national income. In this respect, mention should be made that Romania has a lot of resources to develop this tourism branch:villages with well conserved traditions, folklore, wildlife, natural heritage. All these natural elements put in value together with investments in infrastructure have determined an increasing demand for the Romanian rural destinations.

Anca Gabriela TURTUREANU

2006-10-01

224

The Predicament and Outlet of the Rule of Law in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available The slowing and backward situation of China’s current rural legalization construction has not aroused our attention and seriously effects the construction and development in the country. The legalization requires us to explore new ways to solve the predicaments in the rural areas, first farmers’ rights conscious should be strengthened, reform of democratic system in the country need to be deepened, the law concerning land contract law need to be modified, and the law need to be popularized in the country so that law construction can be perfected in the rural areas.

Tianchong Yao

2014-04-01

225

Water Pollution and its Effects on Human Health in Rural Areas of Faisalabad  

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Full Text Available The present study was envisaged to assess the water pollution and its effects on human health in rural areas of Faisalabad. The study was conducted in three villages of Faisalabad district using simple random method. 150 respondents were selected from three villages (i.e. 50 from each village. The data were collected from the rural areas through well structured interviewing schedule by using face to face survey method. The collected data were analyzed by using appropriate statistical techniques.

Samina Farid

2002-01-01

226

The adoption of information and ?omunication technology in Polish rural areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agriculture has played an important role in the development of rural areas and generally in the global economy. In Poland, agriculture still dominates land use. Nevertheless, the relatively low share of agriculture in GDP indicates that the potential of existing resources is not fully used. For this reason, it is crucial to take steps in order to stimulate effectiveness of rural areas. The application of ICTs is one of various and persistent means to positively react t...

Misiuk, Anna Barbara

2011-01-01

227

ELEMENTS FOR A MODEL OF ENTREPRENEURIAL SCHOOL FOR WOMEN IN RURAL AREAS OF ROMANIA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Romanian mentality, especially in rural areas is deeply influenced by culture, literature and history of the Romanian people. This proves to be both adaptable and rooted in the old Romanian traditions and customs. In the last two decades, the transition from socialism to capitalism, modern society, the socio-economic development of the country has left strong impressions on the way of thought, expression and action of the Romanian people. Women in rural areas are no exception. As some groups ...

Tarcza Teodora Mihaela; Botezat Elena Aurelia

2011-01-01

228

General Population Survey In Rural Area To Generate Prevention Indicators For HIV/AIDS Control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research question: What has been the impact of massive educational campaign of AIDS/HIV in general population in rural areas? Objectives :1.To ascertain the level of awareness of preventive practices relating to HIV/AIDS.2.To know the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour.3.To ascertain condom availability and accessibility. Study design: Cross-sectional. Participants: Men and women in age group 15-49 years. Sample size: 1737 individuals. Settings: Rural areas of Distt.Rohtak. Outcome variables...

Lal Sunder; Malik J.S; Singh, Vashisht B. M.; Punia M.S; Jain R.B

1998-01-01

229

Comparison of Changes in Consumption Distribution in the Rural and Urban Areas of Iran  

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Full Text Available Consumption of goods and services by households is an important index of their level of economic welfare. State of consumption distribution among households is an important index of equity in economic welfare. In this research, two important dimensions of consumption distribution have been studied: 1 Trend of changes of consumption distribution between Iranian rural and urban households; 2 Changes of consumption distribution among households within rural and urban areas in different provinces. Secondary data were used in this research from rural and urban households surveys of expenditure and income for different years. The results show that the ratio of urban household expenditures over rural household expenditures during 1965-96 has had a decreasing trend, though the gap is still high. To compare consumption expenditure distribution changes within rural and urban areas in different provinces, the data for the two years of 1986 and 1996 have been used. The results show that countrywide the Gini coefficients in 1986 and 1996 in rural areas were higher than those in urban areas; in rural areas the coefficients were 0.458 and 0.421 and in urban areas 0.430 and 0.403, respectively, which indicate a decrease of 8.08 and 6.28 percent, respectively. Among the rural areas of 24 provinces, the Gini coefficients of 9 provinces increased and those of 15 provinces decreased from 1986 to 1996. This is while the comparison for the urban areas in the same provinces and for the same period indicates that the Gini coefficient of 6 provinces increased but that of 17 provinces decreased. No change occurred in the case of Tehran Province.

M. Arsalanbod

2001-01-01

230

Side Activities of Non-Farmers in Rural Areas in the Netherlands  

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Full Text Available In many rural areas, not only in The Netherlands but also elsewhere in Europe, has been observed a variety of employment opportunities for rural populations, following the decline in traditional agricultural employment. This contributes to the fact that the countryside is changing and rural areas can be viewed as new spaces of work. As a result, rural economy is no longer dominated by agricultural activities, but by activities such as small scale industrial production, service provision, landscape management, and residential use. To a certain extent these activities have the form of side-activities next to primary income sources. Most attention in both scientific literature and policies is focused on side-activities by farmers, such as agro-tourism and direct marketing. However, according to empirical data from The Netherlands, most side-activities are developed by non-farmers. In this paper the focus is on this last group. The amounts and types of non-farmers’ and farmers side-activities will be deployed, together with their motives to start new entrepreneurship endeavors and the impact on the local community. It will be argued that this type of activities will stimulate rural economic development offering new job opportunities for income generation to the rural inhabitants and create new economic spaces in rural geographical contexts transforming the rural economy.

Marianna Markantoni

2012-01-01

231

Diarrhea and ARI in rural areas of Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Bangladesh, one third of the total child death burden is due to diarrhea. Every year, a rural child suffers on average from 4.6 episodes of diarrhea, from which about 230,000 children die. In this study, information was collected from 8,287 children under five years of age and 7,082 caretakers in 120 clusters chosen by a two-stage random cluster sampling method. As compared to the baseline survey, carried out in 1996, children now are about 30% less likely to suffer from diarrhea, and the risk of dying has been reduced by 60%. Although the 2-weeks prevalence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) has risen from 39% (1996) to 46% and that of Acute Respiratory Infections needing assessment (ANA) from 12.4% to 16.9%, now more caretakers (59.9%) than in 1996 (56.7%) are able to identify correctly danger signs for seeking care and 58.4% (1996: 46.6%) of parents seek help when danger signs are present. Similar for diarrhea and ARI, village doctors and traditional healers are most frequently sought for help by caretakers; government health centers and hospitals are sought to a much lesser degree. Since 1996, intervention activities were implemented for four years in the study area using an IEC strategy. This strategy included raising awareness and training of health personnel, NGO personnel and village volunteers, especially women. Diarrhea issues were included in school health education with emphasis on practical exercises of diarrhea management. For all target groups (health personnel, village volunteers, NGOs, mothers and school children) specific education material was developed and deployed. In the political arena, women leaders who are part of the local government were included in an awareness-raising campaign. The results of the study undertaken over four years later show that in a relatively short time behavior of mostly poor and illiterate caretakers can be changed leading to a significant reduction of ARI mortality and diarrhea morbidity, and mortality in children. PMID:12971559

Piechulek, Helga; Al-Sabbir, Ahmed; Mendoza-Aldana, Jorge

2003-06-01

232

Hepatitis C in rural areas of Islamabad, Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatitis is recognized as significant public health problem worldwide. There are one hundred and seventy five million Hepatitis C virus carriers around the world. Global prevalence ranges from 0.1 to 5 % with an average of 3 %. There are very few studies done at national and international levels to find the prevalence of HCV in our population. It is a Picorna virus that may invade the body usually through, intra venous devices and contaminated instruments. It may remain silent for years or cause acute hepatitis to chronic liver disease. Hepatocellular carcinoma is well known complication. Most of the epidemiological studies have so far been carried out on the population with high socio-economic status attending tertiary care hospitals in the cities that have good sterilization techniques. Whereas rural dispensaries are the drainage zones for HCV due to unqualified and untrained technical staff and lack of sterilization procedures. We, therefore, selected some villages (Chirah, Tumair, Thanda pani and Alipur) around Islamabad to assess the prevalence of HCV and tried to compare different epidemiological factors with urban areas in this randomized cross-sectional study conducted from May to August 2009. Two hundred asymptomatic volunteers were randomly selected from patients attending local dispensaries in this study zone. The subjects were given a detailed questionnaire to study and fill accordingly. Details of study were explained to them. Patients included in the study were between 20-50 years of age, having gastrointestinal symptoms. Excluded subjects were pregnant women, patients on ant-viral therapy and known cases of HCV. 5 cc blood samples were taken and transported in ice containers to PINSTECH Complex Hospital laboratory within two hours for chromatographic analysis. We observed that 16.5% of the individuals were infected with HCV. Invasive procedures like D and C by dais and ear piercing were the major transmitting factors in females, whereas I/V devices, dental treatments and barber cutting in males was the dominant risk factors. The use of non disposable glass syringes for injection was also an important mode of transmission. (author)

233

Survey of Microbial Quality of Drinking Water in Rural Areas of Kashan-Iran in Second Half of 2008  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study is surveying microbial quality of drinking water in Kashan rural areas and determining the rural population that using safe water in terms of microbial quality in second-half of 2008. In this cross-sectional study, microbial quality of water in all rural areas was determined in 3 stages based on 3 parameters as Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC. The results of this study illustrates that 100.0, 47.71 and 92.99% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of Kashan Rural Water and Wastewater Company (KRWWC and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Fecal Coliforms and 98.4, 21.2 and 88.00% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of KRWWC rural areas and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Total Coliforms. There is also a meaningful difference in microbial quality between under coverage and non-under coverage rural areas. The results of this study express that the fecal contamination in under coverage rural areas is excellent, but there is a bad condition in non-under coverage areas. Generally, the microbial quality in all Kashan rural areas is approximately equal to national microbial criteria. Its been also illustrated that the role of KRWWC in supplying safe drinking water in terms of microbial quality for rural population is very important.

M. Heidari

2011-01-01

234

Survey of microbial quality of drinking water in rural areas of Kashan-Iran in second half of 2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study is surveying microbial quality of drinking water in Kashan rural areas and determining the rural population that using safe water in terms of microbial quality in second-half of 2008. In this cross-sectional study, microbial quality of water in all rural areas was determined in 3 stages based on 3 parameters as Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC). The results of this study illustrates that 100.0, 47.71 and 92.99% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of Kashan Rural Water and Wastewater Company (KRWWC) and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Fecal Coliforms and 98.4, 21.2 and 88.00% population in under coverage and non under coverage areas of KRWWC rural areas and all Kashan rural areas, respectively using safe water in terms of Total Coliforms. There is also a meaningful difference in microbial quality between under coverage and non-under coverage rural areas. The results of this study express that the fecal contamination in under coverage rural areas is excellent, but there is a bad condition in non-under coverage areas. Generally, the microbial quality in all Kashan rural areas is approximately equal to national microbial criteria. Its been also illustrated that the role of KRWWC in supplying safe drinking water in terms of microbial quality for rural population is very important. PMID:21913499

Miranzadeh, M B; Heidari, M; Mesdaghinia, A R; Younesian, M

2011-01-01

235

Music Education in Rural Areas: A Few Keys to Success  

Science.gov (United States)

Community dynamics play a major role in determining the duties of music educators. What music educators do each day can vary greatly depending on their location. A middle school band director's job description in suburban New York is likely to look nothing like that of a music educator in rural Iowa. There is a substantial lack of literature to…

Isbell, Daniel

2005-01-01

236

Mapping permanent preservation areas and natural forest fragments as subsidy to the registration of legal reserve areas in rural properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The major objective of this work was to identify and quantify forest fragments suitable to be used as private protected land in rural properties located in the São Bartolomeu creek watershed, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological procedures included: mapping of 78 forest fragments through the visual interpretation of an Ikonos II satellite image; delineation of Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) from a hydrographically conditioned digital elevation model and mapping of 292 rural...

Vicente Paulo Soares; Adelson de Azevedo Moreira; Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro; José Marinaldo Gleriani

2011-01-01

237

Comparison of domestic violence against women in urban versus rural areas of southeast Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1,2 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,1 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo,1 Boniface Nwakoby,3 Paul Ezeonu2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The perception and prevalence of domestic violence (DV in rural areas is poorly understood; the result is that most efforts at eradicating this harmful practice are concentrated in urban areas. The objective of the study was to compare the burden and perception of DV among women living in rural and urban Igbo communities of southeast Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative, cross-sectional study of women residing in rural and urban communities in Enugu, Nigeria, who had gathered for an annual religious meeting from August 1–7, 2011. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics and was conducted with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, software version 17.0, at a 95% level of confidence. Results: A total of 836 women who met the eligibility criteria participated in the survey. Of these, 376 were from Okpanku, a rural community, while 460 were from Ogui Nike, an urban community. The prevalence of DV among rural women was significantly higher than that among urban women (97% versus 81%, P<0.001. In particular, the prevalence of physical violence was significantly higher among rural women than among urban women (37.2% versus 23.5%; P=0.05. In contrast, rural and urban women did not differ significantly in the proportions that had experienced psychological or sexual violence. The proportion of women who believed that DV was excusable was significantly higher among rural dwellers than among urban dwellers (58.5% versus 29.6%; P=0.03. Conclusion: The burden of DV against women may be higher in rural communities than in urban communities in southeast Nigeria. More rural women perceived DV as excusable; this finding suggests that factors that sustain DV could be strong in rural areas. A comprehensive program to curb DV in this area may need to significantly involve the rural areas. Keywords: prevalence, perception, domestic violence, rural, urban 

Ajah LO

2014-10-01

238

CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL AREAS IN SLOVENIA: ADVANTAGES, WEAKNESSES AND POSSIBILITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF PRESENT SITUATION FROM VIEWPOINT OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article an analysis of the situation in the Slovene Rural Areas are presented. The comparative analysis, based on typology of rural areas in Slovenia made by The Institute of Agricultural Economics on Biotechnical Faculty, shows that the Slovene countryside is not homogeneous. Present situation and the possibilities of development and the attraction of individual rural areas depend on the demographic situation, on the level of economic and social development, on natural conditions etc. Present situation is analysed from the viewpoint of sustainable rural development: advantages, weaknesses and some possibilities for improvement are presented.

Anton Perpar

2001-09-01

239

Organization of public services in remote rural areas in developing countries: application to decentralized rural electrification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrical sector has traditionally been organized as a natural monopoly. The intensity in capital of the grid and the public service obligation of electrical distribution led to the creation of electrical companies with exclusive territorial concessions. This approach has recently been challenged because of its failure to electrify remote rural villages in developing countries. A new set of solutions appeared under the umbrella of Decentralized Rural Electrification (DRE) thanks to technological innovations that replace collective infrastructures with individual systems. However, the widespread deployment of decentralized technologies remains impaired by numerous obstacles at various levels: institutional, legal, organizational, social, financial... New models that take into account the specificities of DRE must now be imagined. The study of two case studies in Morocco and India provide insightful examples of possible strategies to accelerate the deployment of DRE and therefore attain the objectives of rural electrification. Two major policies stand out: public service delegation and the approach of delivering equipment by the public market. Even though these models are too recent to conclude on their viability and permanence, they provide guidelines for the public and private players of the sector to generalize the access to electrical services to rural populations in developing countries, and contribute to their development. (author)

240

Electric power supply for rural areas using micro-turbines; Suministro de energia electrica a areas rurales mediante el uso de microturbinas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper shows the use of small hydroelectric power plants in some rural areas of Argentina, aiming electric power supply. As second objectives, this power supply aims to promote regional development, communities organization and management and improvement of the agriculture production. 12 figs

Carrizo, C.; Aleman, L.; Ribotis, L.; Ovejero, J.; Testa, A. [Direccion de Energia, Jujuy (Argentina)

1986-12-31

 
 
 
 
241

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREA IN ROMANIA XXI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper intends to design a strategy for the sustainable development of the Romanian agriculture and rural area, to identify the main modalities to reach the strategic objectives for the years 2013, 2020 and 2030. Romania needs a multifunctional and competitive agriculture, which is also complementary to the agriculture of the other European Union countries. Main decisions have to be taken with regard to the support to the different agricultural systems under competition, among which the most important are the following: food production versus biofuel production, conventional agriculture versus biotechnological agriculture, intensive agriculture on family holdings versus agriculture on very large-sized farms. It is very important for the Romanian agriculture to determine the equilibrium point for each above-mentioned case, the optimum level that transforms competition into internal and external complementariness. The strategies that have been designed so far generally envisaged all these economic and social desiderata, while trying to impose a new rural area development philosophy, based upon the sustainable rural development concept, which presupposes a harmonious blending between the agriculture (and forestry economy component and the non-agricultural rural economy component, based upon the following principles: harmony between the rural economy and the environment, rural area naturalization by preserving the natural environment, the use of natural local resources, mainly renewable resources, diversification of agricultural economy structure through pluriactivity, through the extension and diversification of agri-food economy, of non-agricultural economy and of rural services.

P. I. OTIMAN

2008-05-01

242

Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas  

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Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

Marta Pallares-Blanch

2012-01-01

243

Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

244

Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas : Creative People and Social Network  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The entrepreneurial dynamics of urban and rural areas are different, and this paper explores creativity and social networks factors in both places. The probabilities of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving are analyzed. The results are based on longitudinal data combined with a questionnaire, utilizing responses from 1,108 entrepreneurs and 420 non-entrepreneurs. Creativity is only found to be relevant for start-up in urban areas, but it does not influence survival in any of the two areas. The social network matters, in particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment, common entrepreneurship beliefs can be questioned and entrepreneurship theory benefited.

Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

2014-01-01

245

Information and Communication Technologies for Regional Development in the Czech Republic – Broadband Connectivity in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper introduces chosen results of an ICT development survey in the regions of the Czech Republic. The survey was primarily focused on broadband connectivity and its adoption by agricultural enterprises operating in rural areas. The survey was conducted in the context of both the EU strategy "Digital Agenda for Europe" and the national program document "National Policy in Electronic Communications - Digital Czech Republic". It stems from the enquiries that the situation is not – in spite of a certain improvement – satisfactory and the digital divide remains highly topical in rural areas of the Czech Republic. Broadband connectivity reaches practically 100% in urban areas and more than 85% in suburban areas whereas the rural areas show only about 75% availability. In many parts of the Czech Republic, a high quality Internet connection is quite questionable and sometimes even unavailable until present.

J. Van?k

2011-09-01

246

Small field segments surrounded by large areas only shielded by a multileaf collimator: Comparison of experiments and dose calculation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: Complex radiotherapy fields delivered using a tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) often feature small open segments surrounded by large areas of the beam only shielded by the MLC. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two modern dose calculation algorithms to accurately calculate the dose in these fields which would be common, for example, in volumetric modulated arc treatment (VMAT) and study the impact of variations in dosimetric leaf gap (DLG), focal spot size, and MLC transmission in the beam models. Methods: Nine test fields with small fields (0.6-3 cm side length) surrounded by large MLC shielded areas (secondary collimator 12 Multiplication-Sign 12 cm{sup 2}) were created using a 6 MV beam from a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf MLC. Measurements of output factors and profiles were performed using a diamond detector (PTW) and compared to two dose calculations algorithms anisotropic analytical algorithm [(AAA) and Acuros XB] implemented on a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (Varian Eclipse 10). Results: Both calculation algorithms predicted output factors within 1% for field sizes larger than 1 Multiplication-Sign 1 cm{sup 2}. For smaller fields AAA tended to underestimate the dose. Profiles were predicted well for all fields except for problems of Acuros XB to model the secondary penumbra between MLC shielded fields and the secondary collimator. A focal spot size of 1 mm or less, DLG 1.4 mm and MLC transmission of 1.4% provided a generally good model for our experimental setup. Conclusions: AAA and Acuros XB were found to predict the dose under small MLC defined field segments well. While DLG and focal spot affect mostly the penumbra, the choice of correct MLC transmission will be essential to model treatments such as VMAT accurately.

Kron, T.; Clivio, A.; Vanetti, E.; Nicolini, G.; Cramb, J.; Lonski, P.; Cozzi, L.; Fogliata, A. [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006, Australia and Department of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006 (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne 8006, Australia and Department of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia); Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona 6500 (Switzerland)

2012-12-15

247

Small field segments surrounded by large areas only shielded by a multileaf collimator: Comparison of experiments and dose calculation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: Complex radiotherapy fields delivered using a tertiary multileaf collimator (MLC) often feature small open segments surrounded by large areas of the beam only shielded by the MLC. The aim of this study was to test the ability of two modern dose calculation algorithms to accurately calculate the dose in these fields which would be common, for example, in volumetric modulated arc treatment (VMAT) and study the impact of variations in dosimetric leaf gap (DLG), focal spot size, and MLC transmission in the beam models. Methods: Nine test fields with small fields (0.6–3 cm side length) surrounded by large MLC shielded areas (secondary collimator 12 × 12 cm2) were created using a 6 MV beam from a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator with 120 leaf MLC. Measurements of output factors and profiles were performed using a diamond detector (PTW) and compared to two dose calculations algorithms anisotropic analytical algorithm [(AAA) and Acuros XB] implemented on a commercial radiotherapy treatment planning system (Varian Eclipse 10). Results: Both calculation algorithms predicted output factors within 1% for field sizes larger than 1 × 1 cm2. For smaller fields AAA tended to underestimate the dose. Profiles were predicted well for all fields except for problems of Acuros XB to model the secondary penumbra between MLC shielded fields and the secondary collimator. A focal spot size of 1 mm or less, DLG 1.4 mm and MLC transmission of 1.4% provided and MLC transmission of 1.4% provided a generally good model for our experimental setup. Conclusions: AAA and Acuros XB were found to predict the dose under small MLC defined field segments well. While DLG and focal spot affect mostly the penumbra, the choice of correct MLC transmission will be essential to model treatments such as VMAT accurately.

248

ASSESSING SELF-CONSUMPTION IMPORTANCE ON THE INCOME IN RURAL AREAS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Value of goods produced and consumed is an important part of the lifestyle of the rural population, own consumption delimiting subsistence economy size and living standards. Under these circumstances, this paper aims to assess the importance of self-consumption in population income and expenditure structure and its implications for different social groups in rural areas. In 2011, in rural areas, the equivalent consumption of agricultural products from own resources accounted for 37.4% of total revenues and 47.0% of the total food consumption. In this context, our main results emphasize that high values indicate an involution in own consumption from an economic perspective and a growing importance of agriculture in ensuring non-monetary income of the rural population

Adina IORGA

2013-01-01

249

Cognitive Access to TVWS in India : TV Spectrum Occupancy and Wireless Broadband for Rural Areas  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The digital transition of TV transmission will make available some TV frequencies which are to be geographically unused called as TV White Spaces. The important regulatory trend in the context of Dynamic Spectrum Access (DSA) is the Cognitive access of TV white Spaces. In this context, we have performed spectrum measurements of TV band in Pune, India. Our result shows poor spectrum utilization in TV band, and good potential for Cognitive radio operation. Digital switchover in India will generate golden opportunity for empowering rural India. As majority of India’s population lives in rural part of India, we have proposed wireless broadband access to rural areas using TV White Spaces (TVWSs). This will help in bridging the digital divide by offering governance, banking, and health services online in the rural areas.

Patil, Kishor P.; Skouby, Knud Erik

2013-01-01

250

PARTICULARITIES OF EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The majority of employed population in rural areas is engaged either in agricultural activities mostly being informal activities, or they are employed in the public sector through the activities of education, health care, culture, social welfare, which are quite modest share in rural employment structure. Both agricultural activities, which can not ensure a rapid growth of labor productivity and employment in the public sector can not provide a level of income needed for a decent living where salaries depend on the limited possibilities of local budget. In the created conditions, in order to improve the situation of employment in rural areas the necessity to develop nonagricultural activities appears, it would increase rural incomes and would reduce urban migration.

Olga SÂRBU

2013-01-01

251

A framework for assessment of biomass energy resources and consumption in the rural areas of Asia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The different assessment/estimation methods and techniques regarding biomass energy resources are examined, and the associated problems and issues are discussed. A unitary but flexible conceptual framework is suggested aimed at contributing to national efforts to systematically collect and compile statistical information on biomass energy resources. Such a framework is expected to provide reliable inputs into energy balances in the rural areas, a pre-requisite for a coherent rural energy planning and policy formulation. (K.A.) 37 refs.

Venkata Ramana, P.; Bose, R.K. [Tata Energy Research Inst., New Delhi (India)

1997-12-31

252

DIFFERENTIATION IN THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF RURAL AREAS ACROSS THE EUROPEAN UNION  

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Full Text Available The research undertaken in the article concerns the regional diversification of rural areas at NUTS 2 level in the European Union in the context of quality of life measures and the evolution of territorial development. A modified HDI index was used to allow for the determination of the regional synthetic indicator of the quality of life. Thus, a huge gap between the most developed and underdeveloped areas was shown. The results indicate a real need for a variety of instruments to support rural areas in the EU.

Jakub Hady?ski

2014-06-01

253

Construcción de tipologías para el turismo en áreas rurales Development of Categories for Tourism in Rural Areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante los últimos años han surgido en Brasil diversos emprendimientos en áreas rurales como contraoferta del turismo tradicional basado en el modelo sol y playa. Este nuevo tipo de turismo ha recibido diversas denominaciones en función de las distintas realidades de cada región geográfica en la cual se ubican y de los productos ofrecidos. Intentando profundizar el conocimiento de las tipologías, se consideró oportuno comprender mejor esta temática a partir de un caso concreto.Over the last few years a number of initiatives in Brazil have been developed in rural areas as a counterweight to traditional tourism based on the sun and beach paradigm. This new form of tourism has been variously designated, reflecting the different realities of distinct geographical locations and the products on offer. In an effort to achieve a more thorough understanding of categories, this subject is presented as a case study.

Luiz Carlos Leonardi Bricalli

2005-09-01

254

Construcción de tipologías para el turismo en áreas rurales / Development of Categories for Tourism in Rural Areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante los últimos años han surgido en Brasil diversos emprendimientos en áreas rurales como contraoferta del turismo tradicional basado en el modelo sol y playa. Este nuevo tipo de turismo ha recibido diversas denominaciones en función de las distintas realidades de cada región geográfica en la cu [...] al se ubican y de los productos ofrecidos. Intentando profundizar el conocimiento de las tipologías, se consideró oportuno comprender mejor esta temática a partir de un caso concreto. Abstract in english Over the last few years a number of initiatives in Brazil have been developed in rural areas as a counterweight to traditional tourism based on the sun and beach paradigm. This new form of tourism has been variously designated, reflecting the different realities of distinct geographical locations an [...] d the products on offer. In an effort to achieve a more thorough understanding of categories, this subject is presented as a case study.

Luiz Carlos, Leonardi Bricalli.

255

Integrated development – essential condition for modernisation of rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The inspiration to take up the issue of integrated development in the context of the modernization of the village was, on the one hand, the conviction of the urgent need of stimulation, on the other hand, there was a concern that it should not be identified entirely with the integrated management system. Although the idea of integrated development is no longer a novelty, but it still remains a declaration and not translated into effective mechanisms for the functioning of local communities. The need to popularise it further does not require an extensive justification. The essence of the modernisation of rural background, characteristics of the integrated management of development, its place in the future EU policy 2014-2020 and in the new system of integrated planning in Poland, will be presented: rural location in the system of integrated management development, declared in selected strategic documents, the role of smart specialization of regions, the Opolskie voivodeship good practice to stimulate development, recommendations for further actions conducive to integrated development, including modernization of the countryside.

Ma?gorzata S?odowa-He?pa

2012-04-01

256

The Utilization of Insect-resources in Chinese Rural Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human beings'uncontrolled exploitation lead to the rapid consumption and depletion of many natural resources.Mankind is facing an unprecedented dilemma in survival and development which. Searching, development and utilization of new natural resources will be an important way to solve the current problems. Insects, as an important natural resource needing to be further exploited, have aroused wide concerns and may play an important role in tackling food crisis and natural resources depletion. In China, insects have been being utilized for a long time as an important natural resource and there were lots of practices and experiences in the use of insect, especially in the rural regions. In this paper, we presented the current situation of insect utilization in Chinese rural regions and introduced edible insects being used by ethnic people in Yunnan province of China, the place which is special for its diversity in ethnic culture and folkways. In addition, constraints and prospects in using insect resources were discussed and analyzed as well. It was expected that the experiences in using insect resources in China could be helpful for other countries to promote the utilization of insect resources in near future.

Chuanhui YI

2010-08-01

257

The “LEADER Approach” - New Development Opportunity for Rural Areas in Slovenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integrated rural development programmes, which are prepared with the active involvement of local citizens, have a long tradition in Slovenia. In the period 1991-2006, Slovenia introduced “Programmes of Integrated Rural Development and Village Renewal” and “Development Programmes for Rural Areas”, which were quite similar to the LEADER initiative in theEuropean Union. From the 2007-2013 programming period, the LEADER approach has been mainstreamed within the overall EU rural development policy. This means that LEADER is included in national and regional rural development programmes supported by the EU,alongside a range of other rural development axes. The main emphasis of the current paper is given to the implementation of the LEADER approach and establishment of local action groups in the 2007-2013 programming period. The paper consists of three parts. The first part presents the general characteristics of the LEADER approach and the measures which are carried out in the 2007-2013 Rural Development Programme. In the second part, an analysis of 33 Local Action Groups is described. The main focus is given to spatial-demographic characteristics, the partnership structure, and the organisation of the decision making body.The paper concludes with an analysis of 33 Local Development Strategies. We analysed the extent to which the strategic goals and priority tasks of Local Development Strategies follow the economic, social and spatial-environmental component of sustainable development.

Tomaž Cunder, B.Sc. Geography

2010-03-01

258

Can a deprivation index be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although widely used, area-based deprivation indices remain sensitive to urban–rural differences as such indices are usually standardised around typical urban values. There is, therefore, a need to determine to what extent available deprivation indices can be used legitimately over both urban and rural areas. Methods This study was carried out in Brittany, France, a relatively affluent region that contains deep rural areas. Among the 1,736 residential census block groups (IRIS) composing the Brittany region, 1,005 (57.9%) are rural. Four deprivation indices were calculated: two scores (Carstairs and Townsend) developed in the UK and two more recent French measures (Havard and Rey). Two standardisation levels were considered: all of the IRIS and only the urban IRIS of the region. Internal validity (Kappa coefficients and entropy values) and external validity (relationship with colorectal cancer screening [CCS] attendance) were investigated. Results Regardless of the deprivation measure used, wealthy areas are mostly clustered in the West and at the outskirts of major towns. Carstairs and Rey scores stand out by all evaluation criteria, capturing both urban and rural deprivation. High levels of agreements were found across standardisation levels (??=?0.96). The distributions of deprivation scores were balanced across urban and rural areas, and high Shannon entropy values were observed in the capital city (?0.93). Similar and significant negative trends were observed between CCS attendance and both deprivation indices, independent of the degree of urbanisation. Conclusions These results provide support, despite potential sociological objections, for the use of a compromise index that would facilitate comparisons and interpretations across urban and rural locations in public health research. PMID:24929662

2014-01-01

259

Ethnobotanical and Ethnomedicinal Uses of Floristic Diversity in Murari Devi and Surrounding Areas of Mandi District in Himachal Pradesh, India  

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Full Text Available Traditional uses of floristic diversity are the most important component of indigenous knowledge system, which is widely prcatised by human populations all across the world. Keeping this in mind, the present study has been conducted during 2010-2012, to study the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of floristic diversity in Murari Devi and surrounding areas of Mandi Disrtict in Himachal Pradesh, India. Total 384 species (71 trees, 97 shrubs, 209 herbs and 07 ferns belonging to 106 families and 285 genera were recorded and used by the inhabitants of the area. Different parts of these species, such as whole plants, leaves, flowers, fruits, roots, seeds, stems, barks, etc. were used by the inhabitants for curing various ailments. Various anthropogenic activities, over exploitation and habitat degradation have led rapid population depletion of these species. Therefore, study on habitat ecology, development of conventional and in-vitro propagation protocols, development of agro techniques/plantation techniques and introduction in the akin habitats, education and awareness programs for the inhabitants are suggested. So that adequate planning for the conservation of these species could be done.

Ajit Agnihotri

2013-01-01

260

An aerial radiological survey of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area, Fort Calhoun, Nebraska  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant in Fort Calhoun, Nebraska, during the period June 19 through June 28, 1993. The survey was conducted at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) over a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area centered on the power station. The purpose of the survey was to document the terrestrial gamma radiation environment of the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level in the form of a contour map. Outside the plant boundary, exposure rates were found to vary between 6 and 12 microroentgens per hour and were attributed to naturally-occurring uranium, thorium, and potassium. The aerial data were compared to ground-based benchmark exposure rate measurements and radionuclide assays of soil samples obtained within the survey boundary. The ground-based measurements were found to be in good agreement with those inferred from the aerial measuring system. A previous survey was conducted on August 9 and 10, 1972, before the plant began operation. Exposure rates measured in both surveys were consistent with normal terrestrial background

 
 
 
 
261

Business Incubators Give New Firms in Rural Areas a Head Start.  

Science.gov (United States)

Business incubators can help fledgling firms get off the ground by providing business services and rental space, at below-market costs, for a business's first few years. The payoff for the community is more jobs. Concentrated until recently in urban areas, incubators are now succeeding in rural areas too. (JHZ)

Weinberg, Mark L.

1987-01-01

262

Community Based Study Of Self Reported Morbidity Of Reproductive Tract Among Women Of Reproductive Age In Rural Area Of Rajasthan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research questions: What is the prevalence of morbidity of reproductive tract among women in a rural area of Rajasthan? Objectives: 1. To assess the load of reproductive morbidity among the rural women. 2. To study the association of potential risk factors with reproductive tract infection. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A village of Bikaner (rural western Rajasthan). Participants: 1044 rural women aged 15-45. Study period: June 2000 to October 2000. Statistical analysis: Percentages...

Rathore Monika; Swami S. S; Gupta B. L; Sen Vandana; Vyas B. L; Bhargav A; Vyas Rekha

2003-01-01

263

Solar lighting system delivery models for rural areas in developing countries  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many rural areas in developing countries will not have electricity access from the central grid for several years to come. Autonomous Solar Lighting Systems (SLS) are attractive and enviromentally friendly options for replacing kerosene lamps and providing basic lighting services to such areas. In order to highlight the benefits of these technologies, analysis of reduction in indoor air pollution due to replacement of kerosene lamp by SLS has been carried out. Use of SLS in place of kerosene lamps saves an equivalent of 1341 kg CO{sub 2} emissions per annum from each household. If a suitable mechanism is created, this amount of GHG emissions saving could alone be sufficient to finance solar lighting system for rural households. However, these technologies have not reached most of the poor population. In order to guarantee the access of solar lighting to the people at the Base of the Pyramid (BOP), strengths of different organizations working in the rural areas should be combined together to form successful business models. This paper will discuss business models to disseminate such services to needy people. A comparative study of SLS delivery models based on cash, credit, leasing, subsidy and service is performed. In addition, SWOT analysis for each model is employed. Further, Case studies of few projects to elaborate different models are also presented. If suitable business models for its delivery to rural people are considered, solar lighting systems are viable for providing basic lighting needs of rural areas in developing countries. (orig.)

Koirala, Binod Prasad; Ortiz, Brisa [Freiburg Univ. (DE). Center for Renewable Energy (ZEE); Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme (ISE), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Modi, Anish [KTH Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Kafle, Nashib [Alternative Energy Promotion Center (AEPC), Kathmandu (Nepal)

2011-07-01

264

The Perceptions to Climate Change among Rural Farming Households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study focused on the perceptions to climate change among rural farming households in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. The basic objective was to determine the rural farming household’s perception to climate change in the Area and the specific objective was to determine the direction of change of the climate change indicators (whether increasing, decreasing or constant. Multistage sampling procedure was sampled 739 rural farming households (respondents for the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic. Socio – economic profile of the respondents indicated that 37.69% of rural farming households falls between the age bracket of 47 to 51 years and majority (60.0% having educational qualification below secondary school level. The study also reveals 76% had no extension contact during the farming season and 78.6% of respondents are not aware of the phenomenon of climate change. The study noticed an increasing change in the climate change indicators except longer raining season that is decreasing in the Area. The perception to the cause of climate indicators was mostly attributed to natural occurrence by God/gods (67.7%. Awareness campaign on climate change is recommended in the rural areas for climate change information.

Emaziye, P. O.

2013-04-01

265

[Parasitic infections of coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora: Canidae) in a Costa Rican National Park and a surrounding agricultural area].  

Science.gov (United States)

As human populations expand into wild habitats with their pets and livestock, the potential spread of disease to wildlife or vice versa increases. Because, wild and domestic canids may pose as reservoirs or disseminators of infectious diseases (including parasites), coyotes (Canis latrans) may also serve as indicators of ecological health. In Costa Rica, little information exists on coyote parasites, making research necessary to identify potential zoonotic interactions. For this reason, a survey of the coyote parasites was performed in a mixed area of protected woodland and agricultural land, surrounding Irazú Volcano National Park (IVNP) in Cartago, Costa Rica. Over a one-year period, 209 fecal samples were collected directly from the ground. Collection took place on a monthly basis in a trail sectioned into three sub-areas named Irazú (closest to the volcano), potato fields (where potatoes were cultivated), and Prusia (a protected sector of IVNP). Sectioning the trail allowed separate collection and analysis of the samples, where 99 were obtained from Irazú, 11 from potato fields and 99 from Prusia. Using direct examination and mechanical concentration 36.84% positive samples containing at least one helminth were found. The presence of parasites was similar for both woodland areas (33.3% in Prusia and 37.4% in Irazú), but differed from the 63.6% observed in the potato fields. Hookworm parasites (probably Ancylostoma caninum), threadworms (possibly Strongyloides sp.), Toxocara canis, Trichuris sp. and Taenia pisiformis were identified, as well as Hymenolepis diminuta, possible spurious parasite resulting from the ingestion of rodents by coyotes. Seasonal details are discussed, concluding that wet and dry seasons affect presence of parasites. Some remarks are made on the importance of these first findings for Costa Rica, especially considering the systematic way in which the collection of samples was carried out. PMID:23894947

Niehaus, Carmen; Valerio, Idalia; Blanco, Kinndle; Chinchilla, Misael

2012-06-01

266

Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in a rural area of Western Anatolia, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human brucellosis and identify the potential risk factors in a rural area of Western Anatolia, Turkey. A simple random-sampling method was used for identifying 1,052 subjects for the study. Blood samples, collected from all the subjects, were studied following the methods of Rose Bengal slide agglutination and standard tube agglutination tests. One thousand and one samples (95.2%) were seronegative, and 51 (4.8%) were seropositive. There was a statistically significant correlation between seropositivity and age, sex, consuming fresh cheese and cream made from unboiled milk (p values 0.005, 0.019, milk and dairy products and education regarding eating habits must be pursued for eradication of human brucellosis from rural areas. The findings of the study suggest that human brucellosis is still an important public-health problem in the western Anatolia region of Turkey, especially in rural areas. PMID:16117365

Cetinkaya, Zafer; Aktepe, Orhan C; Ciftci, Ihsan H; Demirel, Reha

2005-06-01

267

IMPLEMENTING TQM IN RURAL MONUMENTAL BAROQUE SCULPTURE IN THE BANAT AREA  

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Full Text Available The cultural patrimony preserves the memory and identity of the Banat’s rural area, defining the personality specific to each locality depending on the colonizing ethnic group after the liberation from the Turkish yoke. Steadily degrading, this baroque sculptural patrimony must be saved and integrated into a tourist circuit through the development of a managerial strategy and the implementation of a total quality management that cover the widest area possible of issues related to the intact preservation of monuments and to their conservation. The valorisation of monumental baroque sculpture in the rural area must be done together with the development of a managerial strategy of sustainable development thus contributing to the making up of an emblematic image specific to the Banat village and to the inclusion into regional, national, and international tourist circuits through such modern forms of tourism as cultural tourism, rural tourism, heritage tourism, interethnic tourism, religious tourism, and business tourism.

I. PETROMAN

2013-12-01

268

Soil contamination by metals. A survey in industrial and rural areas of Southern Italy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of soil from agricultural and around the industrial district of the city of Bari in Apulia and from rural areas of that region were analyzed, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, for levels of As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, and Zn. All elements, except Se, were present in all samples from the industrial district, whereas Hg was not detectable in the rural soils; Bi, Cd, and Sn were found only in 50-60% of them. The average levels of Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, and Ni in soils close to the industrial area always appeared to be higher than the mean levels in rural soils and the common ranges known for world soils. The findings suggest the existence of a metal contamination of soils in the industrial area.

Polemio, M.; Senesi, N.; Bufo, S.A.

1982-09-01

269

Phenology in central Europe - differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable.

Roetzer, T.; Wittenzeller, Markus; Haeckel, Hans; Nekovar, Jiri

270

Phenology in central Europe--differences and trends of spring phenophases in urban and rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to examine the impacts of both large-scale and small-scale climate changes (urban climate effect) on the development of plants, long-term observations of four spring phenophases from ten central European regions (Hamburg, Berlin, Cologne, Frankfurt, Munich, Prague, Vienna, Zurich, Basle and Chur) were analysed. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the differences in the starting dates of the pre-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) and forsythia (Forsythia sp.), and of the full-spring phenophases, the beginning of flowering of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and apple (Malus domestica), in urban and rural areas. The results indicate that, despite regional differences, in nearly all cases the species studied flower earlier in urbanised areas than in the corresponding rural areas. The forcing in urban areas was about 4 days for the pre-spring phenophases and about 2 days for the full-spring phenophases. The analysis of trends for the period from 1951 to 1995 showed tendencies towards an earlier flowering in all regions, but only 22% were significant at the 5% level. The trends for the period from 1980 to 1995 were much stronger for all regions and phases: the pre-spring phenophases on average became earlier by 13.9 days/decade in the urban areas and 15.3 days/decade in the rural areas, while the full-spring phenophases were 6.7 days earlier/decade in the urban areas and 9.1 days/decade earlier in the rural areas. Thus rural areas showed a higher trend towards an earlier flowering than did urban areas for the period from 1980 to 1995. However, these trends, especially for the pre-spring phenophases, turned out to be extremely variable. PMID:10993559

Roetzer, T; Wittenzeller, M; Haeckel, H; Nekovar, J

2000-08-01

271

Multifunctional centers in rural areas : Fabrics of social and human capital  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the Nordic welfare states (Island, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark), an important principle has hitherto been to allow all citizens access to the same high-quality public services - independent of whether they live in urban or rural areas. In Denmark, however, this principle is gradually being abandoned. One outcome has been closings of schools in remote rural areas. This evidently contributes to exacerbate depopulation in these areas. To stop this tendency, we need new models for high-quality, cost effective public services in rural areas as those as we find in Denmark. This chapter introduces such a model: Multifunctional centers. Such a model reflects a long tradition of local centralization in rural areas, that is, a golden compromise between ruralization and urbanization. First, I argue that governments should actively invest in rural areas rather than practicing laissez-faire. Second, I trace ideological roots in history pointing at 19th c. national civic movements and an early 20th c. transnationalGarden City movement within urban planning as crucial. Drawing on contemporary case studies of multifunctional centers in Holland and Denmark, I then suggest that public and private donors should invest in multifunctional centers in which the local public school is the dynamo. This in order to increase local levels of social as well as human capital. Ideally, such centers should contain both public services such as school, library and health care, private enterprises as hairdressers and banks, and facilities for local associations as theatre scenes and sports halls. The centers should be designed to secure both economies of scale and geographic proximity. Empirical evidence indicates that such large meeting places in fact foster physical and social cohesion, as well as human capital and informal learning. Also that the stock of beneficial bridging social capital thus created actually contributes to attract newcomers and counteract depopulation.

Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

2009-01-01

272

Analysis of Home Safety of the Elderly Living in City and Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physiological changes and chronic diseases arising during aging process increase risk of accident of the elderly, especially the elderly living alone at their homes. Home accidents are the most commonly health problem in the elderly. This study was carried out to describe home safety of the elderly living in a city or rural area using a home safety checklist. MEDHODS: 512 living in Turkey (330 in city; 182 in rural area were evaluated via face-to-face interview using a home safety checklist during a period between December and March in 2007. In addition to sociodemographics, a questionnaire including home characteristics and life style of participants was applied. To describe home safety level, Home Safety Checklist was used. RESULTS: 51.8% of the participants living in a city and 42.8% living in rural area were aged 65-69 years. Of the participants living in a city, 59.4% were living with their partners (61.5% of the participants living in rural area. While 63.9% of the participants living in a city reported that they had a private room in their homes, 53.8% of the participants living in rural area reported that they had a private room in their homes. 2.1% of participants living in a city had an excellent home safety score. Percentage for participants living in rural area was 0.5. CONCLUSION: The results obtained from this study show that majority of houses of the elderly living in Turkey were unsafe and hazardous. Therefore, health providers and architects should work together to prevent home accidents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 297-300

Nihal Buker

2008-08-01

273

Training as a Tool for Community Development: 25 Years of Experience in Sparsely Populated Rural Areas in Cuenca, Spain  

Science.gov (United States)

Training is a key tool for community development processes in rural areas. This training is made difficult by the characteristics of the rural areas and their population. Furthermore, the methods used by traditional training bodies are not adapted to the peculiarities of these areas. This article analyses the training methodology used by the…

Diaz-Puente, Jose M.; Moreno, Francisco Jose Gallego; Zamorano, Ramon

2012-01-01

274

DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF RURAL AREA USING ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATION  

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Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the importance of organizational innovation in the development of small and medium sized enterprises in the rural area. In this paper, I review the existing literature on organizational  innovation and will present itsimportance in the process of sustainable development of enterprises in the SME sector. Throughout this study I intend to present the issues that the SMEs are facing  in the agricultural sector of the rural area and to present to the entrepreneur his role in the economy and the importance of his actions in the economic crisis.

Kristina Jana Drienovski

2013-05-01

275

LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA  

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Full Text Available Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009, which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education and training (leading to the underutilization of labor in rural areas, while major shortages in the labor market and increased migration phenomenon manifests.\\r\

Mosora Liviu - Cosmin

2011-07-01

276

STUDY OF PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS IN A RURAL AREA  

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Full Text Available In India smoking is a common habit prevalent in both urban and rural areas. Cigarette smoking has extensive effects on respiratory function and is clearly implicated in the etiology of a number of respiratory diseases, particularly chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and bronchial carcinoma. An attempt has been made to study the pulmonary function tests among smoker and non-smoker population in a rural area.The pulmonary functions were done on a computerized spirometer in 100 male subjects comprising of 50 smokers and 50 non smokers. Almost all the pulmonary function parameters were significantly reducedin smokers and obstructive pulmonary impairment was commonest.

Rubeena Bano

2009-03-01

277

Effects of human activities on karst groundwater geochemistry in a rural area in the Balkans  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geochemistry of three drinking water sources (wells, springs, and tap) in the Vratza region of northern Bulgaria was investigated to gain an understanding of how human activities influence natural geochemical processes in a carbonate aquifer system. Numerous villages have been identified within this highly agricultural area as endemic for the environmental disease Balkan endemic nephropathy, with some suggesting a link to the geochemistry of the region. We observe that water quality varies significantly as a function of source. Hydrochemical facies analysis reveals trends not typical for limestone systems, with cation trajectories falling along the Ca2+–Mg2+ axis and the anion trajectories lying along the HCO3-–SO42- axis. R-mode factor analysis reveals: (i) an increasing dominance of a Cl?–Na+–SO42-–NO3- association from tap to spring to well waters, (ii) a strong association between Mg2+ and U, and (iii) a lack of associations between Ca2+ and Mg2+ and between Ca2+ and HCO3- that is atypical for limestone systems. These observations are interpreted to indicate that human activities have influenced all sources across the Vratza region and that Mg and U concentrations result from the dissolution of limestone, which is enhanced due to the input of anthropogenic chemicals. Geochemical modeling indicates that Ca2+ concentrations are in equilibrium with calcite, but that Mg2+ concentrations remain conservative, resulting in the decoupling of a Ca2+ and Mg2+, association. Uranium concentrations also appear to be conservative, aided by a poised redox state due to high concentrations of NO3- and the formation of CO32- and PO43- ion pairs. The similar source and conservative nature of both Mg2+ and U can account for their association. Finally, cluster analysis indicates that the pattern of water geochemistry in the endemic area differs from the surrounding non-endemic area, may be explained by differences in the underlying geology. This study has shown that the general water quality in this rural area, whether in endemic or non-endemic villages, is poor and that agricultural activities have not only added chemicals to the groundwater system, but that these chemicals have likely disrupted geochemical processes. More work is required to understand the specific details of anthropogenic influences on geochemical processes on water quality in karstic terrains.

278

The Analysis Of The Heavy Metals Pollution In The River Water For Fishing Accusative The Surrounding UJUNG LEMAH ABANG Area  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metals are introduced into aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils or rocks, from volcanic eruptions and from a variety of human activities involving the mining, processing, or use of metals and/or substances that contain metal contaminants. The metal natural contents will changeable depends on the pollutant which is proportionally occurred in the environment. The extremely heavy metals absorption by organisms Directly or indirectly through the food chain will give the significant impact to the human lives. For this purpose an investigation was carried out to take samples of heavy metals from the river (Doplang, Balong, and Pacitran) surrounding the Ujung Lemah abang area, and to see how far was the impact of pollutants to the community who live nearby from the food-chain point of view. Results showed that the heavy metals content of Cd, Fe, Cu and Hg in the water and sediment are higher than the permissible concentration for fish nursery. It is found that the concentration of Cd between 0.91 - 1.85 ?g/ml, Cu: 0.03 ?g/ml, and Fe: 0.16 - 2.51 ?g/ml, whereas concentration of Hg in sediment between 0.036 - 0.118 mg/g. Up to now there are no report yet to the death fish caused by the more content of heavy metals in their body or the sickness related to it in the community around the location, but nevertheless this condition need to be took attention

279

PREVALENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AND OBESITY AMONG POPULATION OF SULTANPUR KUNHARI AND ITS SURROUNDING AREA, HARIDWAR UTTARAKHAND  

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Full Text Available The burden of diabetes is to a large extent the consequence of macrovascular (coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and atherosclerosis and microvascular (like retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy complications of the disease. In this study, a prevalence survey of various atherosclerosis risk factors was carried out on hitherto poorly studied in Sultanpur Kunhari and its surrounding area, Haridwar Uttarakhand, with the aim of studying anthropometric and metabolic characteristics of this population in socio-economic transition. A single time cross-sectional study was carried out. A total of 500 subjects (270 males and 230 females were included in the study. In this study, diabetes mellitus was recorded in 11.12% of males and 10.87% of females, the overall prevalence being 11%. Based on body mass index (BMI, obesity was more prevalent in females 13.9% compare to males 11.1%. On the other hand, classifying obesity based on percentage body fat (%BF, 10% of males and 36.9% of females were obese. Appreciable prevalence of obesity, diabetes mellitus, substantial increase in body fat, generalized and regional obesity in middle age, particularly in females, need immediate attention in terms of prevention and health education in such economically deprived populations.

Izharul Hasan

2012-02-01

280

Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the {sup 210}Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

Shi Jianbo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Ip, Carman C.M. [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang Gan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Li Xiangdong, E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.h [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2010-05-15

 
 
 
 
281

Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the 210Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

282

European Union funds as a stimulus of rural areas proenvironmental development – an example of rural communities in the wielkopolska voivodeship  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the opinion of rural communes of the Wielkopolskie voivodeship, about their participation in the EU funds for proenvironmental action development, scale and barriers of this phenomenon. Lack of financial resources has been recognised by the target communities as a major barrier to implementation of environmental protection activities, EU funds, in turn, an important source of support for this type of investment – up to 83% of the population has tried to obtain funds from the European Union for the environmental objectives. Funds from the European Union first of all served respondents to improve the area infrastructure of water and wastewater management.

Hanna Pondel

2012-04-01

283

Measuring social well-being in the rural areas of the Kaliningrad region  

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Full Text Available This article evaluates the social wellbeing of rural municipalities of the Kaliningrad region. The degree of social wellbeing is assessed on the basis of an analysis of statistical data and expert evaluations. Rural districts were identified in the Kaliningrad region on the basis of the following criteria: the share of population residing in the rural areas (threshold value of 50 %; the share of non-residential areas (threshold value of 75 %, the share of agricultural lands (threshold value of 50 %. Further analysis was based on the indices of geodemographic situation, investment potential, and production development. Rural municipalities were ranked according to these indices. The study showed that the best performing area are the suburban districts of Guryevsk and Bagrationovsk and the agricultural districts of Nesterov and Pravdinsk, whereas the worst performing ones are those of Gvardeisk, Krasnoznamensk, Ozersk, and Chernykhovsk. A comparison with the other constituent entities of the Northwestern federal district proved that the level of social wellbeing of Kaliningrad rural municipalities is rather high and most of them have made the transition from depression to sustainable development.

Romanova E. A.

2014-10-01

284

Measuring social well-being in the rural areas of the Kaliningrad region  

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Full Text Available This article evaluates the social wellbeing of rural municipalities of the Kaliningrad region. The degree of social wellbeing is assessed on the basis of an analysis of statistical data and expert evaluations. Rural districts were identified in the Kaliningrad region on the basis of the following criteria: the share of population residing in the rural areas (threshold value of 50 %; the share of non-residential areas (threshold value of 75 %, the share of agricultural lands (threshold value of 50 %. Further analysis was based on the indices of geodemographic situation, investment potential, and production development. Rural municipalities were ranked according to these indices. The study showed that the best performing area are the suburban districts of Guryevsk and Bagrationovsk and the agricultural districts of Nesterov and Pravdinsk, whereas the worst performing ones are those of Gvardeisk, Krasnoznamensk, Ozersk, and Chernykhovsk. A comparison with the other constituent entities of the Northwestern federal district proved that the level of social wellbeing of Kaliningrad rural municipalities is rather high and most of them have made the transition from depression to sustainable development.

Romanova E. A.

2014-01-01

285

Electrification of rural areas using solar PV system - The Kiribati experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From the electrification programs which have been carried out by the Solar Energy Company, it can be concluded that to electrify the rural area of Kiribati, where income generating activities are limited and energy demand is low the PV solar system using the utility concept is the best approach. A monthly fee of $15, is at this time, affordable by the majority of the rural population. However, only those who can afford a fee of more than $15 a month must be allowed the connection of additional appliances. To address the energy demand of higher economic activities in the rural area the PV system in its present design stage from Kiribati experience is not cost effective and alternative source is required to promote the activity. In addition the PV solar system program will continue to rely on external funding assistance for its expansion until at least 1500 systems have been installed. The purchasing of additional appliances to be connected must be the responsibility of the user, however, it is important that additional appliances are limited to a level that will yield a fee of not more than the level affordable by the user, in the rural area. The sustainability approach to rural electrification through solar energy based on the utility concept to address social and minimal economic activities could prove a positive model for other countries and with minor modifications to fit local conditions and culture for the system to work. (EHS)

Ngalu, F. [Ministry of Works and Energy (Kiribati)

1999-11-01

286

Mapping permanent preservation areas and natural forest fragments as subsidy to the registration of legal reserve areas in rural properties  

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Full Text Available The major objective of this work was to identify and quantify forest fragments suitable to be used as private protected land in rural properties located in the São Bartolomeu creek watershed, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodological procedures included: mapping of 78 forest fragments through the visual interpretation of an Ikonos II satellite image; delineation of Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs from a hydrographically conditioned digital elevation model and mapping of 292 rural properties through interviews with owners, with the aid of a printed Ikonos II image. The generated maps were overlapped (crossed, allowing the identification of forest fragments that could be used as private protected land in rural property. The result indicated that, from the total of properties evaluated, only 41 (14.04% have more than 20% of forest cover, and therefore, are in condition to attend the environmental law for private protected land.

Vicente Paulo Soares

2011-12-01

287

Analysis of the Radiopollution of the City of Sarajevo and its Surrounding Area with Regard to Radionuclides  

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Full Text Available In recent years, great attention has been focused on the research of problems related to the environment and processes occurring within it. The accident that occurred at Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl (1986 unquestionably warned that global pollution with radioactive substances on a continent scale may be expected. The past twenty years have been marked with the utilization of metal uranium – a depleted isotope of uranium-235 for various purposes. Today, depleted uranium has found its use in modern armies and it is used as efficient ammunition against armored military systems.There are estimates about the usage of ammunition with depleted uranium deployed in Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war (1992–1995. The region of Bosnia and Herzegovina was exposed to the direct influence of the global dispersion processes that had occurred in May 1986 as a consequence of emissions originating from Nuclear Power Plant “Lenin” in Chernobyl. In thiswork the radionuclides fraction analysis (238U, 226Ra, 210Pb, 232Th, 40K i 137Cs of surface samples (0–5 cm originating from the City of Sarajevo and its surroundings has been presented. The soil samples were taken from nine locations in the city and the surrounding area: Blekin potok, Kobilja glava, Bentbaša, Vraca, Prirodno-matematieki fakultet (PMF, Aziai, Hrasnica, Butmir, and Blažuj. The analyses were performed at the Department for Environment of Jo?ef Štefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Ge HP detector connected to Ortec MCA Gamma Vision 32 Software was used in addition to the Instrumental Neutron Activation Technique (INAA.The results of the analysis were compared with data available for the City of Sarajevo (years 1986, 1987 and 1988 and Slovenia. Analyses were made after Chernobyl catastrophe. Almost all of radionuclides analysed have shown to have a slightly higher specific radioactivity when compared to the data obtained in 1986, 1987 and 1989 for the City of Sarajevo. Our results are in accordance with the values obtained in Slovenia except in the case of 137Cs at location Vraca, where a significantly higher concentration has been observed and reaching ? = 460 ± 20 Bq kg–1.

Huremovi?, J.

2009-04-01

288

Unsafe CSOM still a challenge in rural areas  

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Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To determine the frequency of complications in unsafe chronic suppurative otitis media. MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective study was conducted in the department Otorhinolaryngology MMIMSR over the time duration of one year from March 2011 to April 2012. Fifty consecutive patients were selected whose clinical diagnosis was CSOM Attico-antral type.Conclusion: The rate of complications, especially more serious intracranial complications ,observed in developing countries is significantly more than those observed in studies from the developed countries. (12. In our study the frequency of extracranial complications excluding ossicular erosion is 22% and the frequency of intracranial complications is 4%. It was observed by Memon et al (13 in 2008 that in a series of 390 patients of chronic discharging ears that the rate of extracranial complications was 4.10% and rate of intracranial complications was 2.3%of the unsafe variety . The high frequency in our study may be explained by the fact that we are sitting in a rural background with very poor socio-economic background patients. Osama U et al (14 from Turkey reveals the rate of 1.35% of extracranial complications and 1.97% of intracranial complications in his study.

Ginni Datta

2014-04-01

289

[Chagas disease in a rural area of Northeast Brazil].  

Science.gov (United States)

A serological and medical survey on Chagas disease was carried out between December 1997 and June 2000 in four villages of the semi-arid rural Northeast Brazil. The average human serological prevalence rate of 11.8% was strongly linked with age: 1.1% for people under 25, 13.7% for people aged of 26 to 49, 29.5% for people aged of 50+. The clinical form was indeterminate for 57% of the infected population, cardiac for 35%, digestive or mixed for 8%. The infected patients under 55 received at home an etiologic treatment with benznidazol. The survey confirms the drastic reduction of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission during the last decades, especially since 25 years. This situation is the result jointly of the antivectorial activities, improvement of education level and changes in the way of life. However Chagas disease is still a serious problem, especially for numerous middle-aged infected adults. The situation could be improved by increasing the serologic screening in the field as well as the counselling and the treatment of the patients. PMID:15462201

Gazin, P; Melo, G; Abuquerque, A; Oliveira, W; Soula, G; Audry, P

2004-08-01

290

ALINA JURAVLE (GASLER, The Romanian Rural Areas in the Context of European Development Strategies  

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Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the Romanian rural areas from the perspective of certain indicators related to agricultural economy, employment and the quality of human resources, insisting on several of the significant problems that are slowing down rural development in Romania. These problems are discussed in relation with the objectives and the impact of national and European development strategies.The EU strategic guidelines and objectives set as a main priority the increased competitiveness of the rural economy, especially of the agricultural economy, which corresponds to the specific needs of the "old" Member States (EU15, as reflecting a specific historical development path. In the national rural strategy, prioritizing competitiveness objectives to the detriment of market integration and modernization objectives proves to be inappropriate for the immediate challenges posed by the Romanian rural economy, where the vast majority of agricultural holdings are outside the commercial and production mechanisms of the market. This could explain the low values of implementation indicators for the national rural development plan (PNDR measures and the low absorption rate of allocated funds and contracts concluded in relation to most measures.

ADELA ?ERBAN

2012-04-01

291

Challenges of preparing allied health professionals for interdisciplinary practice in rural areas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meeting the health needs of individuals in rural communities involves addressing the challenges of complex multifaceted health problems, limited local health resources and services, isolation, and distance. Interdisciplinary collaboration can create solutions to health care problems that transcend conventional, discipline-specific methods, procedures, and techniques. This paper reports on the four-pronged approach of the Western Maryland Area Health Education Center used to prepare allied health students to be interdisciplinary team members in rural areas. It describes the development of four interdisciplinary instructional team member training venues (in-class instruction, Web-based modules, service-learning programs, and faculty development workshops) that integrate opportunities to develop and practice interdisciplinary health promotion skills in rural communities. Challenges to implementing the model are described, including developing faculty and student training participation, integrating training venues into existing programs at participating institutions, and designing a unified program evaluation. PMID:16252679

Fertman, Carl I; Dotson, Suzanna; Mazzocco, Gail O; Reitz, S Maggie

2005-01-01

292

Características de los suicidios de áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia, Colombia / Characteristics of Suicides in Rural and Urban Areas in Antioquia, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar si existen diferencias entre áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia en las características asociadas con el suicidio. Método: Se compararon 79 sujetos provenientes de áreas rurales y 75 de áreas urbanas de Antioquia. Se hizo autopsia psicológica y se calcularon razones de prevalen [...] cia (RP) (frecuencia de la característica en zona rural/frecuencia de la característica en zona urbana). Resultados: Las características asociadas de manera independiente con provenir de área rural y urbana fueron: “momento del suicidio durante la noche” (RP = 0,65; IC 95%: 0,48-0,89) y “vivir solo” (RP = 0,40; IC 95%: 0,17-0,98), que fueron más frecuentes en zona urbana, y “envenenamiento con pesticidas”, que ocurrió más en zona rural (RP = 1,80; IC 95%: 1,39-2,34). Conclusiones: Los individuos suicidas provenientes de zonas rurales y urbanas tenían características diferentes. Ello puede tener implicaciones para el diseño de las estrategias de prevención del suicidio en cada una de las zonas. Se requieren otros estudios para determinar los factores de riesgo propios de cada área. Abstract in english Objective: To determine differences in characteristics associated with suicide between rural and urban populations from Antioquia. Method: 79 subjects from rural areas and 75 subjects from urban areas were compared. Psychological autopsy was done and prevalence ratios (PR) (frequency of characterist [...] ic in rural zone/frequency of characteristic in urban zone) were calculated. Results: The characteristics that associated independently with coming from rural or urban areas were: “suicide during the night” (PR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.89) and “living alone” (PR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.98), which were more frequent in urban areas, and “pesticide poisoning” which was more frequent in rural areas (PR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.39-2.34). Conclusions: Individuals who committed suicide from rural and urban areas have different characteristics. This finding might have implications for the design of preventive strategies in each zone. Additional studies are required to determine specific risk factors in urban and rural areas.

Jenny, García Valencia; Gabriel Jaime, Montoya Montoya; Carlos Alberto, López Jaramillo; María Cecilia, López Tobón; Patricia, Montoya Guerra; Juan Carlos, Arango Viana; Carlos Alberto, Palacio Acosta.

293

Características de los suicidios de áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia, Colombia Characteristics of Suicides in Rural and Urban Areas in Antioquia, Colombia  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si existen diferencias entre áreas rurales y urbanas de Antioquia en las características asociadas con el suicidio. Método: Se compararon 79 sujetos provenientes de áreas rurales y 75 de áreas urbanas de Antioquia. Se hizo autopsia psicológica y se calcularon razones de prevalencia (RP (frecuencia de la característica en zona rural/frecuencia de la característica en zona urbana. Resultados: Las características asociadas de manera independiente con provenir de área rural y urbana fueron: “momento del suicidio durante la noche” (RP = 0,65; IC 95%: 0,48-0,89 y “vivir solo” (RP = 0,40; IC 95%: 0,17-0,98, que fueron más frecuentes en zona urbana, y “envenenamiento con pesticidas”, que ocurrió más en zona rural (RP = 1,80; IC 95%: 1,39-2,34. Conclusiones: Los individuos suicidas provenientes de zonas rurales y urbanas tenían características diferentes. Ello puede tener implicaciones para el diseño de las estrategias de prevención del suicidio en cada una de las zonas. Se requieren otros estudios para determinar los factores de riesgo propios de cada área.Objective: To determine differences in characteristics associated with suicide between rural and urban populations from Antioquia. Method: 79 subjects from rural areas and 75 subjects from urban areas were compared. Psychological autopsy was done and prevalence ratios (PR (frequency of characteristic in rural zone/frequency of characteristic in urban zone were calculated. Results: The characteristics that associated independently with coming from rural or urban areas were: “suicide during the night” (PR = 0.65; 95% CI: 0.48-0.89 and “living alone” (PR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.98, which were more frequent in urban areas, and “pesticide poisoning” which was more frequent in rural areas (PR = 1.80; 95% CI: 1.39-2.34. Conclusions: Individuals who committed suicide from rural and urban areas have different characteristics. This finding might have implications for the design of preventive strategies in each zone. Additional studies are required to determine specific risk factors in urban and rural areas.

Jenny García Valencia

2011-04-01

294

Quality and disinfection trials of consumption water in storage reservoirs for rural area in the Marrakech region (Assif El Mal).  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional reservoirs for water storage are important systems of water supply in rural areas of Morocco. These reservoirs are fed by rainwater and/or directly from rivers through open channels; the stored water is used without any treatment as drinking water by the surrounding population. The present study aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of stored water and the corresponding sediment in six traditional reservoirs (R1 to R6) located in the rural municipality of Assif El Mal. We tested two inexpensive methods of disinfecting the stored water: chlorination and solar disinfection in bottles. The results show a rise of organic and mineral concentrations. Regarding bacteriological quality, a critical contamination level was detected (8 × 10(5) CFU/100 ml in water and 9 × 10(7) CFU/g in sediment) according to the 2002 Moroccan Standards for drinking water (0 CFU/100 ml). In the disinfection tests, chlorine disinfection removed all studied germs after just 1 hour, and the solar exposure process removed the majority of bacteria (after 3 hours) except those with a resistant form (Clostridia). PMID:23428557

Aziz, Faissal; Mandi, Laila; Boussaid, Abdellatif; Boraam, Fatima; Ouazzani, Naaila

2013-03-01

295

Injuries in rural and urban areas of Agra district: an observational study  

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Full Text Available Background: Injuries are becoming major public health problem worldwide and since India is also passing through a major socio-demographic, epidemiological and technological transition; injuries are coming up as an emerging health problem. Objectives: To find out prevalence of “Injuries”, causative mechanism, place of injury & distribution in rural & urban area of Agra district. Material & Methods: It is type of observational study in rural & urban area of Agra district. The area to be surveyed was selected by multistage stratified random sampling technique. A recall period of three months for minor injuries & one year for major injuries or deaths due to injury was used. A total of 4 villages covering 2439 population and in urban area 2 mohallas & 2 slums covering 2410 population were surveyed. Data collected was entered on Fox. Pro (vs 2.6 and analyzed by SPSS (vs. 10. Results: A total of 93 persons in rural and 142 persons in urban had major while 147 peoples in rural and 200 peoples in urban had minor injuries during the recall period. Among the injured most common mechanism for major & minor injury was due to fall (45.16% & 36.73%. Regarding place maximum major injury occur at home (32.26% in rural while in urban it was road/highway (46.48% but for minor it the home being commonest place in both rural & urban (40.82% & 55%. Conclusions: Considering the high morbidities due to injuries focusing health education efforts based on local epidemiology and behavioral practices is needed. 

M Sharma

2013-12-01

296

Structural changes in the rural planting areas of Belgrade region  

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Full Text Available Socio-economic development of the Belgrade region significantly affects the direction of the change of planting areas use. The increase in urban areas has adversely affected the direction of agricultural land use. Dynamics of change is significantly due to high production costs (high land prices and expensive labor force gives rise to the high price of the product on the market, there is a constant "pressure" of urban areas to arable land, increasing the risk of "loss" of agricultural holdings; increased environmental pollution due to the concentration of industrial plants or road construction. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of structural changes in sowing area in the period from 1991 to 2011. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

Sibinovi? Mikica

2012-01-01

297

Hábitos de salud en escolares en ámbito urbano y rural / Health habits in schoolchildren in urban and rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. En los primeros años de vida se produce la asimilación e interiorización de los hábitos de salud que van a condicionar la vida adulta, siendo fundamentales las características socioambientales para la adquisición de los mismos. Objetivos Nos planteamos conocer los hábitos de salud que [...] presentan los escolares de dos zonas geográficas contrapuestas: la urbana y la rural. Metodología. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo con alumnos de 10 y 11 años de una zona urbana y de una rural, llevándose a cabo una prueba de comparación de dos proporciones de muestras independientes. Resultados. Se han recogido 104 encuestas (21.2% de ámbito rural) en las cuales se observa la existencia de un porcentaje importante en cuanto a la falta de hábito de lavado de manos e higiene dental se refiere. Respecto a la alimentación, existe un pequeño número de niños que acuden al colegio sin desayunar y, en caso de hacerlo, es considerable el porcentaje obtenido en el consumo de bollería y zumos envasados, apreciándose un déficit en el de verduras y pescados. Aunque mayoritariamente realizan actividad física, el 10% no la hacen nunca. Asimismo se aprecia un excesivo uso del televisor preferido frente a otros hábitos. En lo relacionado con el tabaquismo, cabe destacar que un 30% conviven con fumadores, y un 6% han probado el tabaco. En lo referente al alcohol un porcentaje importante (4.8%-19.5%) ya lo ha probado mayoritariamente en el ámbito familiar. Conclusiones. La finalidad del estudio es el de servir como punto de partida para la planificación de futuras actuaciones, ya que indica la existencia de situaciones de riesgo: alteraciones en la salud bucodental por déficit de cuidados e higiene, hábitos alimenticios incorrectos, hábitos sedentarios e inicio temprano de consumo o contacto con sustancias tóxicas. Abstract in english Introduction. ln the first years of life assimilation occurs and the understanding of health habits that will shape adult life, and these socio-environmental characteristics are fundamental for the acquisition of health habits. Objectives. This study is aimed at ascertaining the health habits of sch [...] oolchildren from two opposing geographical areas (urban and rural). Methodology. We performed a descriptive study of students aged 10/11 years old from urban and rural areas, performing a comparison test of two proportions from independent samples. Results. 104 surveys were obtained (21.2% from rural areas). There is a significant percentage which refers to a lack of hand washing and dental hygiene habits. With regard to food there is a small percentage of children who come to school without breakfast, among those who did, it was found that a significant percentage have pastries and packaged juices showing a lack in consumption of vegetables and fish. Although largely physically inactive, 10% never take exercise. There is high television consumption and other habits are that, 30% live with smokers and 6% have tried snuff. A significant percentage (4.8% -19.5%) have tried alcohol, mostly in the family. Conclusions. The study should serve as a starting point for planning future actions, and indicates the existence of risk: changes in oral health due to a lack of care and hygiene, bad eating habits, sedentary habits and the early onset of contact with consumption, or with toxic substances.

Antonio, Martínez Sabater; Asunción, Marzá Gascón; Julia, Llorca Tauste; Cristina, Martínez Puig; Gema, Escrivá Aznar; Mercedes, Blasco Roque.

2013-01-01

298

Hábitos de salud en escolares en ámbito urbano y rural / Health habits in schoolchildren in urban and rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. En los primeros años de vida se produce la asimilación e interiorización de los hábitos de salud que van a condicionar la vida adulta, siendo fundamentales las características socioambientales para la adquisición de los mismos. Objetivos Nos planteamos conocer los hábitos de salud que [...] presentan los escolares de dos zonas geográficas contrapuestas: la urbana y la rural. Metodología. Se ha realizado un estudio descriptivo con alumnos de 10 y 11 años de una zona urbana y de una rural, llevándose a cabo una prueba de comparación de dos proporciones de muestras independientes. Resultados. Se han recogido 104 encuestas (21.2% de ámbito rural) en las cuales se observa la existencia de un porcentaje importante en cuanto a la falta de hábito de lavado de manos e higiene dental se refiere. Respecto a la alimentación, existe un pequeño número de niños que acuden al colegio sin desayunar y, en caso de hacerlo, es considerable el porcentaje obtenido en el consumo de bollería y zumos envasados, apreciándose un déficit en el de verduras y pescados. Aunque mayoritariamente realizan actividad física, el 10% no la hacen nunca. Asimismo se aprecia un excesivo uso del televisor preferido frente a otros hábitos. En lo relacionado con el tabaquismo, cabe destacar que un 30% conviven con fumadores, y un 6% han probado el tabaco. En lo referente al alcohol un porcentaje importante (4.8%-19.5%) ya lo ha probado mayoritariamente en el ámbito familiar. Conclusiones. La finalidad del estudio es el de servir como punto de partida para la planificación de futuras actuaciones, ya que indica la existencia de situaciones de riesgo: alteraciones en la salud bucodental por déficit de cuidados e higiene, hábitos alimenticios incorrectos, hábitos sedentarios e inicio temprano de consumo o contacto con sustancias tóxicas. Abstract in english Introduction. ln the first years of life assimilation occurs and the understanding of health habits that will shape adult life, and these socio-environmental characteristics are fundamental for the acquisition of health habits. Objectives. This study is aimed at ascertaining the health habits of sch [...] oolchildren from two opposing geographical areas (urban and rural). Methodology. We performed a descriptive study of students aged 10/11 years old from urban and rural areas, performing a comparison test of two proportions from independent samples. Results. 104 surveys were obtained (21.2% from rural areas). There is a significant percentage which refers to a lack of hand washing and dental hygiene habits. With regard to food there is a small percentage of children who come to school without breakfast, among those who did, it was found that a significant percentage have pastries and packaged juices showing a lack in consumption of vegetables and fish. Although largely physically inactive, 10% never take exercise. There is high television consumption and other habits are that, 30% live with smokers and 6% have tried snuff. A significant percentage (4.8% -19.5%) have tried alcohol, mostly in the family. Conclusions. The study should serve as a starting point for planning future actions, and indicates the existence of risk: changes in oral health due to a lack of care and hygiene, bad eating habits, sedentary habits and the early onset of contact with consumption, or with toxic substances.

Antonio, Martínez Sabater; Asunción, Marzá Gascón; Julia, Llorca Tauste; Cristina, Martínez Puig; Gema, Escrivá Aznar; Mercedes, Blasco Roque.

299

Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em áreas florestal, rural e urbana em Monte Alegre, MG Parasitoids of Diptera collected in forest, rural, and urban areas in Monte Alegre, MG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study determined the species of parasitoids of Diptera present in forest, rural, and urban areas in the municipality of Monte Alegre, MG, from March to November 2006. The percentages of parasitism in forest, rural, and urban areas were 14.3%, 11.0%, and 18.8%, respectively. The most frequent species (34.7% was Triplasta atrocoxalis (Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Figitidae.

C.H. Marchiori

2008-12-01

300

Parasitóides de Diptera coletados em áreas florestal, rural e urbana em Monte Alegre, MG / Parasitoids of Diptera collected in forest, rural, and urban areas in Monte Alegre, MG  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english This study determined the species of parasitoids of Diptera present in forest, rural, and urban areas in the municipality of Monte Alegre, MG, from March to November 2006. The percentages of parasitism in forest, rural, and urban areas were 14.3%, 11.0%, and 18.8%, respectively. The most frequent sp [...] ecies (34.7%) was Triplasta atrocoxalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae).

C.H., Marchiori; L.F., Barbaresco; M.E., Ferreira.

1570-15-01

 
 
 
 
301

The environmental quality of Doñana surrounding areas affects the immune transcriptional profile of inhabitant crayfish Procambarus clarkii.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to identify differentially expressed genes in Procambarus clarkii crayfish collected from locations of different environmental qualities in the Doñana National Park surrounding areas. The pollution sustained by the crayfish was confirmed by their hepatopancreatic metal concentration. We generated forward and reverse libraries by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to analyze the transcriptional profiles of crayfish from moderately and highly polluted zones in comparison with the control site within the Doñana Biological Reserve. Forty-three differentially expressed genes were detected, and most of them were identified as genes involved in a variety of biological functions, particularly in the innate immune response. To verify the SSH results and assess interindividual variability nine transcripts (ALP, AST, BTF3, CHIT, CTS, ferritin, HC, HC2, and SPINK4) were selected for absolute quantification by real-time qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR data revealed substantial differences in the absolute amounts of the nine transcripts and confirmed their up- or down-regulation in the polluted sites. Additionally, a positive and significant linear correlation was found between the hepatopancreatic copper concentration and the levels of the transcripts encoding hemocyanins. Finally, the transcriptomic study was complemented with a detailed analysis of SNP profiles of the selected transcripts that revealed point mutations that might underlie adaptive response to environmental stress in P. clarkii. Overall, this work provides novel insights into the molecular pathways that could mediate the response to environmental pollutants in P. clarkii emphasizing the central role of the immune function and thus, should clearly benefit further immunotoxicological research in this organism. PMID:25003697

Osuna-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Abril, Nieves; Vioque-Fernández, Amalia; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis; Prieto-Álamo, María-José; Pueyo, Carmen

2014-09-01

302

An Empirical Study on the Effect of School Consolidation in Rural Areas on Student Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

With Shaanxi province as an example, this study presents empirical evidence on the effect of primary school consolidation in rural areas on student achievement, using the difference-in-differences method. The results show no significant differences in student achievement between consolidated schools and nonconsolidated schools. If student…

Mei, Dong; Fang, Chang; Yuanyan, Bai

2013-01-01

303

Social and Economic Effects of Large-Scale Energy Development in Rural Areas: An Assessment Model.  

Science.gov (United States)

General development, structure, and uses of a computerized impact projection model, the North Dakota Regional Environmental Assessment Program (REAP) Economic-Demographic Assessment Model, were studied not only to describe a model developed to meet informational needs of local decision makers (especially in a rural area undergoing development),…

Murdock, Steve H.; Leistritz, F. Larry

304

Public Transport in Rural Areas: The Increasing Role of Central and Local Government.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of central and local government in the planning and provision of public transport in rural areas is examined in this report. The development of various roles is traced through the legislative background, leading to a comparison of the wide range ...

S. Warburton, M. Trower-Foyan

1981-01-01

305

Designing slanted soil system for greywater treatment for irrigation purposes in rural area of arid regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

To solve the unpleasant disposal of greywater in rural area and allow its collection for reuse in gardening, a slanted soil treatment system (SSTS) was designed and installed in two households. Granitic gravel of 1-9 mm size was used as the filter medium. The aim of this study was to design a SSTS and assess its suitability as a treatment system allowing greywater reuse in gardening. The efficiency of the SSTS was assessed based on organic matter and bacterial pollution removal. The developed SSTS allowed the collection of greywater from three main sources (shower, dishwashing and laundry) in rural area. The SSTS is efficient in removing at least 50% of suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand and biological oxygen demand. The study highlighted that, contrary to the common perception, greywater streams in rural area are heavily polluted with faecal indicators. The removal efficiency of faecal indicators was lower than 2 log units, and the bacteriological quality of the effluents is generally higher than the WHO reuse guidelines for restricted irrigation. Longer retention time is required to increase the efficiency. The possibility of reusing the treated greywater as irrigation water is discussed on the basis of various qualitative parameters. The SSTS is a promising greywater treatment system for small communities in the rural area in the Sahelian region. To increase the treatment efficiency, future research will focus on the characteristics of the SSTS, the grain size and the establishment of a pretreatment step. PMID:25189850

Maiga, Y; Moyenga, D; Nikiema, B C; Ushijima, K; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

2014-12-01

306

Religious Communities, Immigration, and Social Cohesion in Rural Areas: Evidence from England  

Science.gov (United States)

Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important…

Andrews, Rhys

2011-01-01

307

Adolescent Drinking in Two Rural Areas of Mississippi: 1964 and 1975.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study examined the increase of drinking from 1964 to 1975 among teenagers enrolled in two high schools in different sociocultural rural areas of Mississippi. The sample was composed of students in two high schools located in a "wet" county and a "dry" county. A questionnaire was administered to 525 students in 1964 and 793 in 1975. Both years,…

Hampe, Gary D.

308

Difficulties faced when conducting primary health care programs in rural areas.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

This study revealed that approximately one 3rd of primary health care teams who work in the rural areas of Aseer region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia face significant difficulties that will affect the introducing of essential primary health care programs. A multi-sectoral integrated approach is mandatory to overcome these difficulties and introduce good quality care.

Yahia M. Al-Khaldi

2002-04-01

309

The prevalence and the age at the onset of menopause in Turkish women in rural area.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

There was a noticeably high percentage of females (8.6% younger than 40 years who were entering menopause. On the other hand, an early onset of natural menopause among Turkish women living in this rural area was found to be associated with never been pregnant and their age of menarche.

Suphi Vehid

2006-09-01

310

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MALNUTRITION (UNDER NUTRITION AMONG UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN A SECTION OF RURAL AREA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prevalence of malnutrition is very high in India; especially in rural area. A cross sectional study was done in randomly selected six villages to estimate the prevalence and demographic and socioeconomicfactors associated with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition among the under five children was 50.46%.Children from lower socioeconomic status, with low birth weight were significantly malnourished.

Deepak B. Phalke

2009-06-01

311

Supplementary Education for Indians in Rural and Reservation Areas. Final Report, 1972.  

Science.gov (United States)

The document is the March 1972 final report of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), Title III project which provides supplementary education for American Indians in rural and reservation areas. The document covers evaluation procedures of the tutorial program, vocational training, counseling, adult classes and activities, summer…

Inyo County Superintendent of Schools, Independence, CA.

312

Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the formulation and adoption of the 'Township Electrification Program' followed a 'centralized and closed top-down' approach within China's communist political framework conditions, which ultimately resulted in pursuing political leaders' conceptions instead of the energy needs of local people. Third, the implementation of the Program possessed a technical orientation (e.g. construction of stations, installation of systems), and underestimated the financial implications (e.g. electricity tariff, households' ability to pay electricity fee, financial management) as well as human resources available (e.g. training for operators, household participation) and institutional capacity building (e.g. good governance, regulatory framework) at the local level. Fourth, there was a change of households' energy use pattern from traditional energy sources (such as candles and dry cell batteries) to electricity from solar PV power stations in the two investigated townships. But traditional energy sources were not totally substituted by electricity. This is due to the fact that the current electricity supply was not sufficient for households' needs and electricity was not provided daily on a regular basis. Households still had to rely on traditional energy sources. Fifth, the impacts of the Program on the improvement of socio-economic benefits for households, the improvement of township development, and the reduction of negative environmental impacts were limited. Lastly, based on these findings, this study suggests policy recommendations for the Chinese government as well as policy implications for developing countries. (orig.)

Shyu, Chian-Woei

2010-05-19

313

Radionuclide renography in rural areas of the Gambia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

, but no statistically significant differences were found for older subjects. ERPF was lower for subjects aged 17 or above in the endemic area, but for subjects aged 16 or less it was higher with a positive correlation between ERPF and urinary egg count. Subjects who had a second renogram one year after treatment with metrifonate showed some improvement. By the time of a two-year follow-up nine subjects had died in the endemic area and four of them had abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF. Only one subject with abnormalities of both MTT and ERPF had survived. (author)

314

From hunting-based to nomadic reindeer herding in Røros and surrounding areas (In Norwegian with Summary in English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Until today most researchers have named central Sweden and the Arjeplog area as the cradle of reindeer nomadism. However, there are reasons to believe that the practice of nomadic reindeer herding goes at least as far back in Røros and surrounding areas. The transition was probably initiated by large-scale climatic changes during the 16th and 17th century. Local historian, Anders Reitan, characterises the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century as very difficult for the Røros district, with cold weather and crop failure. He refers to the year 1591 as the "black year", when "the grass didn't turn green north of Dovre", and in 1599 there was "general crop failure throughout northern Europe". 1635 was ostensibly as bad as the "black year", and it was told that in 1647 several people died right next to the trees they had stripped for bark to eat. The cold climate is confirmed by today's climate researchers. In the sources the period from 1550 to 1850 is referred to as "the little ice-age". For the Trøndelag area this meant regular north-westerly and north-easterly winds during the spring, causing later snow-melting and more frequent snowfall and periods of frost than we have today. Summers were shorter and colder, and there was less sun and more rain than in our days. Under such circum¬stances there must have been a good market for meat, which must have put considerable pressure on the wild reindeer stock. However, the cold climate with shortage of food and famine during the 16th and 17th century did not only lead to an increase in the hunting of wild reindeer, but it must also have had a direct influence on the wild reindeer population. Researchers have found that the spring in particular was getting colder during the "little ice-age". And spring weather is of crucial importance to the dynamics of population and the procreative powers of wild reindeer. According to Julie Axman the weather was bad and conditions for the reindeer very difficult in the Røros area around 1867. Reindeer calves died as a result of the long and cold springs, and her father had to borrow money in order to buy more animals. When climatic conditions during the 1860s had such a dramatic impact on the population of wild reindeer, it must have had at least as great consequences in the Røros area during the 16th and 17th century. Even though the reindeer in nomadic times were very tame and under continuous supervision, the herds were left to graze freely on open lands. With the presence of a large population of wild reindeer close to the tame herds, the risk of losing reindeer would be great, especially during winter and in the mating season. The wild reindeer population in Røros would therefore have to be reduced, either before or in parallel to an increase in the number of tame reindeer. The climate contributed to this reduction, and the Sami took care of the rest as far as it was necessary. This could take place in parallel to the building up of herds of tame reindeer. According to the sources there were at least 6 Sami villages in the 17th century, from Tydal in the north to Østerdalen in the south, which kept herds of tame reindeer, and at the same time the Sami population was accused of extinguishing the wild reindeer. A picture emerges. In sum, we can see that circumstances at the time were in favour of a change in strategy, from a hunting-based economy to nomadic reindeer herding.

Sverre Fjellheim

2005-04-01

315

Participation of Rural People in Dairy Enterprise in a Selected Area of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to be participation of rural people in dairy enterprise in relation to their socio-economic characteristics in the selected areas of Bangladesh. The study was carried out at the five village of Bogra District of Bangladesh. From each village 20 farm families were selected with the purpose of the study and data were collected from them by direct interview. A total of 62% respondents were engaged in agriculture sector who have one or more dairy cattle. About 49% rural pe...

Rabbani, M. S.; Alam, M. M.; Ali, M. Y.; Rahman, S. M. R.; Saha, B. K.

2004-01-01

316

Entrepreneurship within Urban and Rural Areas : Individual Creativity and Social Network  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The entrepreneurial dynamics within urban and rural areas are often assumed to be very different. This study explores the importance of individual creativity and the social network in both places regarding the probability of becoming an entrepreneur and of surviving the crucial three years after start-up. The results are based on longitudinal register data combined with a questionnaire survey from 2008, utilizing responses from 1,108 first-time entrepreneurs (out of which 670 survived) and 420 non-entrepreneurs (without previous entrepreneurial experience). Creativity is only found to lead to start-up in urban areas but it does not influence the chances of survival in any of the two areas. On the contrary, the social network matters particular in rural areas. By combining the person and the environment in the research design, common entrepreneurship beliefs are questioned which opens up for region specific policy initiatives..

Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Nielsen, Kristian

2011-01-01

317

Assessment of Determinants of Domestic Water Demand in Rural Areas of Swaziland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is based on a study in which questionnaire interviews were administered to investigate the determinants of domestic water demand in rural areas of Swaziland. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed in Siphofaneni area to provide primary data for this study. The study discovered that average domestic water use per person per day was only 10 L and most households had unmet water demand for most domestic uses. The results suggest that income, household size and distance from h...

Gamedze, K.; Tevera, D. S.; Chemhaka, G. B.

2012-01-01

318

Wireless Regional Access Networks: A Wise Choice for Internet Connectivity to Rural Areas of Zimbabwe  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wireless Regional Access Network (WRAN is increasingly becoming the focus architecture for future rural and remote area access networks. Firstly, we explain “the Zimbabwean problem”, and then give brief discussions of existing technologies deployed for rural communications elsewhere in the world. As we searched for solutions to the Zimbabwean problem, special attention was given to technologies such as cognitive radio networks. In the process, WRAN, which saves on deployment and license costs, has extended coverage range, increased cell capacity and utilises idle TV spectrum, was identified as a suitable broadband access candidate for providing connectivity to the rural areas of Zimbabwe. A design network structure suitable for rural areas in Zimbabwe is proposed and a basic cognitive radio (CR simulation to show the possibility of harnessing idle Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation TV channels/frequency bands using CR technology was successfully run. Power spectrum density estimation model for sensing was used. A number of implementation challenges such as the effect of antenna height on the hidden terminal problem, MIMO incorporation in order to mitigate for such effects in WRAN networks, the investigation and mitigation of interference contribution from remote television stations, WRAN networks and other primary stations and users are discussed.

Mardeni Roslee

2013-06-01

319

Prevalence of Food Insecurity among Women in Rural Area of North West Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food insecurity is a public health concern among rural poor in Bangladesh. Food insecurity is the insufficiency of good quality foods, reduced access to foods and inadequate intake of foods to meet ones physiological demands. Food insecurity is inversely associated with health and nutritional status of rural women of Bangladesh. This cross-sectional study was conducted using an interview-based pre tested questionnaire. Data were collected from 500 women in low-income areas of Nageswari and Phulbari sub district of Kurigram district of Bangladesh; from February to October 2012. Both of them have border with India. From each of the sub district 250 women were selected for the interview. Food insecurity was assessed using the short form of the United States food security survey module. The prevalence of food insecurity was 32.4%. The socioeconomic factors that increase the risk of food insecurity are-income below the poverty line, illiteracy, women heading the household, unemployment and lack of own housing. No association was found between obesity and food insecurity. The food-insecure women with hunger had lower intake of all food-groups expect grains. This study determines that the food insecurity is present in the rural area of North West Bangladesh. Food-insecure women with hunger are at a risk of malnutrition. Interventions that target reduction of the factors associated with food insecurity are necessary in the rural food insecure area of Bangladesh.

Azizur Rahman

2013-01-01

320

Qualidade de água de uma lagoa rasa em meio rural no sul do Brasil / Water quality of a shallow lagoon in rural area in Southern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No seu entorno, a lagoa Caiubá apresenta regiões preservadas e áreas com cultura de arroz e de pecuária. Esta pesquisa descreve o padrão de variação sazonal e espacial das variáveis fisico-químicas e biológicas durante os anos de 2009 e 2010, em nove pontos distribuídos espacialmente na lagoa, repre [...] sentando suas partes norte, central e sul. A qualidade da água foi avaliada através da aplicação do índice de estado trófico (IET), do índice de qualidade de água (IQA) e das classes da Resolução CONAMA 357/2005. Foram coletadas amostras de invertebrados bentônicos e determinados os Índices Bióticos (IB) de acordo com os modelos da Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA) e a adaptação do Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). Os resultados evidenciaram um sistema com alta turbidez e conteúdo de fósforo, além de baixa razão N:P, e com poucas alterações sazonais e espaciais nas variáveis medidas. Embora os resultados do IQA e CONAMA tenham classificado a lagoa Caiubá como águas de excelente a boa qualidade, os resultados do IET e dos IB foram opostos classificando a lagoa como sistema alterado e poluído. Conclui-se que esses índices devam ser readequados através de avaliações sistemáticas visando refletir as condições de qualidade de ecossistemas aquáticos em meio rural, na região subtropical do Brasil. Abstract in english The Caiubá lagoon has its surroundings with preserved areas and areas with rice cultivation and livestock. This study describes the pattern of seasonal and spatial variation of physico-chemical and biological variables during the years 2009 and 2010 at nine points, representing part of northern, cen [...] tral and southern regions. Water quality was evaluated by applying the trophic state index (TSI) and the water quality index (WQI), and classes according to CONAMA Resolution 357/2005. Samples of benthic invertebrates were collected and determined the biotic index (BI), following the models of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA-USA), and adaptation of Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP). The results demonstrated a system with high turbidity and phosphorus content, and low N:P ratio, and with little seasonal and spatial changes in the measured variables. Although the results of WQI and the CONAMA have classified the lagoon waters with excellent to good quality, the results of the TSI and the BI were opposites, classifying the ecosystem as amended and polluted system. It is concluded that these indices should be readjusted through systematic evaluations in order to reflect the quality condition of aquatic ecosystems in rural areas in the subtropical region of Brazil.

Raquel W., Cunha; Manoel D. N., Garcia Jr.; Edélti F., Albertoni; Cleber, Palma-Silva.

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Sizing of integrated energy systems in rural areas; Dimensionamento de sistemas integrados de energia em areas rurais  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this work was to develop a new model for sizing integrated energy systems in rural areas, based on simulation techniques and linear programming, producing a system with minimum cost and high reliability level. The used reliability level was the loss of power supply probability (LPSP), for periods of consecutive hours. With the developed model, many simulations are accomplished with the parameters and sizing variables, making possible the analysis of different scenarios for the optimized energy systems. (author)

Nogueira, Carlos Eduardo Camargo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], e-mail: cecn@correios.net.br; Zuern, Hans Helmut [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Eletrica], e-mail: hans@labspot.ufsc.br

2004-07-01

322

Development of a biogas purifier for rural areas in Japan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although the biogas that is currently produced for dairy farms in Japan is a carbon-neutral energy, its use is restricted to farming areas only because there is no effective method of transporting unused biogas. There is a need for establishing practical methods for biogas removal from operating systems. In this study, a gas separation membrane was used in order to modify biogas to city gas 12A specifications, and to develop a biogas purifier equipped with a device to fill high pressure purified gas into cylinders to be taken outside the farming area. The objective was to expand the use of biogas produced from stand-alone gas plants. The amount of purified gas produced at a newly created refining-compression-filling (RCF) facility was approximately 97.0 Nm{sup 3}/day, for a raw material amount of about 216.0 Nm{sup 3}/day. The heat quantity of the purified gas was 38.9 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, which was within city gas 12A specifications. A total of 14.3 cylinders were filled each day with the manufactured purified gas. Test calculations along with a simulation exercise revealed that it would be possible to provide purified gas to approximately 6 per cent of common residences in a town in northern Japan. It was concluded that the newly created RCF facility allowed the modification of carbon-neutral biogas to conform to city gas 12A specifications, and allowed the transport of this gas out of the farming area.

Kimura, Y.; Hinata, T. [Hokkaido Central Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido (Japan); Yasui, S. [Zukosha Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Noguchi, N. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tsukamoto, T. [IHI Shibaura. Co. Ltd., Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Imai, T. [Green Plan Co. Ltd., Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Kanai, M. [Air Water Co. Ltd, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Matsuda, Z. [Hokuren Agricultural Research Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

2010-07-01

323

Oral health status of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the oral health status of children and adults in rural and urban areas of Burkina Faso; to provide epidemiological data for planning and evaluation of oral health care programmes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey including different ethnic and socio-economic groups. SAMPLE AND METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling of households in urban areas and random samples of participants selected based on the recent population census in rural areas. The final study population covered four age groups: 6 years (n = 424), 12 years (n = 505), 18 years (n = 492) and 35-44 years (n = 493). Clinical oral health data collected according to WHO methodology and criteria. RESULTS: At age 6, 38% of children had caries, with prevalence higher in urban than rural areas. At age 12, the mean DMFT was 0.7 with prevalence significantly higher among urban than rural children. Mean DMFT was 1.9 in 18-year-olds and 6.3 in 35-44-year-olds and figures were higher for women than men. In adults, no differences in caries experience were found by location whereas the caries index was significantly affected by ethnic group and occupation. CPI score 2 (gingivitis and calculus) was dominant for all ages: 6 years (58%), 12 years (57%), 18 years (58%), 35-44 years (49%). In addition, 10% of 35-44-year-olds had CPI score 4. Rural participants had more severe periodontal scores than did urban individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of community-based oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes rather than traditional curative care.

Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik

2004-01-01

324

Comparison between atmospheric pollutants from urban and rural areas employing the transplanted Usnea amblyoclada lichen species  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the last decades, lichens have been used as biomonitors in studies related to atmospheric pollution of several elements. The capability of absorbing and accumulating aerial pollutants, their longevity and resistance to environmental stresses have made lichens suitable for studies on air quality evaluation. In this study, a preliminary investigation employing Usnea amblyoclata lichen species and instrumental neutron activation analysis was performed to compare the levels of elements in the air of an urban and rural area. Samples of Usnea amblyoclada (Mull. Arg) collected in a clean area were exposed in a polluted area by vehicular emissions in Sao Paulo city and in a rural area of Caucaia do Alto Municipality, Cotia, SP. After 6 months of exposure the lichens were collected, cleaned, freeze-dried and ground for analyses. Samples and elemental standards were irradiated at the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor and their induced activities were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer. Results indicated that lichens exposed in the polluted urban area presented higher levels of Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, La, Sb, Sc, Se, Th, V and Zn than those from the rural area. Besides that ,concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, La, Mg, Th, Sc and V in lichens exposed in the rural and polluted urban area were higher than those that were not exposed. Quality control of analytical results was achieved by the analyses of certified reference material. Lichen species used in this study proved to be very useful for active monitoring of a polluted urban environment. (author)

Mendes, Fabiana S.; Saiki, Mitiko; Genezini, Frederico A.; Alves, Edson R.; Santos, Jose O., E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br, E-mail: fredzini@ipen.br, E-mail: eralves@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Martins, Marco A.G.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N., E-mail: marcogarciam@usp.br, E-mail: pepino@usp.br [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMUSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2011-07-01

325

Wind Farms in Rural Areas: How Far Do Community Benefits from Wind Farms Represent a Local Economic Development Opportunity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the large-scale deployment of renewable technologies can bring significant, localised economic and environmental changes, there has been remarkably little empirical investigation of the rural development implications. This paper seeks to redress this through an analysis of the economic development opportunities surrounding wind energy…

Munday, Max; Bristow, Gill; Cowell, Richard

2011-01-01

326

Feasibility of developing low-cost measures of demand for public transportation in rural areas. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Appalachian region has many rural areas of limited accessibility. To improve the accessibility of the rural carless (poor, elderly, young, infirm) public transportation has often been suggested. The objective of the research is to develop a low-cost methodology for determining latent demand for public transportation in rural areas, i.e., to develop a data base of key socio-economic, highway network, and geographic variables which can be used to estimate latent demand along possible rural-transit routes. Data were collected on existing rural-transit operations in Planning Region VI of West Virginia (Monongalia, Taylor, Marion, Harrison, Doddridge, and Preston counties) by means of an on-off survey and an on-board questionnaire survey. Using these as indicators of demand, this information will be related to census data for the affected region to determine if a simplified modeling approach to estimate rural public transportation demand is feasible.

Byrne, B.F.; Neumann, E.S.

1976-12-01

327

Time and space in long-term development of agriculture and rural areas – a retrospective approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development processes taking place in agriculture and rural areas have a causal relationship with time and the socio-economic space to which they belong. The subject of this discussion is an attempt to systematize some achievements of science relating to the above mentioned areas through the prism of the theory of location of economic activity in agriculture, welfare economics and neoclassical models of growth and conver-gence, and models of agricultural development worldwide, with an indication of the rela-tionship between the industrial agriculture, space and sustainable development. It is also an attempt to present the relationship: the farming – the rural areas – the environment, in the context of an active agricultural policy and spatial policy.

Marek Wigier

2012-04-01

328

Rural and Urban Areas Planning Orientation in the Flood Plain of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes new development orientation for cities and rural residential areas in the Plain of Reeds, a region in Southern Vietnam that is subject to annual flooding and is grounded in the author’s practical experience and theoretical analysis. Furthermore, this study is based on the plain's features, the history of the foundation of regional urban and residential areas, and the successes and failures of previous planning in the region. Based on data from the Vietnamese government and the IMF, this development orientation is in opposition to the views of many leaders with respect to the development of the cities and rural residential areas of the region. It is hoped that this study will help administrators, planners, and other authorities in Vietnam and other countries.

Nguyen Thanh Nguyen

2013-12-01

329

High maternal mortality estimated by the sisterhood method in a rural area of Mali  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal mortality is high in Mali. Nevertheless, there are few studies on this topic from rural areas, and current estimates are mostly based on studies from urban settings. Our objective was to estimate the maternal mortality ratio in Kita, rural Mali. Methods Using the "sisterhood method", we interviewed participants aged 15-50 years from 20 villages in Kita, Mali, and thereby created a retrospective cohort of their sisters in reproductive age. Based on population and fertility estimates, we calculated the lifetime risk of maternal death, and from that the estimated approximate maternal mortality ratio. Results The 2,039 respondents reported 4,628 sisters who had reached reproductive age. Of these 4,628 sisters, almost a third (1,233; 27% had died, and 429 (9% had died during pregnancy or childbirth. This corresponded to a lifetime risk of maternal death of 20% and a maternal mortality ratio of 3,131 per 100,000 live births (95% confidence interval 2,967-3,296, with a time reference around 1999. Conclusions We found a very high maternal mortality in rural Mali and this highlights the urgent need for obstetric services in the remote rural areas.

Haugsjå Anita H

2011-08-01

330

Assessment of Food Security Situation among Farming Households in Rural Areas of Kano State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Achieving food security is still a major problem for households in most rural areas of Nigeria. This study was therefore designed to assess the food security status among farming households in rural areas of Kano state, Nigeria. The study utilized a multistage random sampling technique to +select a sample of 120 rural farm households for interview. Data collected were analysed using percentages, mean score, logistic regression and food security index. Using the food security index approach, the study revealed that 74% of the respondents were food secure while 26% were food insecure. The results of the logistic regression revealed that educational level (p0.05; z = 1.95, sex (p0.05; z = 1.99, household size (p0.05; -4.29 and access to credit (p0.05; z = 2.4 were significant determinants of food security. Also, the major effect of food insecurity on the households include reduction in household income/ savings due to increased expenditure on food (M= 3.58, among others. The perceived coping strategies in cushioning the effects of food insecurity include engaging in off-farm and non-farm jobs to increase household income, (M= 2.77, among others. The study therefore recommends the fast tracking of already established policy measures aimed at reducing food insecurity in the country. Also, efforts aimed at reducing food insecurity among rural farming households should focus on increasing household income and food supply.

Irohibe Ifeoma

2014-03-01

331

Water Sources and Their Protection from the Impact of Microbial Contamination in Rural Areas of Beijing, China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacterial contamination of drinking water is a major public health problem in rural China. To explore bacterial contamination in rural areas of Beijing and identify possible causes of bacteria in drinking water samples, water samples were collected from wells in ten rural districts of Beijing, China. Total bacterial count, total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water were then determined and water source and wellhead protection were investigated. The bacterial contamination in drink...

Hairong Li; Wuyi Wang; Yonghua Li; Bixiong Ye; Linsheng Yang

2013-01-01

332

Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales / Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios [...] para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8) y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3), mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9) tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4) obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2) de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6) de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños ( Abstract in english Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. [...] We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8) were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3) were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9) were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4) were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2) were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6) were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (

Valle, Coronado Vázquez; David, Odero Sobrado; David, Canalejo González; Jesús, Cidoncha Pérez.

2012-10-01

333

Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales / Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios [...] para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8) y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3), mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9) tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4) obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2) de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6) de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños ( Abstract in english Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. [...] We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8) were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3) were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9) were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4) were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2) were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6) were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (

Valle, Coronado Vázquez; David, Odero Sobrado; David, Canalejo González; Jesús, Cidoncha Pérez.

2012-10-01

334

Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales / Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios [...] para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8) y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3), mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9) tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4) obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2) de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6) de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños ( Abstract in english Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. [...] We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8) were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3) were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9) were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4) were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2) were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6) were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (

Valle, Coronado Vázquez; David, Odero Sobrado; David, Canalejo González; Jesús, Cidoncha Pérez.

335

Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales / Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios [...] para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8) y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3), mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9) tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4) obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2) de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6) de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños ( Abstract in english Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. [...] We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8) were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3) were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9) were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4) were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2) were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6) were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (

Valle, Coronado Vázquez; David, Odero Sobrado; David, Canalejo González; Jesús, Cidoncha Pérez.

336

An aerial radiological survey of the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant and surrounding area. Final report, October 29, 1996 - November 2, 1996  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioactivity surrounding the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant was measured using aerial radiological surveying techniques. The purpose of this survey was to document exposure rates and identify radiation sources within the survey area. The surveyed area included a 25-square-mile (65-square-kilometer) area that encompasses the plant site of which a large portion is located in the Mississippi River Basin. Data were acquired using an airborne detection system that measures gamma radiation. Exposure rates were computed from these data and plotted on a U.S. Geological Survey topographic map of the survey area. Estimated exposure rates in areas surrounding the plant site varied (a) from 6-8 microroentgens per hour (?R/h) in the Mississippi River Basin and (b) below 6 ?R/h over the Mississippi River and portions of its basin that were included in the survey area. Man-made radiation (22-1,600 ?R/h) was found at the plant site; nitrogen-1 6 was the primary source of activity found at the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant. No other detectable sources of man-made radioactivity were found. Estimated exposure rates measured in the area surrounding the site during this survey agreed well with those measured during the 1970 preoperational survey even though the survey methodology and parameters were significantly different

337

Development of Human Resources Through a Vocationally Oriented Educational Program for Disadvantaged Families in Depressed Rural Areas, Degree to which Families are Satisfied with Selected Aspects of Family Life in an Economically Depressed Rural Area. Interim Report No. 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

One aspect of Project REDY (Rural Education-Disadvantaged Youth) was to identify elements of family living which were satisfying to residents of an economically depressed rural area in Southern Illinois. McVoy's Wants and Satisfaction scale was administered to 115 family heads to determine the degree to which certain wishes and interests of…

Fuller, Gerald R.; Phipps, Lloyd J.

338

Prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares de zonas rurales Prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares del entorno rural. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal. Muestra de 1513 escolares de 6, 11 y 14 años de edad. Se recogieron datos de peso y talla con una báscula digital de columna con tallímetro. Se utilizaron tres criterios para definir sobrepeso y obesidad: puntos de Cole, criterios de los Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC y tablas de Hernández. Resultados: Usando los puntos de Cole la prevalencia del sobrepeso fue del 24,6% (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 22,5-26,8 y la de la obesidad fue del 11,6% (IC95%: 10-13,3, mayor en los niños de 11 y 6 años de edad, respectivamente. Según los criterios CDC, el 19,8% (IC95%: 17,9-21,9 tenía sobrepeso y el 16,5% (IC95%: 14,7-18,4 obesidad, correspondiendo los porcentajes mayores a los 14 y 6 años de edad. Empleando las tablas de Hernández se encontró un 11,5% (IC95%: 10-13,2 de sobrepeso y un 18,6% (IC95%: 16,7-20,6 de obesidad, ambos más altos a los 11 años de edad. El riesgo de presentar obesidad y sobrepeso es mayor en los municipios pequeños (Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 1,513 schoolchildren aged 6, 11 and 14 years. Data were collected on height and weight with digital scales equipped with a measuring rod. We used three criteria to define overweight and obesity: Cole's points, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and Hernandez's tables. Results: When Cole's points were used, 24.6% (95%CI: 22.5 - 26.8 were overweight and 11.6% (95%CI: 10-13.3 were obese; these percentages were higher in children aged 11 and 6 years, respectively. According CDC growth charts, 19.8% of children (95%CI: 17.9-21.9 were overweight and 16.5% (95%CI: 14.7-18.4 were obese, corresponding to higher percentages at 14 and 6 years. When Hernandez's tables were used, 11.5% (95%CI: 10-13.2 were overweight and 18.6% (95%CI: 16.7-20.6 were obese, and both disorders were higher in children aged 11 years. The risk of obesity and overweight was higher in small rural areas (<5,000 people, with OR = 1.49 (95%CI: 1.13-1.95 and OR = 1.33 (95%CI: 1.06-1.67, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in schoolchildren in rural areas is very high and is even higher in towns with less than 5,000 inhabitants.

Valle Coronado Vázquez

2012-10-01

339

Feasibility of water purification technology in rural areas of developing countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water scarcity is threatening social and economic growth in rural areas of developing countries. There are potential markets for water purification technologies in these regions. The main focus of this article is to evaluate the social, economic and political feasibilities of providing water purification technologies to rural areas of developing countries. The findings of this research can serve as the basis for private investors interested in entering this market. Four representative regions were selected for the study. Economic, demographic, and environmental variables of each region were collected and analyzed along with domestic markets and political information. Rural areas of the developing world are populated with poor people unable to fulfill the basic needs for clean water and sanitation. These people represent an important group of potential users. Due to economic, social, and political risks in these areas, it is difficult to build a strong case for any business or organization focusing on immediate returns on capital investment. A plausible business strategy would be to approach the water purification market as a corporate responsibility and social investing in the short term. This would allow an organization to be well positioned once the economic ability of individuals, governments, and donor agencies are better aligned. PMID:17459569

Johnson, Dana M; Hokanson, David R; Zhang, Qiong; Czupinski, Kevin D; Tang, Jinxian

2008-08-01

340

Local mobilisation against windfarm developments in Spanish rural areas. New actors in the regulation arena  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The region of Valencia has a marked territorial duality: an urbanised, populated and high-income coastal line, and mountain and depressed inland rural areas. This territorial duality also derives in a functional duality, so that market and regulation drivers seem to assign rural areas specific roles for the provision of raw materials, energy, water, and the like. One of the clearest examples can be found in the design and development of the Wing Energy Plan passed by the Regional Government in 2001, which designated areas for the installation of windmills. However, this regulation has resulted in an outstanding emergence of associations that have organised at several levels (from the local to the national) as a strong opposition movement to the local developments of the Plan. With this background, the objective of this paper is to analyze, from a set of case studies, the processes of emergence and the evolution of collective actors (associations) which have been arising in many rural areas as a response to the local applications of the Wind Energy Plan. Attention will be paid to understand the tactics used, the process of adaptation to the participation mechanisms, and the role played by local and non-local networks. (author)

 
 
 
 
341

Chapter D. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems in the Willamette River Basin and Surrounding Area, Oregon and Washington  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 watersheds along a gradient of urbanization in the Willamette River basin and surrounding area, Oregon and Washington, from 2003 through 2005. The study that generated the report is one of several urban-effects studies completed nationally by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural variability caused by factors such as geology, elevation, and climate, and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among watersheds. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, a combination of land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated into a multimetric urban intensity index (UII) to represent the degree of urban development in each watershed. Physical characteristics studied include stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied include sulfate, chloride, nutrients, pesticides, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, and suspended sediment; and biological characteristics studied include algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages. Semipermeable membrane devices, passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization and (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities. Common effects documented in the literature of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased contaminants, increased streamflow flashiness, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in aquatic community structure toward a more tolerant community associated with organically enriched conditions, generally were observed in this study. The strongest correlations to the UII and to many of the algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage metrics and community ordination involved water-chemistry metrics including the total pesticide concentration, toxic equivalents (extract assay from semipermeable membrane devices), and dissolved oxygen. Hydrologic variability metrics, such as flashiness, that normally are considered to be one of the main processes of urban disturbance had a strong association to the algal and fish assemblages in this study; however, the hydrologic variables for macroinvertebrates were secondary to the water-chemistry metrics mentioned above. Generally, the high urban intensity sites had high abundances of eutrophic and lower dissolved oxygen-indicating diatoms, high abundances of noninsects and tolerant insects, and high abundances of nonnative fish species. On the other hand, the low urban intensity sites had higher abundances of pollution sensitive diatoms, larger numbers of the sensitive macroinvertebrate EPT taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera Orders), and fish assemblages with higher abundances of sensitive salmonids. The percent salmonid and macroinvertebrate EPT richness metrics plotted against the UII indicated a possible threshold response at about 25 on the UII, which is equivalent to an impervious surface value of about 5 percent. However, due to the added agricultural land use at sites within the 25 to 60 UII range, this possible threshold probably is not solely due to urbanization, but a combination of urban and agricultural land use. The effects of agricultural and urban land use could not be distinguished from each other, yet combined they provide a good assessment of overall watershed disturbance.

Waite, Ian R.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Johnson, Henry M.; Hughes, Curt A.; Sarantou, Michael J.; Rinella, Frank A.

2008-01-01

342

Limits of the applicability of the social structural model in Czech rural areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the voting behaviour of citizens in rural areas of the Czech Republic. Within thetheoretical embodiment of the relationships between the individual in a social structure and voting behaviour, aso-called social-structural model for voting behaviour is often mentioned. However, when explaining thebehaviour of the voting behaviour of citizens living under the conditions of the Czech Republic the applicabilityof this model is of course disputable. Due to the predominant inconsistencies of the social status of citizens ofrural areas, it is not at all possible to determine the hypothesis of the applicability of a social-structural model ofvoting behaviour for citizens living in the conditions of the Czech rural countryside. The aim of this article is,through a case study of Zatec region, to prove the predominant (inconsistency of the social status of the givenpopulation.

R. Kopriva

2010-12-01

343

Digital Gap in Iranian Rural Areas (Case Study at Sistan and Baluchestan-Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we have tried to evaluate four levels of accessibility (motivational level, physical level, professionallevel, and applied level related to digital gap in rural areas at Sistan and Baluchestan in Iran. First of all weexpressed the concept of digital gap and its measurement yardsticks, and then we have introduced a model forcontinuous accessibility in digital gap and we explained all four levels in details. After that we came up withresearch model hypothesizes and the results of the statistical hypothesizes. Our findings show that rural areas inSistan and Baluchestan in term of motivational level are in good and suitable situation but in term of other levelsthey don’t have a suitable situation.

Noor Mohammad Yaghoobi

2010-05-01

344

Educação em meio rural e desenvolvimento local / ÉDUCATION DANS LE MONDE RURAL ET DÉVELOPPEMENT LOCAL / EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS AND LOCAL DEVELOPMENT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo problematiza-se e analisa-se um processo de territorialização sócio-educativa em contexto rural. Corresponde a um desafio - assim o entendemos - para que sobre ele reflectíssemos, tendo como eixo estruturante a problemática da exclusão social ou a do desenvolvimento local. Optámos por n [...] os situar neste último campo de análise, por razões tanto de natureza teórica como política que, numa primeira parte do artigo, explicitamos e discutimos. De uma investigação que realizámos, ao longo de vários anos, invocamos contributos que pretendem discutir e elucidar como pode a escola ser uma instância promissora de desenvolvimento local. A sua identificação e reconhecimento como instituição local, quer pelos que trabalham e vivem no seu interior, quer pelos que actuam no contexto envolvente, são passos decisivos para instituir a escola, progressivamente, em parceiro do desenvolvimento. A promoção dos valores locais e das raízes, a reconstrução de identidades sócio-pessoais e locais, a produção de sociabilidades e o equacionamento e solução de problemas comuns, foram vertentes de uma intervenção socioeducativa, assumidamente globalizante. Este quadro, como se argumenta, foi também, intencionalmente, o de transformação e de mudança deliberada da escola e da administração dos territórios educativos. Abstract in english The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last [...] field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context) are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

Abílio, Amiguinho.

345

The Part Played by Popular Education in Local Development Processes in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sweden  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of a three-year study of the role of popular education in local development processes in Sweden (2006-2008), this paper sets out to outline the role of popular education as a development actor in rural and urban contexts. Two different scenarios and approaches are discussed. One is the role of popular education in rural areas, which…

Eriksson, Lisbeth; Forsberg, Anette

2010-01-01

346

Management of water resources in the Cantareira Water Producer System area: a look at the rural context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The National Water Resources Policy established the principles of participation, integration and decentralization, as well as new instruments for the management of water resources in Brazil. The implementation of this policy created several challenges, such as establishing effective management within the framework of rural territorial structure. The example of the Cantareira’s System in Piracicaba river watershed is conducive to the understanding of this challenge. In this scenario, we analyzed the effective implementation of principles, and of two instruments of water resource management from the perspective of farmers’ participation: the integration of water management and rural land use, and public policies for rural areas. To accomplish this, we reviewed documents and literature, and considered conclusions drawn from meetings at the Technical Chamber of Use and Water Conservation in Rural Areas (CT-Rural. We identified a lack of participation by farmers’ representatives in the CT-Rural Chamber and little concern to increase their participation in the management practices. However, the support payments for environmental services projects (PES are stimulating farmers and calling attention to the Cantareira area, in addition to promoting the integration of water resource management and rural land use. However, even though this support acknowledges the importance of the farmers, we emphasize the low priority given by the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí Watershed Committee to the rural context of the area studied.

Rafael Eduardo Chiodi

2013-12-01

347

Adaptation of the dynamic model for radiological assessment of nuclear accident in rural area under conditions of tropical climate; Adaptacao do modelo dinamico para avaliacao radiologica de acidente nuclear em area rural nas condicoes de clima tropical  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following an accidental release of radionuclides to the atmosphere that leads to the contamination of large areas, a detailed and fast methodology to assess the prognosis of public exposure is needed, in order to estimate radiological consequences and propose and optimize decisions related to the protection of the public. The model ECOSYS has been chosen to integrate the SIEM, the Integrated Emergency System developed by IRD/CNEN, to assess the doses at the short, medium and long term to the public after an accidental contamination of rural areas. The objective of this work is to perform the adaptation of the model ECOSYS to be used in Brazil to assess public exposure and support decision processes regarding the implementation of protective measures but also to guide the need for studies and research aiming to improve the adequacy of estimates to the actual Brazilian situation. The area select for reference to this work consists on the 50 km radius area surrounding the Brazilian nuclear power plants, located at Angra dos Reis County, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The methodology included the definition of criteria to select agricultural cultures and animals to be simulated, taking into account both the availability of the production at the selected area and the relevance of the food to the population regional diet. Radionuclides included in this study were {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90} Sr and {sup 131} I. A large survey has been performed to gather data related to both agricultural practices and behavior of radionuclides in the selected agricultural-systems. The results of simulation indicated the relevance of the knowledge of local aspects on the estimated doses. Important factors included the kind of products produced, seasonality, agricultural practices, animals feed practices, kind of soil, and ingestion habits of the population. (author)

Vinhas, Denise Martins

2004-07-01

348

Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in [...] children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The activated alumina and reverse osmosis processes are both processes that can be very effectively applied for water defluoridation. The activated alumina process, however, is considered to be a more simple and robust process for water defluoridation, especially in a rural area. Therefore, the activated alumina process was selected for water defluoridation. An activated alumina plant was designed, constructed and commissioned in the rural area. Fluoride in the feed water is removed from 6 to 8 mg/? to less than 1.5 mg/?. No reduction in plant output was experienced over 6 service cycles. Therefore, it appears that fouling of the activated alumina should not be a problem. Plant output varied between 940 and 1 296 m³ to a fluoride breakthrough of approximately 2.0 mg/?. No significant operational problems were experienced during commissioning and the plant is performing satisfactorily. Spent regenerant is disposed of into evaporation ponds. It was demonstrated that a 1st world technology could be effectively applied in a rural area with proper training and supervision of the operators. The capital and operational costs of the 200 m³/d defluoridation plant are estimated at approximately R1.2m. and R0.7/m³ treated water.

JJ, Schoeman.

349

A model for community health service development in depressed rural areas in China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To introduce a model of community health service organization (as implemented in urban areas to less developed rural areas in China and evaluate the impact of this model on health care utilization. Methods The intervention involved developing leadership at county level, training rural health practitioners, providing clinical management guidelines and standards, encouraging clinic improvements and providing access to subsidies for public health work. We chose 7 townships and 49 administrative villages in Chongyi County as the intervention sites; 3 townships and 9 administrative villages in Luxi County as the comparison sites. Officers from county health bureaus and postgraduates from School of Public Health, Nanchang University visited each township hospital and village clinic in field together and made observations and interviewed clinic staff. Results There was little change in health facilities or workforce in the two areas. However, there was an increase in the use of public health services at township and village level in the intervention sites in Chongyi. In these, the proportion of clinics which had developed a child health (under the age of 3 management system, maternal postpartum visit and chronic disease management increased from 53%, 51% and 47% to 78%, 73%, and 71% respectively. There was no significant change in the comparison sites. Conclusions The trial demonstrated that it was feasible to implement a model of community health service delivery that was adapted to depressed rural areas because it required little organizational change, additional funding or personnel. The model had a positive impact on the provision of public health programs, a finding which has implications for efforts to improve access to primary health care in rural China.

Zhaokang Yuan

2012-12-01

350

Female carpet weavers' visual acuity and effective factors: Fordu rural area of Qom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Healthy vision of workers is one of the important elements in carpet weaving industry which has essential role in improving of the job quality and efficiency. Visual acuity is the primary outcome measure in most studies involving eye diseases. Ihe aim of this study was determination of visual acuity and its effective factors in women carpet weaver in fordu rural area of Qom has been investigated.  Methods: In a cross-sectional (descriptive-analytical) study visual acuity ...

Khajenasiri F.; Sotoudeh G.

2007-01-01

351

A Study Of Infant Feeding Practices And The Underlying Factors In A Rural Area Of Delhi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research questions: 1. What are the infant feeding practices in a rural area? 2. What are the reasons underlying the harmful infant feeding practices? Objectives: 1. To study feeding practices among infants. 2. To find out the factors underlying various harmful practices. 3. To find out the sources of information/advice for the prevailing practices. 4. To determine Whether the Practice of giving diluted animal milk to infants is associated with type of family, caste or educational status of m...

Taneja D. K; Saha Renuka; Dabas Pratibha; Gautam V. P; Tripathy Y; Mehra M

2003-01-01

352

Performance of a water defluoridation plant in a rural area in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The fluoride concentration of a borehole water supply in a rural area (Madibeng Local Municipality, North West Province, South Africa) varies between 5 and 6 mg/?. This water is therefore not suitable for potable purposes because the high fluoride concentration may cause mottling of tooth enamel in [...] children and fluorosis in adults. Therefore, the fluoride concentration should be reduced to less than 1.5 mg/? to make the water suitable for potable purposes. The activated alumina and reverse osmosis processes are both processes that can be very effectively applied for water defluoridation. The activated alumina process, however, is considered to be a more simple and robust process for water defluoridation, especially in a rural area. Therefore, the activated alumina process was selected for water defluoridation. An activated alumina plant was designed, constructed and commissioned in the rural area. Fluoride in the feed water is removed from 6 to 8 mg/? to less than 1.5 mg/?. No reduction in plant output was experienced over 6 service cycles. Therefore, it appears that fouling of the activated alumina should not be a problem. Plant output varied between 940 and 1 296 m³ to a fluoride breakthrough of approximately 2.0 mg/?. No significant operational problems were experienced during commissioning and the plant is performing satisfactorily. Spent regenerant is disposed of into evaporation ponds. It was demonstrated that a 1st world technology could be effectively applied in a rural area with proper training and supervision of the operators. The capital and operational costs of the 200 m³/d defluoridation plant are estimated at approximately R1.2m. and R0.7/m³ treated water.

JJ, Schoeman.

2009-01-01

353

Potential for electrical power generation using forest wood biomass in rural areas of Catalonia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biomass is a renewable energy source that has been used for many years. However, its usage as an electricity source in Spain is not well developed due to many causes, among which highlights the lack of knowledge about the available technical potential. This research sought to close this gap assessing the technical potential for electricity generation using forest wood biomass in rural areas of Catalonia. The study characterizes the amount and type of biomass available in Catalonian forests th...

Gonzalez Junca, Arnau

2013-01-01

354

Religious communities, immigration, and social cohesion in rural areas: Evidence from England  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Religious communities are important sources of bridging and bonding social capital that have varying implications for perceptions of social cohesion in rural areas. In particular, as well as cultivating cohesiveness more broadly, the bridging social capital associated within mainline religious communities may represent an especially important source of support for the social integration of new immigrant groups. Although the bonding social capital associated with evangelical communities is arg...

Andrews, R.

2011-01-01

355

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL AREA IN ROMANIA XXI  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper intends to design a strategy for the sustainable development of the Romanian agriculture and rural area, to identify the main modalities to reach the strategic objectives for the years 2013, 2020 and 2030. Romania needs a multifunctional and competitive agriculture, which is also complementary to the agriculture of the other European Union countries. Main decisions have to be taken with regard to the support to the different agricultural systems under competition, among whic...

Otiman, P. I.

2008-01-01

356

Research on Utilization of Online Resources Among Kindergarten Teachers in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available After the entry into the online era, the Internet has grown up to be an indispensable part of people’s life and work. This research, through questionnaires and interviews, studies the employment of online resources among kindergarten teachers in rural areas from 12 districts and counties in Chongqing, China. Based on the results of the survey, suggestions will be proposed to improve online resources utilization among countryside kindergarten teachers.

Xiaoguang YU

2014-08-01

357

High prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in a rural area in Mozambique.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To assess the extent of the sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) problem in a rural area of Mozambique. METHODS--A cross sectional study among pregnant women and patients presenting with genital complaints. Laboratory confirmation was done for gonorrhoea, chlamydial infection, active syphilis, trichomoniasis and HIV infection. SETTING--A primary health care setting in Vilanculos, Inhambane province, Mozambique. RESULTS--Evidence of one or more of the above STDs was found in 51% of ...

Vuylsteke, B.; Bastos, R.; Barreto, J.; Crucitti, T.; Folgosa, E.; Mondlane, J.; Dusauchoit, T.; Piot, P.; Laga, M.

1993-01-01

358

LOCAL ACTION GROUPS - THE EUROPEAN INTEGRATION CATALYST FOR THE ROMANIAN RURAL AREA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Romania has the highest share of European Union rural areas (44.9% in 2009), which generates and maintains a long series of regional disparities. Because of these disparities, the economy faces a number of elements that undermine the quality of human and social capital and reduces the potential for growth: precarious social and economic infrastructure, reduced access to markets and thus to goods, a low level of both economic cohesion and living standards, and a difficult access to education a...

Mosora Liviu - Cosmin; Ailenei Dorel

2011-01-01

359

Energy requirements and physical activity level of active elderly people in rural areas of Cuba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

nergy intake or by the factorial method using the physical activity questionnaires generated values, which were 11% and 30% lower than the values obtained by the DLW method. The value of 1.51xBMR for the estimation of the energy requirements of elderly subjects living in rural areas and submitted to higher levels of physical activity seems to be sub estimated. (author)

360

Habitat preferences of bats in a rural area of Sicily determined by acoustic surveys  

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Abstract The bat fauna of a 60 km2 wide area representing the typical rural landscape of inland Sicily and including the small “Rocche di Entella” karstic plateau (Natural Reserve and SAC) was surveyed between May 2006 and September 2007. Sampling was carried out at 95 sites, distributed proportionally in six main habitats. Bat calls were time-expanded with a D980 bat detector and then identified to species level by a Dis...

Ivy Di Salvo; Danilo Russo; Maurizio Sarà

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Changes over time in remnant rural vegetation within built-up areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation focuses on changes over time within patches of remnant rural vegetation after their inclusion in built-up settings. The dissertation is a compilation of four papers preceded by a summary part. The basis for the study is a unique data set collected over a 30 year period at Järvafältet, in the north western part of the city of Stockholm. Empirical contributions are made in three principal areas: recreational use of remnant vegetation, dynamics of remnant vegetation and conse...

Forsberg, Oskar

2010-01-01

362

Spatial analysis methods and land-use planning models for rural areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The work presents a brief report of the main results of a study carried out by the Spatial Engineering Division of the Department of Agricultural Economics and Engineering of the University of Bologna, within a broader PRIN 2005 research project concerning landscape and economic analysis, planning and programming. In particular, the study focuses on the design of spatial analysis methods aimed at building knowledge frameworks of the various natural and anthropic resources of rural areas. The ...

Patrizia Tassinari; Daniele Torreggiani; Stefano Benni; Elisabetta Carfagna; Giovanni Pollicino; Zuzanna Ludwiczak

2011-01-01

363

Prehypertension and hypertension among young Indonesian adults at a primary health care in a rural area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Prehypertension and hypertension were related with many complications of nearly every organ, but often neglected by young adults in rural area. This research was done to observe the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among young adult in a primary health care of rural area at Cicurug, Sukabumi District, West Java.Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in Cicurug Public Health Center, Sukabumi District, West Java. The subjects were consecutively recruited from the outpatient clinic on Monday until Saturday in September 2012,18–25 years old, not pregnant nor having shock. They were interviewed about their age, gender, physical activity, sitting hours, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and family history and examined by trained health professionals (weight, height, body mass index [BMI], systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Results: From 111 young adults, 34.2% had prehypertension and 17.1% had hypertension. Within sex groups, the prevalence of prehypertension was higher in females, whereas hypertension was occurred more in males. Neither of family history from mother nor father were associated with prehypertension and hypertension compared with normotension. Total activity was not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.6; p = 0.052 and hypertension (OR = 1.758; p = 0.498. BMI was associated with hypertension (OR = 3.354; p = 0.041 and not associated with prehypertension (OR = 2.343; p = 0.099.Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were relatively high among young adult in primary health care of rural area. Intervention to prevent further complications needs to be done early with lifestyle modification because blood pressure is associated with modifiable risk factors, such as BMI and total activity. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:39-45Keywords: Hypertension, prehypertension, rural area, young adult

Felix F. Widjaja

2013-02-01

364

Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension in Rural Areas of Davanagere  

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Objective: To study the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the rural areas of Davanagere. Type of Study: Cross-sectional community-based study. Setting: Villages belonging to six sectors of the Davanagere Taluk. Materials and Methods: General population above 18 years. Methodology: A community-based sample was chosen by a multistage sampling technique. Subjects were screened for hypertension by a house-to-house survey. Subjects ...

Yuvaraj B; Nagendra Gowda M; Umakantha A

2010-01-01

365

Applications of biomass Stirling engines for electrification -A case study of rural areas in Bolivia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report provides a study and a simulation of a feasible system configuration for the implementation of a Stirling engine for electrification of rural areas in Bolivia. The aim of the review is to determine if a hybrid system combining a biomass-fired Stirling engine and photovoltaic technology may respond to a basic electricity need. An introductory literature study about the Stirling engine technology and the energy resources and characteristics of Bolivia leads to a further proposal of ...

Arco Sola, Javier; Nelson, Oscar

2014-01-01

366

Prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children in a rural area of Tanzania  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS—The study measured the prevalence of eye diseases in primary school children between 7 and 19 years of age in a rural area of Tanzania, and investigated whether teachers could successfully provide the first component of a school eye screening service.?METHODS—Teachers from each of three primary schools in Mwanza Region tested visual acuity using a Snellen's E chart in 1438 pupils. 1386 of these pupils were then interviewed and underwent a full eye examination by an eye team.?...

Wedner, S.; Ross, D.; Balira, R.; Kaji, L.; Foster, A.

2000-01-01

367

Feasibility of LTE 700 MHz Digital Dividend for Broadband Development Acceleration in Rural Areas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The need of broadband services to reduce digital divide in rural areas had increased in the recent years. The government of the Republic Indonesia shared similar intention and had set guidance of ICT development in its "economic master plan" and "medium term development plan". This paper addressed feasibility and suitability of its implementation in Indonesia, by conducting assessment of possible solutions. Using mixed method, the study was started with qualitative approach to identify possib...

Denny Setiawan; Djamhari Sirat; Dadang Gunawan

2012-01-01

368

The Emerging Consumer Culture in Bangladesh: Everyday Life and Festivals in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is a poor and low-income country. Bangladesh?s main challenge is to reduce poverty through increasing equitable income. Although Bangladesh has faced many problems since its independence in 1971, its gross domestic product has been growing steadily and the country has achieved much success in social indicators. This article explores the culture of consumption in rural Bangladesh and answers the following question: How is Bangladeshi culture associated with consumption. Approach: This study employed a triangulation of methods: namely semi-structured indepth qualitative interviews, ethnography and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs. Results: This study highlighted consumption and other related issues of marriage and dowry, household decision making, division of labor, as well as different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims, the Bengali New Year and Durga puja (for Hindus. Early marriage and dowry are still practiced in rural areas. Women in rural Bangladesh perform most of the household work but men, as in any other patriarchal society, make the major decisions. Conclusion: The government and NGOs should engage in various activities to boost awareness among the rural people.

Md. M. Hossain

2010-01-01

369

The tradeoff between centralized and decentralized health services: evidence from rural areas in Mexico.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effectiveness of centralized and decentralized health care providers in rural Mexico. It compares provider performance since both centralized and decentralized providers co-exist in rural areas of the country. The data are drawn from the 2003 household survey of Oportunidades, a comprehensive study of rural families from seven states in Mexico. The analyses compare out-of-pocket health care expenditures and utilization of preventive care among rural households with access to either centralized or decentralized health care providers. This study benefits from differences in timing of health care decentralization and from a quasi-random distribution of providers. Results show that overall centralized providers perform better. Households served by this organization report less regressive out-of-pocket health care expenditures (32% lower), and observe higher utilization of preventive services (3.6% more). Decentralized providers that were devolved to state governments in the early 1980s observe a slightly better performance than providers that were decentralized in the mid-1990s. These findings are robust to decentralization timing, heterogeneity in per capita government health expenditures, state and health infrastructure effects, and other confounders. PMID:20579793

Vargas Bustamante, Arturo

2010-09-01

370

Evaluation of the composition of terrestrial invertebrates in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul, Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The terrestrial invertebrates participate actively in the formation of the soil, and can be utilized as bioindicators of environmental disturbance. Thus, the objective of this research was to evaluate the fauna composition of terrestrial invertebrates, in a rural area of Campina Grande do Sul. The collection was carried out in a single fragment of Araucaria Forest, with structurally differentiated two-point samplings, through pitfall traps. A total of 1,776 invertebrates was captured, pertaining to Arthropoda, Annelida, Mollusca and Plathyhelminthes phyla, of which Arthropoda and Hexapoda were the most representative groups. In Hexapoda, eleven orders were registered, and of those, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola and Diptera were the most abundant. Although the studied fragment had been under recuperation for about 10 years after approximately 40 years of antropic interference, and was therefore surrounded by areas utilized for farming, agriculture and highways, it contained different groups of terrestrial invertebrates on wide-ranging thropic levels, which were important for the spatial structure and the composition of litterfall of the fragment.

Marta Luciane Fischer

2008-03-01

371

Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility.

372

Multi-objective assessment of rural electrification in remote areas with poverty considerations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rural electrification with renewable energy technologies (RETs) offers several benefits to remote areas where diesel generation is unsuitable due to fuel supply constraints. Such benefits include environmental and social aspects, which are linked to energy access and poverty reduction in less-favored areas of developing countries. In this case, multi-objective methods are suitable tools for planning in rural areas. In this study, assessment of rural electrification with renewable energy systems is conducted by means of goal programming towards fuel substitution. The approach showed that, in the Non-Interconnected Zones of Colombia, substitution of traditional biomass with an electrification scheme using renewable energy sources provides significant environmental benefits, measured as land use and avoided emissions, as well as higher employment generation rates than diesel generation schemes. Nevertheless, fuel substitution is constrained by the elevated cost of electricity compared to traditional biomass, which raises households' energy expenditures between twofold to five times higher values. The present approach, yet wide in scope, is still limited for quantifying the impact of energy access improvements on poverty reduction, as well as for the assessment of energy system's technical feasibility. (author)

Silva, Diego; Nakata, Toshihiko [Department of Management Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba-yama 6-6-11-815, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2009-08-15

373

The Role of Extension in Adopting Solar Energy in Rural Areas Case of Carbon Sequestration Project  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: Solar energy as a renewable energy source is considered as an important alternative options for farmers. The development of renewable energy in rural areas faces several challenges. Agricultural extension by its nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations. Approach: The main focus of this study is to find out the role of extension in adopting solar energy in rural areas by participants in carbon sequestration project. A questionnaire was developed and data was collected from 310 participants in carbon sequestration project. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The stepwise method was used in the regression analysis. Results: The result indicates that 30% of the variance in the perception of respondents about role of extension in adopting solar energy could be explained by using educational films and slides, contacting with extension agents, visiting sample sites and providing lectures. Conclusion and Recommendations: The results demonstrated that success of solar energy will depend on the informing population about benefits and in this regard the authorities should provide accurate and on time information. There is no single and appropriate intervention for developing and protecting solar energy in rural areas and in view of the numerous and varied constraints and opportunities, there is need to develop location- specific strategies.

Seyed J.F. Hosseini

2011-01-01

374

Factors Related to Increasing Trends in Cigarette Smoking of Adolescent Males in Rural Areas of Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescent males in rural areas of Korea has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking among adolescent males living in rural areas. Methods The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting cigarette smoking. We evaluated the linear time trends in the prevalence of factors that were related to current smoking status and the linear time trends in cigarette smoking in groups stratified by the exposure to each factor using logistic regression models. Finally, we examined the contributions of the factors to the time trends in cigarette smoking by adjusting for each of those factors in the baseline regression models and changes in the adjusted odds ratio by survey year. Results A statistically significant increasing trend in smoking was observed after adjusting for the factors affecting cigarette smoking. Significant factors related to cigarette use were perceived stress, experience with depression, current alcohol drinking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and academic performance. The factor related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking was academic performance. Conclusions Stress about academic performance is an important factor affecting the increase in cigarette smoking among adolescent males in a rural area of Korea. PMID:23766872

Hong, Nam Soo; Kim, Keon Yeop

2013-01-01

375

The Implementation of Preventive Vaccination of Dogs and Cats against Rabies in Rural Areas  

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Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal viral infection that has no specific treatment. For that reason prevention, especially vaccinations against rabies, is the matter of the utmost importance. The study involved 176 dog owners (possessing 257 dogs and 86 cat owners (possessing 182 cats from rural areas in Lublin province. The special original inquiry questionnaire was applied. Results: Preventive vaccination of dogs against rabies is properly realized by only 64.8 ± 7 % dog owners (below the level recommended by WHO and by only 19.8 ± 9.1 % of cat owners - inhabitants of rural areas in Lublin Province. 16.5 % of respondents confessed that they have never vaccinated their dogs against rabies. 48.3 ± 7.4 % of dog owners as well as 65.1 ± 10.1 % of cat owners don't have any veterinary health certificates for their animals. Conclusions: The standards of veterinary care as well as effectiveness of dogs and cats vaccinations against rabies in rural areas in Poland need to be improved.

Witold Kollataj

2012-01-01

376

Present Situation, Problems and Measures of Grass-roots Level Democracy in Rural Areas of Hangzhou  

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Full Text Available Since, the reform and opening up, countryside in Hangzhou, like the whole country, has carried on the economic system reform, mainly called the household contract responsibility system, has been carried out, farmers have become the relatively independent main body of the production and management. With the development of economy, the increase in people’s living standards and the acceleration of the information exchange, farmers can not only be concerned about their material interests, but also pay close attention to their democratic rights and their requirements to participate in decision-making, management and monitoring the grass-roots affairs are increasingly strong. In recent years, townships of Hangzhou district explored the effective way to promote the villager’s autonomy-through the democratic election, decision-making, management and supervision to realize the villager’s self-management, self-education and self-service. At last, they achieved remarkable results and various contradictions of rural areas in transformation period have been digested. Based on deep investigation in the towns of Hangzhou, the exploration and practice of grass-roots level democracy in rural areas of Hangzhou are summarized, the weak village economy, insufficient internal driving force in democracy, elections and unpublicized village affairs are targeted at and the corresponding measures are put forward from five aspects so as to promote the healthy development of grassroots democracy in rural areas of Hangzhou.

Zhong Xuemin

2013-01-01

377

THE IMPORTANCE OF IMPLEMENTING THE ICT NETWORK IN ACHIEVING KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER IN THE RURAL AREAS  

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Full Text Available Currently in Romania, the information sources available to farmers are limited and belong mostly to the public sector. The knowledge provided is relevant but insufficient in order to meet the needs of the