WorldWideScience

Sample records for surface transfer coefficients

  1. Modeling Local Hygrothermal Interaction: Local surface transfer coefficients

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in building components assume uniform boundary conditions, both for the temperature and relative humidity of the air in an indoor space as well as for the heat and moisture surface transfer coefficients. In order to obtain a reliable...... prediction of the HAM conditions in a building component, an accurate description of the indoor boundary conditions is required. This paper presents the modelling of the local indoor environmental conditions, using a (sub)zonal airflow model, focussing on the prediction of the local interior surface heat and...... moisture transfer coefficients. The research showed that the developed model gives good agreement with the local convective surface transfer coefficients predicted from CFD. The main advantage of the presented (sub)zonal airflow model is that the computational effort is relatively small, while the...

  2. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showed that the magnitude of the convective surface transfer coefficients have a relatively large...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  3. Effect of the heating surface enhancement on the heat transfer coefficient for a vertical minichannel

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to estimate effect of the heating surface enhancement on FC-72 flow boiling heat transfer for a vertical minichannel 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. Two types of enhanced heating surfaces were used: one with minicavities distributed unevenly, and the other with capillary metal fibrous structure. It was to measure temperature field on the plain side of the heating surface by means of the infrared thermography and to observe the two-phase flow patterns on the enhanced foil side. The paper analyses mainly the impact of the microstructured heating surface on the heat transfer coefficient. The results are presented as heat transfer coefficient dependences on the distance along the minichannel length. The data obtained using two types of enhanced heating surfaces in experiments was compared with the data when smooth foil as the heating surface was used. The highest local values of heat transfer coefficient were obtained using enhanced foil with minicavities - in comparison to other cases. Local values of heat transfer coefficient received for capillary fibrous structure were the lowest, even compared with data obtained for smooth foil. Probably this porous structure caused local flow disturbances.

  4. CFD simulation of simultaneous monotonic cooling and surface heat transfer coefficient

    Mihálka, Peter; Matiašovský, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The monotonic heating regime method for determination of thermal diffusivity is based on the analysis of an unsteady-state (stabilised) thermal process characterised by an independence of the space-time temperature distribution on initial conditions. At the first kind of the monotonic regime a sample of simple geometry is heated / cooled at constant ambient temperature. The determination of thermal diffusivity requires the determination rate of a temperature change and simultaneous determination of the first eigenvalue. According to a characteristic equation the first eigenvalue is a function of the Biot number defined by a surface heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity of an analysed material. Knowing the surface heat transfer coefficient and the first eigenvalue the thermal conductivity can be determined. The surface heat transport coefficient during the monotonic regime can be determined by the continuous measurement of long-wave radiation heat flow and the photoelectric measurement of the air refractive index gradient in a boundary layer. CFD simulation of the cooling process was carried out to analyse local convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients more in detail. Influence of ambient air flow was analysed. The obtained eigenvalues and corresponding surface heat transfer coefficient values enable to determine thermal conductivity of the analysed specimen together with its thermal diffusivity during a monotonic heating regime.

  5. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected. PMID:19019110

  6. Critical thickness of an optimum extended surface characterized by uniform heat transfer coefficient

    Leontiou, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    We consider the heat transfer problem associated with a periodic array of extended surfaces (fins) subjected to convection heat transfer with a uniform heat transfer coefficient. Our analysis differs from the classical approach as (i) we consider two-dimensional heat conduction and (ii) the base of the fin is included in the heat transfer process. The problem is modeled as an arbitrary two-dimensional channel whose upper surface is flat and isothermal, while the lower surface has a periodic array of extensions/fins which are subjected to heat convection with a uniform heat transfer coefficient. Using the generalized Schwarz-Christoffel transformation the domain is mapped onto a straight channel where the heat conduction problem is solved using the boundary element method. The boundary element solution is subsequently used to pose a shape optimization problem, i.e. an inverse problem, where the objective function is the normalized Shape Factor and the variables of the optimization are the parameters of the Sch...

  7. FLOW VELOCITY AND SURFACE TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FROM URBAN CANOPY SURFACES BY NUMERICAL SIMULATION

    Sivaraja Subramania Pillai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC from urban building surfaces by numerical simulation. The thermal effects produced by geometrical and physical properties of urban areas generate a relatively differential heating and uncomfortable environment compared to rural regions called as Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomena. The urban thermal comfort is directly related to the CHTC from the urban canopy surfaces. This CHTC from urban canopy surfaces expected to depend upon the wind velocity flowing over the urban canopy surfaces, urban canopy configurations, building surface temperature etc. But the most influential parameter on CHTC has not been clarified yet. Urban canopy type experiments in thermally stratified wind tunnel have normally been used to study the heat transfer issues. But, it is not an easy task in wind tunnel experiments to evaluate local CHTC, which vary on individual canyon surfaces such as building roof, walls and ground. Numerical simulation validated by wind tunnel experiments can be an alternative for the prediction of CHTC from building surfaces in an urban area. In our study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model which was used for the evaluation of CHTC from surfaces. The calculated CFD results showed good agreement with experimental results. After this validation, the effects of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on CHTC from urban building surfaces were investigated. It has been found that the change in velocity remarkably affects the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces and change in surface temperature has almost no effect over the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces.

  8. Variation of Local Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient On 3-Degree Inclined Tube Surface

    Experimental studies on both subcooled and saturated pool boiling of water were performed to obtain local heat transfer coefficients on a 3 .deg. inclined tube of 50.8 mm diameter at atmospheric pressure. The local values were determined at every 45 .deg. from the very bottom to the uppermost of the tube periphery. The maximum and minimum local coefficients were observed at the azimuthal angles of 0 .deg. and 180 .deg., respectively, in saturated water. The locations of the maxima and the minima were dependent on the inclination angle of the tube as well as the degree of subcooling. The major heat transfer mechanisms were considered to be liquid agitation generated by the sliding bubbles and the creation of big size bubbles through bubble coalescence. As a way of quantifying the heat transfer coefficients, an empirical correlation was suggested

  9. Convective heat transfer coefficients for exterior building surfaces: Existing correlations and CFD modelling

    Convective heat transfer at exterior building surfaces has an impact on the design and performance of building components such as double-skin facades, solar collectors, solar chimneys and ventilated photovoltaic arrays, and also affects the thermal climate and cooling load in urban areas. In this study, an overview is given of existing correlations of the exterior convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) with the wind speed, indicating significant differences between these correlations. As an alternative to using existing correlations, the applicability of CFD to obtain forced CHTC correlations is evaluated, by considering a cubic building in an atmospheric boundary layer. Steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are performed and, instead of the commonly used wall functions, low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM) is used to model the boundary-layer region for reasons of improved accuracy. The flow field is found to become quasi independent of the Reynolds number at Reynolds numbers of about 105. This allows limiting the wind speed at which the CHTC is evaluated and thus the grid resolution in the near-wall region, which significantly reduces the computational expense. The distribution of the power-law CHTC-U10 correlation over the windward and leeward surfaces is presented (U10 = reference wind speed at 10 m height). It is shown that these correlations can be accurately determined by simulations with relatively low wind speed values, which avoids the use of excessively fine grids for LRNM, and by using only two or three discrete wind speed values, which limits the required number of CFD simulations.

  10. Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchains

    Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB

  11. An experimental determination of the H2S overall mass transfer coefficient from quiescent surfaces at wastewater treatment plants

    Santos, Jane Meri; Kreim, Virginie; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Reis, Neyval Costa; de Sá, Leandro Melo; Horan, Nigel John

    2012-12-01

    This study has investigated overall mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulphide from quiescent liquid surfaces under simulated laboratory conditions. Wind flow (friction velocity) has been correlated with the overall mass transfer coefficient (KL) of hydrogen sulphide in the liquid phase using a wind tunnel study. The experimental values for this coefficient have been compared with predicted KL values obtained from three different emission models that are widely used to determine volatilization rates from the quiescent surfaces of wastewater treatment unit processes. Friction velocity (in a range of 0.11 and 0.27 m s-1) was found to have a negligible influence on the overall mass transfer coefficients for hydrogen sulphide but by contrast two of the models predicted a stronger influence of friction velocity and overestimate the KL values by up to a factor of 12.5, thus risking unnecessary expenditure on odour control measures. However, at low wind speeds or friction velocities, when more odour complaints might be expected due to poor atmospheric dispersion, a better agreement of emission rates with experimental data was found for all the models.

  12. Measurements of mass transfer coefficient and effectiveness in the recovery region of a film-cooled surface

    Mass transfer coefficients and the film cooling effectiveness are measured downstream of a single row of holes inclined 30 degrees with the surface and inline with the main turbulent boundary layer flow. The mass transfer coefficients (based on the difference between the free stream and the surface concentrations) are measured using a naphthalene sublimation technique. The effectiveness is determined through the injection of a trace gas into the secondary (cooling jets) flow and measuring its concentration at the impermeable wall. Experiments are carried out in a subsonic, zero pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer, under isothermal conditions with three blowing ratios: 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2. The data is collected in a region 7 to 80 jet diameters downstream of the injection location

  13. CFD simulation of direct contact condensation with ANSYS CFX using surface renewal theory based heat transfer coefficients

    Wanninger, Andreas; Ceuca, Sabin Cristian; Macian-Juan, Rafael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Different approaches for the calculation of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) using Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTC) based on the Surface Renewal Theory (SRT) are tested using the CFD simulation tool ANSYS CFX. The present work constitutes a preliminary study of the flow patterns and conditions observed using different HTC models. A complex 3D flow pattern will be observed in the CFD simulations as well as a strong coupling between the condensation rate and the two-phase flow dynamics. (orig.)

  14. CFD simulation of direct contact condensation with ANSYS CFX using surface renewal theory based heat transfer coefficients

    Different approaches for the calculation of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) using Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTC) based on the Surface Renewal Theory (SRT) are tested using the CFD simulation tool ANSYS CFX. The present work constitutes a preliminary study of the flow patterns and conditions observed using different HTC models. A complex 3D flow pattern will be observed in the CFD simulations as well as a strong coupling between the condensation rate and the two-phase flow dynamics. (orig.)

  15. Measuring of heat transfer coefficient

    Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria

    Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure the h...

  16. Drag and Bulk Transfer Coefficients Over Water Surfaces in Light Winds

    Wei, Zhongwang; Miyano, Aiko; Sugita, Michiaki

    2016-04-01

    The drag coefficient (CD) , experimentally determined from observed wind speed and surface stress, has been reported to increase in the low wind-speed range (examined using high quality datasets selected from three-year continuous measurements obtained from the centre of Lake Kasumigaura, the second largest lake in Japan. Based on our analysis, suggested causes including (i) measurement errors, (ii) lake currents, (iii) capillary waves, (iv) the possibility of a measurement height within the interfacial/transition sublayer, and (v) a possible mismatch in the representative time scale used for mean and covariance averaging, are not considered major factors. The use of vector-averaged, instead of scalar-averaged, wind speeds and the presence of waves only partially explain the increase in CD under light winds. A small increase in turbulent kinetic energy due to buoyant production at low wind speeds is identified as the likely major cause for this increase in CD in the unstable atmosphere dominant over inland water surfaces.

  17. Evaluation of viewing-angle effect on determination of local heat transfer coefficients on a curved surface using transient and heated-coating liquid-crystal methods

    Chan, T. L.

    This paper presents the effect of viewing-angle variations on the accuracy of transient and heated-coating liquid-crystal methods for determining the local heat transfer coefficients on a curved surface. A developed liquid-crystal calibration technique using a true-color image processing system has been used to alleviate the effect of viewing angle on oblique/curved surfaces. The accuracy of heat transfer coefficients improved significantly with careful correction of the viewing-angle effect on the surface geometry. It is crucial to ensure the implementation of the suggested calibration technique to be used in wideband thermochromic liquid-crystal applications on the non-orthogonal surface.

  18. Determination of friction factors and heat transfer coefficients for flow past artifically roughened surfaces

    A critical review of the assumptions, theoretical foundations, and supporting experimental evidence for the analytical procedures in current use for evaluation of the effects of artificial surface roughening on friction factor and Stanton number is provided. Recommendations are given concerning the application of these procedures to rough rod bundles. A new method is demonstrated for determination of the slope and intercept of the universal logarithmic dimensionless velocity distribution law for fully rough flow past roughened surfaces without the need for experimental measurement of the velocity profile. The slope is shown to vary with the nature of the roughened surface and to deviate significantly from the slope for turbulent flow past smooth walls in some cases. It is further shown that the intercept, which is a boundary condition equivalent to the roughness parameter for friction, is independent of the width of the velocity profile. A similar method is developed for determination of the slope and intercept of the temperature distribution law, but additional experimental investigation is required before the efficacy of this application can be conclusively established

  19. Heat transfer to and from vegetated surfaces - An analytical method for the bulk exchange coefficients

    Massman, William J.

    1987-01-01

    The semianalytical model outlined in a previous study (Massman, 1987) to describe momentum exchange between the atmosphere and vegetated surfaces is extended to include the exchange of heat. The methods employed are based on one-dimensional turbulent diffusivities, and use analytical solutions to the steady-state diffusion equation. The model is used to assess the influence that the canopy foliage structure and density, the wind profile structure within the canopy, and the shelter factor can have upon the inverse surface Stanton number (kB exp -1), as well as to explore the consequences of introducing a scalar displacement height which can be different from the momentum displacement height. In general, the triangular foliage area density function gives results which agree more closely with observations than that for constant foliage area density. The intended application of this work is for parameterizing the bulk aerodynamic resistances for heat and momentum exchange for use within large-scale models of plant-atmosphere exchanges.

  20. Inverse determination of local heat transfer coefficient

    The naphtalene sublimation and transient methods are widely used techniques which are particularly useful in complex flows and solid shapes. Both techniques have been widely used with considerable success but they are not appropriate for high temperatures. An alternative method to obtain the local convective heat transfer coefficient, that does not have any disadvantages noted above, is the inverse procedure. Determination of the space-variable heat transfer coefficient on a complex shape surface requires the solution of the nonlinear inverse heat conduction problem. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficient is calculated from temperature measurements at interior points of the solid and measured fluid temperature. The unknown parameters associated with the solution are selected to achieve the closest agreement in a least squares sense between the computed and measured temperatures using the Levenberg - Marquardt method. The nonlinear least - squares problem is parameterized by assuming the staircase changes of heat transfer coefficient on the boundary or expressing the space variations of the heat transfer coefficient in the functional form. The uncertainties in the estimated components of the heat transfer coefficient or in the estimated parameters are determined for the temperature measurements with known and unknown standard deviations. The determination of the circumferential heat transfer coefficient distribution on the heated tube with two longitudinal fins in cross flow demonstrates the accuracy of the developed method. The actual experimental data were used. Experiments were performed with an array of vertical tubes arranged in staggered pattern. The experimental results reported herein are among the first that show the variation of the local heat transfer coefficients over the circumference of the finned tube. Most data reported previously were acquired for smooth tubes at low temperatures. The main advantage of the method is that it does not

  1. Sensitivity of the Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation

    Singer, Sasa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Liscic/Petrofer probe is to determine the cooling intensity during liquid quenching in laboratory and workshop environments. The surface heat transfer coefficient is calculated by the one-dimensional finite volume method from the smoothed temperature curve, measured at a near-surface point in the probe. Smoothed reference temperature curves for oil and water, based on measurements made by the probe, are used in a series of numerical experiments to investigate the sensitivit...

  2. Influence of wall emissivity and convective heat transfer coefficient on the adiabatic surface temperature as thermal/structural parameter in fire modeling

    In fire engineering analysis, one of the open problem is the transfer of thermal parameters obtained by fire CFD model to FEM models for structural analysis. In this study the new useful concept of “Adiabatic Surface Temperature” or more commonly known as AST, introduced by Wickström, is investigated. The adiabatic surface temperature offers the opportunity to transfer both thermal information of the gas and the net heat flux to the solid phase model, obtained by CFD analysis. In this study two CFD analyses are carried out in order to evaluate the effect of emissivity and of convective heat transfer coefficient to determine the AST. First one CFD analysis simulating a fire scenario, “conjugate heat transfer”, with a square steel beam exposed to hot surface is carried out to calculate AST, heat convective coefficient and temperature field in the beam. Second one, a conductive analysis is carried out on “standalone beam” imposing a third type boundary condition on its boundaries assuming the AST, evaluated in the conjugate analysis, as external temperature. Different heat convective coefficients are imposed on the beam walls. The comparison between results obtained by means of the two proposed analyses shows the use of AST as transfer thermal parameter between CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) and FEM (Finite Element Method) models is appropriate when the convective heat transfer coefficient is properly evaluated. -- Highlights: ► An open problem is to transfer parameters obtained by thermal to structural models. ► The useful concept of “Adiabatic Surface Temperature” (AST) is investigated. ► The AST use is right for properly evaluated convective heat transfer coefficient

  3. Evaluation of viewing-angle effect on determination of local heat transfer coefficients on a curved surface using transient and heated-coating liquid-crystal methods

    Chan, T.L. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents the effect of viewing-angle variations on the accuracy of transient and heated-coating liquid-crystal methods for determining the local heat transfer coefficients on a curved surface. A developed liquid-crystal calibration technique using a true-color image processing system has been used to alleviate the effect of viewing angle on oblique/curved surfaces. The accuracy of heat transfer coefficients improved significantly with careful correction of the viewing-angle effect on the surface geometry. It is crucial to ensure the implementation of the suggested calibration technique to be used in wideband thermochromic liquid-crystal applications on the non-orthogonal surface. (orig.)

  4. Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard; Jensen, Per Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...

  5. Concentration, Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factor and Soil-Soil Solution Distribution Coefficient of Selenium in the Surface Environment

    Of the major radioactive selenium isotopes, Se-79, a beta emitter with a half-life of about 1.1 million years, is of special interest because it is one of the most important radionuclides for the long-term dose assessment of radioactive waste disposal. This radionuclide can reach human beings through several transfer paths in the environment. To predict Se-79 behavior from the environment to human beings, it would be useful to obtain the following information: stable Se concentration in environmental samples; soil-soil solution distribution coefficient (Kd); and soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF). In the present study, stable Se concentrations in river water, soil and crop samples collected in Japan, Kds and TFs were obtained. The results showed that geometric mean (GM) concentrations of river water, soil and crops were 0.057 μg/L (range: ds for paddy field soil and upland field soil samples were 116 and 67, respectively, whereas GMs of TFs for brown rice and upland field crops were 0.066 and 0.024, respectively. Probably due to longer growing period and different water management in the paddy fields for brown rice compared to those for upland field crops, the TF would be high in brown rice. (authors)

  6. The Influence of Carburizing Parameters on Carbon Transfer Coefficient

    Tadeusz Sobusiak

    2004-01-01

    Definition of coefficient of carbon transfer in European Standard (EN 10052) is presented as: "Mass of carbon transferred from carburizing medium into the steel, per unit surface area per second for a unit difference between the carbon potential, and actual surface carbon content".In this paper, a model is presented of carbon transfer from endothermic atmospheres to carbon steel. The carbon transfer coefficient values were determined experimentally by the foil technique and on specimens, taking into account the following parameters: chemical composition of atmospheres, carbon potential, temperature and time of the carburizing process. Some examples of the variation of the carbon transfer coefficient for two steps of the carburizing process,including soaking before quenching, are given, based on results obtained. The effect of carbon transfer coefficient on carbon content at the steel surface is given.

  7. Coefficients of heat transfer in condensation

    The authors analyze the problem of determining the coefficients of heat transfer in the condensation of steam on vertical walls in terms of the Prandtl hypothesis and the Reynolds analogy for distribution of the turbulent thermal conductivity across the condensate film. From the assumed model the authors derived expressions for the heat transfer coefficients

  8. Transfer coefficients for turbulent flow between parallel plates

    Average transfer coefficients in the turbulent forced convection entrance region between parallel plates, with asymmetrical conditions of the concentration profile, were determined experimentaly with the Naphthalene Sublimation Technique. In accordance with the analogy between heat and mass transfer, the tests correspond to a heat-transfer problem with uniform surface temperature at one plate and the other insulated. The Reynolds number ranges from 10900 to 91700. (Author)

  9. Determination of the heat transfer coefficients in transient heat conduction

    The determination of the space- or time-dependent heat transfer coefficient which links the boundary temperature to the heat flux through a third-kind Robin boundary condition in transient heat conduction is investigated. The reconstruction uses average surface temperature measurements. In both cases of the space- or time-dependent unknown heat transfer coefficient the inverse problems are nonlinear and ill posed. Least-squares penalized variational formulations are proposed and new formulae for the gradients are derived. Numerical results obtained using the nonlinear conjugate gradient method combined with a boundary element direct solver are presented and discussed. (paper)

  10. Overall Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficient of Water Vapor Adsorption

    Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Mori, Hideo; Godo, Masazumi; Miura, Kunio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Ishizawa, Toshihiko; Takatsuka, Takeshi

    A fundamental investigation was performed to develop a compact and simple desiccant ventilation unit which is one of the main components of a novel energy saving air-conditioning system. Water vapor in the air is adsorbed and/or desorbed to be controlled the humidity of supply air through a unit of an adsorbent packed bed. A numerical simulation helps to understand the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in the bed. Overall transfer coefficients of them as properties for the simulation were estimated by performing both experiment and calculation. It was clarified that the transient overall equivalent heat and mass transfer does not strongly depend on the air flow rate through the packed bed, the averaged equivalent mass transfer is governed by surface and pore diffusion in a particle of adsorbent at low flow rate. Moreover, the coefficient during the adsorption process is slightly larger than desorption. An equation of the overall mass transfer coefficient is derived. It shows five times as large as the value estimated by experiment. Therefore, the correlation and fitting parameters are presented for prediction of the overall heat and mass transfer coefficients. The estimation accuracy was improved.

  11. Heat transfer coefficient between UO2 and Zircaloy-2

    This paper provides some experimental values of the heat-transfer coefficient between UO2 and Zircaloy-2 surfaces in contact under conditions of interfacial pressure, temperature, surface roughness and interface atmosphere, that are relevant to UO2/Zircaloy-2 fuel elements operating in pressurized-water power reactors. Coefficients were obtained from eight UO2/ Zircaloy-2 pairs in atmospheres of helium, argon, krypton or xenon, at atmosphere pressure and in vacuum. Interfacial pressures were varied from 50 to 550 kgf/cm2 while surface roughness heights were in the range 0.2 x 10-4 to 3.5 x 10-4 cm. The effect on the coefficients of cycling the interfacial pressure, of interface gas pressure and of temperature were examined. The experimental values of the coefficients were used to test the predictions of expressions for the heat-transfer between two solids in contact. For the particular UO2/ Zircaloy-2 pairs examined, numerical values were assigned to several parameters that related the surface roughnesses to either the radius of solid/solid contact spots or to the mean thickness of the interface voids and that accounted for the imperfect accommodation of the void gas on the test surfaces. (author)

  12. Measurement of heat (mass) transfer coefficient on the surface of a turbine blade with a high turing angle using naphthalene sublimation technique

    The heat (mass) transfer characteristics on the blade surface of a high-turning first-stage turbine rotor for power generation has been investigated by employing the naphthalene sublimation technique. A four-axis profile measurement system is developed successfully for the measurements of local sublimation depth on the curved surface. In the leading edge region, there is a good agreement between the present heat (mass) transfer data and the previous result on a turbine blade with a moderate turning angle, but come discrepancies are found in the mid-chord heat (mass) transfer between the two results. The local heat (mass) transfer on the present suction surface is greatly enhanced due to an earlier boundary transition, compared with that on a turbine blade with a moderate turning angle, meanwhile there is only a slight change in the pressures-side heat (mass) transfer between the two different turbine rotors. In general, the heat (mass) transfer augmentation by the endwall vortices is found much higher on the suction surface than on the pressure surface

  13. Effect of specimen geometry on heat transfer coefficient of rubber to air

    Pongdhorn Sae-oui

    2000-01-01

    It is widely known that the heat transfer coefficient is not material specific but, on the contrary, it depends on several factors such as surface appearance, suface emissivity, fluid velocity and specimen geometry. In this study, the effect of geometry on heat transfer coefficient of rubber to air was investigated. Determination of heat transfer coefficient was undertaken by an indirect method, namely Finite Element Analysis (FEA). With this method, the best value of heat transfer coefficien...

  14. Distortion effects on the spin transfer coefficient

    Lee, S E; Hong, S W; Kim, B T

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the distortion effects on the spin transfer coefficient D sub n sub n for the intermediate energy (p,n) charge exchange reactions leading to the Gamow-Teller resonance in the continuum region. When the distortion is included, the imaginary parts of both the central and the tensor direct contributions are significantly changed. Also, the magnitude of T sub 0 sub 0 becomes smaller, which results in larger D sub n sub n values. We also found that when the distortion is included the phase difference between T sub 0 sub 0 and T sub 2 sub 0 in the complex plane remains almost the same for different Q-values.

  15. Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain: their derivation and limitations

    Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed

  16. Heat transfer through constant section fins at hear transfer coefficient, changed along the fin height

    Paper presents an analytical solution of the problem to determine the efficiency coefficient of a constant section fin at heat transfer coefficient changing along fin height. It is determined, that the commonly applied assumption about the constancy of a convectional coefficient of heat emission when calculating the efficiency of a fin based on the value of the reduced coefficient of heat emission results in the error reaching 15%. It is shown that to reduce it up to 2-3% when calculating the efficiency coefficient of a fin one should have the experimental values of both the reduced coefficient of heat emission and the convectional coefficient of heat emission at a surface supporting the fins

  17. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values

    Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-03-15

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain.

  18. Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values

    A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain

  19. Determination of the surface drag coefficient

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.;

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable ...... of calculation, partly due to meandering of the stress vector.......This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable...... conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease...

  20. Oceanic whitecaps: Sea surface features detectable via satellite that are indicators of the magnitude of the air-sea gas transfer coefficient

    E C Monahan

    2002-09-01

    Stage A whitecaps (spilling wave crests) have a microwave emissivity of close to 1. Thus if even a small fraction of the sea surface is covered by these features there will be a detectable enhancement in the apparent microwave brightness temperature of that surface as determined by satellite-borne microwave radiometers. This increase in the apparent microwave brightness temperature can as a consequence be routinely used to estimate the fraction of the sea surface covered by stage A whitecaps. For all but the very lowest wind speeds it has been shown in a series of controlled experiments that the air-sea gas transfer coeffcient for each of a wide range of gases, including carbon dioxide and oxygen, is directly proportional to the fraction of the sea surface covered by these stage A whitecaps.

  1. Evaluation of Heat Transfer Coefficients During the Water Vapor Condensation Contained in the Flue Gas

    Bespalov Victor; Bespalov Vladimir; Melnikov Denis

    2016-01-01

    Is shown the influence of the heat transfer coefficient from the wet flue gas to the heat exchange surface on the overall heat transfer coefficient in the gas-air heat exchanger with the water vapor condensation. Experimental data are compared with calculations based on the mathematical model of the condensing heat exchanger.

  2. CaSO4溶液中表面处理对流动沸腾传热系数的影响%Effect of Surface Treatment on Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient in CaSO4 Containing Water

    任晓光; 李铁凤; 赵起

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the influence of heat transfer surface treatment on the formation of calcium sulphate deposit during flow boiling heat transfer. The surface of several test heaters was treated by surface modification techniques,such as dynamic mixing magnetron sputtering [DLC (diamond-like carbon), DLC-F (diamond-like carbon-fluorine) and AC (amorphous carbon)] and polishing to reduce surface energy. The results showed that heat transfer surface with low surface energy experienced significant reduction of formation of CaSO4 deposit. (1) Magnetron sputtering stainless steel heat transfer surface with DLC, DLC-F and plasma arc sputtering with AC did not change the surface roughness, but they reduced surface energy and improved heat transfer coefficient, so hindered CaSO4 deposit formation significantly. The DLC-F surface performed better than the DLC surface. (2) Surface energy played an important pole in improving heat transfer coefficient. The less the surface energy the more significant the heat transfer coefficient improved with other experimental conditions identical. (3) The polished surface improved the roughness of the heater, but owing to the high surface energy it was not better than the DLC-F surface for a long-term consideration on improving the heat transfer coefficient.

  3. Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room

    Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions of...... occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation and...

  4. Transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube heat exchangers

    In order to determine transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube exchangers, mass transfer experiments have been performed using the naphthalene sublimation technique. By means of the heat-mass transfer analogy, the results can be converted to heat transfer results. The transfer coefficients were compared with those for circular tube exchangers and the comparison revealed no major differences. This is a positive outcome, since the use of elliptical tubes may reduce substantially the pressure drop, without affecting the transfer characteristics.(Author)

  5. High-resolution heat-transfer-coefficient maps applicable to compound-curve surfaces using liquid crystals in a transient wind tunnel

    Tests were performed in a transient heat transfer tunnel in which the model under test was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn over the model. The resulting movement of isothermal contours on the model is revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record is obtained of a temperature and time data pair for all points on the model during a single test. Experiments on a duct model are reported in which the model was preheated using a hot air stream. A manner in which initial model temperature nonuniformities could be taken into account was investigated. The duct model was also tested with a steady-state measurement technique and results were compared with the transient measurements, but recognizing that differences existed between the upstream thermal boundary conditions. The steady-state and transient measurements were shown to be consistent with predicted values. The main advantage of this transient heat transfer technique using liquid crystals is that since the test model need not be actively heated, high-resolution measurements on surfaces with complex shapes may be obtained

  6. High-resolution heat-transfer-coefficient maps applicable to compound-curve surfaces using liquid crystals in a transient wind tunnel

    Jones, Terry V.; Hippensteele, Steven A.

    1988-01-01

    Tests were performed in a transient heat transfer tunnel in which the model under test was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn over the model. The resulting movement of isothermal contours on the model is revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record is obtained of a temperature and time data pair for all points on the model during a single test. Experiments on a duct model are reported in which the model was preheated using a hot air stream. A manner in which initial model temperature nonuniformities could be taken into account was investigated. The duct model was also tested with a steady-state measurement technique and results were compared with the transient measurements, but recognizing that differences existed between the upstream thermal boundary conditions. The steady-state and transient measurements were shown to be consistent with predicted values. The main advantage of this transient heat transfer technique using liquid crystals is that since the test model need not be actively heated, high-resolution measurements on surfaces with complex shapes may be obtained.

  7. High-resolution heat-transfer-coefficient maps applicable to compound-curve surfaces using liquid crystals in a transient wind tunnel

    Jones, Terry V.; Hippensteele, Steven A.

    1988-08-01

    Tests were performed in a transient heat transfer tunnel in which the model under test was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn over the model. The resulting movement of isothermal contours on the model is revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record is obtained of a temperature and time data pair for all points on the model during a single test. Experiments on a duct model are reported in which the model was preheated using a hot air stream. A manner in which initial model temperature nonuniformities could be taken into account was investigated. The duct model was also tested with a steady-state measurement technique and results were compared with the transient measurements, but recognizing that differences existed between the upstream thermal boundary conditions. The steady-state and transient measurements were shown to be consistent with predicted values. The main advantage of this transient heat transfer technique using liquid crystals is that since the test model need not be actively heated, high-resolution measurements on surfaces with complex shapes may be obtained.

  8. Local heat transfer coefficient for turbulent flow in rod bundles

    The correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients in heated triangular array of rod bundles, in terms of the flow hydrodynamic parameters is presented. The analysis is made first for fluid with Prandtl numbers varying from moderated to high (Pr>0.2), and then extended to fluids with low Prandtl numbers (0.004< Pr<0.2). Results of temperature and velocity fields distribution of slip coefficients and local heat transfer coefficients are obtained. (E.G.)

  9. Heat transfer coefficient of wheel rim of large capacity steam turbines

    Jinyuan SHI; Zhicheng DENG; Yu YANG; Ganwen JUN

    2008-01-01

    A way of calculating the overall equivalent heat transfer coefficient of wheel rims of large capacity steam turbines is presented. The method and formula to calculate the mean forced convection heat-transfer coefficient of the surface of the blade and for the bottom wall of the blade passage, are introduced. The heat transmission from the blade to the rim was simplified by analogy to heat transmission in the fins. A fin heat transfer model was then used to calculate the equivalent heat transfer coefficient of the blade passage. The overall equivalent heat transfer coefficient of the wheel rim was then calculated using a cylindrical surface model. A practical calculation example was presented. The pro-posed method helps determine the heat transfer bound-ary conditions in finite element analyses of temperature and thermal stress fields of steam turbine rotors.

  10. Heat transfer coefficient for F.E analysis in the warm forging process

    S.S. Kang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to obtain suitable convection and contact heat transfer coefficient forone-time finite element analysis in the warm forging process.Design/methodology/approach: To do this, the temperature of the tool used in the operation was measured witha thermocouple and repeated finite element analysis(FEA was performed using the experimentally calculatedcontact and cooling heat transfer coefficient. Also the surface temperature of the active tool was obtained bycomparing the measurement and analysis results and finally the contact heat transfer coefficient for one-time FEAwas completed by comparing the surface temperature between the repeated FEA and one-time FEA results.Findings: The acceptable convection heat transfer coefficients are from 0.3 to 0.8N/mm/s/K and the contactheat transfer coefficient of 6~9N/mm/s/K is appropriate for the warm forging process with flow-typelubrication conditions.Practical implications: A comparison of the temperatures from the repeated and one-time analysis allows anoptimum contact heat transfer coefficient for the one time finite element analysis to be determined.Originality/value: Several studies have been conducted with different conditions such as applied pressure andkind of lubricant, but no research has been conducted concerning the convection heat transfer coefficient in thewarm forging process. Also, comparative analysis concerning the reason for difference between experimentallydetermined contact heat transfer coefficient and practically adapted one has not been conducted, yet.

  11. A New Global Potential Energy Surface for the Hydroperoxyl Radical, HO2: Reaction Coefficients for H + O2 and Vibrational Splittings for H Atom Transfer

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A new analytic global potential energy surface describing the hydroperoxyl radical system H((sup 2)S) + O2(X (sup 3)Sigma((sup -)(sub g))) (reversible reaction) HO2 ((X-tilde) (sup 2)A'') (reversible reaction) O((sup 3)P) + O H (X (sup 2)Pi) has been fitted using the ab initio complete active space SCF (self-consistent-field)/externally contracted configuration interaction (CASSCF/CCI) energy calculations of Walch and Duchovic. Results of quasiclassical trajectory studies to determine the rate coefficients of the forward and reverse reactions at combustion temperatures will be presented. In addition, vibrational energy levels were calculated using the quantum DVR-DGB (discrete variable representation-distributed Gaussian basis) method and the splitting due to H atom migration is investigated. The material of the proposed presentation was reviewed and the technical content will not reveal any information not already in the public domain and will not give any foreign industry or government a competitive advantage.

  12. Estimation of Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficient in Bioreactor

    Zainab Yaquob Atiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concentrated to investigate the effects of aeration and stirring speed on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa. A dynamic technique was used in estimating KLa values in order to achieve the aim of this study.This study was done in 10L bioreactor by using two medias:-1. Dionized water2. Xanthan solution (1 g /LMoreover, the research covered a comparison between the obtained values of KLa.The Xanthan solution was used because of its higher viscosity in comparison with water. It behaves similarly to the cultivation medium when organisms are cultivated in a bioreactor. Growth of organisms in the reactor leads to a change in the viscosity of the medium which affects the mass transfer.Two variables, the effect of air flow rate (3-20 L/min and the effect of stirring speed (250-700rpm on KLa value were studied. Other parameters such as temperature, liquid volume, and stirrer shape and stirrer position were held constant; the results demonstrated an increase in KLa – value and mass transfer with increasing stirrer speed. Thus at higher speed, better dispersion of the bubbles was obtained. Therefore, that increased the surface / volume ratio which increased the mass transfer area i.e. KLa value.

  13. Measurement technique for local heat transfer coefficients of subchannels of rod bundles using a copper sensor

    Seo, Jeong Sik; Kim, Kyoung Rock; Choi, Young Don [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jong Keun [Hanzhong Univ., Donghae (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    This paper is described for the measurement technique for local heat transfer coefficients using a copper sensor in rod bundles with mixing vanes. A copper sensor is defined as the device to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient using constant heat flux and surface temperatures. The copper sensor consists of a cartridge heater and four pieces of thermocouple. The copper sensors located at axial positions of rod bundles are able to measure the local heat transfer coefficients at its positions. The effect of local heated and full heated of copper sensors for rod bundles is investigated using CFD analysis. The decay of local heat transfer coefficients of locally heating condition such as a copper sensor is estimated to be higher value than that of fully heating condition. The calibration curve for local heat transfer coefficients measured is presented.

  14. Overall mass-transfer coefficients in non-linear chromatography

    Mollerup, Jørgen; Hansen, Ernst

    1998-01-01

    In case of mass transfer where concentration differences in both phases must be taken into account, one may define an over-all mass-transfer coefficient basd on the apparent over-all concentration difference. If the equilibrium relationship is linear, i.e. in cases where a Henry´s law relationshi...... shown in this paper. In this case one has to discard the use of over-all mass-transfer coefficients and calculate the rate of mass transfer from the two film theory using the appropriate non-linear relationship to calculate the equilibrium ratio at the interface between the two films....

  15. Fuel-clad heat transfer coefficient of a defected fuel rod. Transfer coefficient fuel-clad in the presence of water steam

    Using a special rod built with a stack of UO2 pellets inside a thick Zircaloy clad, the authors report the measurement of the fuel-clad heat transfer coefficient when water vapour in intentionally introduced in the fuel rod at the beginning of its life. They describe the irradiation device, the measurement method (acquired data and mathematical determination of various values: temperature of the inner surface of the cladding, integrated thermal conductivity, fuel surface temperature, fuel-cladding heat transfer coefficient, thermal expansion of the cladding inner radius, UO2 thermal expansion). They finally report the experiment

  16. Basketball Surfaces and Coefficient of Restitution

    Kristyn Peacock; Faith Pearson

    2015-01-01

    A basketball was released from varying drop heights to simulate the impact speeds of a typical soft, medium, and hard dribble. This was repeated across four different surfaces that students typically play on–exposed aggregate concrete, maple wood flooring, EPI Outdoor Sport flooring, and playground rubber mesh. From the measured drop and bounce heights, the coefficient of restitution(COR)was calculated. It was concluded that only playground rubber mesh had COR’s below the regula...

  17. Heat transfer coefficient for F.E analysis in the warm forging process

    Kang, S S; Kang, J. H.; Lee, K. O.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to obtain suitable convection and contact heat transfer coefficient forone-time finite element analysis in the warm forging process.Design/methodology/approach: To do this, the temperature of the tool used in the operation was measured witha thermocouple and repeated finite element analysis(FEA) was performed using the experimentally calculatedcontact and cooling heat transfer coefficient. Also the surface temperature of the active tool was obtained bycom...

  18. Heat transfer coefficient in serpentine coolant passage for CCDTL

    A series of heat transfer experiments were conducted to refine the cooling passage design in the drift tubes of a coupled cavity drift tube linac (CCDTL). The experimental data were then compared to numerical models to derive relationships between heat transfer rates, Reynold's number, and Prandtl number, over a range of flow rates. Data reduction consisted of axisymmetric finite element modeling where the heat transfer coefficients were modified to match the experimental data. Unfortunately, the derived relationship is valid only for this specific geometry of the test drift tube. Fortunately, the heat transfer rates were much better (approximately 2.5 times) than expected

  19. Heat transfer coefficient determination for flow boiling in vertical and horizontal minichannels

    Piasecka Magdalena; Maciejewska Beata

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of boiling heat transfer research during FC-72 laminar flow along a minichannel of 1 mm depth, positioned vertically and horizontally, with an enhanced heating surface. One glass pane allows to determine the temperature of the heating wall by liquid crystal thermography. Calculations are aimed at the evaluation of one- and two-dimensional heat transfer approaches to determine the local heat transfer coefficient. In the one-dimensional approach only the direction...

  20. Estimation of bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce)

    Sadhuram, Y.

    The bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce) has been estimated over the Arabian Sea from the moisture budget during the pre-monsoon season of 1988. The computations have been made over two regions (A: 0-8 degrees N: 60-68 degrees E: B: 0...

  1. CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  2. Transfer coefficients of radionuclides from feed to livestock products

    The accumulation of data on radionuclide transfer are poor in Japan and those are limited to 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I released from the previous atomic bomb experiments. However, in Europe, intensive studies on environment RI level which affects the restriction of the intake for meats and milk products have been made as the measures against the environment radioactivity due to Chernobyl accident. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides to meats and milk products were estimated on a basis of the data published in the Science of the Total Environment vol.85(1989), Oxford University and CEC Radiation Protection, EUR 12608 EN, Luxembourg, 1990 in addition to the data on Exclusion of Radioactivity from foods, Environment Parameter, series No. 4. On the other hand, the transfer coefficients for Japanese were estimated using the concerned data from published reports and the environment radioactivity data reported by national and local government bodies. In this book, many new data of transfer coefficient are presented in tables along with the previous data collected by international nuclear energy agencies and respective national facilities concerned. (M.N.)

  3. Investigation of correlation diagram between heat transfer coefficient and void fraction under sodium-water reaction

    Sodium-water reaction (SWR) in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is a significant phenomenon for safety assessment of the system. One of the top concerns in the SWR is an overheating rupture phenomenon in which a neighbor heat transfer tube fails instantaneously because of a deterioration of structural integrity under a high temperature condition. Hence, the heat transfer coefficient on the tube surface is of importance. Since hydrogen gas is generated in the SWR and liquid water will evaporate quickly due to depressurization, the reaction region is covered with a multi-phase flow structure, and thus the value of the heat transfer coefficient will vary widely. In the present paper, a correlation diagram has been developed between the heat transfer coefficient and the void fraction based on one dimensional homogeneous flow simulation. Furthermore, the transient of void fraction in SWAT-1R experiment is investigated using the diagram. (author)

  4. Inverse estimation of the local heat transfer coefficient in curved tubes: a numerical validation

    Wall curvature represents one of the most used passive techniques to enhance convective heat transfer. The effectiveness of wall curvature is due to the fact that it gives origin to the centrifugal force: this phenomenon induces local maxima in the velocity distribution that locally increase the temperature gradients at the wall by then maximizing the heat transfer. This fact brings to a significant variation of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux along the circumferential coordinate. The convective heat transfer coefficient is consequently not uniformly distributed along the tube's perimeter and is characterized by higher values at the extrados wall surface in comparison to the ones at the intrados wall surface. Therefore, for predicting the overall performance of heat transfer apparatuses that involve the use of curved tubes, it becomes important to know the local distribution of the convective heat transfer coefficient not only along the axis of the heat transfer section, but also on the internal tube's surface along the cross section circumference. The present paper is intended to the assessment of a procedure developed to evaluate the local convective heat transfer coefficient, along the circumferential coordinate, at the internal wall of a coiled pipe.

  5. Automatic optimization of the heat transfer coefficient in boiler setups

    Automatic optimization of a boiler setup can be based on features of its static characteristic having the form of a maximum in the coefficient of heat transfer from the heater to evaporated medium. This is illustrated by the example of a conventional industrial vaporizer setup used for concentrating aqueous solutions of heavy metal salts, in which case the economy of a heating steam reaches 10 percent

  6. Experimental Investigation on the Heat Transfer Coefficient of the Thermosyphon Cross Section Shape

    Mohammed M. I. Hammad,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two phase closed thermosyphon is a good heat transfer device. A large heat is transferred from evaporator to condenser with relatively a small temperature difference. In the present work, the heat transfer performance of two phase closed thermosyphon is analyzed experimentally with different cross section shape for the thermosyphon tube. A copper thermosyphon has been constructed with three different cross section shape (circular, square and rectangular having the same hydraulic diameter and length. Methanol is used as the working fluid. The temperature distribution across the thermosyphon outer surface was measured and recorded using thermocouples. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of input power, thermal resistance is indirectly proportional to the input power. The maximum heat transfer coefficient (1815 W/m2C for square cross section at the input power (500 W.

  7. Development of Inverse Analysis Methodology to Estimate Condensation Heat Transfer Coefficient (II)

    The purpose of this work is to develop a method to estimate the heat transfer coefficient on the tube surface of PAFS (Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System) heat exchanger with the data of temperature/pressure measured at several preselected locations. The relationship between the temperatures measured at several preselected locations on the PAFS heat exchanger tube and the heat flux is formulated. The derived formulation is verified through 3 dimensional numerical heat transfer calculations

  8. Heat transfer coefficient for lead matrixing in disposal containers for used reactor fuel

    In the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, metal matrices with low melting points are being evaluated for their potential to provide support for the shell of disposal containers for used fuel, and to act as an additional barrier to the release of radionuclides. The metal matrix would be incorporated into the container by casting. To study the heat transfer processes during solidification, a steady-state technique was used, involving lead as the cast metal, to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient between the lead and some of the candidate container materials. The existence of an air gap between the cast lead and the container material appeared to control the overall heat transfer coefficient. The experimental observations indicated that the surface topography of the container material influences the heat transfer and that a smoother surface results in a greater heat transfer than a rough surface. The experimental results also showed an increasing heat transfer coefficient with increasing temperature difference across the container base plates; a model developed to base-plate bending can explain the observed results

  9. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling

    Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin...... convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V<0.3 m...

  10. The use of simplex direct search and finite element methods for determination of heat transfer coefficients

    The difficulty in solving heat transfer tasks in machine structures is often involved in determination of heat transfer coefficient on the surface of the given part. The method considered enables this calculation when based only on values of temperature, measured at several arbitrary points within the part. The points may be placed even outside the exposed region. Let us consider a body of general shape with heat transfer on its surface S. Boundary conditions on the part S(4) of the surface S may be known, and on the other part S(B) of the surface S are given either in terms of surrounding temperature, which is supposed to be known, and of heat transfer coefficient. The spatially variable distribution of the latter can be expressed by Langrange's polynomial, determined by unknown values of the heat transfer coefficient in several points on the surface S(B). These values form the vector V, that describes the heat transfer coefficient distribution with accuracy, proportional to the chosen dimension of the vector. In this way the vector defines also a temperature field of the given body. the task is now to find a vector determining such temperature field, that proves the best agreement with experimental results. This is performed by Nelder and Meads direct search optimizing method. The method requires the evaluation of temperature fields, corresponding to the initial set of vectors V. The temperature field is computed by the finite element method using triangular elements with linear approximation of temperatures. In accordance with the foregoing outlines a FORTRAN program for the ICL 1905 computer was written

  11. A correlation to the heat transfer coefficient in nucleate boiling

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer is a complex phenomenon, making the development of a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient rather cumbersome due to the number of physical parameters involved in it. Some authors have followed a pragmatic approach to the problem by correlating the heat transfer coefficient in terms of reduced primitive properties. Two of the most knowledgeable authors who have followed this approach are Gorenflo and Cooper. Comparisons have been performed among results from the correlations proposed by these researchers and experimental results obtained elsewhere for refrigerants R-11, R-113 and R-114. These comparisons have shown that Cooper's correlation is best fitted for halocarbon refrigerants. The correlation proposed by Gorenflo ads the difficulty of including a numerical factor specific for each fluid. Leiner modified Gorenflo's correlation to determine the numerical factor as a function of known physical parameters of the fluid. In present study, the form of this function has been investigated for halocarbon refrigerants. The obtained correlation is written in terms of the following parameters: reduced pressure, eccentric and compressibility factors at the critical state, and a dimensionless specific heat of the vapor phase. The correlation compares well with experimental results. (author)

  12. The Heat Transfer Coefficient of Recycled Concrete Bricks Combination with EPS Insulation Board Wall

    Jianhua Li; Wanlin Cao

    2015-01-01

    Four tectonic forms samples were conducted to test their heat transfer coefficients. By analyzing and comparing the test values and theoretical values of the heat transfer coefficient, a corrected-value calculation method for determining the heat transfer coefficient was proposed; the proposed method was proved to be reasonably correct. The results indicated that the recycled concrete brick wall heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the clay brick wall, the heat transfer coefficien...

  13. Heat and mass transfer across phase boundaries: Estimates of coupling coefficients

    Bedeaux, Dick

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transport across phase boundaries are central in many engineering problems. The systematic description offered by classical non-equilibrium thermodynamics theory, when extended to surfaces, gives the interaction between the two fluxes in terms of coupling coefficients. It is shown in this paper that these coupling coefficients are large. The few experimental and computational results that are available confirm this. Neglect of coupling coefficients, which is common in most models for surface transport, may lead to errors in the heat flux. We present values for the coupling coefficient in a one-component system in terms of the heat of transfer, as obtained from non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, kinetic theory and the integrated non-equilibrium van der Waals' square gradient model.

  14. Estimation of Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficient in Bioreactor

    Zainab Yaquob Atiya

    2012-01-01

    This study is concentrated to investigate the effects of aeration and stirring speed on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KLa). A dynamic technique was used in estimating KLa values in order to achieve the aim of this study.This study was done in 10L bioreactor by using two medias:-1. Dionized water2. Xanthan solution (1 g /L)Moreover, the research covered a comparison between the obtained values of KLa.The Xanthan solution was used because of its higher viscosity in comparison with w...

  15. Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide transfer coefficients. Progress report

    The objectives are to determine transfer coefficients to milk, beef and chicken of four radionuclides for which transfer coefficients were either indetermined or based upon secondary data. The radionuclides are 99Mo, 99Tc, 140Ba, and 131Te. The transfer coefficient for 133I to eggs was also determined, because again only limited data was available in the literature

  16. Fuel-to-cladding heat transfer coefficient into reactor fuel element

    Models describing the fuel-to-cladding heat transfer coefficient in a reactor fuel element are reviewed critically. A new model is developed with contributions from solid, fluid and radiation heat transfer components. It provides a consistent description of the transition from an open gap to the contact case. Model parameters are easily available and highly independent of different combinations of material surfaces. There are no restrictions for fast transients. The model parameters are fitted to 388 data points under reactor conditions. For model verification another 274 data points of steel-steel and aluminium-aluminium interfaces, respectively, were used. The fluid component takes into account peak-to-peak surface roughnesses and, approximatively, also the wavelengths of surface roughnesses. For minor surface roughnesses normally prevailing in reactor fuel elements the model asymptotically yields Ross' and Stoute's model for the open gap, which is thus confirmed. Experimental contact data can be interpreted in very different ways. The new model differs greatly from Ross' and Stoute's contact term and results in better correlation coefficients. The numerical algorithm provides an adequate representation for calculating the fuel-to-cladding heat transfer coefficient in large fuel element structural analysis computer systems. (orig.)

  17. Determining convective heat transfer coefficient using phoenics software package

    Kostikov, A.; Matsevity, Y. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The two methods of determination of such important quantity of heat exchange on a body surface using PHOENICS are suggested in the presentation. The first method consists in a post-processing of results of conjugate heat transfer problem solved by PHOENICS. The second one is solving an inverse heat conduction problem for solid body using PHOENICS. Comparative characteristic of these two methods is represented. (author) 4 refs.

  18. Resonant charge transfer at dielectric surfaces

    Marbach, Johannes; Fehske, Holger

    2012-01-01

    We report on the theoretical description of secondary electron emission due to resonant charge transfer occurring during the collision of metastable nitrogen molecules with dielectric surfaces. The emission is described as a two step process consisting of electron capture to form an intermediate shape resonance and subsequent electron emission by decay of this ion, either due to its natural life time or its interaction with the surface. The electron capture is modeled using the Keldysh Green's function technique and the negative ion decay is described by a combination of the Keldysh technique and a rate equation approach. We find the resonant capture of electrons to be very efficient and the natural decay to be clearly dominating over the surface-induced decay. Secondary electron emission coefficients are calculated for aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and diamond at several kinetic energies of the projectile. With the exception of magnesium oxide the coefficients turn out to be of the order of...

  19. Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide-transfer coefficients

    The elements selected for study of their transfer coefficients to eggs, poultry meat, milk and beef were Mo, Tc, Te, and Ba. The radionuclides used in the study were the gamma-emitting radionuclides 99Mo, /sup 123m/Te and 133Ba. 133Ba was selected because 140Ba-140La is produced infrequently and availability was uncertain. 133Ba has a great advantage for our type of experiment because of its longer physical half-life. 99Tc is a pure beta-emitter and was used in the first three animal experiments because we could not obtain the gamma-emitting /sup 95m/Tc. A supply of this nuclide was recently obtained, however, for the second cow experiment

  20. Heat transfer coefficient determination for flow boiling in vertical and horizontal minichannels

    Piasecka Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of boiling heat transfer research during FC-72 laminar flow along a minichannel of 1 mm depth, positioned vertically and horizontally, with an enhanced heating surface. One glass pane allows to determine the temperature of the heating wall by liquid crystal thermography. Calculations are aimed at the evaluation of one- and two-dimensional heat transfer approaches to determine the local heat transfer coefficient. In the one-dimensional approach only the direction of the flow in the channel is considered. In the two-dimensional approach the inverse problem in the heating wall and the direct problem in the glass barrier were solved by the finite element method with Trefftz functions as shape functions (FEMT. The developed flow boiling area was studied. Heat transfer coefficient values obtained for the horizontal minichannel were higher than those obtained for the vertical one. When the heat flux supplied to heating wall grows, the share of gas-phase increases leading to the heat transfer coefficient decreases. The same courses of the experiment were observed for the two applied methods, but the results obtained in the one-dimensional approach are considerably higher than in the two-dimensional one. One-dimensional approach seems to be less sensitive to measurement errors.

  1. The Heat Transfer Coefficient of Recycled Concrete Bricks Combination with EPS Insulation Board Wall

    Jianhua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Four tectonic forms samples were conducted to test their heat transfer coefficients. By analyzing and comparing the test values and theoretical values of the heat transfer coefficient, a corrected-value calculation method for determining the heat transfer coefficient was proposed; the proposed method was proved to be reasonably correct. The results indicated that the recycled concrete brick wall heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the clay brick wall, the heat transfer coefficient of recycled concrete brick wall could be effectively reduced when combined with the EPS insulation board, and the sandwich insulation type was better than that of external thermal insulation type.

  2. Heat transfer from rough surfaces

    Artificial roughness is often used in nuclear reactors to improve the thermal performance of the fuel elements. Although these are made up of clusters of rods, the experiments to measure the heat transfer and friction coefficients of roughness are performed with single rods contained in smooth tubes. This work illustrated a new transformation method to obtain data applicable to reactor fuel elements from these annulus experiments. New experimental friction data are presented for ten rods, each with a different artificial roughness made up of two-dimensional rectangular ribs. For each rod four tests have been performed, each in a different outer smooth tube. For two of these rods, each for two different outer tubes, heat transfer data are also given. The friction and heat transfer data, transformed with the present method, are correlated by simple equations. In the paper, these equations are applied to a case typical for a Gas Cooled Fast Reactor fuel element. (orig.)

  3. Determination of interfacial heat transfer coefficient and its application in high pressure die casting process

    Cao Yongyou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the research progress of the interfacial heat transfer in high pressure die casting (HPDC is reviewed. Results including determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC, influence of casting thickness, process parameters and casting alloys on the IHTC are summarized and discussed. A thermal boundary condition model was developed based on the two correlations: (a IHTC and casting solid fraction and (b IHTC peak value and initial die surface temperature. The boundary model was then applied during the determination of the temperature field in HPDC and excellent agreement was found.

  4. Study of a high performance evaporative heat transfer surface

    Saaski, E. W.; Hamasaki, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    An evaporative surface is described for heat pipes and other two-phase heat transfer applications that consists of a hybrid composition of V-grooves and capillary wicking. Characteristics of the surface include both a high heat transfer coefficient and high heat flux capability relative to conventional open-faced screw thread surfaces. With a groove density of 12.6 cm/1 and ammonia working fluid, heat transfer coefficients in the range of 1 to 2 W/sq cm have been measured along with maximum heat flux densities in excess of 20 W/sq cm. A peak heat transfer coefficient in excess of 2.3 W/sq cm was measured with a 37.8 cm/1 hybrid surface.

  5. Estimation of Extract Yield and Mass Transfer Coefficient in Solvent Extraction of Lubricating Oil

    Hussain K. Hussain

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to suggest relations for estimating yield and properties of the improved light lubricating oil fraction produced from furfural extraction process by using specified regression.Mass transfer in mixer-settler has been studied. Mass transfer coefficient of continuous phase, mass transfer coefficient of dispersed phase and the overall mass transfer coefficient extraction of light lubes oil distillate fraction by furfural are calculated in addition to all physical pr...

  6. Heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations

    An experimental investigation is carried out study the behaviour of heat transfer in pool boiling from a vertical and inclined heated tube at atmospheric pressure. An imperial correlation joining the different parameters affecting the heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations is developed. Two test sections (zircaloy-4 and stainless steel) of 16 n n outer diameter and 120 nm length are investigated. Four levels of heat flux are used for heating the two lest sections (e.g. 381, 518, 721 and 929 k.watt/n 2). The maximum surface temperature achieved is 146.5 degree c for both materials, and the maximum bulk temperature is 95 degree C. It is found that the average heat transfer coefficient is inversely proportional with heated length l, where it reaches a constant value in the horizontal position. The heat transfer coefficient curves at various inclinations with respect to the heated tube length pass around one point which is defined as limit length

  7. Inverse identification of interfacial heat transfer coefficient between the casting and metal mold using neural network

    The effect of the heat transfer coefficient at the casting-mold interface is of prime importance to improve the casting quality, especially for castings in metal molds. However, it is difficult to determine the values of heat transfer coefficient from experiments due to the influence of various factors, such as contacting pressure, oxides on surfaces, roughness of surfaces, coating material, coating thickness and gap formation caused by the deformation of casting and mold, etc. In the present paper, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the casting and metal mold is identified by using the method of inverse analysis based on measured temperatures, neural network with back-propagation algorithm and numerical simulation. Then, by applying the identified IHTC in finite element analysis, the comparison between numerical calculated and experimental results is made to verify the correctness of method. The results show that the numerical calculated temperatures are in good agreement with experimental ones. These demonstrate that the method of inverse analysis is a feasible and effective tool for determination of the casting-mold IHTC. In addition, it is found that the identified IHTC varies with time during the casting solidification and varies in the range of about 100-3200 Wm-2K-1. The characteristics of the time-varying IHTC have also been discussed.

  8. Determining heat transfer coefficients in radial flow through a polyethylene packed

    Luís Patiño

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A numerical-experimental methodology was used for determining interstitial heat transfer coefficients in water flowing through po-rous media where it was not in heat balance with the solid phase. Heat transfer coefficients were obtained through the single blow transient test method, combining experimental test equipment results with a mathematical model’s numerical solution. The partial differential equation system produced by the mathematical model was resolved by a numerical finite volume method-ba-sed methodology. Experimental tests and numerical solutions were satisfactorily carried out for different values from the fluid’s surface speed from the entrance to the bed and for different porosity values, finding that Nusselt numbers increased when Reynolds numbers also increased and that Nusselt numbers increased when porosity decreased. A 650 Reynolds number and 0.375 porosity gave a Nusselt number of up to 2.8.

  9. Experimental investigation of thermal conductivity coefficient and heat exchange between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surface

    Stojanovic, B.; Janevski, J.; M. Stojiljkovic

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents experimental research of thermal conductivity coefficients of the siliceous sand bed fluidized by air and an experimental investigation of the particle size influence on the heat transfer coefficient between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surfaces. The measurements were performed for the specific fluidization velocity and sand particle diameters d p=0.3, 0.5, 0.9 mm. The industrial use of fluidized beds has been increasing rapidly in the past 20 years owing to their us...

  10. DMS gas transfer coefficients from algal blooms in the Southern Ocean

    T. G. Bell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Air/sea dimethylsulfide (DMS fluxes and bulk air/sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February/March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (>15 nM. Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s−1. Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind speeds is positively skewed. The flux and seawater DMS distributions were also positively skewed, which suggests that eddy covariance-derived gas transfer velocities are consistently influenced by additional, log-normal noise. A~flux footprint analysis was conducted during a transect into the prevailing wind and through elevated DMS levels in the dinoflagellate bloom. Accounting for the temporal/spatial separation between flux and seawater concentration significantly reduces the scatter in computed transfer velocity. The SOAP gas transfer velocity data shows no obvious modification of the gas transfer-wind speed relationship by biological activity or waves. This study highlights the challenges associated with eddy covariance gas transfer measurements in biologically active and heterogeneous bloom environments.

  11. Metal vapor condensation under high pressure (mercury vapor to 500 psia). [Heat transfer coefficients

    Hsieh, S.; Bonilla, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    Mercury vapor up to 500 psia was condensed outside a cylindrical tube in both horizontal and vertical positions. Results show consistently low heat transfer coefficients compared to Nusselt's theory. Two auxiliary mercury vapor condensers downstream of the boiler vent were used to control and safeguard the system. Constantan wires were spot welded on the surface inside the test condenser tube. The heat flux ranged from 20,000 to 45,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/ and the temperature differences between vapor and condensing wall from 6 to 50/sup 0/F. The condensation heat transfer coefficients, ranging from 850 to 3,500 Btu/h-/sup 0/F-ft/sup 2/, are only about 3 to 9 percent of those predicted by Nusselt's theory. Due to the positive pressure in the system for most test runs, the chance of any in-leakage of noncondensable gases into the boiler is extremely small. Since no substantial change of heat transfer rate resulted from wide variations in the heat load on the reflux condenser at some specific heat flux on the test condenser tube, the low heat transfer rate of mercury vapor condensation was not due to the presence of any non-condensable gas. The test data for high vapor pressure up to 500 psia reveal that the heat transfer coefficient is independent of the vapor pressure level. The condensation coefficients calculated based on kinetic theory are much smaller than unity and decreasewith vapor pressure. It is hypothesized that dimer content in the metal vapor phase might behave as non-condensable or semi-condensable gas and create a diffusional barrier at the vapor-liquid interface near the condensate film. This dimer vapor could be the main cause of interfacial resistance during metal vapor condensation process. 41 figures, 7 tables, 58 references. (DLC)

  12. Experimental investigation of drag coefficients of gobi surfaces

    DONG; Zhibao; (董治宝); QU; Jianjun; (屈建军); LIU; Xiaoping; (刘小平),; ZHANG; Weiming; (张伟民); &; WANG; Xunming; (王训明)

    2002-01-01

    The response of gobi surfaces to the near-surface air flow can be characterized quantitatively by drag coefficients. By using wind tunnel tests, an attempt is made to define the relationship between the drag coefficients of gobi surfaces and gravel size and coverage. It is concluded that the drag coefficients of gobi surfaces tend to be constants when gravel coverage is over 40%-50%. Consequently, we think that the gobi deflation planes expanding vastly in the arid Northwestern China are aerodynamically stable, at least not the supplying sources of current dust storms, and therefore the emphasis on dust storm control should be paid on the so-called "earth gobi" that has low gravel coverage. The prediction model for drag coefficients of gobi surfaces has been developed by regressing drag coefficients on gravel size and coverage, the predicted results are in reasonably good agreement with wind tunnel results (R 2 = 0.94). The change of drag coefficients with gravel friction Reynolds number implies that the development extent of drag effect increases with gravel size and coverage.

  13. Mass transfer coefficients in a hanson mixer-settler extraction column

    M. Torab-Mostaedi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric overall mass transfer coefficients in a pilot plant Hanson mixer-settler extraction column of seven stages have been measured using toluene-acetone-water system. The effects of agitation speed and dispersed and continuous phases flow rates on volumetric overall mass transfer coefficients have been investigated. The results show that the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient increases with increase in agitation speed and reaches a maximum. After having reached its maximum, it falls with further increase in agitation speed. It was found that the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient increases with increase in dispersed phase flow rate, while it decreases with increase in continuous phase flow rate. By using interfacial area, the overall mass transfer coefficients for continuous and dispersed phases are determined from volumetric coefficients. An empirical correlation for prediction of the continuous phase overall mass transfer coefficient is proposed in terms of Sherwood and Reynolds numbers. Also the experimental data of the column investigated are compared with data for various extraction columns. Comparison between theoretical models and experimental results for the dispersed phase mass transfer coefficient shows that these models do not have enough accuracy for column design. Using effective diffusivity in the Gröber equation results in more accurate prediction of overall mass transfer coefficient. The prediction of overall mass transfer coefficients from the presented equations is in good agreement with experimental results.

  14. Investigation of the concentration dependence of mass transfer coefficients in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Hao, Weiqiang; Wang, Junde; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2006-12-01

    In order to investigate the concentration dependence of mass transfer coefficients in RPLC, experimental breakthrough curves obtained by staircase frontal analysis (FA) were fitted to the simplified models such as multiplate (MP) model, equilibrium dispersive (ED) model, and transport model, and the sophisticated models such as lumped pore diffusion (POR) model and general rate (GR) model. The MP model was used to obtain the initial guesses of the parameters of the ED and the transport models. Then the best values were obtained by minimizing the differences between theoretical and experimental values with a nonlinear fitting procedure. The values of the parameters of the POR and the GR models can be calculated by using the expressions derived from the plate height equations, which was further validated by using the fitting method. It was found that the mass transfer coefficients would depend on the solute concentration. This can be ascribed to the surface diffusivity, which correlates with the concentration and is lumped into the mass transfer coefficients for both simplified and sophisticated models. PMID:17305235

  15. Assessment of Mass Transfer Coefficients in Coalescing Slug Flow in Vertical Pipes and Applications to Tubular Airlift Membrane Bioreactors

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Berube, P.R.; Nopens, I.

    2011-01-01

    One of the operational challenges associated with membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is the fouling of the membranes. In tubular side-stream MBRs, fouling reduction can be achieved through controlling the hydrodynamics of the two-phase slug flow near the membrane surface. The two-phase slug flow induces......) cannot be applied directly. As an alternative, in this work, a multidisciplinary approach was selected, by exploiting dimensionless analysis using the Sherwood number. Mass transfer coefficients were measured at various superficial velocities of gas and liquid flow in a tubular system. Due to the...... variability of the mass transfer coefficient obtained for each experimental condition, the results were compiled into, mass transfer coefficient histograms (MTH) for analysis. A bimodal MTH was observed, with one peak corresponding to the mass transfer induced by the liquid flow, and the other peak induced by...

  16. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  17. Estimation of grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for emergency situations

    Several studies have been reported on soil to grass equilibrium transfer factors and grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for 137Cs for the environs of different nuclear power plants of both India and other parts of the world. In such studies, the activity concentration of 137Cs is measured in grass collected from different places. Cow's milk samples are collected from nearby localities or from milk dairies and analyzed for 137Cs and the grass to cow's milk transfer coefficient is estimated. In situation where 137Cs is not present in measurable activity concentrations, its stable counterpart (Cs) is measured for the estimation of transfer coefficients. These transfer coefficient values are generally used in theoretical models to estimate the dose to the population for hypothetical situation of emergency. It should be noted that the transfer coefficients obtained for equilibrium conditions may not be totally applicable for emergency situation. However, studies aimed at evaluating transfer coefficients for emergency situations are sparse because nuclear power plants do not release 137Cs during normal operating situations and therefore simulating situation of emergency release is not possible. Hence, the only method to estimate the grass to milk transfer coefficient for emergency situation is to spike the grass with small quantity of stable Cs. This paper reports the results of grass to milk transfer coefficients for stable isotope of Cesium (Cs) for emergency situation

  18. Boiling Heat Transfer on Superhydrophilic, Superhydrophobic, and Superbiphilic Surfaces

    Betz, Amy Rachel; Kim, Chang-Jin 'CJ'; Attinger, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    With recent advances in micro- and nanofabrication, superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces have been developed. The statics and dynamics of fluids on these surfaces have been well characterized. However, few investigations have been made into the potential of these surfaces to control and enhance other transport phenomena. In this article, we characterize pool boiling on surfaces with wettabilities varied from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic, and provide nucleation measurements. The most interesting result of our measurements is that the largest heat transfer coefficients are reached not on surfaces with spatially uniform wettability, but on biphilic surfaces, which juxtapose hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. We develop an analytical model that describes how biphilic surfaces effectively manage the vapor and liquid transport, delaying critical heat flux and maximizing the heat transfer coefficient. Finally, we manufacture and test the first superbiphilic surfaces (juxtaposing superhydrophobic ...

  19. Condensation heat transfer coefficient with noncondensible gases for heat transfer in thermal hydraulic codes

    Banerjee, S.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases plays an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculations using the new model were found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values.

  20. Condensation heat transfer coefficient with noncondensible gases for heat transfer in thermal hydraulic codes

    Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases plays an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculations using the new model were found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values

  1. Surface defects as transfer matrices

    Maruyoshi, Kazunobu

    2016-01-01

    The supersymmetric index of the 4d $\\mathcal{N} = 1$ theory realized by a brane tiling coincides with the partition function of an integrable 2d lattice model. We propose that a class of half-BPS surface defects in brane tiling models are represented on the lattice model side by transfer matrices constructed from L-operators. For the simplest surface defect in theories with $\\mathrm{SU}(2)$ flavor groups, we identify the relevant L-operator as that discovered by Sklyanin in the context of the eight-vertex model. We verify our proposal by computing the indices of class-$\\mathcal{S}$ and -$\\mathcal{S}_k$ theories in the presence of the surface defect.

  2. Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap

    Hożejowska, Sylwia; Musiał, Tomasz; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the number of experimentally determined constants. Known temperature distributions in the enhanced surface and in the fluid helped to determine, from the Robin condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the enhanced surface - fluid contact. The Trefftz method was used to find two-dimensional temperature distributions for the thermal conductive filler layer, enhanced surface and flowing fluid. The method of temperature calculation depended on whether the area of single-phase convection ended with boiling incipience in the gap or the two-phase flow region prevailed, with either fully developed bubbly flow or bubbly-slug flow. In the two-phase flow, the fluid temperature was calculated by Trefftz method. Trefftz functions for the Laplace equation and for the energy equation were used in the calculations.

  3. Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap

    Hożejowska Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the number of experimentally determined constants. Known temperature distributions in the enhanced surface and in the fluid helped to determine, from the Robin condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the enhanced surface – fluid contact. The Trefftz method was used to find two-dimensional temperature distributions for the thermal conductive filler layer, enhanced surface and flowing fluid. The method of temperature calculation depended on whether the area of single-phase convection ended with boiling incipience in the gap or the two-phase flow region prevailed, with either fully developed bubbly flow or bubbly-slug flow. In the two–phase flow, the fluid temperature was calculated by Trefftz method. Trefftz functions for the Laplace equation and for the energy equation were used in the calculations.

  4. Turbulent transfer coefficient and roughness length in a high-altitude lake, Tibetan Plateau

    Li, Zhaoguo; Lyu, Shihua; Zhao, Lin; Wen, Lijuan; Ao, Yinhuan; Wang, Shaoying

    2016-05-01

    A persistent unstable atmospheric boundary layer was observed over Lake Ngoring, caused by higher temperature on the water surface compared with the overlying air. Against this background, the eddy covariance flux data collected from Lake Ngoring were used to analyse the variation of transfer coefficients and roughness lengths for momentum, heat and moisture. Results are discussed and compared with parameterization schemes in a lake model. The drag coefficient and momentum roughness length rapidly decreased with increasing wind velocity, reached a minimum value in the moderate wind velocity and then increased slowly as wind velocity increased further. Under weak wind conditions, the surface tension or small scale capillary wave becomes more important and increases the surface roughness. The scalar roughness length ratio was much larger than unity under weak wind conditions, and it decreased to values near unity as wind velocity exceeded 4.0 m s-1. The lake model could not reproduce well the variation of drag coefficient, or momentum roughness length, versus wind velocity in Lake Ngoring, but it did simulate well the sensible heat and latent heat fluxes, as a result of complementary opposite errors.

  5. Townsend coefficients for electron scattering over dielectric surfaces

    Peck, Timothy L.; Kushner, Mark J.

    1988-01-01

    A method for describing the probability of initiating flashover discharges across dielectric surfaces is presented in which a transport coefficient for electron multiplication similar to the Townsend coefficient used for gas discharges is defined. The coefficient is a function of the scaling parameter (charge released from the cathode)/(cathode-anode separation) and is also a measure of the growth of the sheath on the dielectric surface resulting from electron scattering. Results are discussed as to when the source of seed electrons does not necessarily depend upon field emission at the cathode-vacuum-dielectric triple point. For these conditions, there is a different functional dependence of flashover probability on voltage and geometry than when field emission provides the seed electrons. As a result, criteria previously used to predict flashover discharges may not apply.

  6. Buoyancy flux, turbulence, and the gas transfer coefficient in a stratified lake

    MacIntyre, Sally; Jonsson, Anders; Jansson, Mats; Aberg, Jan; Turney, Damon E.; Miller, Scott D.

    2010-12-01

    Gas fluxes from lakes and other stratified water bodies, computed using conservative values of the gas transfer coefficient k600, have been shown to be a significant component of the carbon cycle. We present a mechanistic analysis of the dominant physical processes modifying k600 in a stratified lake and resulting new models of k600 whose use will enable improved computation of carbon fluxes. Using eddy covariance results, we demonstrate that i) higher values of k600 occur during low to moderate winds with surface cooling than with surface heating; ii) under overnight low wind conditions k600 depends on buoyancy flux β rather than wind speed; iii) the meteorological conditions at the time of measurement and the inertia within the lake determine k600; and iv) eddy covariance estimates of k600 compare well with predictions of k600 using a surface renewal model based on wind speed and β.

  7. Importance of the speciation of radionuclides for the calculation of transfer coefficients: Application to soil-fungus transfer

    Full text: Transfer coefficients are commonly used as an approximation to the problem of quantifying the transit of radionuclides between an ecosystem's different characteristic receptor media. These coefficients are traditionally defined as the quotient between the specific activities of the receptor and the donor compartments. In the present study, the receptors were edible mushrooms and the donor, the soil. However, not all the radioactive contents of a soil are in a condition to be transferred. Instead, the fraction that is available will depend intimately on the capacity of the different compounds to which the radionuclides are associated to be taken up by the fungus. To analyse the cited capacity, we carried out a scheme of chemical speciation of the surface layer (0-5 cm) of the soils corresponding to two forest ecosystems (pine woods) that present a high productivity of mushrooms. This scheme consists of the sequential extraction of the available soil fraction (extractable with NH4OAc), that soluble in dilute acid (extractable with HCl 1M), that soluble in strong acid (extractable with HCl 6M), and the residue. We analysed the presence of different man-made (137Cs, 90Sr) and natural (40K, 226Ra) radionuclides in each of the soil fractions enumerated above and in two representative species of mushroom from the aforementioned two ecosystems: Hebeloma cylindrosporum and Lactarius deliciosus. Specifically, more than 75% of the concentrations of 40K and 137Cs present in the soils studied were found bound to fractions not accessible to exchange reactions (the fraction soluble in strong acid and the residue). This implies that they are not associated to chemical compounds capable of being transferred to the fungi's fruiting bodies. Therefore, it is totally inappropriate to calculate the transfer coefficients in the usual way, since this uses the total activity found in the soil layer being considered. By way of example, for 40K the traditional method

  8. Experimental study on the critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient in nanofluid pool boiling

    Nanofluid is the liquid with dilute dispersion of nano-meter sized solid particles. It is know that the critical heat flux in pool boiling is usually enhanced and the heat transfer coefficient changes rather complicatedly in the nanofluid comparing with the pure liquid. At present, it is believed that the CHF enhancement can mainly be attributed to the nano-particle layer formed on the heated surface during nucleate boiling. Since nano-particles are often agglomerated in the base liquid, it is expected that the dispersion condition of nano-particles in the base liquid has some impact on the formation process of the nano-particle layer and consequently the value of CHF. In this experimental work, systematic investigation was carried out for the effect of the particle dispersion condition in the base liquid on the CHF and the heat transfer coefficient in nucleate pool boiling of water-based nanofluids. In the present experiments using TiO2 nanofluids as the test fluid, the CHF was not influenced significantly by the particle dispersion condition whilst noticeable deterioration of the boiling heat transfer took place only in the case of fine particle dispersion. (author)

  9. A Comparative Study of Heat Transfer Coefficients for Film Condensation

    Wei, Xiaoyong; Fang, Xiande; Rongrong SHI

    2012-01-01

    Film condensation heat transfer has wide applications in a variety of industrial systems. A number of film condensation heat transfer correlations (FCHTCs) have been proposed. However, their predictions are often inconsistent. This paper presents a comparative study of existing FCHTCs. Totally 1214 experimental data points are obtained from 10 published papers, and 14 FCHTCs are reviewed, among which four correlations are used for horizontal flow outside smooth tubes, three for flow ...

  10. Heat transfer coefficient correlation for convective boiling inside plain and micro fin tubes using genetic algorithms

    Two-phase flow heat transfer has been exhaustively studied over recent years. However, in this field several questions remain unanswered. Heat transfer coefficient prediction related to nucleate and convective boiling have been studied using different approaches, numerical, analytical and experimental. In this work, an experimental analysis, data representation and heat transfer coefficient prediction on two-phase heat transfer on nucleate and convective boiling are presented. An empirical correlation is obtained based on genetic algorithms search engine over a dimensional analysis of the two-phase flow heat transfer problem. (author)

  11. The usage of transfer coefficients to describe radionuclide transport from a cow's diet to its milk

    The terms 'transfer coefficient', 'transfer function' and 'transfer rate' are used to describe the transport of radionuclides from a cow's diet to her milk. Simple derivation of these parameters, their interpretations and interrelationships are given, and possible misinterpretations of published values due to imprecise definitions or incorrectly supplied or omitted units are reviewed. (author)

  12. Estimating the workpiece-backingplate heat transfer coefficient in friction stirwelding

    Larsen, Anders; Stolpe, Mathias; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to determine the magnitude and spatial distribution of the heat transfer coefficient between the workpiece and the backingplate in a friction stir welding process using inverse modelling. Design/methodology/approach - The magnitude and distribution of the heat...... yields optimal values for the magnitude and distribution of the heat transfer coefficient. Findings - It is found that the heat transfer coefficient between the workpiece and the backingplate is non-uniform and takes its maximum value in a region below the welding tool. Four different parameterisations...... of the spatial distribution of the heat transfer coefficient are analysed and a simple, two parameter distribution is found to give good results. Originality/value - The heat transfer from workpiece to backingplate is important for the temperature field in the workpiece, and in turn the mechanical...

  13. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    Dančová, Petra; Sitek, P.; Vít, T.

    Liberec : Technical University of Liberec, 2013 - (Vít, T.; Dančová, P.; Novotný, P.), s. 152-155 ISBN 978-80-260-5375-0. [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2013. Kutná hora (CZ), 19.11.2013-22.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : syntetic jet * thermoanemometry * heat transfer Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics

  14. Experimental study of convective coefficient of mass transfer of avocado (Persia americana Mill.)

    Alves, Suerda Bezerra; Luiz, Marcia Ramos; Amorim, Joselma Araujo de; Gusmao, Rennam Pereira de; Gurgel, Jose Mauricio [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (LES/UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar

    2010-07-01

    Most of all energy consumed worldwide comes from fossil fuels derived from petroleum. With the petroleum crisis in the 70 were sought new energy sources, among them renewable. One such source is biodiesel energy, organic matter originated from animal and/or vegetable. Among the various plant species is the avocado (Persia americana Mill.) showing great potential in the production of petroleum extracted from the pulp and the alcohol removed from the seed. The main obstacle for obtaining the petroleum is the high humidity found in the pulp, being necessary to the drying process, which involves the transfer of heat and mass. The aim of this study was to use the mathematical model represented by Newton's Law of Cooling to simulate the mass transfer on the surface of the avocado pulp during the drying process. The equation of the mathematical model was solved numerically and the method of least squares was identified convective coefficient of Mass Transfer. The dryer used in the experimental process was operated with air flow in the vertical, air flow average fixed 3m/s and temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 deg C. The scheme of the dryer used in the research is composed of the following equipment: centrifugal fan, which drives the air-drying; valve, which allows control of airflow; electrical resistance, used for heating air; the drying chamber, where enables measurement of temperature and relative humidity; support for smaller trays; trays smaller, where the samples of the pulp of the avocado are placed; exit of the air of drying for the environment. The result presented shows the ratio of moisture content as a function of temperature over time, where it is possible to also observe that how much bigger the temperature of drying, greater will be the convective coefficient of mass transfer of the avocado. (author)

  15. Experimental measurement of variation of heat transfer coefficient and temperature gradients in 16'' deep fluidised beds

    The object of the experiments was to choose suitable particulate materials for a fluidised bed cooler, to test a deep fluidised bed for uniformity of heat transfer coefficient, and to explore the temperature distribution in a centrally heated annular fluidised bed. This memorandum records the techniques used and some of the practical aspects involved, together with the performance results obtained, for the assistance of other experimenters who may wish to use fluidised beds as a laboratory technique. Mathematical correlation of the results has not been attempted since some of the properties of the bed material were not known and to determine them was beyond the scope of the work programme. Rather, we have compared our results with those of other experimenters. Graphite tubes, for use in steady state thermal stress experiments, are to be heated by a graphite radiant heater situated in the bore and cooled on the outer surface. The tubes are 2 cm. bore, 8 cm. outside diameter and 48 cm. long. The outside temperature of the tubes is to be between 500 deg. C. and 1500 deg. C. It is estimated that the heat transfer rate required for fracture at the outer surface is 30 watts/cm2. This could readily be achieved by cooling with liquid metals, water or high velocity gas. However, serious problems of either materials compatibility or mechanical complexity make these undesirable. A water-cooled fluidised bed of compatible solids fluidised with nitrogen gas can overcome most of these problems and give heat transfer coefficients close to that required, vis. about 0.1 w/cm C . A coolant bed about 20'' long would be required and an annulus of about 2'' radial width round the specimen was considered to be practicable

  16. Effects of heat transfer coefficient treatments on thermal shock fracture prediction for LWR fuel claddings in water quenching

    Accurate modeling of thermal shock induced stresses has become ever most important to emerging accident-tolerant ceramic cladding concepts, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC coated zircaloy. Since fractures of ceramic (entirely ceramic or coated) occur by excessive tensile stresses with linear elasticity, modeling transient stress distribution in the material provides a direct indication of the structural integrity. Indeed, even for the current zircaloy cladding material, the oxide layer formed on the surface - where cracks starts to develop upon water quenching - essentially behaves as a brittle ceramic. Hence, enhanced understanding of thermal shock fracture of a brittle material would fundamentally contribute to safety of nuclear reactors for both the current fuel design and that of the coming future. Understanding thermal shock fracture of a brittle material requires heat transfer rate between the solid and the fluid for transient temperature fields of the solid, and structural response of the solid under the obtained transient temperature fields. In water quenching, a solid experiences dynamic time-varying heat transfer rates with phase changes of the fluid over a short quenching period. Yet, such a dynamic change of heat transfer rates during the water quenching transience has been overlooked in assessments of mechanisms, predictability, and uncertainties for thermal shock fracture. Rather, a time-constant heat transfer coefficient, named 'effective heat transfer coefficient' has become a conventional input to thermal shock fracture analysis. No single constant heat transfer could suffice to depict the actual stress evolution subject to dynamic heat transfer coefficient changes with fluid phase changes. Use of the surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will remarkably increase predictability of thermal shock fracture of brittle materials and complete the picture of stress evolution in the quenched solid. The presented result

  17. Effects of heat transfer coefficient treatments on thermal shock fracture prediction for LWR fuel claddings in water quenching

    Lee, Youho; Lee, Jeong Ik; Cheon, Hee [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Accurate modeling of thermal shock induced stresses has become ever most important to emerging accident-tolerant ceramic cladding concepts, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC coated zircaloy. Since fractures of ceramic (entirely ceramic or coated) occur by excessive tensile stresses with linear elasticity, modeling transient stress distribution in the material provides a direct indication of the structural integrity. Indeed, even for the current zircaloy cladding material, the oxide layer formed on the surface - where cracks starts to develop upon water quenching - essentially behaves as a brittle ceramic. Hence, enhanced understanding of thermal shock fracture of a brittle material would fundamentally contribute to safety of nuclear reactors for both the current fuel design and that of the coming future. Understanding thermal shock fracture of a brittle material requires heat transfer rate between the solid and the fluid for transient temperature fields of the solid, and structural response of the solid under the obtained transient temperature fields. In water quenching, a solid experiences dynamic time-varying heat transfer rates with phase changes of the fluid over a short quenching period. Yet, such a dynamic change of heat transfer rates during the water quenching transience has been overlooked in assessments of mechanisms, predictability, and uncertainties for thermal shock fracture. Rather, a time-constant heat transfer coefficient, named 'effective heat transfer coefficient' has become a conventional input to thermal shock fracture analysis. No single constant heat transfer could suffice to depict the actual stress evolution subject to dynamic heat transfer coefficient changes with fluid phase changes. Use of the surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will remarkably increase predictability of thermal shock fracture of brittle materials and complete the picture of stress evolution in the quenched solid. The presented result

  18. 137Cs transfer coefficients from fodder to cow milk

    The transfer of 137Cs from the components of cows' diets to milk was followed in detail on 10 farms in the north-eastern region of Italy (Friuli-Venezia Giulia) from June to July 1988. Samples of milk, grass and other components of the cows' diet were collected regularly and analysed for radiocaesium content. The transfer factors, calculated for 137Cs after a four-week feeding period with contaminated silage, were higher (0.0064) than those calculated in 1987 in the same area (0.0030). This may be attributable to the fact that the 137Cs associated to the forage administrated to cows in 1988 was completely incorporated in the plant and thus more assimilable to the cattle. (Author)

  19. Determination of the Heat Transfer Coefficient at the Metal-Mold Interface During Centrifugal Casting

    Vacca, Santiago; Martorano, Marcelo A.; Heringer, Romulo; Boccalini, Mário

    2015-05-01

    The heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface ( h MM) has been determined for the first time during the centrifugal casting of a Fe-C alloy tube using the inverse solution method. To apply this method, a centrifugal casting experiment was carried out to measure cooling curves within the tube wall under a mold rotation speed of 900 rpm, imposing a centrifugal force 106 times as large as the gravity force (106 G). As part of the solution method, a comprehensive heat transfer model of the centrifugal casting was also developed and coupled to an optimization algorithm. Finally, the evolution of h MM with time that gives the minimum squared error between measured and calculated cooling curves was obtained. The determined h MM is approximately 870 W m-2 K-1 immediately after melt pouring, decreasing to about 50 W m-2 K-1 when the average temperature of the tube is ~973 K (700 °C), after the end of solidification. Despite the existence of a centrifugal force that could enhance the metal-mold contact, these values are lower than those generally reported for static molds with or without an insulating coating at the mold inner surface. The implemented model shows that the heat loss by radiation is dominant over that by convection at the tube inner surface, causing the formation of a solidification front that meets another front coming from the outer surface of the tube.

  20. Experimental investigation of thermal conductivity coefficient and heat exchange between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surface

    B. Stojanovic

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research of thermal conductivity coefficients of the siliceous sand bed fluidized by air and an experimental investigation of the particle size influence on the heat transfer coefficient between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surfaces. The measurements were performed for the specific fluidization velocity and sand particle diameters d p=0.3, 0.5, 0.9 mm. The industrial use of fluidized beds has been increasing rapidly in the past 20 years owing to their useful characteristics. One of the outstanding characteristics of a fluidized bed is that it tends to maintain a uniform temperature even with nonuniform heat release. On the basis of experimental research, the influence of the process's operational parameters on the obtained values of the bed's thermal conductivity has been analyzed. The results show direct dependence of thermal conductivity on the intensity of mixing, the degree of fluidization, and the size of particles. In the axial direction, the coefficients that have been treated have values a whole order higher than in the radial direction. Comparison of experimental research results with experimental results of other authors shows good agreement and the same tendency of thermal conductivity change. It is well known in the literature that the value of the heat transfer coefficient is the highest in the horizontal and the smallest in the vertical position of the heat exchange surface. Variation of heat transfer, depending on inclination angle is not examined in detail. The difference between the values of the relative heat transfer coefficient between vertical and horizontal heater position for all particle sizes reduces by approximately 15% with the increase of fluidization rate.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OVER THE DIMPLED SURFACE

    Dr. Sachin L. Borse

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past couple of years the focus on using concavities or dimples provides enhanced heat transfer has been documented by a number of researchers. Dimples are used on the surface of internal flow passages because they produce substantial heat transfer augmentation. This project work is concerned with experimentalinvestigation of the forced convection heat transfer over the dimpled surface. The objective of the experiment is to find out the heat transfer and air flow distribution on dimpled surfaces and all the results obtained are compared with those from a flat surface. The varying parameters were i Dimple arrangement on the plate i.e.staggered and inline arrangement and ii Heat input iiiDimple density on the plate. Heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number were measured in a channel with one side dimpled surface. Thespherical type dimples were fabricated, and the diameter and the depth of dimple were 6 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Channel height is 25.4mm, two dimple configurations were tested. The Reynolds number based on the channel hydraulic diameter was varied from 5000 to 15000.Study shown that thermal performance is increasing with Reynolds number. With the inline and staggered dimple arrangement, the heat transfer coefficients, Nusselt number and the thermal performance factors were higher for the staggered arrangement.

  2. COMPUTATION OF MOMENTUM TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND CONVEYANCE CAPACITY IN COMPOUND CHANNELS

    WANG Hua; YANG Ke-jun; CAO Shu-you; LIU Xing-nian

    2007-01-01

    The momentum transfer coefficient is an important parameter for determining the apparent shear stress at the vertical interface between the main channel and its associated flood plains, the cross-sectional mean velocity and the discharge capacity in compound channels. In this article, under the Boussinesq assumption and through analyzing the characteristics of velocity distribution in the interacting region between the main channel and its associated flood plain, the expression of momentum transfer coefficient was theoretically derived. On the basis of force balance, the expression of vertical apparent shear stress was obtained. By applying the experimental data from the British Engineering Research Council Flood Channel Facility (SERC-FCF), the relationship between the momentum transfer coefficient with the relative depth and the ratio of the flood plain width to the main channel width, was established, And hence the conveyance capacity in compound channels was calculated with Liu and Dong's method. The computed results show that the momentum transfer coefficient relationship obtained is viable.

  3. Measurement of Average Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient on Near-Horizontal Tube

    An experimental study is performed to obtain an average heat transfer coefficient around the perimeter of a near horizontal tube. For the test a stainless steel tube of 50.8 mm diameter submerged in water at atmospheric pressure is used. Both subcooled and saturated pool boiling conditions are considered and the inclination angle of the tube is changed from the horizontal position to 9 .deg. in steps of 3 .deg.. In saturated water, the local boiling heat transfer coefficient at the azimuthal angle of 90 .deg. from the tube bottom can be regarded as the average of the coefficients regardless of the tube inclination angles. However, when the water is subcooled the location for the average heat transfer coefficient depends on the inclination angle and the heat flux. It is explained that the major mechanisms changing the heat transfer are closely related with the intensity of the liquid agitation and the generation of big size bubbles through bubble coalescence

  4. Experimental investigation of the effect vertical oscillation on the heat transfer coefficient of the finned tube

    Kadhim S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the effect of the forced vibrations on the free convection heat transfer coefficient using heated longitudinally finned cylinder made of Aluminium. The effect of the vibration frequency ranged from 2 to16 Hz with various heat fluxes ranged from 500-1500 W/m2. It was found that, the relation between the heat transfer coefficient and amplitude of vibration increased for all inclination angles from (0°-45°, while the increment of inclination angle decreases the values of convection heat transfer coefficient. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient ratio (hv/ho of longitudinal finned cylinders in (0° angle was (8% and (30% greater than those for the (30° and (45° respectively.

  5. Measurements of Heat Transfer Coefficients to Cylinders in Shallow Bubble Columns

    Tow, Emily W.; Lienhard, John H.

    2014-01-01

    High heat transfer coefficients and large interfacial areas make bubble columns ideal for dehumidification. However, the effect of geometry on the heat transfer coefficients outside cooling coils in shallow bubble columns, such as those used in multi-stage bubble column dehumidifiers, is poorly understood. The generally-overlooked entry and coalescing regions become important in shallow bubble columns, and there is disagreement on the effects of the coil and column diameters. In this paper, a...

  6. Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Vertical Tube Rising Film Evaporator

    Syed Naveed Ul Hasan; Sultan Ali

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient (U) in a VRF (Vertical Tube Rising Film Evaporator). The aim is to describe the variation of U against different process parameters. Experiments were carried out for laminar flow conditions. The experimental unit is a floor standing tubular framework for a rising film evaporation system. There are many parameters affecting heat transfer coefficient in evaporators, but it was not possible to consider all of them, s...

  7. Determination of the heat transfer coefficient from IRT measurement data using the Trefftz method

    Maciejewska Beata; Strąk Kinga; Piasecka Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the method of heat transfer coefficient determination for boiling research during FC-72 flow in the minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. The heating element was the thin foil, enhanced on the side which comes into contact with fluid in the minichannels. Local values of the heat transfer coefficient were calculated from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature distribution and the derivative of the foil temperature were obtained by solving th...

  8. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient in the transition region of tube flow

    Heat transfer coefficient and friction factor were obtained experimentally for a circular tube in the transition region from the laminar to the turbulent flow. The measurements were made for two different kinds of intermittently turbulent regions; i.e., puff and slug. A relation between the heat transfer coefficient and the intermittency was examined. Variation of gas temperature was observed and found to be also intermittent. (author)

  9. Transfer coefficients to terrestrial food products in equilibrium assessment models for nuclear installations

    Transfer coefficients have become virtually indispensible in the study of the fate of radioisotopes released from nuclear installations. These coefficients are used in equilibrium assessment models where they specify the degree of transfer in food chains of individual radioisotopes from soil to plant products and from feed or forage and drinking water to animal products and ultimately to man. Information on transfer coefficients for terrestrial food chain models is very piecemeal and occurs in a wide variety of journals and reports. To enable us to choose or determine suitable values for assessments, we have addressed the following aspects of transfer coefficients on a very broad scale: (1) definitions, (2) equilibrium assumption, which stipulates that transfer coefficients be restricted to equilibrium or steady rate conditions, (3) assumption of linearity, that is the idea that radioisotope concentrations in food products increase linearly with contamination levels in the soil or animal feed, (4) methods of determination, (5) variability, (6) generic versus site-specific values, (7) statistical aspects, (8) use, (9) sources of currently used values, (10) criteria for revising values, (11) establishment and maintenance of files on transfer coefficients, and (12) future developments. (auth)

  10. Measurement of boiling heat transfer coefficient in liquid nitrogen bath by inverse heat conduction method

    Tao JIN; Jian-ping HONG; Hao ZHENG; Ke TANG; Zhi-hua GAN

    2009-01-01

    Inverse heat conduction method (IHCM)is one of the most effective approaches to obtaining the boiling heat transfer coefficient from measured results.This paper focuses on its application in cryogenic boiling heat transfer.Experiments were conducted on the heattransfer of a stainless steel block in a liquid nitrogen bath.with the assumption of a ID conduction condition to realize fast acquisition of the temperature of the test points inside the block.With the inverse-heat conduction theory and the explicit finite difference model,a solving program was developed to calculate the heat flux and the boiling heat transfer coefficient of a stainless steel block in liquid nitrogen bath based on the temperature acquisition data.Considering the oscillating data and some unsmooth transition points in the inverse-heat-conduction calculation result of the heat-transfer coefficient,a two-step data-fitting procedure was proposed to obtain the expression for the boiling heat transfer coefficients.The coefficient was then verified for accuracy by a comparison between the simulation results using this expression and the verifying experimental results of a stainless steel block.The maximum error with a revised segment fitting iS around 6%.which verifies the feasibility of using IHCM to measure the boiling heat transfer coefficient in liquid nitrogen bath.

  11. Measurement and Prediction of the Average Heat Transfer Coefficient on a Tube

    Most results are for horizontal tubes of diameter ranging 7.6∼51 mm. Only Seethes et al. studied variations in local heat transfer coefficients along the tube periphery while controlling the inclination angle. The main result of the previous investigations is that there is a considerable difference among the local heat transfer coefficients along a tube periphery. This has been the major cause of the discrepancy among the results. It is very important to predict the exact heat transfer coefficient on a tube for the thermal design of tubular type heat exchangers. No results have been reported about the way to predict the average value on a tube except Kang who suggested a method for the horizontal tube. The present study is aimed to find out a way of predicting the average heat transfer coefficient with considering the degree of subcooling and the inclination angle. The average heat transfer coefficient was observed at θ =90 .deg in the saturated water regardless of the tube inclination angle. However, as the water was subcooled the location for the average heat transfer coefficient moves to the lower region of the tube

  12. Investigation of heat transfer coefficient during quenching in various cooling agents

    Highlights: • The highest HTC during quenching in mineral oils occur in temperature 520–550 °C. • The peaks of HTC for polymers exist at lower temperature compared to mineral oils. • Temperature and utilization time of coolant affect the heat transfer coefficient. • Ageing of mineral oils affects their severities; a direction of change is equivocal. -- Abstract: Heat transfer coefficients, HTCs, at the surface of a metal sample during immersion quenching were measured and evaluated using numerical procedures. The boundary inverse heat conduction problem has been defined and solved. A FEM self-developed computer code has been used to obtain a solution to the direct problem. The sensitivity of the method enabled us to examine the effect of various quenching parameters on the heat transfer for two mineral oils and a polymer quenchant. At 800 °C the HTC values were equal to ∼0.5 kW/(m2 K) and ∼3.2 kW/(m2 K), for mineral oils and a polymer coolant, respectively. They increased to ∼4.7 kW/(m2 K) – oil A, ∼6.0 kW/(m2 K) – oil B and ∼7.4 kW/(m2 K) – polymer, respectively. The peak of HTC was sharp and occurred at a narrow temperature interval between 520 and 550 °C for the oils, whereas for the polymer, the peak was lower by approx. 100 K and flat over 100–120 K interval. Subsequently HTC decreased, and at ∼150 °C the values were ∼0.5 kW/(m2 K) and ∼2.0 kW/(m2 K), for mineral oils and a water polymer coolant, respectively

  13. Determining the surface roughness coefficient by 3D Scanner

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several test methods can be used in the laboratory to determine the roughness of rock joint surfaces.However, true roughness can be distorted and underestimated by the differences in the sampling interval of themeasurement methods. Thus, these measurement methods produce a dead zone and distorted roughness profiles.In this paper a new rock joint surface roughness measurement method is presented, with the use of a camera-typethree-dimensional (3D scanner as an alternative to current methods. For this study, the surfaces of ten samples oftuff were digitized by means of a 3D scanner, and the results were compared with the corresponding Rock JointCoefficient (JRC values. Up until now such 3D scanner have been mostly used in the automotive industry, whereastheir use for comparison with obtained JRC coefficient values in rock mechanics is presented here for the first time.The proposed new method is a faster, more precise and more accurate than other existing test methods, and is apromising technique for use in this area of study in the future.

  14. Sputtered metal source for rate coefficient measurements of asymmetric charge transfer reactions

    Complete text of publication follows. Asymmetric charge transfer (ACT) reactions between noble gas ions and metal atoms play an important role in numerous glow discharge applications. Due to the sputtering effect of ions impinging on the cathode surface significant metal density can be created in the cathode area of dc noble gas discharges. These metal atoms are then ionized and excited in the negative glow region, which is utilized in glow discharge spectroscopy (GDS) applications. ACT represents an important source of excited metal ions in the negative glow. Numerical modeling of the cathode region of a sputtering discharge requires rate coefficient values of ACT reactions as input data [Bogaerts et al. J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom. 11 (1996) 841]. There are rate coefficient values available in the literature only for volatile metals - in combination with different noble gas ions - that can be evaporated at relatively low temperatures (e.g. Hg, Zn, Cd etc.). However, data for other metals (Cu, Fe, Ag, etc.) have not been measured yet. The aim of this work is to build a metal source that can be applied for rate coefficient measurements of ACT reactions. The new sputtered metal source operates at room temperature creating homogeneous spatial distribution of metal atoms in a 9 cm3 region. Four hollow-cathode discharges - placed symmetrically around the central region - provide the needed metal density in the order of 5 x 1011 cm-3 as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The future work focuses on the ACT rate coefficient measurements. The authors kindly acknowledge the support by the MRTN-CT-035459.

  15. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  16. Study of the measurement about the apparent heat transfer coefficient of solid uranium hexafluoride

    In order to provide the conditions for designing the congealed accept container of uranium hexafluoride, a set of experiment system of measuring apparent heat transfer coefficient in which the small-sized congealed accept container was considered as main equipment was set up. Then the experiments of loading and unloading uranium hexafluoride were carried out. The process of loading and unloading uranium hexafluoride in small-sized congealed accept container were simulated by the barrel model of steady heat transfer in this paper, and the apparent heat transfer coefficient of solid uranium hexafluoride was obtained. (authors)

  17. Dynamics of liquid nitrogen cooling process of solid surface at wetting contact coefficient

    Smakulski, P.; Pietrowicz, S.

    2015-12-01

    Liquid cryogens cooling by direct contact is very often used as a method for decreasing the temperature of electronic devices or equipment i.e. HTS cables. Somehow, cooldown process conducted in that way could not be optimized, because of cryogen pool boiling characteristic and low value of the heat transfer coefficient. One of the possibilities to increase the efficiency of heat transfer, as well as the efficiency of cooling itself, it is to use a spray cooling method. The paper shows dynamics analysis of liquid nitrogen cooling solid surface process. The model of heat transfer for the single droplet of liquid nitrogen, which hits on a flat and smooth surface with respect to the different Weber numbers, is shown. Temperature profiles in calculation domains are presented, as well as the required cooling time. The numerical calculations are performed for different initial and boundary conditions, to study how the wetting contact coefficient is changing, and how it contributed to heat transfer between solid and liquid cryogen.

  18. Prediction of overall heat transfer coefficient for RMI insulation using the test and analysis

    Both parts of shell and layers have different thermal transfer flow; shell-part is conductivity loss, layer is convective and radiative loss that would contribute to calculate the total heat value with difficulty. We developed the new method about prediction of RMI's total value by separating the shell and layer as a function of heat resistivity. Whereas heat transfer value at the insulation shell is calculated by CFD analysis according to various insulation sizes, multi-layer would be done by thermal test. These predicted models are compared with final insulation sample of overall heat transfer value for the validation. RMI insulation was investigated by GHP (guarded hot plate) measuring instrument (inner-layer) and thermal analysis simulation(CFD method) to predict the approximate value of overall heat transfer. The results are as follows. - Thickness of out-shell as same meaning of outshell ratio is determined very carefully at RMI design. Because it can lead to very large changes in heat transfer. For example, whereas thickness of out-shell with 0.1mm(0.13%) shows 0.16 W/m2K through surface of out-shell, that of 0.4mm(0.53%) thickness is 0.49 W/m2K which is increased nonlinearly. - Inner-layer and out-shell of RMI is arranged in parallel, so that overall heat transfer coefficient would be written with sum of each part. For example, at the condition of 70 .deg. C, inner-layer part(0.06mm) is 0.56 W/m2K and out-shell part(0.7mm) is 0.72 W/m2K, and overall value is 1.28 W/m2K. - We could expect that heat transfer value is changed according to out-shell ratio, because out-shell ratio as conductivity loss is connected with insulation size and inner-layer as radiation blocking is independent

  19. Estimation of grass to milk transfer coefficient for Strontium for emergency situations

    The grass to milk transfer coefficient is usually represented as Fm values. This paper reports the results of grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for Strontium for emergency situation. An experimental grass field was developed in Kaiga region and 2 cows were adopted for collecting milk samples regularly. Grass was cut from the field and spiked with very low concentration of stable Strontium, taken in the form of Sr(No3)2, to simulate a sudden deposition of Strontium on grass and fed to the adopted cows. The milk samples were collected during normal milking periods (morning and evening) for several days and analyzed. The peak concentration of Sr in milk was observed during time period 12-36 hrs after the intake of spiked grass. The mean value of transfer coefficient was found to be 1.4 x 10-3 d L-1. The grass to milk transfer coefficient values observed under spiked conditions were similar to that observed for equilibrium transfer coefficient for Kaiga region. (author)

  20. A power perturbation technique for the measurement of fuel-to-coolant heat transfer coefficients in fast reactors

    This technique provides a method of obtaining average fuel to coolant heat transfer coefficients for individual fuel subassemblies in fast reactors. A series of experiments on the UK prototype fast reactor (PFR) over the period 1977-1979 have demonstrated that the technique is simple, requires no special instrumentation other than thermocouples to monitor coolant outlet temperatures, and the measurement can be made during normal reactor operation. Thus it is possible to determine how heat transfer coefficients change with operating conditions and with the degree of burn-up in the fuel. The analysis of a single experiment is presented to illustrate the technique. This was conducted at a single reduced power level of 200 thermal megawatts for two different primary coolant flow rates, both steady fractions of the maximum (0.88 and 0.47). Cyclic and single-step perturbations of about 10% amplitude were impressed on the steady power and the delayed coolant temperature response at subassembly outlets was monitored. Burn-ups in the subassemblies ranged between 1.0% and 4.7%. From the measured delays at the two flows it was possible to determine the fuel time-constant and hence the fuel-to-coolant heat transfer coefficient. It was also shown that a simple, lumped-element, heat transfer model can be used to obtain sufficiently accurate estimates from measurements at just one coolant flow. Fuel surface-to-coolant thermal conductances (i.e. gap conductances) were subsequently derived from the heat transfer coefficients. These ranged between 2.4 kW m-2K-1 and 3.3 kW m-2K-1 with the smaller conductances being obtained for those fuel elements with the larger degree of burn-up. These values are lower than expected but consistent with a higher than expected value for the negative power coefficient of reactivity feedback which has been observed at reduced power. (orig.)

  1. Purge and trap method to determine alpha factors of VOC liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical approach and laboratory practice of determining the alpha factors of volatile organic compound (VOC) liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients are present in this study.Using Purge Trap Concentrator, VOC spiked water samples are purged by high-purity nitrogen in the laboratory, the VOC liquid-phase mass transfer rate constants under the laboratory conditions are then obtained by observing the variation of VOCs purged out of the water with the purge time.The alpha factors of VOC liquid-phase mass transfer coefficients are calculated as the ratios of the liquid-phase mass transfer rate constants in real water samples to their counterparts in pure water under the same experimental conditions. This direct and fast approach is easy to control in the laboratory, and would benefit mutual comparison among researchers, so might be useful for thestudy of VOC mass transfer across the liquid-gas interface.

  2. Estimation of air gap and heat transfer coefficient at different faces of Al and Al-Si castings solidifying in permanent mould

    Taha, M.A.; El-Mahallawy, N.A. [Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Design and Production Engineering; El-Mestekawi, M.T.; Hassan, A.A. [Higher Education Institute, Tenth Ramadan City (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    In the casting processes, the heat transfer coefficient at the metal/mould interface is an important controlling factor for the solidification rate and the resulting structure and mechanical properties. Several factors interact to determine its value, among which are the type of metal/alloy, the mould material and surface conditions, the mould and pouring temperatures, casting configuration, and the type of gases at the interfacial air gap formed. It is also time dependent. In this work, the air gap formation was computed using a numerical model of solidification, taking into consideration the shrinkage and expansion of the metal and mould, gas film formation, and the metallostatic pressure. The variation of the air gap formation and heat transfer coefficient at the metal mould interface are studied at the top, bottom, and side surfaces of AI and AI-Si castings in a permanent mould in the form of a simple rectangular parallelepiped. The results show that the air gap formation and the heat transfer coefficient are different for the different casting surfaces. The bottom surface where the metallostatic pressure makes for good contact between the metal and the mould exhibits the highest heat transfer coefficient. For the sidewalls, the air gap was found to depend on the casting thickness as the larger the thickness the larger the air gap. The air gap and heat transfer coefficient also depend on the surface roughness of the mould, the alloy type, and the melt superheat. The air gap is relatively large for low values of melt superheat. The better the surface finish, the higher the heat transfer coefficient in the first few seconds after pouring. For AI-Si alloys, the heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing Si content. (author)

  3. Estimation of Extract Yield and Mass Transfer Coefficient in Solvent Extraction of Lubricating Oil

    Hussain K. Hussain

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was conducted to suggest relations for estimating yield and properties of the improved light lubricating oil fraction produced from furfural extraction process by using specified regression.Mass transfer in mixer-settler has been studied. Mass transfer coefficient of continuous phase, mass transfer coefficient of dispersed phase and the overall mass transfer coefficient extraction of light lubes oil distillate fraction by furfural are calculated in addition to all physical properties of individual components and the extraction mixtures.The effect of extraction variables were studied such as extraction temperature which ranges from 70 to 110°C and solvent to oil ratio which ranges from 1:1 to 4:1 (wt/wt were studied.The results of this investigation show that the extract yield E decreased with decreasing solvent to oil ratio in extract layer and increased with increasing temperature. The fraction of total solvent in the raffinate phase decreased with increasing oil to solvent ratio in raffinate layer and increased with increasing temperature. Solvent to oil ratio in extract layer decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing solvent to charge oil ratio at constant temperature. Oil to solvent ratio in raffinate decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing solvent to charge oil ratio at constant temperature.Estimated functions are the best modeling function for prediction extraction data at various operating conditions. Mass transfer coefficient of continuous phase kc and mass transfer coefficient of dispersed phase kd are increased with increasing temperature and solvent charge to oil ratio at constant temperature. The over all mass transfer coefficient Kod is increased with increasing temperature and solvent to charge oil ratio; while Kod a is increased with temperature and decreased with solvent to charge oil ratio.

  4. The influence of surfactant on mass transfer coefficients in evaporation of volatile organic compound from water basin

    Bunyakan, C.

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been found in wastewater of many chemical industries. Evaporation of VOCs from open water basin in waste treatment facilities causes air-pollution and has been regulated in many countries. Reduction or prevention of VOCs evaporation from open water basin is then necessary. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of surface film generated by an insoluble surfactant on the mass transfer coefficient of VOCs evaporating from water. Hexadecanol and octadecanol were used as surfactant in this investigation with the amount in the range of 0 to 35 μg/cm2 and 0 to 25 μg/cm2, respectively. The VOCs used in this study were methanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and toluene. The experimental results showed that the surfactant film can reduce the gas film and liquid coefficients by 56 and 80 %, respectively. The suitable amounts of the surfactant were 25 μg/cm2 for hexadecanol and 15 μg/cm2 for octadecanol. From this investigation we can conclude that covering the water surface with a film of hexadecanol or octadecanol could significantly reduce the VOCs evaporation rate.Finally, the empirical equations correlating gas film and liquid film coefficient to amount of surfactants were developed and verified against the experimental data. The predicted values of the overall mass transfer coefficients, obtained by using these empirical equations, were in good agreement with the measured values. Thus the empirical equations of mass transfer coefficients developed in this work can be used to predict the evaporation rates of VOCs from water surface covered by hexadecanol or octadecanol film.

  5. Enhancement of heat transfer coefficient multi-metallic nanofluid with ANFIS modeling for thermophysical properties

    Balla Hyder H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu and Zn-water nanofluid is a suspension of the Cu and Zn nanoparticles with the size 50 nm in the water base fluid for different volume fractions to enhance its Thermophysical properties. The determination and measuring the enhancement of Thermophysical properties depends on many limitations. Nanoparticles were suspended in a base fluid to prepare a nanofluid. A coated transient hot wire apparatus was calibrated after the building of the all systems. The vibro-viscometer was used to measure the dynamic viscosity. The measured dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity with all parameters affected on the measurements such as base fluids thermal conductivity, volume factions, and the temperatures of the base fluid were used as input to the Artificial Neural Fuzzy inference system to modeling both dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. Then, the ANFIS modeling equations were used to calculate the enhancement in heat transfer coefficient using CFD software. The heat transfer coefficient was determined for flowing flow in a circular pipe at constant heat flux. It was found that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid was highly affected by the volume fraction of nanoparticles. A comparison of the thermal conductivity ratio for different volume fractions was undertaken. The heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid was found to be higher than its base fluid. Comparisons of convective heat transfer coefficients for Cu and Zn nanofluids with the other correlation for the nanofluids heat transfer enhancement are presented. Moreover, the flow demonstrates anomalous enhancement in heat transfer nanofluids.

  6. Transfer coefficient study of Sr-90 in the soil-grass-milk chain for Cuba

    One of the most important problems in modern radioecology is the lack of able information about the features of radionuclide migration in tropical and subtropical environment. The development of nuclear energy and the enhancing in the applications of nuclear techniques in those latitudes indicate that studies in this area are necessary. Cuba is carrying out studies on radioecological characterization of the principal food chains in the country. One of the objectives of these studies is to define the values of the transfer coefficients to be used in the evaluation programs for the assessment of the radiological impact of practices which involve ionizing radiation. This paper shows the results obtained in the determination of Sr-90 transfer coefficients in soil-grass-milk food chain in 'La Quebrada', a place near the Havana City where an important part of the milk that the citizens consume is produced. Transfer coefficients for Sr-90 were calculated on the basis of data collected during 5 years in the region. Soil-grass transfer coefficients are in the range 0.18-5 while grass-milk coefficients are in the range of 1.2x10-4 - 6x10-3 day/L. These values are in accordance with values reported by other authors in the literature. (authors). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Variation of the transfer coefficient for radiocaesium transport to sheep's milk during a complete lactation period

    The variation with time in the transfer coefficient for radiocaesium transport to sheep's milk was measured during an entire lactation period. One hundred and forty ewes were used. The animals were segregated into groups of six ewes and throughout their lactation period, every week one of the groups was given a diet of ground wheat, contaminated with radiocaesium from the Chernobyl accident. The results showed an increase of radiocaesium activity concentration in the milk by a factor of three, over the 21-week lactation period. A significant correlation was found between transfer coefficients for radiocaesium and average daily milk yield. (Author)

  8. Spin transfer coefficients for the (p suprho,n suprho) reaction in the plane wave approximation

    Lee, H S; Kim, B T

    1998-01-01

    The spin transfer coefficients D sub n sub n (theta=0 .deg. ) for the intermediate energy charge exchange reaction (p suprho,n suprho) leading to the giant resonances in the continuum region are investigated. The dependence of the spin transfer coefficients on the nuclear wave function, the reaction Q-value, and the effective two-body interaction are studied using the plane wave approximation. It is shown that both the direct and the exchange parts of the tensor interaction play important roles in determining the D sub n sub n value.

  9. Experimental determination of heat transfer coefficients in uranium zirconium hydride fuel rod

    This work presents the experiments and theoretical analysis to determine the temperature parameter of the uranium zirconium hydride fuel elements, used in the TRIGA IPR-R1 Research Nuclear Reactor. The fuel thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient from the cladding to the coolant were evaluated experimentally. It was also presented a correlation for the gap conductance between the fuel and the cladding. In the case of nuclear fuels the heat parameters become functions of the irradiation as a result of change in the chemical and physical composition. The value of the heat transfer coefficients should be determined experimentally. (author)

  10. Experimental determination of heat transfer coefficients in uranium zirconium hydride fuel rod

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Rezende, Hugo C.; Costa, Antonio Carlos L. da [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: amir@cdtn.br; hcr@cdtn.br; aclc@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    This work presents the experiments and theoretical analysis to determine the temperature parameter of the uranium zirconium hydride fuel elements, used in the TRIGA IPR-R1 Research Nuclear Reactor. The fuel thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient from the cladding to the coolant were evaluated experimentally. It was also presented a correlation for the gap conductance between the fuel and the cladding. In the case of nuclear fuels the heat parameters become functions of the irradiation as a result of change in the chemical and physical composition. The value of the heat transfer coefficients should be determined experimentally. (author)

  11. Measuring the heat-transfer coefficient of nanofluid based on copper oxide in a cylindrical channel

    Guzei, D. V.; Minakov, A. V.; Rudyak, V. Ya.; Dekterev, A. A.

    2014-03-01

    The heat-transfer coefficient of nanofluid during its flow in a cylindrical channel is studied experimentally. The studied nanofluid was prepared based on distilled water and CuO nanoparticles. Nanoparticle concentration varied in the range from 0.25 to 2% in the volume. The nanofluid was stabilized using a xanthane gum biopolymer the mass concentration of which did not exceed 0.03%. Considerable intensification of heat transfer was found. The nanofluid appeared to be Newtonian when particle concentrations exceeded 0.25%. Estimates for rheological parameters of the nanofluid and thermal conductivity coefficient have been obtained.

  12. Measurement of mass transfer coefficient in direct contact sulfuric acid concentration for IS process

    Hydrogen is expected to serve as a clean secondary energy, because it can be manufactured from water, used in a variety of energy end-use sectors as fuel, and returned to water after burning. For the realization of hydrogen energy system, development of efficient and economical hydrogen production methods is required to meet the future huge demand of hydrogen. The Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process is a promising candidate of such hydrogen production methods, in which water reacts with iodine and sulfur dioxide to produce hydrogen iodide and sulfuric acid (Bunsen reaction) and the produced acids are then decomposed to produce hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. This study is concerned with the development of IS process equipment named direct contact sulfuric acid concentrator, in which gaseous mixture produced by thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid contacts directly with sulfuric acid solution. In the concentrator, the high temperature heat of the decomposed gas is recovered and used to concentrate sulfuric acid solution and, at the same time, the undecomposed sulfuric acid is condensed and separated from the decomposition products of sulfur dioxide and oxygen. Although the concept is very attractive from the viewpoint of the development of compact and efficient sulfuric acid concentrator, little is known on the heat and mass transfer relevant to the concentrator. Therefore, experimental methods were discussed to acquire the gas-phase mass transfer coefficient required for the optimal design of the concentrator. Assuming the use of wetted-wall column and also of the sulfuric acid of azeotropic composition as the test solution which could eliminate the liquid-phase mass transfer resistance, the column specification and the measurement conditions were determined by which flooding could be avoided and surface wetting could be assured, as well. (author)

  13. Local Mass Transfer Coefficient for Idealized 2D Urban Street Canyon Models

    Leung, Ka Kit; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2011-09-01

    Human activities in urban areas is one of the major sources of anthropogenic releases in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The mechanism of urban morphology for the heat and mass transfer in built environment is thus an attractive topic in the research community. In this paper, a series of laboratory measurements is conducted to elucidate the mass transfer from hypothetical urban roughness constructed by idealized 2D street canyons. The experiments are carried out in the wind tunnel in the University of Hong Kong. The urban ABL structure inside the wind tunnel is controlled by placing small cubic Styrofoam blocks upstream of the test section. The street canyons are fabricated by movable rectangular acrylic blocks so that different building height to street width (aspect) ratios are examined. The height of building blocks is kept minimum to make sure that the urban ABL over the street canyons is high enough for fully developed turbulent flows. The prevailing wind is normal to the street axis, demonstrating the scenario of least pollutant removal from the street canyons to the urban ABL. The sample street canyon is covered by soaked filter papers to represent uniform mass concentrations on the building facades and ground surface. The wet bulb temperature of the filter papers is continuously monitored to ensure saturated conditions. Their weight before and after an experiment is used to measure the amount of water evaporated. Preliminary results illustrate the local mass transfer coefficient distribution for aspect ratios 1/4, 1/2, 1, and 2, which are comparable with those available in literuatre.

  14. Effect of Heat Transfer Coefficient on the Temperature Gradient for Hollow Fiber

    王华平; 余晓蔚; 杨崇倡; 胡学超; 庄毅

    2001-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficient h caused by blowing affects the heat transfer of fiber greatly. Especially,unsymmetrical blowing forms the unsymmetrical temperature gradient on the fiber cross.section. Based on the results of spinning simulation by computer, the changes of heat transfer coefficient on the cross-section along the spinning line and the effects on distributions of temperature gradients were discussedl It is showed that for the spinning simulation of hollow fiber under strong blowing condition, the heat transfer coetticient should bemodified as: h=0.437×10-4[ G/Vρ ( R2/ R2-n2 ) ] -o.333(V2+ 64( VYsin (θ))2)0.167

  15. Measurement of the thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient of a binary bed of beryllium pebbles

    Donne, M.D.; Piazza, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Goraieb, A.; Sordon, G.

    1998-01-01

    The four ITER partners propose to use binary beryllium pebble bed as neutron multiplier. Recently this solution has been adopted for the ITER blanket as well. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket the effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient of the bed have to be known. Therefore at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe heat transfer experiments have been performed with a binary bed of beryllium pebbles and the results have been correlated expressing thermal conductivity and wall heat transfer coefficients as a function of temperature in the bed and of the difference between the thermal expansion of the bed and of that of the confinement walls. The comparison of the obtained correlations with the data available from the literature show a quite good agreement. (author)

  16. Determination of the heat-transfer coefficient and current density profile of gas-discharge plasma

    The spatial distribution of gas temperature in a cylindrical discharge tube is theoretically investigated in respect of heat transfer due to gas thermal conduction and heat exchange with surrounding medium. Based on the obtained results the facilities for experimental determination of the heat-transfer coefficient of gas-discharge plasma and radial profiles of the electron density, discharge current density and radiants are shown

  17. On the generalized correlation equation of two phase heat transfer coefficient in forced-convection boiling

    Investigation of two-phase heat trnsfer in horizontal pipe flow have led to a new generalized correlation for the heat transfer coefficient. The proposed correlation equation is NUTP=3.04 [Pe]0.8 [Bo]0.6 This correlation was tested againts the existing and experimental data obtained on two-pahse heat transfer covering the entire possible flow regimes in a horizontal pipe flow. The correlation produces satisfactory result. (authors). 13 refs, 12 tabs, 2 figs

  18. Turbulent Transfer Coefficients and Calculation of Air Temperature inside Tall Grass Canopies in Land Atmosphere Schemes for Environmental Modeling.

    Mihailovic, D. T.; Alapaty, K.; Lalic, B.; Arsenic, I.; Rajkovic, B.; Malinovic, S.

    2004-10-01

    A method for estimating profiles of turbulent transfer coefficients inside a vegetation canopy and their use in calculating the air temperature inside tall grass canopies in land surface schemes for environmental modeling is presented. The proposed method, based on K theory, is assessed using data measured in a maize canopy. The air temperature inside the canopy is determined diagnostically by a method based on detailed consideration of 1) calculations of turbulent fluxes, 2) the shape of the wind and turbulent transfer coefficient profiles, and 3) calculation of the aerodynamic resistances inside tall grass canopies. An expression for calculating the turbulent transfer coefficient inside sparse tall grass canopies is also suggested, including modification of the corresponding equation for the wind profile inside the canopy. The proposed calculations of K-theory parameters are tested using the Land Air Parameterization Scheme (LAPS). Model outputs of air temperature inside the canopy for 8 17 July 2002 are compared with micrometeorological measurements inside a sunflower field at the Rimski Sancevi experimental site (Serbia). To demonstrate how changes in the specification of canopy density affect the simulation of air temperature inside tall grass canopies and, thus, alter the growth of PBL height, numerical experiments are performed with LAPS coupled with a one-dimensional PBL model over a sunflower field. To examine how the turbulent transfer coefficient inside tall grass canopies over a large domain represents the influence of the underlying surface on the air layer above, sensitivity tests are performed using a coupled system consisting of the NCEP Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model and LAPS.

  19. The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Luo, Benyi; Lu, Yigang

    2008-10-01

    Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link between the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathematical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extraction of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

  20. Evaluation of convective heat transfer coefficient of various crops in cyclone type dryer

    Akpinar, E. Kavak [Mechanical Engineering Department, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: eakpinar@firat.edu.tr

    2005-09-15

    In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of various crops and to investigate the influences of drying air velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer coefficient. Drying was conducted in a convective cyclone type dryer at drying air temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C and velocities of 1 and 1.5 m/s using rectangle shaped potato and apple slices (12.5 x 12.5 x 25 mm) and cylindrical shaped pumpkin slices (35 x 5 mm). The temperature changes of the dried crops and the temperature of the drying air were measured during the drying process. It was found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient varied from crop to crop with a range 30.21406 and 20.65470 W/m{sup 2} C for the crops studied, and it was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient increased in large amounts with the increase of the drying air velocity but increased in small amounts with the rise of the drying air temperature.

  1. Empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient for a rectangular internal-loop airlift bioreactor

    An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...

  2. Determination of heat transfer coefficient with vapor condensation inside the tubes diesel’s radiator sections

    Y.K.Sklifus

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the calculation of heat transfer coefficient during condensation of steam, the mathematical model of temperature distribution in the gas and liquid phases of the coolant and the model of the formation of the condensate film on the walls of the tubes.

  3. Evaluation of convective heat transfer coefficient of various crops in cyclone type dryer

    In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of various crops and to investigate the influences of drying air velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer coefficient. Drying was conducted in a convective cyclone type dryer at drying air temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C and velocities of 1 and 1.5 m/s using rectangle shaped potato and apple slices (12.5 x 12.5 x 25 mm) and cylindrical shaped pumpkin slices (35 x 5 mm). The temperature changes of the dried crops and the temperature of the drying air were measured during the drying process. It was found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient varied from crop to crop with a range 30.21406 and 20.65470 W/m2 C for the crops studied, and it was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient increased in large amounts with the increase of the drying air velocity but increased in small amounts with the rise of the drying air temperature

  4. The ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    2008-01-01

    Based on several hypotheses about the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, the onflow around the solute granule is figured out by the Navier-Stocks equation. In combination with the Higbie’s solute infiltration model, the link be-tween the mass-transfer coefficient and the velocity of flow is found. The mass-transfer coefficient with the ultrasonical effect is compared with that without the ultrasonical effect, and then a new parameter named the ultrasonic-enhanced fac-tor of mass-transfer coefficient is brought forward, which describes the mathe-matical model of the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction process enhanced by ultrasonic. The model gives out the relationships among the ultrasonical power, the ultrasonical frequency, the radius of solute granule and the ultrasonic-enhanced factor of mass-transfer coefficient. The results calculated by this model fit well with the experimental data, including the extraction of Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Oil (CLSO) and Coix Lacryma-jobi Seed Ester (CLSE) from coix seeds and the extrac-tion of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) from the alga by means of the ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (USFE) and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SFE) respectively. This proves the rationality of the ultrasonic-enhanced factor model. The model provides a theoretical basis for the application of ultrasonic-enhanced supercritical fluid extraction technique.

  5. Evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mould interface during flow

    Z. Konopka

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Calculation results concerning the heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mould interface during flow of the AlMg10 alloy in the channel-like cavity of the spiral castability test mould. The experimental cooling curve as well as changes of metal flow velocity have been determined on the basis of the measured metal temperature during flow. The cooling curve equation for the examined alloy, derived from the heat balance condition in a casting-mould system and taking into account experimental data concerning changes in metal temperature and its flow velocity, has enabled evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient at a chosen point of a metal stream along the mould channel. Graphic representations of changes of this coefficient against time and the channel length have been shown.

  6. Soil plant transfer coefficient of 14C-carbofuran in brassica sp. vegetable agroecosystem

    The soil plant transfer coefficient or f factor of 14C-carbofuran pesticide was studied in outdoor lysimeter experiment consisting of Brassica sp. vegetable crop, riverine alluvial clayey soil and Bungor series sandy loam soil. Soil transfer coefficients at 0-10 cm soil depth were 4.38 ± 0.30, 5.76 ± 1.04, 0.99 ± 0.25 and 2.66 ± 0.71; from IX recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, IX recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 0-25 cm soil depth, soil plant transfer coefficients were 8.96 ± 0.91, 10.40 ± 2.63, 2.34 ± 0.68 and 619 ±1.40, from IX recommended application rate in alluvial soil, 2X recommended application rate in alluvial soil, IX recommended application rate in Bungor soil and 2X recommended application rate in Bungor soil, respectively. At 77 days after treatment (DAT), the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in riverine alluvial soil than Bungor soil whereas shoot and root growth was significantly higher in Bungor soil than in riverine alluvial soil. At both 0-10 cm Brassica sp. rooting depth and 0-25 cm soil depth, the soil plant transfer coefficient was significantly higher in 2X recommended application rate of 14C-carbofuran as compared to IX recommended application rate, in both Bungor and riverine alluvial soils. (Author)

  7. A Study of the Heat Transfer Coefficient of a Mini Channel Evaporator with R-134a as Refrigerant

    Dollera, E. B.; Villanueva, E. P.

    2015-09-01

    The present study is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient of the minichannel copper blocks used as evaporator with R-134a as the refrigerant. Experiments were conducted using three evaporator specimens of different channel hydraulic diameters (1.0mm, 2.0mm, 3.0mm). The total length for each channel is 640 mm. The dimension of each is 100mm.x50mm.x20mm. and the outside surfaces were machined to have fins. They were connected to a standard vapour compression refrigeration system. During each run of the experiment, the copper block evaporator was placed inside a small wind tunnel where controlled flow of air from a forced draft fan was introduced for the cooling process. The experimental set-up used data acquisition software and computer-aided simulation software was used to simulate the pressure drop and temperature profiles of the evaporator during the experimental run. The results were then compared with the Shah correlation. The Shah correlation over predicted and under predicted the values as compared with the experimental results for all of the three diameters and high variation for Dh=1.0mm. This indicates that the Shah correlation at small diameters is not the appropriate equation for predicting the heat transfer coefficient. The trend of the heat transfer coefficient is increasing as the size of the diameter increases.

  8. Determination of heat transfer coefficient between a fluid and a wall

    The authors show the extent to which one can assume the existence of a constant heat transfer coefficient between a fluid and a wall in transient thermal conditions, and the means of estimating it. After reviewing investigations reported in the literature (coefficient assumed constant or not), they present two models based on a pulse method: sudden increase in wall temperature, cooling by fluid flow, temperature recording of the wall face not in contact with the fluid-wether or not the fluid is heated. They present the experimental system, define the tranfer coefficient, and make the calculation from the thermogram obtained. For water and air, they analyze the variations in coefficient as a function of fluid flow rate, initial pulse, temperature detector position, and show that the method proposed yields reproducible results

  9. Aggregated transfer coefficients. A simple approach to modelling transfer of radionuclides to food products from semi-natural ecosystems

    A recent VAMP (Validation of Environmental Model Predictions) report collated values for aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag) which can describe the integrated transfer of radiocaesium to food products from semi-natural ecosystems. Further Tag data are presented for sheep and mushrooms which suggest that subdivision of Tag values to take soil type and seasonal variation into account is potentially valuable. For sheep, Tag values for organic soils are generally one to two orders of magnitude higher than those for sandy and clay soils. For most other semi-natural foodstuffs there are currently inadequate data to make such subdivisions. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  10. Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices

    Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R 2), reduced Chi-square (χ 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.

  11. Determination of the heat transfer coefficient from IRT measurement data using the Trefftz method

    Maciejewska, Beata; Strąk, Kinga; Piasecka, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the method of heat transfer coefficient determination for boiling research during FC-72 flow in the minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. The heating element was the thin foil, enhanced on the side which comes into contact with fluid in the minichannels. Local values of the heat transfer coefficient were calculated from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature distribution and the derivative of the foil temperature were obtained by solving the two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem, due to measurements obtained by IRT. Calculations was carried out by the method based on the approximation of the solution of the problem using a linear combination of Trefftz functions. The basic property of this functions is they satisfy the governing equation. Unknown coefficients of linear combination of Trefftz functions are calculated from the minimization of the functional that expresses the mean square error of the approximate solution on the boundary. The results presented as IR thermographs, two-phase flow structure images and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the distance from the channel inlet, were analyzed.

  12. Determination of the heat transfer coefficient from IRT measurement data using the Trefftz method

    Maciejewska Beata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the method of heat transfer coefficient determination for boiling research during FC-72 flow in the minichannels, each 1.7 mm deep, 24 mm wide and 360 mm long. The heating element was the thin foil, enhanced on the side which comes into contact with fluid in the minichannels. Local values of the heat transfer coefficient were calculated from the Robin boundary condition. The foil temperature distribution and the derivative of the foil temperature were obtained by solving the two-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem, due to measurements obtained by IRT. Calculations was carried out by the method based on the approximation of the solution of the problem using a linear combination of Trefftz functions. The basic property of this functions is they satisfy the governing equation. Unknown coefficients of linear combination of Trefftz functions are calculated from the minimization of the functional that expresses the mean square error of the approximate solution on the boundary. The results presented as IR thermographs, two-phase flow structure images and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the distance from the channel inlet, were analyzed.

  13. Engineering photonic band gap in 1D phonic crystals using fresnel coefficients and comparing with the results of transfer matrix meghod

    A Rahmatnezamabad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper photonic band gaps of 1D photonic crystal are compared by using transfer matrix method and Fresnel coefficients method. In Fresnel coefficients method, the refractive indices of each layer and incidence light angle to the surface are used for calculating Fresnel coefficients, and then the necessary and sufficient condition for a 100% reflection from the surface of double layer dielectrics is applied in such a way that reflection coefficient tends to unity so that photonic band gaps are determined. But in transfer matrix method there are some complications needed for solving quadratic partial differential equations and applying continuity of tangent components of fields and Bloch’s condition, though the results are the same

  14. Study for transfer coefficient of iodine from grass to cow milk

    Radioiodine (131I) is one of the radio nuclides likely to get released into the atmosphere in case of a reactor accident, though chances of such an accident are very remote due to stringent engineering safety features. During the short initial phase of accidental release of radioactivity, 131I is transferred through grass-cow milk pathway, leading to significant thyroid dose to those consuming milk, especially infant and children. Transfer coefficients are important for quick evaluation of environmental contamination, during both normal and abnormal operational phases of a nuclear facility. Transfer coefficient of iodine from grass to milk is defined as ratio of iodine concentration in milk (Bq.L-1) obtained at equilibrium for a constant rate of intake of iodine in (Bq.D-1). During normal operation conditions of nuclear power reactor, the release of radioactive iodine isotopes is are too low that they are not present in measurable concentrations in the environment. Hence, studies are to be performed using stable iodine to estimate the transfer coefficient. A method has been developed based on thermal neutron activation analysis (NAA) to estimate the stable iodine concentration present in grass and cow milk. The method involves pre-concentration from matrix, neutron activation and gamma spectrometry and these were standardized

  15. A Study on the Determination of the Seasonal Heat Transfer Coefficient in KURT Under Forced Convection

    In a high-level waste (HLW) repository, heat is generated by the radioactive decay of the waste. This can affect the safety of the repository because the surrounding environment can be changed by the heat transfer through the rock. Thus, it is important to determine the heat transfer coefficient of the atmosphere in the underground repository. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient was estimated by measuring the indoor environmental factors in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) under forced convection. For the experiment, a heater of 5 kw capacity, 2 meters long, was inserted through the tunnel wall in the heating section of KURT in order to heat up the inside of the rock to 90 .deg. C, and fresh air was provided by an air supply fan connected to the outside of the tunnel. The results showed that the average air velocity in the heating section after the provision of the air from outside of the tunnel was 0.81 m/s with the Reynolds number of 310,000 ∼ 340,000. The seasonal heat transfer coefficient in the heating section under forced convection was 7.68 W/m2 K in the summer and 7.24 W/mm2 K in the winter

  16. Enhancement of solubility and mass transfer coefficient of salicylic acid through hydrotropy

    S.THENESHKUMAR; D.GNANAPRAKASH; N.NAGENDRA GANDHI

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of hydrotropes on the solubility and mass transfer coefficient of salicylic acid.The solubility and mass transfer studies were performed using the hydrotropes,i.e.,sodium acetate,sodium salicylate,citric acid,and urea at concentrations of 0~3.0 mol/L and system temperatures of 303-333 K.It was found that the solubility and mass transfer coefficient of salicylic acid increases with increase in hydrotrope concentration and also with system temperature.All hydrotropes used in this work showed an enhancement in solubility and mass transfer coefficient to difierent degrees.The maximum enhancement factor values were determined for all hydrotropes used in this study.The highest value was 28.08 for solubility studies and 10.42 for mass trailsfer studies.The performance of hydrotropes Was measured in terms of the Setschenow constant(Ks).The highest value observed was 0.696.

  17. Influence of surface tension to mass transfer

    Based on the principle of pressure gradient diffusion, the mechanism of the influence of surface tension on interphase mass transfer was brought forward, and a mathematical description of the influence was presented exploringly. Finally, relating to industrial applications, the influence of surface tension on oxygen deaerating in the atomizing section and in the bubble sections was introduced, and the influence of surface tension on atomizing absorption was pointed out as well

  18. The generalized correlation for the evaluation of the influence of the Stefan flow on the heat transfer coefficient

    Baskakov, A. P.; Rakov, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    The analytical equations for the steady-state heat-and-mass transfer in the steam evaporation/condensation processes from the steam-gas mixtures on the planar and spherical surfaces are derived. The vapor flow through the motionless dry gas is considered according to the method proposed by Maxwell for the solution of the diffusion problems. The relationships for the calculation of the coefficients taking into account an increase in the mass output and an increase or a decrease in the heat emi...

  19. The impact of air flow to the distribution of heat transfer coefficient on circular cylinder

    Beran, Pavel

    Vol. 1648. Melville, NY: AIP Publishing, 2015 - (Simos, T.; Tsitouras, C.), Č. 090006. (AIP Conference Proceedings. 1648). ISBN 978-0-7354-1287-3. ISSN 0094-243X. [International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics (ICNAAM). Rhodes (GR), 22.09.2014-28.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Keywords : transient heat transfer * heat transfer coefficient * air flow * finite element method * Reynolds number * climatic tunnel Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/10.1063/1.4912394

  20. Whole system and estimation technique of overall heat transfer coefficient of evaporator and superheater

    A hybrid diagnostic agent system is developed to detect and identify early an anomaly that happens in the fast-breeder reactor 'Monju'. The system outputs a diagnostic result by integrating the results of diagnosis by four diagnostic software agents. They are (1) an estimation agent of overall heat transfer coefficient of evaporator and superheater, (2) a state identification agent based on SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) an anomaly detection agent by WT (Wavelet Transformation), and (4) a CBR (Case-Based Reasoning) agent using several attributes in both time and frequency domain. This paper describes the whole system and the estimation technique of overall heat transfer coefficient by simple physical models from 'Monju' process signals. (author)

  1. Calculating the heat transfer coefficient of frame profiles with internal cavities

    Noyé, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2004-01-01

    Determining the energy performance of windows requires detailed knowledge of the thermal properties of their different elements. A series of standards and guidelines exist in this area. The thermal properties of the frame can be determined either by detailed two-dimensional numerical methods or by...... measurements in accordance to European or international standards. Comparing measured and calculated heat transfer coefficients for two typical frame profiles with cavities shows considerable differences. This investigation considers two typical frame profiles in aluminium and PVC with internal cavities. The...... heat transfer coefficient is determined by two-dimensional numerical calculations and by measurements. Calculations are performed in Therm (LBNL (2001)), which is developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA. The calculations are performed in accordance with the future European standards and...

  2. Analysis of measurement errors influence on experimental determination of mass and heat transfer coefficient

    The influence of temperature and concentration measurement errors on experimental determination of mass and heat transfer coefficients is analysed. Calculus model of coefficients and of measurement errors, the experimental data obtained on the water isotopic distillation plant and the results of determinations are presented. The experimental distillation column, with inner diameter of 108 mm, have been equipped with B7 structured packing on a height of 14 m. This column offers the possibility to measure vapour temperature and isotopic concentration in 12 locations. For error propagation analysis, the parameters measured for each packing bed, namely temperature and isotopic concentration of the vapour, were used. A relation for calculation of maximum error of experimental determinations of mass and heat transoprt coefficients is given. The experimental data emphasize the 'ending effects' and regions with bad thermal insulation. (author)

  3. Measurement of Mass Transfer Coefficient in Three Airlift Reactors of Different Scale

    Blažej, M.; Juraščík, M.; Markoš, J.; Drahoš, Jiří

    Bratislava: Slovak University of Technology, 2004 - (Markoš, J.; Štefuca, V.), s. 198 ISBN 80-227-2052-6. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /31./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 24.05.2004-28.05.2004] Grant ostatní: GA SR(SK) VEGA 1/0066/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : mass transfer coefficient * scale-up * internal loop airlift reactor Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  4. Identification of the Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Inverse Stefan Problem by Using the ABC Algorithm

    E. Hetmaniok; D. Słota; A. Zielonka

    2012-01-01

    A procedure based on the Artificial Bee Colony algorithm for solving the two-phase axisymmetric one-dimensional inverse Stefanproblem with the third kind boundary condition is presented in this paper. Solving of the considered problem consists in reconstruction of the function describing the heat transfer coefficient appearing in boundary condition of the third kind in such a way that the reconstructed values of temperature would be as closed as possible to the measurements of temperature giv...

  5. Development and calibration of heat transfer coefficient sensor for rotational state

    QUAN Yong-kai; XU Guo-qiang; LUO Xiang; ZHANG Da

    2011-01-01

    A novel heat transfer coefficient sensor is introduced and the design,manufacture,and calibration are described.The intended application of this instrument was on a high rotational speed test disc.In the experiments,the heat transfer coefficient sensor was calibrated under static state and rotational state respectively.The calibration under the static state was accomplished in a pipe: the inside diameter(ID) was 0.048m and the total length was 4m,the distance between the sensor and the inlet of the pipe was 3.5m;the standard value was measured using a self-made calibrator.The calibration under the rotational state was accomplished using a rotating disc: the diameter and thickness of the stainless disc were 800mm and 25mm,respectively;the sensor was installed at the location of r=250mm;the rotating disc driven by a 30kW direct current motor can supply the maximum rotational speed of 3000r/min.The standard value under rotational state was provided by an approximate empirical formula.The results show that the designed sensor can measure heat transfer coefficient directly under rotational state and static state with good accuracy and stability;the correlation factor of K are constant under static state and rotational state.

  6. Evaluation of heat transfer coefficient of tungsten filaments at low pressures and high temperatures

    The paper presents an experimental method for the evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient of tungsten filaments at low pressures and high temperatures. For this purpose an electrode of a T5 fluorescent lamp was tested under low pressures with simultaneous heating in order to simulate the starting conditions in the lamp. It was placed in a sealed vessel in which the pressure was varied from 1 kM (kilo micron) to 760 kM. The voltage applied to the electrode was in the order of the filament's voltage of the lamp at the normal operation with the ballast during the preheating process. The operating frequency ranged from DC to 50 kHz. The experiment targeted on estimating the temperature of the electrode at the end of the first and the ninth second after initiating the heating process. Next, the heat transfer coefficient was calculated at the specific experimental conditions. A mathematical model based on the results was developed that estimates the heat transfer coefficient. The experiments under different pressures confirm that the filament's temperature strongly depends on the pressure.

  7. A stability-dependent parametrization of transfer coefficients for momentum and heat over polar sea ice to be used in climate models

    Lüpkes, Christof; Gryanik, Vladimir M.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between sea ice and atmosphere depends strongly on the near-surface transfer coefficients for momentum and heat. A parametrization of these coefficients is developed on the basis of an existing parametrization of drag coefficients for neutral stratification that accounts for form drag caused by the edges of ice floes and melt ponds. This scheme is extended to better account for the dependence of surface wind on limiting cases of high and low ice concentration and to include near-surface stability effects over open water and ice on form drag. The stability correction is formulated on the basis of stability functions from Monin-Obukhov similarity theory and also using the Louis concept with stability functions depending on the bulk Richardson numbers. Furthermore, a parametrization is proposed that includes the effect of edge-related turbulence also on heat transfer coefficients. The parametrizations are available in different levels of complexity. The lowest level only needs sea ice concentration and surface temperature as input, while the more complex level needs additional sea ice characteristics. An important property of our parametrization is that form drag caused by ice edges depends on the stability over both ice and water which is in contrast to the skin drag over ice. Results of the parametrization show that stability has a large impact on form drag and, thereby, determines the value of sea ice concentration for which the transfer coefficients reach their maxima. Depending on the stratification, these maxima can occur anywhere between ice concentrations of 20 and 80%.

  8. Condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2013-01-01

    Condensation is a phase change phenomenon often encountered in nature, as well as used in industry for applications including power generation, thermal management, desalination, and environmental control. For the past eight decades, researchers have focused on creating surfaces allowing condensed droplets to be easily removed by gravity for enhanced heat transfer performance. Recent advancements in nanofabrication have enabled increased control of surface structuring for the development of su...

  9. In-situ determination of field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients: Performance, simulation and analysis

    Mobile, Michael; Widdowson, Mark; Stewart, Lloyd; Nyman, Jennifer; Deeb, Rula; Kavanaugh, Michael; Mercer, James; Gallagher, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Better estimates of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) mass, its persistence into the future, and the potential impact of source reduction are critical needs for determining the optimal path to clean up sites impacted by NAPLs. One impediment to constraining time estimates of source depletion is the uncertainty in the rate of mass transfer between NAPLs and groundwater. In this study, an innovative field test is demonstrated for the purpose of quantifying field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients (klN) within a source zone of a fuel-contaminated site. Initial evaluation of the test concept using a numerical model revealed that the aqueous phase concentration response to the injection of clean groundwater within a source zone was a function of NAPL mass transfer. Under rate limited conditions, NAPL dissolution together with the injection flow rate and the radial distance to monitoring points directly controlled time of travel. Concentration responses observed in the field test were consistent with the hypothetical model results allowing field-scale NAPL mass transfer coefficients to be quantified. Site models for groundwater flow and solute transport were systematically calibrated and utilized for data analysis. Results show klN for benzene varied from 0.022 to 0.60 d- 1. Variability in results was attributed to a highly heterogeneous horizon consisting of layered media of varying physical properties.

  10. Mass transfer coefficient in ginger oil extraction by microwave hydrotropic solution

    Handayani, Dwi; Ikhsan, Diyono; Yulianto, Mohamad Endy; Dwisukma, Mandy Ayulia

    2015-12-01

    This research aims to obtain mass transfer coefficient data on the extraction of ginger oil using microwave hydrotropic solvent as an alternative to increase zingiberene. The innovation of this study is extraction with microwave heater and hydrotropic solvent,which able to shift the phase equilibrium, and the increasing rate of the extraction process and to improve the content of ginger oil zingiberene. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Separation Techniques at Chemical Engineering Department of Diponegoro University. The research activities carried out in two stages, namely experimental and modeling work. Preparation of the model postulated, then lowered to obtain equations that were tested and validated using data obtained from experimental. Measurement of experimental data was performed using microwave power (300 W), extraction temperature of 90 ° C and the independent variable, i.e.: type of hydrotropic, the volume of solvent and concentration in order, to obtain zingiberen levels as a function of time. Measured data was used as a tool to validate the postulation, in order to obtain validation of models and empirical equations. The results showed that the mass transfer coefficient (Kla) on zingiberene mass transfer models ginger oil extraction at various hydrotropic solution attained more 14 ± 2 Kla value than its reported on the extraction with electric heating. The larger value of Kla, the faster rate of mass transfer on the extraction process. To obtain the same yields, the microwave-assisted extraction required one twelfth time shorter.

  11. Free Convective Heat Transfer From A Vertical Surface For The Case Of Linearly Varying Thermal Potential

    Parvataneni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present theoretical investigation deals with the problem of free convective heat transfer from a vertical plate having linear temperature gradient along its surface to the surrounding thermally stratified fluid. Integral method of analysis is adopted to investigate the effect of four parameters viz., the gradients of temperature in the fluid and the wall, Grashof number and Prandtl number on heat transfer coefficients. It is observed from the numerical results that an increase in the surface temperature gradient would result in higher heat transfer coefficients than those observed in isothermal wall case.

  12. Heat Transfer in Bubble Columns with High Viscous and Low Surface Tension Media

    Axial and overall heat transfer coefficients were investigated in a bubble column with relatively high viscous and low surface tension media. Effects of superficial gas velocity (0.02-0.1 m/s), liquid viscosity (0.1-3 Pa·s) and surface tension (66.1-72.9x10-3 N/m) on the local and overall heat transfer coefficients were examined. The heat transfer field was composed of the immersed heater and the bubble column; a vertical heater was installed at the center of the column coaxially. The heat transfer coefficient was determined by measuring the temperature differences continuously between the heater surface and the column which was bubbling in a given operating condition, with the knowledge of heat supply to the heater. The local heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing axial distance from the gas distributor and liquid surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing liquid viscosity or surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient was well correlated in terms of operating variables such as superficial gas velocity, liquid surface tension and liquid viscosity with a correlation coefficient of 0.91, and in terms of dimensionless groups such as Nusselt, Reynolds, Prandtl and Weber numbers with a correlation of 0.92; h=2502UG0.236L-0.250L-0.028 Nu=3.25Re0.180Pr-0.067We0.028

  13. Heat Transfer in Bubble Columns with High Viscous and Low Surface Tension Media

    Kim, Wan Tae; Lim, Dae Ho; Kang, Yong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Axial and overall heat transfer coefficients were investigated in a bubble column with relatively high viscous and low surface tension media. Effects of superficial gas velocity (0.02-0.1 m/s), liquid viscosity (0.1-3 Pa·s) and surface tension (66.1-72.9x10{sup -3} N/m) on the local and overall heat transfer coefficients were examined. The heat transfer field was composed of the immersed heater and the bubble column; a vertical heater was installed at the center of the column coaxially. The heat transfer coefficient was determined by measuring the temperature differences continuously between the heater surface and the column which was bubbling in a given operating condition, with the knowledge of heat supply to the heater. The local heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing axial distance from the gas distributor and liquid surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing liquid viscosity or surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient was well correlated in terms of operating variables such as superficial gas velocity, liquid surface tension and liquid viscosity with a correlation coefficient of 0.91, and in terms of dimensionless groups such as Nusselt, Reynolds, Prandtl and Weber numbers with a correlation of 0.92; h=2502U{sub G}{sup 0.236}{sub L}{sup -0.250}{sub L}{sup -}0{sup .028} Nu=3.25Re{sup 0.180}Pr{sup -0.067}We{sup 0.028}.

  14. Local heat transfer coefficients during the evaporation of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a in a plate heat exchanger

    EMILA ŽIVKOVIĆ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The evaporation heat transfer coefficient of the refrigerant R-134a in a vertical plate heat exchanger was investigated experimentally. The area of the plate was divided into several segments along the vertical axis. For each of the segments, the local value of the heat transfer coefficient was calculated and presented as a function of the mean vapor quality in the segment. Owing to the thermocouples installed along the plate surface, it was possible to determine the temperature distribution and vapor quality profile inside the plate. The influences of the mass flux, heat flux, pressure of system and the flow configuration on the heat transfer coefficient were also taken into account and a comparison with literature data was performed.

  15. Evaluation of heat transfer coefficient of supercritical water flowing inside a tube using CFD code fluent

    Although the heat transfer problem of pressurized supercritical water (SCW) flows in around tube has been studied for decades, the subject is still considerably of interest nowadays. This is partly because of the expanded investigation of using SCW for nuclear engineering applications like SCWR which is generation IV reactor and promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency(i.e., about 45% as opposed to about 33% efficiency for current light water reactors LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. Literature survey shows that heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is sharply enhanced near the pseudo critical temperature. As the heat flux increases, the peak of the HTC decreases. When the heat flux reaches to some high values, heat transfer deterioration (HTD) occurs. CFD code with various turbulence models are being used to evaluate HTC. Modeling of Yamagata's experiment has been carried out for evaluation of HTC using CFD code FLUENT with standard kε turbulence model, nonequilibrium wall function,viscous heating, full buoyancy effect and including wall roughness effect.In this paper model constants for standard kε model have been derived. In the Yamagata experiment, investigations were made for HTC to supercritical water flowing vertically upward in vertical tubes of 10 and 7.5mm internal diameter, at pressures 22.6, 24.5 and 29.5 MPa, bulk temperature from 230 to 540 oC, heat flux 233, 465, 698 and 930kW/m2 and mass flux 1200 kg/m2.s. Two dimensional axisymmetry grid generation has been done using GAMBIT. Inbuilt boundary conditions in the FLUENT are invoked for mass flow rate at inlet,pressure outlet at the outlet of the tube and wall at the cylindrical surface where heat flux is given. Thermo-physical properties are taken from the (IAPWSIF97) and piecewise linear variation are given in the FLUENT for 30 temperature points. Bulk fluid temperature is obtained using user defined function. HTC are obtained based on heat flux, surface

  16. Hydrodynamic characteristics and overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient of a new multi-environment bioreactor.

    Behzadian, Farnaz; Yerushalmi, Laleh; Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2013-08-01

    The hydrodynamic characteristics and the overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient of a new multi-environment bioreactor which is an integrated part of a wastewater treatment system, called BioCAST, were studied. This bioreactor contains several zones with different environmental conditions including aerobic, microaerophilic and anoxic, designed to increase the contaminant removal capacity of the treatment system. The multi-environment bioreactor is designed based on the concept of airlift reactors where liquid is circulated through the zones with different environmental conditions. The presence of openings between the aerobic zone and the adjacent oxygen-depleted microaerophilic zone changes the hydrodynamic properties of this bioreactor compared to the conventional airlift designs. The impact of operating and process parameters, notably the hydraulic retention time (HRT) and superficial gas velocity (U(G)), on the hydrodynamics and mass transfer characteristics of the system was examined. The results showed that liquid circulation velocity (V(L)), gas holdup (ε) and overall volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a(L)) increase with the increase of superficial gas velocity (U(G)), while the mean circulation time (t(c)) decreases with the increase of superficial gas velocity. The mean circulation time between the aerobic zone (riser) and microaerophilic zone (downcomer) is a stronger function of the superficial gas velocity for the smaller openings (1/2 in.) between the two zones, while for the larger opening (1 in.) the mean circulation time is almost independent of U(G) for U(G) ≥ 0.023 m/s. The smaller openings between the two zones provide higher mass transfer coefficient and better zone generation which will contribute to improved performance of the system during treatment operations. PMID:23142846

  17. Heat Transfer in a Liquid-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor with Low Surface Tension Media

    HR Jin; H Lim; DH Lim; Y Kang; Ki-Won Jun

    2013-01-01

    Heat transfer characteristics between the immersed heater and the bed content were studied in the riser of a liquid-solid circulating fluidized bed, whose diameter and height were 0.102 m (ID) and 2.5 m, respectively. Effects of liquid velocity, particle size, surface tension of liquid phase and solid circulation rate on the overall heat transfer coefficient were examined. The heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing particle size or solid cir-culation rate due to the higher potential of particles to contact with the heater surface and promote turbulence near the heater surface. The value of heat transfer coefficient increased gradually with increase in the surface tension of liquid phase, due to the slight increase of solid holdup. The heat transfer coefficient increased with the liquid veloc-ity even in the higher range, due to the solid circulation prevented the decrease in solid holdup, in contrast to that in the conventional liquid-solid fluidized beds. The values of heat transfer coefficient were well correlated in terms of dimensionless groups as well as operating variables.

  18. Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap

    Hożejowska Sylwia; Musiał Tomasz; Piasecka Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the numbe...

  19. Experimental study of overall heat transfer coefficient in the application of dilute nanofluids in the car radiator

    Heat transfer of coolant flow through the automobile radiators is of great importance for the optimization of fuel consumption. In this study, the heat transfer performance of the automobile radiator is evaluated experimentally by calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) according to the conventional ε-NTU technique. Copper oxide (CuO) and Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles are added to the water at three concentrations 0.15, 0.4, and 0.65 vol.% with considering the best pH for longer stability. In these experiments, the liquid side Reynolds number is varied in the range of 50–1000 and the inlet liquid to the radiator has a constant temperature which is changed at 50, 65 and 80 °C. The ambient air for cooling of the hot liquid is used at constant temperature and the air Reynolds number is varied between 500 and 700. However, the effects of these variables on the overall heat transfer coefficient are deeply investigated. Results demonstrate that both nanofluids show greater overall heat transfer coefficient in comparison with water up to 9%. Furthermore, increasing the nanoparticle concentration, air velocity, and nanofluid velocity enhances the overall heat transfer coefficient. In contrast, increasing the nanofluid inlet temperature, lower overall heat transfer coefficient was recorded. -- Highlights: ► Overall heat transfer coefficient in the car radiator measured experimentally. ► Nanofluids showed greater heat transfer performance comparing with water. ► Increasing liquid and air Re increases the overall heat transfer coefficient. ► Increasing the inlet liquid temperature decreases the overall heat transfer coefficient

  20. Condition monitoring of steam generator by estimating the overall heat transfer coefficient

    This study develops a technique for monitoring in on-line the state of the steam generator of the fast-breeder reactor (FBR) “Monju”. Because the FBR uses liquid sodium as coolant, it is necessary to handle liquid sodium with caution due to its chemical characteristics. The steam generator generates steam by the heat of secondary sodium coolant. The sodium-water reaction may happen if a pinhole or crack occurs at the thin metal tube wall that separates the secondary sodium coolant and water/steam. Therefore, it is very important to detect an anomaly of the wall of heat transfer tubes at an early stage. This study aims at developing an on-line condition monitoring technique of the steam generator by estimating overall heat transfer coefficient from process signals. This paper describes simplified mathematical models of superheater and evaporator to estimate the overall heat transfer coefficient and a technique to diagnose the state of the steam generator. The applicability of the technique is confirmed by several estimations using simulated process signals with artificial noises. The results of the estimations show that the developed technique can detect the occurrence of an anomaly. (author)

  1. Experimental investigation of heat transfer coefficients for reflux condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas

    In the Loss-of-RHR accident during mid-loop operation reflux condensation in U-tube riser is experimentally studied. The present experimental study handles with the reflux condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas in a vertical tube. The main interest is to investigate the parametric effects such as inlet air mass fraction, system pressure and inlet steam flow rate on reflux condensation heat transfer. The test facility is mainly composed of two parts: an air-steam mixture generation part and a reflux condensation part(test section). Air is used as a noncondensable gas. Experiments are performed under the system pressure of 1 ∼ 2.5bar, inlet steam flow rate of 1.04 ∼ 2.15kg/hr and inlet air mass fraction of 0 ∼ 57.9%. From experimental results, several characteristics of parametric effects are confirmed. The presence of air causes a decrease in heat transfer coefficients and, as a result, increases the active condensation length. As the inlet steam flow rate increases, the active length slightly increases during reflux condensation. As the system pressure increases, the active condensation length somehow decreases with an increase in heat transfer coefficients in that zone. And the flooding limit for inlet mixture flow rate is much less than that of Wallis' flooding formula

  2. A Method for Estimating Mass-Transfer Coefficients in a Biofilter from Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometer Data

    Nielsen, Anders Michael; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Feilberg, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    A membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) was used in combination with a developed computer model to study and improve management of a biofilter (BF) treating malodorous ventilation air from a meat rendering facility. The MIMS was used to determine percentage removal efficiencies (REs) of selected...... sulfur gases and to provide toluene retention profiles for the model to determine the air velocity and overall mass-transfer coefficient of toluene. The mass-transfer coefficient of toluene was used as a reference for determining the mass transfer of sulfur gases. By presenting the model to scenarios of......, knowing the relationship between mass-transfer coefficients and air velocity for a given type of BF allows for an improved dimensioning and managing of this and similar BFs. This research demonstrates that it is possible to estimate mass-transfer coefficients and air velocity in BFs using MIMS in...

  3. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Irvine, T.F., Jr. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-04-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured (0 to 8.5 cm/s), the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  4. Enhanced convective and film boiling heat transfer by surface gas injection

    Duignan, M.R.; Greene, G.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Irvine, T.F., Jr. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-04-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made for stable film boiling of water over a horizontal, flat stainless steel plate from the minimum film boiling point temperature, T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}500K, to T{sub SURFACE} {approximately}950K. The pressure at the plate was approximately 1 atmosphere and the temperature of the water pool was maintained at saturation. The data were compared to the Berenson film-boiling model, which was developed for minimum film-boiling-point conditions. The model accurately represented the data near the minimum film-boiling point and at the highest temperatures measured, as long it was corrected for the heat transferred by radiation. On the average, the experimental data lay within {plus_minus}7% of the model. Measurements of heat transfer were made without film boiling for nitrogen jetting into an overlying pool of water from nine 1-mm- diameter holes, drilled in the heat transfer plate. The heat flux was maintained constant at approximately 26.4 kW/m{sup 2}. For water-pool heights of less than 6cm the heat transfer coefficient deceased linearly with a decrease in heights. Above 6cm the heat transfer coefficient was unaffected. For the entire range of gas velocities measured [0 to 8.5 cm/s], the magnitude of the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient only changed by approximately 20%. The heat transfer data bound the Konsetov model for turbulent pool heat transfer which was developed for vertical heat transfer surfaces. This agreement suggests that surface orientation may not be important when the gas jets do not locally affect the surface heat transfer. Finally, a database was developed for heat transfer from the plate with both film boiling and gas jetting occurring simultaneously, in a pool of water maintained at its saturation temperature. The effect of passing nitrogen through established film boiling is to increase the heat transfer from that surface. 60 refs.

  5. Diazo transfer for azido-functional surfaces

    Laura Russo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of azido-functionalized polymers is gaining increasing attention. We wish to report an innovative, novel strategy for azido functionalization of polymeric materials, coupling plasma technology and solution processed diazo transfer reactions. This novel approach allows the azido group to be introduced downstream of the material preparation, thus preserving its physicochemical and mechanical characteristics, which can be tailored a priori according to the desired application. The whole process involves the surface plasma functionalization of a material with primary amino groups, followed by a diazo transfer reaction, which converts the amino functionalities into azido groups that can be exploited for further chemoselective reactions. The diazo transfer reaction is performed in a heterogeneous phase, where the azido group donor is in solution. Chemical reactivity of the azido functionalities was verified by subsequent copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition.

  6. Transient liquid-crystal technique used to produce high-resolution convective heat-transfer-coefficient maps

    Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

    1993-08-01

    In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence

  7. Dependence of the friction coefficient between two rough surfaces on their reciprocal correlation function

    The friction coefficient between surfaces depends not only on their roughness but also on their relative speed. The aim of this work is to show how the friction coefficient would vary with the relative speed of the two rough surfaces provided accounting affects of their reciprocal correlation. The reciprocal spectral density of the two surfaces is studied in addition to their structure function. It is shown that the reciprocal spectral density has important impacts on the friction coefficient of the surfaces, in a sense that a positive or a negative reciprocal correlation would cause a decrease or an increase in the friction coefficient. In addition, the friction is studied in the context of the relaxation time. It is shown that there is a threshold for the relative velocity of the two surfaces, where by exceeding the threshold velocity the friction coefficient would not increase, but decrease

  8. Dependence of the friction coefficient between two rough surfaces on their reciprocal correlation function

    Nikoofard, H. [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vasheghani Farahani, S. [Department of Physics, Tafresh University, P.O. Box 39518-79611, Tafresh (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, G.R., E-mail: g_jafari@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Nano-Science, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    The friction coefficient between surfaces depends not only on their roughness but also on their relative speed. The aim of this work is to show how the friction coefficient would vary with the relative speed of the two rough surfaces provided accounting affects of their reciprocal correlation. The reciprocal spectral density of the two surfaces is studied in addition to their structure function. It is shown that the reciprocal spectral density has important impacts on the friction coefficient of the surfaces, in a sense that a positive or a negative reciprocal correlation would cause a decrease or an increase in the friction coefficient. In addition, the friction is studied in the context of the relaxation time. It is shown that there is a threshold for the relative velocity of the two surfaces, where by exceeding the threshold velocity the friction coefficient would not increase, but decrease.

  9. Effect of pressure on heat transfer coefficient at the metal/mold interface of A356 aluminum alloy

    Fardi Ilkhchy, A.; Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, P.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to correlate interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of casting under different pressures were obtained using the inverse heat...... presented for correlation between external pressure and heat transfer coefficient. Acceptable agreement with data in literature shows the accuracy of the proposed formula....... conduction problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite difference heat flow program to estimate the transient heat transfer coefficients. The new simple formula was...

  10. An experimental study on evaporative heat transfer coefficient and applications for passive cooling of AP600 steel containment

    After TMI and Chernobyl accidents, many efforts have been made to enhance the nuclear safety with passive features. Among such passive features, the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) has been suggested by Westinghouse in the AP600 plant. The containment with PCCS is a dual containment, and consists of a stainless steel vessel and a concrete wall. In the gap between these structures, air and water can counter-currently pass and cool the steel surface. This paper experimentally investigates evaporative heat and mass transfer at the surface of a falling water film with counter-current air flow in a vertical duct with one-side heated plate. Experiments included various conditions of mass flow rate of film and air. Experimental results show the strong effects of water temperature and air mass flow rate, but little effect of the water flow rate. Also, simple analyses based on heat and mass transfer analogy were performed to evaluate the experimental results. With experimental data, a new correlation on evaporative mass transfer coefficient was developed, and with the correlation, the containment pressure and temperature was calculated for the design basis accident of AP600 by the use of CONTEMPT4/MOD5 code implementation

  11. FREG-4: a computer program to predict the fuel-to-cladding heat transfer coefficient in accordance with the fuel-rod irradiation history

    Program FREG series calculate temperature distribution in a fuel rod and the stored energy based on the distribution. The temperature distribution is calculated accordance with the fuel rod irradiation history. The temperature in the fuel rod is severely influenced with gap heat transfer coefficients between fuel pellet surface and cladding inner surface. Enphasis is placed on how to find the gap heat transfer coefficients. FREG-4 is a version-up program of FREG-3. Major modification from FREG-3 is handlings of fission product gas release, which have influences on the gap heat transfer. FREG-4 distingushed fission-product isotopes remained in pellets and fission-product gaseous isotopes released from the pellets, and considers that the released isotopes are transported for plenums to balance whole fuel rod internal pressure and transformed into another isotopes due to decay and the nuetron absorptions. The present report describes modified models from FREG-3 and user's manual for FREG-4. (author)

  12. Mass transfer coefficient factor in pipe bend - 3 D CFD analysis

    In power industries Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) has been a concern for pipe wall thinning where high velocity fluid at elevated temperatures is used. Even straight pipes are found to have non uniform corrosion and this is enhanced in junctions such as bends, orifices etc. Mass transfer coefficient (MTC) which defines the amount of corrosion changes from its value in straight pipe (with same fluid parameters) for flow in bends, orifice etc due to changes in velocity profile in axial direction. In this paper, 3 D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation is carried out for an experiment on 58° bend angle and 2D bend radius circular carbon steel pipe carrying water at 120°C under neutral pH conditions. The turbulent model K-ω with shear stress transport was used for this purpose. The mass transfer boundary layer (MTBL) thickness δmtbl depends on Schmidt number (Sc), as δmtbl ∼ δh/(Sc1/3). MTBL is significantly smaller than hydrodynamic boundary layer δh for large Sc, hence boundary layer meshing was carried out deep into δmtbl. Uniform velocity was applied at the inlet. The flow velocity was 3 m/s at room temperature while the experimental fluid velocity was 7 m/s. Lower value of fluid velocity is chosen due to the limitations of grid size since it depends inversely on fluid velocity. The ratio of MTC in bend to straight pipe is not strongly dependent on Sc. CFD simulation at lower temperature is sufficient to get approximate MTC in bends. The ratio of the mass transfer coefficient at some locations in bend to the straight pipe coefficient (MTCR) is determined through simulation. The MTC increased in the extrados of the bend towards the outlet. (author)

  13. Comparison of Theoretical and Experimental Mass Transfer Coefficients of Gases in Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    Kárászová, Magda; Šimčík, Miroslav; Friess, K.; Randová, A.; Jansen, J. C.; Růžička, Marek; Sedláková, Zuzana; Izák, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 118, 30 OCT (2013), s. 255-263. ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/10/1194; GA MŠk(CZ) 7C11009 Grant ostatní: RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2010-00009; INP(IT) PON01_01840; HA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0071 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biogas purification * supported ionic liquid membranes * mass transfer coefficients Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2013

  14. Scale Influence on the Volumetric Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficient in Airlift Reactor with Internal Loop

    Blažej, Michal; Juraščík, M.; Markoš, J.; Drahoš, Jiří

    Praha: Process Engineering Publisher, 2004, s. 1096. ISBN 80-86059-40-5. [International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering CHISA 2004 /16./. Praha (CZ), 22.08.2004-26.08.2004] Grant ostatní: BEMUSAG(XE) G1MA/CT/2002/04019; GA SR(SK) VEGA 1/0066/03 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : scale-up * pressure-step dynamic method * mass transfer coefficient Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  15. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the hot stamping of AA7075

    Liu Xiaochuan; Ji Kang; Fakir Omer El; Liu Jun; Zhang Qunli; Wang Liliang

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE models to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC value between a h...

  16. Determining the surface roughness coefficient by 3D Scanner

    Karmen Fifer Bizjak

    2010-01-01

    Currently, several test methods can be used in the laboratory to determine the roughness of rock joint surfaces.However, true roughness can be distorted and underestimated by the differences in the sampling interval of themeasurement methods. Thus, these measurement methods produce a dead zone and distorted roughness profiles.In this paper a new rock joint surface roughness measurement method is presented, with the use of a camera-typethree-dimensional (3D) scanner as an alternative to curren...

  17. Development of a New Correlation for Condensation Heat Transfer Coefficient inside a Vertical Tube in the Presence of Noncondensable Gas

    Lee, Kwon-Yeong; Kim, Moo Hwan [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Even a small amount of noncondensable gas can reduce the condensation heat transfer considerably. In the condenser tube, the condensate flows as an annular liquid film adjacent to the tube wall, while the vapor/noncondensable gas mixture flows in the core region. Consequently, the noncondensable gas layer that forms adjacent to the liquid/gas interface reduces the heat transfer capability. Several correlations were developed to evaluate steam condensation heat transfer with noncondensable gas in a vertical condenser tube. In this study, two empirical correlations proposed by Vierow and Schrock and Kuhn are considered and a new correlation is developed to improve the accuracy of prediction. In these correlations, the local heat transfer coefficient is simply expressed in the form of a 'degradation factor,' defined as the ratio of the experimental heat transfer coefficient to a reference heat transfer coefficient.

  18. Study of oxygen mass transfer coefficient and oxygen uptake rate in a stirred tank reactor for uranium ore bioleaching

    Highlights: ► Mass transfer coefficient does not depend on biomass concentration. ► The pulp density has a negative effect on mass transfer coefficient. ► The pulp density is the unique factor that affects maximum OUR. ► In this work, Neale’s correlation is corrected for prediction of mass transfer coefficient. ► Biochemical reaction is a limiting factor in the uranium bioleaching process. - Abstract: In this work, the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient and the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) were studied for uranium ore bioleaching process by Acidthiobacillus ferrooxidans in a stirred tank reactor. The Box-Bohnken design method was used to study the effect of operating parameters on the oxygen mass transfer coefficient. The investigated factors were agitation speed (rpm), aeration rate (vvm) and pulp density (% weight/volume) of the stirred tank reactor. Analysis of experimental results showed that the oxygen mass transfer coefficient had low dependence on biomass concentration but had higher dependence on the agitation speed, aeration rate and pulp density. The obtained biological enhancement factors were equal to ones in experiments. On the other hand, the obtained values for Damkohler number (Da < 0.468) indicated that the process was limited by the biochemical reaction rate. Experimental results obtained for oxygen mass transfer coefficient were correlated with the empirical relations proposed by Garcia-Ochoa and Gomez (2009) and Neale and Pinches (1994). Due to the high relative error in the correlation of Neale and Pinches, that correlation was corrected and the coefficient of determination was calculated to be 89%. The modified correlation has been obtained based on a wide range of operating conditions, which can be used to determine the mass transfer coefficient in a bioreactor

  19. Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of Automatic Transmission Fluid Jets with Implications for Electric Machine Thermal Management: Preprint

    Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto

    2015-09-29

    Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.

  20. Heat transfer research on enhanced heating surfaces in flow boiling in a minichannel and pool boiling

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Application of enhanced surfaces in boiling heat transfer. • Flow and pool boiling heat transfer on the heating surfaces with mini-recesses. • Minichannel (horizontal) with the enhanced heating wall. • Determination of heat transfer coefficients and boiling curves. • Comparative experimental data analysis for flow and pool boiling heat transfer. - Abstract: The paper focuses on the analysis of the enhanced surfaces in such applications as boiling heat transfer. The surfaces have similar geometric parameters for the surface development. Two testing measurement modules with enhanced heating surfaces are used independently, one for flow boiling and the other – for pool boiling research. The heating surfaces with mini-recesses which contact boiling liquid are made by spark erosion. Flow boiling is studied when FC-72 flows through a horizontally positioned minichannel and its bottom wall is heated. These experiments were carried out during under a pressure slightly higher than the atmospheric one. Pool boiling experiments were conducted with FC-72 at atmospheric pressure in the vessel using enhanced sample as the bottom heating surface. Comparison of results for flow and pool boiling indicates that obtained heat transfer coefficients are a few times higher for pool boiling in the boiling incipience conditions. There are basic differences in the local heat transfer coefficients during the development of flow boiling in a minichannel, depending on the location along the flow in the channel. In the subcooled boiling area, heat transfer coefficients are low. In developed boiling, they are high, but they decrease when the amount of vapour in the liquid–vapour mixture rises

  1. CONVECTIVE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF INDIAN GOOSEBERRY (EMBLICA OFFICINALIS DRIED IN THREE DIFFERENT FORMS UNDER FORCED CONVECTION MODE

    S. I. ANWAR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, convective heat transfer coefficient of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis, in three different forms (shreds, slices and pieces, under forced convection mode has been determined. These forms were dried in laboratory drier. Values of constants C and n have been determined using experimental data and regression analysis for calculating values of convective heat transfer coefficient. It was found that the convective heat transfer coefficient varies with form of commodity being dried and decreases as the drying progresses. The value of convective heat transfer coefficient was highest for shredded form (30.39 W/m2oC followed by slices (25.88 W/m2oC and pieces (18.67 W/m2oC when compared at certain final moisture content. The data were also analyzed for per cent uncertainty.

  2. Distribution coefficient Kd in surface soils collected in Aomori prefecture

    Soil-solution distribution coefficients (Kds), which are the ratio of an element concentration in a soil solid phase to that in a solution phase, for 32 elements in Andosols, Wet Andosols and Gleyed Andosols collected throughout Aomori Prefecture were determined. A dried soil sample was mixed with a 10-fold amount of pure water in a PPCO centrifuge tube, and then gently shaken for 24 h. The Kd values were obtained by measurement of element concentrations in solid and solution phases (batch method). The Kd values in this work were up to three orders of magnitude higher than the IAEA reported values, and their 95% confidence intervals were within two orders of magnitude. Most Kd values of elements were decreasing with increasing electrical conductivity of the solution phase. The Kd of Ca had a good correlation with that of Sr. However, the correlation between the Kds of K and Cs was not good. The Kd values were also determined by another method. The soil solutions were separated from the fresh soil samples by means of high speed centrifuging. The Kd values were calculated from the element concentration in solid phase and soil solution (centrifugation method). The Kd values obtained by the centrifugation method agreed within one order of magnitude with those by the batch method, and both variation patterns in elements correlated well. (author)

  3. Distribution coefficient Kd in surface soils collected in Aomori prefecture

    Tsukada, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Hisamatsu, Shun' ichi; Inaba, Jiro [Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Soil-solution distribution coefficients (Kds), which are the ratio of an element concentration in a soil solid phase to that in a solution phase, for 32 elements in Andosols, Wet Andosols and Gleyed Andosols collected throughout Aomori Prefecture were determined. A dried soil sample was mixed with a 10-fold amount of pure water in a PPCO centrifuge tube, and then gently shaken for 24 h. The Kd values were obtained by measurement of element concentrations in solid and solution phases (batch method). The Kd values in this work were up to three orders of magnitude higher than the IAEA reported values, and their 95% confidence intervals were within two orders of magnitude. Most Kd values of elements were decreasing with increasing electrical conductivity of the solution phase. The Kd of Ca had a good correlation with that of Sr. However, the correlation between the Kds of K and Cs was not good. The Kd values were also determined by another method. The soil solutions were separated from the fresh soil samples by means of high speed centrifuging. The Kd values were calculated from the element concentration in solid phase and soil solution (centrifugation method). The Kd values obtained by the centrifugation method agreed within one order of magnitude with those by the batch method, and both variation patterns in elements correlated well. (author)

  4. Reconstruction of the heat transfer coefficient on the grounds of experimental data

    D. Słota

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Solidification of pure metal can be modelled by a two-phase Stefan problem, in which the distribution of temperature in the solid and liquid phases is described by the heat conduction equation with initial and boundary conditions. The inverse Stefan problem can be applied to solve design problems in casting process.Design/methodology/approach: In numerical calculations the alternating phase truncation method, the Tikhonov regularization and the genetic algorithm were used. The featured examples of calculations show a very good approximation of the experimental data.Findings: The verification of the method of reconstructing the cooling conditions during the solidification of pure metals. The solution of the problem consists of selecting the heat transfer coefficient on the boundary, so that the temperature in selected points on the boundary of the domain assumes given values.Research limitations/implications: The method requires that it must be possible to describe the sought boundary condition by means of a finite number of parameters. It is not necessary, that the sought boundary condition should be linearly dependent on those parameters.Practical implications: The presented method can be easy applied to solve design problems of different types, e.g. for the design of continuous casting installations (incl. the selection of the length of secondary cooling zones, the number of jets installed in individual zones, etc..Originality/value: Verification, on the grounds of experimental data, the formerly devised method of determining the heat transfer coefficient during the solidification of pure metals.

  5. THE EFFECT OF THE ALUMINIUM ALLOY SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON THE RESTITUTION COEFFICIENT

    Stanisław Bławucki; Kazimierz Zaleski

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the effect of the surface roughness of aluminum alloy on its coefficient of restitution. It describes the current method of finishing the workpiece surface layer after cutting and innovative measuring device which was used in the research. The material used in the research was aluminium alloy EN AW 7075. The paper also presents a relationship between the coefficient of restitution and surface roughness of the milled samples as well as impressions ...

  6. Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces

    Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.; Sun, K. H.

    1976-01-01

    The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....

  7. Experimental Study on Friction Coefficient Between Concrete and the Top Surface of Rubble Mound Foundation

    LI Yan-bao; JIANG Xue-lian; GUO Hong-yi

    2005-01-01

    Experimental studies on the friction coefficient between concrete and the top surface of a rubble mound foundation in China are reviewed. Through comparison of different test results, the development of this research is comprehensively analyzed. An experiment is carried out in the condition similar to prototype. The process curve of friction coefficient with the test block sliding is analyzed and a standard for determination of the friction coefficient is defined. The variation features of the friction coefficient are analyzed on the basis of the present experimental results and other studies in China. It is shown that the friction coefficient between concrete and the top surface of a rubble mound foundation decreases with the increase of the foundation pressure, and the friction coefficient for a very fine leveling bed is smaller than that for a fine leveling bed.

  8. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient.

    Hindasageri, V; Vedula, R P; Prabhu, S V

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively. PMID:23464237

  9. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient

    Hindasageri, V.; Vedula, R. P.; Prabhu, S. V.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively.

  10. The role of surface energy coefficients and nuclear surface diffuseness in the fusion of heavy-ions

    Dutt, Ishwar; Puri, Rajeev K.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the effect of surface energy coefficients as well as nuclear surface diffuseness in the proximity potential and ultimately in the fusion of heavy-ions. Here we employ different versions of surface energy coefficients. Our analysis reveals that these technical parameters can influence the fusion barriers by a significant amount. A best set of these parameters is also given that explains the experimental data nicely.

  11. A comparative study of transfer coefficient of Iodine from grass to cow milk under equilibrium and postulated accidental scenario

    Extensive studies on transfer of 131I through grass-cow-milk pathway after the Chernobyl accident were reported. But, under nor mal operational conditions of a power reactor, 131I is not present in measurable concentration in environmental matrices around a nuclear power generating station. Hence, database on 131I transfer coefficients for grass-cow-milk pathway in equilibrium conditions in the environment of a nuclear power plant are sparse. One of method to estimate the equilibrium transfer coefficient is to use stable iodine, which is present naturally in very low levels in the environmental matrices. By measuring the concentration of stable iodine concentration in grass and cow milk, the grass-to-milk transfer coefficient of iodine can be estimated. Since the metabolism of stable and radioiodine is same, the data obtained for transfer coefficient of stable iodine could be used for predicting the transfer for radioiodine to cow milk. The measurement of stable iodine in the environmental sample is very challenging because of its extremely low concentration. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) can be used to estimate stable iodine in the environment matrices after suitably optimizing the condition to minimize interferences. This paper presents the results of a systematic study on the transfer coefficients for grass-cow milk pathway of iodine in normal (equilibrium) situations as well as for a postulated (simulated) emergency condition in Kaiga region

  12. Heat transfer coefficient calculation for analysis of ITER shield block using CFX and ANSYS

    Highlights: → Benchmark HTC modeling in CFX and compare this modeling with empirical formulas. → Given the error formulas derived from theory. → Benchmark HTC modeling in ANSYS and the results is consistent with the conclusion of error estimate from theory. - Abstract: In thermal-mechanical analysis of ITER shield block using ANSYS code, it needs the real heat transfer coefficient (HTC) values which are computed by CFX. Because two kinds of HTC values can be gotten from CFX and which has some difference with ANSYS, so it is necessary to estimate the error caused by HTC transferred from CFX to ANSYS. In this paper, HTC values got from CFX was firstly benchmarked with the results got from empirical formulas, then estimated the error caused by HTC transferred from theory and gave the expressions of the error, thirdly benchmark work of ANSYS results in 4 cases was done, then compared the error with former error estimated formula derived from theory. In the end, conclusions will be given based on above benchmark works.

  13. Analysis of the influence of measuring errors in experimental determinations of the mass and heat transfer coefficients

    The paper analyses the influence of measuring errors of the operation parameters (flows, temperatures, pressures, and concentrations) in the experimental determination of the mass and heat transfer coefficients. Data obtained on experimental plants for hydrogen isotopes separation, by hydrogen distillation and water distillation, and calculus model for errors propagation are presented. The results are tabulated. The variation intervals of transfer coefficients are marked graphically. The study of the measuring errors is an intermediate stage, extremely important, in experimental determination of criterion relation coefficients, specific relations for B7 structured packing. (authors)

  14. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport

    Leung, Juliana Y.; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  15. Effects of reservoir heterogeneity on scaling of effective mass transfer coefficient for solute transport.

    Leung, Juliana Y; Srinivasan, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Modeling transport process at large scale requires proper scale-up of subsurface heterogeneity and an understanding of its interaction with the underlying transport mechanisms. A technique based on volume averaging is applied to quantitatively assess the scaling characteristics of effective mass transfer coefficient in heterogeneous reservoir models. The effective mass transfer coefficient represents the combined contribution from diffusion and dispersion to the transport of non-reactive solute particles within a fluid phase. Although treatment of transport problems with the volume averaging technique has been published in the past, application to geological systems exhibiting realistic spatial variability remains a challenge. Previously, the authors developed a new procedure where results from a fine-scale numerical flow simulation reflecting the full physics of the transport process albeit over a sub-volume of the reservoir are integrated with the volume averaging technique to provide effective description of transport properties. The procedure is extended such that spatial averaging is performed at the local-heterogeneity scale. In this paper, the transport of a passive (non-reactive) solute is simulated on multiple reservoir models exhibiting different patterns of heterogeneities, and the scaling behavior of effective mass transfer coefficient (Keff) is examined and compared. One such set of models exhibit power-law (fractal) characteristics, and the variability of dispersion and Keff with scale is in good agreement with analytical expressions described in the literature. This work offers an insight into the impacts of heterogeneity on the scaling of effective transport parameters. A key finding is that spatial heterogeneity models with similar univariate and bivariate statistics may exhibit different scaling characteristics because of the influence of higher order statistics. More mixing is observed in the channelized models with higher-order continuity. It

  16. Measurement and modelling of forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3- and SiO2-water nanofluids

    Forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids were characterized. The experimental facility was composed of thermal-hydraulic loop with a tank with an immersed heater, a centrifugal pump, a bypass with a globe valve, an electromagnetic flow-meter, a 18 kW in-line pre-heater, a test section with band heaters, a differential pressure transducer and a heat exchanger. The test section consists of a 1000 mm long aluminium pipe with an inner diameter of 31.2 mm. Eighteen band heaters were placed all along the test section in order to provide a uniform heat flux. Heat transfer coefficient was calculated measuring fluid temperature using immersed thermocouples (Pt100) placed at both ends of the test section and surface thermocouples in 10 axial locations along the test section (Pt1000). The measurements have been performed for different nanoparticles (Al2O3 and SiO2 with primary size of 11 nm and 12 nm, respectively), volume concentrations (1% v., 5% v.), and flow rates (3 103Re5). Maximum heat transfer coefficient enhancement (300%) and pressure drop penalty (1000%) is obtained with 5% v. SiO2 nanofluid. Existing correlations can predict, at least in a first approximation, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of nanofluids if thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat were properly modelled.

  17. Surface-particle-emulsion heat transfer model between fluidized bed and horizontal immersed tube

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical model, surface-particle-emulsion heat transfer model, is presented by considering voidage variance in emulsion in the vicinity of an immersed surface. Heat transfer near the surface is treated by dispersed particles touching the surface and through the emulsion when the distance from the surface is greater than the diameter of a particle. A film with an adjustable thickness which separates particles from the surface is not introduced in this model. The coverage ratio of particles on the surface is calculated by a stochastic model of particle packing density on a surface. By comparison of theoretical solutions with experimental data from some references, the mathematical model shows better qualitative and quantitative prediction for local heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal immersed tube in a fluidized bed.

  18. Effect of the mass transfer coefficient on the erosion-corrosion rate of specimens tested in the Ciroco loop

    The erosion-corrosion rate of steels should theoretically depend upon the mass transfer coefficient of the outflow. It is shown with 2 examples: 1) Erosion-corrosion after a steam generator orifice used in some nuclear plant. In this case actual thickness of metal erosion are available. Mass transfer is estimated by a polarographic method. 2) Erosion corrosion produced by impact of a jet. A parallel between the mass transfer coefficients obtained by polarography and the measurements of corrosion depths permits a verification of this dependence

  19. Experimental and Numerical Study on Effects of Airflow and Aqueous Ammonium Temperature on Ammonia Mass Transfer Coefficient

    Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    transfer are investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and by a mechanism modeling using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models based on the parameters measured in the experiments performed in a wind tunnel. The validated CFD model by experimental data is used to...... constant and Henry's constant models. In addition, the results show that the liquid-air temperature difference has little impact on the simulated mass transfer coefficient by CFD modeling, whereas the mass transfer coefficient increases with higher liquid temperature using the other method under the...

  20. Retrieval of ocean surface wind stress and drag coefficient from spaceborne SAR

    杨劲松; 黄韦艮; 周长宝

    2001-01-01

    A model for retrieval of wind stress and drag coefficient on the sea surface with the data measured by spacebome synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been developed based on the SAR imaging mechanisms of ocean surface capillary waves and short gravity waves. This model consists of radiometric calibration, wind speed retrieval and wind stress and drag coefficient calculation. A Radarsat SAR image has been used to calculate wind stress and drag coeffi cient. Good results have been achieved.

  1. Heat transfer for Leidenfrost drops bouncing onto a hot surface

    When droplets impinge onto a hot wall, different regimes can be observed depending on the wall temperature and Weber number. In the case of interest, the temperature of the wall is more than the Leidenfrost temperature and the Weber number based on normal velocity of the droplet is less than the threshold value leading to the splashing regime (We ≤ 80). We particularly focused on the perfect bouncing regime (We ≤ 30) for which an impinging droplet levitates on a thin layer of its own vapour. This vapour is instantaneously created between the base of the deforming droplet and the heated surface so that direct contact with the hot solid is avoided. For these low Weber numbers, the droplet surface energy is high enough compared to its kinetic energy to permit the rebound, so that the droplet recovers its initial shape without breaking up after the bounce. Although the generated vapour insulates the droplet, some heat is exchanged with the wall during the interaction (i.e. during the resident time). In this paper, we report on experimental measurements of heat transfer due to droplet impact in the Leidenfrost regime. The energy released by the wall and measured using an inverse conduction method leads to an estimation of the heat transfer coefficient during impact in the Leidenfrost regime. For that, the time evolution of the droplet base surface is estimated using a simple modelling validated on experimental data. Finally, the energy measured is compared to existing models. (authors)

  2. Distribution coefficient and transfer factor of stable iodine in agricultural soils in Aomori, Japan

    Soil-to-solution distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) were determined for agricultural soils and selected plants in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, by means of analysis of stable I in soil and plant samples. The concentration of I in the soil samples varied between 0.52 and 82.8 mg kg-1 (geometric mean of 4.4 mg kg-1). The Kd, which was defined as the ratio of I concentration in soil to that in water extracted from the soil, was 1.5 x 103 in geometric mean (L/kg). The TF value was defined as the ratio of I concentration in plant to that in soil. Geometric means of the TF on dry weight base obtained in this study were 3.2 x 10-2 for komatsuna, 2.0 x 10-2 for Japanese radish and 2.3 x 10-2 for pasture grass. (author)

  3. Determination of the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in the hot stamping of AA7075

    Liu Xiaochuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC is a key parameter in hot stamping processes, in which a hot blank is formed and quenched by cold dies simultaneously. The IHTC should therefore be identified and used in FE models to improve the accuracy of simulation results of hot stamping processes. In this work, a hot stamping simulator was designed and assembled in a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical testing system and a FE model was built in PAM-STAMP to determine the IHTC value between a hot aluminium alloy 7075 blank and cold dies. The IHTC was determined at different contact pressures under both dry and lubricated (Omega-35 conditions. In addition, a model to calculate the IHTC value at different contact pressures and area densities of lubricant was developed for the hot stamping process.

  4. Dependence of the complete set of spin transfer coefficients on effective interaction in nuclear medium

    Multistep direct reactions 40Ca(p, p'x) at 392 MeV and 40Ca(p, nx) at 346 MeV are analyzed including up to three-step process. The double differential inclusive cross sections and the complete set of spin transfer coefficients Dij are calculated by the semiclassical distorted wave model and compared with experimental data. We use single particle wave functions in a Woods-Saxon potential incorporating the Wigner transform of a one-body density matrix and also introduce a phenomenological effective mass m* of a nucleon in the target. Analysis of Dij in terms of an effective interaction in nuclear medium is also done. (author)

  5. Measurement of the transfer coefficient for radiocesium transport from a sheep's diet to its milk

    The rate of increase and decay of radio contamination secreted in sheep's milk, resulting from a constant level of radiocesium in the animals' diet, was investigated. Ten lactating ewes were used in the experiment. For a period of 12 d the animals fed on contaminated grass, resulting in a daily radiocesium intake of 832 Bq per animal. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and were monitored for another 9 d. Throughout the period of the experiment, 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations in the animals' milk were measured daily with an 18% efficiency, high-resolution Ge detector. The data were in satisfactory agreement with the predictions of a simple two-compartment theory. The transfer coefficient, describing the steady-state equilibrium in this model, was measured as fm = 0.058 +/- 0.007 dL-1

  6. Comparison of the methods for calculating the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping

    This paper presents a hot stamping experimentation and three methods for calculating the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient (IHTC) of 22MnB5 boron steel. Comparison of the calculation results shows an average error of 7.5% for the heat balance method, 3.7% for the Beck's nonlinear inverse estimation method (the Beck's method), and 10.3% for the finite-element-analysis-based optimization method (the FEA method). The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying the IHTC in hot stamping applications. The numerical simulation using the IHTC identified by the Beck's method can predict the temperature field with a high accuracy. - Highlights: • A theoretical formula was derived for direct calculation of IHTC. • The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying IHTC. • Finite element method can be used to identify an overall equivalent IHTC

  7. Identification of the Heat Transfer Coefficient in the Inverse Stefan Problem by Using the ABC Algorithm

    E. Hetmaniok

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A procedure based on the Artificial Bee Colony algorithm for solving the two-phase axisymmetric one-dimensional inverse Stefanproblem with the third kind boundary condition is presented in this paper. Solving of the considered problem consists in reconstruction of the function describing the heat transfer coefficient appearing in boundary condition of the third kind in such a way that the reconstructed values of temperature would be as closed as possible to the measurements of temperature given in selected points of the solid. A crucial part of the solution method consists in minimizing some functional which will be executed with the aid of one of the swarm intelligence algorithms - the ABC algorithm.

  8. THE EFFECT OF THE ALUMINIUM ALLOY SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON THE RESTITUTION COEFFICIENT

    Stanisław Bławucki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the effect of the surface roughness of aluminum alloy on its coefficient of restitution. It describes the current method of finishing the workpiece surface layer after cutting and innovative measuring device which was used in the research. The material used in the research was aluminium alloy EN AW 7075. The paper also presents a relationship between the coefficient of restitution and surface roughness of the milled samples as well as impressions left by bead in function of velocity and a sample surface roughness.

  9. Simulation of Convective Heat-Transfer Coefficient in a Buried Exchanger

    Taoufik Mnasri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents analytical models allowing to study a forced convection laminar flow in non-established dynamic and thermic regimes. We treated a flow in a bitubular exchanger in permanent thermal contact with a semi-infinite medium, such as the ground. The wall temperature as well as the wall heat flux evolve in the course of time until a quasi-steady mode. The theoretical method is original because it uses Green's functions method to determine the analytical solutions of the heat propagation equation on the wall during the heating phase. These analytical solutions allow to identify the temperature distribution versus time. The complexity of the system geometry as well as the infinity of the medium surrounding the exchanger make the traditional methods of numerical resolution unable to solve the problem. We used, to solve it, the finite volume method coupled with the finite element method at the boundary. We studied the effect of Reynolds number, the fluid entry temperature and the transfer duration on the axial evolution of the heat transfer coefficient. We illustrated also the profile of the temperature field in the fluid medium.

  10. Effect of heat transfer coefficient on sheath and fuel centreline temperatures in SCWRS

    SuperCritical Water-cooled nuclear Reactors (SCWRs) utilize light water above the pseudocritical point as a reactor coolant. This Generation IV reactor concept is currently in its preliminary design phase. This paper discusses the variables that influence heat transfer from the fuel. The coolant Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC). Axial Heat Flux Profile (AHFP), sheath (clad) geometry and fuel thermal conductivity all impact the sheath and fuel centreline temperatures. The presented analysis utilizes the most recent HTC correlation developed for supercritical water, the Mokry et al. correlation (2009). The proposed sheath geometry is based on smaller diameter fuel elements than that of the current design to accommodate more fuel rods. Both uniform and cosine AHFPs, at average channel power, are applied. The results presented describe a sensitivity analysis of the effect of incrementing the HTC on sheath and fuel centreline temperatures. With a uniform AHFP and increasing HTC increments from 50 - 200% HTC the average temperature difference compared to 100% HTC are decreases from 13 to -18%. With a cosine AHFP and HTC incremented from 50 - 200% HTC the average temperature difference compared to 100% HTC have the range of 20 to -10%. (author)

  11. New potential energy surface for the HCS+–He system and inelastic rate coefficients

    A new high quality potential energy surface is calculated at a coupled-cluster single double triple level with an aug-cc-pV5Z basis set for the HCS+–He system. This potential energy surface is used in low energy quantum scattering calculations to provide a set of (de)-excitation cross sections and rate coefficients among the first 20 rotational levels of HCS+ by He in the range of temperature from 5 K to 100 K. The paper discusses the impact of the new ab initio potential energy surface on the cross sections at low energy and provides a comparison with the HCO+–He system. The HCS+–He rate coefficients for the strongest transitions differ by factors of up to 2.5 from previous rate coefficients; thus, analysis of astrophysical spectra should be reconsidered with the new rate coefficients

  12. Determination of air side heat transfer coefficient in a mini-channel heat exchanger using Wilson Plot method

    In this study, the air side heat transfer coefficient of an aluminium mini-channel heat exchanger was investigated for single-phase flow in the mini-channel, with water in the tubes and air on the outside. Research methods included hydraulic tests on a single mini-channel tube, Wilson Plot experiments and experiment validation. Results obtained from the hydraulic test showed that turbulent flow occurred in the tube at a Reynolds number of 830. Wilson Plot experiments were conducted to determine air side heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger. The tube side Reynolds number was maintained above 1000 to ensure turbulent flow and tube side heat transfer coefficient was calculated using Gnielinski equation for turbulent flow. The air side heat transfer coefficients obtained from the Wilson Plot experiments were in good agreement with known correlations. The outcome of this study is to use the air side heat transfer coefficient to calculate the performance of refrigerant condensers for different tube pass ratios and flow pass configurations

  13. Measurement of subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient in a horizontal channel under LPLF conditions

    Horizontal flow is commonly encountered in boiler tubes, refrigerating equipments and nuclear reactor fuel channels of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR). Study of horizontal flow under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions is important in understanding the nuclear core behavior during situations like LOCA (Loss of coolant accidents). In the present work, experimental measurements of local heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are carried out in a horizontal channel under LPLF conditions of sub-cooled boiling. Infrared thermography is used for the measurement of local wall temperature to estimate the heat transfer coefficient in single phase and two phase flows with water as the working medium at atmospheric pressure. Correlation for single phase diabatic pressure drop ratio (diabatic to adiabatic) as a function of viscosity ratio (wall temperature to fluid temperature) is presented. Correlation for pressure drop under sub-cooled boiling conditions as a function of Bo (Boiling number) and Ja (Jacob number) is obtained. Correlation for single phase heat transfer coefficient in the developing region is presented as a function of z/d (ratio of axial length of the test section to diameter). Correlation for two-phase heat transfer coefficient under sub-cooled boiling condition is presented as a function of Bo, Ja and Pr (Prandtl number). Correlation between heat transfer coefficient and friction factor is obtained by applying Reynolds analogy. (author)

  14. Electron transfer in gas surface collisions

    In this thesis electron transfer between atoms and metal surfaces in general is discussed and the negative ionization of hydrogen by scattering protons at a cesiated crystalline tungsten (110) surface in particular. Experimental results and a novel theoretical analysis are presented. In Chapter I a theoretical overview of resonant electron transitions between atoms and metals is given. In the first part of chapter II atom-metal electron transitions at a fixed atom-metal distance are described on the basis of a model developed by Gadzuk. In the second part the influence of the motion of the atom on the atomic charge state is incorporated. Measurements presented in chapter III show a strong dependence of the fraction of negatively charged H atoms scattered at cesiated tungsten, on the normal as well as the parallel velocity component. In chapter IV the proposed mechanism for the parallel velocity effect is incorporated in the amplitude method. The scattering process of protons incident under grazing angles on a cesium covered surface is studied in chapter V. (Auth.)

  15. Free Convective Heat Transfer From A Vertical Surface For The Case Of Linearly Varying Thermal Potential

    Parvataneni

    2013-01-01

    The present theoretical investigation deals with the problem of free convective heat transfer from a vertical plate having linear temperature gradient along its surface to the surrounding thermally stratified fluid. Integral method of analysis is adopted to investigate the effect of four parameters viz., the gradients of temperature in the fluid and the wall, Grashof number and Prandtl number on heat transfer coefficients. It is observed from the numerical results that an increase in the su...

  16. Heat transfer to a thin liquid film with a free surface

    Rahman, M. M.; Faghri, A.; Hankey, W. L.; Swanson, T. D.

    1989-01-01

    The numerically computed flow field and heat transfer coefficient are presented for the free surface flow of a thin liquid film in the presence or absence of a gravitational body force. The results of an approximate analysis using the Pohlhausen integral method is also discussed. The flow systems studied here include both plane and radial film flows in the presence or absence of a gravitational body force. The heating conditions include isothermal and uniformly heated surfaces. The transport conditions considered at the free surface are an adiabatic condition and an evaporative free surface maintained at its saturation temperature. The height of the free surface, flow field and heat transfer coefficient, were found to be strongly affected by the gravitational body force. They were also found to depend on the Reynolds number and Froude number of the incoming fluid. In the presence of gravity, a hydraulic jump was found to occur under some flow conditions.

  17. First integrals and analytical solutions of the nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient

    EMRULLAH YA¸SAR; YAKUP YILDIRIM; ILKER BURAK GIRESUNLU

    2016-08-01

    Fin materials can be observed in a variety of engineering applications. They are used to ease the dissipation of heat from a heated wall to the surrounding environment. In this work, we consider a nonlinear fin problem with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient. The equation(s) under study are highly nonlinear. Both the thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficient are given as arbitrary functions of temperature. Firstly, we consider the Lie group analysis for different cases of thermal conductivity and the heat transfer coefficients. These classifications are obtained from the Lie group analysis. Then, the first integrals of the nonlinear straight fin problem are constructed by three methods, namely, Noether’s classical method, partial Noether approach and Ibragimov’s nonlocal conservation method. Some exact analytical solutions are also constructed. The obtained result is also compared with the result obtained by other methods.

  18. Measurement of subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient in horizontal tube under LPLF conditions

    Highlights: ► Measured subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient in horizontal tubes. ► Infra-red thermal imaging is used for wall temperature measurement. ► Developed correlations for pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient. -- Abstract: Horizontal flow is commonly encountered in boiler tubes, refrigerating equipments and nuclear reactor fuel channels of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR). Study of horizontal flow under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions is important in understanding the nuclear core behavior during situations like LOCA (loss of coolant accidents). In the present work, local heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are measured in a horizontal tube under LPLF conditions of subcooled boiling. Geometrical parameters covered in this study are diameter (5.5 mm, 7.5 mm and 9.5 mm) and length (550 mm, 750 mm and 1000 mm). The operating parameters varied are mass flux (450–935 kg/m2 s) and inlet subcooling (29 °C, 50 °C and 70 °C). Infra-red thermography is used for the measurement of local wall temperature to estimate the heat transfer coefficient in single phase and two phase flows with water as the working medium at atmospheric pressure. Correlation for single phase diabatic pressure drop ratio (diabatic to adiabatic) as a function of viscosity ratio (wall temperature to fluid temperature) is presented. Correlation for pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions as a function of Boiling number (Bo) and Jakob number (Ja) is obtained. Correlation for single phase heat transfer coefficient in the thermal developing region is presented as a function of Reynolds number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr) and z/d (ratio of axial length of the test section to diameter). Correlation for two phase heat transfer coefficient under subcooled boiling condition is developed as a function of boiling number (Bo), Jakob number (Ja) and Prandtl number (Pr)

  19. Heat/Mass Transfer Measurement on The Tip Surface Of Rotor Blade With Squlear Rim

    Park, Jun Su; Lee, Dong Hyun; Lee, Woo Jin; Cho, Hyung Hee; Rhee, Dong-Ho; Kang, Shin-Hyung

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigates local heat/mass transfer characteristics on blade tip surface with squealer rim. A linear cascade experimental setup consists of three large scale airfoils was used. The axial chord length and turning angle of test blade are 237 mm and 126°, respectively. Heat/mass transfer coefficients were measured with three different rim heights (3%, 6% and 9% of axial chord length) and fixed tip clearance (2% of axial chord length). Main flow Reynolds number based on axial chord length is 1.5×105. Naphthalene sublimation method is used to measure the detailed mass transfer coefficient on the blade tip surface. The heat/mass transfer results show that as the rim height increases, the peak values on the upstream region of the tip surface decreases and moves to the suction side rim. At the downstream region of the tip surface, the pitch-wise averaged heat/mass transfer coefficients increases as the rim height increases.

  20. Transfer coefficients in a four-cusp duct simulating a typical nuclear reactor channel degraded by accident

    An experimental study on forced convection in a four-cusp duct simulating a typical nuclear reactor channel degraded by accident is presented. Transfer coefficients were obtained by using the analogy between heat and mass tranfer, with the naphtalene sublimation technique. The experiment consisted in forcing air past a four-cusp naphthalene moulded duct. Mass transfer coefficients were determined in nondimensional form as Sherwood number. Experimental curves correlating the Sherwood number with a nondimensional length, x+, were obtained for Reynolds number varying from 891 to 30.374. This range covers typical flow rates that are expected to exist in a degraded nuclear reactor core. (Author)

  1. Impact of External Pressure on the Heat Transfer Coefficient during Solidification of Al-A356 Alloy

    Jabbari, Masoud; Ilkhchy, A.Fardi; Moumani, E.

    In this paper the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is correlated to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of the casting under different pressures were obtained using the Inverse Heat Conduction...... Problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite difference heat flow program to estimate the transient heat transfer coefficients. The new simple formula was presented...

  2. Heat Transfer Coefficient during Evaporation of R-1234yf, R-134a, and R-22 in Horizontal Circular Small Tubes

    Kwang-Il Choi; Nguyen-Ba Chien; Jong-Taek Oh

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data of heat transfer coefficient during evaporation of R-1234yf, R-134a, and R-22 in horizontal circular small tubes are compared. The local heat transfer coefficient is obtained for heat fluxes ranging from 10 to 35 kW m−2, mass fluxes ranging from 100 to 650 kg m−2 s−1, saturation temperatures of 5, 10, and 15°C, and quality up to 1.0. The test sections are made of stainless steel tubes with inner diameters of 1.5 and 3.0 mm, the lengths of 1000 and 2000. Effects of heat flux,...

  3. Determining the range of variation of convective heat transfer coefficient during the combustion of alternative kinds of gaseous fuels

    Oleksandr I. Brunetkin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the reason of complication of usage of alternative fuel gases on the installed equipment — the organization of effective process of their combustion. As one of the parameters affecting the dynamic characteristics of the control object, the coefficient of convective heat transfer is considered. The effect of changes of physical characteristics of heat and rate of combustion products arising from the use of various combustible gases on it is determined. It is found that the main cause of the change of heat transfer coefficient is the presence of flammable gases of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the mixture.

  4. Effect of temperature and pressure on the overall heat transfer coefficient in VHTR-based SI process heat exchangers

    In this paper, a sensitivity analysis on the overall heat transfer coefficient has been carried out as a function of operation temperature and pressure. The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle and Westinghouse sulfur hybrid cycle, combined with a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are well-known as feasible technologies for hydrogen production. The SI process consists of a Bunsen reactor; H2SO4, SO3, and HIx decomposers; and a HI pre-heater. The overall heat transfer coefficient of the process heat exchanger (PHE) used in the SI process is a very important factor when sizing the PHE

  5. Large exponential gain coefficient in polymer assisted asymmetric liquid crystal cells originating from surface effect

    Fu, Jiayin; Zhang, Jingwen; Xue, Tingyu; Zhao, Hua

    2016-09-01

    As large as 4607 cm-1 gain coefficient in two beam coupling experiment was obtained by introducing PVK:C60 film to ZnSe assisted liquid crystal system. As short as 5.0 ms holographic recording time was reached when probing the grating formation process, showing great potential in real time applications. Systematical two beam coupling and grating probing experiments were performed in studying the mechanism behind the high photorefractive (PR) performance. Unusual energy transfer direction change and gain coefficient fluctuation were observed when the voltage polarity and incidence side were altered in the related two wave coupling experiments.

  6. Effect of greenhouse on crop drying under natural and forced convection I: Evaluation of convective mass transfer coefficient

    In this paper, a study of convective mass transfer coefficient and rate of moisture removal from cabbage and peas for open sun drying and inside greenhouse drying has been performed as a function of climatic parameters. The hourly data for the rate of moisture removal, crop temperature, relative humidity inside and outside the greenhouse and ambient air temperature for complete drying have been recorded. The experiments were conducted after the crop harvesting season from September to December 2001. These data were used for determination of the coefficient of convective mass transfer and then for development of the empirical relation of convective mass transfer coefficient with drying time under natural and forced modes. The empirical relations with convective mass transfer for open and greenhouse drying have been compared. The convective mass transfer coefficient was lower for drying inside the greenhouse with natural mode as compared to open sun drying. Its value was doubled under the forced mode inside the greenhouse drying compared to natural convection in the initial stage of drying

  7. Determination of unidirectional heat transfer coefficient during unsteady-state solidification at metal casting-chill interface

    In this study, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) for vertically upward unidirectional solidification of a eutectic Al-Si casting on water cooled copper and steel chills was measured during solidification. A finite difference method (FDM) was used for solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Six computer guided thermocouples were connected with the chill and casting, and the time-temperature data were recorded automatically. The thermocouples were placed, located symmetrically, at 5 mm, 37.5 mm and 75 mm from the interface. As the lateral surfaces are very well heat isolated, the unidirectional solidification process starts vertically upward at the interface surface. The measured time-temperature data files were used by a FDM using an explicit technique. A heat flow computer program has been written to estimate the transient metal-chill IHTC in the IHCP. The experimental and calculated temperatures have shown excellent agreement. The IHTC during vertically upward unidirectional solidification of an Al-Si casting on copper and steel chills have varied between about 19-9.5 kW/m2 K and 6.5-5 kW/m2 K, respectively

  8. Determination of unidirectional heat transfer coefficient during unsteady-state solidification at metal casting-chill interface

    Sahin, Haci Mehmet [Gazi Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey)]. E-mail: mesahin@gazi.edu.tr; Kocatepe, Kadir [Gazi Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey); Kayikci, Ramazan [Sakarya Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Sakarya (Turkey); Akar, Neset [Gazi Ueniversitesi, Teknik Egitim Fakueltesi, Teknikokullar, Ankara 06503 (Turkey)

    2006-01-15

    In this study, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) for vertically upward unidirectional solidification of a eutectic Al-Si casting on water cooled copper and steel chills was measured during solidification. A finite difference method (FDM) was used for solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Six computer guided thermocouples were connected with the chill and casting, and the time-temperature data were recorded automatically. The thermocouples were placed, located symmetrically, at 5 mm, 37.5 mm and 75 mm from the interface. As the lateral surfaces are very well heat isolated, the unidirectional solidification process starts vertically upward at the interface surface. The measured time-temperature data files were used by a FDM using an explicit technique. A heat flow computer program has been written to estimate the transient metal-chill IHTC in the IHCP. The experimental and calculated temperatures have shown excellent agreement. The IHTC during vertically upward unidirectional solidification of an Al-Si casting on copper and steel chills have varied between about 19-9.5 kW/m{sup 2} K and 6.5-5 kW/m{sup 2} K, respectively.

  9. Mass Transfer Coefficient During Cathodic Protectionof Low Carbon Steel in Seawater

    Ameel Mohammed Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to calculate mass transfer coefficient, kd, during cathodic protection of low carbon steel in neutral seawater (3.5% W/V NaCl in distilled water with pH = 7. Two types of cathodic protection were used:First: Sacrificial anode cathodic protection (SACP were a pipeline of steel carrying seawater using zinc as a sacrificial anode and with variable temperatures ranged (0 – 45oC and volumetric flow rate ranged (5 – 900 lit/hr. It was found that the kd increases with increasing temperature and volumetric flow rate of seawater, where kd ranged (0.24×10-6 – 41.6×10-6 m/s.Second: Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP technique adopting a rotating vertical steel cylinder in seawater with variable temperatures ranged (0 – 45oC and rotating velocity ranged (0 – 400 rpm. It was found that the kd increases with increasing temperature and rotating velocity, where kd ranged (7.25×10-6 – 36.82×10-6 m/s.

  10. Research on heat transfer characteristics of nano-structured surface

    Heat transfer enhancement at nano-structured surfaces on SUS316 substrate is experimentally investigated. In this study, slurry coating and dip-coating of nano-particles on the substrate and ion beam irradiation are applied as the fabrication technique of such surfaces. All of these surfaces shows the heat transfer enhancement with the factor ranging from 1.4 to 2. (author)

  11. Immobilization, hybridization, and oxidation of synthetic DNA on gold surface: electron transfer investigated by electrochemistry and scanning tunneling microscopy

    McEwen, Gerald D.; Chen, Fan; Zhou, Anhong

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental understanding of interfacial electron transfer (ET) among electrolyte/DNA/solid-surface will facilitate the design for electrical detection of DNA molecules. In this report, the electron transfer characteristics of synthetic DNA (sequence from pathogenic Cryptosporidium parvum) self-assembled on a gold surface was electrochemically studied. The effects of immobilization order on the interface ET related parameters such as diffusion coefficient (D0), surface coverage (θR), and mono...

  12. Evaluation of mass transfer coefficient of rare earth elements with interfacial agitation in LiCl-KCl/Cd system

    Reductive-extraction is one of the main process of pyro-chemical reprocessing for metallic fuel. Mass transfer coefficient of rare earth elements was evaluated in LiCl-KCl/Cd system at 450 and 500 degree C. The interface between the salt and the Cd was agitated with a fun turbine blade at 30 to 500 rpm. In case of 300 or 500 rpm, the system reached at equilibrium condition within 10 minutes. The evaluated mass transfer coefficient was 0.0008 to 0.05 cm/sec, which depended on the agitation speed or Reynolds number. The mass transfer coefficients became larger at 500 degree C than at 450 degree C, and in case of upward stream than in case of downward stream. Evaluation of recovery yield and separation efficiency of each solute were carried out in single-stage continuous-flow extraction and in multi-stages counter-current extraction in LiCl-KCl/Cd system. The mass transfer coefficients obtained in these experiments should be enough for separation and recovery in pyro-reprocessing by using counter-current extraction with 6 stages in case that the flow rare of both salt and Cd controlled within 2%/min. (author)

  13. Experiment of Flow Regime Map and Local Condensing Heat Transfer Coefficients Inside Three Dimensional Inner Microfin Tubes

    YangDu; MingDaoXin

    1999-01-01

    This paper developed a new type of three dimensional inner microfin tube,The experimental results of the flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside these tubes are reported in the paper,The flow patterns for the hirizontal condensation inside the new made tubes are divided into annular flow stratified flow and intermittent flow within the test conditions.The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients for the different flow patterns have been systematically caried out ,The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients changing with the vapor dryness fraction have also been carried out.As compared with the heat transfer coefficients of the two dimensional inner microfin tubes,those of the three dimensional inner microfin tubes increase 47-127% for the annular flow region,38-183% for the stratified flow and 15-75%,for the intermittent flow,respectively.The enhancement factor of the local heat transfer coefficients is from 1\\8-6\\9 for the vapor dryness fraction from 0.05 to 1.

  14. Determination of condensing heat transfer coefficients and two-phase flow regimes for dichlorotetrafluoroethane refrigerant (R-114)

    Experimental condensing heat transfer coefficients for R-114 flowing in a horizontal tube were compared with those calculated by the classical Nusselt correlation and with a new prediction method of Rohsenow. It was determined that the Rohsenow method provides satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and that the coefficients calculated by the Nusselt correlation were much too low. A concurrent study of flow regimes was also made by observing the flow patterns in a glass section just downstream of the condensing section. The regimes observed agree reasonably well with a Baker map that was previously developed from theoretical considerations. An improved correlation was also developed for estimating the inside heat transfer coefficients for water in an annulus

  15. Partition coefficients and thermodynamics of transfer of novel drug-like spiro-derivatives in model biological solutions

    Highlights: ► Partition coefficients octanol/buffer of new drug-like spiro-derivatives were determined. ► Thermodynamic functions of transfer were calculated. ► The correlations partition coefficients and molecular descriptors are discussed. -- Abstract: Temperature dependences of partition coefficient for 11 drug-like spiro-derivatives of 1,3-thiazine in the system aqueous phosphate buffer/organic phase (hexane, octanol) have been determined over the temperature range (293.15 to 315.15) K by the isothermal saturation method. The effects of aliphatic chain substituent structure and introduction of oxygen, chlorine, bromine and fluorine atoms on the partitioning processes of the substances studied were examined. It has been established that among the substances investigated halogen derivatives possess the lowest partition coefficients in buffer/hexane system and the highest ones in buffer/octanol system. Regularities between the partition coefficients and the descriptors reflecting the capability of the solutes to undergo specific and nonspecific interactions with solvent molecules were revealed. The thermodynamic functions describing the partitioning process were calculated. It was found that differences in the partition coefficients depend on the enthalpies of transfer

  16. Effect of variable heat transfer coefficient on tissue temperature next to a large vessel during radiofrequency tumor ablation

    Pinheiro Cleber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the current shortcomings of radiofrequency (RF tumor ablation is its limited performance in regions close to large blood vessels, resulting in high recurrence rates at these locations. Computer models have been used to determine tissue temperatures during tumor ablation procedures. To simulate large vessels, either constant wall temperature or constant convective heat transfer coefficient (h have been assumed at the vessel surface to simulate convection. However, the actual distribution of the temperature on the vessel wall is non-uniform and time-varying, and this feature makes the convective coefficient variable. Methods This paper presents a realistic time-varying model in which h is a function of the temperature distribution at the vessel wall. The finite-element method (FEM was employed in order to model RF hepatic ablation. Two geometrical configurations were investigated. The RF electrode was placed at distances of 1 and 5 mm from a large vessel (10 mm diameter. Results When the ablation procedure takes longer than 1–2 min, the attained coagulation zone obtained with both time-varying h and constant h does not differ significantly. However, for short duration ablation (5–10 s and when the electrode is 1 mm away from the vessel, the use of constant h can lead to errors as high as 20% in the estimation of the coagulation zone. Conclusion For tumor ablation procedures typically lasting at least 5 min, this study shows that modeling the heat sink effect of large vessels by applying constant h as a boundary condition will yield precise results while reducing computational complexity. However, for other thermal therapies with shorter treatment using a time-varying h may be necessary.

  17. An improved method for measuring the surface sound energy diffusion coefficient in a room

    ZHANG Jiping; WU Shuoxian; LI Ningrong

    2003-01-01

    The partly specular reflection and partly diffusion reflection model is a convenientway to express the phenomena of surface sound energy scattering in room acoustics. Soundenergy diffusion coefficient becomes a key factor to study surface scattering. But there havebeen very few methods for determining the average sound energy diffusion coefficient. Vorlanderproposed such an easy one based on the correlation principle. However, his method ignoredthe correlation from direct sound, in which defect is present. A new approximate method forcalculating sound energy diffusion coefficient, including direct sound and first strong reflectionsis presented. Therefore, Vorlander's defect is overcome. In addition, with the aid of digitalmeasuring technology, a relevant measuring system was developed. The experiment resultshows that the method is improved than Vorlander's.

  18. On development of analytical closure relationships for local wall friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients for sub-channel codes

    The purpose has been to describe an approach suggested for constructing generalized closure relationships for local and subchannel wall friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients, with not only axial and transversal parameters taken into account, but azimuthal substance transfer effects as well. These constitutive relations that are primary for description of one- and two-phase one-dimensional flow models can be derived from the initial 3-D drift flux formulation. The approach is based on the Reynolds flux, boundary layer and generalized coefficient of substance transfer. One more task has been to illustrate the validity of the 'conformity principle' for the limiting cases. The method proposed is based on the similarity theory, boundary layer model, and a phenomenological description of the regularities of the substance transfer (momentum, heat, and mass), as well as on an adequate simulation of the forms of flow structure by a generalized approach to build (an integrated in form and semi-empirical in maintenance structure) analytical relationships for wall friction, heat and mass transfer coefficients. (author)

  19. Saturated flow boiling of water in a narrow channel: time-averaged heat transfer coefficients and correlations

    Time-averaged local heat transfer coefficients were measured during flow boiling of water at atmospheric pressure in a vertical channel of rectangular cross-section 2 mm by 1 mm for ranges of mass flux 57-211 kg/m2 s, heat flux 27-160 kW/m2, thermodynamic quality 0-0.3 and inlet subcooling 1-12 K. The heat transfer coefficients were found to increase nearly with the square root of the heat flux. There was little effect of mass flux at 107, 134 and 211 kg/m2 s; lower heat transfer coefficients at 57 kg/m2 s were probably due to transient local dryout. Local time-averaged quality and different inlet conditions of subcooling and compressibility had little effect. Conventionally, this behaviour would be interpreted as nucleate boiling and a dimensional expression h=162q0.44 correlated the data to ±20%. However, the heat transfer coefficients were considerably higher than would be expected for pool nucleate boiling and visual observation showed local time-sharing between nucleate boiling and thin-film evaporation without nucleation, with only small temporal changes in the heat transfer coefficient. Eleven correlations for conventional and narrow-channel boiling predicted the data poorly, ranging from 250% average over-prediction to 70% average under-prediction. This suggests that conventional methods of distinguishing between nucleate and convective boiling mechanisms are unreliable and that a better understanding of the mechanisms of boiling in narrow channels is necessary to guide the development of correlations

  20. Studies on soil to grass transfer factor (Fv) and grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for cesium in Kaiga region

    Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of 137Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the 137Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10−1 and 1.8 × 10−1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of 137Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10−2 d L−1 and 4.6 × 10−2 d L−1, respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10−2 d L−1 for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10−3 d L−1 for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of 137Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for 137Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content (40K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied

  1. Data Qualification Report For DTN: MO0012RIB00065.002, Parameter Values For Transfer Coefficients

    A data-qualification evaluation was conducted on Reference Information Base (RIB) data set MOO0 12RIB00065.002, ''Parameter Values for Transfer Coefficients''. The corroborating data method was used to evaluate the data. This method was selected because it closely matches the literature-review method followed to select parameter values. Five criteria were considered when the corroborating method was used: adequacy of the corroborative literature, sufficiency of value-selection criteria, implementation of the selection criteria, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable quality assurance (QA) procedures. Three criteria were used when a literature review was not conducted: appropriate logic used to select parameters, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable QA procedures. The RIB data item, the associated Analysis and Model Report (AMR), the corroborative literature, and the results of an audit revision O/ICN--0 of the AMR were examined. All calculations and the selection process for all values were repeated and confirmed. The qualification team concluded: (1) A sufficient quantity of corroborative literature was reviewed and no additional literature was identified that should have been considered. (2) The selection criteria were sufficient and resulted in valid parameter values. (3) The process was well defined, adequately documented in the AMR, and correctly followed. (4) The analysis was developed in accordance with applicable QA procedures. No negative findings were documented that resulted in questions about the quality of the data. The qualification team therefore recommends that the qualification status of RIB data set MO0012RIB00065.002 be changed to qualified

  2. Effects of oxygen transfer coefficient on dihydroxyacetone production from crude glycerol

    Zheng, Xiao-juan; Jin, Kui-qi; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Gang; Liu, Yu-Peng

    2016-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the kinetics of dihydroxyacetone production by Gluconobacter frateurii CGMCC 5397 under different oxygen volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) conditions in submerged bioreactors using biodiesel-derived crude glycerol as the carbon source. kLa is a key fermentation parameter for the production of dihydroxyacetone. Cultivations were conducted in baffled- and unbaffled-flask cultures (the kLa values were 24.32 h−1 and 52.05 h−1, respectively) and fed-batch cultures (the kLa values were held at 18.21 h−1, 46.03 h−1, and 82.14 h−1) to achieve high dihydroxyacetone concentration and productivity. The results showed that a high kLa could dramatically increase dihydroxyacetone concentrations and productivities. The baffled-flask culture (with a kLa of 52.05 h−1) favored glycerol utilization and dihydroxyacetone production, and a dihydroxyacetone concentration as high as 131.16 g/L was achieved. When the kLa was set to 82.14 h−1 in the fed-batch culture, the dihydroxyacetone concentration, productivity and yield were 175.44 g/L, 7.96 g/L/h and 0.89 g/g, respectively, all of which were significantly higher than those in previous studies and will benefit dihydroxyacetone industrial production. PMID:26887235

  3. Grass to cow milk transfer coefficient (Fm) of iodine for equilibrium and emergency situations

    Radioiodine (131I) is one of the radionuclides likely to get released into the atmosphere in case of a reactor accident, though chances of such an accident are very remote due to stringent engineering safety features. If released to the environment during an accident, 131I may enter the grass→cow→cow milk pathway, leading to increased thyroid dose to those consuming milk, especially infants and children. The estimation of site-specific grass to milk transfer coefficient (Fm) for iodine is essential for an accurate assessment of the radiological hazard to the population in the region surrounding a nuclear power plant. In this study, a method based on the chemical separation of iodine present in grass and cow milk, and subsequent neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been optimized for the determination of stable iodine concentration in grass and cow milk. The method involves preconcentration of iodine from the sample matrix, and determination of iodine by NAA. The detection limit of stable iodine in milk was found to be 1 ng/mL. For the validation of the result, iodine concentration in NIST reference materials was determined simultaneously. The present study has yielded a Fm value of 5.6 x 10-3 d/L for dairy farm cows and 6.3 x 10-3 d/L for local breed cows under equilibrium conditions. These results are similar to the values given in International Atomic Energy Agency report (TRS-472). To simulate a rapid deposition of iodine on grass and for the estimation of Fm value for an emergency situation, grass grown in the experimental field was sprayed with stable potassium iodide solution and fed to the adopted cows, and the milk samples were collected regularly and analyzed. The Fm value for the simulated accidental situation was found to be 3.9 x 10-3 d/L. (author)

  4. Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide transfer coefficients. Third technical progress report, September 1984-August 1985

    The goat milk transfer coefficient of Tc administered as TcO4- was found to be 20 to 40 times that of Tc administered in a reduced form. The fraction of Tc, as TcO4-, transferred from gut to blood was approximately 6 to 10 times that of reduced Tc. The milk transfer coefficient of Tc administered as TcO4- was 6 to 8 times greater for goats than cows. The fraction of Tc, as TcO4-, absorbed from the gut by cows, however, was approximately twice that absorbed by goats. The mean time for loss of Tc in cows' milk based on the average values plotted in Figure 2 was approximately 10 hours. The fraction of Tc, administered as TcO4-, absorbed from blood to mammary gland by cows was estimated to be approximately 2% that of goats. 4 refs., 15 tabs

  5. Measurement and modelling of forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3- and SiO2-water nanofluids

    Julia, J. E.; Hernández, L.; Martínez-Cuenca, R.; Hibiki, T.; Mondragón, R.; Segarra, C.; Jarque, J. C.

    2012-11-01

    Forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids were characterized. The experimental facility was composed of thermal-hydraulic loop with a tank with an immersed heater, a centrifugal pump, a bypass with a globe valve, an electromagnetic flow-meter, a 18 kW in-line pre-heater, a test section with band heaters, a differential pressure transducer and a heat exchanger. The test section consists of a 1000 mm long aluminium pipe with an inner diameter of 31.2 mm. Eighteen band heaters were placed all along the test section in order to provide a uniform heat flux. Heat transfer coefficient was calculated measuring fluid temperature using immersed thermocouples (Pt100) placed at both ends of the test section and surface thermocouples in 10 axial locations along the test section (Pt1000). The measurements have been performed for different nanoparticles (Al2O3 and SiO2 with primary size of 11 nm and 12 nm, respectively), volume concentrations (1% v., 5% v.), and flow rates (3 103Repressure drop penalty (1000%) is obtained with 5% v. SiO2 nanofluid. Existing correlations can predict, at least in a first approximation, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of nanofluids if thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat were properly modelled.

  6. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Variation of Inside Diameter of Condenser and Mass Flow Rate on the Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Domestic Refrigerator.

    Rajesh Joshi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a domestic refrigerator is affected by the Surface roughness of condenser, evaporator and associated piping. The heat transfer in a domestic refrigerator is a complex phenomenon as it involves two phase flow inside the condenser, evaporator and the tubing. Various equations had been developed in the past by different Researchers to calculate the heat transfer for fluid flow inside tubes. In the present study Boyko and Kurzhillin equation is being used to determine the heat transfer coefficient for two phase flow in the condenser of a domestic refrigerator using R134a as refrigerant. For this an experimental setup has also been developed containing different condensers having different inside tube diameters varying in the range of 6.25mm to 12mm and the mass flow rate of refrigerant is varied in the range of 0.002kg/s to 0.02 kg/s.

  7. Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Nano- Engineered Cu Surfaces

    We investigated condensate mobility and resulting heat transfer performance on Cu based water repellent surfaces including hydrophobic, superhydrophobic and oil-infused surfaces. We observed the transient microscale condensation behaviours up to 3 hours with controlling the supersaturation level at 1.64. We experimentally characterized the nucleation density, droplet size distribution and growth rate, and then incorporated them into the developed condensation heat transfer model to compare the condensation heat transfer performance of each surface. Due to the spontaneous coalescence induced jumping, superhydrophobic surface can maintain the high heat transfer performance while other surfaces show a gradual decrease in heat transfer performance due to the increase in the thermal resistance across the growing droplets. We also quantified each thermal resistance values from the vapor to the surface through the droplets to find out the relative importance of each thermal resistance term

  8. Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Nano- Engineered Cu Surfaces

    Kim, Hyunsik; Nam, Youngsuk

    2014-11-01

    We investigated condensate mobility and resulting heat transfer performance on Cu based water repellent surfaces including hydrophobic, superhydrophobic and oil-infused surfaces. We observed the transient microscale condensation behaviours up to 3 hours with controlling the supersaturation level at 1.64. We experimentally characterized the nucleation density, droplet size distribution and growth rate, and then incorporated them into the developed condensation heat transfer model to compare the condensation heat transfer performance of each surface. Due to the spontaneous coalescence induced jumping, superhydrophobic surface can maintain the high heat transfer performance while other surfaces show a gradual decrease in heat transfer performance due to the increase in the thermal resistance across the growing droplets. We also quantified each thermal resistance values from the vapor to the surface through the droplets to find out the relative importance of each thermal resistance term.

  9. Coefficient of friction between carbon steel and perlite concrete surfaces. Test report

    The results of coefficient of friction, μ, tests conducted on perlite blocks and carbon steel plates under various conditions are discussed. Variables included in the test entailed the use of lubricants (i.e. water and simulated radioactive waste solution) abrasives (120 grit, 60 grit, 40 grit sand paper) applied to the surfaces of the perlite block and carbon steel plates

  10. Study of local heat transfer on the face surface of a nozzle ring model

    Khalatov, A.A.; Kapitanchuk, K.I.; Kovalenko, A.S.; Trufanov, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of local heat transfer on the face surface of a model of the nozzle ring of a gas turbine are reported. A method for generalizing experimental data is proposed which makes it possible to obtain a unified similarity equation allowing for the effect of the curvature of flow lines, for the three-dimensional nature of the flow, for flow acceleration along the channel, and for the laminar transition of the flow. The equation can be used for calculating local heat transfer coefficients at arbitrary points of the face surface. 9 references.

  11. MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AND WATER WITH AND WITHOUT ANTI-FOAM AGENTS

    Mass transfer rates were measured in a large scale system, which consisted of an 8.4 meter tall by 0.76 meter diameter column containing one of three fluids: water with an anti-foam agent, water without an anti-foam agent, and AZ101 simulant, which simulated a non-Newtonian nuclear waste. The testing contributed to the evaluation of large scale mass transfer of hydrogen in nuclear waste tanks. Due to its radioactivity, the waste was chemically simulated, and due to flammability concerns oxygen was used in lieu of hydrogen. Different liquids were used to better understand the mass transfer processes, where each of the fluids was saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen was then removed from solution as air bubbled up, or sparged, through the solution from the bottom of the column. Air sparging was supplied by a single tube which was co-axial to the column, the decrease in oxygen concentration was recorded, and oxygen measurements were then used to determine the mass transfer coefficients to describe the rate of oxygen transfer from solution. Superficial, average, sparging velocities of 2, 5, and 10 mm/second were applied to each of the liquids at three different column fill levels, and mass transfer coefficient test results are presented here for combinations of superficial velocities and fluid levels

  12. Heat transfer and forces on concave surfaces in free molecule flow.

    Fan, C.

    1971-01-01

    A Monte Carlo modeling technique is described for mathematically simulating free molecular flows over a concave spherical surface and a concave cylindrical surface of finite length. The half-angle of the surfaces may vary from 0 to 90 degrees, and the incident flow may have an arbitrary speed ratio and an arbitrary angle of attack. Partial diffuse reflection and imperfect energy accommodation for molecules colliding with the surfaces are also considered. Results of heat transfer, drag and lift coefficients are presented for a variety of flow conditions. The present Monte Carlo results are shown to be in very good agreement with certain available theoretical solutions.

  13. octanol/water partition coefficient using solvation free energy and solvent-accessible surface area

    2001-01-01

    The regression model for octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow ), is founded with only two molecular descriptors available through quantum chemical calculations: solvation free energy (△ Gs ), and solvent-accessible surface area (SASA). For the properties of 47 organic compounds from 17 types, the model gives a oonection coefficient (adjusted for degrees of freedom) of 0.959 and a standard error of 0.277 log unit. It is a suitable way to predict the partition properties that are related to solute-solvent interactions in the water phase.

  14. Transfer coefficients of energy in mass for X radiation-air: the kV relation and effective energy

    The objective was to determine, through specific software, the mass-energy transfer coefficients by X-ray beams in air between 30-150 kV. Were generated by the Spectrum Processor program, the spectra and calculated their mass coefficients. The results behaved numerically decreasing order, ranging between 0.3733 and 0.0439 cm2/g, inversely proportional to the voltage used and differing behavior of mono-energetic beams above 100 keV. Values align with literal definitions of the interaction of radiation with matter, being useful for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, including for systems not using an ionization chamber. (author)

  15. Methamphetamine residue dermal transfer efficiencies from household surfaces.

    Van Dyke, Mike; Martyny, John W; Serrano, Kate A

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine contamination from illegal production operations poses a potential health concern for emergency responders, child protective services, law enforcement, and children living in contaminated structures. The objective of this study was to evaluate dermal transfer efficiencies of methamphetamine from contaminated household surfaces. These transfer efficiencies are lacking for methamphetamine, and would be beneficial for use in exposure models. Surfaces were contaminated using a simulated smoking method in a stainless steel chamber. Household surfaces were carpet, painted drywall, and linoleum. Dermal transfer efficiencies were obtained using cotton gloves for two hand conditions, dry or saliva moistened (wet). In addition, three contact scenarios were evaluated for both hand conditions: one, two, or three contacts with contaminated surfaces. Dermal transfer efficiencies were calculated for both hand conditions and used as inputs in a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model (SHEDS-Multimedia, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C.). Results of this study showed that average dermal transfer efficiencies of methamphetamine ranged from 11% for dry hands to 26% for wet hands. There was a significantly higher wet transfer as compared to dry transfer for all surfaces. For wet hands, dermal transfer depended on surface type with higher transfer from carpet and linoleum as compared to drywall. Based on our estimates of dermal transfer efficiency, a surface contamination clearance level of 1.5 μg/100 cm(2) may not ensure absorbed doses remain below the level associated with adverse health effects in all cases. Additional dermal transfer studies should be performed using skin surrogates that may better predict actual skin transfer. PMID:24579754

  16. The fuel to clad heat transfer coefficient in advanced MX-type fuel pins

    Advanced fuels (mixed carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides) are characterised by a high thermal conductivity compared to that of oxide fuels (5 times greater) and their behaviour under irradiation (amount of swelling, fracture behaviour, restructuring) is far more sensitive to the design parameters and to the operating temperature than that of oxide fuels. The use of advanced fuels is therefore conditioned by the possibility of mastering the above phenomena, and the full exploitation of their favorable neutron characteristics depends upon a good understanding of the mutual relationships of the various parameters, which eventually affect the mechanical stability of the pin. By far the most important parameter is the radial temperature profile which controls the swelling of the fuel and the build-up of stress fields within the pin. Since the rate of fission gas swelling of these fuels is relatively large, a sufficient amount of free space has to be provided within the pin. This space originally appears as fabrication porosity and as fuel-to-clad clearance. Due to the large initial gap width and to the high fuel thermal conductivity, the range of the fuel operating temperatures is mainly determined by the fuel-to-clad heat transfer coefficient h, whose correct determination becomes one of the central points in modelling. During the many years of modelling activity in the field of oxide fuels, several theoretical models have been developed to calculate h, and a large amount of experimental data has been produced for the empirical adjustment of the parameters involved, so that the situation may be regarded as rather satisfactory. The analysis lead to the following conclusions. A quantitative comparison of experimental h-values with existing models for h requires rather sophisticated instrumented irradiation capsules, which permit the measurement of mechanical data (concerning fuel and clad) together with heat rating and temperatures. More and better well

  17. Coupled heat and mass transfer by mixed convection from a horizontal surface in saturated porous medium

    Coupled heat and mass transfer in porous media has many important applications in engineering. These include the migration of moisture in fibrous insulation, the spreading of chemical pollutants in saturated soil, underground disposal of nuclear wastes and the extraction of geothermal energy. Here, similarity solutions are reported for coupled heat and mass transfer by free, forced, and mixed convection from a horizontal surface in a saturated porous medium. The present analysis shows that similarity solutions are possible for a surface maintained at a constant heat flux and mass flux condition. The governing parameters for the problem under consideration are the Lewis number Le, the buoyancy ratio N and mixed convection parameter Ra/Pe3/2. Depending on the values of N and Le, the heat and mass transfer results may range from the asymptotic free convection limit to that of the forced convection limit. The results are presented in terms of the relation between the transfer coefficients and the governing parameters

  18. Meso-scale wrinkled coatings to improve heat transfers of surfaces facing ambient air

    Meso-scale (micrometer-to submillimeter-scale) wrinkled surfaces coated on steel sheets used in outdoor storage and transport facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids were discovered to efficiently increase convective heat transfer between ambient air and the surface. The radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients of various wrinkled surfaces, which were formed by coating steel sheets with several types of shrinkable paints, were examined. The convective heat transfer coefficient of a surface colder than ambient air monotonically changed with average height difference and interval distance of the wrinkle undulation, where the proportions were 0.0254 and 0.0054 W/m2/K/μm, respectively. With this wrinkled coating, users can lower the possibility of condensation and reduce rust and maintenance cost of facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids. From the point of view of manufacturers, this coating method can be easily adapted to conventional manufacturing processes. - Highlights: • Various wrinkled surfaces were fabricated by a practical process. • Topographical effect on convection was parameterized separately from radiation. • Meso-scale wrinkled coatings increased convective heat transfer with ambient air. • Maintenance cost of outdoor steel sheets due to condensation can be reduced

  19. Local heat transfer coefficients for reflux condensation experiment in a vertical tube in the presence of noncondensible gas

    The local heat transfer coefficient is experimentally investigated for the reflux condensation in a countercurrent flow between the steam-air mixture and the condensate. A single vertical tube has a geometry which is a length of 2.4m, inner diameter of 16.56mm and outer diameter of 19.05mm and is made of stainless steel. Air is used as a noncondensible gas. The secondary side is installed in the form of coolant block around vertical tube and the heat by primary condensation is transferred to the coolant water. The local temperatures are measured at 15 locations in the vertical direction and each location has 3 measurement points in the radial direction, which are installed at the tube center, at the outer wall and at the coolant side. In three different pressures, the 27 sets of data are obtained in the range of inlet steam flow rate 1.348∼3.282kg/hr, of inlet air mass fraction 11.8∼55.0%. The local heat transfer coefficient increases as the increase of inlet steam flow rate and decreases as the decrease of inlet air mass fraction. As an increase of the system pressure, the active condensing region is contracted and the heat transfer capability in this region is magnified. The empirical correlation is developed represented with the 165 sets of local heat transfer data. As a result, the Jacob number and film Reynolds number are dominant parameters to govern the local heat transfer coefficient. The rms error is 17.7% between the results by the experiment and by the correlation

  20. Local heat transfer coefficients for reflux condensation experiment in a vertical tube in the presence of noncondensable gas

    The local heat transfer coefficient is experimentally investigated for the reflux condensation in a countercurrent flow between the steam-air mixture and the condensate. A single vertical tube has a geometry which is a length of 2.4 m, inner diameter of 16.56 mm and outer diameter of 19.05 mm and is made of stainless steel. Air is used as a noncondensable gas. The secondary side has a shape of annulus around vertical tube and the lost heat by primary condensation is transferred to the coolant water. The local temperatures are measured at 11 locations in the vertical direction and each location has 3 measurement points in the radial direction, which are installed at the tube center, at the outer wall and at the coolant side. In three different pressures, the 27 sets of data are obtained in the range of inlet steam flow rate 1.348∼3.282 kg/hr, of inlet air mass fraction 11.8∼55.0 percent. The investigation of the flooding is preceded to find the upper limit of the reflux condensation. Onset of flooding is lower than that of Wallis' correlation. The local heat transfer coefficient increases as the increase of inlet steam flow rate and decreases as the increase of inlet air mass fraction. As an increase of the system pressure, the active condensing region is contracted and the heat transfer capability in this region is magnified. The empirical correlation is developed by 165 data of the local heat transfer. As a result, the Jacob number and film Reynolds number are dominant parameters to govern the local heat transfer coefficient. The rms error is 17.7 percent between the results by the experiment and by the correlation. (author)

  1. Transient radiative heat transfer in an inhomogeneous participating medium with Fresnel’s surfaces

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the radiative heat transfer within an inhomogeneous and isot- ropically scattering medium with reflecting Fresnel’s surfaces. Thermal radiation transfers in a curve inside a medium with an inhomogeneous distribution of a re- fractive index. The inhomogenous medium is divided into n homogenous isother- mal sub-layers and in each sub-layer the radiation transfers in a straight line. By adopting a multilayer radiative transfer model and using a ray-tracing/nodal- ana- lyzing method, a radiative transfer model is built for the inhomogenous participat- ing medium. In the multilayer model, a criterion for refraction / total reflection at the interfaces between neighboring sub-layers is introduced, avoiding the integral singularity and reflection at physically inexistent interfaces (only the total reflection is considered). Transient thermal behavior is examined when the parameters of the radiative properties such as refractive indexes, extinction coefficients, and sin- gle-scattering albedoes vary continually along the thickness direction.

  2. Soret and Dufour effects on convective heat and mass transfer in stagnation-point flow towards a shrinking surface

    A mathematical model is presented to study the Soret and Dufour effects on the convective heat and mass transfer in stagnation-point flow of viscous incompressible fluid towards a shrinking surface. Suitable similarity transformations are used to convert the governing partial differential equations into self-similarity ordinary differential equations that are then numerically solved by shooting method. Dual solutions for temperature and concentration are obtained in the presence of Soret and Dufour effects. Graphical representations of the heat and mass transfer coefficients, the dimensionless thermal and solute profiles for various values of Prandtl number, Lewis number, Soret number and Dufour number are demonstrated. With Soret number the mass transfer coefficient which is related to mass transfer rate increases for both solutions and the heat transfer coefficient (related to heat transfer rate) for both solutions becomes larger with Dufour number. The Prandtl number causes reduction in heat and the mass transfer coefficients and similarly with the Lewis number mass transfer coefficient decreases. Also, double crossing over is found in dual dimensionless temperature profiles for increasing Soret number and in dual dimensionless concentration profiles for the increase in Dufour number. Due to the larger values of Dufour number the thermal boundary layer increases and for Prandtl number increment it decreases; whereas, the solute boundary layer thickness reduces with increasing values of Prandtl number and Lewis number. (paper)

  3. First Principles Investigation of the C3 Coefficients for Molecular Adsorption on Transition Metal Surfaces

    Kara, Abdelkader; Matos, Jeronimo; Yildirim, Handan

    2015-03-01

    C6 coefficients are used to investigate the strength of the long-range interactions for weakly interacting dimers as a function of separation distance. These coefficients are useful both as a measure for the accuracy of the various van der Waals (vdW) inclusive methods as well as reference for use in large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. In the case of molecule-surface interaction, the C3 coefficient is the counterpart to the C6 coefficient that is used for testing the interaction of dimers. We will present the results of the vdW inclusive density functional theory (DFT) calculations evaluating the C3 coefficients for the adsorption of M/X(110) and X(111), with X: Ag, Au, Cu, Pt, Pd, Ni, Rh and M: Benzene, Thiophene, Sexithiophene, Pentacene and Olympicene, as described by the PBE exchange-correlation functional and the self-consistent vdW-DF, optimized vdW-DFs and vdW-DF2 functionals. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Energy Science under Contract No. DE-FG02-11ER16243.

  4. Senstitivity analysis of horizontal heat and vapor transfer coefficients for a cloud-topped marine boundary layer during cold-air outbreaks. M.S. Thesis

    Chang, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of external parameters on the surface heat and vapor fluxes into the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during cold-air outbreaks are investigated using the numerical model of Stage and Businger (1981a). These fluxes are nondimensionalized using the horizontal heat (g1) and vapor (g2) transfer coefficient method first suggested by Chou and Atlas (1982) and further formulated by Stage (1983a). In order to simplify the problem, the boundary layer is assumed to be well mixed and horizontally homogeneous, and to have linear shoreline soundings of equivalent potential temperature and mixing ratio. Modifications of initial surface flux estimates, time step limitation, and termination conditions are made to the MABL model to obtain accurate computations. The dependence of g1 and g2 in the cloud topped boundary layer on the external parameters (wind speed, divergence, sea surface temperature, radiative sky temperature, cloud top radiation cooling, and initial shoreline soundings of temperature, and mixing ratio) is studied by a sensitivity analysis, which shows that the uncertainties of horizontal transfer coefficients caused by changes in the parameters are reasonably small.

  5. The Computation And Analysis Of The Correction Factor Of Heat Transfer Coefficient For The Kartini Reactor S Heat Exchanger

    The computation and analysis of the heat transfer coefficient correction factor the shell and tube type of the Kartini reactor's heat exchanger (HE) has been carried out. The computation of the correction factor was done by measuring of the actual dimension of HE. As known that the shell and tube type of the Kartini reactor's has been opera-ted for more than 15 years. Due to the scraping and rusting occur at the buffle, the total heat transfer coefficient correction factor Ft was decrease. At the later computation, it is found that it's value is 0,4669 or differ of 0,1331 compared to the prediction standard value. So far, if the rusting and scraping of the secondary water coolant to the buffle is linear to the earlier HE's operation time, it is predicted that the function of the buffle will crisis approximately in the year of 2002/2003 or 7,5 years again

  6. Experimental Investigation on the Heat Transfer Coefficient of the Thermosyphon Cross Section Shape

    Mohammed M. I. Hammad,; Jasem H. ALsuwaidi

    2015-01-01

    Two phase closed thermosyphon is a good heat transfer device. A large heat is transferred from evaporator to condenser with relatively a small temperature difference. In the present work, the heat transfer performance of two phase closed thermosyphon is analyzed experimentally with different cross section shape for the thermosyphon tube. A copper thermosyphon has been constructed with three different cross section shape (circular, square and rectangular) having the same hydraulic ...

  7. Application of the two-film theory to the determination of mass transfer coefficients for bovine serum albumin on anion-exchange columns

    Hansen, Ernst; Mollerup, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes a method of simultaneous determination of the external and the solid phase mass-transfer coefficients from frontal analysis data. The protein flux to the solid particles is determined from the slope of the breakthrough curve and the mass-transfer coefficients are determined by...

  8. Determining the range of variation of convective heat transfer coefficient during the combustion of alternative kinds of gaseous fuels

    Oleksandr I. Brunetkin; Anna V. Gusak

    2015-01-01

    The article highlights the reason of complication of usage of alternative fuel gases on the installed equipment — the organization of effective process of their combustion. As one of the parameters affecting the dynamic characteristics of the control object, the coefficient of convective heat transfer is considered. The effect of changes of physical characteristics of heat and rate of combustion products arising from the use of various combustible gases on it is determined. It is found that t...

  9. Reconstruction of the heat transfer coefficient in the problem of binary alloy solidification with application of the broken line model

    D. Słota

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, solution of the inverse problem is presented, which consists in determination of the heat transfer coefficient during the process of binary alloy solidification for the known temperature measurements in the selected points of the cast. In the considered model distribution of temperature is described with the aid of Stefan problem with the varying liquidus temperature depending on the concentration of alloy component. Whereas, for description of the concentration the broken line model is used.

  10. Reconstruction of the heat transfer coefficient in the problem of binary alloy solidification with application of the broken line model

    D. Słota; E. Hetmaniok; R. Wituła

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, solution of the inverse problem is presented, which consists in determination of the heat transfer coefficient during the process of binary alloy solidification for the known temperature measurements in the selected points of the cast. In the considered model distribution of temperature is described with the aid of Stefan problem with the varying liquidus temperature depending on the concentration of alloy component. Whereas, for description of the concentration the broken line ...

  11. Boiling Heat Transfer on Porous Surfaces with Vapor Channels

    吴伟; 杜建华; 王补宣

    2002-01-01

    Boiling heat transfer on porous coated surfaces with vapor channels was investigated experimentally to determine the effects of the size and density of the vapor channels on the boiling heat transfer. Observations showed that bubbles escaping from the channels enhanced the heat transfer. Three regimes were identified: liquid flooding, bubbles in the channel and the bottom drying out region. The maximum heat transfer occurred for an optimum vapor channel density and the boiling heat transfer performance was increased if the channels were open to the bottom of the porous coating.

  12. In vitro calibration of a system for measurement of in vivo convective heat transfer coefficient in animals

    Webster John G

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We need a sensor to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient during ablation of the heart or liver. Methods We built a minimally invasive instrument to measure the in vivo convective heat transfer coefficient, h in animals, using a Wheatstone-bridge circuit, similar to a hot-wire anemometer circuit. One arm is connected to a steerable catheter sensor whose tip is a 1.9 mm × 3.2 mm thin film resistive temperature detector (RTD sensor. We used a circulation system to simulate different flow rates at 39°C for in vitro experiments using distilled water, tap water and saline. We heated the sensor approximately 5°C above the fluid temperature. We measured the power consumed by the sensor and the resistance of the sensor during the experiments and analyzed these data to determine the value of the convective heat transfer coefficient at various flow rates. Results From 0 to 5 L/min, experimental values of h in W/(m2·K were for distilled water 5100 to 13000, for tap water 5500 to 12300, and for saline 5400 to 13600. Theoretical values were 1900 to 10700. Conclusion We believe this system is the smallest, most accurate method of minimally invasive measurement of in vivo h in animals and provides the least disturbance of flow.

  13. HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT AND FRICTION FACTOR CHARACTERISTICS OF A GRAVITY ASSISTED BAFFLED SHELL AND HEAT-PIPE HEAT EXCHANGER

    P. Raveendiran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat transfer coefficients and friction factors of a baffled shell and heat pipe heat exchanger with various inclination angles were determined experimentally; using methanol as working fluid and water as heat transport fluid were reported. Heat pipe heat exchanger reported in this investigation have inclination angles varied between 15o and 60o for different mass flow rates and temperature at the shell side of the heat exchanger. All the required parameters like outlet temperature of both hot and cold side of heat exchanger and mass flow rate of fluids were measured using an appropriate instrument. Different tests were performed from which condenser side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor were calculated. In all operating conditions it has been found that the heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing the mass flow rate and angle of inclination. The reduction in friction factor occurs when the Reynolds number is increased. The overall optimum experimental effectiveness of GABSHPHE has found to be 42% in all operating conditioning at ψ = 45o.

  14. Numerical investigation of the convective heat transfer coefficient with longitudinal pitch variation in a staggered tube bank

    Alfandi, Ashraf; Yoon, Juhyeon; Abusaleem, Khalifeh; Albati, Mohammad; Khafaji, Salih

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the effect on a shell-side heat transfer coefficient is investigated using the CFD code FLUENT with a variation in longitudinal pitch to diameter ratio, SL, in the range of 1.15 to 2.6 with a fixed transverse pitch to diameter ratio. For the benchmark purposes with the available empirical correlation, typical thermal-hydraulic conditions for the Zukauskas correlation are assumed. Many sensitivity calculations for different mesh sizes and turbulent models are performed to check the accuracy of the numerical solution. A realizable κ- ɛ turbulence model was found to be in good agreement with results of the Zukauskas correlation among the other turbulence models, at least for the staggered tube bank. It was found that the average heat transfer coefficient of a crossflow over a staggered tube bank calculated using FLUENT is in good agreement with the Zukauskas correlation-calculated heat transfer coefficient in the range of 1.15 - 2.6. For a staggered tube bank, using the Zukauskas correlation seems to be valid down to SL = 1.15.

  15. On the determination of the overall heat transmission coefficient and soil heat flux for a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse: Analysis of radiation and convection heat transfer

    A physical model for analyzing the radiative and convective heat transfer in a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse was developed for estimating the overall heat transmission coefficient based on the conduction, convection and thermal radiation heat transfer coefficients and for predicting the soil heat flux. The contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the emission and absorption of thermal radiation was determined. Measurements of the outside and inside greenhouse environments to be used in the analysis were conducted around solar noon (12:19-13:00) on a hot sunny day to provide the maximum solar radiation transmission into the greenhouse. The net solar radiation flux measured at the greenhouse floor showed a reasonable agreement with the predicted value. The net fluxes were estimated around noon. The average net radiation (solar and thermal) at the soil surface was 220.0 W m-2, the average soil heat flux was 155.0 W m-2 and the average contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the thermal radiation was 22.0 W m-2. The average overall heat transmission coefficient was 4.0 W m-2 C-1 and was in the range between 3.0 W m-2 C-1 and 6.0 W m-2 C-1 under the different hot summer conditions between the inside and outside of the naturally ventilated, fog cooled greenhouse

  16. Investigation of Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer from Porous Surfaces

    LinZhiping; MaTongze; 等

    1994-01-01

    Experimental investigations of boiling heat transfer from porous surfaces at atmospheric pressure were performne.The porous surfaces are plain tubes coverd with metal screens.V-shaped groove tubes covered with screens,plain tubes sintered with screens.and V-shaped groove tubes sintered with screens,The experimental results show that sintering metal screens around spiral V-shaped groove tubes can greatly improve the boiling heat transfer,The boiling hystesis was observed in the experiment.This paper discusses the mechanism of the boiling heat transfer from those kinds of porous surfaces stated above.

  17. Measurement of the fuel temperature and the fuel-to-coolant heat transfer coefficient of Super Phenix 1 fuel elements

    A new measurement method for measuring the mean fuel temperature as well as the fuel-to-coolant heat transfer coefficient of fast breeder reactor subassemblies (SA) is reported. The method is based on the individual heat balance of fuel SA's after fast reactor shut-downs and uses only the plants normal SA outlet temperature and neutron power signals. The method was used successfully at the french breeder prototype Super Phenix 1. The mean SA fuel temperature as well as the heat transfer coefficient of all SPX SA's have been determined at power levels between 15 and 90% of nominal power and increasing fuel burn-up from 3 to 83 EFPD (Equivalent of Full Power-Days). The measurements also provided fuel and whole SA time constants. The estimated accuracy of measured fuel parameters is in the order of 10%. Fuel temperatures and SA outlet temperature transients were also calculated with the SPX1 systems code DYN2 for exactly the same fuel and reactor operating parameters as in the experiments. Measured fuel temperatures were higher than calculated ones in all cases. The difference between measured and calculated core mean values increases from 50 K at low power to 180 K at 90% n.p. This is about the double of the experimental error margins. Measured SA heat transfer coefficients are by nearly 20% lower than corresponding heat transfer parameters used in the calculations. Discrepancies found between measured and calculated results also indicate that either the transient heat transfer in the gap between fuel and cladding (gap conductance) might not be exactly reproduced in the computer code or that the gap in the fresh fuel was larger than assumed in the calculations. (orig.)

  18. Influence of surface roughness and contact load on friction coefficient and scratch behavior of thermoplastic olefins

    Jiang, Han; Browning, Robert; Fincher, Jason; Gasbarro, Anthony; Jones, Scooter; Sue, Hung-Jue

    2008-05-01

    To study the effects of surface roughness and contact load on the friction behavior and scratch resistance of polymers, a set of model thermoplastic olefins (TPO) systems with various surface roughness ( Ra) levels were prepared and evaluated. It is found that a higher Ra corresponds to a lower surface friction coefficient ( μs). At each level of Ra, μs gets larger as contact load increases, with a greater increase in μs as Ra level increases. It is also observed that with increasing contact load and increasing Ra, the μs tend to level off. In evaluating TPO scratch resistance, a lower μs would delay the onset of ductile drawing-induced fish-scale surface deformation feature, thereby raising the load required to cause scratch visibility. However, as the contact load is further increased, the μs evolves to become scratch coefficient of friction (SCOF) as significant sub-surface deformation and tip penetration occur and material displacement begins, i.e., ploughing. No dependence of Ra and μs on the critical load for the onset of ploughing is observed. In this work, the distinction between μs and SCOF will be illustrated. Approaches for improving scratch resistance of polymers via control of Ra are also discussed.

  19. Surface-Phonon Polariton Contribution to Nanoscale Radiative Heat Transfer.

    Rousseau, Emmanuel; Laroche, Marine; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Heat transfer between two plates of polar materials at nanoscale distance is known to be enhanced by several orders of magnitude as compared with its far-field value. In this article, we show that nanoscale heat transfer is dominated by the coupling between surface phonon-polaritons located on each interface. Furthermore, we derive an asymptotic closed-form expression of the radiative heat transfer between two polar materials in the near-field regime. We study the temperature dependence of th...

  20. Role of nuclear surface tension coefficient in alpha decay process of the superheavy nuclei

    The present paper role of nuclear surface tension in alpha decay resulted from the need to improve the Isospin Cluster Model, where the excess of neutron and proton numbers are taken in account effectively of a nucleus in decay calculations. The appropriate value of nuclear surface tension coefficient in proximity potential which plays an important role to estimate the nuclear attraction between two nuclear surfaces is reviewed, in this model. The nuclear proximity force is proportional to the surface tension and its contribution necessarily should be appropriate. The synthesis of super heavy elements, formed by either of cold fusion or hot fusion process, is primarily decay through alpha-particle emission. The successive emission of alpha particles from a superheavy element ends at spontaneous fission

  1. Measurement of local heat transfer coefficient during gas–liquid Taylor bubble train flow by infra-red thermography

    Highlights: • Infra-red thermographic study of Taylor bubble train flow in square mini-channel. • Design of experiments for measurement of local streamwise Nusselt number. • Minimizing conjugate heat transfer effects and resulting errors in data reduction. • Benchmarking against single-phase flow and three-dimensional computations. • Local heat transfer enhancement up to two times due to Taylor bubble train flow. -- Abstract: In mini/micro confined internal flow systems, Taylor bubble train flow takes place within specific range of respective volume flow ratios, wherein the liquid slugs get separated by elongated Taylor bubbles, resulting in an intermittent flow situation. This unique flow characteristic requires understanding of transport phenomena on global, as well as on local spatio-temporal scales. In this context, an experimental design methodology and its validation are presented in this work, with an aim of measuring the local heat transfer coefficient by employing high-resolution InfraRed Thermography. The effect of conjugate heat transfer on the true estimate of local transport coefficients, and subsequent data reduction technique, is discerned. Local heat transfer coefficient for (i) hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing single-phase flow in three-side heated channel and, (ii) non-boiling, air–water Taylor bubble train flow is measured and compared in a mini-channel of square cross-section (5 mm × 5 mm; Dh = 5 mm, Bo ≈ 3.4) machined on a stainless steel substrate (300 mm × 25 mm × 11 mm). The design of the setup ensures near uniform heat flux condition at the solid–fluid interface; the conjugate effects arising from the axial back conduction in the substrate are thus minimized. For benchmarking, the data from single-phase flow is also compared with three-dimensional computational simulations. Depending on the employed volume flow ratio, it is concluded that enhancement of nearly 1.2–2.0 times in time

  2. Discussion of heat transfer to liquid helium on surface orientation dependence

    The surface orientation dependence of heat transfer characteristics in liquid helium was discussed based on previous studies. Judging from their discussions and experimental data, the critical heat fluxes of our measurements come from the upper limit of the heat flux in the regime of continuous vapor columns and patches. To compensate the surface orientation dependence, we modified the gravitational force term in a theoretical equation for the critical heat flux with a horizontal surface. Then, the evaluations by the modified equation were compared with our experimental results. Film boiling heat transfer coefficient with the variation of surface orientation was also discussed based on two-phase boundary layer treatment of free convection film boiling. It was confirmed that our experiments were consistent with the theory. (author)

  3. Experimental study on augmentation of nucleate boiling heat transfer on nano porous surfaces

    Park, Young Jae; Kim, Hyung Dae [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Nucleate boiling broadly occurs in thermal hydraulic and safety systems of nuclear power plant (NPP). Heat transfer performance of nucleate boiling is closely related to efficiency and safety of NPPs. Hence, there have been numerous researches to effectively enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer performance. A number of recent studies have reported significant enhancements in nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient (NBHTC) and critical heat flux (CHF) by fabricating nano/microscale structures on a boiling surface. Wei et al. showed that both NBHTC and CHF can be significantly enhanced with micro pin finned structures. They explained enhancement of NBHTC and CHF that occurred by increase in effective heat transfer area due to micro pin finned structures. Ahn et al. reported 100% enhancement in CHF on a boiling surface with nano/micro hybrid structures. They analyzed CHF enhancement that was caused by improvement of surface wettability on Nano/micro hybrid structures. In this study, an ordered nano porous surface was prepared using anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) technique and nucleate boiling heat transfer performance was examined in a pool with FC 72. Furthermore, the pool boiling result on the nano porous surface was interpreted based on heterogeneous bubble nucleation theory from a cavity.

  4. Heat transfer enhancement of free surface MHD-flow by a protrusion wall

    Due to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect on the flow, which degrades heat transfer coefficients by pulsation suppression of external magnetic field on the flow, a hemispherical protrusion wall is applied to free surface MHD-flow system as a heat transfer enhancement, because the hemispherical protrusion wall has some excellent characteristics including high heat transfer coefficients, low friction factors and high overall thermal performances. So, the characteristics of the fluid flow and heat transfer of the free surface MHD-flow with hemispherical protrusion wall are simulated numerically and the influence of some parameters, such as protrusion height δ/D, and Hartmann number, are also discussed in this paper. It is found that, in the range of Hartmann number 30 ≤ Ha ≤ 70, the protrusion wall assemblies can achieve heat transfer enhancements (Nu/Nu0) of about 1.3-2.3 relative to the smooth channel, while the friction loss (f/f0) increases by about 1.34-1.45. Thus, the high Nusselt number can be obtained when the protrusion wall with a radically lower friction loss increase, which may help get much higher overall thermal performances.

  5. Analysis and optimization of the heat transfer coefficient of a finned heat exchanger submitted to natural convection; Analise e otimizacao do coeficiente de transferencia de calor de um trocador aletado submetido a conveccao natural

    Rocha, Alan Carlos Bueno da

    1997-07-01

    A heat transfer (condenser) of a domestic freezer was tested in a vertical channel in order to study the influence of the chimney effect in the optimization of the heat transfer coefficient. The variation of the opening of the channel, position and the heating power of the heat exchanger in the heat transfer coefficient was considered. The influence of the surface emissivity on the heat transfer by thermal radiation was studied with the heat exchanger testes without paint and with black paint. The air velocity entering the channel was measured with a hot wire anemometer. In order to evaluate the chimney effect, the heat exchanger was testes in a open ambient. This situation simulates its operational conditions when installed on the freezer system. The variables collected in the experimental procedures was gathered in the form of dimensionless parameters as Nusselt, Rayleigh, Grashof and Prandtl numbers, and dimensional parameters of the convection. The results showed that the highest heat transfer value occurred when both a specific position and a specific channel opening were used. The experiments pointed out that the radiation contribution must be considered in heat transfer calculations. The conclusions showed that different channel openings can improve the heat transfer coefficient in this heat transfer exchanger. (author)

  6. Sustained frictional instabilities on nanodomed surfaces: Stick-slip amplitude coefficient

    Quignon, Benoit; Pilkington, Georgia A.; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.; Ashfold, Michael N R; Mattia, Davide; Leese, Hannah; Davis, Sean A.; Briscoe, Wuge H.

    2013-01-01

    sustained frictional instabilities, effectively with no contact frictional sliding. The amplitude of the stick-slip oscillations, σf, was found to correlate with the topographic properties of the surfaces and scale linearly with the applied load. In line with the friction coefficient, we define the slope of......-defined nanodomes comprising densely packed prolate spheroids, of diameters ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers. Our results show that the average lateral force varied linearly with applied load, as described by Amontons' first law of friction, although no direct correlation between the sample topographic...... properties and their measured friction coefficients was identified. Furthermore, all the nanodomed textures exhibited pronounced oscillations in the shear traces, similar to the classic stick-slip behavior, under all the shear velocities and load regimes studied. That is, the nanotextured topography led to...

  7. A novel method for measuring the diffusion, partition and convective mass transfer coefficients of formaldehyde and VOC in building materials.

    Jianyin Xiong

    Full Text Available The diffusion coefficient (D(m and material/air partition coefficient (K are two key parameters characterizing the formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOC sorption behavior in building materials. By virtue of the sorption process in airtight chamber, this paper proposes a novel method to measure the two key parameters, as well as the convective mass transfer coefficient (h(m. Compared to traditional methods, it has the following merits: (1 the K, D(m and h(m can be simultaneously obtained, thus is convenient to use; (2 it is time-saving, just one sorption process in airtight chamber is required; (3 the determination of h(m is based on the formaldehyde and VOC concentration data in the test chamber rather than the generally used empirical correlations obtained from the heat and mass transfer analogy, thus is more accurate and can be regarded as a significant improvement. The present method is applied to measure the three parameters by treating the experimental data in the literature, and good results are obtained, which validates the effectiveness of the method. Our new method also provides a potential pathway for measuring h(m of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC by using that of VOC.

  8. Unsteady convection flow and heat transfer over a vertical stretching surface.

    Wenli Cai

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of thermal radiation on unsteady convection flow and heat transfer over a vertical permeable stretching surface in porous medium, where the effects of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity are also considered. By using a similarity transformation, the governing time-dependent boundary layer equations for momentum and thermal energy are first transformed into coupled, non-linear ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients. Numerical solutions to these equations subject to appropriate boundary conditions are obtained by the numerical shooting technique with fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta scheme. Numerical results show that as viscosity variation parameter increases both the absolute value of the surface friction coefficient and the absolute value of the surface temperature gradient increase whereas the temperature decreases slightly. With the increase of viscosity variation parameter, the velocity decreases near the sheet surface but increases far away from the surface of the sheet in the boundary layer. The increase in permeability parameter leads to the decrease in both the temperature and the absolute value of the surface friction coefficient, and the increase in both the velocity and the absolute value of the surface temperature gradient.

  9. Fe-Al alloy surface tension and expansion coefficient of the Monte Carlo simulation

    Using the new modified analytical EAM and the Monte Carlo method, and constructing a new system and surface, the liquid surface tension was calculated. According to a given temperature alloy free energy minima, the coefficient of linear expansion of the Fe-Al alloy is simulated. The method and the results discussed, we give the mathematical relationship between the liquid surface tension and the temperature of the three kinds of Fe-Al alloy. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with existing experimental data in the low temperature zone, however, the result is a little lower than the experimental results in the high temperature zone. So the calculation result shows that the Monte Carlo method is very effective in the Fe-Al alloy and the method is right and reliable here. (authors)

  10. Laser texturing of Hastelloy C276 alloy surface for improved hydrophobicity and friction coefficient

    Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.

    2016-03-01

    Laser treatment of Hastelloy C276 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas environment. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools including, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Microhardness is measured and the residual stress formed in the laser treated surface is determined from the X-ray data. The hydrophibicity of the laser treated surface is assessed using the sessile drop method. Friction coefficient of the laser treated layer is obtained incorporating the micro-tribometer. It is found that closely spaced laser canning tracks create a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer and lowers the thermal stress levels through modifying the cooling rates at the surface. A dense structure, consisting of fine size grains, enhances the microhardness of the surface. The residual stress formed at the surface is compressive and it is in the order of -800 MPa. Laser treatment improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly because of the formation of surface texture composing of micro/nano-pillars.

  11. An investigation of the effects of interfacial shear between the gas and turbulent falling liquid film on the heat transfer coefficient

    An improved method is presented for the prediction of heat transfer coefficients in turbulent falling liquid films with or without interfacial shear for both heating or condensation. A modified Mudawwar and El-Masri's semiempirical turbulence model, particularly to extend its use for the turbulent falling film with high interfacial shear, is used to replace the eddy viscosity model incorporated in the unified approach proposed by Yih and Liu. The liquid film thickness and asymptotic heat transfer coefficients against the film Reynolds number for wide range of interfacial shear predicted by both present and existing methods are compared with experimental data. The results show that, in general, predictions of the modified model agree more closely with experimental data than that of existing models. Comparisons of the predictions of the present model with that of existing models and the experimental data show that agreement is fairly good and consistent. A brief summary of the results are as follows: (1) As opposed to the previous model, present model utilizes a continuous linear variation of eddy viscosity near the interfacial surface. For freely falling liquid film, the present model reduce to the Mudawwar and El-Masri's model. (2) The curves of the present model for the heat transfer coefficients with liquid film Reynolds number have positive slopes in turbulent regime while the curves obtained by other models have negative slopes particularly for condensation. (3) The two criteria for transition from laminar to turbulent film flow, one for low interfacial shear and the other for high interfacial shear, respectively are shown to give the best agreement with the data for the present method

  12. Theoretical and Experimental Mass Transfer Coefficients of Permeating Components in Supported Ionic Liquid Membranes

    Izák, Pavel; Kárászová, Magda; Šimčík, Miroslav; Friess, K.; Sedláková, Zuzana; Růžička, Marek; Šolcová, Olga

    Bratislava: AXIMA Graphics Design & Printing Services, 2014, s. 91 ISBN 978-80-89475-13-1. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /41./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA ČR GA14-12695S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquid membrane * transport properties * trafer coefficients Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  13. Boiling heat transfer coefficient of R-22 refrigerant and its alternatives in horizontal tube : small refrigerator scale

    Uthen Kuntha

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Boiling heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop of R-22 and its alternatives, which are R32/R125a/ R134 (23%/25%/52% and R32/R125a (50%/50%, flowing inside smooth and grooved tubes have been determined with the conditions similar to those in small refrigerators. The range of mass flow rates examined is between 0.0025 and 0.0125 kg/s. The data have been taken at the evaporator temperatures of -35 to -4 oC and at the condenser temperatures of 40 to 50 oC. The boiling heat transfer coefficients of the refrigerants in the grooved tubes are higher than those in the smooth tubes and R-22 shows the best performance for both tubes. The heat transfer correlations have also been developed. In case of the pressure drop, the twophase friction multiplier φG 2 increases with Martinelli parameter and there is no effect of the tube roughness and the types of the refrigerants.

  14. Evaluation of an unsteady heat transfer coefficient in a mixing area. The FATHER experiment associated to the specific 'coefh' sensor

    Piping systems of nuclear power plants include connections of branches conveying fluids at different temperatures. Thermal-hydraulic fluctuations arising from the turbulent mixing of the flows can affect the inner wall of the pipes and can lead to fatigue damage. In order to assess the high-cycle thermal fatigue damages risks of the NPP mixing zones, the knowledge of the temperature fluctuations transfer from fluid to structure is necessary. Some tests were performed in order to evaluate the unsteady heat transfer coefficient in a mixing zone, and especially during the FATHER experiment, which was initiated by AREVA NP, CEA and EDF to study thermal fatigue phenomena. More precisely, a specific sensor called 'coefh' was used during the experiments. This sensor records simultaneously local temperature fluctuations in the fluid and in the structure thanks to thermocouples incorporated in the body of the sensor, which is specifically designed to capture the rapid unsteady temperature fluctuations. This paper describes and compares different approaches that could be used to evaluate a heat transfer coefficient from the 'coefh' fluid and structure unsteady temperature measurements. A specific attention is paid to the impact of the phase difference between the fluid and the structure temperature measurements. (author)

  15. Differentiation of the functional in an optimization problem for diffusion and convective transfer coefficients of elliptic imperfect contact interface problems

    Manapova, Aigul

    2016-08-01

    We consider optimal control problems for second order elliptic equations with non-self-adjoint operators-convection-diffusion problems. Control processes are described by semi-linear convection-diffusion equation with discontinuous data and solutions (states) subject to the boundary interface conditions of imperfect type (i.e., problems with a jump of the coefficients and the solution on the interface; the jump of the solution is proportional to the normal component of the flux). Controls are involved in the coefficients of diffusion and convective transfer. We prove differentiability and Lipshitz continuity of the cost functional, depending on a state of the system and a control. The calculation of the gradients uses the numerical solutions of direct problems for the state and adjoint problems.

  16. Effect of Contaminants on Mass Transfer Coefficients in Bubble Column and Airlift Contactors.

    Vasconcelos, J.M.T.; Rodrigues, J.L.M.; Orvalho, Sandra; Alves, S. S.; Mendes, R.L.; Reis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 58, 8 (2003) , s. 1431-1440. ISSN 0009-2509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : mass transfer * bubble * surfactant Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.562, year: 2003

  17. Improvement of dropwise condensation heat transfer using hydrophobic nano porous surfaces

    Kim, Sang Eun; Kim, Hyun Dae [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Recently interest of passive system in thermal hydraulic safety system of nuclear power plants has been increased. Passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) is applied to SMART and APR+ for providing the sufficient cooling capacity against accident conditions. PRHRS is a device for removing the decay heat that cools steam through condensation heat transfer in emergency tank. Condensation is one of most important heat transfer methods in almost industry including the PRHRS. Condensation is classified, according to shape of condensate, into drop-wise condensation and film wise condensation. Drop-wise condensation (DWC) exhibits a significantly higher heat transfer coefficient than film wise condensation (FWC). Whether DWC or FWC occurs in a heat transfer surface is strongly affected by wettability of a surface. It is known that DWC is appears on low wettability surfaces while FWC is appears on high wettability one. In this study, nano-porous hydrophobic surfaces were prepared and tested for the improvement of dropwise condensation heat transfer performance.

  18. Transfer coefficients for the prediction of the dose to man via the forage-cow-milk pathway from radionuclides released to the biosphere

    This document presents tables of diet-to-milk transfer coefficients for radioactive and stable isotopes in the cow. The values are based on an extensive literature review of the secretion of radioisotopes in milk and the concentrations of radioactive or stable isotopes in milk and feed. Transfer coefficients were compiled and tabulated for isotopes of more than 70 elements. The values are summarized in a table of elemental transfer coefficients and also organized into separate tables that reveal their elemental systematics and the effects of physical and chemical form

  19. Discussion on the measurement of the surface tension coefficient by the pull-off method

    Tang, Lei; Liu, Guan-nan; Qian, Jun; Sun, Qian; Zhang, Chun-ling

    2016-03-01

    A simple experiment for measuring the surface tension coefficient is proposed, which is well suited for teaching and learning the behavior of liquids in typical student laboratories. It is based on the pull-off method and the dynamometer used is the Jolly balance. The experiment requires inexpensive equipment but the methods allow for serious analysis of possible systematic errors, such as the impact of the state of the spring and wire on the experimental results, and the unusual movement of the engraved line on the mirror when pulling up the water film.

  20. Quantum oscillations, thermoelectric coefficients and the Fermi surface of semi-metallic WTe2

    Zhu, Zengwei; Lin, Xiao; Liu, Juan; Fauque, Benoit; Tao, Qian; Yang, Chongli; Shi, Youguo; Behnia, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of angle-resolved quantum oscillations of electric and thermoelectric transport coefficients in semi-metallic WTe$_{2}$, which has the particularity of displaying a large B$^{2}$ magneto-resistance. The Fermi surface consists of two pairs of electron-like and hole-like pockets of equal volumes in a "Russian doll" structure. Carrier density, Fermi energy, mobility and the mean-free-path of the system are quantified. An additional frequency is observed above a threshold field...

  1. Determining the diffusion coefficients of large organic molecules on a metal surface from tunneling current fluctuations

    Ikonomov, Julian; Schmitz, Christoph H.; Sokolowski, Moritz [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Bonn, Wegelerstr. 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The diffusion of organic molecules on surfaces has so far been mostly investigated by molecule tracking using the video STM technique. This method requires small molecule coverages and small diffusion coefficients. Here we present a new technique suitable for higher temperatures and arbitrarily coverages based on the temporal increase in the tunneling current that occurs when a molecule diffuses under the STM tip. For our measurements, we have chosen the model system perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) on Ag(100). The PTCDA molecules form highly ordered two-dimensional islands surrounded by gas-like phase. In order to determine the diffusion coefficients, we used a continuum model to describe the diffusion of the molecules under the tip. Due to the finite size of the molecule it is even possible to obtain the spatial anisotropy of the diffusion coefficient. From the density of the peaks in the current-time spectra, one may in addition quantitatively estimate the tip-molecule interaction and the mean local coverage.

  2. Heat transfer between a nano-tip and a surface

    Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier [Laboratoire d' Energetique Moleculaire et Macroscopique, Combustion, CNRS UPR 288, Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, F-92295 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France); Greffet, Jean-Jacques [Laboratoire d' Energetique Moleculaire et Macroscopique, Combustion, CNRS UPR 288, Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, F-92295 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France); Joulain, Karl [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, CNRS UMR 6608 and ENSMA, BP 40109, Futuroscope, F-86961 Chasseneuil cedex (France); Volz, Sebastian [Laboratoire d' Energetique Moleculaire et Macroscopique, Combustion, CNRS UPR 288, Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, F-92295 Chatenay-Malabry cedex (France)

    2006-06-28

    We study quasi-ballistic heat transfer through air between a hot nanometre-scale tip and a sample. The hot tip/surface configuration is widely used to perform non-intrusive confined heating. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we find that the thermal conductance reaches 0.8 MW m{sup -2} K{sup -1} on the surface under the tip and show the shape of the heat flux density distribution (nanometre-scale thermal spot). These results show that a surface can be efficiently heated locally without contact. The temporal resolution of the heat transfer is a few tens of picoseconds.

  3. Coeficientes de transferencia de calor experimental para el enfriamiento de licor en intercambiadores de placas//Experimental heat transfer coefficients for the liquor cooling in plate heat exchanger

    Enrique Torres‐Tamayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida de eficiencia del proceso de enfriamiento del licor amoniacal, mediante el uso de intercambiadores de calor de placas, está asociada a imprecisiones en la estimación de los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la acumulación de incrustaciones en la superficie de intercambio. El objetivo de la investigación es determinar los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la influencia de lasincrustaciones en la pérdida de eficiencia de la instalación. Mediante un procedimiento iterativo se estableció la ecuación del número de Nusselt y su relación con el número de Reynolds y Prandtl. Se utilizó un diseño experimental multifactorial. Los resultados predicen el conocimiento de los coeficientespara el cálculo del número de Nusselt en ambos fluidos. Los valores de los coeficientes del licor amoniacal son inferiores, ello se debe a la presencia de componentes gaseosos. La ecuación obtenida muestra correspondencia con el modelo de Buonapane, el error comparativo es del 3,55 %.Palabras claves: intercambiador de calor de placas, coeficientes de transferencia de calor, eficiencia térmica.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe loss of efficiency of the ammonia liquor cooling process, by means of the plate heat exchanger, is associated to the incorrect estimate of the heat transfer coefficients and the accumulation of inlays in the exchange surface. The objective of the investigation is to determine the transfer coefficients and the influence of the inlays in the efficiency loss of the installation. By means of an iterative procedure was obtained the Nusselt number equation and the relationship with the Reynolds and Prandtl number, for it was used it a design experimental multifactorial. The results predict the knowledge of the coefficients forthe calculation of the Nusselt number for both fluids. The ammonia liquor coefficients values are inferior, due to the presence of gassy

  4. Studying fluid-to-particle heat transfer coefficients in vessel cooking processes using potatoes as measuring devices

    Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Christensen, Martin Gram; Pedersen, Søren Juhl;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a novel idea of using spherical potatoes as a dispensable, cheap device for determining the fluid-to-particle heat transfer coefficient, hfp in vessel cooking processes. The transmission of heat through the potato can be traced by measuring the distance from...... that the method is rather precise at relevant values of hfp in vessel cooking (100–300 [W/m2K]), allowing a prediction of the centre temperature within ±0.6°C....

  5. Some methods for the construction of exact solutions of nonlinear delay reaction-diffusion equations with varying transfer coefficients

    We consider one-dimensional nonlinear delay reaction-diffusion equations with varying transfer coefficients. We describe a few new methods for constructing exact solutions of such equations; these methods are based on using invariant subspaces for the corresponding nonlinear differential operators. A number of new exact generalized and functional separable solutions have been obtained. All of the equations and solutions involve several free parameters. The exact solutions obtained can be used to test approximate analytical and numerical methods for solving nonlinear delay reaction-diffusion equations

  6. Analysis of Bifurcation Phenomena of Voltage-fed inductively Coupled Power Transfer System Varying with Coupling Coefficient

    Zhihui Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the frequency bifurcation phenomena of a typical voltage-fed resonant converter based on mutual induction model. It is found that the Zero Current Switching (ZCS operating frequency has the bifurcation region as the coupling coefficient varies due to the distance. The expression for the bifurcation boundary is derived and analyzed. Such results are very useful for guiding the design of practical Inductively Coupled Power Transfer (ICPT systems especially in applications which have the requirement of the position flexibility. Analytical results are verified both via MATLAB simulations and experimental prototype.

  7. The diffusion transfer of sputtered atoms in plasma spraying on the internal cylindrical surface

    The sputtering of the surface of the solid by the glow discharge plasma is used widely in the electronics for the deposition of thin films. The sputtered atoms (SA), leaving the surface, clash with the gas atoms and the granules the energy. It is interesting to examine the effect of the condensation coefficient of the SA on the concentration of the SA in the cylindrical discharge volume and the fluxes of the SA to different areas of the wall. The solution of this problem for the case of the diffusion transfer of the SA is the subject of this work

  8. Measurement of post dryout heat transfer coefficient in a double heated annulus with flow obstacles

    An experimental study on post dryout heat transfer regime in annuli with flow obstacles was conducted in the High-pressure Water Test (HWAT) loop at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. The experimental investigations were performed in a wide range of the operational conditions: mass flux (500-750) kg/(m2s), inlet subcooling (10-40) K and system pressure (5-7) MPa. The wall superheat was measured at 88 different axial and azimuthal positions (40 on the inner tube and 48 on the outer tube). The results show an enhancement of heat transfer downstream of flow obstacles. The biggest influence has been observed in case of pin spacers and grid obstacle. This result is consistent with blockage area of various obstacles, which was the highest in case of pin spacers. (author)

  9. Research data supporting "Design Study for a Laminar-Flying-Wing Aircraft": Surface Pressures - LFW aerofoil surface pressure coefficients in the form used for the suction calculation

    Saeed, T. I.; Graham, W. R.

    2015-01-01

    These files provide the LFW aerofoil surface pressure coefficients in the form used for the suction calculation. 'Geom' files give the section geometry (standard, chord-normalised, coordinates) in two alternative orderings; 'LoCp' and 'UpCp' give pressure coefficient as function of (normalised) chordwise distance for pressure and suction surfaces respectively. For case listing, see 'nameConvention.txt'.

  10. Frequency comb transferred by surface plasmon resonance

    Geng, Xiao Tao; Chun, Byung Jae; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong; Yoon, Hana; Kim, Dong-Eon; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seungchul

    2016-01-01

    Frequency combs, millions of narrow-linewidth optical modes referenced to an atomic clock, have shown remarkable potential in time/frequency metrology, atomic/molecular spectroscopy and precision LIDARs. Applications have extended to coherent nonlinear Raman spectroscopy of molecules and quantum metrology for entangled atomic qubits. Frequency combs will create novel possibilities in nano-photonics and plasmonics; however, its interrelation with surface plasmons is unexplored despite the important role that plasmonics plays in nonlinear spectroscopy and quantum optics through the manipulation of light on a subwavelength scale. Here, we demonstrate that a frequency comb can be transformed to a plasmonic comb in plasmonic nanostructures and reverted to the original frequency comb without noticeable degradation of quantum metrology and subwavelength photonic circuits. PMID:26898307

  11. Study of Heat Transfer in a Kapok Material from the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient and the Excitation Pulse of Solicitations External Climatic

    M. Dieng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the importance of pulse excitation and the depth in the material. The thermal impedance is studied from representations of Nyquist and Bode diagrams allowing characterizing the thermal behavior from thermistors. The evolution of the thermal impedance with the thermal capacity of the material is presented.

  12. Reactions involving electron transfer at semiconductor surfaces

    Comparisons are made between the changes in isotopic composition of isotopically pre-equilibrated (i.p.eq.) and isotopically non-equilibrated (i.n.eq.) gaseous oxygen in contact with prereduced or preoxidised samples of ZnO and TiO2 at room temperature. In the absence of illumination a place exchange (p.x.) process predominated in the oxygen isotope exchange (o.i.e.) detectable at low pressures, ca. 8 x 10-3 Torr, of i.p.eq. O2 upon contact with preoxidised samples, whereas a homophase, R0-type o.i.e. process predominated for i.n.eq. (16O2 + 18O2) contacted with prereduced samples at pressures of ca. 10-1 Torr. The latter R0 activity was removed by preoxidation but light restored it with quantum efficiency > 6 for pure ZnO and > 30 for lithium-doped ZnO. A mechanism is described to account for the correspondingly high turnover achieved on each site photoactivated by light. For i.p.eq. O2 exposed to intense illumination in contact with prereduced or preoxidised ZnO, a heterophase R1-type process, accompanied by a faster R0-type process, predominated and reasons for this are considered. Residual hydroxyls affect the ratio of o.i.e. processes on TiO2 surfaces. (author)

  13. AUTOJOM, Quadratic Equation Coefficient for Conic Volume, Parallelepipeds, Wedges, Pyramids. JOMREAD, Check of 3-D Geometry Structure from Quadratic Surfaces

    Nature of physical problem solved: AUTOJOM is a computer program that will generate the coefficients of any quadratic equation used to define conic volumes and also the coefficients of the planes needed to define parallelepipeds, wedges, and pyramids. JOMREAD is a computer code to check any 3D geometry composed of and constructed with quadratic surfaces

  14. Transfer coefficients of selected radionuclides to animal products. I. Comparison of milk and meat from dairy cows and goats

    The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for 99Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for 99Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for 133Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for 95Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for 95Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude

  15. Influence of Operating Conditions and Physical Properties of Liquid Medium on Volumetric Oxygen Transfer Coefficient in a Dual Impeller Bioreactor

    Kongdej LIMPAIBOON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of process variables on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient of oxygen, KLa, in a stirred bioreactor using the static gassing-out method. In this study, various process conditions were chosen, including 3 parameters, namely, concentration of glucose in medium (10, 15 and 20 g/l, air flow rate (1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 vvm, and agitation rate (300, 400, 500 and 600 rpm. From the results, it was found that the KLa increased with increasing air flow rate and/or speed of agitation, but decreased with increasing concentration of glucose in medium. The maximum KLa occurred when the concentration of glucose in medium was the least (10 g/l, with an air flow rate of 1.75 vvm, and an agitation rate of 600 rpm. Correlations have been developed for the estimation of volumetric mass transfer coefficients at various process conditions for medium with different glucose concentrations. The exponent values representing dependence of KLa on the process conditions were then compared with literature values.

  16. Experimental verification of heat transfer coefficient for nucleate boiling at sub-atmospheric pressure and small heat fluxes

    Zajaczkowski, Bartosz; Halon, Tomasz; Krolicki, Zbigniew

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we study the influence of sub-atmospheric pressure on nucleate boiling. Sixteen correlations for pool boiling available in literature are gathered and evaluated. Analysis is performed in the pressure range 1-10 kPa and for heat flux densities 10-45 kW/m2. Superheats are set between 6.2 and 28.7 K. The results of calculations were compared with experimental values for the same parameters. The experiments were conducted using isolated glass cylinder and water boiling above the copper plate. Results show that low pressure adjust the character of boiling curve—the curve flattened and the natural convection region of boiling is shifted towards higher wall temperature superheats due to the influence of low pressure on the bubble creation and process of its departure. In result, 8 of 16 analyzed correlations were determined as completely invalid in subatmospheric conditions and the remaining set of equations was compared to experimental results. Experimentally obtained values of heat transfer coefficients are between 1 and 2 kW/m2K. With mean absolute deviation (MAD) we have found that the most accurate approximation of heat transfer coefficient is obtained using Mostinski reduced pressure correlation (0.13-0.35 MAD) and Labuntsov correlation (0.12-0.89 MAD).

  17. Enhanced surface friction coefficient and hydrophobicity of TPE substrates using an APPJ system

    Sainz-García, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.sainzg@unirioja.es; Alba-Elías, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.alba@unirioja.es; Múgica-Vidal, Rodolfo, E-mail: rodolfo.mugica@alum.unirioja.es; González-Marcos, Ana, E-mail: ana.gonzalez@unirioja.es

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Coatings on thermoplastic elastomers by atmospheric pressure plasma jet. • Study of influence of APTES and FLUSI percentage on the coating's properties. • The best sample (AF{sub 75}) used 75% of APTES and 25% of FLUSI as precursor mixture. • Sample AF{sub 75} reduced a 51.5% the FC and increased a 4.4% the WCA. - Abstract: An APPJ system was used to deposit a coating that combines a low friction coefficient with a high water contact angle (WCA) on a thermoplastic elastomer substrate (TPE) that is used in automotive profiling. The main drawback of this research is that groups that improve the hydrophobicity of the surface worsen its tribological properties. To overcome this, this study explored the use of various mixtures of differing proportions of two precursors. They were a siloxane, aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) that was used to reduce the friction coefficient by its content of SiO{sub x} and a fluorinated compound, (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyl)trimethoxysilane (FLUSI) that was used to improve the water-repellency characteristics, due to the presence of CF{sub 2} long chains. The coatings were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic Water Contact Angle (WCA), stability tests and tribological tests. It was found that an increase of the absorbance area under the SiOSi peak and inorganic groups is related to lower friction coefficients. On the other hand, the higher the CF{sub 2} percentage is, the higher the WCA is. The sample that was coated with 25% of FLUSI and 75% of APTES combined the improvements of both functional properties, the friction coefficient and the WCA. It has an average friction coefficient that is (0.530 ± 0.050) 51.5% lower and a WCA that is (θ{sub adv} = 119.8° ± 4.75) 4.4% higher than the uncoated TPE sample. A satisfactory

  18. Enhanced surface friction coefficient and hydrophobicity of TPE substrates using an APPJ system

    Highlights: • Coatings on thermoplastic elastomers by atmospheric pressure plasma jet. • Study of influence of APTES and FLUSI percentage on the coating's properties. • The best sample (AF75) used 75% of APTES and 25% of FLUSI as precursor mixture. • Sample AF75 reduced a 51.5% the FC and increased a 4.4% the WCA. - Abstract: An APPJ system was used to deposit a coating that combines a low friction coefficient with a high water contact angle (WCA) on a thermoplastic elastomer substrate (TPE) that is used in automotive profiling. The main drawback of this research is that groups that improve the hydrophobicity of the surface worsen its tribological properties. To overcome this, this study explored the use of various mixtures of differing proportions of two precursors. They were a siloxane, aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) that was used to reduce the friction coefficient by its content of SiOx and a fluorinated compound, (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydrodecyl)trimethoxysilane (FLUSI) that was used to improve the water-repellency characteristics, due to the presence of CF2 long chains. The coatings were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic Water Contact Angle (WCA), stability tests and tribological tests. It was found that an increase of the absorbance area under the SiOSi peak and inorganic groups is related to lower friction coefficients. On the other hand, the higher the CF2 percentage is, the higher the WCA is. The sample that was coated with 25% of FLUSI and 75% of APTES combined the improvements of both functional properties, the friction coefficient and the WCA. It has an average friction coefficient that is (0.530 ± 0.050) 51.5% lower and a WCA that is (θadv = 119.8° ± 4.75) 4.4% higher than the uncoated TPE sample. A satisfactory stability in humid ambient for

  19. Effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on sprint time in a sled-towing exercise.

    Linthorne, Nicholas P; Cooper, James E

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of the coefficient of friction of a running surface on an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise. The coefficients of friction of four common sports surfaces (a synthetic athletics track, a natural grass rugby pitch, a 3G football pitch, and an artificial grass hockey pitch) were determined from the force required to tow a weighted sled across the surface. Timing gates were then used to measure the 30-m sprint time for six rugby players when towing a sled of varied weight across the surfaces. There were substantial differences between the coefficients of friction for the four surfaces (micro = 0.21-0.58), and in the sled-towing exercise the athlete's 30-m sprint time increased linearly with increasing sled weight. The hockey pitch (which had the lowest coefficient of friction) produced a substantially lower rate of increase in 30-m sprint time, but there were no significant differences between the other surfaces. The results indicate that although an athlete's sprint time in a sled-towing exercise is affected by the coefficient offriction of the surface, the relationship relationship between the athlete's rate of increase in 30-m sprint time and the coefficient of friction is more complex than expected. PMID:23898689

  20. Fouling of roughened stainless steel surfaces during convective heat transfer to aqueous solutions

    The deterioration of heat transfer performance due to fouling is the prime cause for higher energy consumption and inefficiency in many industrial heat exchangers such as those in power plants, refineries, food and dairy industries. Fouling is also a very complex process in which many geometrical, physical and operating parameters are involved with poorly understood interaction. Among them, the surface roughness is an important surface characteristic that would greatly influence crystallisation fouling mechanisms and hence deposition morphology and stickability to the surface. In this work, the effect of the surface roughness of AISI 304 BA stainless steel surfaces on fouling of an aqueous solution with inverse solubility behaviour has been investigated under convective heat transfer. Several experiments have been performed on roughened surfaces ranging from 0.18 to 1.55 μm for different bulk concentrations and heat fluxes. The EDTA titration method was used to measure the concentration of the calcium sulphate salt in order to maintain it at constant value during each fouling run. Experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient of very rough surfaces (1.55 μm) decreases more rapidly than that of 0.54 μm. Several facts contribute to this behaviour notably (1) increased of primary heterogeneous nucleation rate on the surfaces; (2) reduction of local shear stress in the valleys and (3) reduced removal rate of the crystals from the surfaces where the roughness elements protrude out of the viscous sub-layer. The results also show linear and proportional variation of the fouling rate and heat flux within the range of operating conditions. In addition, the deposition process in terms of fouling rate could only be affected at lower surface contact angles. Such results would particularly be of interest for new surface treatment technologies which aim at altering the surface texture

  1. Fouling of roughened stainless steel surfaces during convective heat transfer to aqueous solutions

    Herz, A.; Malayeri, M.R. [Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 6, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Centre (DLR), Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    The deterioration of heat transfer performance due to fouling is the prime cause for higher energy consumption and inefficiency in many industrial heat exchangers such as those in power plants, refineries, food and dairy industries. Fouling is also a very complex process in which many geometrical, physical and operating parameters are involved with poorly understood interaction. Among them, the surface roughness is an important surface characteristic that would greatly influence crystallisation fouling mechanisms and hence deposition morphology and stickability to the surface. In this work, the effect of the surface roughness of AISI 304 BA stainless steel surfaces on fouling of an aqueous solution with inverse solubility behaviour has been investigated under convective heat transfer. Several experiments have been performed on roughened surfaces ranging from 0.18 to 1.55 {mu}m for different bulk concentrations and heat fluxes. The EDTA titration method was used to measure the concentration of the calcium sulphate salt in order to maintain it at constant value during each fouling run. Experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient of very rough surfaces (1.55 {mu}m) decreases more rapidly than that of 0.54 {mu}m. Several facts contribute to this behaviour notably (1) increased of primary heterogeneous nucleation rate on the surfaces; (2) reduction of local shear stress in the valleys and (3) reduced removal rate of the crystals from the surfaces where the roughness elements protrude out of the viscous sub-layer. The results also show linear and proportional variation of the fouling rate and heat flux within the range of operating conditions. In addition, the deposition process in terms of fouling rate could only be affected at lower surface contact angles. Such results would particularly be of interest for new surface treatment technologies which aim at altering the surface texture. (author)

  2. Intensification of heat transfer between heat exchange surfaces at low RE values

    Cernecky Jozef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the heat transfer parameters and pressure losses in heat exchange sets with six geometrical arrangements at low Re values (Re from 476 to 2926. Geometrical arrangements were characterised by the h/H ratio ranging from 0.2 to 1.0. The experiments used the holographic interferometry method in real time. This method enables visible and quantitative evaluations of images of temperature fields in the examined heat exchange. These images are used to determine the local and mean heat transfer parameters. The obtained data were used to determine the Colburn j-factor and the friction coefficient f. The measured values show that by using the profiled heat exchange surfaces and inserting regulating tubes, an intensification of heat transfer (increase of Num, and/or j was achieved. However, pressure losses recorded a significant increase (increase of f.

  3. Prediction of Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficients in Stirred Bioreactor with Rushton Turbine Impeller for Simulated (Non-Microbial Medias

    Ameel Mohammed Rahman Al-Mayah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of oxygen mass transfer was conducted in a laboratory scale 5 liter stirred bioreactor equipped with one Rushton turbine impeller. The effects of superficial gas velocity, impeller speed, power input and liquid viscosity on the oxygen mass transfer were considered. Air/ water and air/CMC systems were used as a liquid media for this study. The concentration of CMC was ranging from 0.5 to 3 w/v. The experimental results show that volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient increases with the increase in the superficial gas velocity and impeller speed and decreases with increasing liquid viscosity. The experimental results of kla were correlated with a mathematical correlation describing the influences of the considered factors (the overall power input and the superficial gas velocity over the studied rages. The predicted kla values give acceptable results compared with the experimental values. The following correlations were obtained: Air/water system Air/CMC system (0.5w/v Air/CMC system (1w/v Air/CMC system (2w/v Air/CMC system (3w/v

  4. Theoretical and experimental study of the rule for heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping of high strength steels

    Heat transfer is a crucial aspect for hot stamping process, the fully austenitized boron steel blank with temperature about 900°C is transferred to the tool, then formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. The desired fully martensitic transformation will happen only if the cooling rate exceeds a critical value approximately 27 K/s. During such process, the heat transfer coefficient (abbreviated as HTC) between the tool and blank plays a decisive role for the variation of the blank temperature. In this work, a theoretical formula based on the joint-roughness model is presented to describe the law of HTC, which relies on the roughness, hardness, and other material parameters of the tool and blank. Moreover, a non-contact temperature measuring system based on the infrared thermal camera is built to catch the temperature change course, and then the HTC value is derived through the inverse analysis. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the change rule of HTC especially its dependence on the process pressure will be discussed in detail

  5. Heat and mass transfer effect on hydromagnetic flow of a moving permeable vertical surface

    Numerical results are presented for the effects of heat and mass transfer on hydromagnetic flow of a moving permeable vertical surface. The surface is maintained at linear temperature and concentration variations. The nonlinear-coupled boundary layer equations were transformed and the resulting ordinary differential equations were solved by perturbation technique. Numerical results for the dimensionless velocity profiles, the temperature profiles, the local friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented for various values of Prandtl number, suction/blowing parameter, Schrnidt number, buoyancy ratio and Hartmann number. The effects of the different parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles as well as skin friction and wall heat transfer are evaluated. Favorable comparisons with previously published work confirm the correctness of numerical results

  6. Quantum Oscillations, Thermoelectric Coefficients, and the Fermi Surface of Semimetallic WTe2

    Zhu, Zengwei; Lin, Xiao; Liu, Juan; Fauqué, Benoît; Tao, Qian; Yang, Chongli; Shi, Youguo; Behnia, Kamran

    2015-05-01

    We present a study of angle-resolved quantum oscillations of electric and thermoelectric transport coefficients in semimetallic WTe2, which has the particularity of displaying a large B2 magnetoresistance. The Fermi surface consists of two pairs of electronlike and holelike pockets of equal volumes in a "Russian doll" structure. The carrier density, Fermi energy, mobility, and the mean-free path of the system are quantified. An additional frequency is observed above a threshold field and attributed to the magnetic breakdown across two orbits. In contrast to all other dilute metals, the Nernst signal remains linear in the magnetic field even in the high-field (ωcτ ≫1 ) regime. Surprisingly, none of the pockets extend across the c axis of the first Brillouin zone, making the system a three-dimensional metal with moderate anisotropy in Fermi velocity, yet a large anisotropy in the mean-free path.

  7. Experimental &Theoretical Analysis Of Heat Transfer Augmentation From Dimpled Surface

    Dhananjay R.Giram

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the heat transfer characteristics and the pressure drop of the forced convection apparatus of six dimpled plates is studied. Six test plates with varying dimple densities; by varying the input voltage Nusselt No. variation was recorded. It is found that Nusselt No. increases as the dimple density increases .Also it was found that percentage increase in Nusselt No. is greater for staggered dimple arrangement. The sample experimental results obtained are presented in graphical forms as shown in Figure shows the calculated results based on the observations to show the comparative Nusselt numbers enhancements with that obtained with different parameters combinations. Dimpled typical technique that offers a higher heat transfer increase at the cost of mild pressure drop penalty. This study investigates the heat transfer characteristics of Plate with dimpled surface. Over the past couple of years the focus on using concavities or dimples provides enhanced heat transfer has been documented by a number of researchers.

  8. Momentum and buoyancy transfer in atmospheric turbulent boundary layer over wavy water surface - Part 1: Harmonic wave

    Troitskaya, Yu. I.; Ezhova, E. V.; Zilitinkevich, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The surface-drag and mass-transfer coefficients are determined within a self-consistent problem of wave-induced perturbations and mean fields of velocity and density in the air, using a quasi-linear model based on the Reynolds equations with down-gradient turbulence closure. Investigation of a harmonic wave propagating along the wind has disclosed that the surface drag is generally larger for shorter waves. This effect is more pronounced in the unstable and neutral stratification. The stable ...

  9. Mitigated subsurface transfer line leak resulting in a surface pool

    This analysis evaluates the mitigated consequences of a potential waste transfer spill from an underground pipeline. The spill forms a surface pool. One waste composite, a 67% liquid, 33% solid, from a single shell tank is evaluated. Even drain back from a very long pipeline (50,000 ft), does not pose dose consequences to the onsite or offsite individual above guideline values

  10. New set of convective heat transfer coefficients established for pools and validated against CLARA experiments for application to corium pools

    Highlights: • A new set of 2D convective heat transfer correlations is proposed. • It takes into account different horizontal and lateral superficial velocities. • It is based on previously established correlations. • It is validated against recent CLARA experiments. • It has to be implemented in a 0D MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) code. - Abstract: During an hypothetical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident with core meltdown and vessel failure, corium would fall directly on the concrete reactor pit basemat if no water is present. The high temperature of the corium pool maintained by the residual power would lead to the erosion of the concrete walls and basemat of this reactor pit. The thermal decomposition of concrete will lead to the release of a significant amount of gases that will modify the corium pool thermal hydraulics. In particular, it will affect heat transfers between the corium pool and the concrete which determine the reactor pit ablation kinetics. A new set of convective heat transfer coefficients in a pool with different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities is modeled and validated against the recent CLARA experimental program. 155 tests of this program, in two size configurations and a high range of investigated viscosity, have been used to validate the model. Then, a method to define different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities in a 0D code is proposed together with a discussion about the possible viscosity in the reactor case when the pool is semi-solid. This model is going to be implemented in the 0D ASTEC/MEDICIS code in order to determine the impact of the convective heat transfer in the concrete ablation by corium

  11. New set of convective heat transfer coefficients established for pools and validated against CLARA experiments for application to corium pools

    Michel, B., E-mail: benedicte.michel@irsn.fr

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A new set of 2D convective heat transfer correlations is proposed. • It takes into account different horizontal and lateral superficial velocities. • It is based on previously established correlations. • It is validated against recent CLARA experiments. • It has to be implemented in a 0D MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) code. - Abstract: During an hypothetical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident with core meltdown and vessel failure, corium would fall directly on the concrete reactor pit basemat if no water is present. The high temperature of the corium pool maintained by the residual power would lead to the erosion of the concrete walls and basemat of this reactor pit. The thermal decomposition of concrete will lead to the release of a significant amount of gases that will modify the corium pool thermal hydraulics. In particular, it will affect heat transfers between the corium pool and the concrete which determine the reactor pit ablation kinetics. A new set of convective heat transfer coefficients in a pool with different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities is modeled and validated against the recent CLARA experimental program. 155 tests of this program, in two size configurations and a high range of investigated viscosity, have been used to validate the model. Then, a method to define different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities in a 0D code is proposed together with a discussion about the possible viscosity in the reactor case when the pool is semi-solid. This model is going to be implemented in the 0D ASTEC/MEDICIS code in order to determine the impact of the convective heat transfer in the concrete ablation by corium.

  12. Heat transfer between a nano-tip and a surface

    Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Joulain, Karl; Volz, Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    We study quasi-ballistic heat transfer through air between a hot nanometer-scale tip and a sample. The hot tip/surface configuration is widely used to perform nonintrusive confined heating. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation, we find that the thermal conductance reaches 0.8 MW.m-2K-1 on the surface under the tip and show the shape of the heat flux density distribution (nanometer-scale thermal spot). These results show that a surface can be efficiently heated locally without contact. The temporal ...

  13. Triangulating Nucleic Acid Conformations Using Multicolor Surface Energy Transfer.

    Riskowski, Ryan A; Armstrong, Rachel E; Greenbaum, Nancy L; Strouse, Geoffrey F

    2016-02-23

    Optical ruler methods employing multiple fluorescent labels offer great potential for correlating distances among several sites, but are generally limited to interlabel distances under 10 nm and suffer from complications due to spectral overlap. Here we demonstrate a multicolor surface energy transfer (McSET) technique able to triangulate multiple points on a biopolymer, allowing for analysis of global structure in complex biomolecules. McSET couples the competitive energy transfer pathways of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) with gold-nanoparticle mediated Surface Energy Transfer (SET) in order to correlate systematically labeled points on the structure at distances greater than 10 nm and with reduced spectral overlap. To demonstrate the McSET method, the structures of a linear B-DNA and a more complex folded RNA ribozyme were analyzed within the McSET mathematical framework. The improved multicolor optical ruler method takes advantage of the broad spectral range and distances achievable when using a gold nanoparticle as the lowest energy acceptor. The ability to report distance information simultaneously across multiple length scales, short-range (10-50 Å), mid-range (50-150 Å), and long-range (150-350 Å), distinguishes this approach from other multicolor energy transfer methods. PMID:26795549

  14. Heat mass transfer model of fouling process of calcium carbonate on heat transfer surface

    2008-01-01

    A new heat mass transfer model was developed to predict the fouling process of calcium carbonate on heat transfer surface. The model took into account not only the crystallization fouling but also the particle fouling which was formed on the heat transfer surface by the suspension particles of calcium carbonate in the su- persaturated solution. Based on experimental results of the fouling process, the deposition and removal rates of the mixing fouling were expressed. Furthermore, the coupling effect of temperature with the fouling process was considered in the physics model. As a result the fouling resistance varying with time was obtained to describe the fouling process and the prediction was compared with experimental data under same conditions. The results showed that the present model could give a good prediction of fouling process, and the deviation was less than 15% of the experimental data in most cases. The new model is credible to predict the fouling process.

  15. Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces using three-axis accelerometer

    Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests. (paper)

  16. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to the Lunar Surface

    Anderson, Rodney L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study techniques are developed which allow an analysis of a range of different types of transfer trajectories from the Earth to the lunar surface. Trajectories ranging from those obtained using the invariant manifolds of unstable orbits to those derived from collision orbits are analyzed. These techniques allow the computation of trajectories encompassing low-energy trajectories as well as more direct transfers. The range of possible trajectory options is summarized, and a broad range of trajectories that exist as a result of the Sun's influence are computed and analyzed. The results are then classified by type, and trades between different measures of cost are discussed.

  17. Measurement of enhanced heat transfer coefficient with perforated twisted tape inserts during condensation of R-245fa

    Khatua, A. K.; Kumar, P.; Singh, H. N.; Kumar, R.

    2016-04-01

    The experimental conductive heat transfer results for flow through inserted perforated twisted tapes in a horizontal tube during condensation of pure R-245fa vapor. The test section consisting of two separate coaxial double pipes assembled in series, acted like a counter flow heat exchanger, where the refrigerant condensed inside the inner tube by rejecting heat to the cooling water flowing inside the outer tube in reversed direction. Data for three perforated twisted tapes having constant twist ratio of 7.1 mm and pitch of perforation as 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mm, inserted one by one in full length of test condenser by varying refrigerant mass flux from 100 to 200 kg/m2 s in steps of 50 kg/m2 s for the range of vapor quality from 0.1 to 0.9, were collected together with flow and without insert (plain tube). It has been found that the perforated twisted tape insert having pitch of perforation equal to in order of 12.5 mm gives the highest value of average heat transfer coefficient and is of the order of 37.5 % more than that of the plain one and the correlation predicts the experimental data within an error band of ±15 %.

  18. A second degree approximation for the calculation of the transfer function coefficients for heat conduction through walls

    Chena, Y. Chavez [School of Built Environment, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); CENIDET, Interior Internado Palmira s/n, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca Morelos, C.P. 62490 (Mexico); Wilson, R. [School of Built Environment, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Calculation of the conduction transfer function coefficients using a state space representation requires the transient governing differential equation to be discretized in space by the use of finite difference or finite element methods, in order to obtain a set of first order differential equations. The use of FEM to discretize the media gives an additional advantage due to it is possible to use a higher order approximation of the dependent variable, which gives us a better accuracy with less elements. In this paper, the transient heat flow problem is tackled using a quadratic finite element. The variational formulation for the governing differential equation is developed, the Ritz approximation to construct the finite element formulation is used and the approximation functions are presented using a normalized local coordinate system for elements with three equally spaced nodes for the one-dimensional problem. The 2D transient problem is presented using a rectangular 8 node element. Results with 1, 2 and 3 three-node elements are compared with the ASHRAE conduction transfer functions for the 3, 5, 6, 8 and 32 wall groups and a 2D-example is given. (author)

  19. Nucleate pool-boiling heat transfer - I. Review of parametric effects of boiling surface

    The objective of this paper is to assess the state-of-the-art of heat transfer in nucleate pool-boiling. Therefore, the paper consists of two parts: part I reviews and examines the effects of major boiling surface parameters affecting nucleate-boiling heat transfer, and part II reviews and examines the existing prediction methods to calculate the nucleate pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC). A literature review of the parametric trends points out that the major parameters affecting the HTC under nucleate pool-boiling conditions are heat flux, saturation pressure, and thermophysical properties of a working fluid. Therefore, these effects on the HTC under nucleate pool-boiling conditions have been the most investigated and are quite well established. On the other hand, the effects of surface characteristics such as thermophysical properties of the material, dimensions, thickness, surface finish, microstructure, etc., still cannot be quantified, and further investigations are needed. Particular attention has to be paid to the characteristics of boiling surfaces. (author)

  20. Momentum and buoyancy transfer in atmospheric turbulent boundary layer over wavy water surface – Part 1: Harmonic wave

    Yu. I. Troitskaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The surface-drag and mass-transfer coefficients are determined within a self-consistent problem of wave-induced perturbations and mean fields of velocity and density in the air, using a quasi-linear model based on the Reynolds equations with down-gradient turbulence closure. Investigation of a harmonic wave propagating along the wind has disclosed that the surface drag is generally larger for shorter waves. This effect is more pronounced in the unstable and neutral stratification. The stable stratification suppresses turbulence, which leads to weakening of the momentum and mass transfer.

  1. Syngas fermentation to biofuel: evaluation of carbon monoxide mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in different reactor configurations.

    Munasinghe, Pradeep Chaminda; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass such as agri-residues, agri-processing by-products, and energy crops do not compete with food and feed, and is considered to be the ideal renewable feedstocks for biofuel production. Gasification of biomass produces synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture primarily consisting of CO and H(2). The produced syngas can be converted to ethanol by anaerobic microbial catalysts especially acetogenic bacteria such as various clostridia species.One of the major drawbacks associated with syngas fermentation is the mass transfer limitation of these sparingly soluble gases in the aqueous phase. One way of addressing this issue is the improvement in reactor design to achieve a higher volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a). In this study, different reactor configurations such as a column diffuser, a 20-μm bulb diffuser, gas sparger, gas sparger with mechanical mixing, air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser, air-lift reactor combined with a single gas entry point, and a submerged composite hollow fiber membrane (CHFM) module were employed to examine the k(L) a values. The k(L) a values reported in this study ranged from 0.4 to 91.08 h(-1). The highest k(L) a of 91.08 h(-1) was obtained in the air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser, whereas the reactor with the CHFM showed the lowest k(L) a of 0.4 h(-1). By considering both the k(L) a value and the statistical significance of each configuration, the air-lift reactor combined with a 20-μm bulb diffuser was found to be the ideal reactor configuration for carbon monoxide mass transfer in an aqueous phase. PMID:20677226

  2. Caracterisation du coefficient de retrodiffusion radar des surfaces d'hydrocarbure: Modelisation et interpretation

    Charbonneau, Francois

    La surveillance maritime est un domaine d'applications ou l'interet politique et scientifique croit constamment au Canada. Un des outils privilegies pour la surveillance maritime est l'acquisition de donnees radars, par des systemes aeroportes ou spatio-portes (ERS-2, RADARSAT et Envisat). Par leur grande couverture spatiale, ainsi que leur sensibilite a la geometrie de surface, les donnees radars permettent, en autres, la detection de cibles ponctuelles (bateaux), estimation des vents, detection des glaces de mer, ainsi que la detection de deversement d'hydrocarbure. Les limites et les avantages de la detection d'hydrocarbure par acquisitions de donnees radars sont bien connus, mais il reste encore des lacunes au niveau de l'extraction des parametres physiques d'une surface d'hydrocarbure. Ce projet a pour objectif de caracteriser le coefficient de retrodiffusion radar associe a une surface d'hydrocarbure en milieu oceanique, par l'introduction d'un modele thermodynamique d'attenuation de la surface, au modele theorique radar IEM. Le modele global permet de simuler le comportement de sigma° en fonction des proprietes visco-elastiques, ainsi que de l'epaisseur de la couche d'hydrocarbure et en fonction des parametres d'acquisition radar. Le modele developpe fut valide a partir des donnees SIR-C acquises lors d'experimentations controlees. A partir des informations environnementales et du type d'hydrocarbure, notre modele a permis d'estime le contraste d'intensite avec une precision de 1 a 1,5 dB, a la bande C. Alors qu'a la bande L, l'erreur sur le contraste est d'environ 1,5 a 2 dB sur l'ensemble des mesures. Ce qui est excellant considerant l'heterogeneite des surfaces analysees. Egalement, nous effectuons des analyses multi-polarisees et polarimetriques avec les donnees SIR-C acquises au-dessus de sites experimentaux. II en ressort que le ratio de polarisation VV/HH, ainsi que le facteur d'anisotropie sont des pistes de recherche prometteuses qu'il faudra

  3. Method to allow the estimation of heat transfer coefficients in solar stills; Metodo para determinar coeficientes locales de transferencia de calor en destiladores solares

    Rubio Cerda, Eduardo; Porta Gandara, Miguel A [CIBNOR, Mexico D.F (Mexico); Fernandez Zayas, Jose Luis [UNAM Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work reports an experimental method that allows to estimate the heat transfer coefficients in the neighborhood of walls or flat plates subject to convective transport phenomena. This method can be applied to a great variety of thermal systems since it is based on the knowledge of the border condition for the temperature at the surface of the plate, and the temperature profile that characterize the dimensionless coefficient of heat transfer in the fluid, according to its definition given by the Nusselt number. The approach of this work are the foundations of the method and the system that has been developed to apply it, that incorporates automatic acquisition equipment for continuos monitoring of the information and elements to control the parameters of interest. In addition, the experimental cavities on which the method will be evaluated are discussed, considering two different scales, as well as experiments in cavities filled with air, and with a mixture of air and steam water, as is the case for solar distillation. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un metodo que permite determinar de manera experimental coeficientes de transferencia de calor por conveccion. Este metodo puede ser aplicado a una gran variedad de sistemas termicos ya que se fundamenta en el conocimiento de la condicion de frontera para la temperatura en la superficie de la placa, y del perfil de temperaturas que caracteriza el coeficiente adimensional de transferencia de calor en el fluido, de acuerdo a la definicion de este, dada por el numero de Nusselt. El trabajo que aqui se reporta esta enfocado a la fundamentacion del metodo y al equipamiento que se ha desarrollado para instrumentarlo, que incorpora equipos automaticos de adquisicion continua de informacion y elementos de control para los parametros de interes. Se presentan ademas, las cavidades experimentales sobre las que sera evaluado el metodo, que considera dos escalas diferentes, asi como experimentos en cavidades llenas de aire

  4. A Novel Surface Aeration Configuration for Improving Gas—Liquid Mass Transfer

    YUGengzhi; MAZaisha; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel surface aeration configuration featured with a self-rotating and floating baffle (SRFB) and a Rushton disk turbine (DT) with a perforated disk has been developed. The SRFB, consisted of 12 fan blades twisted by an angle of 30° to the horizontal plane, is incorporated onto the impeller shaft to improve gas entrainment, bubble breakup, mixing in a φ154mm agitated vessel. This new configuration is compared to the conventional DT surface aeration experimentally. The results suggest that the critical impeller speed for onset of gas entrainments is lower for the new configuration and it demands greater power consumption. Moreover, the SRFB system produces 30%-68% higher volumetric mass transfer coefficient per unit power input than that obtained in the conventional DT surface aerator under the same operation conditions.

  5. Soil-fungi transfer coefficients: Importance of the location of mycelium in soil and of the differential availability of radionuclides in soil fractions

    Soil-fungus transfer coefficients are usually defined as the ratio between the content of the fruiting bodies and that of the soil. Since, however, the methodology of how to determine the soil content is not firmly established, there exist a variety of definitions in the literature. We analyzed the 137Cs, 90Sr, 40K, and 226Ra content of mushroom and soil samples from two pine-wood ecosystems in Spain. The location of the mycelium in the soil profiles of these ecosystems was determined by means of the ergosterol concentration. The results showed the mycelium to generally be localized in the surface layer of soil (0-5 cm). We also carried out a speciation procedure for this layer of soil to determine the different degrees of association of the radionuclides in the soil. The results led us to propose some variations to the traditional definition used in quantifying radionuclide transfer. With these modifications, we were able to analyze Cs-K competition in several species of mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi

  6. Soil-fungi transfer coefficients: Importance of the location of mycelium in soil and of the differential availability of radionuclides in soil fractions

    Baeza, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain)]. E-mail: ymiralle@unex.es; Guillen, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Veterinary, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, Caceres 10071 (Spain); Bernedo, J.M. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, University of Alcala, Alcala de Henares, Madrid 28871 (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Soil-fungus transfer coefficients are usually defined as the ratio between the content of the fruiting bodies and that of the soil. Since, however, the methodology of how to determine the soil content is not firmly established, there exist a variety of definitions in the literature. We analyzed the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 40}K, and {sup 226}Ra content of mushroom and soil samples from two pine-wood ecosystems in Spain. The location of the mycelium in the soil profiles of these ecosystems was determined by means of the ergosterol concentration. The results showed the mycelium to generally be localized in the surface layer of soil (0-5 cm). We also carried out a speciation procedure for this layer of soil to determine the different degrees of association of the radionuclides in the soil. The results led us to propose some variations to the traditional definition used in quantifying radionuclide transfer. With these modifications, we were able to analyze Cs-K competition in several species of mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi.

  7. Local heat transfer coefficients for forced-convection condensation of steam in a vertical tube in the presence of a noncondensable gas

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the local condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of steam in the presence of air or helium flowing downward inside a 46-mm-i.d. vertical tube. The gas-steam mixture flow rate was measured with a calibrated vortex flowmeter before it entered the 2.54-m-long test condenser. Cooling water flow rate in an annulus around the tube was measure with a calibrated rotameter. Temperatures of the cooling water, the gas-steam mixture, and the tube inside and outside surfaces were measured at 0.3-m intervals in the test condenser. Inlet and exit pressures and temperatures of the gas-steam mixture and of the cooling water were also measured. The local heat flux was obtained from the slope of the coolant axial temperature profile and the coolant mass flow rate. It was found that for the same mass fraction of the noncondensable gas, compared with air, helium has a more inhibiting effect on the heat transfer, but for the same molar ratio, air was found to be more inhibiting. An application where there is important is the proposed advanced passive boiling water reactor design (Simplified Boiling Water Reactor), which utilizes the isolation condenser as a main component of the passive containment cooling system (PCCS)

  8. REMOTE SENSING AND SURFACE ENERGY FLUX MODELS TO DERIVE EVAPOTRANSPIRATION AND CROP COEFFICIENT

    Salvatore Barbagallo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing techniques using high resolution satellite images provide opportunities to evaluate daily crop water use and its spatial and temporal distribution on a field by field basis. Mapping this indicator with pixels of few meters of size on extend areas allows to characterize different processes and parameters. Satellite data on vegetation reflectance, integrated with in field measurements of canopy coverage features and the monitoring of energy fluxes through the soil-plant-atmosphere system, allow to estimate conventional irrigation components (ET, Kc thus improving irrigation strategies. In the study, satellite potential evapotranspiration (ETp and crop coefficient (Kc maps of orange orchards are derived using semi-empirical approaches between reflectance data from IKONOS imagery and ground measurements of vegetation features. The monitoring of energy fluxes through the orchard allows to estimate actual crop evapotranspiration (ETa using energy balance and the Surface Renewal theory. The approach indicates substantial promise as an efficient, accurate and relatively inexpensive procedure to predict actual ET fluxes and Kc from irrigated lands.

  9. Potential energy surface and second virial coefficient of methane-water from ab initio calculations

    Akin-Ojo, Omololu; Szalewicz, Krzysztof

    2005-10-01

    Six-dimensional intermolecular potential energy surfaces (PESs) for the interaction of CH4 with H2O are presented, obtained from ab initio calculations using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) at two different levels of intramonomer correlation and the supermolecular approach at three different levels of electron correlation. Both CH4 and H2O are assumed to be rigid molecules with interatomic distances and angles fixed at the average values in the ground-state vibration. A physically motivated analytical expression for each PES has been developed as a sum of site-site functions. The PES of the CH4-H2O dimer has only two symmetry-distinct minima. From the SAPT calculations, the global minimum has an energy of -1.03kcal /mol at a geometry where H2O is the proton donor, HO -H⋯CH4, with the O-H-C angle of 165°, while the secondary minimum, with an energy of -0.72kcal/mol, has CH4 in the role of the proton donor (H3C -H⋯OH2). We estimated the complete basis set limit of the SAPT interaction energy at the global minimum to be -1.06kcal/mol. The classical cross second virial coefficient B12(T) has been calculated for the temperature range 298-653K. Our best results agree well with some experiments, allowing an evaluation of the quality of experimental results.

  10. Transient radiative heat transfer in an inhomogeneous participating medium with Fresnel's surfaces

    YI HongLiang; TAN HePing

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the radiative heat transfer within an inhomogeneous and isot-ropically scattering medium with reflecting Fresnel's surfaces. Thermal radiation transfers in a curve inside a medium with an inhomogeneous distribution of a re-fractive index. The inhomogenous medium is divided into n homogenous isother-mal sub-layers and in each sub-layer the radiation transfers in a straight line. By adopting a multilayer radiative transfer model and using a ray-tracing/nodal-ana-lyzing method, a radiative transfer model is built for the inhomogenous participat-ing medium. In the muItilayer model, a criterion for refraction / total reflection at the interfaces between neighboring sub-layers is introduced, avoiding the integral singularity and reflection at physically inexistent interfaces (only the total reflection is considered). Transient thermal behavior is examined when the parameters of the radiative properties such as refractive indexes, extinction coefficients, and sin-gle-scattering albedoes vary continually along the thickness direction.

  11. Surface Bloch waves mediated heat transfer between two photonic crystals

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Joulain, Karl; Pryamikov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    submitted to Applied Physics Letters We theoretically investigate the non-radiative heat transfer between two photonic crystals separated by a small gap in non-equilibrium thermal situation. We predict that the surface Bloch states coupling supported by these media can make heat exchanges larger than those measured at the same separation distance between two massive homogeneous materials made with the elementary components of photonic crystals. These results could find broad applications i...

  12. Optical loss by surface transfer doping in silicon waveguides

    Alloatti, Luca; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    We show that undoped silicon waveguides may suffer of up to 1.8 dB/cm free-carrier absorption caused by improper surface passivation. To verify the effects of free-carriers we apply a gate field to the waveguides. Smallest losses correspond to higher electrical sheet resistances and are generally obtained with non-zero gate fields. The presence of free carriers for zero gate field is attributed to surface transfer doping. These results open new perspectives for minimizing propagation losses in silicon waveguides and for obtaining low-loss and highly conductive silicon films without applying a gate voltage.

  13. Improvement of Reactor Fuel Element Heat Transfer by Surface Roughness

    In heat exchangers with a limited surface temperature such as reactor fuel elements, rough heat transfer surfaces may give lower pumping power than smooth. To obtain data for choice of the most advantageous roughness for the superheater elements in the Marviken reactor, measurements were made of heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with a smooth or rough test rod in a smooth adiabatic shroud. 24 different roughness geometries were tested. The results were transformed to rod cluster geometry by the method of W B Hall, and correlated by the friction and heat transfer similarity laws as suggested by D F Dipprey and R H Sabersky with RMS errors of 12.5 % in the friction factor and 8.1 % in the Stanton number. The relation between the Stanton number and the friction factor could be described by a relation of the type suggested by W Nunner, with a mean error of 3.1 % and an RMS error of 11.6 %. Application of the results to fuel element calculations is discussed, and the great gains in economy which can be obtained with rough surfaces are demonstrated by two examples

  14. Improvement of Reactor Fuel Element Heat Transfer by Surface Roughness

    Kjellstroem, B.; Larsson, A.E.

    1967-04-15

    In heat exchangers with a limited surface temperature such as reactor fuel elements, rough heat transfer surfaces may give lower pumping power than smooth. To obtain data for choice of the most advantageous roughness for the superheater elements in the Marviken reactor, measurements were made of heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with a smooth or rough test rod in a smooth adiabatic shroud. 24 different roughness geometries were tested. The results were transformed to rod cluster geometry by the method of W B Hall, and correlated by the friction and heat transfer similarity laws as suggested by D F Dipprey and R H Sabersky with RMS errors of 12.5 % in the friction factor and 8.1 % in the Stanton number. The relation between the Stanton number and the friction factor could be described by a relation of the type suggested by W Nunner, with a mean error of 3.1 % and an RMS error of 11.6 %. Application of the results to fuel element calculations is discussed, and the great gains in economy which can be obtained with rough surfaces are demonstrated by two examples.

  15. Free surface deformation and heat transfer by thermocapillary convection

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael; Basting, Steffen; Bänsch, Eberhard

    2016-04-01

    Knowing the location of the free liquid/gas surface and the heat transfer from the wall towards the fluid is of paramount importance in the design and the optimization of cryogenic upper stage tanks for launchers with ballistic phases, where residual accelerations are smaller by up to four orders of magnitude compared to the gravity acceleration on earth. This changes the driving forces drastically: free surfaces become capillary dominated and natural or free convection is replaced by thermocapillary convection if a non-condensable gas is present. In this paper we report on a sounding rocket experiment that provided data of a liquid free surface with a nonisothermal boundary condition, i.e. a preheated test cell was filled with a cold but storable liquid in low gravity. The corresponding thermocapillary convection (driven by the temperature dependence of the surface tension) created a velocity field directed away from the hot wall towards the colder liquid and then in turn back at the bottom towards the wall. A deformation of the free surface resulting in an apparent contact angle rather different from the microscopic one could be observed. The thermocapillary flow convected the heat from the wall to the liquid and increased the heat transfer compared to pure conduction significantly. The paper presents results of the apparent contact angle as a function of the dimensionless numbers (Weber-Marangoni and Reynolds-Marangoni number) as well as heat transfer data in the form of a Nusselt number. Experimental results are complemented by corresponding numerical simulations with the commercial software Flow3D and the inhouse code Navier.

  16. In vitro calibration of a system for measurement of in vivo convective heat transfer coefficient in animals

    Webster John G; Chachati Louay; Tangwongsan Chanchana; Farrell Patrick V

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background We need a sensor to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient during ablation of the heart or liver. Methods We built a minimally invasive instrument to measure the in vivo convective heat transfer coefficient, h in animals, using a Wheatstone-bridge circuit, similar to a hot-wire anemometer circuit. One arm is connected to a steerable catheter sensor whose tip is a 1.9 mm × 3.2 mm thin film resistive temperature detector (RTD) sensor. We used a circulation system t...

  17. Dynamical Theory of Charge Transfer Between Complex Atoms and Surfaces

    Chaudhuri, Basudev; Marston, Brad

    2000-03-01

    An existing dynamical quantum many-body theory of charge transfer(A. V. Onufriev and J. B. Marston, Phys. Rev. B 53), 13340 (1996); J. Merino and J. B. Marston, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6982 (1998). describes atoms with simple s-orbitals, such as alkalis and alkaline-earths, interacting with metal surfaces. The many-body equations of motion (EOM) are developed systematically as an expansion in the number of surface particle-hole excitations. Here we generalize this theory to describe atoms with richer orbital structures, such as atomic oxygen. In the simplest version of the model, only the single-particle p_z-orbitals of the atom, the ones oriented perpendicular to the surface, participate directly in resonant charge transfer as they have the largest overlap with the metallic wavefunctions. However, as the several-electron Russell-Saunders eigenstates, labeled by total angular momenta quantum numbers J, L, and S, are built out of products of single-particle orbitals, non-trivial matrix elements must be incorporated into the many-body EOM's. Comparison to recent experimental results(A. C. Lavery, C. E. Sosolik, and B. H. Cooper, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 157), 42 (1999); A. C. Lavery et al. to appear in Phys. Rev. B. on the scattering of low-energy oxygen ions off Cu(001) surfaces is made.

  18. Calculation of the convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal diffusivity of cucumbers using numerical simulation and the inverse method.

    da Silva, Wilton Pereira; E Silva, Cleide M D P S

    2014-09-01

    Cooling of fruits and vegetables, immediately after the harvest, has been a widely used method for maximizing post-harvest life. In this paper, an optimization algorithm and a numerical solution are used to determine simultaneously the convective heat transfer coefficient, hH, and the thermal diffusivity, α, for an individual solid with cylindrical shape, using experimental data obtained during its cooling. To this end, the one-dimensional diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates is discretized and numerically solved through the finite volume method, with a fully implicit formulation. This solution is coupled to an optimizer based on the inverse method, in which the chi-square referring to the fit of the numerical simulation to the experimental data is used as objective function. The optimizer coupled to the numerical solution was applied to experimental data relative to the cooling of a cucumber. The obtained results for α and hH were coherent with the values available in the literature. With the results obtained in the optimization process, the cooling kinetics of cucumbers was described in details. PMID:25190830

  19. Soil-water distribution coefficients and plant transfer factors for 134Cs, 85Sr and 65Zn under field conditions in tropical Australia

    Measurements of soil-to-plant transfer of 134Cs, 85Sr and 65Zn from two tropical red earth soils ('Blain' and 'Tippera') to sorghum and mung crops have been undertaken in the north of Australia. The aim of the study was to identify factors that control bioaccumulation of these radionuclides in tropical regions, for which few previous data are available. Batch sorption experiments were conducted to determine the distribution coefficient (Kd) of the selected radionuclides at pH values similar to natural pH values, which ranged from about 5.5 to 6.7. In addition, Kd values were obtained at one pH unit above and below the soil-water equilibrium pH values to determine the effect of pH. The adsorption of Cs showed no pH dependence, but the Kd values for the Tippera soils (2300-4100 ml/g) exceeded those for the Blain soils (800-1200 ml/g) at equilibrium pH. This was related to the greater clay content of the Tippera soil. Both Sr and Zn were more strongly adsorbed at higher pH values, but the Kd values showed less dependence on the soil type. Strontium Kds were 30-60 ml/g whilst Zn ranged from 160 to 1630 ml/g for the two soils at equilibrium pH. With the possible exception of Sr, there was no evidence for downward movement of radionuclides through the soils during the course of the growing season. There was some evidence of surface movement of labelled soil particles. Soil-to-plant transfer factors varied slightly between the soils. The average results for sorghum were 0.1-0.3 g/g for Cs, 0.4-0.8 g/g for Sr and 18-26 g/g for Zn (dry weight) with the initial values relating to Blain and the following values to Tippera. Similar values were observed for the mung bean samples. The transfer factors for Cs and Sr were not substantially different from the typical values observed in temperate studies. However, Zn transfer factors for plants grown on both these tropical soils were greater than for soils in temperate climates (by more than an order of magnitude). This may be

  20. Information Exchange via Surface Modified Resonance Energy Transfer

    Boström, Mathias; Huang, Dan; Ninham, Barry W; Sernelius, Bo E

    2013-01-01

    The theory is presented for resonance interaction between two atoms in an excited configuration: one atom, the "receptor" of information (i.e. energy), adsorbed on a phospholipid surface and the other atom, the "emitter" of information (i.e. energy), a long distance away. The dielectric function for a specific phospholipid membrane is obtained from density functional theory calculations. We present numerical results comparing the range and magnitude of non-specific Casimir-Polder interactions with the much more long-ranged, and highly specific, resonance interaction. A study of the resonance interaction with one or both atoms adsorbed on a phospholipid membrane surface reveals a possibility to have a cross over from attraction to repulsion or from repulsion to attraction at separations between receptor and emitter atoms exceeding several hundred {\\AA}ngstr\\"oms. The energy transfer and the observed transitions in the sign of the interaction energies near surfaces provide potential new ways to start recognitio...

  1. Modeling for heat transfer coefficient in indirect-heating tube rotary dryer%间接加热式列管回转干燥机传热系数模型构建

    吴静; 李选友※; 陈宝明; 王瑞雪; 马晓旭; 高玲

    2013-01-01

      Heat transfer coefficient is one of the most crucial parameters in thermal calculation and design for a tube rotary dryer. The dimension, structure and operating parameters of a suitably designed dryer rely on the accuracy of the employed heat transfer coefficient. Because of the existence of tubes, particles’ motion behavior and heat transfer mechanism in a tube rotary dryer are more complicated than in a conventional rotary dryer. So far, there is no reliable heat transfer model to describe the heat transfer process between the tubes’ surface and particles in a tube rotary dryer. As a result, the main approach of heat transfer coefficient determination is still an experimental test. The main reason is the insufficiency of understanding on the mechanism of heat transfer between heating tube’s surface and particles. Our experimental investigation showed that heat transfer between tubes’ surface and particles obeyed different mechanisms in different material cases of fine powder, grain and block. This paper aims at the material case of grain. In this case, the main influence factor on heat transfer was the gas film on the surface of tubes. Based on the analysis of heat transfer mechanism, this paper redeemed that heat transfer between tubes surface and particles consisted of heat convection between tubes and gas film, heat conduction between gas film and particles, and, heat radiation between tubes surface and particles. By experimenting on traces of particle layer expansion in the dryer, the influence of particle on the gas boundary layer on tube surface was also investigated. Finally, a mathematical model was carried out for the prediction of heat transfer coefficient between tubes surface and particles. In order to validate the developed model, a series of experimental tests were performed. Ceramic spherical grains with a diameter of 2mm were used as testing particles. 6 heat transfer coefficients corresponding to 6 rotational speeds were carried

  2. Anticoagulant surface of 316 L stainless steel modified by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

    Guo, Weihua; Zhu, Jian; Cheng, Zhenping; Zhang, Zhengbiao; Zhu, Xiulin

    2011-05-01

    Polished 316 L stainless steel (SS) was first treated with air plasma to enhance surface hydrophilicity and was subsequently allowed to react with 2-(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethyltrimethoxysilane to introduce an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator. Accordingly, the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of polyethylene glycol methacrylate (PEGMA) was carried out on the surface of the modified SS. The grafting progress was monitored by water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The polymer thickness as a function different polymerization times was characterized using a step profiler. The anticoagulative properties of the PEGMA modified SS surface were investigated. The results showed enhanced anticoagulative to acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) blood after grafting PEGMA on the SS surface. PMID:21528878

  3. A New Facility for the Experimental Investigation on Nano Heat Transfer between Gas Molecules and Ceramic Surfaces

    Bayer, D.; Gross, U; Raed, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since the last decade, the interest has risen in nanoscaled technological products, which have advantages through their size effect. The size effect also plays a significant role in the area of micro- and nanoscale heat transfers. Many applications were developed using this effect, such as nanostructured porous media, e.g. Aerogels or ceramics. This experimental work is focused on the determination of thermal accommodation coefficients (TAC) on ceramic surfaces considering several influencing...

  4. Heat and mass transfer over slippery, superhydrophobic surfaces

    Haase, A. Sander; Lammertink, Rob G. H.

    2016-04-01

    The classical Graetz-Nusselt problem is extended to describe heat and mass transfer over heterogeneously slippery, superhydrophobic surfaces. The cylindrical wall consists of segments with a constant temperature/concentration and areas that are insulating/impermeable. Only in the case of mass transport do the locations of hydrodynamic slip and mass exchange coincide. This makes advection near the mass exchanging wall segments larger than near the heat exchanging regions. Also the direction of radial fluid flow is reversed for heat and mass transport, which has an influence on the location where the concentration or temperature boundary layer is compressed or extended. As a result, mass transport is more efficient than heat transfer. Also the influence of axial diffusion on the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers is investigated for various Péclet numbers Pe. When Pe transport in microfluidic systems, axial diffusion can be neglected.

  5. A Numerical Transfer-Matrix Study of Surface-Tension Anisotropy in Ising Models on Square and Cubic Lattices

    Richards, Howard L.; Novotny, M. A.; Rikvold, Per Arne

    1993-01-01

    We compute by numerical transfer-matrix methods the surface free energy $\\tau(T),$ the surface stiffness coefficient $\\kappa(T),$ and the single-step free energy $s(T)$ for Ising ferromagnets with $(\\infty \\times L)$ square-lattice and $(\\infty \\times L \\times M)$ cubic-lattice geometries, into which an interface is introduced by imposing antiperiodic or plus/minus boundary conditions in one transverse direction. These quantities occur in expansions of the angle-dependent surface tension, eit...

  6. Periodic Unsteady Flow Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer: Studies on a Curved Surface, Combined Part I and II

    M. T. Schobeiri

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic and heat transfer investigations were done on a constant curvature curved plate in a subsonic wind tunnel facility for various wake passing frequencies and zero pressure gradient conditions. Steady and unsteady boundary layer transition measurements were taken on the concave surface of the curved plate at different wake passing frequencies where a rotating squirrel-cage generated the unsteady wake flow. The data were analyzed using timeaveraged and ensemble-averaged techniques to provide insight into the growth of the boundary layer and transition. Ensemble-averaged turbulence intensity contours in the temporal spatial domain showed that transition was induced for increasing wake passing frequency and structure. The local heat transfer coefficient distribution for the concave and convex surface was determined at those wake passing frequencies using a liquid crystal heat transfer measurement technique. Detailed aerodynamic and heat transfer investigations showed that higher wake passing frequency caused transition to occur earlier on the concave surface. Local Stanton numbers were also calculated on the concave surface and compared with Stanton numbers predicted using a differential boundary layer and heat transfer calculation method. On the convex side, no effect of wake passing frequency on heat transfer was observed due to a separation bubble that induced transition.

  7. Study of heat transfer between an over-bed oil burner flame and a fluidized bed during start-up: Determination of the flame to bed convection coefficient

    A study of the heat transfer processes between an over-bed burner flame and a fluidized bed during start-up as been conducted. Owing to the difficulty of estimating the flame to bed convection coefficient in an industrial boiler, convection coefficients were determined using a laboratory bench scale unit. Such convection heat transfer coefficients are obtained for 3 kg, 4 kg and 5.5 kg initial bed inventories by combining measured temperatures and flow rates with a mathematical model representing the complex energy exchange in the system. Results show that the height of the fluidized bed and its distance to the flame are an important factor in the overall heat transfer process, both by convection and radiation. For 5.5 kg, 4 kg and 3 kg initial bed inventories, the convection coefficients obtained, at the end of start-up, are 180 ± 30 W/m2 K, 150 ± 20 W/m2 K and 95 ± 10 W/m2 K respectively. The determined convection coefficients can be utilized in the future as guides in the design of start-up systems for BFB boilers. The energy analysis performed also identified the major sources of heat losses in the bubbling fluidized bed.

  8. Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Tanks Interpreted through Models of Idealized Eddy Structure of Turbulence in the Bubble Vicinity

    Linek, V.; Kordač, M.; Zedníková, Mária; Moucha, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 12 (2004), s. 1511-1517. ISSN 0255-2701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : mass transfer coefficient * bubble * dynamic pressure method Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2004

  9. The effect of wastewater on transfer coefficient of heavy metals from soil to plant and some soil properties (Case study: Potato under greenhouse-lysimeteric conditions

    N. Parsafar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Whenever good quality water is scarce, treated municipal wastewater will be considered for using in agriculture. In this research, raw and treated wastewater from Serkan Wastewater Treatment Plant, Hamadan province, Iran, were used to determine the transfer coefficient of Fe, Ni and Mn from soil to plant and some soil properties in potato cultivation under lysimetric conditions. Irrigation treatments were: raw wastewater, treated wastewater, tap water, combination of 50% raw wastewater and 50% tap water and combination of 50% treated wastewater and 50% tap water. Results showed that the effect of irrigation water quality on pH and EC was significant (P<0.01. The effect of soil depth on EC and pH was significant (P<0.01 and non-significant, respectively. The interaction on these parameters was not significant. pH was decreased and EC was decreased as soil depth increased. Maximum amounts of EC and pH of soil belonged to raw wastewater and tap water treatments, respectively. Higher EC in raw wastewater and pH in tap water was the reason for these high values in soil. The effect of treatments on transfer coefficient of Mn and Fe from soil to shoots was significant. In potato tubers, this effect was significant only for Mn. Maximum transfer coefficients from soil to potato shoots and tubers belonged to Ni, Fe and Mn, respectively. Also, coefficients of heavy metals transfer from soil to shoots were more than tubers.

  10. Henry’s Law Constant and Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient for Formaldehyde Emission from Small Water Pools under Simulated Indoor Environmental Conditions

    The Henry’s law constant (HLC) and the overall mass transfer coefficient are both important parameters for modeling formaldehyde emissions from aqueous solutions. In this work, the apparent HLCs for aqueous formaldehyde solutions were determined in the concentration range from 0....

  11. Coefficients of interphase distribution and Gibbs energy of the transfer of nicotinic acid from water into aqueous solutions of ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide

    Grazhdan, K. V.; Gamov, G. A.; Dushina, S. V.; Sharnin, V. A.

    2012-11-01

    Coefficients of the interphase distribution of nicotinic acid are determined in aqueous solution systems of ethanol-hexane and DMSO-hexane at 25.0 ± 0.1°C. They are used to calculate the Gibbs energy of the transfer of nicotinic acid from water into aqueous solutions of ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide. The Gibbs energy values for the transfer of the molecular and zwitterionic forms of nicotinic acid are obtained by means of UV spectroscopy. The diametrically opposite effect of the composition of binary solvents on the transfer of the molecular and zwitterionic forms of nicotinic acid is noted.

  12. Time historical response analysis of large-scaled structures. Improvement of computational efficiency and numerical stability by applying the transfer influence coefficient method

    A method of time historical response analysis for large-scale structures is presented. This method is derived from a combination of the transfer influence coefficient method and the Newmark-β or Wilson-θ method, and it improves the computational efficiency and accuracy of the transient response analysis remarkably by means of several advantages of the transfer influence coefficient method. The present method is free of the numerical instabilities which often occur in using the Newmark-β or Wilson-θ method combined with the transfer matrix method or the Runge-Kutta-Gill method. An algorithm for the transient response is formulated for the three-dimensional tree structure which is mainly found in pipeline systems. We regard the tree structure as a lumped mass system here. The validity of the present method compared with other methods for transient analysis is demonstrated through various numerical computations. (author)

  13. Surface characterization and surface electronic structure of organic quasi-one-dimensional charge transfer salts

    Sing, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Claessen, R.;

    2003-01-01

    We have thoroughly characterized the surfaces of the organic charge-transfer salts TTF-TCNQ and (TMTSF)(2)PF6 which are generally acknowledged as prototypical examples of one-dimensional conductors. In particular x-ray-induced photoemission spectroscopy turns out to be a valuable nondestructive d...

  14. Effective diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient during the drying of bananas Difusividade efetiva e coeficiente de transferência convectivo de massa durante a secagem de bananas

    Cleide M. D. P. da S. e Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a methodology is used for the simultaneous determination of the effective diffusivity and the convective mass transfer coefficient in porous solids, which can be considered as an infinite cylinder during drying. Two models are used for optimization and drying simulation: model 1 (constant volume and diffusivity, with equilibrium boundary condition, and model 2 (constant volume and diffusivity with convective boundary condition. Optimization algorithms based on the inverse method were coupled to the analytical solutions, and these solutions can be adjusted to experimental data of the drying kinetics. An application of optimization methodology was made to describe the drying kinetics of whole bananas, using experimental data available in the literature. The statistical indicators enable to affirm that the solution of diffusion equation with convective boundary condition generates results superior than those with the equilibrium boundary condition.Neste artigo, é usada uma metodologia para a determinação simultânea da difusividade efetiva e do coeficiente de transferência convectivo de massa em sólidos porosos que possam ser considerados como um cilindro infinito, durante sua secagem. Dois modelos são utilizados para a otimização e a simulação do processo de secagem: o modelo 1 (volume e difusividade constantes, com condição de contorno de equilíbrio; e o modelo 2 (volume e difusividade constantes, com condição de contorno convectiva. Algoritmos de otimização por varredura, baseados no método inverso, foram acoplados às soluções analíticas referentes aos dois modelos utilizados, possibilitando ajustar tais soluções aos dados experimentais da cinética de secagem em camada fina de produtos com a forma cilíndrica. Foi feita uma aplicação da metodologia de otimização na descrição da cinética de secagem de bananas inteiras, usando dados experimentais disponíveis na literatura. Os indicadores estat

  15. Extermophylic microorganisms: issue of interplanetary transfer on external spacecraft surfaces.

    Novikova, N.; Deshevaya, E.; Polykarpov, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Grigoriev, A.

    Interplanetary transfer of terrestrial microbes capable of surviving in extreme environments and planetary protection from accidental biocontamination by them are the issues of major practical rather than hypothetical value The natural resistance of microbes to extreme environments and a possibility of their transfer beyond geographical barriers of Earth on external spacecraft surfaces have brought forward a need in profound research into the likelihood of their survival in outer space Hardware and a program have been developed at the State Scientific Research Center of the Russian Federation -- Institute for Biomedical Problems with the goal of carrying out a space experiment Biorisk The experiment was aimed at assessing the possibility of long-term comparable with the duration of the Martian flight survival of microorganisms in outer space on materials used in space industry Samples of materials were contaminated with test cultures of bacteria Bacillus and fungi Aspergillus Penicillium Cladosporium known to be common residents of various environments on Earth and resistant to multiple alternation of high and low temperatures Materials used in the construction of external spacecraft surfaces such as steel aluminium alloy heat-insulating coating were chosen as test samples for the experiment Containers with materials and test microorganisms were placed on the external side of the Russian segment of the ISS Unique data have been accumulated after a 204 day exposure on the external side of the ISS which have proved that

  16. Functionalized polymer film surfaces via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    The ability to manipulate and control the surface properties of polymer films, without altering the substrate properties, is crucial to their wide-spread applications. In this work, a simple one-step method for the direct immobilization of benzyl chloride groups (as the effective atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiators) on the polymer films was developed via benzophenone-induced coupling of 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC). Polyethylene (PE) and nylon films were selected as examples of polymer films to illustrate the functionalization of film surfaces via surface-initiated ATRP. Functional polymer brushes of (2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate, sodium 4-styrenesulfonate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and glycidyl methacrylate, as well as their block copolymer brushes, have been prepared via surface-initiated ATRP from the VBC-coupled PE or nylon film surfaces. With the development of a simple approach to the covalent immobilization of ATRP initiators on polymer film surfaces and the inherent versatility of surface-initiated ATRP, the surface functionality of polymer films can be precisely tailored. - Highlights: ► Atom transfer radical polymerization initiators were simply immobilized. ► Different functional polymer brushes were readily prepared. ► Their block copolymer brushes were also readily prepared

  17. Effects of bridge cable surface roughness and cross-sectional distortion on aerodynamic force coefficients

    Matteoni, G.; Georgakis, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations to date have assumed that bridge cables can be modeled as ideal circular cylinders and the associated aerodynamic coefficients are invariant with the wind angle-of-attack. On the other hand, bridge cables are normally characterized by local alterations ...

  18. Nanocontact electrification: patterned surface charges affecting adhesion, transfer, and printing.

    Cole, Jesse J; Barry, Chad R; Knuesel, Robert J; Wang, Xinyu; Jacobs, Heiko O

    2011-06-01

    Contact electrification creates an invisible mark, overlooked and often undetected by conventional surface spectroscopic measurements. It impacts our daily lives macroscopically during electrostatic discharge and is equally relevant on the nanoscale in areas such as soft lithography, transfer, and printing. This report describes a new conceptual approach to studying and utilizing contact electrification beyond prior surface force apparatus and point-contact implementations. Instead of a single point contact, our process studies nanocontact electrification that occurs between multiple nanocontacts of different sizes and shapes that can be formed using flexible materials, in particular, surface-functionalized poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamps and other common dielectrics (PMMA, SU-8, PS, PAA, and SiO(2)). Upon the formation of conformal contacts and forced delamination, contacted regions become charged, which is directly observed using Kelvin probe force microscopy revealing images of charge with sub-100-nm lateral resolution. The experiments reveal chemically driven interfacial proton exchange as the dominant charging mechanism for the materials that have been investigated so far. The recorded levels of uncompensated charges approach the theoretical limit that is set by the dielectric breakdown strength of the air gap that forms as the surfaces are delaminated. The macroscopic presence of the charges is recorded using force-distance curve measurements involving a balance and a micromanipulator to control the distance between the delaminated objects. Coulomb attraction between the delaminated surfaces reaches 150 N/m(2). At such a magnitude, the force finds many applications. We demonstrate the utility of printed charges in the fields of (i) nanoxerography and (ii) nanotransfer printing whereby the smallest objects are ∼10 nm in diameter and the largest objects are in the millimeter to centimeter range. The printed charges are also shown to affect the electronic

  19. Generalized non-local surface susceptibility model and Fresnel coefficients for the characterization of periodic metafilms with bianisotropic scatterers

    Dimitriadis, Alexandros I., E-mail: aldimitr@ee.auth.gr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kantartzis, Nikolaos V., E-mail: kant@auth.gr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsiboukis, Theodoros D., E-mail: tsibukis@auth.gr [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Hafner, Christian, E-mail: hafner@ethz.ch [Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: •Formulas for E/M fields radiated by continuous surface polarization distributions. •Non-local effective surface susceptibility model for periodic metafilms. •Generalized reflection and transmission coefficients for an arbitrary metafilm. •Successful treatment of non-planar scatterer arrays and spatial dispersion effects. -- Abstract: A non-local surface susceptibility model for the consistent description of periodic metafilms formed by arbitrarily-shaped, electrically-small, bianisotropic scatterers is developed in this paper. The rigorous scheme is based on the point-dipole approximation technique and is valid for any polarization and propagation direction of an electromagnetic wave impinging upon the metafilm, unlike existing approaches whose applicability is practically confined to very specific cases of incidence. Next, the universal form of the resulting surface susceptibility matrix is employed for the derivation of the generalized Fresnel coefficients for such surfaces, which enable the comprehensive interpretation of several significant, yet relatively unexamined, physical interactions. Essentially, these coefficients include eight distinct terms, corresponding to the co-polarized and cross-polarized reflection and transmission coefficients for the two orthogonal eigenpolarizations of a linearly-polarized incident plane wave. The above formulas are, then, utilized for the prediction of the scattering properties of metafilms with different planar and non-planar resonators, which are characterized via the featured model and two previously reported local ones. Their comparison with numerical simulation outcomes substantiates the merits of the proposed method, reveals important aspects of the underlying physics, and highlights the differences between the various modeling procedures.

  20. Dynamical processes of transfer at the sea surface

    Thorpe, S. A.

    possible importance of three-dimensional effects in breaking waves is discussed, and a conjectural sketch of the surface flow field and the surface separation and reattachment pattern, following a plunging breaker, is described. Recent observations show elevated levels of turbulence close to the sea surface. The depth of the layer in which this occurs is shown to be consistent with information derived from sonar studies of the depth of bubble clouds, the observed frequency of breaking waves and laboratory observations of breaking waves. Rain is known to ‘knock down the sea’, reducing the frequency and intensity of breaking waves. The precise mechanics of the phenomena are uncertain but an enhancement of near-surface turbulence and the damping of short surface gravity waves has been observed in laboratory experiments. Langmuir circulation, temperature ramps and convection, all associated with coherent structures, are processes which mix the upper ocean, although their relative importance is unknown. Connections between studies with quite disparate motivations are found to help provide descriptions of the upper ocean processes and estimates of the time scale of surface renewal associated with each of the processes identified. Many quantities being transferred across the sea surface appear to be transported by dynamical processes of scale much smaller than that of the dominant surface waves, although their subsequent diffusion in the mixing layer may be strongly influenced by the larger scale processes. Further careful measurements in the laboratory and at sea are required to quantify the fluxes associated with the processes and to relate them to external parameters such as wind speed.

  1. Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer of Nanofluids with Carbon Nanotubes on Plain and Low Fin Surfaces

    Nuclear power generation is being discussed in many countries as an alternative method to solving the world's energy crisis. For the safe operation of nuclear power plants, ways for increasing the critical heat flux (CHF) related to a loss of coolant accident are being investigated. In the event that the local heat flux exceeds the CHF, there is an abrupt shift in the boiling curve such that the nucleate boiling ceases and transition boiling and ultimately film boiling occur, finally resulting in a physical break down of the surface. Therefore, it is essential to maximize the CHF for the protection of nuclear power plants with maximum system performance. For the past decade, as a lot of research has been carried out for an improvement of the boiling heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) and CHF, new methods employing nano particles have been proposed. The objectives of this study are to measure the pool boiling HTCs of the water without and with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on plain and low fin surfaces up to the CHF, and to analyze the effect of CNTs on both nucleate boiling HTCs and CHF. Pool boiling HTCs on all surfaces tested in water without and with CNTs increased as the heat flux increased, which is a typical trend in the pool boiling of pure fluids. For nanofluid with CNTs on low fin surfaces, the surface geometry and nano particles produced a double effect of increasing the CHFs

  2. High-Resolution Heat Transfer Coefficients Measurement for Jet Impingement Using Thermochromic Liquid Crystals%射流冲击换热系数的高精度热色液晶测试

    张靖周; 李立国

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution testing technique named liquid crystal thermography is used for the experimental study on jet array impingement to map out the distribution of heat transfer coefficients on the cooling surface. Effects of the impingement distance, the impinging hole arrangement and the initial crossflow on heat transfer characteristics are investigated. The thermal images show truly the features of local heat transfer for each jet impingement cooling. The applications of thermochromic liquid crystal are successful in the qualitative and quantitative measurement for heat transfer coefficients distribution%采用高精度热色液晶测试技术对阵列射流冲击的冷却表面局部换热系数分布进行试验研究。研究了射流冲击间距、射流孔排列方式和初始横流等因素对换热特性的影响。热图像真实地反映出每一股射流的冲击冷却局部换热特征。热色液晶用于换热系数分布的定性和定量测试是非常有效的。

  3. Theoretical study to determine the heat transfer by forced convection coefficient in an empirical correlation in single phase, for annular channels

    In the heat transfer studies by forced convection, we have few data about behavior of the fluids in an annular channel heated by a concentric pipe, such date is necessary to know the heat transfer coefficient that establish the interchange of energy and the thermic properties of the fluid with the geometry of the flow. In this work the objective, was to compare some empirical correlations that we needed for determinate the heat transfer coefficient for annular channels, where we obtained similar at the theoretical results of an experiment made by Miller and Benforado. It is important to know such coefficients because we can determinate the heat quantity transmitted to a probe zone, in which we simulate a nuclear fuel element that developed huge heat quantity that must be dispersed in short time. We give theoretical data of the heat forced transfer convection and we analyzed the phenomena in annular channels given some empirical correlations employed by some investigators and we analyzed each one. (Author)

  4. Experimental investigation of heat transfer coefficient of CuO/Water nanofluid in double pipe heat exchanger with or without electric field

    S.Senthilraja

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an experimental study of heat transfer coefficient of CuO/Water nanofluid flowing in a horizontal double pipe counter flow heat exchanger in the presence and absence of electric field. The CuO nanoparticles of about 27nm diameter were used in this study. The heat exchange takes place between a CuO/water nanofluid circulating inner tube and a hot air stream flowing through the outer tube. The electric field was supplied on the air side of the heat exchanger and its voltage was varied from 0kV to 6kV. The experimental results indicated that the convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid increased up to the volume fraction of 0.15% and also the heat transfer rate was enhanced while applying the high voltage supply to the electrode. The convective heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid was increased with increasing the electric field intensity and nanofluid volume concentration.

  5. Estimation of Infiltration Parameters and the Irrigation Coefficients with the Surface Irrigation Advance Distance

    Zhou Beibei; Wang Quanjiu; Tan Shuai

    2014-01-01

    A theory based on Manning roughness equation, Philip equation and water balance equation was developed which only employed the advance distance in the calculation of the infiltration parameters and irrigation coefficients in both the border irrigation and the surge irrigation. The improved procedure was validated with both the border irrigation and surge irrigation experiments. The main results are shown as follows. Infiltration parameters of the Philip equation could be calculated accurately...

  6. Diffusion coefficients-surface and interfacial tensions - Particular study of some lauryl compounds

    Two important results of the double lipophilic and hydrophilic character of some heavy organic compounds with a polar group at the end of the chain, were studied: - In a first part, molecular diffusion coefficients were measured in order to prove the micellar aggregation of tri-laurylammonium nitrate in some organic solutions; - In a second part, the tensioactivity of some lauryl compounds (lauric acid, lauric alcohol, mono-laurylamine, etc.), was studied. (author)

  7. Fluid dynamic and heat transfer processes between solid surfaces and non-Newtonian liquid droplets

    This paper addresses the experimental and theoretical description of the fluid dynamic and thermal behaviour of non-Newtonian (shear-thinning) droplets impacting onto smooth and micro-patterned heated surfaces. The shear-thinning liquids are mixtures of water + xanthan gum prepared with different concentrations of the gum, namely 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15% and 0.35%wt. For droplet impacts over the surfaces heated bellow the boiling temperature of the liquid, the shear-thinning effect is clearly governed by the concentration of the non-Newtonian component, which is associated to the consistency coefficient of the constitutive model describing the viscous behaviour of the flow. In line with this, models predicting the spreading of Newtonian droplets are revisited and an alternative one is proposed, which integrates the non-Newtonian behaviour. The results suggest that heating the surface (and consequently the liquid) alters the rheology of the non-Newtonian mixture and reverses the increase of the zero viscosity, which is observed for impacts onto non-heated surfaces, thus allowing a larger spreading diameter and a significant recoiling phase for droplets with high concentrations of the non-Newtonian component. The heat transferred at droplet–surface interaction, during the spreading of the droplet is also evaluated. The analysis evidences the strong coupling between the heat transfer process and the spreading dynamics, for the non-Newtonian droplets. Further heating the surface above the boiling temperature of the liquid, the droplets impact the surfaces within the nucleate boiling regime and thermal induced atomization occurs. In this case, Phase Doppler measurements are taken to characterize the size of the secondary droplets generated within this process. The results show that the thermal induced atomization is mainly triggered by the force balance between surface tension and vapour pressure forces, so the viscosity plays a secondary role. - Highlights: • Dynamics

  8. Global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements using infrared imaging

    Daryabeigi, Kamran

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to evaluate the use of scanning radiometric infrared imaging systems for providing global surface temperature/heat transfer measurements in support of hypersonic wind tunnel testing. The in situ precision of the technique with narrow temperature span setting over the temperature range of 20 to 200 C was investigated. The precision of the technique over wider temperature span settings was also determined. The accuracy of technique for providing aerodynamic heating rates was investigated by performing measurements on a 10.2-centimeter hemisphere model in the Langley 31-inch Mach 10 tunnel, and comparing the results with theoretical predictions. Data from tests conducted on a generic orbiter model in this tunnel are also presented.

  9. Quantified explosives transfer on surfaces for the evaluation of trace detection equipment.

    Tam, Maggie; Pilon, Pierre; Zaknoun, Hafid

    2013-09-01

    Trace explosive test surfaces are often required for the evaluation of trace detection equipment to determine the equipment performance. Test surfaces of C-4, Detasheet, Semtex-H, TNT, and HMTD were prepared by transferring trace amount of explosive deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) transfer strips onto different surfaces (Kraft paper, hard plastic, woven fabric, and soft vinyl). The amount of explosive transferred was deduced from the amount of explosive remaining on the PTFE strips after transfer, as quantified by direct analysis using tandem mass spectrometry with thermal desorption. From the data set of over 2000 transfers, we experienced lower transfer efficiency for Semtex-H and Detasheet, and for soft vinyl and hard plastic. However, the rapid quantification mass spectrometric method allowed the transfer efficiency to be determined for all test surfaces used in an evaluation of trace explosive detectors, thereby permitting only the test surfaces with desired transfer to be accepted for the assessment. PMID:23879631

  10. Simultaneous heat and mass transfer to air from a compact heat exchanger with water spray precooling and surface deluge cooling

    Various methods are available to enhance heat exchanger performance with evaporative cooling. In this study, evaporative mist precooling, deluge cooling, and combined cooling schemes are examined experimentally and compared to model predictions. A flexible model of a compact, finned-tube heat exchanger with a wetted surface is developed by applying the governing conservation and rate equations and invoking the heat and mass transfer analogy. The model is applicable for dry, partially wet, or fully wet surface conditions and capable of predicting local heat/mass transfer, wetness condition, and pressure drop of the heat exchanger. Experimental data are obtained from wind tunnel experiments using a louver-fin flat-tube heat exchanger with single-phase tube-side flow. Total capacity, pressure drop, and water drainage behavior under various water usage rates and air face velocities are analyzed and compared to data for dry-surface conditions. A heat exchanger partitioning method for evaporative cooling is introduced to study partially wet surface conditions, as part of a consistent and general method for interpreting wet-surface performance data. The heat exchanger is partitioned into dry and wet portions by introducing a wet surface factor. For the wet part, the enthalpy potential method is used to determine the air-side sensible heat transfer coefficient. Thermal and hydraulic performance is compared to empirical correlations. Total capacity predictions from the model agree with the experimental results with an average deviation of 12.6%. The model is also exercised for four water augmentation schemes; results support operating under a combined mist precooling and deluge cooling scheme. -- Highlights: • A new spray-cooled heat exchanger model is presented and is validated with data. • Heat duty is shown to be asymptotic with spray flow rate. • Meaningful heat transfer coefficients for partially wet conditions are obtained. • Colburn jwet is lower than jdry

  11. Correlation properties of surface and percolation transfer of electrons

    In this work was received equation, connecting correlatively properties of surface with electrons distribution function. Usually for equilibrium is necessary a large number of collisions. Collisions are 'destroying' correlations. In case rare collisions large importance have correlations and 'memory' effects. Non-Markov's character of emitting particles by surface lead to strongly nonequilibrium condition of 'gas'. Here kinetic equation of diffusive form does not apply. Classical kinetic equation are described only conditions near to equilibrium. This work offers to use ideas anomal diffusion in phase-space. The correlation properties of surface describe by correlations of velocities of emitting electrons: B(t). We offer to use functional equation for probability collision instead of kinetic equation: ∫0ν0WnoncollF(ν) dv = 1 - B(t). This functional allow to consider 'memory' effects. It is important for consideration of electrons and clusters near surfaces. Distribution function become direct connected with correlations. In classical Kubo-Mory theory of transfer is necessary to get nondivergences integral: D ∝ ∫0∞B(t). In considering case we can use even 'power function'. It was used 'slow' correlation function as Kohlraush in calculations. The information about kinetics and correlations properties are containing in one functional equation. It was received solution of this equation in form Levy function: F(ν) ∝ 1/να exp(-1/ν). The solution of this form can not be get with help asymptotic methods of kinetic theory. Asymptotics of solution have scale-invariant character F(V) ∝ 1/Vα. This indicate on fractal properties phase-space. (author)

  12. Effects of mass transfer between Martian satellites on surface geology

    Nayak, Michael; Nimmo, Francis; Udrea, Bogdan

    2016-03-01

    Impacts on planetary bodies can lead to both prompt secondary craters and projectiles that reimpact the target body or nearby companions after an extended period, producing so-called "sesquinary" craters. Here we examine sesquinary cratering on the moons of Mars. We model the impact that formed Voltaire, the largest crater on the surface of Deimos, and explore the orbital evolution of resulting high-velocity ejecta across 500 years using four-body physics and particle tracking. The bulk of mass transfer to Phobos occurs in the first 102 years after impact, while reaccretion of ejecta to Deimos is predicted to continue out to a 104 year timescale (cf. Soter, S. [1971]. Studies of the Terrestrial Planets. Cornell University). Relative orbital geometry between Phobos and Deimos plays a significant role; depending on the relative true longitude, mass transfer between the moons can change by a factor of five. Of the ejecta with a velocity range capable of reaching Phobos, 25-42% by mass reaccretes to Deimos and 12-21% impacts Phobos. Ejecta mass transferred to Mars is velocity of sesquinaries on Deimos is an order of magnitude smaller than those of background (heliocentric) hypervelocity impactors and will likely result in different crater morphologies. The time-averaged flux of Deimos material to Phobos can be as high as 11% of the background (heliocentric) direct-to-Phobos impactor flux. This relatively minor contribution suggests that spectrally red terrain on Phobos (Murchie, S., Erard, S. [1996]. Icarus 123, 63-86) is not caused by Deimos material. However the high-velocity ejecta mass reaccreted to Deimos from a Voltaire-sized impact is comparable to the expected background mass accumulated on Deimos between Voltaire-size events. Considering that the high-velocity ejecta contains only 0.5% of the total mass sent into orbit, sesquinary ejecta from a Voltaire-sized impact could feasibly resurface large parts of the Moon, erasing the previous geological record

  13. Study on interfacial heat transfer coefficient at metal/die interface during high pressure die casting process of AZ91D alloy

    GUO Zhi-peng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure die casting (HPDC process is one of the fastest growing and most efficient methods for the production of complex shape castings of magnesium and aluminum alloys in today’s manufacturing industry.In this study, a high pressure die casting experiment using AZ91D magnesium alloy was conducted, and the temperature profiles inside the die were Measured. By using a computer program based on solving the inverse heat problem, the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC was calculated and studied. The results show that the IHTC between the metal and die increases right after the liquid metal is brought into the cavity by the plunger,and decreases as the solidification process of the liquid metal proceeds until the liquid metal is completely solidified,when the IHTC tends to be stable. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient shows different characteristics under different casting wall thicknesses and varies with the change of solidification behavior.

  14. The determination of mass transfer coefficient on the extractions of Ce(IV) by D2EHPA was used tin layer process

    It has be done to determination of mass transfer coefficient on the extractions Ce (IV) by Di (2- ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) using CELL ARMOLLEX. CELL ARMOLLEX have two stirrers are top and down to make tin layer between organic face and water face to be constant so that diffusion mechanism reaction was took place. It was obtained that mass transfer coefficient on variation of acids 1-3 N = 2.50x10-3 - 1.06x10-3 ; on variation of concentration reactant 2.5 - 7.5% = 2.21x10-3 - 2.58x10-3 and on the variation of stirring speed = 4.703x10-3 - 1.88x10-4

  15. Condensation heat transfer on micro and nano structured super hydrophobic surface

    Condensation phenomena occur during the PCCS operation cooling the containment through phase change heat transfer. Accordingly it is important to enhance the condensation heat transfer performance. Condensation mode is commonly classified as filmwise condensation (FWC) and dropwise condensation (DWC). DWC heat transfer performance has an order of magnitude higher than FWC heat transfer performance. In DWC process, condensed liquid droplets attach to the surface and prevent transfer of heat to the cooled surface. Generally the condensate is removed by gravity. When removal rate of condensate is high, DWC heat transfer performance will be enhanced. In terms of removal rate, superhydrophobic surface, which is recently in the spotlight, is expected to have capability to enhance the DWC heat transfer efficiency by reducing droplet size. In this study, we investigated condensation heat transfer performance on micro and nano structured superhydrophobic surface. Condensation experiments on the micro and nano structured superhydrophobic surface were carried out and compared with those on the smooth hydrophobic surface in terms of heat transfer performance and condensed droplet morphologies. Through the experiments, we found that superhydrophobicity disappeared under the condensation circumstance. As a result, heat transfer performance on the superhydro-phobic structured surface decreased compared with that on the smooth hydrophobic surface. In order to enhance the condensation heat transfer performance with superhydrophobic property, condensation mechanism on superhydrophobic surface and the conditions for sustaining superhydrophobicity should be studied more

  16. Condensation heat transfer on micro and nano structured super hydrophobic surface

    Kim, Donghyun; Hwang, Kyung Won; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Condensation phenomena occur during the PCCS operation cooling the containment through phase change heat transfer. Accordingly it is important to enhance the condensation heat transfer performance. Condensation mode is commonly classified as filmwise condensation (FWC) and dropwise condensation (DWC). DWC heat transfer performance has an order of magnitude higher than FWC heat transfer performance. In DWC process, condensed liquid droplets attach to the surface and prevent transfer of heat to the cooled surface. Generally the condensate is removed by gravity. When removal rate of condensate is high, DWC heat transfer performance will be enhanced. In terms of removal rate, superhydrophobic surface, which is recently in the spotlight, is expected to have capability to enhance the DWC heat transfer efficiency by reducing droplet size. In this study, we investigated condensation heat transfer performance on micro and nano structured superhydrophobic surface. Condensation experiments on the micro and nano structured superhydrophobic surface were carried out and compared with those on the smooth hydrophobic surface in terms of heat transfer performance and condensed droplet morphologies. Through the experiments, we found that superhydrophobicity disappeared under the condensation circumstance. As a result, heat transfer performance on the superhydro-phobic structured surface decreased compared with that on the smooth hydrophobic surface. In order to enhance the condensation heat transfer performance with superhydrophobic property, condensation mechanism on superhydrophobic surface and the conditions for sustaining superhydrophobicity should be studied more.

  17. Stiffness and Damping Coefficient Estimation of Compliant Surface Gas Bearings for Oil-Free Turbomachinery

    Della-Corte, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Foil gas bearings are a key technology in many commercial and emerging oilfree turbomachinery systems. These bearings are nonlinear and have been difficult to analytically model in terms of performance characteristics such as load capacity, power loss, stiffness, and damping. Previous investigations led to an empirically derived method to estimate load capacity. This method has been a valuable tool in system development. The current work extends this tool concept to include rules for stiffness and damping coefficient estimation. It is expected that these rules will further accelerate the development and deployment of advanced oil-free machines operating on foil gas bearings.

  18. Gas-Liquid Interfacial Area, Bubble Size and Liquid-Phase Mass Transfer Coefficient in a Three-Phase External Loop Airlift Bubble Column

    Yoshimoto, M; Suenaga, S.; Furumoto, K.; Fukunaga, K.; Nakao, Katsumi

    2007-01-01

    The interfacial area a was measured by the sulfite oxidation method in a three-phase external loop airlift bubble column suspending completely the different concentrations of ion exchange resin particles in aqueous carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) solutions with a wide range of viscosity. The column had been previously studied for the circulating liquid velocity UL, gas holdup G and volumetric gas-liquid oxygen transfer coefficient kLa in the two- and three-phase systems. The average bubble siz...

  19. The effect of wastewater on transfer coefficient of heavy metals from soil to plant and some soil properties (Case study: Potato under greenhouse-lysimeteric conditions)

    N. Parsafar; S. Marofi

    2013-01-01

    Whenever good quality water is scarce, treated municipal wastewater will be considered for using in agriculture. In this research, raw and treated wastewater from Serkan Wastewater Treatment Plant, Hamadan province, Iran, were used to determine the transfer coefficient of Fe, Ni and Mn from soil to plant and some soil properties in potato cultivation under lysimetric conditions. Irrigation treatments were: raw wastewater, treated wastewater, tap water, combination of 50% raw wastewater and 50...

  20. Natural convection heat transfer below downward facing horizontal surfaces

    The laminar steady-state natural convection below an infinite strip and below a circular plate, heated at their bottom sides, has been calculated analytically for a uniform surface temperature as well as for a uniform surface heat flux. This convection is driven by the non-uniform temperature distribution near the edges of the plate. This particular feature makes the problem a basically elliptic one, a fact that was not taken into account in earlier studies. In contrast to the flow near inclined heated plates the horizontal situation cannot be described by a boundary layer theory alone. Similarity solutions have been obtained employing the method of matched asymptotic expansions. A potential flow or a Stokes' flow with an unknown upstream velocity is taken as the outer expansion and a boundary layer flow as the inner expansion. Both expansions are matched by an energy balance in the region near the stagnation point at the plate center. In this way the unknown upstream velocity is fixed. This iterative procedure is first restricted to the limiting cases of low and high Prandtl numbers. Then an interpolation of these asymptotes yields heat transfer correlations for arbitrary Prandtl numbers. In comparison to earlier approximations these results are independent of any empirical boundary layer profiles and are based on experimental data to a very limited extend. (orig.)

  1. Influence of fluid-mechanical characteristics of the system on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient and gas dispersion in three-phase system

    Knežević Milena M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of gas bubbles and volumetric mass transfer coefficient, Kla, in a three phase system, with different types of solid particles at different operation conditions were studied in this paper. The ranges of superficial gas and liquid velocities used in this study were 0,03-0,09 m/s and 0-0,1 m/s, respectively. The three different types of solid particles were used as a bed in the column (glass dp=3 mm, dp=6 mm; ceramic dp=6 mm. The experiments were carried out in a 2D plexiglas column, 278 x 20,4 x 500 mm and in a cylindrical plexiglas column, with a diameter of 64 mm and a hight of 2000 mm. The Kla coefficient increased with gas and liquid velocities. Results showed that the volumetric mass transfer coefficient has a higher values in three phase system, with solid particles, compared with two phase system. The particles properties (diameter and density have a major impact on oxygen mass transfer in three phase systems.

  2. Experimental Research on Water Boiling Heat Transfer on Horizontal Copper Rod Surface at Sub-Atmospheric Pressure

    Li-Hua Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, water (R718 as a kind of natural refrigerant—which is environmentally-friendly, safe and cheap—has been reconsidered by scholars. The systems of using water as the refrigerant, such as water vapor compression refrigeration and heat pump systems run at sub-atmospheric pressure. So, the research on water boiling heat transfer at sub-atmospheric pressure has been an important issue. There are many research papers on the evaporation of water, but there is a lack of data on the characteristics at sub-atmospheric pressures, especially lower than 3 kPa (the saturation temperature is 24 °C. In this paper, the experimental research on water boiling heat transfer on a horizontal copper rod surface at 1.8–3.3 kPa is presented. Regression equations of the boiling heat transfer coefficient are obtained based on the experimental data, which are convenient for practical application.

  3. A compensation alignment method for surface irregularity based on Zernike coefficients

    Li, Lian; Ma, TianMeng

    2014-11-01

    Surface irregularity of optical elements is one of the errors caused in manufacturing process. The primary aberration caused by surface irregularity is astigmatism which can hardly be removed in traditional alignment method. An alignment method by rotating the lens for compensating the deterioration of the image quality caused by surface irregularity is put forward in the paper, and the mathematical model of the method is established. The calculation of the rotate angle is described in detail. A numerical simulation of the method has been performed for a four-lens precision optical system to verify the ability and accuracy of the method. The results show that the astigmatism of the optical system caused by the surface irregularity can completely be removed, and the image quality can be improved effectively. The method is especially suitable for the optical system which demands a very high image quality.

  4. Internal energy dependence of molecular condensation coefficients determined from molecular beam surface scattering experiments

    An experiment was performed which confirms the existence of an internal mode dependence of molecular sticking probabilities for collisions of molecules with a cold surface. The scattering of a velocity selected effusive beam of CCl4 from a 90 K CC14 ice surface has been studied at five translational velocities and for two different internal temperatures. At a surface temperature of 90 K (approx. 99% sticking probability) a four fold increase in reflected intensity was observed for the internally excited (560 K) CC14 relative to the room temperature (298 K) CC14 at a translational velocity of 2.5 X 104 cm/sec. For a surface temperature of 90 K all angular distributions were found to peak 150 superspecularly independent of incident velocity. 9 references

  5. Internal Energy Dependence of Molecular Condensation Coefficients Determined from Molecular Beam Surface Scattering Experiments

    Sibener, S. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    An experiment was performed which confirms the existence of an internal mode dependence of molecular sticking probabilities for collisions of molecules with a cold surface. The scattering of a velocity selected effusive beam of CCl{sub 4} from a 90 K CC1{sub 4} ice surface has been studied at five translational velocities and for two different internal temperatures. At a surface temperature of 90 K (approx. 99% sticking probability) a four fold increase in reflected intensity was observed for the internally excited (560 K) CC1{sub 4} relative to the room temperature (298 K) CC1{sub 4} at a translational velocity of 2.5 X 10{sup 4} cm/sec. For a surface temperature of 90 K all angular distributions were found to peak 15{sup 0} superspecularly independent of incident velocity.

  6. Radiative transfer modeling for quantifying lunar surface minerals, particle size, and submicroscopic metallic Fe

    Li, Shuai; Li, Lin

    2011-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to quantify lunar surface minerals (agglutinate, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, ilmenite, and volcanic glass), particle sizes, and the abundance of submicroscopic metallic Fe (SMFe) from the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) data set with Hapke's radiative transfer theory. The mode is implemented for both forward and inverse modeling. We implement Hapke's radiative transfer theory in the inverse mode in which, instead of commonly used look-up tables, Newton's method and least squares are jointly used to solve nonlinear questions. Although the effects of temperature and surface roughness are incorporated into the implementation to improve the model performance for application of lunar spacecraft data, these effects cannot be extensively addressed in the current work because of the use of lab-measured reflectance data. Our forward radiative transfer model results show that the correlation coefficients between modeled and measured spectra are over 0.99. For the inverse model, the distribution of the particle sizes is all within their measured range. The range of modeled SMFe for highland samples is 0.01%-0.5%, and for mare samples it is 0.03%-1%. The linear trend between SMFe and ferromagnetic resonance (Is) for all the LSCC samples is consistent with laboratory measurements. For quantifying lunar mineral abundances, the results show that the R squared for the training samples (Is/FeO ≤ 65) are over 0.65 with plagioclase having highest correlation (0.94) and pyroxene having the lowest correlation (0.68). In future work, the model needs to be improved for handling more mature lunar soil samples.

  7. The influence of a radiated heat exchanger surface on heat transfer

    Morel, Sławomir

    2015-09-01

    The experiment leads to establish the influence of radiated surface development heat exchangers on the values of heat flux transferred with water flowing through the exchangers and placed in electric furnace chamber. The values of emissivity coefficients are given for the investigated metal and ceramic coatings. Analytical calculations have been made for the effect of the heating medium (flame) - uncoated wall and then heating medium (flame) - coated wall reciprocal emissivity coefficients. Analysis of the values of exchanged heat flux were also realized. Based on the measurement results for the base coating properties, these most suitable for spraying the walls of furnaces and heat exchangers were selected, and determined by the intensification of heat exchange effect. These coatings were used to spray the walls of a laboratory waste-heat boiler, and then measurements of fluxes of heat absorbed by the cooling water flowing through the boiler tubes covered with different type coatings were made. Laboratory tests and calculations were also confirmed by the results of full-scale operation on the metallurgical equipment.

  8. The measurement and prediction of the corrosion potential of copper in chloride solutions as a function of oxygen concentration and mass-transfer coefficient

    Steady-state corrosion potentials of copper in O2-containing NaC1 solution have been measured using three types of electrode: a rotating-disc electrode, an electrode covered by a porous nylon membrane and an electrode covered by a layer of compacted Na-bentonite clay. Mass-transfer coefficients for these electrodes vary from 10-2 cm s-1 in hulk solution to 10-7 cm s-1 for the clay-covered electrode. Solutions were equilibrated with atmospheres of air, 2% O2/N2, 0.2% O2 N2, or were nominally deaerated. In aerated bulk solution, the anodic reaction is mass-transfer limited and the cathodic reaction is kinetically controlled. With decreasing [O2], the cathodic reaction becomes partially mass-transfer limited. Both reactions are essentially mass-transfer controlled for the membrane- and clay-covered electrodes. A mixed-potential model is developed for predicting ECorr over a wide range of mass-transfer conditions and [O2], under circumstances where either reaction may be under joint kinetic/mass-transfer control. (author)

  9. The effect of surface tension on the contraction coefficient of a jet

    Two-dimensional free surface potential flow issued from an opening of a container is considered. The flow is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible. The mathematical problem, which is characterized by the nonlinear boundary condition on the free surface of an unknown equation, is solved via a series truncation. We computed solutions for all Weber numbers. Our problem is an extension of the work done by Ackerberg and Liu (1987 Phys. Fluids 30 289-96), the results confirm and extend their results

  10. The effect of surface tension on the contraction coefficient of a jet

    Gasmi, A

    2003-01-01

    Two-dimensional free surface potential flow issued from an opening of a container is considered. The flow is assumed to be inviscid and incompressible. The mathematical problem, which is characterized by the nonlinear boundary condition on the free surface of an unknown equation, is solved via a series truncation. We computed solutions for all Weber numbers. Our problem is an extension of the work done by Ackerberg and Liu (1987 Phys. Fluids 30 289-96), the results confirm and extend their results.

  11. Dust Tolerant Commodity Transfer Interface Mechanisms for Planetary Surfaces

    Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Tamasy, Gabor J.

    2014-01-01

    Regolith is present on most planetary surfaces such as Earth's moon, Mars, and Asteroids. If human crews and robotic machinery are to operate on these regolith covered surfaces, they must face the consequences of interacting with regolith fines which consist of particles below 100 microns in diameter down to as small as submicron scale particles. Such fine dust will intrude into mechanisms and interfaces causing a variety of problems such as contamination of clean fluid lines, jamming of mechanisms and damaging connector seals and couplings. Since multiple elements must be assembled in space for system level functionality, it will be inevitable that interfaces will be necessary for structural connections, and to pass commodities such as cryogenic liquid propellants, purge and buffer gases, water, breathing air, pressurizing gases, heat exchange fluids, power and data. When fine regolith dust is present in the environment it can be lofted into interfaces where it can compromise the utility of the interface by preventing the connections from being successfully mated, or by inducing fluid leaks or degradation of power and data transmission. A dust tolerant, hand held "quick-disconnect" cryogenic fluids connector housing has been developed at NASA KSC which can be used by astronaut crews to connect flex lines that will transfer propellants and other useful fluids to the end user. In addition, a dust tolerant, automated, cryogenic fluid, multiple connector, power and data interface mechanism prototype has been developed, fabricated and demonstrated by NASA at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The design and operation of these prototypes are explained and discussed.

  12. The problems of effective coefficient of static friction at friction surfaces of joint replacement

    Franta, L.; Pražák, Josef

    Praha : Ústav termomechaniky AV ČR, 2004 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 1-6 ISBN 80-85918-88-9. [Engineering mechanics 2004. Svratka (CZ), 10.05.2004-13.05.2004] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : friction surfaces * joint replacement Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics

  13. Convective heat transfer in a micropolar fluid over an unsteady stretching surface

    Prasad, K. V.; Vaidya, H.; Vajravelu, K.

    2016-05-01

    An unsteady boundary layer free convective flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible, microploar fluid over a vertical stretching sheet is investigated. The stretching velocity is assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the sheet. Two equal and opposite forces are impulsively applied along the x-axis so that the sheet is stretched, keeping the origin fixed in the micropolar fluid. The transformed highly non-linear boundary layer equations are solved numerically by an implicit finite difference scheme for the transient, state from the initial to the final steady-state. To validate the numerical method, comparisons are made with the available results in the literature for some special cases and the results are found to be in good agreement. The obtained numerical results are analyzed graphically for the velocity, the microrotation, and the temperature distribution; whereas the skin friction, the couple stress coefficient and the Nusselt number are tabulated for different values of the pertinent parameters. Results exhibit a drag reduction and an increase in the surface heat transfer rate in the micropolar fluid flow compared to the Newtonian fluid flow.

  14. Derivation of Regression Coefficients for Sea Surface Temperature Retrieval over East Asia

    Myoung-Hwan AHN; Eun-Ha SOHN; Byong-Jun HWANG; Chu-Yong CHUNG; Xiangqian WU

    2006-01-01

    Among the regression-based algorithms for deriving SST from satellite measurements, regionally optimized algorithms normally perform better than the corresponding global algorithm. In this paper,three algorithms are considered for SST retrieval over the East Asia region (15°-55°N, 105°-170°E),including the multi-channel algorithm (MCSST), the quadratic algorithm (QSST), and the Pathfinder algorithm (PFSST). All algorithms are derived and validated using collocated buoy and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5) observations from 1997 to 2001. An important part of the derivation and validation of the algorithms is the quality control procedure for the buoy SST data and an improved cloud screening method for the satellite brightness temperature measurements. The regionally optimized MCSST algorithm shows an overall improvement over the global algorithm, removing the bias of about -0.13℃ and reducing the root-mean-square difference (rmsd) from 1.36℃ to 1.26℃. The QSST is only slightly better than the MCSST. For both algorithms, a seasonal dependence of the remaining error statistics is still evident. The Pathfinder approach for deriving a season-specific set of coefficients, one for August to October and one for the rest of the year, provides the smallest rmsd overall that is also stable over time.

  15. Overall heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a typical tubular exchanger employing alumina nano-fluid as the tube side hot fluid

    Kabeel, A. E.; Abdelgaied, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    Nano-fluids are used to improve the heat transfer rates in heat exchangers, especially; the shell-and-tube heat exchanger that is considered one of the most important types of heat exchangers. In the present study, an experimental loop is constructed to study the thermal characteristics of the shell-and-tube heat exchanger; at different concentrations of Al2O3 nonmetallic particles (0.0, 2, 4, and 6 %). This material concentrations is by volume concentrations in pure water as a base fluid. The effects of nano-fluid concentrations on the performance of shell and tube heat exchanger have been conducted based on the overall heat transfer coefficient, the friction factor, the pressure drop in tube side, and the entropy generation rate. The experimental results show that; the highest heat transfer coefficient is obtained at a nano-fluid concentration of 4 % of the shell side. In shell side the maximum percentage increase in the overall heat transfer coefficient has reached 29.8 % for a nano-fluid concentration of 4 %, relative to the case of the base fluid (water) at the same tube side Reynolds number. However; in the tube side the maximum relative increase in pressure drop has recorded the values of 12, 28 and 48 % for a nano-material concentration of 2, 4 and 6 %, respectively, relative to the case without nano-fluid, at an approximate value of 56,000 for Reynolds number. The entropy generation reduces with increasing the nonmetallic particle volume fraction of the same flow rates. For increase the nonmetallic particle volume fraction from 0.0 to 6 % the rate of entropy generation decrease by 10 %.

  16. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Variation of Inside Diameter of Condenser and Mass Flow Rate on the Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Domestic Refrigerator.

    Rajesh Joshi; Dr. A.I. Khandwawala

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a domestic refrigerator is affected by the Surface roughness of condenser, evaporator and associated piping. The heat transfer in a domestic refrigerator is a complex phenomenon as it involves two phase flow inside the condenser, evaporator and the tubing. Various equations had been developed in the past by different Researchers to calculate the heat transfer for fluid flow inside tubes. In the present study Boyko and Kurzhillin equation is being used to det...

  17. Surface roughness and friction coefficient in peened friction stir welded 2195 aluminum alloy

    The tribological properties of friction stir welded 2195 aluminum alloy joints were investigated for several laser- and shot-peened specimens. The first portion of this study assessed the surface roughness changes at different regions of the weld resulting from the various peening processes and included an atomic force microscopy (AFM) study to reveal fine structures. The second portion investigated the friction characteristics for various conditions when slid against a 440C ball slider. Shot peening resulted in significant surface roughness when compared to the unpeened and laser-peened samples. The initial friction for all types of specimens was highly variable. However, long-term friction was shown to be lowest for samples with no peening treatment. Laser peening caused the friction to increase slightly. The shot peening process on the other hand resulted in an increase of the long-term friction effects on both sides of the weld.

  18. Boiling heat transfer performance and phenomena of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-water nano-fluids from a plain surface in a pool

    In Cheol Bang; Soon Heung Chang [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    Boiling heat transfer characteristics of nano-fluids with nano-particles suspended in water are studied using different volume concentrations of alumina nano-particles. Pool boiling heat transfer coefficients and phenomena of nano-fluids are compared with those of pure water, which are acquired on a smooth horizontal flat surface (roughness of a few tens nano-meters). The experimental results show that these nano-fluids have poor heat transfer performance compared to pure water in natural convection and nucleate boiling. On the other hand, CHF has been enhanced in not only horizontal but also vertical pool boiling. This is related to a change of surface characteristics by the deposition of nano-particles. In addition, comparisons between the heat transfer data and the Rhosenow correlation show that the correlation can potentially predict the performance with an appropriate modified liquid-surface combination factor and changed physical properties of the base liquid. (Author)

  19. Surface Engineering for Phase Change Heat Transfer: A Review

    Attinger, Daniel; Frankiewicz, Christophe; Betz, Amy R.; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Ganguly, Ranjan; Das, Arindam; Kim, C. -J.; Megaridis, Constantine M.

    2014-01-01

    Among numerous challenges to meet the rising global energy demand in a sustainable manner, improving phase change heat transfer has been at the forefront of engineering research for decades. The high heat transfer rates associated with phase change heat transfer are essential to energy and industry applications; but phase change is also inherently associated with poor thermodynamic efficiencies at low heat flux, and violent instabilities at high heat flux. Engineers have tried since the 1930'...

  20. Radionuclide transfer onto ground surface in surface water flow. 2. Undisturbed tuff rock

    Radionuclide migration with ground surface water flow is considered to be one of path ways in the scenario for environmental migration of the radionuclide leaked from LLRW depository. To study the radionuclide migration demonstratively, a ground surface radionuclide migration test was carried out by simulating radioactive solution flowing on the sloped tuff rock surface. Tuff rock sample of 240 cm in length taken from the Shimokita district was used to test the transfer of 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs onto the sample surface from the flowing radioactive solution under restricted infiltration condition at flow rates of 25, 80, 160ml/min and duration of 56h. The concentration change of the radionuclides in effluent was nearly constant as a function of elapsed time during the experimental period, but decreased with lower flow rates. Among the three radionuclides, 137Cs was greatly decreased its concentration to 30% of the inflow. Adsorbed distribution of the radionuclides concentration on the ground surface decreased gradually with the distance from the inlet, and showed greater gradient at lower flow rate. Analyzing the result by the migration model, where a vertical advection distribution and two-dimensional diffusion in surface water are adopted with a first order adsorption reaction, value of migration parameters was obtained relating to the radionuclide adsorption and the surface water flow, and the measured distribution could be well simulated by adopting the value to the model. By comparing the values with the case of loamy soil layer, all values of the migration parameters showed not so great difference between two samples for 60Co and 85Sr. For 137Cs, reflecting a few larger value of adsorption to the tuff rock, larger ability to reduce the concentration of flowing radioactive solution could be indicated than that to the loamy soil surface by estimation for long flowed distance. (author)

  1. Experimental investigation of the liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient for upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in rectangular microchannels

    X. Y. Ji

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The gas-liquid two-phase mass transfer process in microchannels is complicated due to the special dynamical characteristics. In this work, a novel method was explored to measure the liquid side volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa. Pressure transducers were utilized to measure the pressure variation of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow in three vertical rectangular microchannels and the liquid side volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa was calculated through the Pressure-Volume-Temperature correlation of the gas phase. Carbon dioxide-water, carbon dioxide-ethanol and carbon dioxide-n-propanol were used as working fluids, respectively. The dimensions of the microchannels were 40 µm×240 µm (depth×width, 100 µm×800 µm and 100 µm×2000 µm, respectively. Results showed that the channel diameter and the capillary number influence kLa remarkably and that the maximum value of kLa occurs in the annular flow regime. A new correlation of kLa was proposed based on the Sherwood number, Schmidt number and the capillary number. The predicted values of kLa agreed well with the experimental data.

  2. Pool boiling heat transfer on heterogeneous wetting surface with hydrophobic dots

    The boiling heat transfer mechanism of pool boiling is fundamental phenomena for understanding the phase change nature. Of many surface characteristics, the effects of wettability of heating surface is focused on as the dominant parameter for bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer. In this study, highly controlled heating surfaces via MEMs technique were used for understanding the boiling heat transfer of heterogeneous wetting surfaces mixed by hydrophobic dots and a hydrophilic substrate. The diameter of hydrophobic dots and area ratio of phobic dots to heating area were regulated. The range of phobic dot diameter and area ratio were 50∼1000μm and 18.33∼54.3%, respectively. The performance of boiling heat transfer of each surface were evaluated by comparing with a wholly hydrophilic surface. It will contribute to understand the mechanism and criterion of enhanced heating surface condition by modified surface treatment procedure

  3. The Synergism Between Heat and Mass Transfer Additive and Advanced Surfaces in Aqueous LiBr Horizontal Tube Absorbers

    Miller, W.A.

    1999-03-24

    affected the hydrodynamics of the falling film and a droplet flow regime was evident for testing at all tube spacings. The mechanical mixing of the advanced surfaces increased the mass transfer to about 75% of that observed on a smooth tube bundle, tested with heat and mass transfer additive. Testing with heat and mass transfer additive and advanced surfaces demonstrated a synergistic effect which doubled the mass absorbed from that observed with only the advanced surface. The overall film-side heat transfer coefficient for the advanced tube bundles doubled with the addition of 500-wppm of 2-ethyl-1- hexanol.

  4. Heat transfer characteristics in closed-loop spray cooling of micro-structured surfaces

    With water as the working fluid, experiments on the heat transfer characteristics of spray cooling of micro-structured surfaces were performed in a closed loop system. Experimental data were analyzed in the view of the ratio between convective heat transfer and phase change heat transfer. The results indicate that heat transfer is obviously enhanced for micro-channel surfaces relative to the flat surface because of higher phase change heat transfer. For the geometries tested at lower surface temperature, the straight finned surface has the largest heat flux; while at higher surface temperature, the cubic pin finned surface has the largest heat flux. Heat fluxes of all the surfaces grow with increasing flow rates, except for the straight finned surface under lower surface temperature. The ratio of phase change to total heat transfer is bigger than 20% for the flat surface, and higher than 50% for micro-structured surface. Critical heat fluxes of 159.1 W/cm2, 120.2 W/cm2, and 109.8 W/cm2 are attained respectively for cubic pin finned, straight finned and flat surfaces when the flow rate is 15.9 mL/min, and the corresponding evaporation efficiency are 96.0%, 72.5%, 67.1%. (authors)

  5. A METHOD FOR ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTIONS OF MASS TRANSFER RATE COEFFICIENTS WITH APPLICATION TO PURGING AND BATCH EXPERIMENTS. (R825825)

    Mass transfer between aquifer material and groundwater is often modeled as first-order rate-limited sorption or diffusive exchange between mobile zones and immobile zones with idealized geometries. Recent improvements in experimental techniques and advances in our understanding o...

  6. Heat transfer coefficients obtainment by means of naphthalene sublimation in air; Obtencion de coeficientes de transferencia de calor por medio de la tecnica de sublimacion de naftalina en aire

    Perez Galindo, Jose Arturo; Garcia Gutierrez, Alonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1985-12-31

    This work describes the experimental technique for the sublimation of naphthalene in air which measures heat transfer coefficients through the use of the analogy between the transference phenomena of heat and mass. The technique used to substitute the experimental measurements of heat transfer, in which it is difficult to control the border thermal conditions, when they are dimmed by the omnipresent problem of heat conduction through the walls of the transference surfaces. Two examples are included of the application technique and its potential is outlined. [Espanol] En este trabajo se describe la tecnica experimental de la sublimacion de naftalina en aire mediante la que se miden coeficientes de transferencia de masa. Los datos asi obtenidos pueden convertirse en coeficientes de transferencia de calor a traves del uso de la analogia entre los fenomenos de transferencia de calor y masa. La tecnica se utiliza para substituir las mediciones experimentales de transferencia de calor, en las que es dificil controlar las condiciones termicas de frontera, cuando las empana el problema omnipresente de la conduccion de calor a traves de las paredes de las superficies de transferencia. Se incluyen dos ejemplos de la aplicacion de la tecnica y se destaca su potencial.

  7. A new method to calculate pressure drop and shell-side heat transfer coefficient in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger

    A new method to calculate pressure drop (Δp) and shell-side heat transfer coefficient (h sub(c)) in a shell-and-tube heat exchanger with segmental baffles is presented. The method is based on the solution of the equations of conservation of mass and momentum between two baffles. The calculated distributions of pressure and velocities given respectively, Δp and h sub(c). The values of Δp and h sub(c) are correlated for a given geometry whit the shell side fluid properties and flow rate. The calculated and experimental results agree very well for a U-Tube heat exchanger. (Author)

  8. Heat transfer coefficient saturation in superconducting Nb tunnel junctions contacted to a NbTiN circuit and an Au energy relaxation layer

    Selig, Stefan; Westig, Marc Peter; Jacobs, Karl; Schultz, Michael; Honingh, Netty

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the experimental realization of a Nb tunnel junction connected to a high-gap superconducting NbTiN embedding circuit. We investigate relaxation of nonequilibrium quasiparticles in a small volume Au layer between the Nb tunnel junction and the NbTiN circuit. We find a saturation in the effective heat-transfer coefficient consistent with a simple theoretical model. This saturation is determined by the thickness of the Au layer. Our findings are important for the design ...

  9. Experimental investigation of heat transfer coefficient of CuO/Water nanofluid in double pipe heat exchanger with or without electric field

    S.Senthilraja; KCK.Vijayakumar; R.Gangadevi

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experimental study of heat transfer coefficient of CuO/Water nanofluid flowing in a horizontal double pipe counter flow heat exchanger in the presence and absence of electric field. The CuO nanoparticles of about 27nm diameter were used in this study. The heat exchange takes place between a CuO/water nanofluid circulating inner tube and a hot air stream flowing through the outer tube. The electric field was supplied on the air side of the heat exchanger and its volt...

  10. Interaction of NO2 with TiO2 surface under UV irradiation: measurements of the uptake coefficient

    Y. Bedjanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of NO2 with TiO2 solid films was studied under UV irradiation using a low pressure flow reactor (1–10 Torr combined with a modulated molecular beam mass spectrometer for monitoring of the gaseous species involved. The NO2 to TiO2 reactive uptake coefficient was measured from the kinetics of NO2 loss on TiO2 coated Pyrex rods as a function of NO2 concentration, irradiance intensity (JNO2 = 0.002–0.012 s−1, relative humidity (RH = 0.06–69 %, temperature (T = 275–320 K and partial pressure of oxygen (0.001–3 Torr. TiO2 surface deactivation upon exposure to NO2 was observed. The initial uptake coefficient of NO2 on illuminated TiO2 surface (with 90 ppb of NO2 and JNO2≅0.006 s−1 was found to be γ0 = (1.2±0.4 ×10−4 (calculated using BET surface area under dry conditions at T = 300 K. The steady state uptake, γ, was several tens of times lower than the initial one, independent of relative humidity, and was found to decrease in the presence of molecular oxygen. In addition, it was shown that γ is not linearly dependent on the photon flux and seems to level off under atmospheric conditions. Finally, the following expression for γ was derived, γ = 2.3×10−3 exp(−1910/T/(1 + P0.36 (where P is O2 pressure in Torr, and recommended for atmospheric applications (for any RH, near 90 ppb of NO2 and JNO2 = 0.006 s−1.

  11. Evaluation method of single blow experiment for the determination of heat transfer coefficient and dispersive Peclet number*

    Roetzel Wilfried

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation method is developed for single blow experiments with liquids on heat exchangers. The method is based on the unity Mach number dispersion model. The evaluation of one experiment yields merely one equation for the two unknowns, the number of transfer units and the dispersive Peclet number. Calculations on an example confirm that one single blow test alone cannot provide reliable values of the unknowns. A second test with a liquid of differing heat capacity is required, or a tracer experiment for the measurement of the Peclet number. A modified method is developed for gases. One experiment yields the effective number of transfer units and approximate values of the two unknowns. The numerical evaluation of calculated experiments demonstrates the applicability of the evaluation methods.

  12. Uncertainty Analysis on Prediction of Heat Transfer Coefficient and Pressure Drop in Heat Exchangers Due to Refrigerant Property Prediction Error

    Huang, Long; Aute, Vikrant; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulation is extensively used in heat exchanger design and performance evaluation. While evaluating potential working fluids, pure fluids and fluid mixtures with different component combinations and fractions are compared based on simulation results. Two of the challenges while conducting such studies are the uncertainties of refrigerant properties and the applicability of empirical heat transfer and pressure drop correlations. Pure refrigerant property uncertainties are associated...

  13. Transferencia de calor incrementada en espacios anulares con elementos helicoidales insertados//Review of augmentation techniques for heat transfer coefficient in annular spaces using helical elements

    Josué Imbert‐González

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available La transferencia de calor incrementada por métodos pasivos se emplea en diversosintercambiadores de calor de alta efectividad. El objetivo del trabajo presentado fue la evaluación del estado de las investigaciones en el campo de la transferencia de calor mejorada en espacios anulares, a partir del empleo de elementos turbulizadores helicoidales como técnicas pasivas. La revisión se centró en el empleo de láminas helicoidales y espirales, la obtención de ecuaciones de correlación del coeficiente de transferencia de calor incrementado, el coeficiente de fricción y la evaluación que se realiza de este proceso por parte de diferentes autores. El análisis crítico permitió realizar valoraciones integradas y recomendar sobre los aspectos que podrían ser analizados en el futuro en esta temática.Palabras claves: transferencia de calor incrementada, láminas helicoidales, espirales, espacios anulares, métodos pasivos._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe transfer enhancement by passive methods is used in several heat exchanger of high effectiveness. The objective of the presented work was the evaluation of the state of the investigations in heat transfer enhancement in annular spaces, from the employment of elements helical. The revision was centered in the employment of twisted tape and wire coil in spiral, the equations of correlation obtained of the coefficient of transfer of increased heat, the coefficient of friction and the evaluation that was carried out of this process on the part of different authors. From the critical analysis of the published results, the authors recommend on the topics that can be analyzed in the future in this area.Key words: heat transfer enhancement, twisted tape, helical springs, annular spaces, passive methods.

  14. Comparisons of polymer/gas partition coefficients calculated from responses of thickness shear mode and surface acoustic wave vapor sensors.

    Grate, J W; Kaganove, S N; Bhethanabotla, V R

    1998-01-01

    Apparent partition coefficients, K, for the sorption of toluene by four different polymer thin films on thickness shear mode (TSM) and surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are compared. The polymers examined were poly(isobutylene) (PIB), poly(epichlorohydrin) (PECH), poly(butadiene) (PBD), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Independent data on partition coefficients for toluene in these polymers were compiled for comparison, and TSM sensor measurements were made using both oscillator and impedance analysis methods. K values from SAW sensor measurements were about twice those calculated from TSM sensor measurements when the polymers were PIB and PECH, and they were also at least twice the values of the independent partition coefficient data, which is interpreted as indicating that the SAW sensor responds to polymer modulus changes as well as to mass changes. K values from SAW and TSM measurements were in agreement with each other and with independent data when the polymer was PBD. Similarly, K values from the PDMS-coated SAW sensor were not much larger than values from independent measurements. These results indicate that modulus effects were not contributing to the SAW sensor responses in the cases of PBD and PDMS. However, K values from the PDMS-coated TSM device were larger than the values from the SAW device or independent measurements, and the impedance analyzer results indicated that this sensor using our sample of PDMS at the applied thickness did not behave as a simple mass sensor. Differences in behavior among the test polymers on SAW devices are interpreted in terms of their differing viscoelastic properties. PMID:21644612

  15. Experimental study of heat transfer from porous surface in pool and forced-convection boiling at low pressures

    This paper reports on heat transfer coefficients measured for pool and forced-convection boiling on uniformly heated porous surfaces (PCs). Tests were performed for five different porous coatings. Data was obtained for a range of heat fluxes and flow rates. The results showed the strong dependence of heat transfer characteristics on the porous coating properties. It was established that thick coatings with large pores and high porosity are effective in low heat flux area but thin coatings with small pores and low porosity are effective in high heat flux area. Tests of gas injection through the porous wall into the moving liquid were made. The hydraulic resistance through the porous matrix was observed

  16. First-order exchange coefficient coupling for simulating surface water-groundwater interactions: Parameter sensitivity and consistency with a physics-based approach

    Ebel, B.A.; Mirus, B.B.; Heppner, C.S.; VanderKwaak, J.E.; Loague, K.

    2009-01-01

    Distributed hydrologic models capable of simulating fully-coupled surface water and groundwater flow are increasingly used to examine problems in the hydrologic sciences. Several techniques are currently available to couple the surface and subsurface; the two most frequently employed approaches are first-order exchange coefficients (a.k.a., the surface conductance method) and enforced continuity of pressure and flux at the surface-subsurface boundary condition. The effort reported here examines the parameter sensitivity of simulated hydrologic response for the first-order exchange coefficients at a well-characterized field site using the fully coupled Integrated Hydrology Model (InHM). This investigation demonstrates that the first-order exchange coefficients can be selected such that the simulated hydrologic response is insensitive to the parameter choice, while simulation time is considerably reduced. Alternatively, the ability to choose a first-order exchange coefficient that intentionally decouples the surface and subsurface facilitates concept-development simulations to examine real-world situations where the surface-subsurface exchange is impaired. While the parameters comprising the first-order exchange coefficient cannot be directly estimated or measured, the insensitivity of the simulated flow system to these parameters (when chosen appropriately) combined with the ability to mimic actual physical processes suggests that the first-order exchange coefficient approach can be consistent with a physics-based framework. Copyright ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. High performance AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with large electromechanical coupling coefficient

    Wang, Wenbo; He, Xingli; Ye, Zhi, E-mail: yezhi@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Wang, Xiaozhi [Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University and Cyrus Tang Centre for Sensor Materials and Applications, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; Gillinger, Manuel; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse, 7/2/366-MST, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Luo, J. K., E-mail: yezhi@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk [Institute of Renewable Energy Environmental Technology, University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB (United Kingdom); Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, Zhejiang University and Cyrus Tang Centre for Sensor Materials and Applications, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2014-09-29

    AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K{sup 2}, in the range of 2.0% ∼ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

  18. Heat Transfer Measurements on Surfaces with Natural Ice Castings and Modeled Roughness

    Breuer, Kenneth S.; Torres, Benjamin E.; Orr, D. J.; Hansman, R. John

    1997-01-01

    An experimental method is described to measure and compare the convective heat transfer coefficient of natural and simulated ice accretion roughness and to provide a rational means for determining accretion-related enhanced heat transfer coefficients. The natural ice accretion roughness was a sample casting made from accretions at the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). One of these castings was modeled using a Spectral Estimation Technique (SET) to produce three roughness elements patterns that simulate the actual accretion. All four samples were tested in a flat-plate boundary layer at angle of attack in a "dry" wind tunnel test. The convective heat transfer coefficient was measured using infrared thermography. It is shown that, dispite some problems in the current data set, the method does show considerable promise in determining roughness-induced heat transfer coefficients, and that, in addition to the roughness height and spacing in the flow direction, the concentration and spacing of elements in the spanwise direction are important parameters.

  19. Experimental Determination of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Vessel for Coal-Water Slurry Based on the Taguchi Method

    C. M. Raguraman; Ragupathy, A.; L.Sivakumar

    2013-01-01

    Heat transfer in stirred vessels is important because process fluid temperature in the vessel is one of the most significant factors for controlling the outcome of process. In this study, the effects of some important design parameters for coal-water slurry in agitated vessel used in coal gasification such as stirrer speed, location of stirrer, D/d ratio, and coal-water ratio were investigated and optimized using the Taguchi method. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi’s orthogonal a...

  20. Near-field krypton-85 measurements in stable meteorological conditions around the AREVA NC La Hague reprocessing plant: estimation of atmospheric transfer coefficients

    The aim of this work was to study the near-field dispersion of 85Kr around the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at La Hague (AREVA NC La Hague – France) under stable meteorological conditions. Twenty-two 85Kr night-time experimental campaigns were carried out at distances of up to 4 km from the release source. Although the operational Gaussian models predict for these meteorological conditions a distance to plume touchdown of several kilometers, we almost systematically observed a marked ground signal at distances of 0.5–4 km. The calculated atmospheric transfer coefficients (ATC) show values (1) higher than those observed under neutral conditions, (2) much higher than those proposed by the operational models, and (3) higher than those used in the impact assessments. - Highlights: • Measurements of 85Kr in air around reprocessing plant. • Measurement in stable meteorological conditions. • Determination of Atmospheric Transfer Coefficients (ATC). • Comparison with operational models. • ATC in stable conditions are higher than data from models

  1. Flow map and measurement of void fraction and heat transfer coefficient using an image analysis technique for flow boiling of water in a silicon microchannel

    The present work focuses on the generation of the flow regime map for two-phase water flow in microchannels of a hydraulic diameter of 140 µm. An image analysis algorithm has been developed and utilized to obtain the local void fraction. The image processing technique is also employed to identify and estimate the percentage of different flow regimes and heat transfer coefficient, as a function of position, heat flux and mass flow rate. Both void fraction and heat transfer coefficient are found to increase monotonically along the length of the microchannel. At low heat flux and low flow rates, bubbly, slug and annular flow regimes are apparent. However, the flow is predominately annular at high heat flux and high flow rate. A breakup of the flow frequency suggests that the flow is bistable in the annular regime, in that at a fixed location, the flow periodically switches from single-phase liquid to annular and vice versa. Otherwise, the occurrence of three regimes—single-phase liquid, bubbly and slug are observed. These results provide several useful insights about two-phase flow in microchannels besides being of fundamental interest

  2. Transfer kinetics and coefficients of 90Sr, 134Cs, and 137Cs from forage contaminated by Chernobyl fallout to milk of cows

    A experiment was conducted to study kinetics, transfer coefficients, and biological half-lives of 90Sr, 134Cs, and 137Cs from feed to milk. A cow was fed a diet containing alfalfa hay contaminated by Chernobyl fallout for 14.5 wk. The time-dependent activity in milk was approximated by a two-compartment model with fast biological half-lives of 2, 0.9, and 1 d and slow biological half-lives of 36.9, 8.7, and 12.4 d for 90Sr, 134Cs, and 137Cs respectively. The transfer coefficients determined in the experiment were 0.0008 d L-1 for 90Sr, 0.0029 d L-1 for 137Cs, and 0.0031 d L-1 for 137Cs. The biological elimination phases of 134Cs and 137Cs were described by a two-compartment model while a one-compartment model was proposed for 90Sr. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Effects of Surface Roughness of Capillary Wall on the Profile of Thin Liquid Film and Evaporation Heat Transfer

    Qu Wei; Ma Tongze

    2001-01-01

    The surface of capillary wall can be treated to have a periodic microrelief mathematically. The roughness is micro enough compared with the thickness of the liquid film. So, the surface roughness only exerts influence on the adsorptive potential. Macroscopically, the flow field of the liquid film can be considered as that when the rough surface has an equivalent smooth surface, whose position is at the crests of the microrelief. The mechanism of heat transfer is in connection with two resistances: the thermal resistance of the liquid film conduction and the thermal resistance of the interfacial evaporation. The capillary pressure between the two sides of the vapor-liquid interface due to the interfacial curvature and the disjoining pressure owing to the thin liquid film are considered simultaneously. Several micro tubes with different micro rough surfaces are studied. The length of the evaporating interfacial region decreases with the increase of roughness angle and/or the increase of the roughness height. The heat transfer coefficient and the temperature of the vapor-liquid interface will change to fit the constant mass flow rate.

  4. Pressure coefficient evaluation on the surface of the SONDA III model tested in the TTP Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    Reis, M. L. C. C.; Falcao Filho, J. B. P.; Basso, E.; Caldas, V. R.

    2015-02-01

    A test campaign of the Brazilian sounding rocket Sonda III was carried out at the Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel, TTP. The aim of the campaign was to investigate aerodynamic phenomena taking place at the connection region of the first and second stages. Shock and expansion waves are expected at this location causing high gradients in airflow properties around the vehicle. Pressure taps located on the surface of a Sonda III half model measure local static pressures. Other measured parameters were freestream static and total pressures of the airflow. Estimated parameters were pressure coefficients and Mach numbers. Uncertainties associated with the estimated parameters were calculated by employing the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty and the Monte Carlo method. It was found that both uncertainty evaluation methods resulted in similar values. A Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation code was elaborated to help understand the changes in the flow field properties caused by the disturbances.

  5. Pressure coefficient evaluation on the surface of the SONDA III model tested in the TTP Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    A test campaign of the Brazilian sounding rocket Sonda III was carried out at the Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel, TTP. The aim of the campaign was to investigate aerodynamic phenomena taking place at the connection region of the first and second stages. Shock and expansion waves are expected at this location causing high gradients in airflow properties around the vehicle. Pressure taps located on the surface of a Sonda III half model measure local static pressures. Other measured parameters were freestream static and total pressures of the airflow. Estimated parameters were pressure coefficients and Mach numbers. Uncertainties associated with the estimated parameters were calculated by employing the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty and the Monte Carlo method. It was found that both uncertainty evaluation methods resulted in similar values. A Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation code was elaborated to help understand the changes in the flow field properties caused by the disturbances

  6. Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger crystalliser surface

    Rodriguez, Marcos; Ravelet, Florent; Delfos, Rene; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2008-01-01

    In a cylindrical scraped heat exchanger crystallizer geometry the flow field influence on the local heat transfer distribution on an evenly cooled scraped heat exchanger surface has been studied by direct measurements of the heat exchanger surface temperature and the fluid velocity field inside the crystallizer. Liquid Crystal Thermometry revealed that the local heat transfer is higher in the middle area of the scraped surface. Stereoscopic PIV measurements demonstrated that the secondary flo...

  7. To the generalization of experimental data on heat transfer in liquid film flow along solid surfaces

    To generalize experimental data on heat transfer during different types of film flows, a similar form for result processing is suggested. It is suggested to accept heat transfer coefficient h from a wall to a film, medium rate liquid velocity v in the film and its thickness delta, as well as thermal conductivity coefficient lambda, kinematic viscosity coefficient ν and temperature conductivity coefficient a of liquid as parameters determining the process. Then experimental data may be presented in the dimensionless form Nu=f(Re, Pr). Relation of total and mean temperature heads, effect of a cocurrent gas flow, relation of mean and local heat transfer coefficients are considered. It is shown that for different types of film flows the experimental data are satisfactorily generalized with dependence Nusub(t)=0.01Resup(0.83)Prsup(0.5) for the case of the turbulent regime. It is possible to derive a common relation for Nu by means of formulae interlocking for laminar and turbulent regimes Nu=√Nusub(l)sup(2)+Nusub(l)sup(2) in the whole range of Re numbers. Taking account of that this dependence agrees well with experimental data and, at that, there are no systematical deviations of experimental points for different types of film flows, it is possible to recommend it as a generalized formula for calculating heat transfer in a wide range of regime conditions. It may be used, in particular, for calculating heat transfer from a wall to the film during dispersion-circular flow regime of gas- liquid mixture, as well as it may have applied significance for other types of film flows, where film thickness may be calculated

  8. MM98.04 Measurement of temperature and determination of heat transfer coefficient in backward can extrusion

    Henningsen, Poul; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Wanheim, Tarras

    1998-01-01

    Temperature is measured during backward can extrusion of steel. The process is characterised by large deformations and very high surface pressure. In the experiments, a can in low carbon steel with a lubrication layer of phosphate soap is formed. The temperature is measured by thermocouples in the...

  9. Experimental Research on Mass Transfer Coefficient in Liquid-Liquid Flow Boundary Layer%液-液流动边界层传质系数的实验研究

    李明明; 李强; 李琳; 邹宗树

    2012-01-01

    为了研究冶金反应器内渣-金界面的传质,设计了研究液-液流动边界层传质实验.实验在保证油-水界面稳定的情况下,研究了苯甲酸钠示踪物质在油-水界面的传质现象.通过改变水流量Q(0.44~1.60m3/h),利用电导率仪测量苯甲酸钠示踪物质在水中的浓度变化,实验确定了液-液界面流动边界层传质系数的准数方程式,并尝试性地给出了液体黏度以及表面张力与传质系数之间的准数关系式.实验结果与液体流过平板边界层的传质过程作了比较讨论.%Experiment research concerning the mass transfer of flowing boundary layer on a liquid-liquid interface was performed to discuss the mass transfer on the molten slag-metal interface in metallurgical reactor.The mass transfer phenomenon of sodium benzoate on the oil-water interface was analyzed in the condition of keeping oil-water interface flat.The concentration change of sodium benzoate with time in water was measured by conductivity meter when the volume flow of water varied from 0.44 to 1.60 m3/h.A dimensionless number equation with respect to the mass transfer coefficient of flowing boundary layer on the liquid-liquid interface was obtained.Then,a dimensionless number equation between the mass transfer coefficient and viscosity as well as surface tension was given tentatively.The results were compared with the mass transfer of boundary layer in the case of fluid flowing through a flat.

  10. Proposal for new best estimates for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient and soil-to-plant transfer of nickel

    The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for nickel. The Kd best estimates were calculated for soils grouped according to texture and organic matter content (sand, loam, clay and organic) and soil cofactors affecting soil-nickel interaction, such as pH, organic matter, and clay content. Variability in Kd was better explained by pH than by soil texture. Nickel TF estimates were presented for major crop groups (cereals, leafy vegetables, non-leafy vegetables, root crops, tubers, fruits, herbs, pastures/grasses and fodder), and also for plant compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content. Furthermore an evaluation of transfer factor dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with parameter estimates currently in use

  11. He bubbles nucleation in lead-lithium and implications on tritium transport for HCLL breeding blanket design: mass transfer coefficient absorption model sensitivity analysis

    High helium (He) production rates support the conditions for He nucleation in liquid metal (LM) breeding blankets. The formation of bubbles in the LM might have an important impact on the hydrodynamics and on the tritium transport. The issue of He bubbles formation is, hence, highly relevant to tritium inventory control and recovery. Models for tritium and helium transport phenomena involving He nucleation, bubble growth, T absorption into He bubbles, T adsorption onto structural material and desorption to cooling system channels (CSC) are implemented into OpenFOAM CFD code (BelFoam solver). The code is capable of solving the mass transfer between different materials with a conjugated scalar transfer algorithm, so it takes into account LM-structural material interface T transport. In the present work, BelFoam solver results for a geometrically simplified horizontalU-bent channel of a helium cooled lithiumlead (HCLL) breeding unit (BU) are shown. In addition, for the T absortion model, a sensitivity analysis to the mass transfer coefficient is presented together with an analysis of the results.

  12. Proposal for new best estimates for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient and soil-to-plant transfer of nickel.

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Van Hees, May; Olyslaegers, Geert; Vidal, Miquel

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K(d)) and soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for nickel. The K(d) best estimates were calculated for soils grouped according to texture and organic matter content (sand, loam, clay and organic) and soil cofactors affecting soil-nickel interaction, such as pH, organic matter, and clay content. Variability in K(d) was better explained by pH than by soil texture. Nickel TF estimates were presented for major crop groups (cereals, leafy vegetables, non-leafy vegetables, root crops, tubers, fruits, herbs, pastures/grasses and fodder), and also for plant compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content. Furthermore an evaluation of transfer factor dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with parameter estimates currently in use. PMID:19223096

  13. Proposal for new best estimates for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient and soil-to-plant transfer of nickel

    Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hildegarde.vandenhove@sckcen.be; Van Hees, May; Olyslaegers, Geert [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Antwerp (Belgium); Vidal, Miquel [University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-04-15

    The objective of this study was to compile data, based on an extensive literature survey, for the soil solid-liquid distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) for nickel. The K{sub d} best estimates were calculated for soils grouped according to texture and organic matter content (sand, loam, clay and organic) and soil cofactors affecting soil-nickel interaction, such as pH, organic matter, and clay content. Variability in K{sub d} was better explained by pH than by soil texture. Nickel TF estimates were presented for major crop groups (cereals, leafy vegetables, non-leafy vegetables, root crops, tubers, fruits, herbs, pastures/grasses and fodder), and also for plant compartments within crop groups. Transfer factors were also calculated per soil group, as defined by their texture and organic matter content. Furthermore an evaluation of transfer factor dependency on specific soil characteristics was performed following regression analysis. The derived estimates were compared with parameter estimates currently in use.

  14. Experimental Analysis with RANNS Code on Boiling Heat Transfer from Fuel Rod Surface to Coolant Water Under Reactivity-Initiated Accident Conditions

    In order to promote a better understanding of the temperature evolution of fuel rod under reactivity-initiated accident (RIA) conditions, we have investigated the effects of coolant subcooling, flow velocity, pressure, and cladding pre-irradiation on the heat transfer from fuel rod surface to coolant water during RIA boiling transient. The study was based on a computational analysis, with the RANNS code, on the transient data from RIA-simulating experiments in the nuclear safety research reactor (NSRR); boiling heat transfer coefficients were estimated by inverse-heat-conduction calculations using the histories of measured cladding temperature and estimated heat generation in pellets, and the effects of coolant condition were analyzed by a two-phase laminar boundary layer model for stable film boiling. The experimental data used in this study cover coolant conditions with subcoolings of ~10–80 K, flow velocities of 0 to ~3 m/s, pressures of 0.1 to ~16 MPa, and fuel burnups of 0–69 GWd/tU. The analysis showed that the film boiling heat transfer coefficients during RIA boiling transient increase with coolant subcooling, flow velocity, and pressure as predicted by the model for stable film boiling. The estimated boiling heat transfer coefficients were significantly larger than those predicted by semi-empirical correlations for stable film boiling: about 1.5 times larger for stagnant water condition and 2–8 times larger for forced flow condition, respectively. The analysis also suggested that the heat transfers during both transition and film boiling phases are strongly enhanced by pre-irradiation of the cladding. The irradiation effect was clearly seen at large subcooling of ~80 K and atmospheric coolant pressure, and was rather moderate at small subcooling of ~10 K and coolant pressure of ~7 MPa. These behaviors of boiling heat transfer are incorporated into the RANNS code mainly as modified empirical correlations for boiling heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  15. The FLUFF code for calculating finned surface heat transfer -description and user's guide

    FLUFF is a computer code for calculating heat transfer from finned surfaces by convection and radiation. It can also represent heat transfer by radiation to a partially emitting and absorbing medium within the fin cavity. The FLUFF code is useful not only for studying the behaviour of finned surfaces but also for deriving heat fluxes which can be applied as boundary conditions to other heat transfer codes. In this way models of bodies with finned surfaces may be greatly simplified since the fins need not be explicitly represented. (author)

  16. Heat Transfer through a Condensate Droplet on Hydrophobic and Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces.

    Chavan, Shreyas; Cha, Hyeongyun; Orejon, Daniel; Nawaz, Kashif; Singla, Nitish; Yeung, Yip Fun; Park, Deokgeun; Kang, Dong Hoon; Chang, Yujin; Takata, Yasuyuki; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms governing vapor condensation on nonwetting surfaces is crucial to a wide range of energy and water applications. In this paper, we reconcile classical droplet growth modeling barriers by utilizing two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical simulations to study individual droplet heat transfer on nonwetting surfaces (90° environmental scanning electron microscopy on biphilic samples consisting of hydrophobic and nanostructured superhydrophobic regions, showing excellent agreement with the simulations for both constant base area and constant contact angle growth regimes. Our results demonstrate the importance of resolving local heat transfer effects for the fundamental understanding and high fidelity modeling of phase change heat transfer on nonwetting surfaces. PMID:27409353

  17. Electron back-scattering coefficient below 5 keV: Analytical expressions and surface-barrier effects

    Cazaux, J.

    2012-10-01

    Simple analytical expressions for the electron backscattering coefficient, η, are established from published data obtained in the ˜0.4-5 keV range for 21 elements ranging from Be to Au. They take into account the decline in η with a decrease in energy E° for high-Z elements and the reverse behavior for low-Z elements. The proposed expressions for η (E°) lead to crossing energies situated in the 0.4-1 keV range and they may be reasonably extended to any of the other elements—via an interpolation procedure—to metallic alloys and probably to compounds. The influence of the surface barrier on the escape probability of the back-scattered electrons is next evaluated. This evaluation provides a theoretical basis to explain the observed deviation between various published data as a consequence of surface contamination or oxidation. Various practical applications and strategies are deduced for the η-measurements in dedicated instruments as well for the image interpretation in low voltage scanning electron microscopy based on the backscattered electron detection. In this microscopy, the present investigation allows to generalize the scarce contrast changes and contrast reversals previously observed on multi elemental samples and it suggests the possibility of a new type of contrast: the work function contrast.

  18. ATHLET model improvement for the determination of heat transfer coefficients during condensation of vapor in horizontal tubes

    Pre- and posttest calculations of the NOKO experiments shall be performed with the ATHLET code. ATHLET which is being developed by the Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH is intended to cover in a single code the entire spectrum of loss-of-coolant and transient accidents in Light Water Reactors (LWR). The present work is sponsored by BMBF. The objectives are in detail: the modeling of the emergency condenser and the NOKO test facility; the improvement of the ATHLET condensation model to describe the condensation heat transfer of pure vapors and vapor/non-condensible mixtures in horizontal and inclined tubes in ATHLET; pre- and posttest calculations of selected NOKO experiments. The progress to data is that ATHLET and its pre- and postprocessors are installed on the IBM RISC workstation cluster of the Zentralinstitut fuer Angewandte Mathematik (ZAM) and DEC workstation of the institute. Furtheron an input data set for NOKO has been developed and first calculations have been performed. 11 figs

  19. Experimental &Theoretical Analysis Of Heat Transfer Augmentation From Dimpled Surface

    Dhananjay R.Giram

    2013-01-01

    In the present work the heat transfer characteristics and the pressure drop of the forced convection apparatus of six dimpled plates is studied. Six test plates with varying dimple densities; by varying the input voltage Nusselt No. variation was recorded. It is found that Nusselt No. increases as the dimple density increases .Also it was found that percentage increase in Nusselt No. is greater for staggered dimple arrangement. The sample experimental results obtained are presented in graphic...

  20. Waving Vegetation Facilitates Gas Transfer in Wetland Surface Water

    Foster, M. R.; Variano, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wind-driven movement of flexible vegetation has been an overlooked mechanism in wetland gas models. To understand the magnitude of this effect, a laboratory experiment was conducted. An array of plastic tubes, representing vegetation, was mechanically forced at a range of frequencies and amplitudes matching those observed in the field. Starting from deoxygenated water, we measured dissolved oxygen at mid-depth in the water column using a YSI ProODO as the water re-equilibrated with the atmosphere. From this DO timeseries, we calculated the gas transfer velocity, k, using the thin film gas transport model. This measurement of k was independent of the water-wall interactions, which can be significant in laboratory-scale tanks. Our experiments have shown that the movement of vegetation stirs the water column and thus contributes to the transfer of dissolved gases across the air-water interface. Increased transfer was observed with movements of higher frequency and amplitude. To estimate the occurrence of this phenomena in natural systems, data (e.g. velocity profiles) from a long-term monitoring project in the Florida Everglades will be analyzed. The results can help improve current gas budgets and predict biogeochemical processes.