Modeling Local Hygrothermal Interaction: Local surface transfer coefficients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten
2009-01-01
Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in building components assume uniform boundary conditions, both for the temperature and relative humidity of the air in an indoor space as well as for the heat and moisture surface transfer coefficients. In order to obtain a reliable prediction of the HAM conditions in a building component, an accurate description of the indoor boundary conditions is required. This paper presents the modelling of the local indoor environmental con...
The heat transfer coefficient on film cooled surfaces
Ammari, H.D.
1989-01-01
A systematic investigation of the effects of coolant-to-mainstream density ratio and mainstream acceleration on the heat transfer following injection through a row of holes in a flat plate into a turbulent boundary layer is described. A mass transfer technique was employed which uses a swollen polymer surface and laser holographic interferometry. The constant concentration of the test surface simulated isothermal conditions. Density ratios in excess of unity, representative of gas turbine ope...
Critical thickness of an optimum extended surface characterized by uniform heat transfer coefficient
Leontiou, Theodoros; Fyrillas, Marios M.
2015-01-01
We consider the heat transfer problem associated with a periodic array of extended surfaces (fins) subjected to convection heat transfer with a uniform heat transfer coefficient. Our analysis differs from the classical approach as (i) we consider two-dimensional heat conduction and (ii) the base of the fin is included in the heat transfer process. The problem is modeled as an arbitrary two-dimensional channel whose upper surface is flat and isothermal, while the lower surface has a periodic a...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten
2009-01-01
Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showe...
Critical thickness of an optimum extended surface characterized by uniform heat transfer coefficient
Leontiou, Theodoros
2015-01-01
We consider the heat transfer problem associated with a periodic array of extended surfaces (fins) subjected to convection heat transfer with a uniform heat transfer coefficient. Our analysis differs from the classical approach as (i) we consider two-dimensional heat conduction and (ii) the base of the fin is included in the heat transfer process. The problem is modeled as an arbitrary two-dimensional channel whose upper surface is flat and isothermal, while the lower surface has a periodic array of extensions/fins which are subjected to heat convection with a uniform heat transfer coefficient. Using the generalized Schwarz-Christoffel transformation the domain is mapped onto a straight channel where the heat conduction problem is solved using the boundary element method. The boundary element solution is subsequently used to pose a shape optimization problem, i.e. an inverse problem, where the objective function is the normalized Shape Factor and the variables of the optimization are the parameters of the Sch...
Hay, N.; Lampard, D.; Maali, R.; Burns, I.
A method permitting the simultaneous determination of the heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic wall effectiveness for film cooled surfaces has been developed. The swollen polymer technique, together with laser holographic interferometry, is employed in measuring the mass transfer from a film cooled surface, and the heat transfer coefficient and effectiveness are deduced through the heat-mass transfer analogy. A tangential slot injection geometry has been used in demonstrating the potential of the method for the rapid acquisition of comprehensive heat transfer data on film cooled surfaces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present paper deals with a sodium water reaction (SWR) in a steam generator (SG) of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). When a heat transfer tube in the SG fails, SWR would take place. This reaction occurs rapidly and accompanies a high temperature jet. This jet would cover up the neighboring tubes and the tubes have possibilities to fail secondarily by an overheated rupture. Therefore, the quantification of the heat transfer from the fluid to the tube in the SWR is important from the view point of safety evaluation. To obtain knowledge on the SWR phenomenon, experiments with SWAT-1R test facility were carried out at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). In the experiment, thermocouples were installed at 6 locations on a tube placed for measurement in the SWR reacting zone and the temperature histories were measured. In the present study, the heat transfer coefficient has been evaluated by solving one-dimensional inverse problem of heat transfer based on the SWAT-1R experimental result. And the flow characteristics such as a void fraction and a fluid velocity, at the surface of the heat transfer tube have been speculated from the magnitude of heat transfer coefficient. Furthermore, one-dimensional thermal hydraulics simulation has been performed based on a boundary layer approximation. In the analyses, the fluid velocity at out of the boundary layer and the void fraction condition are given as a parameter. As a result, the correlation diagram between the heat transfer coefficient and the flow characteristics has been evaluated so as to investigate the flow characteristics in the SWAT-1R experiment. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sivaraja Subramania Pillai
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (CHTC from urban building surfaces by numerical simulation. The thermal effects produced by geometrical and physical properties of urban areas generate a relatively differential heating and uncomfortable environment compared to rural regions called as Urban Heat Island (UHI phenomena. The urban thermal comfort is directly related to the CHTC from the urban canopy surfaces. This CHTC from urban canopy surfaces expected to depend upon the wind velocity flowing over the urban canopy surfaces, urban canopy configurations, building surface temperature etc. But the most influential parameter on CHTC has not been clarified yet. Urban canopy type experiments in thermally stratified wind tunnel have normally been used to study the heat transfer issues. But, it is not an easy task in wind tunnel experiments to evaluate local CHTC, which vary on individual canyon surfaces such as building roof, walls and ground. Numerical simulation validated by wind tunnel experiments can be an alternative for the prediction of CHTC from building surfaces in an urban area. In our study, wind tunnel experiments were conducted to validate the low-Reynolds-number k-? model which was used for the evaluation of CHTC from surfaces. The calculated CFD results showed good agreement with experimental results. After this validation, the effects of flow velocity and building surface temperature effects on CHTC from urban building surfaces were investigated. It has been found that the change in velocity remarkably affects the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces and change in surface temperature has almost no effect over the CHTC from urban canopy surfaces.
Variation of Local Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient On 3-Degree Inclined Tube Surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental studies on both subcooled and saturated pool boiling of water were performed to obtain local heat transfer coefficients on a 3 .deg. inclined tube of 50.8 mm diameter at atmospheric pressure. The local values were determined at every 45 .deg. from the very bottom to the uppermost of the tube periphery. The maximum and minimum local coefficients were observed at the azimuthal angles of 0 .deg. and 180 .deg., respectively, in saturated water. The locations of the maxima and the minima were dependent on the inclination angle of the tube as well as the degree of subcooling. The major heat transfer mechanisms were considered to be liquid agitation generated by the sliding bubbles and the creation of big size bubbles through bubble coalescence. As a way of quantifying the heat transfer coefficients, an empirical correlation was suggested
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Convective heat transfer at exterior building surfaces has an impact on the design and performance of building components such as double-skin facades, solar collectors, solar chimneys and ventilated photovoltaic arrays, and also affects the thermal climate and cooling load in urban areas. In this study, an overview is given of existing correlations of the exterior convective heat transfer coefficient (CHTC) with the wind speed, indicating significant differences between these correlations. As an alternative to using existing correlations, the applicability of CFD to obtain forced CHTC correlations is evaluated, by considering a cubic building in an atmospheric boundary layer. Steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations are performed and, instead of the commonly used wall functions, low-Reynolds number modelling (LRNM) is used to model the boundary-layer region for reasons of improved accuracy. The flow field is found to become quasi independent of the Reynolds number at Reynolds numbers of about 105. This allows limiting the wind speed at which the CHTC is evaluated and thus the grid resolution in the near-wall region, which significantly reduces the computational expense. The distribution of the power-law CHTC-U10 correlation over the windward and leeward surfaces is presented (U10 = reference wind speed at 10 m height). It is shown that these correlations can be accurately determined by simulations with relatively low wind speed values, which avoids the use of excessively fine grids for LRNM, and by using only two or three discrete wind speed values, which limits the required number of CFD simulations.
Kumar, Varun; Kumar, Manoj; Shakher, Chandra
2014-09-20
In this paper, the local convective heat transfer coefficient (h) is measured along the surface of an electrically heated vertical wire using digital holographic interferometry (DHI). Experiments are conducted on wires of different diameters. The experimentally measured values are within the range as given in the literature. DHI is expected to provide a more accurate local convective heat transfer coefficient (h) as the value of the temperature gradient required for the calculation of "h" can be obtained more accurately than by other existing optical interferometric techniques without the use of a phase shifting technique. This is because in digital holography phase measurement accuracy is expected to be higher. PMID:25322139
Measuring of heat transfer coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Lindegren, Maria
Subtask 3.4 Measuring of heat transfer coefficient Subtask 3.4.1 Design and setting up of tests to measure heat transfer coefficient Objective: Complementary testing methods together with the relevant experimental equipment are to be designed by the two partners involved in order to measure the...... heat transfer coefficient for a wide range of interface conditions in hot and warm forging processes. Subtask 3.4.2 Measurement of heat transfer coefficient The objective of subtask 3.4.2 is to determine heat transfer values for different interface conditions reflecting those typically operating in hot...
Santos, Jane Meri; Kreim, Virginie; Guillot, Jean-Michel; Reis, Neyval Costa; de Sá, Leandro Melo; Horan, Nigel John
2012-12-01
This study has investigated overall mass transfer coefficients of hydrogen sulphide from quiescent liquid surfaces under simulated laboratory conditions. Wind flow (friction velocity) has been correlated with the overall mass transfer coefficient (KL) of hydrogen sulphide in the liquid phase using a wind tunnel study. The experimental values for this coefficient have been compared with predicted KL values obtained from three different emission models that are widely used to determine volatilization rates from the quiescent surfaces of wastewater treatment unit processes. Friction velocity (in a range of 0.11 and 0.27 m s-1) was found to have a negligible influence on the overall mass transfer coefficients for hydrogen sulphide but by contrast two of the models predicted a stronger influence of friction velocity and overestimate the KL values by up to a factor of 12.5, thus risking unnecessary expenditure on odour control measures. However, at low wind speeds or friction velocities, when more odour complaints might be expected due to poor atmospheric dispersion, a better agreement of emission rates with experimental data was found for all the models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Because convective heat transfer is enhanced in flow past rough surfaces, much experimental and analytical effort over the past several decades has been devoted to the evaluation of artificial roughening for potential application to the heat transfer surfaces of gas-cooled reactors. Unfortunately, much of the analytical development in this field has been inadequately explained in the literature; this has led to misinterpretation of some of the subsequent experimental findings, compounding the uncertainty. This work provides a critical review of the underlying assumptions, theoretical foundations, and supporting experimental evidence for the analytical procedures in current use for the evaluation of roughness effects. It is a concise presentation of the available formulations with recommendations concerning their applicability to rough rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Different approaches for the calculation of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) using Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTC) based on the Surface Renewal Theory (SRT) are tested using the CFD simulation tool ANSYS CFX. The present work constitutes a preliminary study of the flow patterns and conditions observed using different HTC models. A complex 3D flow pattern will be observed in the CFD simulations as well as a strong coupling between the condensation rate and the two-phase flow dynamics. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wanninger, Andreas; Ceuca, Sabin Cristian; Macian-Juan, Rafael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering
2013-07-01
Different approaches for the calculation of Direct Contact Condensation (DCC) using Heat Transfer Coefficients (HTC) based on the Surface Renewal Theory (SRT) are tested using the CFD simulation tool ANSYS CFX. The present work constitutes a preliminary study of the flow patterns and conditions observed using different HTC models. A complex 3D flow pattern will be observed in the CFD simulations as well as a strong coupling between the condensation rate and the two-phase flow dynamics. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A critical review of the assumptions, theoretical foundations, and supporting experimental evidence for the analytical procedures in current use for evaluation of the effects of artificial surface roughening on friction factor and Stanton number is provided. Recommendations are given concerning the application of these procedures to rough rod bundles. A new method is demonstrated for determination of the slope and intercept of the universal logarithmic dimensionless velocity distribution law for fully rough flow past roughened surfaces without the need for experimental measurement of the velocity profile. The slope is shown to vary with the nature of the roughened surface and to deviate significantly from the slope for turbulent flow past smooth walls in some cases. It is further shown that the intercept, which is a boundary condition equivalent to the roughness parameter for friction, is independent of the width of the velocity profile. A similar method is developed for determination of the slope and intercept of the temperature distribution law, but additional experimental investigation is required before the efficacy of this application can be conclusively established
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hodge, S.A.; Sanders, J.P.; Klein, D.E.
1979-11-01
A critical review of the assumptions, theoretical foundations, and supporting experimental evidence for the analytical procedures in current use for evaluation of the effects of artificial surface roughening on friction factor and Stanton number is provided. Recommendations are given concerning the application of these procedures to rough rod bundles. A new method is demonstrated for determination of the slope and intercept of the universal logarithmic dimensionless velocity distribution law for fully rough flow past roughened surfaces without the need for experimental measurement of the velocity profile. The slope is shown to vary with the nature of the roughened surface and to deviate significantly from the slope for turbulent flow past smooth walls in some cases. It is further shown that the intercept, which is a boundary condition equivalent to the roughness parameter for friction, is independent of the width of the velocity profile. A similar method is developed for determination of the slope and intercept of the temperature distribution law, but additional experimental investigation is required before the efficacy of this application can be conclusively established.
Gillespie, DRH; Guo, SM; Wang, Z.; Ireland, PT; Kohler, ST
1996-01-01
Full heat transfer coefficient and static pressure distributions have been measured on the target surface under impinging jets formed by sharp-edged and large entry radius holes. These geometries are representative of impingement holes in a gas turbine blade manufactured by laser cutting and by casting, respectively. Target surface heat transfer has been measured in a large scale perspex rig using both the transient liquid crystal technique and hot thin film gauges. A range of jet Reynolds nu...
Inverse determination of local heat transfer coefficient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The naphtalene sublimation and transient methods are widely used techniques which are particularly useful in complex flows and solid shapes. Both techniques have been widely used with considerable success but they are not appropriate for high temperatures. An alternative method to obtain the local convective heat transfer coefficient, that does not have any disadvantages noted above, is the inverse procedure. Determination of the space-variable heat transfer coefficient on a complex shape surface requires the solution of the nonlinear inverse heat conduction problem. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficient is calculated from temperature measurements at interior points of the solid and measured fluid temperature. The unknown parameters associated with the solution are selected to achieve the closest agreement in a least squares sense between the computed and measured temperatures using the Levenberg - Marquardt method. The nonlinear least - squares problem is parameterized by assuming the staircase changes of heat transfer coefficient on the boundary or expressing the space variations of the heat transfer coefficient in the functional form. The uncertainties in the estimated components of the heat transfer coefficient or in the estimated parameters are determined for the temperature measurements with known and unknown standard deviations. The determination of the circumferential heat transfer coefficient distribution on the heated tube with two longitudinal fins in cross flow demonstrates the accuracy of the developed method. The actual experimental data were used. Experiments were performed with an array of vertical tubes arranged in staggered pattern. The experimental results reported herein are among the first that show the variation of the local heat transfer coefficients over the circumference of the finned tube. Most data reported previously were acquired for smooth tubes at low temperatures. The main advantage of the method is that it does not require any knowledge, or solution to, the complex fluid flow field. It should be noted that determining unknown steady distribution of heat transfer coefficients by using the developed method is inexpensive, since it requires only one fluid temperature probe and a few thermocouples for temperature measurements inside the solid. Refs. 4 (author)
Sensitivity of the Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation
Singer, Sasa
2014-01-01
The purpose of the Liscic/Petrofer probe is to determine the cooling intensity during liquid quenching in laboratory and workshop environments. The surface heat transfer coefficient is calculated by the one-dimensional finite volume method from the smoothed temperature curve, measured at a near-surface point in the probe. Smoothed reference temperature curves for oil and water, based on measurements made by the probe, are used in a series of numerical experiments to investig...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In fire engineering analysis, one of the open problem is the transfer of thermal parameters obtained by fire CFD model to FEM models for structural analysis. In this study the new useful concept of “Adiabatic Surface Temperature” or more commonly known as AST, introduced by Wickström, is investigated. The adiabatic surface temperature offers the opportunity to transfer both thermal information of the gas and the net heat flux to the solid phase model, obtained by CFD analysis. In this study two CFD analyses are carried out in order to evaluate the effect of emissivity and of convective heat transfer coefficient to determine the AST. First one CFD analysis simulating a fire scenario, “conjugate heat transfer”, with a square steel beam exposed to hot surface is carried out to calculate AST, heat convective coefficient and temperature field in the beam. Second one, a conductive analysis is carried out on “standalone beam” imposing a third type boundary condition on its boundaries assuming the AST, evaluated in the conjugate analysis, as external temperature. Different heat convective coefficients are imposed on the beam walls. The comparison between results obtained by means of the two proposed analyses shows the use of AST as transfer thermal parameter between CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) and FEM (Finite Element Method) models is appropriate when the convective heat transfer coefficient is properly evaluated. -- Highlights: ? An open problem is to transfer parameters obtained by thermal to structural models. ? The useful concept of “Adiabatic Surface Temperature” (AST) is investigated. ? The AST use is right for properly evaluated convective heat transfer coefficient
Determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient
Spierings, D.; Bosman, F.; Peters, T.; Plasschaert, F.
1987-01-01
The value of the convective heat transfer coefficient (htc) is determined under different loading conditions by using a computer aided method. The thermal load has been applied mathematically as well as experimentally to the coronal surface of an axisymmetric tooth model. To verify the assumptions made for the mathematical tooth model, the results predicted with this model were compared with those of an experiment using mercury as the tooth surrounding medium. For all the other thermal loadin...
Heat transfer coefficient for boiling carbon dioxide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Hans JÃ¸rgen HÃ¸gaard; Jensen, Per Henrik
Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for boiling carbon dioxide (R744) flowing in a horizontal pipe has been measured. The calculated heat transfer coeeficient has been compared with the Chart correlation of Shah. The Chart Correlation predits too low heat transfer coefficient but the ratio...... between the measured and the calculated heat transfer coefficient is nearly constant and equal 1.9. With this factor the correlation predicts the measured data within 14% (RMS). The pressure drop is of the same order as the measuring uncertainty and the pressure drop has not been compared with correlation's....
Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.
Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J
2013-01-01
Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K). PMID:23812315
Non intrusive measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rebay, M.; Mebarki, G.; Padet, J. [Reims Univ., Reims (France). Faculty of Science, GRESPI Thermomechanical Lab; Arfaoui, A. [Reims Univ., Reims (France). Faculty of Science, GRESPI Thermomechanical Lab; Tunis Univ., Tunis (Tunisia). Faculty of Science, EL MANAR, LETTM; Maad, B.R. [Tunis Univ., Tunis (Tunisia). Faculty of Science, EL MANAR, LETTM
2010-07-01
The efficiency of cooling methods in thermal systems such as radiators and heat exchangers must be improved in order to enhance performance. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients between a solid and a fluid is necessary for the control and the dimensioning of thermal systems. In this study, the pulsed photothermal method was used to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient on a solid-fluid interface, notably between an air flow and a heated slab mounted on a PVC flat plate. This configuration simulated the electronic air-cooling inside enclosures and racks. The influence of the deflector's inclination angle on the enhancement of heat transfer was investigated using 2 newly developed identification models. The first model was based on a constant heat transfer coefficient during the pulsed experiment, while the second, improved model was based on a variable heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficient was deduced from the evolution of the transient temperature induced by a sudden deposit of a luminous energy on the front face of the slab. Temperature evolutions were derived by infrared thermography, a camera for cartography and a detector for precise measurement in specific locations. The results show the improvement of measurement accuracies when using a model that considers the temporal evolution of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The deflection of air flow on the upper surface of the heated slab demonstrated better cooling of the slab by the deflection of air flow. 11 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.
Transfer coefficients for turbulent flow between parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Average transfer coefficients in the turbulent forced convection entrance region between parallel plates, with asymmetrical conditions of the concentration profile, were determined experimentaly with the Naphthalene Sublimation Technique. In accordance with the analogy between heat and mass transfer, the tests correspond to a heat-transfer problem with uniform surface temperature at one plate and the other insulated. The Reynolds number ranges from 10900 to 91700. (Author)
Hay, N.; Lampard, D.; Saluja, C. L.
1984-06-01
This paper describes an investigation of the sensitivity of the heat transfer coefficient under the film to the state of the approach boundary layer for injection through a row of holes on a flat plate. The investigation is done for a range of blowing parameters using a heat-mass transfer analogy. Injection angles of 35 deg and 90 deg are covered. Additionally, for the same injection geometries, the effect of injection in the presence of mild adverse, mild favorable, and strong favorable mainstream pressure gradients is investigated. The results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient under the film is sensitive neither to the condition of the approach boundary layer nor to the presence of a mild adverse pressure gradient, but it is significantly lowered by a favorable pressure gradient, particularly at low blowing parameters.
Transfer coefficients in elliptical tubes and plate fin heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mean transfer coefficients in elliptical tubes and plate fin heat exchangers were determined by application of heat and mass transfer analogy in conjunction with the naphthalene sublimation technique. The transfer coefficients are presented in a dimensionless form as functions of the Reynolds number. By using the least squares method analytical expressions for the transfer coefficients were determined with low scattering. (E.G.)
Heat transfer coefficient between UO2 and Zircaloy-2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper provides some experimental values of the heat-transfer coefficient between UO2 and Zircaloy-2 surfaces in contact under conditions of interfacial pressure, temperature, surface roughness and interface atmosphere, that are relevant to UO2/Zircaloy-2 fuel elements operating in pressurized-water power reactors. Coefficients were obtained from eight UO2/ Zircaloy-2 pairs in atmospheres of helium, argon, krypton or xenon, at atmosphere pressure and in vacuum. Interfacial pressures were varied from 50 to 550 kgf/cm2 while surface roughness heights were in the range 0.2 x 10-4 to 3.5 x 10-4 cm. The effect on the coefficients of cycling the interfacial pressure, of interface gas pressure and of temperature were examined. The experimental values of the coefficients were used to test the predictions of expressions for the heat-transfer between two solids in contact. For the particular UO2/ Zircaloy-2 pairs examined, numerical values were assigned to several parameters that related the surface roughnesses to either the radius of solid/solid contact spots or to the mean thickness of the interface voids and that accounted for the imperfect accommodation of the void gas on the test surfaces. (author)
Distortion effects on the spin transfer coefficient
Lee, S E; Hong, S W; Kim, B T
1999-01-01
We investigated the distortion effects on the spin transfer coefficient D sub n sub n for the intermediate energy (p,n) charge exchange reactions leading to the Gamow-Teller resonance in the continuum region. When the distortion is included, the imaginary parts of both the central and the tensor direct contributions are significantly changed. Also, the magnitude of T sub 0 sub 0 becomes smaller, which results in larger D sub n sub n values. We also found that when the distortion is included the phase difference between T sub 0 sub 0 and T sub 2 sub 0 in the complex plane remains almost the same for different Q-values.
Determination of the surface drag coefficient
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mahrt, L.; Vickers, D.; Sun, J.L.; Jensen, N.O.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Pardyjak, E.; Fernando, H.
2001-01-01
This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficient on stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak w...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paper presents an analytical solution of the problem to determine the efficiency coefficient of a constant section fin at heat transfer coefficient changing along fin height. It is determined, that the commonly applied assumption about the constancy of a convectional coefficient of heat emission when calculating the efficiency of a fin based on the value of the reduced coefficient of heat emission results in the error reaching 15%. It is shown that to reduce it up to 2-3% when calculating the efficiency coefficient of a fin one should have the experimental values of both the reduced coefficient of heat emission and the convectional coefficient of heat emission at a surface supporting the fins
Radionuclide transfer to animal products: revised recommended transfer coefficient values
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: bjho@ceh.ac.uk; Beresford, N.A.; Barnett, C.L. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Fesenko, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria)
2009-03-15
A compilation has been undertaken of data which can be used to derive animal product transfer coefficients for radionuclides, including an extensive review of Russian language information. The resultant database has been used to provide recommended transfer coefficient values for a range of radionuclides to (i) cow, sheep and goat milk, (ii) meat (muscle) of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and poultry and (iii) eggs. The values are used in a new IAEA handbook on transfer parameters which replaces that referred to as 'TRS 364'. The paper outlines the approaches and procedures used to identify and collate data, and assumptions used. There are notable differences between the TRS 364 'expected' values and the recommended values in the revised Handbook from the new database. Of the recommended values, three milk values are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values (Cr, Pu (cow) Pu (sheep)) and one milk value is lower (Ni (cow)). For meat, four values (Am, Cd, Sb (beef) I (pork)) are at least an order of magnitude higher than the TRS 364 values and eight values are at least an order of magnitude lower (Ru, Pu (beef), Ru, Sr, Zn (sheep), Ru, Sr (pork), Mn (poultry)). Many data gaps remain.
The impact of air flow to the distribution of heat transfer coefficient on circular cylinder
Beran, P. (Pavel)
2015-01-01
To study the temperature effects which cause degradation of building materials in exterior is necessary to know the coefficient of heat transfer on its surface during the cross-flow. In this paper the values of heat transfer coefficient on circular cylinder for the cross-flow of air characterized by Reynolds number 78 200 were determined. The values of heat transfer coefficient were obtained by comparing numerically computed temperatures in several points in cylinder with measured values ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
E C Monahan
2002-09-01
Stage A whitecaps (spilling wave crests) have a microwave emissivity of close to 1. Thus if even a small fraction of the sea surface is covered by these features there will be a detectable enhancement in the apparent microwave brightness temperature of that surface as determined by satellite-borne microwave radiometers. This increase in the apparent microwave brightness temperature can as a consequence be routinely used to estimate the fraction of the sea surface covered by stage A whitecaps. For all but the very lowest wind speeds it has been shown in a series of controlled experiments that the air-sea gas transfer coeffcient for each of a wide range of gases, including carbon dioxide and oxygen, is directly proportional to the fraction of the sea surface covered by these stage A whitecaps.
Semi-empirical model for heat transfer coefficient in liquid metal turbulent flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The heat transfer by forced convection in a metal liquid turbulent flow for circular ducts is analyzed. An analogy between the momentum and heat in the wall surface, is determined, aiming to determine an expression for heat transfer coefficient in function of the friction coefficient. (E.G.)
Overall mass-transfer coefficients in non-linear chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mollerup, JÃ¸rgen; Hansen, Ernst
1998-01-01
In case of mass transfer where concentration differences in both phases must be taken into account, one may define an over-all mass-transfer coefficient basd on the apparent over-all concentration difference. If the equilibrium relationship is linear, i.e. in cases where a HenryÂ´s law relationship...... can be applied, the over-all mass-transfer coefficient will be concentration independent. However, in mass-transfer operations, a linear equilibrium relationship is in most cases not a valid approximation wherefore the over-all mass-transfer coefficient becomes strongly concentration dependent as...... shown in this paper. In this case one has to discard the use of over-all mass-transfer coefficients and calculate the rate of mass transfer from the two film theory using the appropriate non-linear relationship to calculate the equilibrium ratio at the interface between the two films....
Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco; Olesen, Bjarne W.
2009-01-01
The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions of...... occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental tests in an environmental chamber. Heat transfer coefficient may be expressed separately for radiation and...
Experimental evaluation of heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Causone, Francesco; Corgnati, Stefano P.; Filippi, Marco; Olesen, Bjarne W.
2009-01-01
The heat transfer coefficients between radiant surfaces and room are influenced by several parameters: surfaces temperature distributions, internal gains, air movements. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficients between radiant ceiling and room in typical conditions of occupancy of an office or residential building. Internal gains were therefore simulated using heated cylinders and heat losses using cooled surfaces. Evaluations were developed by means of experimental te...
Transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube heat exchangers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to determine transfer coefficients for plate fin and elliptical tube exchangers, mass transfer experiments have been performed using the naphthalene sublimation technique. By means of the heat-mass transfer analogy, the results can be converted to heat transfer results. The transfer coefficients were compared with those for circular tube exchangers and the comparison revealed no major differences. This is a positive outcome, since the use of elliptical tubes may reduce substantially the pressure drop, without affecting the transfer characteristics.(Author)
Local heat transfer coefficient for turbulent flow in rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The correlation of the local heat transfer coefficients in heated triangular array of rod bundles, in terms of the flow hydrodynamic parameters is presented. The analysis is made first for fluid with Prandtl numbers varying from moderated to high (Pr>0.2), and then extended to fluids with low Prandtl numbers (0.004< Pr<0.2). Results of temperature and velocity fields distribution of slip coefficients and local heat transfer coefficients are obtained. (E.G.)
Heat transfer coefficient for F.E analysis in the warm forging process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.S. Kang
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to obtain suitable convection and contact heat transfer coefficient forone-time finite element analysis in the warm forging process.Design/methodology/approach: To do this, the temperature of the tool used in the operation was measured witha thermocouple and repeated finite element analysis(FEA was performed using the experimentally calculatedcontact and cooling heat transfer coefficient. Also the surface temperature of the active tool was obtained bycomparing the measurement and analysis results and finally the contact heat transfer coefficient for one-time FEAwas completed by comparing the surface temperature between the repeated FEA and one-time FEA results.Findings: The acceptable convection heat transfer coefficients are from 0.3 to 0.8N/mm/s/K and the contactheat transfer coefficient of 6~9N/mm/s/K is appropriate for the warm forging process with flow-typelubrication conditions.Practical implications: A comparison of the temperatures from the repeated and one-time analysis allows anoptimum contact heat transfer coefficient for the one time finite element analysis to be determined.Originality/value: Several studies have been conducted with different conditions such as applied pressure andkind of lubricant, but no research has been conducted concerning the convection heat transfer coefficient in thewarm forging process. Also, comparative analysis concerning the reason for difference between experimentallydetermined contact heat transfer coefficient and practically adapted one has not been conducted, yet.
Dateo, Christopher E.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)
1994-01-01
A new analytic global potential energy surface describing the hydroperoxyl radical system H((sup 2)S) + O2(X (sup 3)Sigma((sup -)(sub g))) (reversible reaction) HO2 ((X-tilde) (sup 2)A'') (reversible reaction) O((sup 3)P) + O H (X (sup 2)Pi) has been fitted using the ab initio complete active space SCF (self-consistent-field)/externally contracted configuration interaction (CASSCF/CCI) energy calculations of Walch and Duchovic. Results of quasiclassical trajectory studies to determine the rate coefficients of the forward and reverse reactions at combustion temperatures will be presented. In addition, vibrational energy levels were calculated using the quantum DVR-DGB (discrete variable representation-distributed Gaussian basis) method and the splitting due to H atom migration is investigated. The material of the proposed presentation was reviewed and the technical content will not reveal any information not already in the public domain and will not give any foreign industry or government a competitive advantage.
Correlation of heat transfer coefficient for quench front
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The heat transfer coefficient at the quench front during quenching is one of the important parameters for researching the quenching processes, one of the main variables for the movement velocity of quenching front, too. A transient hot-patch test technique and unsteady state two-dimensional numerical technique is adopted to investigate the heat transfer coefficient at the quench front under the top-quenching, low pressure and low mass flux in a tube. Based on a suitable physical model, a multi-variables nonlinear regression method is used to analysis the effect of relevant parameters on the heat transfer coefficient and obtained the final empirical correlation under the experimental condition
Condensation heat transfer coefficients in LWR-containments during LOCA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Best estimate calculations in nuclear safety analysis require replacement of conservative assumptions by measured data or verified correlations. In the field of containment response analysis this holds for condensation heat transfer coefficients at containment structures. In a large scale pressure suppression test facility heat transfer coefficients are determined at structures of the drywell in order to get data representative for break compartments of LWR-containments. Experimental results show heat transfer coefficients of the order 104 W.m-2.K-1 even at presence of noncondensable gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper is described for the measurement technique for local heat transfer coefficients using a copper sensor in rod bundles with mixing vanes. A copper sensor is defined as the device to measure the convective heat transfer coefficient using constant heat flux and surface temperatures. The copper sensor consists of a cartridge heater and four pieces of thermocouple. The copper sensors located at axial positions of rod bundles are able to measure the local heat transfer coefficients at its positions. The effect of local heated and full heated of copper sensors for rod bundles is investigated using CFD analysis. The decay of local heat transfer coefficients of locally heating condition such as a copper sensor is estimated to be higher value than that of fully heating condition. The calibration curve for local heat transfer coefficients measured is presented
A study on the evaporative heat transfer coefficient in PCCS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In advanced nuclear reactors, the passive containment cooling has been suggested in AP600 to enhance the safety. The passive cooling has two mechanisms, air natural convection and water cooling with evaporation. To conform the coolability of PCCS, many works have been performed experimentally and numerically. In this study, the water cooling test was performed in scaled down segment type PCCS facility, which have the same configuration with AP600 prototype containment, to obtain the evaporative heat transfer coefficients. In the experiment air-steam mixture temperature and velocity, relative humidity and wall heat flux are measured. The local heat transfer coefficients are calculated and averaged through the vertical plate part of the facility. To convince the measured heat transfer coefficients, an analytical model for the local evaporative heat transfer is developed and compared with experimental data. From the comparison, the predicted coefficients are quite well agreed with measured values
Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan?ová P.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.
Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods
Dan?ová P.; Sitek P; Vít T.
2014-01-01
This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.
Heat transfer coefficient for F.E analysis in the warm forging process
Kang, S S; Kang, J H; K.O. Lee
2007-01-01
Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to obtain suitable convection and contact heat transfer coefficient forone-time finite element analysis in the warm forging process.Design/methodology/approach: To do this, the temperature of the tool used in the operation was measured witha thermocouple and repeated finite element analysis(FEA) was performed using the experimentally calculatedcontact and cooling heat transfer coefficient. Also the surface temperature of the active tool was obtained bycom...
Overall Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficient of Water Vapor Adsorption
Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Mori, Hideo; Godo, Masazumi; Miura, Kunio; Watanabe, Yutaka; Ishizawa, Toshihiko; Takatsuka, Takeshi
A fundamental investigation was performed to develop a compact and simple desiccant ventilation unit which is one of the main components of a novel energy saving air-conditioning system. Water vapor in the air is adsorbed and/or desorbed to be controlled the humidity of supply air through a unit of an adsorbent rotor. A numerical simulation helps to understand the phenomena of heat and mass transfer in the rotor block. Overall transfer coefficients were estimated by performing both experiment and calculation. It was examined that the transient overall equivalent heat and mass transfer coefficient was not constant. It seems that both film fluid and diffusion resistance govern the coefficients in the block, and the influence of air flow on the time averaged coefficients is estimated by a considering the laminar forced convection from a flat plate. There is little difference of the coefficient between adsorption and desorption process. The correlation and fitting parameters are presented for prediction of the overall heat and mass transfer coefficients. The estimation accuracy was improved.
Calculation of time-dependent heat transfer coefficients during rewetting of highly heated tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computer program INSTHTC was developed to calculate the time-dependent local heat transfer coefficients. The model was applied to calculate the rewetting experiments performed in connection with the BMFT-Research Projekt RS 62. In the advanced version INSTHTC 2 the insulation of the heated tube was also simulated. The presence of an air gap between the outer surface of the tube and the insulation was taken into account. The calculated surface temperature of the insulation agrees well with the one derived from caloric measurements. The influence of radiant heat-transfer through the air gap was studied. The time-dependent heat-transfer coefficient at the inner surface of the tube was calculated using the appropriate saturation temperature of the water according to the measured pressure. The causes for the oscillation of the calculated heat-transfer coefficients are discussed in detail. (orig.)
Local heat transfer coefficient near the spacer grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper presents the experimental data of the local heat transfer in the fuel rod assembly with honeycomb type spacer grids. It was established experimentally that the separation of the boundary layer behind the spacer grid increases the inter-channel coefficient of transverse mixing of flow, and therefore, the local heat transfer. If the distance between the spacer grids is relatively small, they influence one another through the redistribution of mass flow in elementary channels. The local heat transfer behind the spacer grid varies with a distance from it. The local heat transfer can be determined within ± 3% using similar equations for any elementary cell. (orig.)
Heat transfer coefficient in serpentine coolant passage for CCDTL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A series of heat transfer experiments were conducted to refine the cooling passage design in the drift tubes of a coupled cavity drift tube linac (CCDTL). The experimental data were then compared to numerical models to derive relationships between heat transfer rates, Reynold's number, and Prandtl number, over a range of flow rates. Data reduction consisted of axisymmetric finite element modeling where the heat transfer coefficients were modified to match the experimental data. Unfortunately, the derived relationship is valid only for this specific geometry of the test drift tube. Fortunately, the heat transfer rates were much better (approximately 2.5 times) than expected
Heat transfer coefficient in serpentine coolant passage for CCDTL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leslie, P.; Wood, R.; Sigler, F.; Shapiro, A.; Rendon, A.
1998-12-31
A series of heat transfer experiments were conducted to refine the cooling passage design in the drift tubes of a coupled cavity drift tube linac (CCDTL). The experimental data were then compared to numerical models to derive relationships between heat transfer rates, Reynold`s number, and Prandtl number, over a range of flow rates. Data reduction consisted of axisymmetric finite element modeling where the heat transfer coefficients were modified to match the experimental data. Unfortunately, the derived relationship is valid only for this specific geometry of the test drift tube. Fortunately, the heat transfer rates were much better (approximately 2.5 times) than expected.
The use of steady state heat transfer coefficients in transient calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is generally not possible to develop fully time-variant analyses for rapid changes of conditions within a reactor. This leads to the use of steady state heat transfer coefficients as an approximation in such calculations. Criteria are set for the validity of using these steady-state heat transfer coefficients in transient calculations. In particular, criteria are given for using a steady state coefficient during a rapid decrease in heat flux. The analysis is based on a solution of the energy equation given by Stein (1971) for a heat flux which is both axially and time dependent. Criteria are given both for smooth and roughened heat transfer surfaces. It is demonstrated that use of the steady state heat transfer coefficient is valid for a set of prescribed AGR conditions. Consideration has been given to the more difficult case of rapid changes in coolant velocity. (U.K.)
Heat transfer coefficient determination for flow boiling in vertical and horizontal minichannels
Piasecka Magdalena; Maciejewska Beata
2014-01-01
The paper presents the results of boiling heat transfer research during FC-72 laminar flow along a minichannel of 1 mm depth, positioned vertically and horizontally, with an enhanced heating surface. One glass pane allows to determine the temperature of the heating wall by liquid crystal thermography. Calculations are aimed at the evaluation of one- and two-dimensional heat transfer approaches to determine the local heat transfer coefficient. In the one-dimensional approach only the direction...
Dissociation and Mass Transfer Coefficients for Ammonia Volatilization Models
Process-based models are being used to predict ammonia emissions from manure sources, but their accuracy has not been fully evaluated for cattle manure. Laboratory trials were conducted to measure the dissociation and mass transfer coefficients for ammonia volatilization from media of buffered ammon...
Measurement of the convective heat-transfer coefficient
Conti, Rosaria; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio
2014-01-01
We propose an experiment for investigating how objects cool down toward the thermal equilibrium with its surrounding through convection. We describe the time dependence of the temperature difference of the cooling object and the environment with an exponential decay function. By measuring the thermal constant tau, we determine the convective heat-transfer coefficient, which is a characteristic constant of the convection system.
CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2015-01-01
Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.
3D measurements and numerical computations of heat transfer coefficients on spheres in an array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The focus of this paper is to investigate the heat transfer coefficient distributions on the spheres in a three-dimensional (3-D) array. This arrangement is an essential geometry in pebble bed reactors (PBRs) that are generally adopted in the chemical and the nuclear engineering. Understanding the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the pebbles is important for the design of reactors. Using the transient liquid crystal technique, an experimental device is set up to measure the transient wall temperature on the surface of spheres arranged in an array, as heated air flows across. Based on the measured temperature distributions on the sphere surfaces, the heat transfer coefficient can be derived. A 3-D transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model with different turbulence models is also developed and assessed using the measured heat transfer coefficient distributions. Five turbulence models are considered in this study: the standard k-? low-Re, AKN k-? low-Re, standard k-? two-layer, realizable k-? two-layer, and v2-bar-f turbulence models, respectively. Comparisons of the predicted heat transfer coefficient distributions and those in the experimental data reveal that the v2-bar-f turbulence model is more suitable for simulating flow and heat transfer characteristics in a sphere array. In addition, the beneficial effect of Rein on the heat transfer coefficient distribution is captured by both experimental measurements and CFD predictions. (authors)
Subcooled boiling heat transfer on a finned surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental and numerical studies have been performed to determine the heat transfer coefficients from a finned cylindrical surface to subcooled boiling water. The heat transfer rates were measured in an annular test section consisting of an electrically heated fuel element simulator (FES) with eight longitudinal, rectangular fins enclosed in a glass tube. A two-dimensional finite-element heat transfer model using the Galerkin method was employed to determine the heat transfer coefficients along the periphery of the FES surface. An empirical correlation was developed to predict the heat transfer coefficients during subcooled boiling. The correlation agrees well with the measured data. (6 figures) (Author)
Transfer coefficients of radionuclides from feed to livestock products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The accumulation of data on radionuclide transfer are poor in Japan and those are limited to 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I released from the previous atomic bomb experiments. However, in Europe, intensive studies on environment RI level which affects the restriction of the intake for meats and milk products have been made as the measures against the environment radioactivity due to Chernobyl accident. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides to meats and milk products were estimated on a basis of the data published in the Science of the Total Environment vol.85(1989), Oxford University and CEC Radiation Protection, EUR 12608 EN, Luxembourg, 1990 in addition to the data on Exclusion of Radioactivity from foods, Environment Parameter, series No. 4. On the other hand, the transfer coefficients for Japanese were estimated using the concerned data from published reports and the environment radioactivity data reported by national and local government bodies. In this book, many new data of transfer coefficient are presented in tables along with the previous data collected by international nuclear energy agencies and respective national facilities concerned. (M.N.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sodium-water reaction (SWR) in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is a significant phenomenon for safety assessment of the system. One of the top concerns in the SWR is an overheating rupture phenomenon in which a neighbor heat transfer tube fails instantaneously because of a deterioration of structural integrity under a high temperature condition. Hence, the heat transfer coefficient on the tube surface is of importance. Since hydrogen gas is generated in the SWR and liquid water will evaporate quickly due to depressurization, the reaction region is covered with a multi-phase flow structure, and thus the value of the heat transfer coefficient will vary widely. In the present paper, a correlation diagram has been developed between the heat transfer coefficient and the void fraction based on one dimensional homogeneous flow simulation. Furthermore, the transient of void fraction in SWAT-1R experiment is investigated using the diagram. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bell, J H; Hand, L A
2005-04-21
The growth rate of a crystal in a supersaturated solution is limited by both reaction kinetics and the local concentration of solute. If the local mass transfer coefficient is too low, concentration of solute at the crystal-solution interface will drop below saturation, leading to a defect in the growing crystal. Here, mass transfer coefficients are calculated for a rotating crystal growing in a supersaturated solution of potassium diphosphate (KDP) in water. Since mass transfer is difficult to measure directly, the heat transfer coefficient of a scale model crystal in water is measured using temperature-sensitive paint (TSP). To the authors' knowledge this is the first use of TSP to measure temperatures in water. The corresponding mass transfer coefficient is then calculated using the Chilton- Colburn analogy. Measurements were made for three crystal sizes at two running conditions each. Running conditions include periodic reversals of rotation direction. Heat transfer coefficients were found to vary significantly both across the crystal faces and over the course of a rotation cycle, but not from one face to another. Mean heat transfer coefficients increased with both crystal size and rotation rate. Computed mass transfer coefficients were broadly in line with expectations from the full-scale crystal growth experiments. Additional experiments show that continuous rotation of the crystal results in about a 30% lower heat transfer compared to rotation with periodic reversals. The continuous rotation case also shows a periodic variation in heat transfer coefficient of about 15%, with a period about 1/20th of the rotation rate.
Finite element model for beef chilling using CFD-generated heat transfer coefficients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pham, Q.T. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Trujillo, F.J. [Food Science Australia, 11 Julius Avenue, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); McPhail, N. [Food Science Australia, P.O. Box 3312, Tingalpa DC, Brisbane, QLD 4173 (Australia)
2009-01-15
A combined model of the beef chilling process is presented, in which computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to estimate the local heat and mass transfer coefficients, assuming uniform surface temperatures, and a set of 2-D finite element grids was used to solve the heat transfer equation in the product, which has an elongated shape. Another set of 1-D grids was used to solve the water transport equation near the surface of the meat. The surface transfer coefficients were calculated for various combinations of air orientations and speeds, and summarised in a set of regression equations. The model was verified by existing and new data on heat load, temperatures, weight loss and surface water activity. (author)
Inverse estimation of the local heat transfer coefficient in curved tubes: a numerical validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wall curvature represents one of the most used passive techniques to enhance convective heat transfer. The effectiveness of wall curvature is due to the fact that it gives origin to the centrifugal force: this phenomenon induces local maxima in the velocity distribution that locally increase the temperature gradients at the wall by then maximizing the heat transfer. This fact brings to a significant variation of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux along the circumferential coordinate. The convective heat transfer coefficient is consequently not uniformly distributed along the tube's perimeter and is characterized by higher values at the extrados wall surface in comparison to the ones at the intrados wall surface. Therefore, for predicting the overall performance of heat transfer apparatuses that involve the use of curved tubes, it becomes important to know the local distribution of the convective heat transfer coefficient not only along the axis of the heat transfer section, but also on the internal tube's surface along the cross section circumference. The present paper is intended to the assessment of a procedure developed to evaluate the local convective heat transfer coefficient, along the circumferential coordinate, at the internal wall of a coiled pipe.
Measurement and modeling of interface heat transfer coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The results of preliminary work on the modeling and measurement of the heat transfer coefficients of metal/mold interfaces is reported. The system investigated is the casting of uranium in graphite molds. The motivation for the work is primarily to improve the accuracy of process modeling of prototype mold designs at the Los Alamos Foundry. The evolution in design of a suitable mold for unidirectional solidification is described, illustrating the value of simulating mold designs prior to use. Experiment indicated a heat transfer coefficient of 2 kW/m2/K both with and without superheat. It was possible to distinguish between solidification due to the mold and that due to radiative heat loss. This permitted an experimental estimate of the emissivity, epsilon = 0.2, of the solidified metal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Berube, P.R.; Nopens, I.
2011-01-01
One of the operational challenges associated with membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is the fouling of the membranes. In tubular side-stream MBRs, fouling reduction can be achieved through controlling the hydrodynamics of the two-phase slug flow near the membrane surface. The two-phase slug flow induces higher shear stresses near the membrane surface, which generate high mass transfer coefficients from the surface to the bulk region. However, measuring the mass transfer coefficient is difficult in comp...
Automatic optimization of the heat transfer coefficient in boiler setups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Automatic optimization of a boiler setup can be based on features of its static characteristic having the form of a maximum in the coefficient of heat transfer from the heater to evaporated medium. This is illustrated by the example of a conventional industrial vaporizer setup used for concentrating aqueous solutions of heavy metal salts, in which case the economy of a heating steam reaches 10 percent
INFLTB, Dosimetric Mass Energy Transfer and Absorption Coefficient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1 - Description of program or function: INFLTB calculates mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients between 1 keV and 100 MeV for 29 elements and 14 mixtures and compounds of general dosimetric interest. Elements: hydrogen, helium, lithium, beryllium, carbon, graphite, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, neon, aluminum, silicon, sulfur, argon, calcium, titanium, iron, copper, germanium, krypton, molybdenum, tin, iodine, barium, gadolinium, tungsten, platinum, uranium, silver, lead. Mixtures and compounds: A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic, adipose tissue (ICRP), adipose tissue (ICRU, 1986), air, dry (near sea level), bone, compact (ICRU), bone, cortical (ICRP), bone, cortical (ICRU, 1986), calcium fluoride, calcium fluoride, ferrous sulfate (standard Fricke) dosimeter solution, ferrous sulfate ('super' Fricke) dosimeter solution, glass, borosilicate ('Pyrex', corning 7740), lithium fluoride, muscle, skeletal (ICRP), muscle, skeletal (ICRU, 1986), muscle, striated (ICRU), polyethylene, polymethyl methacrylate, 'Lucite', 'Perspex', 'Plexiglas', polystyrene, polytetrafluoroethylene, 'Teflon', water, liquid, water vapor, Te gas(methane). 2 - Method of solution: The mass energy transfer coefficient is calculated from the sum of the interaction cross sections (atomic photo effect, Compton scattering, and pair plus triplet production) multiplied by their respective average fractions of energy transferred to electrons and positrons. The mass energy absorption coefficient is the product of the mass energy transfer coefficient and 1 - G, where G is the average fraction of the secondary electron (or positron) kinetic energy that is spent in Bremsstrahlung production and in-flight positron annihilation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Photon source energies are limited to values between 1 keV and 100 MeV. Radiation yield files are available only for 29 element and 14 compounds and mixtures
Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.
Pe?ar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja
2015-01-01
The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach. PMID:25830982
Heat transfer coefficient for lead matrixing in disposal containers for used reactor fuel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program, metal matrices with low melting points are being evaluated for their potential to provide support for the shell of disposal containers for used fuel, and to act as an additional barrier to the release of radionuclides. The metal matrix would be incorporated into the container by casting. To study the heat transfer processes during solidification, a steady-state technique was used, involving lead as the cast metal, to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient between the lead and some of the candidate container materials. The existence of an air gap between the cast lead and the container material appeared to control the overall heat transfer coefficient. The experimental observations indicated that the surface topography of the container material influences the heat transfer and that a smoother surface results in a greater heat transfer than a rough surface. The experimental results also showed an increasing heat transfer coefficient with increasing temperature difference across the container base plates; a model developed to base-plate bending can explain the observed results
Rewetting of a finite rod an arbitrary space-dependent heat transfer coefficient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-dimensional rewetting models usually assume two or three regions, with different boundary conditions specified at the solid surface. The more advanced analytical solutions by eigenfunction expansions obtain a formed expression of the temperature distribution in each sub region with a constant heat transfer coefficient. This expression contains some, yet, unknown constants which are determined by matching the temperatures and their axial gradients at the interface between adjacent sub domains. As far as we know, to date there does not exist an analytical solution of a rewetting model with an arbitrary space-dependent heat transfer coefficient. Moreover, eigenfunction expansions solutions of models with a discontinuous heat transfer coefficient have been shown to impede convergence of the series and to decrease the solution accuracy. In the present study, we solve by eigenfunction expansions a two-dimensional model of rewetting of a finite length slab or cylindrical rod, with an arbitrary space-dependent heat transfer coefficient. The unique features of the present approach are the simplicity of the solution, which does not necessitates a tedious splitting of the solution domain into sub domains, and avoiding the convergence problem associated with cases of discontinuous heat transfer coefficients. (authors); 5 refs
Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.
Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C
2013-10-01
In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 ?m for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 ?m for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process. PMID:24003985
NORMATIVE HEAT-TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. E. Piir
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The paper offers a simple but sufficiently accurate technique of the mid-normative heattransfer coefficient for any dwelling house applying the known dimensions, required thermalprotection level and specified facade-glazing portion. The authors present the ascertainment technique of the mid-normative heat-transfer coefficient for a dwelling house with the number of stories from 1 to 16 and the required level of thermal protection. They establish the theoretical dependence and parameters affecting the rate of heat-losses through the external building borders. The article considers the thermal-protection level effect on the heating load and the heating-season fuel consumption rate and finds the correlation between the regulatory requirements to the thermal resistance of certain elements of the building.The authors note the effect of the building geometrical characteristics on the heat-losses rate of the wall portion in the total area of the external borders and its relative quantity as compared with the floor-space of the heated accommodations. The comparison of the specific heat-losses computation results for buildings of 1-, 2-, 4-, 8and 16-storeys with the SNiP 23-02–2003 maximum permissible values show the computational results being less than the maximum values on average by 12 %. This permits recommending the normative heat-transfer coefficient of dwelling houses for evaluating heat-loses at the concept-design stage with the building external-borders engineering constructions being indeterminate or yet under development.
Hay, N.; Lampard, D.; Saluja, C. L.
1984-06-01
The influence of injection of cooling films through a row of holes on the heat transfer coefficient on a flat plate is investigated for a range of mass flux ratio using a heat-mass transfer analogy. Injection angles of 35 deg and 90 deg are covered. The experimental technique employed uses a swollen polymer surface and laser holographic interferometry. The results presented show the change in local heat transfer coefficient over the no-injection values at the centerline and off-centerline locations for various streamwise stations. The effect of injection on laterally averaged heat transfer coefficients is also assessed.
Taslim, M. E.; V. Nezym
2007-01-01
Heat transfer coefficients in the cooling cavities of turbine airfoils are greatly enhanced by the presence of discrete ribs on the cavity walls. These ribs introduce two heat transfer enhancing features: a significant increase in heat transfer coefficient by promoting turbulence and mixing, and an increase in heat transfer area. Considerable amount of data are reported in open literature for the heat transfer coefficients both on the rib surface and on the floor area betw...
A correlation to the heat transfer coefficient in nucleate boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nucleate boiling heat transfer is a complex phenomenon, making the development of a correlation for the heat transfer coefficient rather cumbersome due to the number of physical parameters involved in it. Some authors have followed a pragmatic approach to the problem by correlating the heat transfer coefficient in terms of reduced primitive properties. Two of the most knowledgeable authors who have followed this approach are Gorenflo and Cooper. Comparisons have been performed among results from the correlations proposed by these researchers and experimental results obtained elsewhere for refrigerants R-11, R-113 and R-114. These comparisons have shown that Cooper's correlation is best fitted for halocarbon refrigerants. The correlation proposed by Gorenflo ads the difficulty of including a numerical factor specific for each fluid. Leiner modified Gorenflo's correlation to determine the numerical factor as a function of known physical parameters of the fluid. In present study, the form of this function has been investigated for halocarbon refrigerants. The obtained correlation is written in terms of the following parameters: reduced pressure, eccentric and compressibility factors at the critical state, and a dimensionless specific heat of the vapor phase. The correlation compares well with experimental results. (author)
Transfer coefficients of radionuclides secreted in milk of dairy cows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study simulated experimentally the transfer of radionuclides to milk of dairy cows on a worst-case situation using various radionuclides known to emanate from nuclear power stations and which have been detected on particulates. Two lactating Holstein cows were administered orally one gelatin capsule containing 10 radionuclides in water-soluble form per day for 14 consecutive days. Milk samples were collected and aliquots analyzed in a germanium lithium-drifted detector coupled to a 2048-multichannel gamma-ray analyzer to measure small amounts of complex mixtures of radionuclides. The transfer coefficients of the radionuclides were calculated when their secretion in milk reached or approached a plateau of concentration. The radionuclides and their transfer coefficients to milk were: chromium51 less than 0.01%; manganese54 0.033 +- 0.005%; cobalt60 0.01 +- 0.002%; iron59 0.0048 +- 0.002%; zinc65 0.31 +- 0.07%; selenium75 0.29 +- 0.1%; antimony125 0.011 +- 0.003%; iodine131 0.88 +- 0.05%; and cesium137 0.79 +- 0.08%
Power co-efficient using lumped heat transfer model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Generalised methodology is derived to determine the power coefficients between any two asymptotic states. Methodology is derived by simplifying heat transfer equations into lumped parameter model. If the reactor coolant flow and thermo physical properties are assumed to be constant, change in reactivity at a given reactor location is purely a function of linear power, and the net change in reactivity is a function of net change in total power. Power coefficient is almost a constant value, when it is calculated between any two asymptotic states, except the Doppler contribution, a non linear reactivity component. It is verified between zero power and nominal power, and between zero power and 50 % of nominal power. (author)
The Heat Transfer Coefficient of Recycled Concrete Bricks Combination with EPS Insulation Board Wall
Jianhua Li; Wanlin Cao
2015-01-01
Four tectonic forms samples were conducted to test their heat transfer coefficients. By analyzing and comparing the test values and theoretical values of the heat transfer coefficient, a corrected-value calculation method for determining the heat transfer coefficient was proposed; the proposed method was proved to be reasonably correct. The results indicated that the recycled concrete brick wall heat transfer coefficient is higher than that of the clay brick wall, the heat transfer coefficien...
Heung-Kyu Kim; Seong Hyeon Lee; Hyunjoo Choi
2015-01-01
Using an inverse analysis technique, the heat transfer coefficient on the die-workpiece contact surface of a hot stamping process was evaluated as a power law function of contact pressure. This evaluation was to determine whether the heat transfer coefficient on the contact surface could be used for finite element analysis of the entire hot stamping process. By comparing results of the finite element analysis and experimental measurements of the phase transformation, an evaluation was perfor...
Local heat transfer coefficient in a fluidized bed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents an experimental study for the local heat transfer coefficient. The experiments was conducted inside a reactor with inner diameter (I D = 142mm) at atmospheric conditions (temperature mean value = 29 deg.) The bed was heated by means of a parochial electric heater with a diameter of (dh = 29 mm) and a constant power of 5W. The following factors varied: particles type and diameter, fluid velocity, bed height and heater position inside the reactor. The results were presented and discussed. (author). 15 refs., 7 figs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Zhang, Guoqiang
2010-01-01
This paper reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of ammonia mass transfer from an emission surface. The effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass...... investigate the surface concentration distribution and mass transfer coefficient at different temperatures and velocities for which the Reynolds number is from 1.36 Ã— 10^{4} to 5.43 Ã— 10^{4} (based on wind tunnel length). The surface concentration increases as velocity decreases and varies...... greatly along the airflow direction on the emission surface. The average mass transfer coefficient increases with higher velocity and turbulence intensity. However, the mass transfer coefficient estimated by CFD simulation is consistently larger than the calculated one by the method using dissociation...
Identification of the capillary transfer coefficient in porous building materials
Vala, J.; Jarošová, P.
2013-10-01
Physical description of the capillary transfer of water (or other liquids) in porous building material comes out from the thermomechanical principle of mass balance and from the Fick law, nonlinear only in the multiplicative capillary transfer coefficient. However, such seemingly simple formulation leads to the non-trivial theory of solvability and convergence of sequences of approximate solutions even for direct problems. The analysis of inverse problems relies on various simplified approaches, whose mutual relations, including those to the related direct problems, are not very transparent: some additional least squares, regression, etc. tricks are often hidden in computational algorithms. This paper demonstrates the general formulation, containing most identification approaches used in practice as certain special cases, both those using the 3-dimensional integration and those relying on (semi-)analytical formulae relying on the very special geometrical configurations. An illustrative example shows the possibility of implementation of the sketched algorithms in the MATLAB environment.
Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide transfer coefficients. Progress report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objectives are to determine transfer coefficients to milk, beef and chicken of four radionuclides for which transfer coefficients were either indetermined or based upon secondary data. The radionuclides are 99Mo, 99Tc, 140Ba, and 131Te. The transfer coefficient for 133I to eggs was also determined, because again only limited data was available in the literature
Determining convective heat transfer coefficient using phoenics software package
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kostikov, A.; Matsevity, Y. [Institute of Mechanical Engineering Problems of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (Ukraine)
1997-12-31
The two methods of determination of such important quantity of heat exchange on a body surface using PHOENICS are suggested in the presentation. The first method consists in a post-processing of results of conjugate heat transfer problem solved by PHOENICS. The second one is solving an inverse heat conduction problem for solid body using PHOENICS. Comparative characteristic of these two methods is represented. (author) 4 refs.
Hernandez-Morales, B.; Brimacombe, J. K.; Hawbolt, E. B.
1992-12-01
An existing sequential function specification algorithm for the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) has been applied to determine the response of both the surface heat flux and the surface temperature of flat stainless steel samples subjected to water quenching under controlled laboratory conditions that ensured one-dimensional heat flow. From this information, combined convective and radiative heat-transfer coefficients have been obtained as a function of steel surface temperature. The computer code was subsequently modified to solve the IHCP for air-cooled cylindrical carbon steel samples. In the algorithm, the problem is linearized by assuming the thermophysical properties of the steel to be fixed at values from the previous time step while estimating the current surface heat flux, which results in a more efficient code without a severe loss of accuracy. When compared with iterative (“brute force”) methods commonly used in the past, techniques like sequential function specification offer a more robust strategy for solving the IHCP. By including information on future measurements, while solving for the unknown surface heat flux at a particular time, the sequential function specification algorithm effectively prevents over-responses to measured temperatures, and large variations in calculated heat-transfer coefficients, observed when sequential matching is applied, can be reduced. Sensitivity coefficients, a measure of the response of temperature to changes in the unknown surface heat flux which are calculated with this algorithm, can be used to design experiments involving the IHCP effectively.
Efficiency analysis of straight fin with variable heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, one type of applicable analytical method, differential transformation method (DTM), is used to evaluate the efficiency and behavior of a straight fin with variable thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient. Fins are widely used to enhance heat transfer between primary surface and the environment in many industrial applications. The performance of such a surface is significantly affected by variable thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient, particularly for large temperature differences. General heat transfer equation related to the fin is derived and dimensionalized. The concept of differential transformation is briefly introduced, and then this method is employed to derive solutions of nonlinear equations. Results are evaluated for several cases such as: laminar film boiling or condensation, forced convection, laminar natural convection, turbulent natural convection, nucleate boiling, and radiation. The obtained results from DTM are compared with the numerical solution to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The effects of design parameters on temperature and efficiency are evaluated by some figures. The major aim of the present study, which is exclusive for this article, is to find the effect of the modes of heat transfer on fin efficiency. It has been shown that for radiation heat transfer, thermal efficiency reaches its maximum value
Efficiency analysis of straight fin with variable heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadri, Somayyeh; Raveshi, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Shayan [K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2012-04-15
In this study, one type of applicable analytical method, differential transformation method (DTM), is used to evaluate the efficiency and behavior of a straight fin with variable thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient. Fins are widely used to enhance heat transfer between primary surface and the environment in many industrial applications. The performance of such a surface is significantly affected by variable thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient, particularly for large temperature differences. General heat transfer equation related to the fin is derived and dimensionalized. The concept of differential transformation is briefly introduced, and then this method is employed to derive solutions of nonlinear equations. Results are evaluated for several cases such as: laminar film boiling or condensation, forced convection, laminar natural convection, turbulent natural convection, nucleate boiling, and radiation. The obtained results from DTM are compared with the numerical solution to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The effects of design parameters on temperature and efficiency are evaluated by some figures. The major aim of the present study, which is exclusive for this article, is to find the effect of the modes of heat transfer on fin efficiency. It has been shown that for radiation heat transfer, thermal efficiency reaches its maximum value.
Confirmation of selected milk and meat radionuclide-transfer coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The elements selected for study of their transfer coefficients to eggs, poultry meat, milk and beef were Mo, Tc, Te, and Ba. The radionuclides used in the study were the gamma-emitting radionuclides 99Mo, /sup 123m/Te and 133Ba. 133Ba was selected because 140Ba-140La is produced infrequently and availability was uncertain. 133Ba has a great advantage for our type of experiment because of its longer physical half-life. 99Tc is a pure beta-emitter and was used in the first three animal experiments because we could not obtain the gamma-emitting /sup 95m/Tc. A supply of this nuclide was recently obtained, however, for the second cow experiment
Resonant charge transfer at dielectric surfaces
Marbach, Johannes; Fehske, Holger
2012-01-01
We report on the theoretical description of secondary electron emission due to resonant charge transfer occurring during the collision of metastable nitrogen molecules with dielectric surfaces. The emission is described as a two step process consisting of electron capture to form an intermediate shape resonance and subsequent electron emission by decay of this ion, either due to its natural life time or its interaction with the surface. The electron capture is modeled using the Keldysh Green's function technique and the negative ion decay is described by a combination of the Keldysh technique and a rate equation approach. We find the resonant capture of electrons to be very efficient and the natural decay to be clearly dominating over the surface-induced decay. Secondary electron emission coefficients are calculated for aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, and diamond at several kinetic energies of the projectile. With the exception of magnesium oxide the coefficients turn out to be of the order of...
Masiulaniec, K. Cyril; Vanfossen, G. James, Jr.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.; Dukhan, Nihad
1995-01-01
A technique was developed to cast frozen ice shapes that had been grown on a metal surface. This technique was applied to a series of ice shapes that were grown in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on flat plates. Nine flat plates, 18 inches square, were obtained from which aluminum castings were made that gave good ice shape characterizations. Test strips taken from these plates were outfitted with heat flux gages, such that when placed in a dry wind tunnel, can be used to experimentally map out the convective heat transfer coefficient in the direction of flow from the roughened surfaces. The effects on the heat transfer coefficient for both parallel and accelerating flow will be studied. The smooth plate model verification baseline data as well as one ice roughened test case are presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Wanheim, Tarras
1998-01-01
from the surface. The thermocouples are welded to the end of grooves milled in a small plug, Which is pressed into a hold in the punch nose. All the temperature measurements in the tool and the workpiece are compared with a number of FEM simulations computed with different heat transfer coefficients....... The current heat transfer coefficient is determined as the one resulting in the best agreement between measurements and the simulations....
Li, Huiping; He, Lianfang; Zhang, Chunzhi; Cui, Hongzhi
2015-06-01
The thermal physical parameters have significant effects on the calculation accuracy of physical fields, and the boundary heat transfer coefficient between the die and water is one of the most important thermal physical parameters in the hot stamping. In order to attain the boundary heat transfer coefficient, the testing devices and test procedures are designed according to the characteristic of heat transfer in the hot stamping die. A method of estimating the temperature-dependent boundary heat transfer coefficient is presented, and an inverse heat conduction software is developed based on finite element method, advance-retreat method and golden section method. The software is used to calculate the boundary heat transfer coefficient according to the temperatures measured by NiCr-NiSi thermocouples in the experiment. The research results show that, the convergence of the method given in the paper is well, the surface temperature of sample has a significant effect on the boundary heat transfer coefficient between the die and water. The boundary heat transfer coefficient increases as the surface temperature of sample reduces, and the variation is nonlinear.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krupiczka, R.; Rotkegel, A.; Ziobrowski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Gliwice (Poland)
1999-07-01
The paper describes a mathematical model of the process based on the multicomponent mass transfer theory which enables to the effect to be predicted of mass transport on the boiling heat transfer coefficient. The results of calculation were compared with our own experimental pool boiling data for the ternary system methanol-isopropanol-water and with Grigoriev's data obtained for the system acetone-methanol-water. The good accuracy was obtained when the ratio of the tube to the bubbles surface, which touch the heater at that moment, was considered as a parameter of the model. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, the relation between radiative and convective heat transfer coefficient at the ceiling is determined for a cooled ceiling room of which floor surface is isolated. Firstly, convective heat transfer is simulated numerically neglecting the radiative heat transfer at the surfaces (Îµw = Îµc = 0) for different room dimensions (3 x 3 x 3, 4 x 3 x 4 and 6 x 3 x 4 m) and thermal conditions (Tc = 0-25 deg. C, Tw = 28-36 deg. C). Then, radiative heat transfer is calculated theoretically for different surface emissivities (Îµw = Îµc = 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9). Numerical data are compared with the results of correlations based on experimental data given in literature. New correlations for convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients at the ceiling are found in the current study. The ratio of radiative heat transfer coefficients to convective heat transfer coefficients (hcr/hcc) is determined. It was seen that the ratios range from 0.7 to 2.3 depending on the temperature difference. The ratios increase as the temperature differences increase. Therefore, a new correlation between the coefficients is developed depending on temperature difference at the ceiling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karadag, Refet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Harran University, Osmanbey Kampusu, 63300 Sanliurfa (Turkey)
2009-01-15
In this study, the relation between radiative and convective heat transfer coefficient at the ceiling is determined for a cooled ceiling room of which floor surface is isolated. Firstly, convective heat transfer is simulated numerically neglecting the radiative heat transfer at the surfaces ({epsilon}{sub w} = {epsilon}{sub c} = 0) for different room dimensions (3 x 3 x 3, 4 x 3 x 4 and 6 x 3 x 4 m) and thermal conditions (T{sub c} = 0-25 C, T{sub w} = 28-36 C). Then, radiative heat transfer is calculated theoretically for different surface emissivities ({epsilon}{sub w} = {epsilon}{sub c} = 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9). Numerical data are compared with the results of correlations based on experimental data given in literature. New correlations for convective and radiative heat transfer coefficients at the ceiling are found in the current study. The ratio of radiative heat transfer coefficients to convective heat transfer coefficients (h{sub cr}/h{sub cc}) is determined. It was seen that the ratios range from 0.7 to 2.3 depending on the temperature difference. The ratios increase as the temperature differences increase. Therefore, a new correlation between the coefficients is developed depending on temperature difference at the ceiling. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a steam generator of FBR, a high pressured water flows inside of heat transfer tubes and exchanges its heat with sodium through the tubes. When a tube fails, water would leak into sodium, and react with sodium (Sodium Water Reaction; SWR). This reaction occurs rapidly and accompanies a high temperature jet. The jet has possibilities to cause a secondary failure of neighboring tubes. With regard to the secondary failure caused by deterioration of tube material due to high temperature (overheating rupture), quantification of heat transfer from fluid to the tube is important perspective of safety evaluation. The SWR experiments with SWAT-1R test facility was performed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). In the experiment, the SWR was produced by feeding water vapor from one tube toward a test section of pin bundle with 43 tubes. Thermo couples (T/Cs) were installed and temperature transient was measured in a certain tube near the reacting zone. In the present study, the heat transfer coefficient on the heat transfer tube has been investigated numerically based on the experimental temperature. Furthermore, we also have made an investigation of the flow characteristic on the heat transfer tube, taking into account the variation of the heat transfer coefficient. (author)
Mass-transfer coefficients at the uranium adsorption from solution on ion exchange resins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The process of uranium adsorption on ion exchange resins is a mass-transfer process of solid-liquid nature asociated with chemical reaction. Mathematical models used in these studies considers a spherical ion exchange resin grain where on its surface and its pores is taking place the chemical reaction. This paper presents experimental data of the uranium adsorption from alkaline solutions on a strong basic ion exchange resin, second type in chlorine form. The resin and the solution are contacting in two ways: fixed bed and perfect mixing. The optimal resin size and mass transfer coefficient was established for uranium adsorption from alkaline solutions. Also, criterial relation were established between mass-transfer process variables, impulse transfer, equipment geometry used for the experiments. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of the heat transfer coefficient at the casting-mold interface is of prime importance to improve the casting quality, especially for castings in metal molds. However, it is difficult to determine the values of heat transfer coefficient from experiments due to the influence of various factors, such as contacting pressure, oxides on surfaces, roughness of surfaces, coating material, coating thickness and gap formation caused by the deformation of casting and mold, etc. In the present paper, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) between the casting and metal mold is identified by using the method of inverse analysis based on measured temperatures, neural network with back-propagation algorithm and numerical simulation. Then, by applying the identified IHTC in finite element analysis, the comparison between numerical calculated and experimental results is made to verify the correctness of method. The results show that the numerical calculated temperatures are in good agreement with experimental ones. These demonstrate that the method of inverse analysis is a feasible and effective tool for determination of the casting-mold IHTC. In addition, it is found that the identified IHTC varies with time during the casting solidification and varies in the range of about 100-3200 Wm-2K-1. The characteristics of the time-varying IHTC have also been discussed.
Modeling the Effect of Internal Convection Currents on Heat Transfer Coefficient of Liquid Foods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SAJID ALI
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The internal convection currents generated during the cooling process affect convective heat transfer coefficient from the surface of the container, these convection currents may increase the effective value of the surface film conductance (h. Therefore, in such situation the Nu-Re correlations, which are generally used to predict h-values, may not yield realistic results. In the present work, this effect has been investigated by using the empirical correlation developed through Temperature-Time measurements at the centre of liquid food containers during cooling .The main concern of the present work is about considering the heat transfer behaviour for liquid foods for which a cylindrical shape container of brass metal have taken, in this work the transient Time-Temperature relation is utilized to calculate the value of convection heat transfer coefficient (h for each measured temperature at the centre of the cylinder (rÂ¬Â¬o=0. Then after plotting the graph between â€˜hâ€™ and â€˜Tâ€™ an expression between h and T is obtained, which is fed back in the programme developed with the help of finite difference method by which Time-Temperature variation is obtained. Experimental procedure was used to determine surface film conductance of cylindrical Apple and Orange juice container, calculated temperatures have been compared with the experimental results when the measured surface film conductance were used to solve the transient heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates. A consistently excellent agreement was observed.
Determining heat transfer coefficients in radial flow through a polyethylene packed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LuÃs PatiÃ±o
2010-07-01
Full Text Available A numerical-experimental methodology was used for determining interstitial heat transfer coefficients in water flowing through po-rous media where it was not in heat balance with the solid phase. Heat transfer coefficients were obtained through the single blow transient test method, combining experimental test equipment results with a mathematical modelâ€™s numerical solution. The partial differential equation system produced by the mathematical model was resolved by a numerical finite volume method-ba-sed methodology. Experimental tests and numerical solutions were satisfactorily carried out for different values from the fluidâ€™s surface speed from the entrance to the bed and for different porosity values, finding that Nusselt numbers increased when Reynolds numbers also increased and that Nusselt numbers increased when porosity decreased. A 650 Reynolds number and 0.375 porosity gave a Nusselt number of up to 2.8.
Experimentally Determined Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments
Bue, Grant; Watts, Carly; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vonau, Walt; Vogel, Matt; Conger, Bruce
2015-01-01
A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flowrate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.
Dimethylsulfide gas transfer coefficients from algal blooms in the Southern Ocean
Bell, T. G.; De Bruyn, W.; Marandino, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Law, C. S.; Smith, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.
2015-02-01
Air-sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes and bulk air-sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February-March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (> 15 nM). Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s-1. Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind-speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind speeds is positively skewed. The flux and seawater DMS distributions were also positively skewed, which suggests that eddy covariance-derived gas transfer velocities are consistently influenced by additional, log-normal noise. A flux footprint analysis was conducted during a transect into the prevailing wind and through elevated DMS levels in the dinoflagellate bloom. Accounting for the temporal/spatial separation between flux and seawater concentration significantly reduces the scatter in computed transfer velocity. The SOAP gas transfer velocity data show no obvious modification of the gas transfer-wind speed relationship by biological activity or waves. This study highlights the challenges associated with eddy covariance gas transfer measurements in biologically active and heterogeneous bloom environments.
DMS gas transfer coefficients from algal blooms in the Southern Ocean
Bell, T. G.; De Bruyn, W.; Marandino, C. A.; Miller, S. D.; Law, C. S.; Smith, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.
2014-11-01
Air/sea dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes and bulk air/sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February/March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (>15 nM). Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m s-1. Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind speeds is positively skewed. The flux and seawater DMS distributions were also positively skewed, which suggests that eddy covariance-derived gas transfer velocities are consistently influenced by additional, log-normal noise. A~flux footprint analysis was conducted during a transect into the prevailing wind and through elevated DMS levels in the dinoflagellate bloom. Accounting for the temporal/spatial separation between flux and seawater concentration significantly reduces the scatter in computed transfer velocity. The SOAP gas transfer velocity data shows no obvious modification of the gas transfer-wind speed relationship by biological activity or waves. This study highlights the challenges associated with eddy covariance gas transfer measurements in biologically active and heterogeneous bloom environments.
DMS gas transfer coefficients from algal blooms in the Southern Ocean
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. G. Bell
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Air/sea dimethylsulfide (DMS fluxes and bulk air/sea gradients were measured over the Southern Ocean in February/March 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP study. The cruise encountered three distinct phytoplankton bloom regions, consisting of two blooms with moderate DMS levels, and a high biomass, dinoflagellate-dominated bloom with high seawater DMS levels (>15 nM. Gas transfer coefficients were considerably scattered at wind speeds above 5 m sâˆ’1. Bin averaging the data resulted in a linear relationship between wind speed and mean gas transfer velocity consistent with that previously observed. However, the wind speed-binned gas transfer data distribution at all wind speeds is positively skewed. The flux and seawater DMS distributions were also positively skewed, which suggests that eddy covariance-derived gas transfer velocities are consistently influenced by additional, log-normal noise. A~flux footprint analysis was conducted during a transect into the prevailing wind and through elevated DMS levels in the dinoflagellate bloom. Accounting for the temporal/spatial separation between flux and seawater concentration significantly reduces the scatter in computed transfer velocity. The SOAP gas transfer velocity data shows no obvious modification of the gas transfer-wind speed relationship by biological activity or waves. This study highlights the challenges associated with eddy covariance gas transfer measurements in biologically active and heterogeneous bloom environments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A computer tomography based methodology is applied to determine the transport properties of fluid flow across porous media. A 3D digital representation of a 10-ppi reticulate porous ceramic (RPC) sample was generated by X-ray tomographic scans. Structural properties such as the porosity, specific interfacial surface area, pore-size distribution, mean survival time, two-point correlation function s2, and local geometry distribution of the RPC sample are directly extracted from the tomographic data. Reference solutions of the fluid flow governing equations are obtained for Re = 0.2-200 by applying finite volume direct pore-level numerical simulation (DPLS) using unstructured, body-fitted, tetrahedral mesh discretization. The permeability and the Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient are determined from the reference solutions by DPLS, and compared to the values predicted by selected porous media flow models, namely: conduit-flow, hydraulic radius theory, drag models, mean survival time bound, s2-bound, fibrous bed correlations, and local porosity theory-based models. DPLS is further employed to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and to derive a corresponding Nu-correlation, which is compared to empirical correlations
Mass transfer coefficient for volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Intamanee, J.
2006-09-01
Full Text Available Volatilization of volatile organics compounds (VOCs from wastewater is recognized as an important source that caused air pollution today. In air pollution management regarding VOCs emission to atmosphere, the amount of VOCs that released from wastewater needs to be known. A model for predicting of VOCs volatilized from wastewater is then necessary. The aim of this research was to develop the gas-film (kGa,VOC and liquid-film (kLa,VOC mass transfer coefficients from volatilization of VOCs from wastewater. The volatilization experiments were performed in a pilot volatilization tank with a volume of 100 L. The wind speed over the water surface, measured at 10 cm above water surface (U10cm, was the main parameter which investigated in this work. The U10cm were varied from 0 to 4.42 m/s. VOCs used in this investigation were methanol, toluene and methyl ethyl ketone.The results revealed that the gas-film coefficient of methanol increased linearly with increasing U10cm over the investigated range of U10cm whereas the liquid-film coefficient of toluene fell into two regimes with a break at the U10cm of 2.4 m/s. The correlations of kGa,VOC and kLa,VOC were developed from gas-film and liquid-film coefficient of methanol and toluene, respectively, and verified by predicting overall mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of MEK. It was found that the correlations of kGa,VOC and kLa,VOC predicted the mass transfer coefficient of MEK which volatilized from wastewater quite well but underestimated KOLa of MEK volatilized from pure water. Since the mass transfer coefficient of VOCs volatilized from pure water were significant higher than that of wastewater as found in this work, the kGa,VOC and kLa,VOC developed based on wastewater is recommended for prediction of VOCs emission rate from wastewater rather than the correlation previously developed based on pure water.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heat transfer coefficients were measured in a channel with one side dimpled surface. The sphere type dimples were fabricated, and the diameter (D) and the depth of dimple was 16 mm and 4 mm, respectively. Two channel heights of about 0.6D and 1.2D, two dimple configurations were tested. The Reynolds number based on the channel hydraulic diameter was varied from 30000 to 50000. The improved hue detection based transient liquid crystal technique was used in the heat transfer measurement. Heat transfer measurement results showed that high heat transfer was induced downstream of the dimples due to flow reattachment. Due to the flow recirculation on the upstream side in the dimple, the heat transfer coefficient was very low. As the Reynolds increased, the overall heat transfer coefficients also increased. With the same dimple arrangement, the heat transfer coefficients and the thermal performance factors were higher for the lower channel height. As the distance between the dimples became smaller, the overall heat transfer coefficient and the thermal performance factors increased
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shin, So Min; Lee, Ki Seon; Park, Seoung Duck; Kwak, Jae Su [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)
2009-03-15
Heat transfer coefficients were measured in a channel with one side dimpled surface. The sphere type dimples were fabricated, and the diameter (D) and the depth of dimple was 16 mm and 4 mm, respectively. Two channel heights of about 0.6D and 1.2D, two dimple configurations were tested. The Reynolds number based on the channel hydraulic diameter was varied from 30000 to 50000. The improved hue detection based transient liquid crystal technique was used in the heat transfer measurement. Heat transfer measurement results showed that high heat transfer was induced downstream of the dimples due to flow reattachment. Due to the flow recirculation on the upstream side in the dimple, the heat transfer coefficient was very low. As the Reynolds increased, the overall heat transfer coefficients also increased. With the same dimple arrangement, the heat transfer coefficients and the thermal performance factors were higher for the lower channel height. As the distance between the dimples became smaller, the overall heat transfer coefficient and the thermal performance factors increased
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Jones, T.V. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering Science
1995-04-01
Short pin-fin and pin-fin arrays are frequently used in turbine blade internal cooling systems to enhance cooling and stiffen the structure. The present work has shown that a knowledge of the detailed heat transfer coefficient distribution is required to predict the cooling effect of such devices accurately. The heat flow process has been numerically modeled at typical engine conditions with the detailed heat transfer distribution measured by the transient heat transfer method being used as the thermal boundary conditions. The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A study to measure the transfer of radiocaesium to adult female sheep through a breeding cycle is described. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle (estimated as the equilibrium transfer coefficient) was significantly lower to pregnant, and especially lactating, animals compared to non-lactating and barren animals. High dry matter intake rates were also associated with significantly lower transfer coefficients. Known relationships between dry matter intake rates and protein turnover could credibly explain some of these differences. However, when described as the concentration ratio, radiocaesium transfer to meat was apparently highest during lactation. The apparent difference in results obtained by the two approaches of determining transfer is the consequence of daily dry matter intake being a denominator within the estimation of transfer coefficient. A wider discussion of transfer coefficients and concentration ratios leads us to suggest that the concentration ratio is the more robust and potentially generic parameter
Mass transfer coefficients in a hanson mixer-settler extraction column
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
M., Torab-Mostaedi; S. J., Safdari; M. A., Moosavian; M. Ghannadi, Maragheh.
2008-09-01
Full Text Available The volumetric overall mass transfer coefficients in a pilot plant Hanson mixer-settler extraction column of seven stages have been measured using toluene-acetone-water system. The effects of agitation speed and dispersed and continuous phases flow rates on volumetric overall mass transfer coefficie [...] nts have been investigated. The results show that the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient increases with increase in agitation speed and reaches a maximum. After having reached its maximum, it falls with further increase in agitation speed. It was found that the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient increases with increase in dispersed phase flow rate, while it decreases with increase in continuous phase flow rate. By using interfacial area, the overall mass transfer coefficients for continuous and dispersed phases are determined from volumetric coefficients. An empirical correlation for prediction of the continuous phase overall mass transfer coefficient is proposed in terms of Sherwood and Reynolds numbers. Also the experimental data of the column investigated are compared with data for various extraction columns. Comparison between theoretical models and experimental results for the dispersed phase mass transfer coefficient shows that these models do not have enough accuracy for column design. Using effective diffusivity in the Gröber equation results in more accurate prediction of overall mass transfer coefficient. The prediction of overall mass transfer coefficients from the presented equations is in good agreement with experimental results.
FEROZ, Shaik
2006-01-01
This paper presents experimental results for the mass transfer coefficients in the impingement region of a multi-jet flow. A disc distributor containing `N' nozzles produces multi-jets that interact in a complex manner before they reach the target surface where mass transfer occurs. In particular, the size of the distributor disc, together with its height from the target surface, and the nozzle hole diameters and arrangements are varied in the experiments to find their effects o...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases play an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat and mass transfer analogy since it considers the sensible and condensation heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculation using the new model was found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values. (author)
Adiabatic Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Coefficient on a Film-Cooled Rotating Blade
Garg, Vijay K.
1997-01-01
three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been used to compute the adiabatic effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient on a rotating film-cooled turbine blade. The blade chosen is the United Technologies Research Center(UTRC) rotor with five film-cooling rows containing 83 holes, including three rows on the shower head with 49 holes, covering about 86% of the blade span. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature 1900 K and stagnation pressure 3 MPa. The blade speed is taken to be 5200 rpm. The adiabatic effectiveness is higher for a rotating blade as compared to that for a stationary blade. Also, the direction of coolant injection from the shower-head holes considerably affects the effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient values on both the pressure and suction surfaces. In all cases the heat transfer coefficient and adiabatic effectiveness are highly three-dimensional in the vicinity of holes but tend to become two-dimensional far downstream.
Effect of design and operation parameters on heat transfer coefficient in condensers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accurate and optimum usage of energy sources is gaining importance all over the world due to the increase of energy need and limited energy sources. Increasing condenser efficiency, reduce both the dimensions and the material usage and also the investment cost of the devices. This can be maintained by increasing the heat transfer coefficient in condensers. Generally, tubes having plain inner surfaces are mounted horizontally in serpentine type condenser applications and due to the performance loss results from the congestion in serpentine connections, vertical tube mounting is not preferred. Due to the complexity of the two-phase flow, a single set of correlation for heat transfer cannot be used. Average and local heat transfer coefficient for condensers are determined. Moreover, for each experiments flow pattern is determined and the validity of the correlations are compared according to that flow pattern. In Table 2, some of the experiments for R134a are listed. Local heat transfer coefficient is also important for condenser design. As a result, to design effective condensers the accuracy of the correlations is very important. When all the experiments are taken into account, it is seen that deviation of the correlations differs according to the refrigerant type, tube dimensions, mass flux, saturation temperature and flow pattern. For high mass flux (>400 kg/m2s) Traviss (1973) correlation failed. For small diameters (<3.14 mm) Tandon (1985) correlation estimate the heat transfer coefficient with a high deviation. Most accurate results are obtained for Akers et al. (1959), M.M. Shah (1978), Cavallini and Zecchlin (1974), J.R. Thome - J. El Hajal - A. Cavallini (2003) correlations. For high mass flux and annular flow, M.M. Shah (1978) correlation estimates the heat transfer coefficient with high precision. However, as the tube diameter decrease, this deviation increases. For small tube diameter such as 0.691 mm Cavallini and Zecchlin (1974) gives the most accurate results. J.R. Thome - J. El Hajal - A. Cavallini (2003) correlations are classified according to the flow pattern. For stratified flow the accuracy of that correlation is much better than the others. (author)
Varga, Szabolcs; Oliveira, Jorge C
2000-01-01
The external heat transfer coefficient in steam retort processing was determined experimentally in a pilot scale retort. The heat transfer equations were solved applying finite elements and using the actual retort temperature profile as boundary condition. The instantaneous values of the heat transfer coe cient were determined, to analyse its time-variability along a retort cycle. It was found that reliable results for the external heat transfer coefficient at time t could be obtaine...
Branco, J. F.; Pinho, C. T.; Figueiredo, R. A.
2000-01-01
The conduction phenomenon in an insulated sphere is re-worked through a dimensionless approach, where the heat transfer coefficient dependence on the external radius and on the surface temperature, as in the case of forced and free convection, is taken into account. Assuming a power law variation of the convection coefficient [1, 2], and using the results of Sparrow [3], equations and graphs for the most important dimensionless parameters are presented. The developed equations show, for examp...
Effect of Film Injection Location on Local Heat Transfer Coefficient on a Gas Turbine Blade
Anant B. Mehendale; H. Wanda Jiang; Srinath V. Ekkad; Je-Chin Han
1998-01-01
Experiments were performed to study the effect of film hole location on local heat transfer coefficient distribution of a turbine blade model with air or CO2 film injection to simulate coolant density effect. Tests were performed on a five blade linear cascade at the chord Reynolds number of 3×105 at cascade inlet. The test blade had three rows of film holes in the leading edge region and two rows each on the pressure and suction surfaces. Film hole locations were varied by leaving the desire...
Boiling Heat Transfer on Superhydrophilic, Superhydrophobic, and Superbiphilic Surfaces
Betz, Amy Rachel; Kim, Chang-Jin 'CJ'; Attinger, Daniel
2012-01-01
With recent advances in micro- and nanofabrication, superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces have been developed. The statics and dynamics of fluids on these surfaces have been well characterized. However, few investigations have been made into the potential of these surfaces to control and enhance other transport phenomena. In this article, we characterize pool boiling on surfaces with wettabilities varied from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic, and provide nucleation measurements. The most interesting result of our measurements is that the largest heat transfer coefficients are reached not on surfaces with spatially uniform wettability, but on biphilic surfaces, which juxtapose hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. We develop an analytical model that describes how biphilic surfaces effectively manage the vapor and liquid transport, delaying critical heat flux and maximizing the heat transfer coefficient. Finally, we manufacture and test the first superbiphilic surfaces (juxtaposing superhydrophobic ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, S.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
1995-09-01
Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases plays an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology`s (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculations using the new model were found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Condensation in the presence of noncondensible gases plays an important role in the nuclear industry. The RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code was used to study the ability of the code to predict this phenomenon. Two separate effects experiments were simulated using this code. These were the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Pressurizer Experiment, the MIT Single Tube Experiment. A new iterative approach to calculate the interface temperature and the degraded heat transfer coefficient was developed and implemented in the RELAP5/MOD3 thermal hydraulic code. This model employs the heat transfer simultaneously. This model was found to perform much better than the reduction factor approach. The calculations using the new model were found to be in much better agreement with the experimental values
The surface collective diffusion coefficient and diffuse phase transformations.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chvoj, Zden?k
SISSA, - (2008), P08002/1-P08002/12. ISSN 1742-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : surface effects (theory) * surface diffusion (theory) * transport processes/heat transfer (theory) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.758, year: 2008
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The tritium bred in a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor is removed from its blanket by using helium sweep gas. From the viewpoint of adsorption capacity and pressure of tritium at release, a cryosorption bed, which uses molecular sieves or activated carbon at the temperature of liquid nitrogen, is attractive for the recovery of this tritium. The mass transfer coefficients required to predict the breakthrough curve are experimentally discussed. The overall mass transfer coefficient KFav, in the cryosorption of hydrogen isotopes on molecular sieves or activated carbon at 77 K consists of a mass transfer coefficient that represents the transfer from the bulk gas flow to the surface of the adsorbent through the boundary layer kfav, a mass transfer coefficient that represents the axial dispersion in the packed bed kzav, and a mass transfer coefficient that represents the intraparticle diffusion through micro pores in the adsorbent particle ?ks av. The value of ?ksav is confirmed to be 1 to 50 s-1, which decreases with an increase of hydrogen partial pressure, and the rate-controlling step is ?ksav when the hydrogen partial pressure is higher than several hundred pascals, and kzav, becomes the rate-controlling step when the hydrogen partial pressure is low and gas velocity is slow. 7 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs
PARTITION COEFFICIENTS FOR METALS IN SURFACE WATER, SOIL, AND WASTE
This report presents metal partition coefficients for the surface water pathway and for the source model used in the Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment (3MRA) technology under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Partition ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danilov, Valery A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6001 (Australia); Department of Processes and Unit Operations of Chemical Technology, Kazan State Technological University, Kazan 420015 (Russian Federation); Tade, Moses O. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth WA 6001 (Australia)
2009-08-15
A new technique is presented for estimating cathodic and anodic transfer coefficients from SOFC voltage-current curves. The new technique for charge transfer coefficients is based on integral characteristics of fuel cell polarization curves. Experimental data from literature are used to illustrate the parameter estimation from SOFC current-voltage curves. (author)
On calculation of heat transfer coefficient during boiling of liquid metals in a large volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A dependence is obtained for calculating the heat transfer coefficient in developed boiling of alkali metals in a large volume. It takes into account the influence of pressure, the acceleration of gravity, and the material of the heating agent on the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient
A novel approach to determine the heat transfer coefficient in directional solidification furnaces
Banan, Mohsen; Gray, Ross T.; Wilcox, William R.
1990-01-01
The heat transfer coefficient between a molten charge and its surroundings in a Bridgman furnace was determined using an approach utilizing in-situ temperature measurement. The ampoule containing an isothermal melt was suddenly moved from a higher temperature zone to a lower temperature zone. The temperature-time history was used in a lumped-capacity cooling model to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient between the charge and the furnace. The experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient was of the same order of magnitude as the value estimated by standard heat transfer calculations.
Banan, Mohsen; Gray, Ross T.; Wilcox, William R.
1992-01-01
The heat transfer coefficient between a molten charge and its surroundings in a Bridgman furnace was experimentally determined using in-situ temperature measurement. The ampoule containing an isothermal melt was suddenly moved from a higher temperature zone to a lower temperature zone. The temperature-time history was used in a lumped-capacity cooling model to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient between the charge and the furnace. The experimentally determined heat transfer coefficient was of the same order of magnitude as the theoretical value estimated by standard heat transfer calculations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
During the process of setting and hardening in concrete, the temperature profile shows a gradual nonlinear distribution due to the development of heat of hydration in cement. At early ages of concrete structures, this nonlinear distribution can have a large influence on crack evolution. It is thus important to obtain an accurate temperature history, and to do this, it is necessary to examine the thermal properties of the concrete. In this study, the convective heat transfer coefficient, which represents the heat transfer between a concrete surface and ambient air, was experimentally investigated with test variables such as the velocity of wind, the curing conditions, and the ambient temperature. For analyses using the thermal equilibrium boundary condition, it is generally noted that most of the heat release by the evaporation of moisture occurs at an early stage. To consider this phenomenon, the existing thermal equilibrium boundary condition has been modified so as to consider the evaporation quantity due to the evaporation effect. Convective heat transfer coefficients for a specific case were then calculated from the modified thermal equilibrium boundary condition using experimental results
Mass transport effect on the heat transfer coefficient during boiling of multicomponent mixture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krupiczka, Roman; Rotkegel, Adam; Ziobrowski, Zenon [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Gliwice (Poland)
2009-05-15
In this work a simplified calculation method taking into account the effect of mass transport on the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) during boiling of multicomponent mixture has been elaborated. The calculation results were compared with own experimental data for ternary system methanol-isopropanol-water and Grigoriev data [1] (acetone-methanol-water). The experiments were performed in different hydrodynamic conditions such as: pool boiling and liquid evaporation at the free surface of the falling film. The experimental data covered wide range of heat fluxes from 6 to 30 kW/m{sup 2} in the case of liquid evaporation from the falling film and from 30 to 240 kW/m{sup 2} for pool boiling. The analysis of the results indicates that the mass transfer resistance in the liquid phase caused a significant reduction of experimental value HTC in comparison to so-called ideal HTC. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Božidar Liš?i?
2012-02-01
Full Text Available This paper explains the need for a database of cooling intensities for liquid quenchants, in order to predict the quench hardness, microstructure, stresses and distortion, when real engineering components of complex geometry are quenched. The existing laboratory procedures for cooling intensity evaluation, using small test specimens, and Lumped-Heat-Capacity Method for calculation of heat transfer coefficient, are presented. Temperature Gradient Method for heat transfer calculation in workshop conditions, when using the Liscic/Petrofer probe, has been elaborated. Critical heat flux densities and their relation to the initial heat flux density, is explained. Specific facilities for testing quenching intensity in workshop conditions, are shown. The two phase project of the International Federation for Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering (IFHTSE, as recently approved, is mentioned.
Di Natale, Francesco; Nigro, Roberto
2012-05-01
In this work, experimental values of local heat transfer coefficients around a horizontal cylinder immersed in a bubbling fluidized bed are reported for three types of bed materials classified as Geldart B particles, fluidized with air at ambient pressure and temperature. Results are interpreted in light of a model for heat transfer coefficient in order to estimate the time-average bed porosity profile close to the exchange surface. These angular profiles of bed porosity are compared with former experiments to verify the correctness of the adopted model, and are used to provide a physical interpretation of the experimental results.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Christensen, Martin Gram; Pedersen, Søren Juhl; Hickman, Minka; Adler-Nissen, Jens
2015-01-01
This paper presents and demonstrates a novel idea of using spherical potatoes as a dispensable, cheap device for determining the fluid-to-particle heat transfer coefficient, hfp in vessel cooking processes. The transmission of heat through the potato can be traced by measuring the distance from the...... surface to the gelatinization front, which is easy to identify visually. Knowing this distance, the gelatinization temperature, the period of immersion, and the average radius of the potato, the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated. Either a numerical model based on the Finite Element Method (FEM...
FEROZ, Shaik
2007-01-01
This paper presents the second part of experimental results for the mass transfer coefficients in the radial direction from the stagnation point of a multi-jet flow. Two more regions are identified on the target surface, beside the stagnation point/impingement region. One is the region in which the coefficients fall rapidly and the other is the region in which the fall in the coefficients is gradual and smooth as the impinging jet-flow is fully transformed into wall-jet flow. In vie...
Heat transfer from rough surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transformation of the friction data obtained with experiments in annuli can be performed either with the assumption of universal logarithmic velocity profile or of an universal eddy momentum diffusivity profile. For the roughness of practical interest both methods, when properly applied, give good results. For these roughnesses the transformed friction factors seem not to be unduly affected if one assumes a constant slope of the velocity profile equal to 2.5. All the transformation methods of the heat transfer data so far proposed predict too high wall temperatures in the central channels of a 19-rod bundle with three-dimensional roughness. Preliminary calculations show that the application of the superimposition principle with the logarithmic temperature profiles gives good results for the three-dimensional roughness as well. Although the measurements show that the slope of the logarithmic temperature profiles is different from 2.5, the assumption of a constant slope equal to 2.5 does not affect the transformed heat transfer data appreciably. For moderately high roughness ribs the turbulent Prandtl number, averaged over the cross section of a tube, is about the same (approx. 0.8) for rough as for smooth surfaces. The temperature effect on the heat transfer data with air cooling is stronger than originally assumed in the general correlation of Dalle Donne and Meyer. With helium cooling this temperature effect is even stronger. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The tritium bred in a DT fusion reactor is taken out of its blanket using helium sweep gas. The cryosorption bed using molecular sieves or activated carbon at liquid nitrogen temperature is attractive for recovery of this tritium from the view point of adsorption capacity and pressure of tritium at release. The mass transfer coefficients required to predict the breakthrough curve are discussed in this paper. The surface diffusivity included in one of them is quantitated. Its value is dependent on the adsorption site. The rate controlling step changes with the equilibrium partial pressure of the hydrogen isotope, because the mass transfer coefficient representing the intraparticle diffusion decreases with increasing equilibrium pressure. The mass transfer coefficients in desorption are estimated to be the same as those in adsorption. 6 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Two-phase flow heat transfer has been exhaustively studied over recent years. However, in this field several questions remain unanswered. Heat transfer coefficient prediction related to nucleate and convective boiling have been studied using different approaches, numerical, analytical and experimental. In this work, an experimental analysis, data representation and heat transfer coefficient prediction on two-phase heat transfer on nucleate and convective boiling are presented. An empirical correlation is obtained based on genetic algorithms search engine over a dimensional analysis of the two-phase flow heat transfer problem. (author)
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris
2014-01-01
The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikin’s body was as the skin temperature distribution of an average person. The measurements were performed in a room with controlled thermal environment. Air temperature was set at 26ºC for cooling and at 20ºC for heating. The radiant temperature asymmetry in horizontal and vertical direction was close to zero, i.e. mean radiant temperature was equal to the air temperature. The air velocity of the isothermal downward flow from the ceiling at height of 1.5 m above the floor (above the top of the head) was set in a range between still air and 0.73 m/s. Based on the analyses of the results relationships for determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body (hc [W/(m2•K)]) was proposed: hc=4.088+6.592V1.715 for a seated naked body at 20ºC and hc=2.874+7.427V1.345 for a seated naked body at 26ºC. Differences in the convective heat transfer coefficient of the whole body in low air velocity range, V<0.3 m/s, due to the natural convection were found. The results may be useful during design of air distribution in rooms, e.g. low impulse ventilation, diffuse ventilation, etc.
Wall heat transfer coefficient for condensation and boiling in forced convection of sodium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The wall heat transfer coefficient for sodium boiling and condensation in forced convective flow is theoretically derived by using the momentum-heat transfer analogy and the logarithmic law for velocity distribution in the liquid film. Only one constant in the logarithmic form is empirically determined. The results are insensitive to some of the approximations used, namely in the evaluation of E and of /tau/ /SUB i/ //tau/ /SUB w/. The results from the suggested correlation are in good agreement with the Zeigarnick and Litvinov data over the range of parameters that were specified in their experiments, while the Chen and NATOF correlations predict lower heat transfer coefficients. The suggested correlation predicts well the data in the high-heat transfer coefficient region. It can be argued that the data in the low heat transfer coefficient region are affected by unstable flow conditions and the uncertainties in the saturation-temperature measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most of the previous convection experiments for nanofluids have been performed for internal tube flow with constant heat flux boundary condition. In contrast, a simple experimental apparatus measuring convective heat transfer coefficient from a heated wire to external nanofluids is proposed and its working principles are explained in detail. The convective heat transfer coefficient provided by the present system might be used as a useful indication justifying the adoption of prepared nanofluids as new efficient heat transfer fluids. Validation experiments by comparing convective heat transfer coefficients between the conventional correlation and measured values are carried out for base fluids. Also the effect of increased thermal conductivity of nano lubrication oil on the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient is investigated
Evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient in thermal shock of alumina disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Disks of a high-purity commercial alumina powder were fabricated by slip casting, pre-calcined, sintered and machined with SiC paper (120 and 320 grit). The specimens were tested in thermal shock conditions from several temperatures (Ti) between 870 and 980 C using a high-velocity air jet at room temperature (T0). The temperature differential between the disk and the air jet was incremented in 10 C until crack propagation was detected. During the air impinging, the temperature was recorded on the lower specimen surface at the central point and at a peripheral one. The coefficient governing the convective heat transfer on the specimen surface, h, was estimated by fitting the calculated temperature profiles with those measured during the test. Three alternative models were proposed for the temperature calculations using a finite element analysis. (orig.)
Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dan?ová, Petra; Sitek, P.; Vít, T.
Liberec : Technical University of Liberec, 2013 - (Vít, T.; Dan?ová, P.; Novotný, P.), s. 152-155 ISBN 978-80-260-5375-0. [Experimental Fluid Mechanics 2013. Kutná hora (CZ), 19.11.2013-22.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : syntetic jet * thermoanemometry * heat transfer Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics
Measurement of the Convective Heat-Transfer Coefficient
Conti, Rosaria; Gallitto, Aurelio Agliolo; Fiordilino, Emilio
2014-01-01
We propose an experiment for investigating how objects cool down toward the thermal equilibrium with their surroundings. We describe the time dependence of the temperature difference of the cooling objects and the environment with an exponential decay function. By measuring the thermal constant t, we determine the convective heat-transfer…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. E. Taslim
2007-08-01
Full Text Available Heat transfer coefficients in the cooling cavities of turbine airfoils are greatly enhanced by the presence of discrete ribs on the cavity walls. These ribs introduce two heat transfer enhancing features: a significant increase in heat transfer coefficient by promoting turbulence and mixing, and an increase in heat transfer area. Considerable amount of data are reported in open literature for the heat transfer coefficients both on the rib surface and on the floor area between the ribs. Many airfoil cooling design software tools, however, require an overall average heat transfer coefficient on a rib-roughened wall. Dealing with a complex flow circuit in conjunction with 180Ã¢ÂˆÂ˜ bends, numerous film holes, trailing-edge slots, tip bleeds, crossover impingement, and a conjugate heat transfer problem; these tools are not often able to handle the geometric details of the rib-roughened surfaces or local variations in heat transfer coefficient on a rib-roughened wall. On the other hand, assigning an overall area-weighted average heat transfer coefficient based on the rib and floor area and their corresponding heat transfer coefficients will have the inherent error of assuming a 100% fin efficiency for the ribs, that is, assuming that rib surface temperature is the same as the rib base temperature. Depending on the rib geometry, this error could produce an overestimation of up to 10% in the evaluated rib-roughened wall heat transfer coefficient. In this paper, a correction factor is developed that can be applied to the overall area-weighted average heat transfer coefficient that, when applied to the projected rib-roughened cooling cavity walls, the net heat removal from the airfoil is the same as that of the rib-roughened wall. To develop this correction factor, the experimental results of heat transfer coefficients on the rib and on the surface area between the ribs are combined with about 400 numerical conduction models to determine an overall equivalent heat transfer coefficient that can be used in airfoil cooling design software. A well-known group method of data handling (GMDH scheme was then utilized to develop a correlation that encompasses most pertinent parameters including the rib geometry, rib fin efficiency, and the rib and floor heat transfer coefficients.
Experimental study of convective coefficient of mass transfer of avocado (Persia americana Mill.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alves, Suerda Bezerra; Luiz, Marcia Ramos; Amorim, Joselma Araujo de; Gusmao, Rennam Pereira de; Gurgel, Jose Mauricio [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (LES/UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar
2010-07-01
Most of all energy consumed worldwide comes from fossil fuels derived from petroleum. With the petroleum crisis in the 70 were sought new energy sources, among them renewable. One such source is biodiesel energy, organic matter originated from animal and/or vegetable. Among the various plant species is the avocado (Persia americana Mill.) showing great potential in the production of petroleum extracted from the pulp and the alcohol removed from the seed. The main obstacle for obtaining the petroleum is the high humidity found in the pulp, being necessary to the drying process, which involves the transfer of heat and mass. The aim of this study was to use the mathematical model represented by Newton's Law of Cooling to simulate the mass transfer on the surface of the avocado pulp during the drying process. The equation of the mathematical model was solved numerically and the method of least squares was identified convective coefficient of Mass Transfer. The dryer used in the experimental process was operated with air flow in the vertical, air flow average fixed 3m/s and temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 deg C. The scheme of the dryer used in the research is composed of the following equipment: centrifugal fan, which drives the air-drying; valve, which allows control of airflow; electrical resistance, used for heating air; the drying chamber, where enables measurement of temperature and relative humidity; support for smaller trays; trays smaller, where the samples of the pulp of the avocado are placed; exit of the air of drying for the environment. The result presented shows the ratio of moisture content as a function of temperature over time, where it is possible to also observe that how much bigger the temperature of drying, greater will be the convective coefficient of mass transfer of the avocado. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The object of the experiments was to choose suitable particulate materials for a fluidised bed cooler, to test a deep fluidised bed for uniformity of heat transfer coefficient, and to explore the temperature distribution in a centrally heated annular fluidised bed. This memorandum records the techniques used and some of the practical aspects involved, together with the performance results obtained, for the assistance of other experimenters who may wish to use fluidised beds as a laboratory technique. Mathematical correlation of the results has not been attempted since some of the properties of the bed material were not known and to determine them was beyond the scope of the work programme. Rather, we have compared our results with those of other experimenters. Graphite tubes, for use in steady state thermal stress experiments, are to be heated by a graphite radiant heater situated in the bore and cooled on the outer surface. The tubes are 2 cm. bore, 8 cm. outside diameter and 48 cm. long. The outside temperature of the tubes is to be between 500 deg. C. and 1500 deg. C. It is estimated that the heat transfer rate required for fracture at the outer surface is 30 watts/cm2. This could readily be achieved by cooling with liquid metals, water or high velocity gas. However, serious problems of either materials compatibility or mechanical complexity make these undesirable. A water-cooled fluidised bed of compatible solids fluidised with nitrogen gas can overcome most of these problems and give heat transfer coefficients close to that required, vis. about 0.1 w/cm C . A coolant bed about 20'' long would be required and an annulus of about 2'' radial width round the specimen was considered to be practicable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accurate modeling of thermal shock induced stresses has become ever most important to emerging accident-tolerant ceramic cladding concepts, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and SiC coated zircaloy. Since fractures of ceramic (entirely ceramic or coated) occur by excessive tensile stresses with linear elasticity, modeling transient stress distribution in the material provides a direct indication of the structural integrity. Indeed, even for the current zircaloy cladding material, the oxide layer formed on the surface - where cracks starts to develop upon water quenching - essentially behaves as a brittle ceramic. Hence, enhanced understanding of thermal shock fracture of a brittle material would fundamentally contribute to safety of nuclear reactors for both the current fuel design and that of the coming future. Understanding thermal shock fracture of a brittle material requires heat transfer rate between the solid and the fluid for transient temperature fields of the solid, and structural response of the solid under the obtained transient temperature fields. In water quenching, a solid experiences dynamic time-varying heat transfer rates with phase changes of the fluid over a short quenching period. Yet, such a dynamic change of heat transfer rates during the water quenching transience has been overlooked in assessments of mechanisms, predictability, and uncertainties for thermal shock fracture. Rather, a time-constant heat transfer coefficient, named 'effective heat transfer coefficient' has become a conventional input to thermal shock fracture analysis. No single constant heat transfer could suffice to depict the actual stress evolution subject to dynamic heat transfer coefficient changes with fluid phase changes. Use of the surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient will remarkably increase predictability of thermal shock fracture of brittle materials and complete the picture of stress evolution in the quenched solid. The presented result with Al2O3 shows stress prediction around - 90% of the actual fracture stress with the use of the actual surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient. Hence, this work formerly informs thermal shock community that the surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient h(Ts) should be used for thermal shock fracture analysis and prediction. Yet, it is remarkable to note how widely, without technical consciousness, the use of a constant heat transfer coefficient has been practiced in the field of thermal shock fracture studies. A surface temperature dependent heat transfer coefficient h(Ts) is dependent on a number of parameters, including water bath temperature, pressure, specimen size and shape, and surface characteristics including wettability, nucleation site density, and pore structures. Hence, for a thermal shock fracture analysis, those non-strength related thermal shock fracture parameters should be accounted in h(Ts). Consequently, increasing efforts should be made on understanding transient boiling heat transfer rates of brittle materials to advance our understanding of thermal shock fracture, which will fundamentally contribute to safety of nuclear reactors
Hoelzer, Karin; Pouillot, Régis; Gallagher, Daniel; Silverman, Meryl B; Kause, Janell; Dennis, Sherri
2012-07-01
Listeria monocytogenes is readily found in the environment of retail deli establishments and can occasionally contaminate food handled in these establishments. Here we synthesize the available scientific evidence to derive probability distributions and mathematical models of bacterial transfers between environmental surfaces and foods, including those during slicing of food, and of bacterial removal during cleaning and sanitizing (models available at www.foodrisk.org). Transfer coefficients varied considerably by surface type, and after log(10) transformation were best described by normal distributions with means ranging from -0.29 to -4.96 and standard deviations that ranged from 0.07 to 1.39. 'Transfer coefficients' during slicing were best described by a truncated logistic distribution with location 0.07 and scale 0.03. In the absence of protein residues, mean log inactivation indicated a greater than 5 log(10) reduction for sanitization with hypochlorite (mean: 6.5 log(10); 95% confidence interval (CI): 5.0-8.1 log(10)) and quaternary ammonium compounds (mean: 5.5 log(10); 95% CI: 3.6-7.3 log(10)), but in the presence of protein residues efficacy reduced dramatically for hypochlorite (mean: 3.8 log(10); 95% CI: 2.1-5.4 log(10)) as well as quaternary ammonium compounds (mean: 4.4log(10); 95% CI: 2.5-6.4 log(10)). Overall, transfer coefficients are therefore low, even though cross-contamination can be extremely efficient under certain conditions. Dozens of food items may consequently be contaminated from a single contaminated slicer blade, albeit at low concentrations. Correctly performed sanitizing efficiently reduces L. monocytogenes contamination in the environment and therefore limits cross-contamination, even though sanitization is only performed a few times per day. However, under unfavorable conditions reductions in bacterial concentration may be far below 5 log(10). The probability distributions and mathematical models derived here can be used to evaluate L. monocytogenes cross-contamination dynamics in environments where foods are handled, and to assess the potential impact of different intervention strategies. PMID:22704063
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
B., Stojanovic; J., Janevski; M., Stojiljkovic.
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research of thermal conductivity coefficients of the siliceous sand bed fluidized by air and an experimental investigation of the particle size influence on the heat transfer coefficient between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surfaces. The measurements were perfo [...] rmed for the specific fluidization velocity and sand particle diameters d p=0.3, 0.5, 0.9 mm. The industrial use of fluidized beds has been increasing rapidly in the past 20 years owing to their useful characteristics. One of the outstanding characteristics of a fluidized bed is that it tends to maintain a uniform temperature even with nonuniform heat release. On the basis of experimental research, the influence of the process's operational parameters on the obtained values of the bed's thermal conductivity has been analyzed. The results show direct dependence of thermal conductivity on the intensity of mixing, the degree of fluidization, and the size of particles. In the axial direction, the coefficients that have been treated have values a whole order higher than in the radial direction. Comparison of experimental research results with experimental results of other authors shows good agreement and the same tendency of thermal conductivity change. It is well known in the literature that the value of the heat transfer coefficient is the highest in the horizontal and the smallest in the vertical position of the heat exchange surface. Variation of heat transfer, depending on inclination angle is not examined in detail. The difference between the values of the relative heat transfer coefficient between vertical and horizontal heater position for all particle sizes reduces by approximately 15% with the increase of fluidization rate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Stojanovic
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research of thermal conductivity coefficients of the siliceous sand bed fluidized by air and an experimental investigation of the particle size influence on the heat transfer coefficient between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surfaces. The measurements were performed for the specific fluidization velocity and sand particle diameters d p=0.3, 0.5, 0.9 mm. The industrial use of fluidized beds has been increasing rapidly in the past 20 years owing to their useful characteristics. One of the outstanding characteristics of a fluidized bed is that it tends to maintain a uniform temperature even with nonuniform heat release. On the basis of experimental research, the influence of the process's operational parameters on the obtained values of the bed's thermal conductivity has been analyzed. The results show direct dependence of thermal conductivity on the intensity of mixing, the degree of fluidization, and the size of particles. In the axial direction, the coefficients that have been treated have values a whole order higher than in the radial direction. Comparison of experimental research results with experimental results of other authors shows good agreement and the same tendency of thermal conductivity change. It is well known in the literature that the value of the heat transfer coefficient is the highest in the horizontal and the smallest in the vertical position of the heat exchange surface. Variation of heat transfer, depending on inclination angle is not examined in detail. The difference between the values of the relative heat transfer coefficient between vertical and horizontal heater position for all particle sizes reduces by approximately 15% with the increase of fluidization rate.
Study of Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficient in Microbial Leaching of Uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oxygen mass transfer coefficient is one of the most important parameters in the design of aerobic process bioreactor, which is represented by the overall volumetric oxygen mass transfer. The purpose of this article was the investigation of the mass transfer coefficient in the vast range of operational parameters in a stirred tank reactor. The effects of cell concentration, stirred power consumption and apparent air velocity on the mass transfer coefficient show that oxygen mass transfer in microbial leaching of uranium and in this range of parameter is not limited in these experiments. The overall volumetric oxygen mass transfer was determined in the range of 36-84 hr-1. Agreements of the suggested mathematical correlation for predicting the mass transfer were also evaluated. The results showed that the equation based on the rpm and/or power consumption and apparent air velocity specifies a good agreement with the experimental results with the coefficient of determination of R2=94.2 and 93.4. It was concluded that the introduced models are suitable for evaluation of the mass transfer coefficient in the microbial leaching of uranium.
Estimating the workpiece-backingplate heat transfer coefficient in friction stirwelding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Anders; Stolpe, Mathias; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2012-01-01
yields optimal values for the magnitude and distribution of the heat transfer coefficient. Findings - It is found that the heat transfer coefficient between the workpiece and the backingplate is non-uniform and takes its maximum value in a region below the welding tool. Four different parameterisations...... properties of the welded plate. Accurate modelling of the magnitude and distribution of the heat transfer coefficient is therefore an essential step towards improved models of the process. This is the first study using a gradient based optimisation method and a non-uniform parameterisation of the heat......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to determine the magnitude and spatial distribution of the heat transfer coefficient between the workpiece and the backingplate in a friction stir welding process using inverse modelling. Design/methodology/approach - The magnitude and distribution of the heat...
Measurement of Average Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient on Near-Horizontal Tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental study is performed to obtain an average heat transfer coefficient around the perimeter of a near horizontal tube. For the test a stainless steel tube of 50.8 mm diameter submerged in water at atmospheric pressure is used. Both subcooled and saturated pool boiling conditions are considered and the inclination angle of the tube is changed from the horizontal position to 9 .deg. in steps of 3 .deg.. In saturated water, the local boiling heat transfer coefficient at the azimuthal angle of 90 .deg. from the tube bottom can be regarded as the average of the coefficients regardless of the tube inclination angles. However, when the water is subcooled the location for the average heat transfer coefficient depends on the inclination angle and the heat flux. It is explained that the major mechanisms changing the heat transfer are closely related with the intensity of the liquid agitation and the generation of big size bubbles through bubble coalescence
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT OVER THE DIMPLED SURFACE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr. Sachin L. Borse
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Over the past couple of years the focus on using concavities or dimples provides enhanced heat transfer has been documented by a number of researchers. Dimples are used on the surface of internal flow passages because they produce substantial heat transfer augmentation. This project work is concerned with experimentalinvestigation of the forced convection heat transfer over the dimpled surface. The objective of the experiment is to find out the heat transfer and air flow distribution on dimpled surfaces and all the results obtained are compared with those from a flat surface. The varying parameters were i Dimple arrangement on the plate i.e.staggered and inline arrangement and ii Heat input iiiDimple density on the plate. Heat transfer coefficients and Nusselt number were measured in a channel with one side dimpled surface. Thespherical type dimples were fabricated, and the diameter and the depth of dimple were 6 mm and 3 mm, respectively. Channel height is 25.4mm, two dimple configurations were tested. The Reynolds number based on the channel hydraulic diameter was varied from 5000 to 15000.Study shown that thermal performance is increasing with Reynolds number. With the inline and staggered dimple arrangement, the heat transfer coefficients, Nusselt number and the thermal performance factors were higher for the staggered arrangement.
HengLiang Zhang; Shi Liu; Danmei Xie; Yangheng Xiong; Yanzhi Yu; Yan Zhou; Rui Guo
2013-01-01
Thermal stress failure caused by alternating operational loads is the one of important damage mechanisms in the nuclear power plants. To evaluate the thermal stress responses, the Green’s function approach has been generally used. In this paper, a method to consider varying heat transfer coefficients when using the Green’s function method is proposed by using artificial parameter method and superposition principle. Time dependent heat transfer coefficient has been treated by using a modified ...
Estimating the workpiece-backingplate heat transfer coefficient in friction stirwelding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Anders; Stolpe, Mathias; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2012-01-01
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to determine the magnitude and spatial distribution of the heat transfer coefficient between the workpiece and the backingplate in a friction stir welding process using inverse modelling. Design/methodology/approach - The magnitude and distribution of the heat transfer coefficient are the variables in an optimisation problem. The objective is to minimise the difference between experimentally measured temperatures and temperatures obtained using a 3D finite ...
Lauret, Philippe; Miranville, Frédéric; Boyer, Harry; Garde, Francois; Adelard, Laetitia
2006-01-01
This paper deals with the application of Bayesian methods to the estimation of two convective heat transfer coefficients of a roof-mounted radiant barrier system (RBS). As part of an empirical validation of the thermal model of the roofing complex, a parametric sensitivity analysis highlighted the importance of convective coefficients in the thermal behavior of a roofing complex. A parameter estimation method is then used in order to find the values of the coefficients that lead to an improve...
Estimation of bulk transfer coefficient for latent heat flux (Ce)
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Sadhuram, Y.
of Surface Energy Flux and Annual Air-Sea Interaction Cycles of North Indian Oceanâ€™. Mon. Wea. Rev. 104, 1122-1140. Cadet. D. L. and Reverdin, G.: 1981, â€˜Water Vapour Transport over the Indian Ocean, during Summer 1975â€™. Tellus 33, 476-487. Cadet, D. L...-88 expedition. 2. Data and Methodology Relevant surface and upper air meteorological data collected on board R. V. AKADEMIC KOROLEV along the cruise track shown in Figure 1 are used in the study. Here, two regions (marked in Figure 1 as A: BEFG...
Measurement and Prediction of the Average Heat Transfer Coefficient on a Tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most results are for horizontal tubes of diameter ranging 7.6?51 mm. Only Seethes et al. studied variations in local heat transfer coefficients along the tube periphery while controlling the inclination angle. The main result of the previous investigations is that there is a considerable difference among the local heat transfer coefficients along a tube periphery. This has been the major cause of the discrepancy among the results. It is very important to predict the exact heat transfer coefficient on a tube for the thermal design of tubular type heat exchangers. No results have been reported about the way to predict the average value on a tube except Kang who suggested a method for the horizontal tube. The present study is aimed to find out a way of predicting the average heat transfer coefficient with considering the degree of subcooling and the inclination angle. The average heat transfer coefficient was observed at ? =90 .deg in the saturated water regardless of the tube inclination angle. However, as the water was subcooled the location for the average heat transfer coefficient moves to the lower region of the tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Transfer coefficients have become virtually indispensible in the study of the fate of radioisotopes released from nuclear installations. These coefficients are used in equilibrium assessment models where they specify the degree of transfer in food chains of individual radioisotopes from soil to plant products and from feed or forage and drinking water to animal products and ultimately to man. Information on transfer coefficients for terrestrial food chain models is very piecemeal and occurs in a wide variety of journals and reports. To enable us to choose or determine suitable values for assessments, we have addressed the following aspects of transfer coefficients on a very broad scale: (1) definitions, (2) equilibrium assumption, which stipulates that transfer coefficients be restricted to equilibrium or steady rate conditions, (3) assumption of linearity, that is the idea that radioisotope concentrations in food products increase linearly with contamination levels in the soil or animal feed, (4) methods of determination, (5) variability, (6) generic versus site-specific values, (7) statistical aspects, (8) use, (9) sources of currently used values, (10) criteria for revising values, (11) establishment and maintenance of files on transfer coefficients, and (12) future developments. (auth)
Determining the surface roughness coefficient by 3D Scanner
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karmen Fifer Bizjak
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Currently, several test methods can be used in the laboratory to determine the roughness of rock joint surfaces.However, true roughness can be distorted and underestimated by the differences in the sampling interval of themeasurement methods. Thus, these measurement methods produce a dead zone and distorted roughness profiles.In this paper a new rock joint surface roughness measurement method is presented, with the use of a camera-typethree-dimensional (3D scanner as an alternative to current methods. For this study, the surfaces of ten samples oftuff were digitized by means of a 3D scanner, and the results were compared with the corresponding Rock JointCoefficient (JRC values. Up until now such 3D scanner have been mostly used in the automotive industry, whereastheir use for comparison with obtained JRC coefficient values in rock mechanics is presented here for the first time.The proposed new method is a faster, more precise and more accurate than other existing test methods, and is apromising technique for use in this area of study in the future.
Investigation of heat transfer coefficient during quenching in various cooling agents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • The highest HTC during quenching in mineral oils occur in temperature 520–550 °C. • The peaks of HTC for polymers exist at lower temperature compared to mineral oils. • Temperature and utilization time of coolant affect the heat transfer coefficient. • Ageing of mineral oils affects their severities; a direction of change is equivocal. -- Abstract: Heat transfer coefficients, HTCs, at the surface of a metal sample during immersion quenching were measured and evaluated using numerical procedures. The boundary inverse heat conduction problem has been defined and solved. A FEM self-developed computer code has been used to obtain a solution to the direct problem. The sensitivity of the method enabled us to examine the effect of various quenching parameters on the heat transfer for two mineral oils and a polymer quenchant. At 800 °C the HTC values were equal to ?0.5 kW/(m2 K) and ?3.2 kW/(m2 K), for mineral oils and a polymer coolant, respectively. They increased to ?4.7 kW/(m2 K) – oil A, ?6.0 kW/(m2 K) – oil B and ?7.4 kW/(m2 K) – polymer, respectively. The peak of HTC was sharp and occurred at a narrow temperature interval between 520 and 550 °C for the oils, whereas for the polymer, the peak was lower by approx. 100 K and flat over 100–120 K interval. Subsequently HTC decreased, and at ?150 °C the values were ?0.5 kW/(m2 K) and ?2.0 kW/(m2 K), for mineral oils and a water polymer coolant, respectively
Calculating the heat transfer coefficient of frame profiles with internal cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
NoyÃ©, Peter Anders; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend
2004-01-01
profiles is critical. The simple radiation model described in the pre European standard (prEN ISO 10077-2) does not yield valid results compared to measured values. Applying a more detailed, viewfactor based, grey surfaces enclosure model as described in the ISO standard (ISO/DIS 15099) gives a better...... correspondence between measured and calculated values. Hence, when determining the heat transfer coefficient of frame profiles with internal cavities by calculations, it is necessary to apply a more detailed radiation exchange model than described in the prEN ISO 10077-2 standard. The ISO-standard offers such an......Determining the energy performance of windows requires detailed knowledge of the thermal properties of their different elements. A series of standards and guidelines exist in this area. The thermal properties of the frame can be determined either by detailed two-dimensional numerical methods or by...
Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients of the Human Body under Forced Convection from Ceiling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor
2014-01-01
The average convective heat transfer coefficient for a seated human body exposed to downward flow from above was determined. Thermal manikin with complex body shape and size of an average Scandinavian female was used. The surface temperature distribution of the manikinâ€™s body was as the skin...... temperature distribution of an average person. The measurements were performed in a room with controlled thermal environment. Air temperature was set at 26ÂºC for cooling and at 20ÂºC for heating. The radiant temperature asymmetry in horizontal and vertical direction was close to zero, i.e. mean radiant...... temperature was equal to the air temperature. The air velocity of the isothermal downward flow from the ceiling at height of 1.5 m above the floor (above the top of the head) was set in a range between still air and 0.73 m/s. Based on the analyses of the results relationships for determination of the...
Mass transfer in the contamination of isothermal steel surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An existing mathematical model that describes the contamination of isothermal steel surfaces by radioactive corrosion products in high-temperature water is extended by including a term for mass transfer across the fluid boundary layer. Fits to experimental data from recirculating and once-through loops remain good, while predictions of corrosion rate are altered slightly. Resulting variations of initial deposition coefficient and surface activity with velocity are shown
A new interpretation of internal heat transfer coefficients of porous media
Dybbs, A.; Kar, K.; Groeneweg, M.; Ling, J. X.; Naraghi, M.
1984-01-01
The results of laser anemometer and flow visualization based fluid mechanics studies of porous media are used to obtain heat transfer coefficients for porous materials. Average pore flow Re ranging from 0.16-700 were examined. Darcy, inertial steady laminar, unsteady laminar and turbulent flow regimes were detected. A passage length model was devised to derive the heat transfer coefficient. Sample data from flows through porous metals composed of powders and fibers validated the passage length for Darcy and inertial flow regimes. Unsteady laminar and turbulent flow coefficients require the identification of new parameters.
Heat Transfer Coefficient Analysis for Coolant Channels in a VHTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A very high temperature reactor (VHTR) is graphite moderated and helium cooled reactor and selected as a next generation nuclear reactor for its ultimate safety among various advantages. This type reactor has become of great interest in terms of using a process heat. To utilize VHTR safely and practically, optimized heat flux analysis is necessary. Empirical correlations for a Nusselt number have widely been applied to predict the convective heat transfer in coolant channels of a prismatic VHTR. This approach has advantages of fast computation. However, there has been no in-depth study on their applicability to the thermo-fluid conditions of coolant channels of a prismatic VHTR. Therefore, this paper investigates the applicability of well-known empirical correlations to the coolant channels of a prismatic VHTR by using the detailed numerical results obtained from the 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. In particular, the effect of two different wall heating condition on the applicability of empirical correlations is focused in this paper
Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages
Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco
2015-08-01
The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.
Balkan, F.; Sezar, M.H.
2007-01-01
It is shown that there exists an optimal spacing of thermo-sensors in the determination of the experimental heat transfer coefficient of a fluid flowing over a plate. The problem is considered as an inverse heat transfer problem with long thin fin model. The heat transfer coefficient of the fluid is estimated from simulated steady-state temperature measurements along the plate. It is shown theoretically that the inner product of the sensitivity vector, JTJ, should be maximum and the group m n...
Study of the measurement about the apparent heat transfer coefficient of solid uranium hexafluoride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to provide the conditions for designing the congealed accept container of uranium hexafluoride, a set of experiment system of measuring apparent heat transfer coefficient in which the small-sized congealed accept container was considered as main equipment was set up. Then the experiments of loading and unloading uranium hexafluoride were carried out. The process of loading and unloading uranium hexafluoride in small-sized congealed accept container were simulated by the barrel model of steady heat transfer in this paper, and the apparent heat transfer coefficient of solid uranium hexafluoride was obtained. (authors)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Hattel, Jesper Henri
1998-01-01
Temperature is measured during backward can extrusion of steel. The process is characterised by large deformations and very high surface pressure. In the experiments, a can in low carbon steel with a lubrication layer of phosphate soap is formed. The temperature is measured by thermocouples in the die insert. The die insert is divided into two halves where the thermocouples are welded to the end of milled grooves in the lower part. The temperature of the workpiece is measured by welding a thermocouple directly onto the free surface.All of the temperature measurements in the tool and the workpiece are compared with a number of FEM simulations computed with different heat transfer coefficients. The current heat transfer coefficient is determined from the simulations.
Dynamics of liquid nitrogen cooling process of solid surface at wetting contact coefficient
Smakulski, P.; Pietrowicz, S.
2015-12-01
Liquid cryogens cooling by direct contact is very often used as a method for decreasing the temperature of electronic devices or equipment i.e. HTS cables. Somehow, cooldown process conducted in that way could not be optimized, because of cryogen pool boiling characteristic and low value of the heat transfer coefficient. One of the possibilities to increase the efficiency of heat transfer, as well as the efficiency of cooling itself, it is to use a spray cooling method. The paper shows dynamics analysis of liquid nitrogen cooling solid surface process. The model of heat transfer for the single droplet of liquid nitrogen, which hits on a flat and smooth surface with respect to the different Weber numbers, is shown. Temperature profiles in calculation domains are presented, as well as the required cooling time. The numerical calculations are performed for different initial and boundary conditions, to study how the wetting contact coefficient is changing, and how it contributed to heat transfer between solid and liquid cryogen.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a procedure for determining the transient heat transfer coefficient in cylindrical, thick-walled pressure parts. From theoretical considerations, the temperatures can be predicted at discrete locations throughout the wall, when input data such as thermocouple responses are known at one or several interior locations. Special emphasis is placed on the dynamic response of the thermometer, which measures the temperature, of the inside fluid, to enable exact determination of both heat transfer coefficient and fluid temperature. The transient response of a thermocouple in a convectional thermowell (pocket) is described by the first-order convective heat transfer model in which the rate of thermoelement temperature change is proportional to the instantaneous difference between the thermoelement and fluid temperatures. Several numerical examples show the effect of different time constants or thermal capacitances of thermometers on the calculated heat transfer coefficients and fluid temperatures. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Christensen, Martin Gram; Pedersen, Søren Juhl; Hickman, Minka; Adler-Nissen, Jens
2015-01-01
This paper presents and demonstrates a novel idea of using spherical potatoes as a dispensable, cheap device for determining the fluid-to-particle heat transfer coefficient, hfp in vessel cooking processes. The transmission of heat through the potato can be traced by measuring the distance from the surface to the gelatinization front, which is easy to identify visually. Knowing this distance, the gelatinization temperature, the period of immersion, and the average radius of the potato, the heat ...
Prediction of overall heat transfer coefficient for RMI insulation using the test and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Both parts of shell and layers have different thermal transfer flow; shell-part is conductivity loss, layer is convective and radiative loss that would contribute to calculate the total heat value with difficulty. We developed the new method about prediction of RMI's total value by separating the shell and layer as a function of heat resistivity. Whereas heat transfer value at the insulation shell is calculated by CFD analysis according to various insulation sizes, multi-layer would be done by thermal test. These predicted models are compared with final insulation sample of overall heat transfer value for the validation. RMI insulation was investigated by GHP (guarded hot plate) measuring instrument (inner-layer) and thermal analysis simulation(CFD method) to predict the approximate value of overall heat transfer. The results are as follows. - Thickness of out-shell as same meaning of outshell ratio is determined very carefully at RMI design. Because it can lead to very large changes in heat transfer. For example, whereas thickness of out-shell with 0.1mm(0.13%) shows 0.16 W/m2K through surface of out-shell, that of 0.4mm(0.53%) thickness is 0.49 W/m2K which is increased nonlinearly. - Inner-layer and out-shell of RMI is arranged in parallel, so that overall heat transfer coefficient would be written with sum of each part. For example, at the condition of 70 .deg. C, inner-layer part(0.06mm) is 0.56 W/m2K and out-shell part(0.7mm) is 0.72 W/m2K, and overall value is 1.28 W/m2K. - We could expect that heat transfer value is changed according to out-shell ratio, because out-shell ratio as conductivity loss is connected with insulation size and inner-layer as radiation blocking is independent
Tube length effect on the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of a vertically installed condenser tube length on the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer under atmospheric pressure has been obtained using various combination of major parameters for application to the advanced light water reactors (e.g., passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) heat exchanger of Westinghouse AP600 and passive secondary condensing system (PSCS) condenser of Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR)). To quantify length effect, a new empirical correlation has been developed based on the experimental data bank for the pool boiling heat transfer and some parametric studies have been done using the newly developed empirical correlation to broaden its applicability. The experimental data for q' versus ?T test are counted as 1,063 points and can cover the extent of D=14.0 ? 25.4 mm, ?=15.1 ? 60.9 mm, H=5.25 ? 30.93, and q'?160 kW/m2. The uncertainty in q', T, and ? is estimated to be ±1.0%, ±1.0, and ±5.0 nm, respectively. The newly developed empirical correlation has the form of q'=0.019?0.579?T4.679/(D1.238H0.072) and can predict the experimental data within ±20% bound. Through the detailed investigation of the experimental data and photographs taken from the experiment four mechanisms of (1) bubble generation and growth through the tube length, (2) bubble stay duration on the tube surface, (3) liquid agitation due to bubble detachment, and (4) bubble coalescence on the tube surface (especially, top region of the tube length) are considered as the most visible phenomena to explain the change of the heat transfer coefficient due to tube length change. The effect of the tube length is greatly observed before H(=L/D) gets 50. After that, the heat flux decreases linearly with H increase. (author)
Condensation heat transfer on two-tier superhydrophobic surfaces
Cheng, Jiangtao; Vandadi, Aref; Chen, Chung-Lung
2012-09-01
We investigated water vapor condensation on a two-tier superhydrophobic surface in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and in a customer-designed vapor chamber. We have observed continuous dropwise condensation (DWC) on the textured surface in ESEM. However, a film layer of condensate was formed on the multiscale texture in the vapor chamber. Due to the filmwise condensation, the condensation heat transfer coefficient of the superhydrophobic surface is lower than that of a flat hydrophobic surface especially under high heat flux situations. Our studies indicate that adaptive and prompt condensate droplet purging is the dominant factor for sustaining long-term DWC.
In-reactor measurement of fuel-to-sheath heat transfer coefficients between UO2 and stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental technique has been developed to measure the fuel-to-sheath heat transfer coefficient in operating UO2 fuel elements in a more direct manner than previously possible. During in-reactor operation, the thermal response of the fuel (measured by thermocouples placed near the outer surface of the UO2 pellets) and the dimensional response of the sheathing (measured by attached strain gauges) were monitored while varying either the element internal gas pressure or the element power. Detailed quantitative analysis yields both the solid and fluid components of fuel-to-sheath heat transfer as a function of gap width, gas pressure and composition, and interfacial pressure. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bunyakan, C.
2002-04-01
Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs have been found in wastewater of many chemical industries. Evaporation of VOCs from open water basin in waste treatment facilities causes air-pollution and has been regulated in many countries. Reduction or prevention of VOCs evaporation from open water basin is then necessary. The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of surface film generated by an insoluble surfactant on the mass transfer coefficient of VOCs evaporating from water. Hexadecanol and octadecanol were used as surfactant in this investigation with the amount in the range of 0 to 35 ?g/cm2 and 0 to 25 ?g/cm2, respectively. The VOCs used in this study were methanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and toluene. The experimental results showed that the surfactant film can reduce the gas film and liquid coefficients by 56 and 80 %, respectively. The suitable amounts of the surfactant were 25 ?g/cm2 for hexadecanol and 15 ?g/cm2 for octadecanol. From this investigation we can conclude that covering the water surface with a film of hexadecanol or octadecanol could significantly reduce the VOCs evaporation rate.Finally, the empirical equations correlating gas film and liquid film coefficient to amount of surfactants were developed and verified against the experimental data. The predicted values of the overall mass transfer coefficients, obtained by using these empirical equations, were in good agreement with the measured values. Thus the empirical equations of mass transfer coefficients developed in this work can be used to predict the evaporation rates of VOCs from water surface covered by hexadecanol or octadecanol film.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Balla Hyder H.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Cu and Zn-water nanofluid is a suspension of the Cu and Zn nanoparticles with the size 50 nm in the water base fluid for different volume fractions to enhance its Thermophysical properties. The determination and measuring the enhancement of Thermophysical properties depends on many limitations. Nanoparticles were suspended in a base fluid to prepare a nanofluid. A coated transient hot wire apparatus was calibrated after the building of the all systems. The vibro-viscometer was used to measure the dynamic viscosity. The measured dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity with all parameters affected on the measurements such as base fluids thermal conductivity, volume factions, and the temperatures of the base fluid were used as input to the Artificial Neural Fuzzy inference system to modeling both dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluids. Then, the ANFIS modeling equations were used to calculate the enhancement in heat transfer coefficient using CFD software. The heat transfer coefficient was determined for flowing flow in a circular pipe at constant heat flux. It was found that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluid was highly affected by the volume fraction of nanoparticles. A comparison of the thermal conductivity ratio for different volume fractions was undertaken. The heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid was found to be higher than its base fluid. Comparisons of convective heat transfer coefficients for Cu and Zn nanofluids with the other correlation for the nanofluids heat transfer enhancement are presented. Moreover, the flow demonstrates anomalous enhancement in heat transfer nanofluids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Torab-Mostaedi
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The volumetric overall mass transfer coefficients have been measured in a pulsed packed extraction column using diffusion model for two different liquid-liquid systems. The effects of operational variables such as pulsation intensity and dispersed and continuous phase flow rates on volumetric overall mass transfer coefficients have been investigated. Effective diffusivity is substituted for molecular diffusivity in the Gröber equation for prediction of dispersed phase overall mass transfer coefficients. The enhancement factor is determined experimentally and therefrom an empirical correlation is derived for prediction of effective diffusivity as a function of Reynolds number, Schmidt number and viscosity ratio. Good agreement between prediction and experiments was found for all operating conditions that were investigated.
Ko?í, Václav; Ko?í, Jan; Korecký, Tomáš; Mad?ra, Ji?í; ?erný, Robert ?.
2015-04-01
The radiative heat transfer coefficient at high temperatures is determined using a combination of experimental measurement and computational modeling. In the experimental part, cement mortar specimen is heated in a laboratory furnace to 600°C and the temperature field inside is recorded using built-in K-type thermocouples connected to a data logger. The measured temperatures are then used as input parameters in the three dimensional computational modeling whose objective is to find the best correlation between the measured and calculated data via four free parameters, namely the thermal conductivity of the specimen, effective thermal conductivity of thermal insulation, and heat transfer coefficients at normal and high temperatures. The optimization procedure which is performed using the genetic algorithms provides the value of the high-temperature radiative heat transfer coefficient of 3.64 W/(m2K).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahbar-Kelishami Ahmad
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The calculation of column’s height plays an important role in packed columns precise design. This research is based on experimentally measurement of mass transfer coefficients in different heights of packed column to predict its height. The objective of presented work is to introduce a novel conceptual method to predict column height via new correlation for mass transfer coefficient. As the mass transfer coefficient is decreased with increase of column height, the HTU’s are not constant figures along the column so this new approach is called increasing HTU’s. The results of the proposed idea were compared with other correlations and the conventional method i.e. constant HTU’s. Since the results are in very good agreement with experimental data comparing to conventional method, it seems this approach can be a turning point in design of all differential columns like packed columns. Making use of this method is suggested for design of differential columns.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to execute efficiently the free vibration analysis of 2-dimensional structures like plate structures, the author developed the finite element-transfer stiffness coefficient method. This method is based on the combination of the modeling techniques in the FEM and the transfer technique of the stiffness coefficient in the transfer stiffness coefficient method. Numerical results of the simply supported and the elastic supported rectangular plates showed that the present method can be successfully applied to the free vibration analysis of plate structures on a personal computer. We confirmed that, in the case of analyzing the free vibration of rectangular plate structures, the present method is superior to the FEM from the viewpoint of computation time and storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Myung Soo [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2003-06-01
In order to execute efficiently the free vibration analysis of 2-dimensional structures like plate structures, the author developed the finite element-transfer stiffness coefficient method. This method is based on the combination of the modeling techniques in the FEM and the transfer technique of the stiffness coefficient in the transfer stiffness coefficient method. Numerical results of the simply supported and the elastic supported rectangular plates showed that the present method can be successfully applied to the free vibration analysis of plate structures on a personal computer. We confirmed that, in the case of analyzing the free vibration of rectangular plate structures, the present method is superior to the FEM from the viewpoint of computation time and storage.
Molecular dynamics calculation of the sticking coefficient of gases to surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Molecular dynamics method has been employed to calculate the sticking coefficient of He, Ar and CO2 molecules to the surface and of carbon clusters and to the graphite surface. The computed coefficients are compared with experimental results. (orig.)
Enhancement of pool boiling heat transfer by surface micro-structuring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present paper addresses the use of surfaces structured with arrays of square micro-cavities to enhance pool boiling heat transfer. The heat transfer performance, obtained with the structured surfaces is evaluated based on the measured boiling curves and on the heat transfer coefficients. Two new parameters are suggested to relate the bubble dynamics (and consequently the surface topography) with the heat transfer coefficients: the modified dimensionless cavity spacing and the dimensionless distance, which cover the governing parameters of the phenomena. Correlations of these parameters with the heat transfer coefficients allowed to identify the best performing patterns, from those tested so far. Based on this progress it is expected that optimization of these relations will lead to precise relations which allow a systematic optimization of the surface pattern leading to an effective heat transfer enhancement, for situations involving high heat fluxes.
Transfer coefficient study of Sr-90 in the soil-grass-milk chain for Cuba
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the most important problems in modern radioecology is the lack of able information about the features of radionuclide migration in tropical and subtropical environment. The development of nuclear energy and the enhancing in the applications of nuclear techniques in those latitudes indicate that studies in this area are necessary. Cuba is carrying out studies on radioecological characterization of the principal food chains in the country. One of the objectives of these studies is to define the values of the transfer coefficients to be used in the evaluation programs for the assessment of the radiological impact of practices which involve ionizing radiation. This paper shows the results obtained in the determination of Sr-90 transfer coefficients in soil-grass-milk food chain in 'La Quebrada', a place near the Havana City where an important part of the milk that the citizens consume is produced. Transfer coefficients for Sr-90 were calculated on the basis of data collected during 5 years in the region. Soil-grass transfer coefficients are in the range 0.18-5 while grass-milk coefficients are in the range of 1.2x10-4 - 6x10-3 day/L. These values are in accordance with values reported by other authors in the literature. (authors). 4 refs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The determination of the heat transfer coefficient of the pins of the Spallation Neutron Source is a very important problem for the development of this facility, as data for thermal and structural studies. For this purpose, a test apparatus was built, in scale 1:1, for the simulation of the thermal and hydraulical conditions of the Neutron Source. This apparatus is a pin bank, with one of the pins electrically heated. Performance of measurements gave the values for the heat transfer coefficient, here presented in the Nusselt Number form, and its local distribution. Results show the linear dependence of Nusselt Number on Reynolds Number, for a constant heat production. (orig.)
Spin transfer coefficients for the (p suprho,n suprho) reaction in the plane wave approximation
Lee, H S; Kim, B T
1998-01-01
The spin transfer coefficients D sub n sub n (theta=0 .deg. ) for the intermediate energy charge exchange reaction (p suprho,n suprho) leading to the giant resonances in the continuum region are investigated. The dependence of the spin transfer coefficients on the nuclear wave function, the reaction Q-value, and the effective two-body interaction are studied using the plane wave approximation. It is shown that both the direct and the exchange parts of the tensor interaction play important roles in determining the D sub n sub n value.
Kadhim S. K.; Nasif M. S.
2016-01-01
The aim of this work is to investigate experimentally the effect of the forced vibrations on the free convection heat transfer coefficient using heated longitudinally finned cylinder made of Aluminium. The effect of the vibration frequency ranged from 2 to16 Hz with various heat fluxes ranged from 500-1500 W/m2. It was found that, the relation between the heat transfer coefficient and amplitude of vibration increased for all inclination angles from (0°-45°), while the increment of inclination...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hydrogen is expected to serve as a clean secondary energy, because it can be manufactured from water, used in a variety of energy end-use sectors as fuel, and returned to water after burning. For the realization of hydrogen energy system, development of efficient and economical hydrogen production methods is required to meet the future huge demand of hydrogen. The Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process is a promising candidate of such hydrogen production methods, in which water reacts with iodine and sulfur dioxide to produce hydrogen iodide and sulfuric acid (Bunsen reaction) and the produced acids are then decomposed to produce hydrogen and oxygen, respectively. This study is concerned with the development of IS process equipment named direct contact sulfuric acid concentrator, in which gaseous mixture produced by thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid contacts directly with sulfuric acid solution. In the concentrator, the high temperature heat of the decomposed gas is recovered and used to concentrate sulfuric acid solution and, at the same time, the undecomposed sulfuric acid is condensed and separated from the decomposition products of sulfur dioxide and oxygen. Although the concept is very attractive from the viewpoint of the development of compact and efficient sulfuric acid concentrator, little is known on the heat and mass transfer relevant to the concentrator. Therefore, experimental methods were discussed to acquire the gas-phase mass transfer coefficient required for the optimal design of the concentrator. Assuming the use of wetted-wall column and also of the sulfuric acid of azeotropic composition as the test solution which could eliminate the liquid-phase mass transfer resistance, the column specification and the measurement conditions were determined by which flooding could be avoided and surface wetting could be assured, as well. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Donne, M.D.; Piazza, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Goraieb, A.; Sordon, G.
1998-01-01
The four ITER partners propose to use binary beryllium pebble bed as neutron multiplier. Recently this solution has been adopted for the ITER blanket as well. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket the effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient of the bed have to be known. Therefore at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe heat transfer experiments have been performed with a binary bed of beryllium pebbles and the results have been correlated expressing thermal conductivity and wall heat transfer coefficients as a function of temperature in the bed and of the difference between the thermal expansion of the bed and of that of the confinement walls. The comparison of the obtained correlations with the data available from the literature show a quite good agreement. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The four ITER partners propose to use binary beryllium pebble bed as neutron multiplier. Recently this solution has been adopted for the ITER blanket as well. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket the effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient of the bed have to be known. Therefore at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe heat transfer experiments have been performed with a binary bed of beryllium pebbles and the results have been correlated expressing thermal conductivity and wall heat transfer coefficients as a function of temperature in the bed and of the difference between the thermal expansion of the bed and of that of the confinement walls. The comparison of the obtained correlations with the data available from the literature show a quite good agreement. (author)
Božidar Liš?i?; Tomislav Filetin
2012-01-01
This paper explains the need for a database of cooling intensities for liquid quenchants, in order to predict the quench hardness, microstructure, stresses and distortion, when real engineering components of complex geometry are quenched. The existing laboratory procedures for cooling intensity evaluation, using small test specimens, and Lumped-Heat-Capacity Method for calculation of heat transfer coefficient, are presented. Temperature Gradient Method for heat transfer calculation in worksho...
Seyed Ali Aghayan; Dariush Sardari; Seyed Rabii Mahdi Mahdavi; Mohammad Hasan Zahmatkesh
2013-01-01
A novel scheme to obtain the optimum tissue heating condition during hyperthermia treatment is proposed. To do this, the effect of the controllable overall heat transfer coefficient of the cooling system is investigated. An inverse problem by a conjugated gradient with adjoint equation is used in our model. We apply the finite difference time domain method to numerically solve the tissue temperature distribution using Pennes bioheat transfer equation. In order to provide a quantitative measur...
Moitsheki, Raseelo J.
2008-01-01
Lie point symmetry analysis is performed for an unsteady nonlinear heat diffusion problem modeling thermal energy storage in a medium with a temperature-dependent power law thermal conductivity and subjected to a convective heat transfer to the surrounding environment at the boundary through a variable heat transfer coefficient. Large symmetry groups are admitted even for special choices of the constants appearing in the governing equation. We construct one-dimensional optimal systems for the...
Powell, W. B.
1973-01-01
A methodology is described for the analysis of a transient temperature measurement made in a flat or curved plate subjected to convective heat transfer, such that the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperture, and the gas heat transfer coefficient can be determined. It is shown that if the transient temperature measurement is made at a particular point located nearly midway in the thickness of the plate there is an important simplification in the data analysis process, in that the factor relating the surface heat flux to the measured rate of rise of temperature becomes invariant for a Fourier Number above 0.60 and for all values of the Biot Number. Parameters are derived, tabulated, and plotted which enable straightforward determination of the surface heat flux, the hot-gas temperature, of the plate, the rate of rise of temperature, the plate thickness and curvature, and the mean thermal properties of the plate material at the test temperature.
Thermal accommodation coefficient of gases on controlled solid surfaces: Argon-tungsten system
Saxena, S. C.; Afshar, R.
1985-03-01
The knowledge of the thermal accommodation coefficient for gases on well-controlled surfaces as a function of temperature is imperative to understanding the mechanism of interphase heat transfer on the microscopic level. With this goal in view, a heat transfer column instrument is designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested for the specific case a argon—tungsten system. With 99.9999%, pure argon, six sets of data are taken in the rarefied gas region in the maximum temperature range of 500 1500 K. Four sets of these measurements are in the temperature-jump region and are analyzed by the constant-power method to compute the thermal accommodation coefficient of argon on a controlled tungsten surface. The other two sets are taken under free-molecular flow conditions and are interpreted in accordance with the man-free-path kinetic theory for the low-pressure regime. These data are compared and discussed in the context of reported data in the literature and interpreted in the light of the surface condition and finish of the tungsten wire.
Pool boiling heat transfer from enhanced surfaces to dielectric fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pool boiling heat-transfer measurements were made using a 15.8 mm o.d. plain copper tube and three copper enhanced surfaces: a Union Carbide High Flux surface, a Hitachi Thermoexcell-E surface and a Wieland Gewa-T surface. The dielectric fluids were Freon-113 and Fluorinert FC-72, a perfluorinated organic compound manufactured to cool electronic equipment. Data were taken at atmospheric pressure, and at heat fluxes from 100 W/m2 to 200,000 W/m2. Prior to operation, each test surface was subjected to one of three aging procedures to observe the effect of surface past history upon boiling incipience. For Freon-113 the enhanced surfaces showed a two to tenfold increase in the heat-transfer coefficient when compared to a plain tube, whereas for FC-72 an increase of two to five was measured. The High Flux surface gave the best performance over the range of heat fluxes. The Gewa-T surface did not show as much of an enhancement at low fluxes as the other two surfaces, but at high fluxes its performance improved. In fact, it was the only surface tested which delayed the onset of film boiling with FC-72. The degree of superheat required to activate the enhanced surfaces was sensitive to both past history of the surface and to fluid properties
An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...
Busuttil, M; Lin, YP; Gebelin, JC; Reed, RC
2013-01-01
The influence of glass coating thickness on the interfacial heat transfer coefficient has been examined using numerical modeling. Temperature and heat flux during working of a Inconel 718 work-piece and colder H13 dies have been simulated. The thickness of the glass coating is found to have a significant influence on the forming characteristic. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Evaluation of convective heat transfer coefficient of various crops in cyclone type dryer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akpinar, E. Kavak [Mechanical Engineering Department, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: eakpinar@firat.edu.tr
2005-09-15
In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of various crops and to investigate the influences of drying air velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer coefficient. Drying was conducted in a convective cyclone type dryer at drying air temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C and velocities of 1 and 1.5 m/s using rectangle shaped potato and apple slices (12.5 x 12.5 x 25 mm) and cylindrical shaped pumpkin slices (35 x 5 mm). The temperature changes of the dried crops and the temperature of the drying air were measured during the drying process. It was found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient varied from crop to crop with a range 30.21406 and 20.65470 W/m{sup 2} C for the crops studied, and it was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient increased in large amounts with the increase of the drying air velocity but increased in small amounts with the rise of the drying air temperature.
Kato, Hideki
2014-07-01
Photon mass energy transfer coefficient is an essential factor when converting photon energy fluence into kinetic energy released per unit mass (kerma). Although mass attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficients can be looked up in databases, the mass energy transfer coefficient values are still controversial. In this paper, the photon mass energy transfer coefficients for elements Z=1-92 were calculated based on cross-sectional data for each photon interaction type. Mass energy transfer coefficients for 48 compounds and/or mixtures of dosimetric interest were calculated from coefficient data for elements using Bragg's additivity rule. We additionally developed software that can search these coefficient data for any element or substance of dosimetric interest. The database and software created in this paper should prove useful for radiation measurements and/or dose calculations. PMID:25055949
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of mechanical vibrations of a heated string on the heat transfer coefficient ? at various heat fluxes has been studied experimentally. An empirical relation between the coefficient ? and the vibration frequency and amplitude with unchanged q has been found
Evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mould interface during flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Konopka
2007-12-01
Full Text Available Calculation results concerning the heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mould interface during flow of the AlMg10 alloy in the channel-like cavity of the spiral castability test mould. The experimental cooling curve as well as changes of metal flow velocity have been determined on the basis of the measured metal temperature during flow. The cooling curve equation for the examined alloy, derived from the heat balance condition in a casting-mould system and taking into account experimental data concerning changes in metal temperature and its flow velocity, has enabled evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient at a chosen point of a metal stream along the mould channel. Graphic representations of changes of this coefficient against time and the channel length have been shown.
Pool boiling heat transfer on surfaces with plain minifins and minifins with perforated foil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nadstawna Ewelina
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes experimental study results for three kinds of enhanced surfaces (smooth surface, plain minifin surface and minifin surface with sintered perforated foil and for two kinds of boiling fluids (ethyl alcohol and NovecTM 649. Novec 649 is considered to be an environmentally friendly alternative for electronic devices cooling applications. The experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure. Compared with smooth surface, the surface with plain minifins provides approximately 1.5-times higher heat transfer coefficient obtained with NovecTM 649 and ethyl alcohol boiling. At low and medium heat fluxes minifins with porous covering produced the highest heat transfer coefficient.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heat transfer of coolant flow through the automobile radiators is of great importance for the optimization of fuel consumption. In this study, the heat transfer performance of the automobile radiator is evaluated experimentally by calculating the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) according to the conventional ?-NTU technique. Copper oxide (CuO) and Iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles are added to the water at three concentrations 0.15, 0.4, and 0.65 vol.% with considering the best pH for longer stability. In these experiments, the liquid side Reynolds number is varied in the range of 50–1000 and the inlet liquid to the radiator has a constant temperature which is changed at 50, 65 and 80 °C. The ambient air for cooling of the hot liquid is used at constant temperature and the air Reynolds number is varied between 500 and 700. However, the effects of these variables on the overall heat transfer coefficient are deeply investigated. Results demonstrate that both nanofluids show greater overall heat transfer coefficient in comparison with water up to 9%. Furthermore, increasing the nanoparticle concentration, air velocity, and nanofluid velocity enhances the overall heat transfer coefficient. In contrast, increasing the nanofluid inlet temperature, lower overall heat transfer coefficient was recorded. -- Highlights: ? Overall heat transfer coefficient in the car radiator measured experimentally. ? Nanofluids showed greater heat transfer performance comparing with water. ? Increasing liquid and air Re increases the overall heat transfer coefficient. ? Increasing the inlet liquid temperature decreases the overall heat transfer coefficient
Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff
2015-01-01
Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from: inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. The work presented under this task uses the first-principles based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to compute heat transfer from tank wall to the cryogenic fluids, and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present work is to improve our understanding and analysis of direct contact condensation on the gravity injection of CMTs and to measure the heat transfer coefficients around steam bubbles using the holographic interferometer and high speed camera. The condensation regime map associated with the downward injection of steam into water through the steam pipe is investigated to understand the mechanism of the direct contact condensation. The present map shows that the boundary of chugging and subsonic jetting with the larger diameter pipe is shifted to the larger steam mass flux. Steam cavity mode, not found in the literature, and the unique mode of downward injection for the present geometry, is observed at the low subcooled water temperature. With the holographic interferometry and the high speed camera, the heat transfer mechanism for the direct contact condensation in CMTs is understood and the heat transfer coefficients are measured. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present work is to improve our understanding and analysis of direct contact condensation on the gravity injection of CMTs and to measure the heat transfer coefficients around steam bubbles using the holographic interferometry and the high speed camera. The condensation regime map associated with the downward injection of steam into water through the steam pipe is investigated to understand the mechanism of the direct contact condensation. The present map shows that the boundary of chugging and subsonic jetting with the larger diameter pipe is shifted to the larger steam mass flux. Steam cavity mode, ever not found in the literature and the unique mode of downward injection for the present geometry, is observed at the low subcooled water temperature. With the holographic interferometry and the high speed camera, the heat transfer mechanism for the direct contact condensation in CMTs is understood and the heat transfer coefficients are measured
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental test to study natural convection heat transfer to air within a trapezoidal channel area was carried out, heating one of its faces. The temperature in different points along the heated face, inlet and outlet air temperature, environment temperature, the current and voltage supplied to the heater were measured. From the measures, the power applied and the average heat transfer coefficient in the channel were determined. During the experimental test the power applied, channel inclination and the air entrance and exit position, were changed. The values obtained from the different test modes show that the heat transfer coefficient is independent of the power and strongly dependent of the channel inclination and channel position. (author)
A Study of the Heat Transfer Coefficient of a Mini Channel Evaporator with R-134a as Refrigerant
Dollera, E. B.; Villanueva, E. P.
2015-09-01
The present study is to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient of the minichannel copper blocks used as evaporator with R-134a as the refrigerant. Experiments were conducted using three evaporator specimens of different channel hydraulic diameters (1.0mm, 2.0mm, 3.0mm). The total length for each channel is 640 mm. The dimension of each is 100mm.x50mm.x20mm. and the outside surfaces were machined to have fins. They were connected to a standard vapour compression refrigeration system. During each run of the experiment, the copper block evaporator was placed inside a small wind tunnel where controlled flow of air from a forced draft fan was introduced for the cooling process. The experimental set-up used data acquisition software and computer-aided simulation software was used to simulate the pressure drop and temperature profiles of the evaporator during the experimental run. The results were then compared with the Shah correlation. The Shah correlation over predicted and under predicted the values as compared with the experimental results for all of the three diameters and high variation for Dh=1.0mm. This indicates that the Shah correlation at small diameters is not the appropriate equation for predicting the heat transfer coefficient. The trend of the heat transfer coefficient is increasing as the size of the diameter increases.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients at the ceiling are determined for a cooled ceiling room. Firstly, convective heat transfer is simulated numerically neglecting the radiative heat transfer at the surfaces (Îµf = Îµw = Îµc = 0), then, radiative heat transfer is calculated theoretically for different surface emissivities (Îµf = Îµw = Îµc = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9) for different room dimensions (3 x 3 x 3, 4 x 3 x 4 and 6 x 3 x 4 m) and thermal conditions (Tf = 25 deg. C, Tw = 28-36 deg. C and Tc = 0-25 deg. C). Numerical data is compared with the results of correlations based on experimental data given in literature. New equations related to convective and total (including the effect of convection and radiation) heat transfer coefficients for ceiling are found in the current study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A recent VAMP (Validation of Environmental Model Predictions) report collated values for aggregated transfer coefficients (Tag) which can describe the integrated transfer of radiocaesium to food products from semi-natural ecosystems. Further Tag data are presented for sheep and mushrooms which suggest that subdivision of Tag values to take soil type and seasonal variation into account is potentially valuable. For sheep, Tag values for organic soils are generally one to two orders of magnitude higher than those for sandy and clay soils. For most other semi-natural foodstuffs there are currently inadequate data to make such subdivisions. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krupiczka, R.; Rotkegel, A.; Ziobrowski, Z. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Gliwice (Poland)
2000-06-01
The paper describes a mathematical model of the process based on multicomponent mass transfer theory which enables the effect to be predicted of mass transport on the boiling heat transfer coefficient. The results of calculations were compared with our own experimental pool boiling data for the ternary system methanol-isopropanol-water and with Grigoriev's data obtained for the system acetone-methanol-water. The good accuracy was obtained when the ratio of the tube surface area to the surface area of the bubbles, which touch the heater at that moment, was considered as a parameter of the model. Based on our own experimental pool boiling data for the system methanol-isopropanol-water and the corresponding binary systems the triangular diagram of the ratio {alpha}{sub exp}/{alpha}{sub id} as a function of the liquid compositions is presented. (authors)
Determination of drying kinetics and convective heat transfer coefficients of ginger slices
Akpinar, Ebru Kavak; Toraman, Seda
2015-12-01
In the present work, the effects of some parametric values on convective heat transfer coefficients and the thin layer drying process of ginger slices were investigated. Drying was done in the laboratory by using cyclone type convective dryer. The drying air temperature was varied as 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and the air velocity is 0.8, 1.5 and 3 m/s. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The drying data were fitted to the twelve mathematical models and performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R 2), reduced Chi-square (? 2) and root mean square error between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. The effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy were calculated using an infinite series solution of Fick's diffusion equation. The average effective moisture diffusivity values and activation energy values varied from 2.807 × 10-10 to 6.977 × 10-10 m2/s and 19.313-22.722 kJ/mol over the drying air temperature and velocity range, respectively. Experimental data was used to evaluate the values of constants in Nusselt number expression by using linear regression analysis and consequently, convective heat transfer coefficients were determined in forced convection mode. Convective heat transfer coefficient of ginger slices showed changes in ranges 0.33-2.11 W/m2 °C.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In a high-level waste (HLW) repository, heat is generated by the radioactive decay of the waste. This can affect the safety of the repository because the surrounding environment can be changed by the heat transfer through the rock. Thus, it is important to determine the heat transfer coefficient of the atmosphere in the underground repository. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient was estimated by measuring the indoor environmental factors in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) under forced convection. For the experiment, a heater of 5 kw capacity, 2 meters long, was inserted through the tunnel wall in the heating section of KURT in order to heat up the inside of the rock to 90 .deg. C, and fresh air was provided by an air supply fan connected to the outside of the tunnel. The results showed that the average air velocity in the heating section after the provision of the air from outside of the tunnel was 0.81 m/s with the Reynolds number of 310,000 ? 340,000. The seasonal heat transfer coefficient in the heating section under forced convection was 7.68 W/m2 K in the summer and 7.24 W/mm2 K in the winter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Chan Hoon; Hwang, In Phil; Kim, Jin [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2010-09-15
In a high-level waste (HLW) repository, heat is generated by the radioactive decay of the waste. This can affect the safety of the repository because the surrounding environment can be changed by the heat transfer through the rock. Thus, it is important to determine the heat transfer coefficient of the atmosphere in the underground repository. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient was estimated by measuring the indoor environmental factors in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute Underground Research Tunnel (KURT) under forced convection. For the experiment, a heater of 5 kw capacity, 2 meters long, was inserted through the tunnel wall in the heating section of KURT in order to heat up the inside of the rock to 90 .deg. C, and fresh air was provided by an air supply fan connected to the outside of the tunnel. The results showed that the average air velocity in the heating section after the provision of the air from outside of the tunnel was 0.81 m/s with the Reynolds number of 310,000 {approx} 340,000. The seasonal heat transfer coefficient in the heating section under forced convection was 7.68 W/m{sup 2} K in the summer and 7.24 W/mm{sup 2} K in the winter.
Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication...). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance
Integration Of Heat Transfer Coefficient In Glass Forming Modeling With Special Interface Element
Moreau, P.; César de Sá, J.; Grégoire, S.; Lochegnies, D.
2007-05-01
Numerical modeling of the glass forming processes requires the accurate knowledge of the heat exchange between the glass and the forming tools. A laboratory testing is developed to determine the evolution of the heat transfer coefficient in different glass/mould contact conditions (contact pressure, temperature, lubrication…). In this paper, trials are performed to determine heat transfer coefficient evolutions in experimental conditions close to the industrial blow-and-blow process conditions. In parallel of this work, a special interface element is implemented in a commercial Finite Element code in order to deal with heat transfer between glass and mould for non-meshing meshes and evolutive contact. This special interface element, implemented by using user subroutines, permits to introduce the previous heat transfer coefficient evolutions in the numerical modelings at the glass/mould interface in function of the local temperatures, contact pressures, contact time and kind of lubrication. The blow-and-blow forming simulation of a perfume bottle is finally performed to assess the special interface element performance.
Apparent Charge Transfer at Semiconductor Surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the apparent charge transfer between adatoms in the GeXPb[l.XjGe(lll) interface both experimentally and theoretically. Scanning tunneling microscopy and surface core level measurements suggest significant charge transfer from the Ge adatoms to the Pb adatoms. However, first-principles calculations unambiguously find that the total electronic displacement is negligibly small, and that the results of published experiments can be explained as a result of bond rearrangement
Single-phase ambient and cryogenic temperature heat transfer coefficients in microchannels
Baek, S.; Bradley, P. E.
2015-12-01
Micro-scaling cryogenic refrigerators, in particular the Joule-Thomson (JT) variety require very good information about heat transfer characteristics of the refrigerants flowing in the microchannels for optimal design and performance. The extremely low Reynolds flow is present in a micro JT cryocooler, the heat transfer characteristics at these conditions require investigation. There are numerous studies regarding heat transfer coefficient measurements of liquid flow in microchannels at/near ambient temperature and high Reynolds flow (Re>2000), that agree well with the conventional correlations. However, results from previous studies of gaseous flow in microchannels at low Reynolds flow (Reperformed at cryogenic temperatures are quite limited in number. In this paper, the single-phase heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for nitrogen are measured at ambient and cryogenic temperatures. The hydraulic diameters for this study are 60, 110 and 180 ?m for circular microchannels. The Reynolds numbers varied from a very low value of 10 to 3000. The measured friction factors are comparable to those in macro-scale tubes. The experimental results of the heat transfer indicate that Nusselt numbers derived from measurements are significantly affected by axial conduction at low Reynolds flow (Re1000) follow conventional theory. The detailed experiment, procedure, and measured results are presented in this paper and discussed regarding deviation from ideal theory at low Reynolds flow.
Numerical study of surface heat transfer enhancement in an impinging solar receiver
Li, Lifeng
2014-01-01
During the impinging heat transfer, a jet of working fluid, either gas or liquid, will besprayed onto the heat transfer surface. Due to the high turbulence of the fluid, the heat transfer coefficient between the wall and the fluid will be largely enhanced. Previously, an impinging type solar receiver with a cylindrical cavity absorber was designed for solar dish system. However, non-uniform temperature distribution in the circumferential direction was found on absorber surface from the numeri...
The impact of air flow to the distribution of heat transfer coefficient on circular cylinder.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Beran, Pavel
Vol. 1648. Melville, NY : AIP Publishing, 2015 - (Simos, T.; Tsitouras, C.), 090006 ISBN 978-0-7354-1287-3. ISSN 0094-243X. - (AIP Conference Proceedings. 1648). [International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics 2014. ICNAAM-2014. Rhodes (GR), 22.09.2014-28.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Keywords : transient heat transfer * heat transfer coefficient * air flow * finite element method * Reynolds number * climatic tunnel Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/10.1063/1.4912394
Chung, S.
1973-01-01
Heat transfer phenomena of rarefied gas flows is discussed based on a literature survey of analytical and experimental rarefied gas dynamics. Subsonic flows are emphasized for the purposes of meteorological thermometry in the high atmosphere. The heat transfer coefficients for three basic geometries are given in the regimes of free molecular flow, transition flow, slip flow, and continuum flow. Different types of heat phenomena, and the analysis of theoretical and experimental data are presented. The uncertainties calculated from the interpolation rule compared with the available experimental data are discussed. The recovery factor for each geometry in subsonic rarefied flows is also given.
The effect of gas dissolved in the water on heat transfer coefficients in nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental data on the effect of dissolved nitrogen on heat removal from fuel rod bundles are presented. In it is shown that the coefficients of heat transfer in the gas liberation zone, produced by the rise of the cooling-water temperature as it approaches its saturation temperature, become abnormally low. The normal explanation of the effect of the dissolved nitrogen on the boiling crisis is incorrect. At high vapor contents of the cooling-water flow all the dissolved gas becomes liberated, and has no effect on the heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A measurement technique is presented that uses a new dilatometer measuring device to determine the instantaneous bubble volume and thereby calculate the instantaneous heat transfer coefficients for vaporizing bubbles in an immiscible liquid. Data were taken on single droplets of refrigerant-114 evaporating in water with a nominal initial diameter of 0.8 mm at a temperature difference of 4 K. The results indicate that the heat transfer data for R-114 may be different in the region at the end of evaporation where the vaporization ratio is greater than 50%. The technique used is consistent, accurate and the experimental method is easy to perform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A hybrid diagnostic agent system is developed to detect and identify early an anomaly that happens in the fast-breeder reactor 'Monju'. The system outputs a diagnostic result by integrating the results of diagnosis by four diagnostic software agents. They are (1) an estimation agent of overall heat transfer coefficient of evaporator and superheater, (2) a state identification agent based on SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) an anomaly detection agent by WT (Wavelet Transformation), and (4) a CBR (Case-Based Reasoning) agent using several attributes in both time and frequency domain. This paper describes the whole system and the estimation technique of overall heat transfer coefficient by simple physical models from 'Monju' process signals. (author)
Experimental Estimation of Heat Transfer Coefficients Using Helical Coil in an Agitated Vessel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashok Reddy K , Bhavanth Rao M ,Ram Reddy P
2012-04-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model is developed to analyze the heating rates and compare the relation with experimental results obtained in our present study . Low shear rate concentration of sodium carboxymethal cellulose fluids with two different coil lengths 2.362m and 2.82m, diameter of the helical coil equal to 156mm, di=4.0mm and do=6.4mm were used to correlate overall heat transfer coefficients in an agitated vessel with four blade paddle impeller. The model is derived by using velocity flow field and energy equations in cylindrical coordinate for straight tube and later extended to helical coil. The new design relation for obtaining the individual heat transfer coefficient in terms of flow behavior index is equal to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The influence of temperature and concentration measurement errors on experimental determination of mass and heat transfer coefficients is analysed. Calculus model of coefficients and of measurement errors, the experimental data obtained on the water isotopic distillation plant and the results of determinations are presented. The experimental distillation column, with inner diameter of 108 mm, have been equipped with B7 structured packing on a height of 14 m. This column offers the possibility to measure vapour temperature and isotopic concentration in 12 locations. For error propagation analysis, the parameters measured for each packing bed, namely temperature and isotopic concentration of the vapour, were used. A relation for calculation of maximum error of experimental determinations of mass and heat transoprt coefficients is given. The experimental data emphasize the 'ending effects' and regions with bad thermal insulation. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Wanheim, Tarras
. The thermocouples are welded to the end of grooves milled in a small plug, which is pressed into a hold in the punch nose. All the temperature measurements in the tool and the workpiece are compared with a number of finite element (FE) simulations computed with different heat transfer coefficients....... The current heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is then determined by the least square method...
Estimation of overall heat transfer coefficient of cooling system in RF capacitive hyperthermia
Mohammad Hasan Zahmatkesh; Seyed Rabii Mahdi Mahdavi; Dariush Sardari; Seyed Ali Aghayan
2013-01-01
The study presented in this article involves the estimation of the overall heat transfer coefficient of cooling system in RF capacitive hyperthermia treatment using inverse problem based on the conjugate gradient method to provide improved distribution of temperature. The temperature data computed numerically from the direct problem using the finite difference time domain method are used to simulate the temperature measurements. The effects of the errors and sensor positions upon the precisi...
Retrieving the heat transfer coefficient for jet impingement from transient temperature measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ? Heat transfer coefficient for impinging air jet is retrieved. ? Searched boundary condition approximated by spatial and temporal functions. ? Nonlinearity of problem bypassed by Newton's cooling law. ? Enforced temporal invariability of heat transfer coefficient stabilize solution. ? Results outperforms standard inverse approach. - Abstract: Algorithm of retrieving the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) from transient temperature measurements is presented. The unknown distributions of two types of boundary conditions: the temperature and heat flux are parameterized using a small number of user defined functions. The solutions of the direct heat conduction problems with known boundary temperature and flux are expressed as a superposition of auxiliary temperature fields multiplied by unknown parameters. Inverse problem is formulated as a least squares fit of calculated and measured temperatures and is cast in a form of a sum of two objective functions. The first results originates from an inverse problem for retrieving the boundary temperature the second comes from the inverse problem for reproducing the boundary heat flux. The final form of the objective function is obtained by enforcing constant in time value of the heat transfer coefficient. This approach leads to substantial regularization of the results, when compared with the standard technique, where HTC is calculated from separately reconstructed temperature and heat flux on the boundary. The validation of the numerical procedure is carried out by reconstructing a known distribution of the HTC using simulated measurements laden by stochastic error. The proposed approach is also used to reconstruct the distribution of the HTC in a physical experiment of heating a cylindrical sample using an impinging jet.
Mirmanto, M.
2015-09-01
Experiments to investigate local pressure distribution and local heat transfer coefficients during flow boiling of water in a microchannel were performed. The hydraulic diameter of the channel was 0.635 mm. The nominal mass fluxes used were varied from 200 to 700 kg/m2 s and heat fluxes ranging from 171 to 685 kW/m2 were applied. An inlet fluid temperature of 98 °C and pressure of 125 kPa were maintained at the microchannel entrance. There were six pressure tappings inserted into the channel to measure the local pressures and six thermocouple inserted into the channel block with equally distances to measure the wall local temperatures. The local pressure measurements during flow boiling show a non linear line connecting each local pressure, especially at higher heat fluxes or pressure drops. The non linear local pressure influences the value of the estimated local heat transfer coefficient. The effects of mass flux and heat flux on local heat transfer coefficient are also discussed.
Evaluation of heat transfer coefficient of tungsten filaments at low pressures and high temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper presents an experimental method for the evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient of tungsten filaments at low pressures and high temperatures. For this purpose an electrode of a T5 fluorescent lamp was tested under low pressures with simultaneous heating in order to simulate the starting conditions in the lamp. It was placed in a sealed vessel in which the pressure was varied from 1 kM (kilo micron) to 760 kM. The voltage applied to the electrode was in the order of the filament's voltage of the lamp at the normal operation with the ballast during the preheating process. The operating frequency ranged from DC to 50 kHz. The experiment targeted on estimating the temperature of the electrode at the end of the first and the ninth second after initiating the heating process. Next, the heat transfer coefficient was calculated at the specific experimental conditions. A mathematical model based on the results was developed that estimates the heat transfer coefficient. The experiments under different pressures confirm that the filament's temperature strongly depends on the pressure.
Mirmanto, M.
2016-01-01
Experiments to investigate local pressure distribution and local heat transfer coefficients during flow boiling of water in a microchannel were performed. The hydraulic diameter of the channel was 0.635 mm. The nominal mass fluxes used were varied from 200 to 700 kg/m2 s and heat fluxes ranging from 171 to 685 kW/m2 were applied. An inlet fluid temperature of 98 °C and pressure of 125 kPa were maintained at the microchannel entrance. There were six pressure tappings inserted into the channel to measure the local pressures and six thermocouple inserted into the channel block with equally distances to measure the wall local temperatures. The local pressure measurements during flow boiling show a non linear line connecting each local pressure, especially at higher heat fluxes or pressure drops. The non linear local pressure influences the value of the estimated local heat transfer coefficient. The effects of mass flux and heat flux on local heat transfer coefficient are also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sparrow, E.M.; Abraham, J.P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States). Laboratory of Heat Transfer Practice, Department of Mechanical Engineering
2002-08-01
An in-depth experimental study of heat transfer in ovens has provided basic data that is directly applicable to design. Heat transfer coefficients were measured for thermal loads having either black or highly reflective surface finishes. Approximately 100 different data runs were carried out. These heat transfer coefficients enabled the separation of the heat transfer into convective and radiative components, with radiation being the dominant transfer mechanism for blackened loads. The thermal response of the load to the presence of blockages situated either below or above the load was quantified. This response was only slightly affected by the blockages when they were empty of water, but major effects were observed when the blockages were water filled. Major effects were also encountered when the load was supported from below by cookie sheets. On the other hand, extensive investigation of various positions throughout the oven indicated a very weak effect of load position on the thermal response. (author)
Te-Wen Tu; Sen-Yung Lee
2015-01-01
An analytical solution for the heat transfer in hollow cylinders with time-dependent boundary condition and time-dependent heat transfer coefficient at different surfaces is developed for the first time. The methodology is an extension of the shifting function method. By dividing the Biot function into a constant plus a function and introducing two specially chosen shifting functions, the system is transformed into a partial differential equation with homogenous boundary conditions only. The ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
NikoliÄ‡ Z.S.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a numerical model will be adopted to analyze the heat transfer process during rapid solidification of a spherical sample placed on a metallic substrate cooled by water. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient between the sample and the substrate will be evaluated by matching model calculations with the surface temperature history recorded by a digital camera during solidification of a sample melted in an Arc-image furnace. .
NikoliÄ‡ Z.S.; Yoshimura M.; Araki S.; Fujiwara T.
2007-01-01
In this paper a numerical model will be adopted to analyze the heat transfer process during rapid solidification of a spherical sample placed on a metallic substrate cooled by water. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient between the sample and the substrate will be evaluated by matching model calculations with the surface temperature history recorded by a digital camera during solidification of a sample melted in an Arc-image furnace. .
Effects of cooling and internal wave motions on gas transfer coefficients in a boreal lake
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jouni J. Heiskanen
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Lakes and other inland waters contribute significantly to regional and global carbon budgets. Emissions from lakes are often computed as the product of a gas transfer coefficient, k 600 , and the difference in concentration across the diffusive boundary layer at the air–water interface. Eddy covariance (EC techniques are increasingly being used in lacustrine gas flux studies and tend to report higher values for derived k 600 than other approaches. Using results from an EC study of a small, boreal lake, we modelled k 600 using a boundary-layer approach that included wind shear and cooling. During stratification, fluxes estimated by EC occasionally were higher than those obtained by our models. The high fluxes co-occurred with winds strong enough to induce deflections of the thermocline. We attribute the higher measured fluxes to upwelling-induced spatial variability in surface concentrations of CO2 within the EC footprint. We modelled the increased gas concentrations due to the upwelling and corrected our k 600 values using these higher CO2 concentrations. This approach led to greater congruence between measured and modelled k values during the stratified period. k 600 has a well-resolved and ~cubic relationship with wind speed when the water column is unstratified and the dissolved gases well mixed. During stratification and using the corrected k 600 , the same pattern is evident at higher winds, but k 600 has a median value of ~7 cm h?1 when winds are less than 6 m s?1, similar to observations in recent oceanographic studies. Our models for k 600 provide estimates of gas evasion at least 200% higher than earlier wind-based models. Our improved k 600 estimates emphasize the need for integrating within lake physics into models of greenhouse gas evasion.
A look-up table for film-boiling heat-transfer coefficients in tubes with vertical upward flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A look-up table of film-boiling heat-transfer coefficients has been developed for steam-water flow inside vertical tubes, using a methodology similar to that for the look-up table of critical heat flux. The film-boiling look-up table provides heat-transfer coefficients at discrete values of pressure, mass flux, heat flux and thermodynamic quality, covering both the inverted annular-flow film-boiling (IAFB) and the dispersed-flow film-boiling (DFFB) regions. The table values are established using 14 687 film-boiling heat-transfer data points for tubes compiled in the AECL film-boiling data bank. At conditions where no data are available, these values are calculated using the Groeneveld-Delorme correlation (for the DFFB region) and the Hammouda model (for the IAFB region). The film-boiling look-up table and other leading film-boiling prediction methods have been assessed using the available data base. The look-up table predicts the surface-temperature data with a root-mean-square error of 6.73% and an average error of 1.2%, which is an improvement over that of other prediction methods. In addition, the film-boiling look-up table covers a wide range of flow conditions, provides a smooth transition between IAFB and DFFB regions, requires little computing time, and exhibits correct asymptotic and parametric trends. (author)
The influence of a heat transfer coefficient probe on fluid flow near wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mareš Martin
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Good knowledge of the convective boundary condition is necessary for finite element analysis of thermal deformation behavior in machine tools. There are a number of correlation equations for natural and forced convection and several correlations for mixed convection. Due to a relatively wide range of dimensions, temperatures and speeds, all regimes of convective heat transfer can be observed in machine tools, including the transition region between laminar and turbulent free convection, characterized by Rayleigh number values ranging between Ra = 108 – 109. Since convection in machine tools is highly influenced by external and internal factors, the heat transfer coefficient characterizing convective heat transfer and its changes has to be evaluated experimentally. An experimental technique for evaluating the heat transfer coefficient on the wall and its changes between the wall and the ambient air, based on an active sensor, is being developed. Since the probe dimensions are not negligible, given the fluid motion structures near the wall which are induced by buoyancy or by forced flow, the influence of the probe has to be considered. Paper deals with latest experimental results and summarizes previous work.
Mass transfer coefficient in ginger oil extraction by microwave hydrotropic solution
Handayani, Dwi; Ikhsan, Diyono; Yulianto, Mohamad Endy; Dwisukma, Mandy Ayulia
2015-12-01
This research aims to obtain mass transfer coefficient data on the extraction of ginger oil using microwave hydrotropic solvent as an alternative to increase zingiberene. The innovation of this study is extraction with microwave heater and hydrotropic solvent,which able to shift the phase equilibrium, and the increasing rate of the extraction process and to improve the content of ginger oil zingiberene. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratory of Separation Techniques at Chemical Engineering Department of Diponegoro University. The research activities carried out in two stages, namely experimental and modeling work. Preparation of the model postulated, then lowered to obtain equations that were tested and validated using data obtained from experimental. Measurement of experimental data was performed using microwave power (300 W), extraction temperature of 90 Â° C and the independent variable, i.e.: type of hydrotropic, the volume of solvent and concentration in order, to obtain zingiberen levels as a function of time. Measured data was used as a tool to validate the postulation, in order to obtain validation of models and empirical equations. The results showed that the mass transfer coefficient (Kla) on zingiberene mass transfer models ginger oil extraction at various hydrotropic solution attained more 14 Â± 2 Kla value than its reported on the extraction with electric heating. The larger value of Kla, the faster rate of mass transfer on the extraction process. To obtain the same yields, the microwave-assisted extraction required one twelfth time shorter.
Evaluation of condensation heat transfer coefficient in AC600 passive containment cooling system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The author gives a warranty to choice condensation heat transfer correlation (HTC) in AC600 passive containment cooling system (PCCS) analysis by comparing some most useful condensation HTC used in PCCSAC-MD code which is a multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis code for AC600 PCCS. These correlations include Uchida correlation, Gido-Koestl correlation, Tagami correlation and heat-mass transfer analogy correlation using the heat transfer coefficient on the vapor side of the interface. The author gets the conclusion that the Uchida correlation based on steady state data of experiment is more conservative than the Gido-Koestl correlation. The difference of peak pressure value of AC600 containment under double ended cold leg loss of coolant accident or main steam line break accident calculated by different correlation is similar while for double ended hot leg loss of coolant accident the difference is big, Although different correlation gets different heat transfer coefficient. The Tagami correlation is the most conservative one in the main steam line break accident calculated
Evaluation of Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients for R134a/DMF Bubble Absorber
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Suresh
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System (VARS has generated renewed interest and is being viewed as one of the alternatives for vapour compression refrigeration due to its potential for waste heat utilization. To improve the efficiency of these systems, it is necessary to study heat and mass transfer processes in absorption system components. The absorber, one of the crucial components in VARS is considered for study. Experimental investigation is carried out to study heat and mass transfer characteristics in a glass absorber. A new combination of R134a/DMF is used as the working fluid to overcome the limitations of well known working pairs, ammonia-water and lithium bromide-water. The effects of parameters viz., gas flow rate, solution initial concentration, solution pressure and solution temperature on absorber performance are analyzed. Heat and mass transfer coefficients evaluated from the experiments are compared with the numerical model and it is found that agreement is good. Heat and mass transfer coefficients increase as the gas flow rate, solution initial concentration and solution temperature increase whereas they decrease as the solution pressure increases. Sherwood number and Nusselt number evaluated from the experimental data are compared with those obtained from the numerical correlations developed earlier by the authors.
Condensation heat transfer coefficients of R1234yf on plain, low fin, and Turbo-C tubes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Ki-Jung; Kang, Dong Gyu; Jung, Dongsoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)
2011-01-15
In this study, external condensation heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) of HFC134a and R1234yf are measured on a plain, low fin, and Turbo-C tubes at the saturated vapor temperature of 39 C with the wall subcooling of 3-8 C. R1234yf is a new alternative refrigerant of low greenhouse warming potential for replacing HFC134a, one of the greenhouse gases in Kyoto protocol, used extensively in automobile air conditioners and other refrigeration systems. Test results show that the condensation HTCs of R1234yf are very similar to those of HFC134a for all three surfaces tested. For the development of heat transfer correlations, thorough property measurements are needed for R1234yf in the near future. (author)
Resonant charge transfer at dielectric surfaces
Marbach, Johannes; Bronold, Franz Xaver; Fehske, Holger
2012-01-01
We report on the theoretical description of secondary electron emission due to resonant charge transfer occurring during the collision of metastable nitrogen molecules with dielectric surfaces. The emission is described as a two step process consisting of electron capture to form an intermediate shape resonance and subsequent electron emission by decay of this ion, either due to its natural life time or its interaction with the surface. The electron capture is modeled using ...
Prediction of the heat transfer coefficient for ice slurry flows in a horizontal pipe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, heat transfer for ice slurry flows was investigated. For the experiments, ice slurry was made from 9% ethanol-water solution flow in a 20 mm internal diameter, 1000 mm long horizontal copper tube. The ice slurry was heated by a cylindrical electrical resistance. Experiments of the melting process were conducted with changing the ice slurry mass flux rate and the heat flux. The enthalpy-porosity formulation was used to predict the ice slurry temperature and the local values of heat transfer coefficient in the exchanger. Measurements and data acquisition of ice slurry temperature and mass flow rate at the inlet and outlet are performed. It was found that the heat transfer rates increase with the mass flow rate, the ice fraction and the heat flux density. However, the effect of ice fraction appears not to be significant at high mass flow rates. In addition, the correlation proposed by Christensen and Kauffeld gives good agreement with numerical results.
Prediction of the heat transfer coefficient for ice slurry flows in a horizontal pipe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kousksou, T.; Jamil, A.; Zeraouli, Y. [Laboratoire de Thermique Energetique et Procedes, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); El Rhafiki, T. [Laboratoire de Thermique Energetique et Procedes, Avenue de l' Universite, BP 1155, 64013 Pau Cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Energetique, Mecanique des Fluides et Sciences des Materiaux, Universite AbdelMalek Essaidi, 90000 Tetouan (Morocco)
2010-06-15
In this study, heat transfer for ice slurry flows was investigated. For the experiments, ice slurry was made from 9% ethanol-water solution flow in a 20 mm internal diameter, 1000 mm long horizontal copper tube. The ice slurry was heated by a cylindrical electrical resistance. Experiments of the melting process were conducted with changing the ice slurry mass flux rate and the heat flux. The enthalpy-porosity formulation was used to predict the ice slurry temperature and the local values of heat transfer coefficient in the exchanger. Measurements and data acquisition of ice slurry temperature and mass flow rate at the inlet and outlet are performed. It was found that the heat transfer rates increase with the mass flow rate, the ice fraction and the heat flux density. However, the effect of ice fraction appears not to be significant at high mass flow rates. In addition, the correlation proposed by Christensen and Kauffeld gives good agreement with numerical results. (author)
Charge transfer between carbon nanotubes on surfaces
Araujo, Karolline A. S.; Barboza, Ana P. M.; Fernandes, Thales F. D.; Shadmi, Nitzan; Joselevich, Ernesto; Mazzoni, Mario S. C.; Neves, Bernardo R. A.
2015-10-01
The charge transfer between neighboring single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on a silicon oxide surface was investigated as a function of both the SWNT nature (metallic or semiconducting) and the anode/cathode distance using scanning probe techniques. Two main mechanisms were observed: a direct electron tunneling described by the typical Fowler-Nordheim model, and indirect electron transfer (hopping) mediated by functional groups on the supporting surface. Both mechanisms depend on the SWNT nature and on the anode/cathode separation: direct electron tunneling dominates the charge transfer process for metallic SWNTs, especially for large distances, while both mechanisms compete with each other for semiconducting SWNTs, prevailing one over the other depending on the anode/cathode separation. These mechanisms may significantly influence the design and operation of SWNT-based electronic devices.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Hattel, Jesper Henri
1998-01-01
The large deformations in backward can extrusion result in a rise of temperature of more than 200 oC. In the experiments, cans in low carbon steel are formed with a lubrication layer of phosphate soap. The temperature is measured by thermocouples in the die insert and the punch. The die insert is divided into two halves where the thermocouples are welded to the end of milled grooves in the lower part. The temperature of the workpiece is measured by welding a thermocouple directly onto the free surface. The punch is equipped with three thermocouples mounted at a distance of 0.2 mm from the surface. The thermocouples are welded to the end of grooves milled in a small plug, which is pressed into a hold in the punch nose. All the temperature measurements in the tool and the workpiece are compared with a number of finite element (FE) simulations computed with different heat transfer coefficients. The current heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is then determined by the least square method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henningsen, Poul; Hattel, Jesper Henri
1998-01-01
The large deformations in backward can extrusion result in a rise of temperature of more than 200 degrees Centigrade. In the experiments cans in low carbon steel are formed, with a lubrication layer of phosphate soap. The temperature is measured by thermocouples in the die insert and the punch. The die insert is divided into two halves where the thermocouples are welded to the end of milled grooves in the lower part. The temperature of the workpiece is measured by welding a thermocouple directly onto the free surface.The punch is equipped with three thermocouples mounted at a distance of 0.2 mm from the surface. The thermocouples are welded to the end of grooves milled in a small plug, Which is pressed into a hold in the punch nose. All the temperature measurements in the tool and the workpiece are compared with a number of FEM simulations computed with different heat transfer coefficients. The current heat transfer coefficient is determined as the one resulting in the best agreement between measurements and the simulations.
Heat Transfer in Bubble Columns with High Viscous and Low Surface Tension Media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Wan Tae; Lim, Dae Ho; Kang, Yong [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-08-15
Axial and overall heat transfer coefficients were investigated in a bubble column with relatively high viscous and low surface tension media. Effects of superficial gas velocity (0.02-0.1 m/s), liquid viscosity (0.1-3 PaÂ·s) and surface tension (66.1-72.9x10{sup -3} N/m) on the local and overall heat transfer coefficients were examined. The heat transfer field was composed of the immersed heater and the bubble column; a vertical heater was installed at the center of the column coaxially. The heat transfer coefficient was determined by measuring the temperature differences continuously between the heater surface and the column which was bubbling in a given operating condition, with the knowledge of heat supply to the heater. The local heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing axial distance from the gas distributor and liquid surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing liquid viscosity or surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient was well correlated in terms of operating variables such as superficial gas velocity, liquid surface tension and liquid viscosity with a correlation coefficient of 0.91, and in terms of dimensionless groups such as Nusselt, Reynolds, Prandtl and Weber numbers with a correlation of 0.92; h=2502U{sub G}{sup 0.236}{sub L}{sup -0.250}{sub L}{sup -}0{sup .028} Nu=3.25Re{sup 0.180}Pr{sup -0.067}We{sup 0.028}.
Heat Transfer in Bubble Columns with High Viscous and Low Surface Tension Media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axial and overall heat transfer coefficients were investigated in a bubble column with relatively high viscous and low surface tension media. Effects of superficial gas velocity (0.02-0.1 m/s), liquid viscosity (0.1-3 Pa·s) and surface tension (66.1-72.9x10-3 N/m) on the local and overall heat transfer coefficients were examined. The heat transfer field was composed of the immersed heater and the bubble column; a vertical heater was installed at the center of the column coaxially. The heat transfer coefficient was determined by measuring the temperature differences continuously between the heater surface and the column which was bubbling in a given operating condition, with the knowledge of heat supply to the heater. The local heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing axial distance from the gas distributor and liquid surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing superficial gas velocity but decreased with increasing liquid viscosity or surface tension. The overall heat transfer coefficient was well correlated in terms of operating variables such as superficial gas velocity, liquid surface tension and liquid viscosity with a correlation coefficient of 0.91, and in terms of dimensionless groups such as Nusselt, Reynolds, Prandtl and Weber numbers with a correlation of 0.92; h=2502UG0.236L-0.250L-0.028 Nu=3.25Re0.180Pr-0.067We0.028
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
EMILA ŽIVKOVI?
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The evaporation heat transfer coefficient of the refrigerant R-134a in a vertical plate heat exchanger was investigated experimentally. The area of the plate was divided into several segments along the vertical axis. For each of the segments, the local value of the heat transfer coefficient was calculated and presented as a function of the mean vapor quality in the segment. Owing to the thermocouples installed along the plate surface, it was possible to determine the temperature distribution and vapor quality profile inside the plate. The influences of the mass flux, heat flux, pressure of system and the flow configuration on the heat transfer coefficient were also taken into account and a comparison with literature data was performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although the heat transfer problem of pressurized supercritical water (SCW) flows in around tube has been studied for decades, the subject is still considerably of interest nowadays. This is partly because of the expanded investigation of using SCW for nuclear engineering applications like SCWR which is generation IV reactor and promising advanced nuclear systems because of their high thermal efficiency(i.e., about 45% as opposed to about 33% efficiency for current light water reactors LWRs) and considerable plant simplification. Literature survey shows that heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is sharply enhanced near the pseudo critical temperature. As the heat flux increases, the peak of the HTC decreases. When the heat flux reaches to some high values, heat transfer deterioration (HTD) occurs. CFD code with various turbulence models are being used to evaluate HTC. Modeling of Yamagata's experiment has been carried out for evaluation of HTC using CFD code FLUENT with standard k? turbulence model, nonequilibrium wall function,viscous heating, full buoyancy effect and including wall roughness effect.In this paper model constants for standard k? model have been derived. In the Yamagata experiment, investigations were made for HTC to supercritical water flowing vertically upward in vertical tubes of 10 and 7.5mm internal diameter, at pressures 22.6, 24.5 and 29.5 MPa, bulk temperature from 230 to 540 oC, heat flux 233, 465, 698 and 930kW/m2 and mass flux 1200 kg/m2.s. Two dimensional axisymmetry grid generation has been done using GAMBIT. Inbuilt boundary conditions in the FLUENT are invoked for mass flow rate at inlet,pressure outlet at the outlet of the tube and wall at the cylindrical surface where heat flux is given. Thermo-physical properties are taken from the (IAPWSIF97) and piecewise linear variation are given in the FLUENT for 30 temperature points. Bulk fluid temperature is obtained using user defined function. HTC are obtained based on heat flux, surface temperature and bulk fluid temperature. The calculated HTC is compared with the experimental results and also compared with the results of the other authors. It is observed in both experimental and code calculated values that peak HTC decreases for increase in heat flux for constant mass flux and it is also noticed that peak HTC decreases with the increase in system pressure for constant heat flux. However, it is noticed that magnitude of peak HTC calculated by code is higher than the experimental data especially for higher heat flux and rate of decrease of peak HTC with increase in heat flux is lesser with compared to experimental results. It is observed that peak HTC increases with increase in wall roughness of the tube. It is also observed that HTC calculated by FLUENTcode is in good agreement with the HTC calculated by other authors using CFD code with various turbulence models. (author)
Using GIS to produce impervious surface coefficients from National Land Cover Data National Laud Cover Data (NLCD) and county level planimetric impervious surface data were utilized to derive an impervious coefficient per NLCD class. Results show that coefficients fall in...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Devgan, Seema; Jain, A.K.; Bhattacharjee, B. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)
2010-10-15
This paper attempts to formulate Overall Thermal Transfer Value (OTTV) coefficients for Composite, Hot-Dry and Warm-Humid climates, the three main tropical climates in India. Four existing air-conditioned office buildings - two mid-rise and two high-rise were modeled as case studies using eQuest v.3.6, which is a DoE2.2, based building energy simulation tool. Based on the study of building envelope, loads, operation and HVAC system characteristics of these case study buildings, a hypothetical high-rise, 16 storey office building, octagonal in plan was created for parametric studies. 98 types of opaque exterior wall constructions and 93 types of glass constructions were varied sequentially in parametric runs to obtain results for hourly wall conduction, glass conduction and glass radiation heat flow in eight orientations for each of the climate type. These hourly results were processed to obtain annual heat gain intensities for each parametric case for all three modes of heat transfer. Regression analysis was used to obtain the OTTV coefficients -TD{sub eq}, DT and SF for the three climates. A new OTTV equation is obtained and presented. The set of coefficients obtained were verified by calculating the OTTV for the four case study buildings, for various parametric runs. The computed OTTV for the four case study buildings exhibits good linear correlation with the annual space cooling plus heating energy use in three climates. (author)
Condition monitoring of steam generator by estimating the overall heat transfer coefficient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This study develops a technique for monitoring in on-line the state of the steam generator of the fast-breeder reactor (FBR) “Monju”. Because the FBR uses liquid sodium as coolant, it is necessary to handle liquid sodium with caution due to its chemical characteristics. The steam generator generates steam by the heat of secondary sodium coolant. The sodium-water reaction may happen if a pinhole or crack occurs at the thin metal tube wall that separates the secondary sodium coolant and water/steam. Therefore, it is very important to detect an anomaly of the wall of heat transfer tubes at an early stage. This study aims at developing an on-line condition monitoring technique of the steam generator by estimating overall heat transfer coefficient from process signals. This paper describes simplified mathematical models of superheater and evaporator to estimate the overall heat transfer coefficient and a technique to diagnose the state of the steam generator. The applicability of the technique is confirmed by several estimations using simulated process signals with artificial noises. The results of the estimations show that the developed technique can detect the occurrence of an anomaly. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the Loss-of-RHR accident during mid-loop operation reflux condensation in U-tube riser is experimentally studied. The present experimental study handles with the reflux condensation in the presence of noncondensable gas in a vertical tube. The main interest is to investigate the parametric effects such as inlet air mass fraction, system pressure and inlet steam flow rate on reflux condensation heat transfer. The test facility is mainly composed of two parts: an air-steam mixture generation part and a reflux condensation part(test section). Air is used as a noncondensable gas. Experiments are performed under the system pressure of 1 ? 2.5bar, inlet steam flow rate of 1.04 ? 2.15kg/hr and inlet air mass fraction of 0 ? 57.9%. From experimental results, several characteristics of parametric effects are confirmed. The presence of air causes a decrease in heat transfer coefficients and, as a result, increases the active condensation length. As the inlet steam flow rate increases, the active length slightly increases during reflux condensation. As the system pressure increases, the active condensation length somehow decreases with an increase in heat transfer coefficients in that zone. And the flooding limit for inlet mixture flow rate is much less than that of Wallis' flooding formula
Transient measurement of dual channel CICC heat transfer coefficients on a full size ITER conductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dual channel Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC) provide low hydraulic resistance and faster central channel circulation, limiting superconductors temperature rise. The Poloidal Field Insert Sample (PFIS) was tested in the SULTAN facility to evaluate the thermal coupling between the CICC channels upon an experimental heat transfer coefficient assessment. Simple assumptions on the flow homogeneous central and annular temperatures, no jacket conduction, no steel inertia and diffusivity lead to a one-dimensional thermal model fully solved in its transient response to a Heavy-side temperature evolution at the inlet, using a Laplace transformation. Transient temperature step data fitted with the analytical resolution provide heat transfer coefficients as a function of mass flow rate, compared to crude predictions and steady state evaluations, where annular and central temperatures are homogenized in compliance with the CICC heat transfer characteristic length. The transient measurements are subject to the inertia and diffusivity of the conductor, whereas comparable steady state measures suffer from annular isothermal assumption. Recommendations are made for the thermohydraulic instrumentation of future conductor samples. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sotelo, S.S.; Romero, R.J. [Univ. Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico). Centro di Investigacion en Ingeneria y Ciencias Aplicadas; Best, R. [Univ. Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Energie
2009-07-01
A mathematical model was used to characterize the thermal behaviour of a steam generator in an alternative energy upgrade system. A thermodynamic cycle was used to increase the temperatures produced by solar, geothermal, and waste heat from industrial processes. The absorption heat transformer (AHT) process can be used in industrial processes where low temperature heat flows occur. Alternative energy was supplied to the generator where the working fluid was condensed and then transported to the evaporator through an expansion valve. Vapor was then transported to the absorber in order to deliver heat at a higher temperature. The solution was then returned to the generator in order to start the cycle again. A heat exchanger was placed between the absorber and the generator in order to preheat incoming solutions from the generator. The mathematical model was used to simulate heat transfer in the generator in order to determine optimal operating conditions. Heat transfer coefficients were calculated using equations reported for single phase flow. It was concluded that the highest heat transfer coefficients were obtained for a Reynolds number of 2300 with an alternative energy source of 90 degrees C at mass flows of 4 L/m. 33 refs., 14 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions on two types of gas turbine blade tip, plane tip and squealer tip, were measured using a hue-detection base transient liquid crystals technique. The heat transfer coefficients on the shroud and near tip regions of the pressure and suction sides of the blade were also measured. The heat transfer measurements were taken at the three different tip gap clearances of 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.5% of blade span. Results show the overall heat transfer coefficients on the tip and shroud with squealer tip blade were lower than those with plane tip blade. By using squealer tip, however, the reductions of heat transfer coefficients near the tip regions of the pressure and suction sides were not remarkable
Effect of pressure on heat transfer coefficient at the metal/mold interface of A356 aluminum alloy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fardi Ilkhchy, A.; Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, P.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to correlate interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of casting under different pressures were obtained using the inverse heat...... conduction problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite difference heat flow program to estimate the transient heat transfer coefficients. The new simple formula was...... presented for correlation between external pressure and heat transfer coefficient. Acceptable agreement with data in literature shows the accuracy of the proposed formula....
Effect of pressure on heat transfer coefficient at the metal/mold interface of A356 aluminum alloy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fardi Ilkhchy, A.; Jabbari, Masoud
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to correlate interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of casting under different pressures were obtained using the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite difference heat flow program to estimate the transient heat transfer coefficients. The new simple formula was presented for correlation between external pressure and heat transfer coefficient. Acceptable agreement with data in literature shows the accuracy of the proposed formula.
Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.
1993-01-01
In this transient technique the preheated isothermal model wall simulates the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction problem. By knowing the temperature of the air flowing through the model, the initial temperature of the model wall, and the surface cooling rate measured at any location with time (using the fast-response liquid-crystal patterns recorded on video tape), the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated for the color isothermal pattern produced. Although the test was run transiently, the heat transfer coefficients are for the steady-state case. The upstream thermal boundary condition was considered to be isothermal. This transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique was used in a transient air tunnel in which a square-inlet, 3-to-1 exit transition duct was placed. The duct was preheated prior to allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. The resulting isothermal contours on the duct surfaces were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. The duct surfaces were uniformly heated using two heating systems: the first was an automatic temperature-controlled heater blanket completely surrounding the test duct like an oven, and the second was an internal hot-air loop through the inside of the test duct. The hot-air loop path was confined inside the test duct by insulated heat dams located at the inlet and exit ends of the test duct. A recirculating fan moved hot air into the duct inlet, through the duct, out of the duct exit, through the oven, and back to the duct inlet. The temperature nonuniformity of the test duct model wall was held very small. Test results are reported for two inlet Reynolds numbers of 200,000 and 1,150,000 (based on the square-inlet hydraulic diameter) and two free-stream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 20 percent (using a grid), which is typical of real engine conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
After TMI and Chernobyl accidents, many efforts have been made to enhance the nuclear safety with passive features. Among such passive features, the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) has been suggested by Westinghouse in the AP600 plant. The containment with PCCS is a dual containment, and consists of a stainless steel vessel and a concrete wall. In the gap between these structures, air and water can counter-currently pass and cool the steel surface. This paper experimentally investigates evaporative heat and mass transfer at the surface of a falling water film with counter-current air flow in a vertical duct with one-side heated plate. Experiments included various conditions of mass flow rate of film and air. Experimental results show the strong effects of water temperature and air mass flow rate, but little effect of the water flow rate. Also, simple analyses based on heat and mass transfer analogy were performed to evaluate the experimental results. With experimental data, a new correlation on evaporative mass transfer coefficient was developed, and with the correlation, the containment pressure and temperature was calculated for the design basis accident of AP600 by the use of CONTEMPT4/MOD5 code implementation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Program FREG series calculate temperature distribution in a fuel rod and the stored energy based on the distribution. The temperature distribution is calculated accordance with the fuel rod irradiation history. The temperature in the fuel rod is severely influenced with gap heat transfer coefficients between fuel pellet surface and cladding inner surface. Enphasis is placed on how to find the gap heat transfer coefficients. FREG-4 is a version-up program of FREG-3. Major modification from FREG-3 is handlings of fission product gas release, which have influences on the gap heat transfer. FREG-4 distingushed fission-product isotopes remained in pellets and fission-product gaseous isotopes released from the pellets, and considers that the released isotopes are transported for plenums to balance whole fuel rod internal pressure and transformed into another isotopes due to decay and the nuetron absorptions. The present report describes modified models from FREG-3 and user's manual for FREG-4. (author)
Diazo transfer for azido-functional surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laura Russo
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Preparation of azido-functionalized polymers is gaining increasing attention. We wish to report an innovative, novel strategy for azido functionalization of polymeric materials, coupling plasma technology and solution processed diazo transfer reactions. This novel approach allows the azido group to be introduced downstream of the material preparation, thus preserving its physicochemical and mechanical characteristics, which can be tailored a priori according to the desired application. The whole process involves the surface plasma functionalization of a material with primary amino groups, followed by a diazo transfer reaction, which converts the amino functionalities into azido groups that can be exploited for further chemoselective reactions. The diazo transfer reaction is performed in a heterogeneous phase, where the azido group donor is in solution. Chemical reactivity of the azido functionalities was verified by subsequent copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition.
Evaluation of heat transfer coefficient of tungsten filaments at low pressures and high temperatures
Chondrakis, N.G.; Topalis, F.V.
2010-01-01
Abstract The paper presents an experimental method for the evaluation of the heat transfer coefficient of tungsten filaments at low pressures and high temperatures. For this purpose an electrode of a T5 fluorescent lamp was tested under low pressures with simultaneous heating in order to simulate the starting conditions in the lamp. It was placed in a sealed vessel in which the pressure was varied from 1 kM (kilo micron) to 760 kM. The voltage applied to the electrode was in the or...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kárászová, Magda; Šim?ík, Miroslav; Friess, K.; Randová, A.; Jansen, J. C.; R?ži?ka, Marek; Sedláková, Zuzana; Izák, Pavel
2013-01-01
Ro?. 118, 30 OCT (2013), s. 255-263. ISSN 1383-5866 R&D Projects: GA ?R GAP106/10/1194; GA MŠk(CZ) 7C11009 Grant ostatní: RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2010-00009; INP(IT) PON01_01840; HA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0071 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biogas purification * supported ionic liquid membranes * mass transfer coefficients Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.065, year: 2013
Mass Transfer Coefficient During Cathodic Protectionof Low Carbon Steel in Seawater
Ameel Mohammed Rahman; Anees Abdullah Khadom; Khalid W. Hameed
2009-01-01
The aim of this research is to calculate mass transfer coefficient, kd, during cathodic protection of low carbon steel in neutral seawater (3.5% W/V NaCl in distilled water with pH = 7). Two types of cathodic protection were used:First: Sacrificial anode cathodic protection (SACP) were a pipeline of steel carrying seawater using zinc as a sacrificial anode and with variable temperatures ranged (0 45oC) and volumetric flow rate ranged (5 900 lit/hr). It was found that the kd increases with i...
Effect of Mass on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient During Onion Flakes Drying
G. N. Tiwari; Anil Kumar, *
2006-01-01
In this present study an open sun and greenhouse drying of onion flakes has been performed to study the effect of mass on convective heat transfer coefficient. Three sets of experiments with total quantity of onion as 300, 600 and 900 g were done. The onion was continuously dried for 33 h both in open sun and in the roof type even span greenhouse with floor area of 1.2 x 0.78 m2. Experiments were carried out during the months of October to December 2003 at IIT Delhi (28°35`N 72°12`E). Experim...
A review of measured values of the milk transfer coefficient (fsub(m)) for iodine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Most published assessments of the environmental transport of iodine have used a value of 1 X 10-2 days per litre (d/1) for the transfer coefficient (fsub(m)) which relates the concentration per litre of milk to the daily amount of the element ingested by a cow. However, the USNRC has recommended (USNRC 77) a value of 0.6 X 10-2 d/1 for the transfer of iodine to cow's milk and 6 X 10-2 d/1 for goat's milk. A literature survey of published values of fsub(m) leads to a recommendation which deviates from the values chosen by the USNRC. An fsub(m) of 0.5 d/1 for goat's milk and an fsub(m) of 1 X 10-2 for cow's milk appear to be more appropriate. (author)
Experimental apparatus for measuring heat transfer coefficients by the Wilson plot method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez-Seara, Jose [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); UhIa, Francisco Jose [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Sieres, Jaime [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende, No 9, 36200 Vigo (Spain); Campo, Antonio [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405 (United States)
2005-05-01
The Wilson plot is a technique to estimate the film coefficients in several types of heat transfer processes and to obtain general heat transfer correlations. This method is an outstanding tool in practical applications and in laboratory research activities that involve analysis of heat exchangers. Moreover, the application of this method is simple enough to be taught in laboratory practices for students at university and doctoral level of physics and engineering. Therefore, an experimental apparatus has been designed and built in our laboratory that allows the students to carry out experiments based on the application of the Wilson plot method. In this note, the principles of the method are explained, the experimental apparatus is described and representative results of the experimental data taken from the apparatus and the application of the Wilson plot method are shown. (note)
Experimental apparatus for measuring heat transfer coefficients by the Wilson plot method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The Wilson plot is a technique to estimate the film coefficients in several types of heat transfer processes and to obtain general heat transfer correlations. This method is an outstanding tool in practical applications and in laboratory research activities that involve analysis of heat exchangers. Moreover, the application of this method is simple enough to be taught in laboratory practices for students at university and doctoral level of physics and engineering. Therefore, an experimental apparatus has been designed and built in our laboratory that allows the students to carry out experiments based on the application of the Wilson plot method. In this note, the principles of the method are explained, the experimental apparatus is described and representative results of the experimental data taken from the apparatus and the application of the Wilson plot method are shown. (note)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feyissa, Aberham Hailu; Christensen, Martin Gram
2015-01-01
This paper presents and demonstrates a novel idea of using spherical potatoes as a dispensable, cheap device for determining the fluid-to-particle heat transfer coefficient, hfp in vessel cooking processes. The transmission of heat through the potato can be traced by measuring the distance from the surface to the gelatinization front, which is easy to identify visually. Knowing this distance, the gelatinization temperature, the period of immersion, and the average radius of the potato, the heat transfer coefficient can be calculated. Either a numerical model based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) or an analytical solution of the Fourier equation can be applied for the calculation. The gelatinization temperature of the potatoes used was determined to be 67°C by a direct temperature measurement and by visual inspection of the progression of the gelatinization front. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the method is rather precise at relevant values of hfp in vessel cooking (100–300 [W/m2K]), allowing a prediction of the centre temperature within ±0.6°C.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennion, Kevin; Moreno, Gilberto
2015-09-29
Thermal management for electric machines (motors/ generators) is important as the automotive industry continues to transition to more electrically dominant vehicle propulsion systems. Cooling of the electric machine(s) in some electric vehicle traction drive applications is accomplished by impinging automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets onto the machine's copper windings. In this study, we provide the results of experiments characterizing the thermal performance of ATF jets on surfaces representative of windings, using Ford's Mercon LV ATF. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients. Fluid temperatures were varied from 50 degrees C to 90 degrees C to encompass potential operating temperatures within an automotive transaxle environment. The jet nozzle velocities were varied from 0.5 to 10 m/s. The experimental ATF heat transfer coefficient results provided in this report are a useful resource for understanding factors that influence the performance of ATF-based cooling systems for electric machines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. I. ANWAR
2012-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, convective heat transfer coefficient of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis, in three different forms (shreds, slices and pieces, under forced convection mode has been determined. These forms were dried in laboratory drier. Values of constants C and n have been determined using experimental data and regression analysis for calculating values of convective heat transfer coefficient. It was found that the convective heat transfer coefficient varies with form of commodity being dried and decreases as the drying progresses. The value of convective heat transfer coefficient was highest for shredded form (30.39 W/m2oC followed by slices (25.88 W/m2oC and pieces (18.67 W/m2oC when compared at certain final moisture content. The data were also analyzed for per cent uncertainty.
Marinucci, C; Bruzzone, P; Stepanov, B
2007-01-01
This paper describes a new method to determine the equivalent heat transfer coefficients, i.e., radial and azimuthal, in CICC’s with parallel cooling channels. The method is based on the measurement of the steady state temperature response to a step heating. The experiment is modelled by a set of transport equations for the temperature distribution that contain explicitly the parametric dependence on the transverse heat transfer coefficients. The equations are solved analytically and the values of the equivalent transverse heat transfer coefficients are obtained as the best fit of the experimental temperature distributions. We show the results obtained with the method by application to a short length sample experiment in the SULTAN test facility using an ITER-type CICC with special instrumentation, and with heaters to generate a variety of heat slugs. The values of heat transfer coefficient are consistent with expected values, based in particular on the theory of dispersion in porous media.
Volumetric mass transfer coefficient and hydrodynamic study of a new self-inducing turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Experimental study of a new self inducing turbine. • Hydrodynamic parameters study of the generated flow. • Experimental study of the evolution of kLa and we give an empirical correlation. • Comparing our results to a previous research [17]. • Find a good agreements, with better performances of our turbine. - Abstract: The self-inducing turbines are among mobile agitations which present a very interesting potential in terms of energy in the field of wastewater treatment by activated sludge. Often, the reactions involved in this type of contactors are limited by the gas–liquid mass transfer. The objective of this experimental work is the determination of the oxygenation capacity of a new self-inducing turbine, a holed hollow cylinder, having a thickness of W = 1.5 cm and a diameter D = 9 cm, with 6 holes having a diameter of 0.5 cm each. During this experimental work, we evaluated the volumetric mass transfer coefficient kLa, which is directly related to the oxygenation capacity (OC) and this for various rotational speeds of the turbine as well as for various submergences. We finally succeeded to find an empirical correlation for our new self inducing turbine. The most common method used to estimate experimentally the coefficient kLa is the technique of dynamic oxygenation and deoxygenation. We finally concluded that this new turbine had a satisfying aeration capacity, which increases with the increase of the rotational speed, and decreases when increasing the submergence of the impeller
Surface diffusion coefficients by thermodynamic integration: Cu on Cu(100)
Boisvert, Ghyslain; Mousseau, Normand; Lewis, Laurent J.
1998-01-01
The rate of diffusion of a Cu adatom on the Cu(100) surface is calculated using thermodynamic integration within the transition state theory. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with the essentially exact values from molecular-dynamics simulations. The activation energy and related entropy are shown to be effectively independent of temperature, thus establishing the validity of the Arrhenius law over a wide range of temperatures. Our study demonstrates the equ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Application of enhanced surfaces in boiling heat transfer. • Flow and pool boiling heat transfer on the heating surfaces with mini-recesses. • Minichannel (horizontal) with the enhanced heating wall. • Determination of heat transfer coefficients and boiling curves. • Comparative experimental data analysis for flow and pool boiling heat transfer. - Abstract: The paper focuses on the analysis of the enhanced surfaces in such applications as boiling heat transfer. The surfaces have similar geometric parameters for the surface development. Two testing measurement modules with enhanced heating surfaces are used independently, one for flow boiling and the other – for pool boiling research. The heating surfaces with mini-recesses which contact boiling liquid are made by spark erosion. Flow boiling is studied when FC-72 flows through a horizontally positioned minichannel and its bottom wall is heated. These experiments were carried out during under a pressure slightly higher than the atmospheric one. Pool boiling experiments were conducted with FC-72 at atmospheric pressure in the vessel using enhanced sample as the bottom heating surface. Comparison of results for flow and pool boiling indicates that obtained heat transfer coefficients are a few times higher for pool boiling in the boiling incipience conditions. There are basic differences in the local heat transfer coefficients during the development of flow boiling in a minichannel, depending on the location along the flow in the channel. In the subcooled boiling area, heat transfer coefficients are low. In developed boiling, they are high, but they decrease when the amount of vapour in the liquid–vapour mixture rises
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anders Michael; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Feilberg, Anders; Christensen, Knud Villy
2009-01-01
A membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) was used in combination with a developed computer model to study and improve management of a biofilter (BF) treating malodorous ventilation air from a meat rendering facility. The MIMS was used to determine percentage removal efficiencies (REs) of selected sulfur gases and to provide toluene retention profiles for the model to determine the air velocity and overall mass-transfer coefficient of toluene. The mass-transfer coefficient of toluene was used as...
Leblay, P.; Henry, J.F.; Caron, D; Leducq, D.; Bontemps, A.; Fournaison, L
2012-01-01
A methodology has been developed based on periodic excitation by Joule effect and infrared thermography measurement. It has been applied to measure heat transfer coefficients of water flowing in a round tube and in a multiport-flat tube. Models were developed to deduce heat transfer coefficient from wall temperature amplitude and heat flux measurement. For the round tube and for the multiport flat tubes, Reynolds number investigated ranges respectively from 2000 to 14000 and from 800 to 10000...
With the cost of water quality research at the watershed level, modeling has become an important tool for researchers. When modeling nitrate transport within drainage networks, denitrification within the sediments needs to be accounted for. Birgand et al. developed an equation using a term called a ...
Surface diffusion coefficients by thermodynamic integration Cu on Cu(100)
Boisvert, G; Lewis, L J; Boisvert, Ghyslain; Mousseau, Normand; Lewis, Laurent J.
1998-01-01
The rate of diffusion of a Cu adatom on the Cu(100) surface is calculated using thermodynamic integration within the transition state theory. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with the essentially exact values from molecular-dynamics simulations. The activation energy and related entropy are shown to be effectively independent of temperature, thus establishing the validity of the Arrhenius law over a wide range of temperatures. Our study demonstrates the equivalence of diffusion rates calculated using thermodynamic integration within the transition state theory and direct molecular-dynamics simulations.
The role of surface energy coefficients and nuclear surface diffuseness in the fusion of heavy-ions
Dutt, Ishwar; Puri, Rajeev K
2010-01-01
We discuss the effect of surface energy coefficients as well as nuclear surface diffuseness in the proximity potential and ultimately in the fusion of heavy-ions. Here we employ different versions of surface energy coefficients. Our analysis reveals that these technical parameters can influence the fusion barriers by a significant amount. A best set of these parameters is also given that explains the experimental data nicely.
Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.; Sun, K. H.
1976-01-01
The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....
Hindasageri, V; Vedula, R P; Prabhu, S V
2013-02-01
Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively. PMID:23464237
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a comparison of the measured horizontal, smooth-tube, flow boiling heat transfer coefficient of R11 to that of its proposed ozone safe replacement R123. The fluid properties of R11 and R123 are similar. The flow boiling data for the two fluids are similar for the convective region. However, the heat transfer coefficient for R11 in the nucleate flow boiling region was consistently observed to be, on average, 8.5% to 33% larger than that for R123. The influence of Reynolds number and heat flux on the heat transfer-thermodynamic quality relationship is also presented. Predictions of the heat transfer coefficient with two open literature flow boiling correlations were compared to the measured data. The heat transfer coefficients predicted with the correlations were, on average from 13% to 57% greater than the measured heat transfer coefficients. Not until recently has there been sufficient thermodynamic or transport data for R123 to perform an accurate heat transfer analysis for that fluid. Great care was taken to ensure that the most carefully measured property data were used for this analysis. For the convenience of the reader, both the R123 and R11 property data used in this study are presented
Heat transfer coefficient calculation for analysis of ITER shield block using CFX and ANSYS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ? Benchmark HTC modeling in CFX and compare this modeling with empirical formulas. ? Given the error formulas derived from theory. ? Benchmark HTC modeling in ANSYS and the results is consistent with the conclusion of error estimate from theory. - Abstract: In thermal-mechanical analysis of ITER shield block using ANSYS code, it needs the real heat transfer coefficient (HTC) values which are computed by CFX. Because two kinds of HTC values can be gotten from CFX and which has some difference with ANSYS, so it is necessary to estimate the error caused by HTC transferred from CFX to ANSYS. In this paper, HTC values got from CFX was firstly benchmarked with the results got from empirical formulas, then estimated the error caused by HTC transferred from theory and gave the expressions of the error, thirdly benchmark work of ANSYS results in 4 cases was done, then compared the error with former error estimated formula derived from theory. In the end, conclusions will be given based on above benchmark works.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several experiments and theoretical researches have been performed to calculate condensation heat transfer and many correlations have been suggested. Generally, correlations are largely divided into two groups: applicable to laminar flow or turbulent flow. That is because, depending on whether flow is laminar or turbulent, flow characteristics and phenomena which play major role in heat transfer process are greatly different. Film Reynolds number is widely used to determine whether flow is laminar or turbulent. MARS code uses two condensation heat transfer coefficient(HTC) correlations: Nusselt's correlation for laminar flow and Shah's for turbulent. Condensation HTCs are calculated by using both correlations and the larger one is taken, that is, Film Reynolds number is not used to determine flow condition and select HTC correlation. This means that a correlation may be able to be incorrectly used just because its HTC is larger, though a correlation is not in an applicable range. In this paper, simulation results of two condensation experiments using MARS code are discussed. It is shown that, though flow condition is similar, different correlation can be used and how much calculated results are differentiated from experimental data
Tailoring of Seebeck coefficient with surface roughness effects in silicon sub-50-nm films
Kumar, Manoj; Bagga, Anjana; Neeleshwar, S
2012-01-01
The effect of surface roughness on the Seebeck coefficient in the sub-50-nm scale silicon ultra thin films is investigated theoretically using nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. For systematic studies, the surface roughness is modelled by varying thickness periodically with square wave profile characterized by two parameters: amplitude (A0) and wavelength (?). Since high Seebeck coefficient is obtained if the temperature difference between the ends of device produces higher currents a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forced convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of SiO2- and Al2O3-water nanofluids were characterized. The experimental facility was composed of thermal-hydraulic loop with a tank with an immersed heater, a centrifugal pump, a bypass with a globe valve, an electromagnetic flow-meter, a 18 kW in-line pre-heater, a test section with band heaters, a differential pressure transducer and a heat exchanger. The test section consists of a 1000 mm long aluminium pipe with an inner diameter of 31.2 mm. Eighteen band heaters were placed all along the test section in order to provide a uniform heat flux. Heat transfer coefficient was calculated measuring fluid temperature using immersed thermocouples (Pt100) placed at both ends of the test section and surface thermocouples in 10 axial locations along the test section (Pt1000). The measurements have been performed for different nanoparticles (Al2O3 and SiO2 with primary size of 11 nm and 12 nm, respectively), volume concentrations (1% v., 5% v.), and flow rates (3 103Re5). Maximum heat transfer coefficient enhancement (300%) and pressure drop penalty (1000%) is obtained with 5% v. SiO2 nanofluid. Existing correlations can predict, at least in a first approximation, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of nanofluids if thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat were properly modelled.
Immersion condensation on oil-infused heterogeneous surfaces for enhanced heat transfer.
Xiao, Rong; Miljkovic, Nenad; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N
2013-01-01
Enhancing condensation heat transfer is important for broad applications from power generation to water harvesting systems. Significant efforts have focused on easy removal of the condensate, yet the other desired properties of low contact angles and high nucleation densities for high heat transfer performance have been typically neglected. In this work, we demonstrate immersion condensation on oil-infused micro and nanostructured surfaces with heterogeneous coatings, where water droplets nucleate immersed within the oil. The combination of surface energy heterogeneity, reduced oil-water interfacial energy, and surface structuring enabled drastically increased nucleation densities while maintaining easy condensate removal and low contact angles. Accordingly, on oil-infused heterogeneous nanostructured copper oxide surfaces, we demonstrated approximately 100% increase in heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art dropwise condensation surfaces in the presence of non-condensable gases. This work offers a distinct approach utilizing surface chemistry and structuring together with liquid-infusion for enhanced condensation heat transfer. PMID:23759735
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Some studies on direct-contact condensation in cocurrent stratified flow of steam and subcooled water were reviewed. Several approaches have been performed to develop the condensation heat transfer coefficient relationship. The local Nusselt number is correlated in terms of the local water Reynolds and Prandtl numbers as well as the steam Froude number. In addition, a turbulence-centered model, developed principally for gas absorption in several geometries, is modified by using calculated interfacial parameters for the turbulent velocity and length scales. These approaches result in a fairly good agreement with the data, whereas, the turbulence-centered model is here recommended since it is based on the turbulent properties which may be closely related to the condensation phenomena. (Author)
Enrichment factors and transfer coefficients from soil to rye plants by INAA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An extensive investigation of elemental levels in cereals and their cultivation soils has been going on across the main production areas of mainland Portugal, with a view to an eventual biofortification of major cultivars through agronomic practices. Cereals are an obvious choice as primary vehicles for food-supplementation programs, especially in countries where they definitely weigh in the dietary intake (like Portugal), and regions whose geographical and/or pedological features may account for nutrient deficiencies in typical diets. Mature rye plants (Secale cereale L.; roots and grains) and local soils were collected in the summer of 2009 from two regions of northern Portugal, and put through k0-standardized, instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA). Overall, the results (elemental concentrations, enrichment factors, transfer coefficients) seem to confirm an efficient uptake of elements from soil and their translocation to the aerial parts of the plants, notably to the ones that really matter in human nutrition (grains). (author)
Effect factors of heat transfer coefficient between hollow glass microsphere and furnace atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to achieve an effective control of the heat transfer coefficient (hq) between microsphere and furnace atmosphere in the fabrication of hollow glass micro-sphere by sol-gel technology, the effects of component percentage, temperature and total pressure of gas mixture on hq are studied. Further, the influences of diameter and wall thickness of hollow glass microsphere on hq are also investigated. The results show that in the range of component percentage, temperature and pressure of gas mixture commonly used in the fabrication of hollow glass microsphere by sol-gel technology, the temperature and total pressure of gas mixture and the wall thickness of hollow glass microsphere have little influence on hq, but hq significantly increases with the volume fraction of helium in the furnace atmosphere and significantly decreases with increasing of microsphere diameter. (authors)
Distribution coefficient and transfer factor of stable iodine in agricultural soils in Aomori, Japan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soil-to-solution distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) were determined for agricultural soils and selected plants in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, by means of analysis of stable I in soil and plant samples. The concentration of I in the soil samples varied between 0.52 and 82.8 mg kg-1 (geometric mean of 4.4 mg kg-1). The Kd, which was defined as the ratio of I concentration in soil to that in water extracted from the soil, was 1.5 x 103 in geometric mean (L/kg). The TF value was defined as the ratio of I concentration in plant to that in soil. Geometric means of the TF on dry weight base obtained in this study were 3.2 x 10-2 for komatsuna, 2.0 x 10-2 for Japanese radish and 2.3 x 10-2 for pasture grass. (author)
Comparison of the methods for calculating the interfacial heat transfer coefficient in hot stamping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a hot stamping experimentation and three methods for calculating the Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient (IHTC) of 22MnB5 boron steel. Comparison of the calculation results shows an average error of 7.5% for the heat balance method, 3.7% for the Beck's nonlinear inverse estimation method (the Beck's method), and 10.3% for the finite-element-analysis-based optimization method (the FEA method). The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying the IHTC in hot stamping applications. The numerical simulation using the IHTC identified by the Beck's method can predict the temperature field with a high accuracy. - Highlights: • A theoretical formula was derived for direct calculation of IHTC. • The Beck's method is a robust and accurate method for identifying IHTC. • Finite element method can be used to identify an overall equivalent IHTC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
High-pressure die cast B390 alloy was prepared on a 350 ton cold chamber die casting machine. The metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient of the alloy was investigated. Considering the filling process, a 'finger'-shaped casting was designed for the experiments. This casting consisted of five plates with different thicknesses (0.05 inch or 1.27 mm to 0.25 inch or 6.35 mm) as well as individual ingates and overflows. Experiments under various operation conditions were conducted, and temperatures were measured at various specific locations inside the die. Based on the results, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient and heat flux were determined by solving the inverse heat transfer problem. The influence of the mold-filling sequence, sensor locations, as well as processing parameters including the casting pressure, die temperature, and fast/slow shot speeds on the heat transfer coefficient were discussed.
Mechanistic model of iodine mass transfer at pool surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mass transfer of molecular iodine (I2) at the water pool–gas interface can be modeled by means of a water surface film renewal model superimposed to the established two-film theory, where the water-side I2 mass transfer coefficient kw is related to the I2 molecular diffusivity in water D and the air–water contact time a according to The present paper describes a mechanistic approach to determine the contact time from the water flow distribution. The method makes use of a numerical simulation of the poolwater flow, and a numerical evaluation of the contact time distribution at the pool surface. Owing to the numerical treatment it can be applied to pool geometries of any kind, which makes it applicable for nuclear reactor safety studies in general kw=?(D/?a) The present paper describes a mechanistic approach to determine the contact time from the water flow distribution. The method makes use of a numerical simulation of the poolwater flow, and a numerical evaluation of the contact time distribution at the pool surface. Owing to the numerical treatment it can be applied to pool geometries of any kind, which makes it applicable for nuclear reactor safety studies in general
Hayashi, M.; Sakurai, A.; Aso, S.
1986-01-01
A thin film heat transfer gauge is applied to the measurement of heat transfer coefficients in the interaction regions of incident shock waves and fully developed turbulent boundary layers. It was developed to measure heat flux with high spatial resolution and fast response for wind tunnels with long flow duration. To measure the heat transfer coefficients in the interaction region in detail, experiments were performed under the conditions of Mach number = 4, total pressure = 1.2 MPa, 0.59 to approximately 0.65. Reynolds number = 1.3 to approximately 1.5 x 10 to the 7th power and incident shock angles from 17.8 to 22.8 degrees. The results show that the heat transfer coefficient changes complicatedly in the interaction region. At the beginning the interaction region, the heat transfer coefficient decreases at first, reaches its minimum value at the point where the pressure begins to increase, and then increases sharply. When the boundary layer begins to separate, even a small separation bubble causes significant changes in the heat transfer coefficient, while the pressure does not show any changes which suggests that the boundary layer begins to separate.
Simulation of Convective Heat-Transfer Coefficient in a Buried Exchanger
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taoufik Mnasri
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents analytical models allowing to study a forced convection laminar flow in non-established dynamic and thermic regimes. We treated a flow in a bitubular exchanger in permanent thermal contact with a semi-infinite medium, such as the ground. The wall temperature as well as the wall heat flux evolve in the course of time until a quasi-steady mode. The theoretical method is original because it uses Green's functions method to determine the analytical solutions of the heat propagation equation on the wall during the heating phase. These analytical solutions allow to identify the temperature distribution versus time. The complexity of the system geometry as well as the infinity of the medium surrounding the exchanger make the traditional methods of numerical resolution unable to solve the problem. We used, to solve it, the finite volume method coupled with the finite element method at the boundary. We studied the effect of Reynolds number, the fluid entry temperature and the transfer duration on the axial evolution of the heat transfer coefficient. We illustrated also the profile of the temperature field in the fluid medium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degradation of condensation HTC (Heat Transfer Coefficient) under an air presence in a vertical tube was explored both experimentally and analytically, with the aim of developing evaluation methods for the design of passive containment cooling systems in the next generation reactors. Measurements were done using a stainless steel tube of 49.5 mm I.D. and 2.0 m length, enclosed by a cooling jacket. Flow rates of steam, air and cooling water, and the system pressure were varied as the experimental parameters. First, condensation HTC was correlated to a function of mixture Reynolds number and air partial pressure ratio, in which thermal resistance of the condensate film was excluded. Secondly, an analogy between heat and mass transfer was applied. The calculated values agreed well with the measured values of condensation HTCs in turbulent flow, while an obvious underestimation was observed for the flow in which mixture Reynolds number was lower than 2,300. Finally, ratios of calculated to experimental HTCs, which include thermal resistances of the condensate film, averaged 1.01 for turbulent steam flow. (author)
Effect of heat transfer coefficient on sheath and fuel centreline temperatures in SCWRS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SuperCritical Water-cooled nuclear Reactors (SCWRs) utilize light water above the pseudocritical point as a reactor coolant. This Generation IV reactor concept is currently in its preliminary design phase. This paper discusses the variables that influence heat transfer from the fuel. The coolant Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC). Axial Heat Flux Profile (AHFP), sheath (clad) geometry and fuel thermal conductivity all impact the sheath and fuel centreline temperatures. The presented analysis utilizes the most recent HTC correlation developed for supercritical water, the Mokry et al. correlation (2009). The proposed sheath geometry is based on smaller diameter fuel elements than that of the current design to accommodate more fuel rods. Both uniform and cosine AHFPs, at average channel power, are applied. The results presented describe a sensitivity analysis of the effect of incrementing the HTC on sheath and fuel centreline temperatures. With a uniform AHFP and increasing HTC increments from 50 - 200% HTC the average temperature difference compared to 100% HTC are decreases from 13 to -18%. With a cosine AHFP and HTC incremented from 50 - 200% HTC the average temperature difference compared to 100% HTC have the range of 20 to -10%. (author)
Transfer of tritiated water vapour to and from land surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deposition of tritiated water vapour may result in contamination of food supplies and reduction of air concentrations, but the process has received little attention. Field and laboratory experiments were undertaken to investigate the mechanisms involved. The exchange between air and ground involves turbulent transfer in the atmosphere near the surface and diffusion within the soil. The exchange velocity for moist soil was limited by atmospheric mixing to about 1 cms-1, and was only a little smaller at dry soil and grass surfaces. For exposure times exceeding a few minutes re-evaporation becomes significant, reducing the net rate of uptake, but the total amount deposited continues to increase as the tritiated water diffuses deeper into the soil. Diffusion in soil was investigated and a simple equation proposed to predict the effective diffusion coefficient. Tritiated water deposited during a brief exposure in the field evaporated from the surface during several weeks, and its behaviour can be described by the diffusion equation with a suitable boundary condition. Rain washes activity into the soil and impedes further evaporation. Most of the vapour will interact with the surface within two or three days of release, and transport over continental distances will be retarded as a result. The effect of surface exchange on the distribution of doses following a release of tritiated water vapour will be complicated by changes in the weather over a period of several weeks, and will be difficult to foresee. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anders Michael; Nielsen, Lars Peter
2009-01-01
A membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) was used in combination with a developed computer model to study and improve management of a biofilter (BF) treating malodorous ventilation air from a meat rendering facility. The MIMS was used to determine percentage removal efficiencies (REs) of selected sulfur gases and to provide toluene retention profiles for the model to determine the air velocity and overall mass-transfer coefficient of toluene. The mass-transfer coefficient of toluene was used as a reference for determining the mass transfer of sulfur gases. By presenting the model to scenarios of a filter bed with a consortium of effective sulfur oxidizers, the most likely mechanism for incomplete removal of sulfur compounds from the exhaust air was elucidated. This was found to be insufficient mass transfer and not inadequate bacterial activity as anticipated by the manager of the BF. Thus, knowing the relationship between mass-transfer coefficients and air velocity for a given type of BF allows for an improved dimensioning and managing of this and similar BFs. This research demonstrates that it is possible to estimate mass-transfer coefficients and air velocity in BFs using MIMS in combination with computer modeling. Udgivelsesdato: February
Heat transfer during cooling of hot surfaces by water nozzles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Pøíhoda
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Method of cooling in a secondary zone of continuous casting of steel has a significant influence on a quality of continuously cast products mainly from the point of view of internal and surface defects as well as zonal segregations. At the department of thermal engineering, a physical model of the secondary zone has been developed, which enables testing of both water and water-air nozzles. During laboratory measurements cooling effects of a cone nozzle have been expressed by means of three parameters. Most commonly used parameter is an admission characteristic, infrequently heat transfer coefficient is determined and newly a measuring of dynamic impact of the cooling water has been introduced.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karadag, Refet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Harran University, Osmanbey Kampusu, 63300 Sanliurfa (Turkey)], E-mail: rkaradag21@yahoo.com
2009-06-15
In this study, radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients at the ceiling are determined for a cooled ceiling room. Firstly, convective heat transfer is simulated numerically neglecting the radiative heat transfer at the surfaces ({epsilon}{sub f} = {epsilon}{sub w} = {epsilon}{sub c} = 0), then, radiative heat transfer is calculated theoretically for different surface emissivities ({epsilon}{sub f} = {epsilon}{sub w} = {epsilon}{sub c} = 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9) for different room dimensions (3 x 3 x 3, 4 x 3 x 4 and 6 x 3 x 4 m) and thermal conditions (T{sub f} = 25 deg. C, T{sub w} = 28-36 deg. C and T{sub c} = 0-25 deg. C). Numerical data is compared with the results of correlations based on experimental data given in literature. New equations related to convective and total (including the effect of convection and radiation) heat transfer coefficients for ceiling are found in the current study.
Determination of surface tension coefficient of liquids by diffraction of light on capillary waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper describes a simple technique for determining the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids, based on laser light diffraction on capillary waves. Capillary waves of given frequency are created by an exciter needle acting on the surface of liquid and represent a reflective diffraction grating, the constant of which (the wavelength of capillary waves) can be determined based on a known incidence angle of light (grazing angle). We obtain the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids by applying the dispersion relation for capillary waves and analyze the difficulties that arise when setting up and conducting the experiment in detail. (paper)
Intelligent tires for identifying coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces
Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Kamai, Kazuto; Seki, Ryosuke
2015-03-01
Intelligent tires equipped with sensors as well as the monitoring of the tire/road contact conditions are in demand for improving vehicle control and safety. With the aim of identifying the coefficient of friction of tire/road contact surfaces during driving, including during cornering, we develop an identification scheme for the coefficient of friction that involves estimation of the slip angle and applied force by using a single lightweight three-axis accelerometer attached on the inner surface of the tire. To validate the developed scheme, we conduct tire-rolling tests using an accelerometer-equipped tire with various slip angles on various types of road surfaces, including dry and wet surfaces. The results of these tests confirm that the estimated slip angle and applied force are reasonable. Furthermore, the identified coefficient of friction by the developed scheme agreed with that measured by standardized tests.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The friction factor and Stanton number for flow past a roughened surface are determined by the parameters A and R(h+) of the universal law of friction and A/sub H/ and G(h+) of the universal law of heat transfer. The methods to be used for determination of these parameters for the particular roughness to be used in the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) are presented. Examples are given concerning the application of these methods to both transitional and fully rough flow using experimental results taken from the literature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, D.S. [arsenal research, Sustainable Energy Systems, Giefinggasse 2, 1210 Vienna (Austria); Infante Ferreira, C.A. [Delft University of Technology, Engineering Thermodynamics, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)
2009-01-15
The effects of the surface geometry and of a surfactant on the characteristics of LiBr-water solution falling films are experimentally investigated. Two different surfaces (flat copper plate and the same copper plate covered with a copper wire screen) are tested with four fluids (pure water and 50% lithium bromide-water solution with or without 100 ppm of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol) for Reynolds numbers from 40 to 110. Flow patterns and heat and mass transfer coefficients are discussed. Marangoni convection was observed in water-cooled LiBr-water flows resulting in significant heat and mass transfer enhancement. 2-ethyl-1-hexanol enhances heat and mass transfer in LiBr-water flows by more than a factor of two. 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in water makes copper surface strongly hydrophobic. The wire screen promotes absorption process in adiabatic conditions but hinders the process in non-adiabatic conditions by reducing the Marangoni convection induced by 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. The experimental heat and mass transfer coefficients are presented in dimensionless forms. (author)
Heat and mass transfer rates during flow of dissociated hydrogen gas over graphite surface
Nema, V. K.; Sharma, O. P.
1986-01-01
To improve upon the performance of chemical rockets, the nuclear reactor has been applied to a rocket propulsion system using hydrogen gas as working fluid and a graphite-composite forming a part of the structure. Under the boundary layer approximation, theoretical predictions of skin friction coefficient, surface heat transfer rate and surface regression rate have been made for laminar/turbulent dissociated hydrogen gas flowing over a flat graphite surface. The external stream is assumed to be frozen. The analysis is restricted to Mach numbers low enough to deal with the situation of only surface-reaction between hydrogen and graphite. Empirical correlations of displacement thickness, local skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local non-dimensional heat transfer rate have been obtained. The magnitude of the surface regression rate is found low enough to ensure the use of graphite as a linear or a component of the system over an extended period without loss of performance.
Analysis for leakage and rotordynamic coefficients of surface-roughened tapered annular gas seals
Nelson, C. C.
1984-01-01
The present analysis calculates the leakage and rotor-dynamic coefficients for tapered annular gas seals whose rotor and stator have been subjected to different surface roughness treatments. The analysis is demonstrated for the effects of changes in the Space Shuttle Main Engine High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump's turbine interstage seal length, taper, clearance, and fluid prerotation. It is noted that changes in these parameters generally resulted in major changes in leakage and rotordynamic coefficients.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: â–º Measured subcooled boiling pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient in horizontal tubes. â–º Infra-red thermal imaging is used for wall temperature measurement. â–º Developed correlations for pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficient. -- Abstract: Horizontal flow is commonly encountered in boiler tubes, refrigerating equipments and nuclear reactor fuel channels of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR). Study of horizontal flow under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions is important in understanding the nuclear core behavior during situations like LOCA (loss of coolant accidents). In the present work, local heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop are measured in a horizontal tube under LPLF conditions of subcooled boiling. Geometrical parameters covered in this study are diameter (5.5 mm, 7.5 mm and 9.5 mm) and length (550 mm, 750 mm and 1000 mm). The operating parameters varied are mass flux (450â€“935 kg/m2 s) and inlet subcooling (29 Â°C, 50 Â°C and 70 Â°C). Infra-red thermography is used for the measurement of local wall temperature to estimate the heat transfer coefficient in single phase and two phase flows with water as the working medium at atmospheric pressure. Correlation for single phase diabatic pressure drop ratio (diabatic to adiabatic) as a function of viscosity ratio (wall temperature to fluid temperature) is presented. Correlation for pressure drop under subcooled boiling conditions as a function of Boiling number (Bo) and Jakob number (Ja) is obtained. Correlation for single phase heat transfer coefficient in the thermal developing region is presented as a function of Reynolds number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr) and z/d (ratio of axial length of the test section to diameter). Correlation for two phase heat transfer coefficient under subcooled boiling condition is developed as a function of boiling number (Bo), Jakob number (Ja) and Prandtl number (Pr)
Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop with Rough Surfaces, a Literature Survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This literature survey deals with changes in heat transfer coefficient and friction factor with varying nature and degree of roughness. Experimental data cover mainly the turbulent flow region for both air and water as flow mediums. Semiempirical analysis about changes in heat transfer coefficient due to roughness has been included. An example of how to use these data to design a heat exchanger surface is also cited. The extreme case of large fins has not been considered. Available literature between 1933 - 1963 has been covered
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iguchi, Tadashi; Anoda, Yoshinari [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iwaki, Chikako [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
2002-02-01
Authors performed post-CHF experiments under wider pressure ranges of 2 MPa - 18 MPa, wider mass flux ranges of 33 kg/m{sup 2}s - 1651 kg/m{sup 2}s and wider superheat of heaters up to 500 K in comparison to experimental ranges at previous post-CHF experiments. Data on boiling transition, critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient were obtained. Used test section was 4x4-rod bundle with heaters, which diameter and length were the same as those of BWR nuclear fuels. As the result of the experiments, it was found that the boiling transition occurred just below several grid spacers, and that the fronts of the boiling transition region proceeded lower with increase of heated power. Heat transfer was due to nucleate boiling above grid spacers, while it was due to film boiling below grid spacers. Consequently, critical heat flux is affected on the distance from the grid spacers. Critical heat flux above the grid spacers was about 15% higher than that below the grid spacers, by comparing them under the same local condition. Heat transfer by steam turbulent flow was dominant to post-CHF heat transfer, when superheat of heaters was sufficiently high. Then, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was predicted with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. On the other hand, when superhead of heaters was not sufficiently high, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was higher than the prediction with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. Mass flux effect on post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was described by standardization of post-CHF heat transfer coefficient with the prediction for single-phase flow. However, pressure effect, superheat effect and effect of position were not described. Authors clarified that those effects could be described with functions of heater temperature and position. Post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was lowest just blow the grid spacers, and it increased with the lower positions. It increased by about 30% in one span of the grid spacers, which length was about 50 cm. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Authors performed post-CHF experiments under wider pressure ranges of 2 MPa - 18 MPa, wider mass flux ranges of 33 kg/m2s - 1651 kg/m2s and wider superheat of heaters up to 500 K in comparison to experimental ranges at previous post-CHF experiments. Data on boiling transition, critical heat flux and post-CHF heat transfer coefficient were obtained. Used test section was 4x4-rod bundle with heaters, which diameter and length were the same as those of BWR nuclear fuels. As the result of the experiments, it was found that the boiling transition occurred just below several grid spacers, and that the fronts of the boiling transition region proceeded lower with increase of heated power. Heat transfer was due to nucleate boiling above grid spacers, while it was due to film boiling below grid spacers. Consequently, critical heat flux is affected on the distance from the grid spacers. Critical heat flux above the grid spacers was about 15% higher than that below the grid spacers, by comparing them under the same local condition. Heat transfer by steam turbulent flow was dominant to post-CHF heat transfer, when superheat of heaters was sufficiently high. Then, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was predicted with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. On the other hand, when superhead of heaters was not sufficiently high, post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was higher than the prediction with heat transfer correlations for single-phase flow. Mass flux effect on post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was described by standardization of post-CHF heat transfer coefficient with the prediction for single-phase flow. However, pressure effect, superheat effect and effect of position were not described. Authors clarified that those effects could be described with functions of heater temperature and position. Post-CHF heat transfer coefficient was lowest just blow the grid spacers, and it increased with the lower positions. It increased by about 30% in one span of the grid spacers, which length was about 50 cm. (author)
Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on the Inside Surface of an Inclined Tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present study is aimed at the determination of heat transfer characteristics on the inside surface of a tube while changing the inclination angle. Changes in pool boiling heat transfer coefficients on the inside surface of a 16.2 mm internal diameter has been studied experimentally at atmospheric pressure. Experiments were performed at six different inclination angles to investigate variations in the heat transfer coefficients due to the inclination angle change. Results for 30 .deg.???90 .deg. are almost same whereas the result for ? =15 .deg. is different from the other angles. To predict the heat transfer coefficients an empirical correlation has been developed as ?b 1/(A + Blnq). The developed correlation can predict the measured experimental data within ±4% error bound. Pool boiling is closely related with the design of passive type heat exchangers, which have been investigated in nuclear power plants to achieve safety functions in case of no power supply. Since the space for the installation of a heat exchanger is usually limited, developing more efficient heat exchangers is important. Several researchers have published results for the pool boiling on the outside surface. Jung et al. experimented boiling heat transfer in R-11 to investigate heat transfer mechanisms on the inside surface of a circular cylindrical tank. They simulated the surface by a flat plate. Somewhat detailed study on the inclination angle itself was previously done by Nishikawa et al. by using the combination of a plate and water. Jabardo and Filho performed an experimental study of forced convective boiling of refrigerants in a 12.7 mm internal diameter tube to investigate effects of physical parameters over the variations in local surface temperature. However, mechanisms of pool boiling are much different from those of the forced convective boiling. Kang investigated pool boiling heat transfer of water on the inside surface of a horizontal tube at atmospheric pressure. Experiments were performed at four different azimuthal angles to investigate variations in local heat transfer coefficients along the tube periphery. The local coefficient changes much along the tube periphery and the minimum was observed at the tube bottom. Summarizing the previous works, it is identified that the study for pool boiling heat transfer on the inside surface of a tube is very rare
Kwang-Il Choi; Nguyen-Ba Chien; Jong-Taek Oh
2013-01-01
Experimental data of heat transfer coefficient during evaporation of R-1234yf, R-134a, and R-22 in horizontal circular small tubes are compared. The local heat transfer coefficient is obtained for heat fluxes ranging from 10 to 35?kW?m?2, mass fluxes ranging from 100 to 650?kg?m?2?s?1, saturation temperatures of 5, 10, and 15°C, and quality up to 1.0. The test sections are made of stainless steel tubes with inner diameters of 1.5 and 3.0?mm, the lengths of 1000 and 2000. Effects of heat flux,...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a sensitivity analysis on the overall heat transfer coefficient has been carried out as a function of operation temperature and pressure. The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle and Westinghouse sulfur hybrid cycle, combined with a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), are well-known as feasible technologies for hydrogen production. The SI process consists of a Bunsen reactor; H2SO4, SO3, and HIx decomposers; and a HI pre-heater. The overall heat transfer coefficient of the process heat exchanger (PHE) used in the SI process is a very important factor when sizing the PHE
Impact of External Pressure on the Heat Transfer Coefficient during Solidification of Al-A356 Alloy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Ilkhchy, A.Fardi
In this paper the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is correlated to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of the casting under different pressures were obtained using the Inverse Heat Conduction Problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite difference heat flow program to estimate the transient heat transfer coefficients. The new simple formula was presented and compared with data in literature which shows acceptable agreement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A technique is described which provides a method of obtaining average fuel-to-coolant heat-transfer coefficients for individual fuel subassemblies in fast reactors. A series of experiments on the UK prototype fast reactor over the period 1977-1979 has demonstrated that the technique is simple, requires no special instrumentation other than thermocouples to monitor coolant outlet temperatures, and that the measurement can be made during normal reactor operation. Thus it is possible to determine how heat-transfer coefficients change with operating conditions and with the degree of burn up in the fuel. (U.K.)
Impact of External Pressure on the Heat Transfer Coefficient during Solidification of Al-A356 Alloy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Ilkhchy, A.Fardi; Moumani, E.
In this paper the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is correlated to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of the casting under different pressures were obtained using the Inverse Heat Conduction...... Problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite difference heat flow program to estimate the transient heat transfer coefficients. The new simple formula was presented...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oleksandr I. Brunetkin
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The article highlights the reason of complication of usage of alternative fuel gases on the installed equipment — the organization of effective process of their combustion. As one of the parameters affecting the dynamic characteristics of the control object, the coefficient of convective heat transfer is considered. The effect of changes of physical characteristics of heat and rate of combustion products arising from the use of various combustible gases on it is determined. It is found that the main cause of the change of heat transfer coefficient is the presence of flammable gases of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the mixture.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental study on forced convection in a four-cusp duct simulating a typical nuclear reactor channel degraded by accident is presented. Transfer coefficients were obtained by using the analogy between heat and mass tranfer, with the naphtalene sublimation technique. The experiment consisted in forcing air past a four-cusp naphthalene moulded duct. Mass transfer coefficients were determined in nondimensional form as Sherwood number. Experimental curves correlating the Sherwood number with a nondimensional length, x+, were obtained for Reynolds number varying from 891 to 30.374. This range covers typical flow rates that are expected to exist in a degraded nuclear reactor core. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Transfer coefficients (the equilibrium ratio be-tween radionuclide activity concentration in milk or meat and the daily intake of radionuclide) are widely used to predict the contamination of animal products following the release of radionuclides into the environment. For a transfer coefficient to be generally applicable, its value must be constant for a range of circumstances. However, this is not the case for radiostrontium, the behaviour of which is strongly influenced by that of the homeostatically controlled nutrient, calcium. In this study, a relationship is derived between radiostrontium transfer coefficients and dietary calcium intake which takes into account the observed ratio for strontium:calcium transfer to milk. This relationship is tested against a range of observed data collated from the literature (n = 30) and found to account for 93% of the variability in transfer coefficient values. Model calculations show that a reduction in Fm of at least 40%-60% would be expected if dairy cattle, fed rations typical for well-managed herds, were supplemented with 100-200 g per day. Larger reductions would be predicted when dietary calcium intake is low. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) for vertically upward unidirectional solidification of a eutectic Al-Si casting on water cooled copper and steel chills was measured during solidification. A finite difference method (FDM) was used for solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). Six computer guided thermocouples were connected with the chill and casting, and the time-temperature data were recorded automatically. The thermocouples were placed, located symmetrically, at 5 mm, 37.5 mm and 75 mm from the interface. As the lateral surfaces are very well heat isolated, the unidirectional solidification process starts vertically upward at the interface surface. The measured time-temperature data files were used by a FDM using an explicit technique. A heat flow computer program has been written to estimate the transient metal-chill IHTC in the IHCP. The experimental and calculated temperatures have shown excellent agreement. The IHTC during vertically upward unidirectional solidification of an Al-Si casting on copper and steel chills have varied between about 19-9.5 kW/m2 K and 6.5-5 kW/m2 K, respectively
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anders Michael; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Feilberg, Anders; Christensen, Knud Villy
2009-01-01
A membrane inlet mass spectrometer (MIMS) was used in combination with a developed computer model to study and improve management of a biofilter (BF) treating malodorous ventilation air from a meat rendering facility. The MIMS was used to determine percentage removal efficiencies (REs) of selected...... sulfur gases and to provide toluene retention profiles for the model to determine the air velocity and overall mass-transfer coefficient of toluene. The mass-transfer coefficient of toluene was used as a reference for determining the mass transfer of sulfur gases. By presenting the model to scenarios of...... a filter bed with a consortium of effective sulfur oxidizers, the most likely mechanism for incomplete removal of sulfur compounds from the exhaust air was elucidated. This was found to be insufficient mass transfer and not inadequate bacterial activity as anticipated by the manager of the BF. Thus...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For the future upgrade of inner vessel components (CIEL project) a guard limiter for plasma ramp-up and disruption protection will be installed on the high field side of the vacuum vessel. Among transient heat loads, this structure has to sustain a moderate heat flux in the range of ?0.5 MW/m2 during quasi steady state operation (1000 s). A bolted carbon-carbon (C-C) tile is preferred compared with a brazed tile solution due to the expected moderate heat fluxes, costs and the possibility of rapid replacement of individual tiles. Large flat tile assemblies require a sufficient soft and conductive compliant layer enclosed between tile and heat sink in order to avoid thermal contact loss of the assembly during heat loads and therefore minimising the tile surface temperature. The global heat transfer coefficient (Hgl) under vacuum at low contact pressures (0.5-1.5 MPa) between C-C and CuCrZr heat sink substrata has been measured in the experimental device, installation of contact heat transfer measurements (ITTAC), using different compliant materials. It appears that the best compliant layer is a graphite sheet (PAPYEX), compared with copper-felt/foam material. As an example, a Hgl number of ?104 W/m2 K at an average contact pressure of 0.5 MPa has been measured near room temperature between C-C (SEP N11) and CuCrZr substrata using a 0.5-mm thick PAPYEX layer. Thermohydraulic calculations (2D) of the guard limiter design show an expected tile surface temperature of about 550 deg. C in steady state regime for an incident heat flux of 0.5 MW/m2
Experimentally Determined Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Spacesuit Liquid Cooled Garments
Bue, Grant; Rhodes, Richard; Anchondo, Ian; Westheimer, David; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matt; Vonaue, Walt; Conger, Bruce; Stein, James
2015-01-01
A Human-In-The-Loop (HITL) Portable Life Support System 2.0 (PLSS 2.0) test has been conducted at NASA Johnson Space Center in the PLSS Development Laboratory from October 27, 2014 to December 19, 2014. These closed-loop tests of the PLSS 2.0 system integrated with human subjects in the Mark III Suit at 3.7 psi to 4.3 psi above ambient pressure performing treadmill exercise at various metabolic rates from standing rest to 3000 BTU/hr (880 W). The bulk of the PLSS 2.0 was at ambient pressure but effluent water vapor from the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and the Auxiliary Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), and effluent carbon dioxide from the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) were ported to vacuum to test performance of these components in flight-like conditions. One of the objectives of this test was to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient (UA) of the Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The UA, an important factor for modeling the heat rejection of an LCG, was determined in a variety of conditions by varying inlet water temperature, flow rate, and metabolic rate. Three LCG configurations were tested: the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) LCG, the Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) LCG, and the OSS auxiliary LCG. Other factors influencing accurate UA determination, such as overall heat balance, LCG fit, and the skin temperature measurement, will also be discussed.
Mass Transfer Coefficient During Cathodic Protectionof Low Carbon Steel in Seawater
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ameel Mohammed Rahman
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to calculate mass transfer coefficient, kd, during cathodic protection of low carbon steel in neutral seawater (3.5% W/V NaCl in distilled water with pH = 7. Two types of cathodic protection were used:First: Sacrificial anode cathodic protection (SACP were a pipeline of steel carrying seawater using zinc as a sacrificial anode and with variable temperatures ranged (0 ? 45oC and volumetric flow rate ranged (5 ? 900 lit/hr. It was found that the kd increases with increasing temperature and volumetric flow rate of seawater, where kd ranged (0.24×10-6 ? 41.6×10-6 m/s.Second: Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP technique adopting a rotating vertical steel cylinder in seawater with variable temperatures ranged (0 ? 45oC and rotating velocity ranged (0 ? 400 rpm. It was found that the kd increases with increasing temperature and rotating velocity, where kd ranged (7.25×10-6 ? 36.82×10-6 m/s.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boissieux, X.; Heikal, M.R.; Johns, R.A. [University of Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Engineering
2000-08-01
This paper presents local heat transfer results obtained during the condensation of Isceon 59, R407C and R404A in a smooth horizontal tube. The results have been compared with existing correlations for condensation heat transfer to assess the validity of these models for refrigerant mixtures. Two correlations (Dobson MK, Chato JC. Condensation in smooth horizontal tubes. Journal of Heat Transfer, Transactions of ASME 1998; 120: 193-213, Shah MM. A general correlation for heat transfer during film condensation inside pipes. Int J Heat and Mass Transfer 1979; 22: 547-56) have been considered because they deal with refrigerant blends and their range of applicability suited the experimental test conditions. The Dobson and Chato correlation provided the best prediction for these refrigerant mixtures. The Shah correlation fitted the measurements of the local heat transfer coefficients well and seem to cope well with refrigerant mixtures. (author)
Critical temperatures and temperature coefficients of the surface tension of liquid metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
It is unlikely that the temperature coefficient of liquid surface tension of approximately 50% of the elements will ever be determined because of experimental difficulties. After having given a method of estimating the surface tension at the melting point of such elements in a previous publication, here a possible very simple way of calculating the temperature coefficient is suggested. In addition, numerical values for the critical temperatures of all metals up to the atomic number 95, whose experimental determination will certainly be limited to low melting elements for quite a long time, are given for the first time. (orig.)
Estimation of the friction coefficient between wheel and rail surface using traction motor behaviour
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The friction coefficient between a railway wheel and rail surface is a crucial factor in maintaining high acceleration and braking performance of railway vehicles thus monitoring this friction coefficient is important. Restricted by the difficulty in directly measuring the friction coefficient, the creep force or creepage, indirect methods using state observers are used more frequently. This paper presents an approach using a Kalman filter to estimate the creep force and creepage between the wheel and rail and then to identify the friction coefficient using the estimated creep force-creepage relationship. A mathematic model including an AC motor, wheel and roller is built to simulate the driving system. The parameters are based on a test rig at Manchester Metropolitan University. The Kalman filter is designed to estimate the friction coefficient based on the measurements of the simulation model. Series of residuals are calculated through the comparison between the estimated creep force and theoretical values of different friction coefficient. Root mean square values of the residuals are used in the friction coefficient identification.
Parameterization of a surface drag coefficient in conventionally neutral planetary boundary layer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. N. Esau
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Modern large-scale models (LSMs rely on surface drag coefficients to parameterize turbulent exchange between surface and the first computational level in the atmosphere. A classical parameterization in an Ekman boundary layer is rather simple. It is based on a robust concept of a layer of constant fluxes. In such a layer (log-layer, the mean velocity profile is logarithmic. It results in an universal dependence of the surface drag coefficient on a single internal non-dimensional parameter, namely the ratio of a height within this layer to a surface roughness length scale. A realistic near-neutral planetary boundary layer (PBL is usually much more shallow than the idealized Ekman layer. The reason is that the PBL is developing against a stably stratified free atmosphere. The ambient atmospheric stratification reduces the PBL depth and simultaneously the depth of the log-layer. Therefore, the first computational level in the LSMs may be placed above the log-layer. In such a case, the classical parameterization is unjustified and inaccurate.
The paper proposes several ways to improve the classical parameterization of the surface drag coefficient for momentum. The discussion is focused on a conventionally neutral PBL, i.e. on the neutrally stratified PBL under the stably stratified free atmosphere. The analysis is based on large eddy simulation (LES data. This data reveals that discrepancy between drag coefficients predicted by the classical parameterization and the actual drag coefficients can be very large in the shallow PBL. The improved parameterizations provide a more accurate prediction. The inaccuracy is reduced to one-tenth of the actual values of the coefficients.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using 86Rb as a tracer the effective diffusion coefficient in the resin phase has been determined by direct measurement of the change in the ion concentration. The evaluation of the charging curves was carried out graphically by comparing the experimental curves with theoretical ones, taking into account liquid phase mass transfer
Miyabe, K; Guiochon, G
1999-01-01
The experimental results of a previous study of the mass transfer kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in ion-exchange chromatography under nonlinear conditions are reevaluated. The analysis of the concentration dependence of the lumped mass-transfer rate coefficient (k(m,L)) provides information on the kinetics of axial dispersion, fluid-to-particle mass transfer, intraparticle mass transfer, and adsorption/desorption. The new analysis shows that the contribution of intraparticle mass transfer is the dominant one. Similar to k(m,L), the surface diffusivity (D(s)) of BSA increases with increasing concentration. The linear concentration dependence of k(m,L) seems to originate in a similar dependence of D(s). The use of an heterogeneous-surface model for the anion-exchange resin provides an explanation of the positive concentration dependence of D(s). This work illustrates how frontal analysis data can be used for a detailed investigation of the kinetics of mass transfer between the phases of a chromatographic column, in addition to its conventional use in the determination of the thermodynamic characteristics of the phase equilibrium. PMID:10441366
Numerical study of turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer in lateral perforated extended surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numerical study has been performed in this study to investigate the turbulent convection heat transfer on a rectangular plate mounted over a flat surface. Thermal and fluid dynamic performances of extended surfaces having various types of lateral perforations with square, circular, triangular and hexagonal cross sections are investigated. RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier–Stokes) based modified k–? turbulence model is used to calculate the fluid flow and heat transfer parameters. Numerical results are compared with the results of previously published experimental data and obtained results are in reasonable agreement. Flow and heat transfer parameters are presented for Reynolds numbers from 2000 to 5000 based on the fin thickness. - Highlights: • Lateral perforation shape has significant effects on fin thermal performance. • Solid fins have higher skin friction coefficient value than the perforated ones. • Triangular perforated fins have the lowest skin friction coefficient value. • Hexagonal perforated fins show better thermal and fluid dynamic performances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experimental condensing heat transfer coefficients for R-114 flowing in a horizontal tube were compared with those calculated by the classical Nusselt correlation and with a new prediction method of Rohsenow. It was determined that the Rohsenow method provides satisfactory agreement with the experimental data and that the coefficients calculated by the Nusselt correlation were much too low. A concurrent study of flow regimes was also made by observing the flow patterns in a glass section just downstream of the condensing section. The regimes observed agree reasonably well with a Baker map that was previously developed from theoretical considerations. An improved correlation was also developed for estimating the inside heat transfer coefficients for water in an annulus
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pinheiro Cleber
2008-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the current shortcomings of radiofrequency (RF tumor ablation is its limited performance in regions close to large blood vessels, resulting in high recurrence rates at these locations. Computer models have been used to determine tissue temperatures during tumor ablation procedures. To simulate large vessels, either constant wall temperature or constant convective heat transfer coefficient (h have been assumed at the vessel surface to simulate convection. However, the actual distribution of the temperature on the vessel wall is non-uniform and time-varying, and this feature makes the convective coefficient variable. Methods This paper presents a realistic time-varying model in which h is a function of the temperature distribution at the vessel wall. The finite-element method (FEM was employed in order to model RF hepatic ablation. Two geometrical configurations were investigated. The RF electrode was placed at distances of 1 and 5 mm from a large vessel (10 mm diameter. Results When the ablation procedure takes longer than 1–2 min, the attained coagulation zone obtained with both time-varying h and constant h does not differ significantly. However, for short duration ablation (5–10 s and when the electrode is 1 mm away from the vessel, the use of constant h can lead to errors as high as 20% in the estimation of the coagulation zone. Conclusion For tumor ablation procedures typically lasting at least 5 min, this study shows that modeling the heat sink effect of large vessels by applying constant h as a boundary condition will yield precise results while reducing computational complexity. However, for other thermal therapies with shorter treatment using a time-varying h may be necessary.
SAFARI 2000 Surface Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART), Dry Season 2000
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Surface-sensing Measurements for Radiative Transfer (SMART) and Chemical, Optical, and Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere (COMMIT) consist...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
FREG-3 predicts the temperature distribution in a fuel rod and the stored energy based on the distribution. The temperature distribution is calculated in accordance with fuel-rod irradiation history under normal operating conditions. An important factor in obtaining the temperature distribution is the gap heat transfer coefficient between pellet outer surface and cladding inner surface. To obtain the proper coefficient, the program incorporates submodels and correlations. Purpose of the program is to evaluate stored energy in the fuel rod preceding the initiation of the LOCA. The estimated stored energy is a significant key parameter in safety evaluation of the fuel rod. The program can also be used as the best estimate code, if calculation models or correlations are appropriately chosen. The calculation procedure and the models used are described. (auth.)
Effect of Lubricant Viscosity and Surface Roughness on Coefficient of Friction in Rolling Contact
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.G. Ghalme
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of surface roughness and lubricant viscosity on coefficient of friction in silicon nitride- steel rolling contact. Two samples of silicon nitride with two different values of surface roughness were tested against steel counter face. The test was performed on four ball tester in presence of lubricant with two different values of viscosity. Taguchi technique a methodology in design of experiment implemented to plan the experimentation and same is utilized to evaluate the interacting effect of surface roughness and lubricant viscosity. Analysis of experimental results presents a strong interaction between surface roughness and lubricant viscosity on coefficient of friction in rolling contact.
Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...
Data Qualification Report For DTN: MO0012RIB00065.002, Parameter Values For Transfer Coefficients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A data-qualification evaluation was conducted on Reference Information Base (RIB) data set MOO0 12RIB00065.002, ''Parameter Values for Transfer Coefficients''. The corroborating data method was used to evaluate the data. This method was selected because it closely matches the literature-review method followed to select parameter values. Five criteria were considered when the corroborating method was used: adequacy of the corroborative literature, sufficiency of value-selection criteria, implementation of the selection criteria, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable quality assurance (QA) procedures. Three criteria were used when a literature review was not conducted: appropriate logic used to select parameters, documentation of the process, and whether the analysis was conducted in accordance with applicable QA procedures. The RIB data item, the associated Analysis and Model Report (AMR), the corroborative literature, and the results of an audit revision O/ICN--0 of the AMR were examined. All calculations and the selection process for all values were repeated and confirmed. The qualification team concluded: (1) A sufficient quantity of corroborative literature was reviewed and no additional literature was identified that should have been considered. (2) The selection criteria were sufficient and resulted in valid parameter values. (3) The process was well defined, adequately documented in the AMR, and correctly followed. (4) The analysis was developed in accordance with applicable QA procedures. No negative findings were documented that resulted in questions about the quality of the data. The qualification team therefore recommends that the qualification status of RIB data set MO0012RIB00065.002 be changed to qualified
EMILA DJORDJEVIC; STEPHAN KABELAC; SLOBODAN SERBANOVIC
2007-01-01
In this study the transfer coefficient of evaporation heat of the refrigerant 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a) in a vertical plate heat exchanger was experimentally investigated. The results are presented as the dependancy of the mean heat transfer coefficient for the whole heat exchanger on the mean vapor quality. The influences of mass flux, heat flux and flow configuration on the heat transfer coefficient were also taken into account and a comparison with previously published experimenta...
Surface diffusion coefficient near first-order phase transitions at low temperatures
Medved, Igor; Trnik, Anton
2012-01-01
We analyze the collective surface diffusion coefficient, $D_c$, near a first-order phase transition at which two phases coexist and the surface coverage, $\\te$, drops from one single-phase value, $\\te_+$, to the other one, $\\te_-$. Contrary to other studies, we consider the temperatures that are sufficiently sub-critical. Using the local equilibrium approximation, we obtain, both numerically and analytically, the dependence of $D_c$ on the coverage and system size, $N$, near...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Detailed studies were carried out to establish site-specific soil to grass transfer factors (Fv) and grass to cow milk transfer coefficients (Fm) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) and stable cesium (Cs) for Kaiga region, where a nuclear power station has been in operation for more than 10 years. The study included adopted cows, cows of local farmers, and cows from the dairy farm. A grass field was developed specifically for the study and 2 local breed cows were adopted and allowed to graze in this grass field. The soil and grass samples were collected regularly from this field and analyzed for the concentrations of 137Cs and stable Cs to evaluate the soil to grass Fv values. The milk samples from the adopted cows were analyzed for the 137Cs and stable Cs concentrations to evaluate Fm values. For comparison, studies were also carried out in dominant grazing areas in different villages around the nuclear power plant and the cows of local farmers which graze in these areas were identified and milk samples were collected and analyzed regularly. The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. The Fm of 137Cs had geometric mean values of 1.9 × 10?2 d L?1 and 4.6 × 10?2 d L?1, respectively, for adopted Cows 1 and 2; 1.7 × 10?2 d L?1 for the cows of local farmers, and 4.0 × 10?3 d L?1 for the dairy farm cows. The geometric mean values of Fm for stable Cs were similar to those of 137Cs. The Fm value for the dairy farm cows was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. The Fm values observed for the local breed cows were also an order of magnitude higher when compared to the many values reported in the literature and in the IAEA publication. Possible reasons for this higher Fm values were identified. The correlation between Fv and Fm values for 137Cs and stable Cs and their dependence on the potassium content (40K and stable K) in the soil and grass were also studied. In order to estimate the ingestion dose accurate data of the dietary habits of the population was necessary and this data was collected through a well planned demographic survey. The internal doses to a child due to the ingestion of 137Cs along with the milk of the local cows and from the dairy farm were found to be 0.29 ?Sv y?1 and 0.04 ?Sv y?1,while that to an adult were 0.39 ?Sv y?1 and 0.05 ?Sv y?1, respectively. -- Highlights: • This is a detailed study on Fv and Fm for 137Cs and stable Cs around the Kaiga nuclear power plant, India. • The geometric mean values of Fv were found to be 1.1 × 10?1 and 1.8 × 10?1 for 137Cs and stable Cs, respectively. • The Fm value for 137Cs for the local breed cows was estimated to be 2.4 × 10?2 d L?1. • The Fm value for dairy farm cows (4.0 × 10?3 d L?1) was an order of magnitude lower than those for local breed cows. • The reasons for the higher Fm values for 137Cs for the local breed cows are identified
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maciejewska Beata
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the FEM method for determination of boiling heat transfer coefficient in cooling liquid flow in a rectangular minichannel with asymmetric heating. Experimental research has focused on the transition from single phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, i.e. the zone of boiling incipience. The “boiling front” location has been determined from the temperature distribution of the heated wall obtained from liquid crystal thermography. The main part of the test section has been a minichannel of pre-set depth from 0.7 to 2.0 mm, of different spatial orientations. Local values of heat transfer coefficient have been determined following the solution of the two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problem. This problem has been solved with the use of Trefftz functions. Trefftz functions have been used to construct base functions in the finite element method (FEMT.
Zhang, Liqiang; Tan, Wenfang; Hu, Hao
2015-07-01
For modeling solidification process of casting accurately, a reliable heat transfer boundary condition data is required. In this paper, an inverse conduction model was established to determine the heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the metal-sand mold interface for cylindrical casting in the lost foam process. The numerically calculated temperature was compared with analytic solution and simulation solution obtained by commercial software ProCAST to investigate the accuracy of heat conduction model. The instantaneous cast and sand mold temperatures were measured experimentally and these values were used to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC). The IHTC values during lost foam casting were shown to vary from 20 to 800 W m-2 K-1. Additionally, the characteristics of the time-varying IHTC have also been discussed in this study.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The goat milk transfer coefficient of Tc administered as TcO4- was found to be 20 to 40 times that of Tc administered in a reduced form. The fraction of Tc, as TcO4-, transferred from gut to blood was approximately 6 to 10 times that of reduced Tc. The milk transfer coefficient of Tc administered as TcO4- was 6 to 8 times greater for goats than cows. The fraction of Tc, as TcO4-, absorbed from the gut by cows, however, was approximately twice that absorbed by goats. The mean time for loss of Tc in cows' milk based on the average values plotted in Figure 2 was approximately 10 hours. The fraction of Tc, administered as TcO4-, absorbed from blood to mammary gland by cows was estimated to be approximately 2% that of goats. 4 refs., 15 tabs
Takahashi, Yasushi; Gokan, Yoshitsugu; Inayoshi, Makoto; Ishima, Tsuneaki; Obokata, Tomio
Cooling performance is a significant issue for air-cooled motorcycle engines, because its performance depends on the vehicle motion. Commonly, a heat transfer coefficient is calculated by heat flux and temperature difference, which are solved by energy equation under conjugated condition between a solid and a fluid. However, this method is complicated. Therefore, Karman's analogy based on a relation between the fluid friction and the heat transportation was used to obtain a heat transfer coefficient without solving an energy equation. Partial Cells in Cartesian coordinate method was employed as a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method for an efficient calculation around complex obstacles. Characteristics of heat transfer in a straight pipe were confirmed by a comparison with the Colburn's empirical formula. The results showed good agreement within ±10% differences under Pr=0.7 and 104motorcycle engine was shown. From the above, a new approach of heat analysis by a CFD was proposed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text of publication follows: Models or correlations for phase interface are needed to analyze the multi-phase flow. Interfacial heat transfer coefficients are important to constitute energy equation of multi-phase flow, specially. In subcooled boiling flow, bubble condensation at the bubble-liquid interface is a major mechanism of heat transfer within bulk subcooled liquid. Bubble collapse rates and temperatures of each phase are needed to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for bubble condensation. Bubble collapse rates were calculated through image processing in single direction, generally. And in case of liquid bulk temperature, which has been obtained by general temperature sensor such as thermocouple, was used. However, multi-directional images are needed to analyze images due to limitations of single directional image processing. Also, temperature sensor, which has a fast response time, must be used to obtain more accurate interfacial heat transfer coefficient. Low pressure subcooled water flow experiments using micro-thermocouple and double directional image processing with mirrors were conducted to investigate bubble condensation phenomena and to modify interfacial heat transfer correlation. Experiments were performed in a vertical subcooled boiling flow of a rectangular channel. Bubble condensing traces with respect to time were recorded by high speed camera in double direction and bubble collapse rates were calculated by processing recorded digital images. Temperatures were measured by micro-thermocouple, which is a K-type with a 12.7 ?m diameter. The liquid temperature was estimated by the developed algorithm to discriminate phases and find each phase temperature in the measured temperature including both liquid and bubble temperature. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient for bubble condensation was calculated from the bubble collapse rates and the estimated liquid temperature, and its correlation was modified. The modified correlation has been compared with other correlations. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For a steam generator with straight double-walled heat transfer tubes that will be used in sodium cooled faster breeder reactor, clarification of flow instability in heat transfer tubes is one of the most important research themes. As the first step of the research, thermal hydraulics experiments with water were performed under high pressure condition in JAEA with using a circular tube. Pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients and void fraction data were derived. This paper summarizes the heat transfer characteristics under 15-18 MPa. Saturated boiling heat transfer was discussed with four most famous general heat transfer correlations (Chen, Shah, Steiner-Taborek and Gungor-Winterton) being verified. Under present high pressure condition, it was found that the Shah correlation gave good agreement with data at low mass flow rate and the Chen correlation gave good agreement at high mass flow rate condition. For the nominate flow rate of w=110 g/s, both Chen and Shah correlations can be used. As a result, under present high pressure condition, we recommend that the smaller one of the Chen and Shah correlations be used for the calculation of heat transfer coefficient. (author)
Kukreja, R. T.; Park, C. W.; Lau, S C
1998-01-01
Naphthalene sublimation technique and the heat/mass transfer analogy are used to determine the detailed local heat/mass transfer distributions on the leading and trailing walls of a twopass square channel with smooth walls that rotates about a perpendicular axis. Since the variation of density is small in the flow through the channel, buoyancy effect is negligible. Results show that, in both the stationary and rotating channel cases, very large spanwise variations of the mass transfer exist i...
Theory of the kinetic coefficients of the atomically rough surface of 4He crystals
Bowley, R.M.; Edwards, D. O.
1983-01-01
The growth coefficient K (the velocity of growth per unit chemical potential difference) and the Onsager cross-coefficients b1 and b2, coupling growth and heat flow, are calculated for atomically rough surfaces of hcp 4He crystals. The calculation is based on the premise, suggested by Andreev and Parshin, that growth is limited by the collision of phonons and rotons with the interface. The calculated K is compared with that obtained by Keshiskev et al. from the damping of melting-freezing wav...
Pathak, Mihir G.; Mulcahey, Thomas; Ghiaasiaan, S. Mostafa
2012-06-01
Solid-fluid thermal interactions during unsteady flow in porous media play an important role in the regenerators and heat exchangers of pulse tube cryocoolers. Porelevel thermal processes in porous media under laminar unsteady flow conditions have recently been investigated and have been shown to produce significantly larger heat transfer coefficients compared to those in steady flow [1]. The objective of this investigation was to study pore-level hydrodynamic and thermal phenomena during pulsating sinusoidal flow through a generic, two-dimensional porous medium by numerical analysis. The investigated porous media are periodic arrays of rectangular cylinders, and are meant to represent tube bundles in micro heat exchangers. Furthermore, an examination of the effects of flow pulsations on the drag and heat transfer coefficients that are encountered in the standard, volume-average energy equations was carried out. Detailed numerical data for the typical 75% porous configuration, with flow pulsation frequencies of 20, 40, and 80 Hz were obtained at mean flow - Reynolds numbers in the range 0-1000. Based on these numerical results, the instantaneous as well as cycle-average drag coefficients and heat transfer coefficients, to be used in the standard unsteady volume- average momentum and energy conservation equations, were derived.
Heat and mass transfer on turbulent liquid flow near a roughness surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Process of heat and mass transfer at turbulent flow of the fluids in the vicinity of a rough surface is analized. For description of turbulent viscosity variation at the cross section of the flow, the latter is represented by a simple ''two-layer'' pattern. The relations calculated are given showing dependence of the Stenton number and friction coefficient on Re for the fluid flow in the rough tubes at various Pr. It is established that at Pr 1 surface roughness considerably intensifies the heat and mass transfer processes. There exists a region of the Re values wherein the effect of surface roughness on heat and mass transfer exceeds its effect on friction. The expressions which are derived make it possible to calculate the heat exchange characteristics for various types of the rough surfaces
Ozawa, S.; Suzuki, S.; Hibiya, T.; Fukuyama, H.
2011-01-01
Influences of oxygen partial pressure, PO2, of ambient atmosphere and temperature on surface tension and its temperature coefficient for molten iron were experimentally investigated by an oscillating droplet method using an electromagnetic levitation furnace. We successfully measured the surface tension of molten iron over a very wide temperature range of 780 K including undercooling condition in a well controlled PO2 atmosphere. When PO2 is fixed at 10-2 Pa at the inlet of the chamber, a "boomerang shape" temperature dependence of surface tension was experimentally observed; surface tension increased and then decreased with increasing temperature. The pure surface tension of molten iron was deduced from the negative temperature coefficient in the boomerang shape temperature dependence. When the surface tension was measured under the H2-containing gas atmosphere, surface tension did not show a linear relationship against temperature. The temperature dependence of the surface tension shows anomalous kink at around 1850 K due to competition between the temperature dependence of PO2 and that of the equilibrium constant of oxygen adsorption.
Sørum, Mikkel
2014-01-01
High heat transfer rates at reasonably low temperature differences can be obtained by utilizing a boiling fluid. The use of boiling heat transfer is often limited by onset of a heat transfer crisis named the Critical Heat Flux (CHF). The CHF is accompanied by an inordinate increase in temperature with the most severe consequence being related to the physical burnout of the heated surface. Two-phase boiling flows in channels are sometimes prone to flow instabilities. Density Wave Oscillations ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rong, Li; Nielsen, Peter V.; Zhang, Guoqiang
2010-01-01
This paper reports the results of an investigation, based on fundamental fluid dynamics and mass transfer theory, carried out to obtain a general understanding of ammonia mass transfer from an emission surface. The effects of airflow and aqueous ammonium solution temperature on ammonia mass transfer are investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and by a mechanism modeling using dissociation constant and Henry's constant models based on the parameters measured in the exper...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Overall mass transfer coefficients as a function of time for the transfer of uranium between nitric acid and tri-butyl phosphate have been measured using the quasi-steady state droplet technique. The time dependence of the mass transfer coefficient is known to be a result of a corresponding decrease in the frequency of interfacial turbulence as the interface ages. The present study reports several supporting experiments carried out in an attempt to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon. The experimental conditions investigated concentrated on the extraction of uranyl nitrate into and from tri-n-butylphosphate, and included measurements of the mass transfer coefficients to examine the effect of solute loading of the solvent continuous phase, the effect of drop size, and the effect of a change of solvent phase diluent. A study of the backwashing of uranyl nitrate, in which interfacial turbulence is not observed, from the solvent phase to an aqueous one was made. An explanation for the cause of the dampening of interfacial turbulence is proposed and discussed. (author)
Transfer coefficients of energy in mass for X radiation-air: the kV relation and effective energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The objective was to determine, through specific software, the mass-energy transfer coefficients by X-ray beams in air between 30-150 kV. Were generated by the Spectrum Processor program, the spectra and calculated their mass coefficients. The results behaved numerically decreasing order, ranging between 0.3733 and 0.0439 cm2/g, inversely proportional to the voltage used and differing behavior of mono-energetic beams above 100 keV. Values align with literal definitions of the interaction of radiation with matter, being useful for dosimetry in diagnostic radiology, including for systems not using an ionization chamber. (author)
Sabatier, Romuald; Fossati, Caroline; Bourennane, Salah; Di Giacomo, Antonio
2008-10-01
Model Based Optical Proximity Correction (MBOPC) is since a decade a widely used technique that permits to achieve resolutions on silicon layout smaller than the wave-length which is used in commercially-available photolithography tools. This is an important point, because masks dimensions are continuously shrinking. As for the current masks, several billions of segments have to be moved, and also, several iterations are needed to reach convergence. Therefore, fast and accurate algorithms are mandatory to perform OPC on a mask in a reasonably short time for industrial purposes. As imaging with an optical lithography system is similar to microscopy, the theory used in MBOPC is drawn from the works originally conducted for the theory of microscopy. Fourier Optics was first developed by Abbe to describe the image formed by a microscope and is often referred to as Abbe formulation. This is one of the best methods for optimizing illumination and is used in most of the commercially available lithography simulation packages. Hopkins method, developed later in 1951, is the best method for mask optimization. Consequently, Hopkins formulation, widely used for partially coherent illumination, and thus for lithography, is present in most of the commercially available OPC tools. This formulation has the advantage of a four-way transmission function independent of the mask layout. The values of this function, called Transfer Cross Coefficients (TCC), describe the illumination and projection pupils. Commonly-used algorithms, involving TCC of Hopkins formulation to compute aerial images during MBOPC treatment, are based on TCC decomposition into its eigenvectors using matricization and the well-known Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) tool. These techniques that use numerical approximation and empirical determination of the number of eigenvectors taken into account, could not match reality and lead to an information loss. They also remain highly runtime consuming. We propose an original technique, inspired from tensor signal processing tools. Our aim is to improve the simulation results and to obtain a faster algorithm runtime. We consider multiway array called tensor data T CC. Then, in order to compute an aerial image, we develop a lower-rank tensor approximation algorithm based on the signal subspaces. For this purpose, we propose to replace SVD by the Higher Order SVD to compute the eigenvectors associated with the different modes of TCC. Finally, we propose a new criterion to estimate the optimal number of leading eigenvectors required to obtain a good approximation while ensuring a low information loss. Numerical results we present show that our proposed approach is a fast and accurate for computing aerial images.
The fuel to clad heat transfer coefficient in advanced MX-type fuel pins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Advanced fuels (mixed carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides) are characterised by a high thermal conductivity compared to that of oxide fuels (5 times greater) and their behaviour under irradiation (amount of swelling, fracture behaviour, restructuring) is far more sensitive to the design parameters and to the operating temperature than that of oxide fuels. The use of advanced fuels is therefore conditioned by the possibility of mastering the above phenomena, and the full exploitation of their favorable neutron characteristics depends upon a good understanding of the mutual relationships of the various parameters, which eventually affect the mechanical stability of the pin. By far the most important parameter is the radial temperature profile which controls the swelling of the fuel and the build-up of stress fields within the pin. Since the rate of fission gas swelling of these fuels is relatively large, a sufficient amount of free space has to be provided within the pin. This space originally appears as fabrication porosity and as fuel-to-clad clearance. Due to the large initial gap width and to the high fuel thermal conductivity, the range of the fuel operating temperatures is mainly determined by the fuel-to-clad heat transfer coefficient h, whose correct determination becomes one of the central points in modelling. During the many years of modelling activity in the field of oxide fuels, several theoretical models have been developed to calculate h, and a large amount of experimental data has been produced for the empirical adjustment of the parameters involved, so that the situation may be regarded as rather satisfactory. The analysis lead to the following conclusions. A quantitative comparison of experimental h-values with existing models for h requires rather sophisticated instrumented irradiation capsules, which permit the measurement of mechanical data (concerning fuel and clad) together with heat rating and temperatures. More and better well-instrumented irradiation experiments are necessary in order to make progress on this problem. The h-values are sensitive to changes in the linear heat rating and/or clad temperature. A quantitative comparison of experimental values of h with existing models requires capsule irradiations, in which temperatures, rating and also mechanical parameters are all recorded during irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Determination of velocity coefficient for gas flow transfer across the natural sea surface into the atmosphere (Kv) was attempted by means of radon method on board the SRS Academician Alexander Nesmeyanov (July-August 1992). The measurements were conducted in the Bering Sea, the Okhotsk Sea and in the North Pacific Ocean. It is shown that the total range of the Kv observed values equaled from 1.8 up to 5.4 m.day, which is within the known limits for other regions of the world ocean. 9 refs., 1 fig
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niu Hai-jun
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of Osteoarthritis (OA is essential for preventing further cartilage destruction and decreasing severe complications. The aims of this study are to explore the relationship between OA pathological grades and quantitative acoustic parameters and to provide more objective criteria for ultrasonic microscopic evaluation of the OA cartilage. Methods Articular cartilage samples were prepared from rabbit knees and scanned using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM. Three quantitative parameters, including the roughness index of the cartilage surface (URI, the reflection coefficients from the cartilage surface (R and from the cartilage-bone interface (Rbone were extracted. The osteoarthritis grades of these cartilage samples were qualitatively assessed by histology according to the grading standards of International Osteoarthritis Institute (OARSI. The relationship between these quantitative parameters and the osteoarthritis grades was explored. Results The results showed that URI increased with the OA grade. URI of the normal cartilage samples was significantly lower than the one of the OA cartilage samples. There was no significant difference in URI between the grade 1 cartilage samples and the grade 2 cartilage samples. The reflection coefficient of the cartilage surface reduced significantly with the development of OA (p Conclusion High frequency ultrasound measurements can reflect the changes in the surface roughness index and the ultrasound reflection coefficients of the cartilage samples with different OA grades. This study may provide useful information for the quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis of early OA.
Cheng, Jiangtao
2015-03-01
We report the effects of surface roughness on contact line friction coefficient (CLFC) of water droplets on micro- and nano-patterned surfaces. Both advancing and receding CLFCs have been measured on smooth, one-tier (with micropillars), and two-tier (with CNTs grown on micropillars) surfaces. In comparison with smooth surface, superhydrophobic surfaces can decrease both the advancing and receding CLFCs by more than 10 times. However, droplets on one-tier surfaces exhibit different dynamic behaviors in advancing and receding movements. We investigated the Wenzel-Cassie state transition on micropillar structures and found that the receding motion of a droplet on micropillars is dominated by the Wenzel model with significant receding contact line pinning, which leads to higher receding CLFC. However, rolling mechanism of liquid particles near the advancing contact line controls the advancing motion of a droplet on micropillars. There is a high tendency for an advancing droplet to exhibit Cassie-type behavior on one-tier surfaces and hence advancing CLFC is considerably mitigated. On two-tier superhydrophobic surfaces, it is the Cassie-Baxter behavior that dominates both the advancing and receding contact line motions giving rise to less friction coefficients.
Methamphetamine residue dermal transfer efficiencies from household surfaces.
Van Dyke, Mike; Martyny, John W; Serrano, Kate A
2014-01-01
Methamphetamine contamination from illegal production operations poses a potential health concern for emergency responders, child protective services, law enforcement, and children living in contaminated structures. The objective of this study was to evaluate dermal transfer efficiencies of methamphetamine from contaminated household surfaces. These transfer efficiencies are lacking for methamphetamine, and would be beneficial for use in exposure models. Surfaces were contaminated using a simulated smoking method in a stainless steel chamber. Household surfaces were carpet, painted drywall, and linoleum. Dermal transfer efficiencies were obtained using cotton gloves for two hand conditions, dry or saliva moistened (wet). In addition, three contact scenarios were evaluated for both hand conditions: one, two, or three contacts with contaminated surfaces. Dermal transfer efficiencies were calculated for both hand conditions and used as inputs in a Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation model (SHEDS-Multimedia, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C.). Results of this study showed that average dermal transfer efficiencies of methamphetamine ranged from 11% for dry hands to 26% for wet hands. There was a significantly higher wet transfer as compared to dry transfer for all surfaces. For wet hands, dermal transfer depended on surface type with higher transfer from carpet and linoleum as compared to drywall. Based on our estimates of dermal transfer efficiency, a surface contamination clearance level of 1.5 ?g/100 cm(2) may not ensure absorbed doses remain below the level associated with adverse health effects in all cases. Additional dermal transfer studies should be performed using skin surrogates that may better predict actual skin transfer. PMID:24579754
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The local heat transfer coefficient is experimentally investigated for the reflux condensation in a countercurrent flow between the steam-air mixture and the condensate. A single vertical tube has a geometry which is a length of 2.4 m, inner diameter of 16.56 mm and outer diameter of 19.05 mm and is made of stainless steel. Air is used as a noncondensable gas. The secondary side has a shape of annulus around vertical tube and the lost heat by primary condensation is transferred to the coolant water. The local temperatures are measured at 11 locations in the vertical direction and each location has 3 measurement points in the radial direction, which are installed at the tube center, at the outer wall and at the coolant side. In three different pressures, the 27 sets of data are obtained in the range of inlet steam flow rate 1.348?3.282 kg/hr, of inlet air mass fraction 11.8?55.0 percent. The investigation of the flooding is preceded to find the upper limit of the reflux condensation. Onset of flooding is lower than that of Wallis' correlation. The local heat transfer coefficient increases as the increase of inlet steam flow rate and decreases as the increase of inlet air mass fraction. As an increase of the system pressure, the active condensing region is contracted and the heat transfer capability in this region is magnified. The empirical correlation is developed by 165 data of the local heat transfer. As a result, the Jacob number and film Reynolds number are dominant parameters to govern the local heat transfer coefficient. The rms error is 17.7 percent between the results by the experiment and by the correlation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The local heat transfer coefficient is experimentally investigated for the reflux condensation in a countercurrent flow between the steam-air mixture and the condensate. A single vertical tube has a geometry which is a length of 2.4m, inner diameter of 16.56mm and outer diameter of 19.05mm and is made of stainless steel. Air is used as a noncondensible gas. The secondary side is installed in the form of coolant block around vertical tube and the heat by primary condensation is transferred to the coolant water. The local temperatures are measured at 15 locations in the vertical direction and each location has 3 measurement points in the radial direction, which are installed at the tube center, at the outer wall and at the coolant side. In three different pressures, the 27 sets of data are obtained in the range of inlet steam flow rate 1.348?3.282kg/hr, of inlet air mass fraction 11.8?55.0%. The local heat transfer coefficient increases as the increase of inlet steam flow rate and decreases as the decrease of inlet air mass fraction. As an increase of the system pressure, the active condensing region is contracted and the heat transfer capability in this region is magnified. The empirical correlation is developed represented with the 165 sets of local heat transfer data. As a result, the Jacob number and film Reynolds number are dominant parameters to govern the local heat transfer coefficient. The rms error is 17.7% between the results by the experiment and by the correlation
Meso-scale wrinkled coatings to improve heat transfers of surfaces facing ambient air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meso-scale (micrometer-to submillimeter-scale) wrinkled surfaces coated on steel sheets used in outdoor storage and transport facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids were discovered to efficiently increase convective heat transfer between ambient air and the surface. The radiative and convective heat transfer coefficients of various wrinkled surfaces, which were formed by coating steel sheets with several types of shrinkable paints, were examined. The convective heat transfer coefficient of a surface colder than ambient air monotonically changed with average height difference and interval distance of the wrinkle undulation, where the proportions were 0.0254 and 0.0054 W/m2/K/?m, respectively. With this wrinkled coating, users can lower the possibility of condensation and reduce rust and maintenance cost of facilities for industrial low-temperature liquids. From the point of view of manufacturers, this coating method can be easily adapted to conventional manufacturing processes. - Highlights: • Various wrinkled surfaces were fabricated by a practical process. • Topographical effect on convection was parameterized separately from radiation. • Meso-scale wrinkled coatings increased convective heat transfer with ambient air. • Maintenance cost of outdoor steel sheets due to condensation can be reduced
Cushing, G. W.; Navin, J. K.; Valadez, L.; JohÃ¡nek, V.; Harrison, I.
2011-04-01
An effusive molecular beam technique is described to measure alkane dissociative sticking coefficients, S(Tg, Ts; Ï‘), on metal surfaces for which the impinging gas temperature, Tg, and surface temperature, Ts, can be independently varied, along with the angle of incidence, Ï‘, of the impinging gas. Effusive beam experiments with Tg = Ts = T allow for determination of angle-resolved dissociative sticking coefficients, S(T; Ï‘), which when averaged over the cos (Ï‘)/Ï€ angular distribution appropriate to the impinging flux from a thermal ambient gas yield the thermal dissociative sticking coefficient, S(T). Nonequilibrium S(Tg, Ts; Ï‘) measurements for which Tg â‰ Ts provide additional opportunities to characterize the transition state and gas-surface energy transfer at reactive energies. A resistively heated effusive molecular beam doser controls the Tg of the impinging gas striking the surface. The flux of molecules striking the surface from the effusive beam is determined from knowledge of the dosing geometry, chamber pressure, and pumping speed. Separate experiments with a calibrated leak serve to fix the chamber pumping speed. Postdosing Auger electron spectroscopy is used to measure the carbon of the alkyl radical reaction product that is deposited on the surface as a result of alkane dissociative sticking. As implemented in a typical ultrahigh vacuum chamber for surface analysis, the technique has provided access to a dynamic range of roughly 6 orders of magnitude in the initial dissociative sticking coefficient for small alkanes on Pt(111).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The computation and analysis of the heat transfer coefficient correction factor the shell and tube type of the Kartini reactor's heat exchanger (HE) has been carried out. The computation of the correction factor was done by measuring of the actual dimension of HE. As known that the shell and tube type of the Kartini reactor's has been opera-ted for more than 15 years. Due to the scraping and rusting occur at the buffle, the total heat transfer coefficient correction factor Ft was decrease. At the later computation, it is found that it's value is 0,4669 or differ of 0,1331 compared to the prediction standard value. So far, if the rusting and scraping of the secondary water coolant to the buffle is linear to the earlier HE's operation time, it is predicted that the function of the buffle will crisis approximately in the year of 2002/2003 or 7,5 years again
Bozzoli, F.; Cattani, L.; Pagliarini, G.; Rainieri, S.
2015-03-01
This paper presents and assesses an inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) solution procedure which was developed to determine the local convective heat transfer coefficient along the circumferential coordinate at the inner wall of a coiled pipe by applying the filtering technique approach to infrared temperature maps acquired on the outer tube's wall. The data-processing procedure filters out the unwanted noise from the raw temperature data to enable the direct calculation of its Laplacian which is embedded in the formulation of the inverse heat conduction problem. The presented technique is experimentally verified using data that were acquired in the laminar flow regime that is frequently found in coiled-tube heat-exchanger applications. The estimated convective heat transfer coefficient distributions are substantially consistent with the available numerical results in the scientific literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A mathematical model is presented to study the Soret and Dufour effects on the convective heat and mass transfer in stagnation-point flow of viscous incompressible fluid towards a shrinking surface. Suitable similarity transformations are used to convert the governing partial differential equations into self-similarity ordinary differential equations that are then numerically solved by shooting method. Dual solutions for temperature and concentration are obtained in the presence of Soret and Dufour effects. Graphical representations of the heat and mass transfer coefficients, the dimensionless thermal and solute profiles for various values of Prandtl number, Lewis number, Soret number and Dufour number are demonstrated. With Soret number the mass transfer coefficient which is related to mass transfer rate increases for both solutions and the heat transfer coefficient (related to heat transfer rate) for both solutions becomes larger with Dufour number. The Prandtl number causes reduction in heat and the mass transfer coefficients and similarly with the Lewis number mass transfer coefficient decreases. Also, double crossing over is found in dual dimensionless temperature profiles for increasing Soret number and in dual dimensionless concentration profiles for the increase in Dufour number. Due to the larger values of Dufour number the thermal boundary layer increases and for Prandtl number increment it decreases; whereas, the solute boundary layer thickness reduces with increasing values of Prandtl number and Lewis number. (paper)
Sticking coefficient and SIMS of hydrocarbons on fusion relevant plasma-sprayed tungsten surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we concentrate on the quantification of the sticking coefficient of CD3+ on fusion relevant plasma-sprayed tungsten (PSW) surfaces in the collision energy range from about 0 up to 100eV. PSW samples were cut from ASDEX Upgrade tiles and both untreated and electropolished surfaces are investigated. A collision energy, Ecoll, selected CD3+ ion beam deposits hydrocarbon layers onto the target surfaces which are ex-situ analyzed by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) via D(3He,p)4He at 800kV and 2.5MeV, respectively. The sticking coefficient, S, for deuterium has been found to be collision energy dependent, decreasing with increasing energy. It is in the order of Sâˆ¼0.4 for PSW and Sâˆ¼0.1 for electro polished PSW at Ecoll=10eV. Secondary ion mass spectra of charged particles are recorded after ion-surface collisions with the polished PSW surface for collision energies up to 100eV. While at very low collision energies below about 10eV only simple reflection of CD3+ is observed, at higher collision energies both fragmentation of the projectile and fragmentation of ion-surface reaction products are observed. Concerning the stability of the layers we prove that hydrogen exchange plays a role on the time scale of weeks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ernst; Mollerup, JÃ¸rgen
1999-01-01
The paper describes a method of simultaneous determination of the external and the solid phase mass-transfer coefficients from frontal analysis data. The protein flux to the solid particles is determined from the slope of the breakthrough curve and the mass-transfer coefficients are determined by...
Oleksandr I. Brunetkin; Anna V. Gusak
2015-01-01
The article highlights the reason of complication of usage of alternative fuel gases on the installed equipment — the organization of effective process of their combustion. As one of the parameters affecting the dynamic characteristics of the control object, the coefficient of convective heat transfer is considered. The effect of changes of physical characteristics of heat and rate of combustion products arising from the use of various combustible gases on it is determined. It is found that t...
Effect of pressure on heat transfer coefficient at the metal/mold interface of A356 aluminum alloy
Fardi Ilkhchy, A.; Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, P.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to correlate interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of casting under different pressures were obtained using the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite differenc...
P. Raveendiran; SIVARAMAN B
2015-01-01
The heat transfer coefficients and friction factors of a baffled shell and heat pipe heat exchanger with various inclination angles were determined experimentally; using methanol as working fluid and water as heat transport fluid were reported. Heat pipe heat exchanger reported in this investigation have inclination angles varied between 15o and 60o for different mass flow rates and temperature at the shell side of the heat exchanger. All the required parameters like outlet temperature of bot...
Zhang, Zhiqiang; Gao, Peng; Liu, Chaoyang; Li, Xiangji
2015-12-01
An optimization-based numerical procedure was developed to determine the pressure-dependent heat transfer coefficient (HTC) between the blank and tools during the hot stamping of boron steel. During the quenching period, HTC increased with the contact pressure between blank and lower tool. There is no obvious linear relationship between them. The maximum value of 1500 W/m2 K was achieved at contact pressure 18 MPa.
Impact of External Pressure on the Heat Transfer Coefficient during Solidification of Al-A356 Alloy
Jabbari, Masoud; Ilkhchy, A.Fardi; Moumani, E.
2012-01-01
In this paper the interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC) is correlated to applied external pressure, in which IHTC at the interface between A356 aluminum alloy and metallic mold during the solidification of the casting under different pressures were obtained using the Inverse Heat Conduction Problem (IHCP) method. The method covers the expedient of comparing theoretical and experimental thermal histories. Temperature profiles obtained from thermocouples were used in a finite difference ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Matteoni, G.; Georgakis, C.T.
2012-01-01
Theoretical and experimental investigations to date have assumed that bridge cables can be modeled as ideal circular cylinders and the associated aerodynamic coefficients are invariant with the wind angle-of-attack. On the other hand, bridge cables are normally characterized by local alterations of their inherent surface roughness and shape, which might present a significant disturbance for the surrounding wind flow. The present study focuses on the experimental determination, based on static wi...
Experimental assignment of total drag coefficients of bodies embedded in a free surface stream.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chára, Zden?k; Vlasák, Pavel
Praha : Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics AS CR, 2003, s. -. [Engineering mechanics 2003 : national conference with international participation. Svratka (CZ), 12.05.2003-15.05.2003] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA103/03/0724; GA ?R GA103/00/1620; GA ?R GA103/03/0346 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : total drag coefficients * free surface stream Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Trumi? B.; Stankovi? D.; Truji? V.
2009-01-01
In order to increase the active surface of platinum catalysts for ammonia oxidation and on the basis of theoretic considerations and tests in industrial environment, we have finally decided on their specific design. Efficiency on the newly designed catalyst was checked in industrial circumstances. A comparative analysis of the total ammonia recovery coefficient between the mentioned new catalysts and previously applied platinum catalysts was carried out. All advantages of catalysts with incre...
Correlation of the surface layer stress coefficient and stress corrosion cracking. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Analytical expressions are presented that relate the crack velocity and the failure time to the surface-layer stress coefficient for compact-tension specimens of Ti--6Al--4V and a 4130 steel subjected to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The experimental data for the threshold stress intensity factor and the crack velocities for various stress intensity factors agree well with the calculated values
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Raveendiran
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The heat transfer coefficients and friction factors of a baffled shell and heat pipe heat exchanger with various inclination angles were determined experimentally; using methanol as working fluid and water as heat transport fluid were reported. Heat pipe heat exchanger reported in this investigation have inclination angles varied between 15o and 60o for different mass flow rates and temperature at the shell side of the heat exchanger. All the required parameters like outlet temperature of both hot and cold side of heat exchanger and mass flow rate of fluids were measured using an appropriate instrument. Different tests were performed from which condenser side heat transfer coefficient and friction factor were calculated. In all operating conditions it has been found that the heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing the mass flow rate and angle of inclination. The reduction in friction factor occurs when the Reynolds number is increased. The overall optimum experimental effectiveness of GABSHPHE has found to be 42% in all operating conditioning at ? = 45o.
Studying heat transfer enhancement for water boiling on a surface with micro- and nanorelief
Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.; Lavrikov, A. V.; Shustov, M. V.; Chursin, P. S.; Chistyakova, A. V.; Zvonarev, Yu. A.; Zhukov, V. M.; Vasil'eva, L. T.
2014-03-01
We present the results from a study of heat transfer enhancement for bulk water boiling at atmospheric pressure on a surface with micro- and nanorelief, including a relief formed from silicon carbide and aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Horizontally oriented steel tube 1.2 mm in diameter and copper plate 15 × 3 mm in size were selected as test sections. The process was recorded by means of a video camera, and the values of heat transfer, critical heat fluxes, and contact angles were measured. The use of surface with micro- and nanorelief makes it possible to obtain a significantly higher critical heat flux and boiling heat transfer coefficient owing to a change of surface wettability. The results of investigations can find use in compact heat exchangers, refrigerating plants, heat pipes, in the mirrors of high-capacity lasers, in the targets and resonators of charged particle accelerators and for external cooling of reactor vessels under emergency conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A physical model for analyzing the radiative and convective heat transfer in a fog cooled, naturally ventilated greenhouse was developed for estimating the overall heat transmission coefficient based on the conduction, convection and thermal radiation heat transfer coefficients and for predicting the soil heat flux. The contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the emission and absorption of thermal radiation was determined. Measurements of the outside and inside greenhouse environments to be used in the analysis were conducted around solar noon (12:19-13:00) on a hot sunny day to provide the maximum solar radiation transmission into the greenhouse. The net solar radiation flux measured at the greenhouse floor showed a reasonable agreement with the predicted value. The net fluxes were estimated around noon. The average net radiation (solar and thermal) at the soil surface was 220.0 W m-2, the average soil heat flux was 155.0 W m-2 and the average contribution of the water vapor of the inside air to the thermal radiation was 22.0 W m-2. The average overall heat transmission coefficient was 4.0 W m-2 C-1 and was in the range between 3.0 W m-2 C-1 and 6.0 W m-2 C-1 under the different hot summer conditions between the inside and outside of the naturally ventilated, fog cooled greenhouse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boissieux, X.; Heikal, M.R.; Johns, R.A. [University of Brighton (United Kingdom). Engineering Research Centre
2000-06-01
This paper presents experimental heat transfer results obtained during the evaporation of Isceon 59, R407C and R404A in a horizontal tube. The results have been compared with existing correlations which characterise the evaporative heat transfer coefficient to assess the validity of these models for refrigerant mixtures. The results compared well with the (Gungor K.E., Winterton, R.H.S. Simplified general correlation for saturated flow boiling and comparisons of correlations with data. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Research and Design 1987;65(2):148-156 and Shah M.M. Chart correlation for saturated boiling heat transfer: equations and further study. ASHRAE Transactions 1982;88(1):185-196) correlations over a 0.2 to 0.8 vapour quality range. These correlations, however, did not accurately predict the results obtained during the dry-out at high vapour quality. A model, developed by (Kattan N., Thome J.R., Favrat D., 1998. Flow boiling in horizontal tubes: part 1 - development of a diabatic two-phase flow pattern map. Journal of Heat Transfer, Transactions of ASME, Vol. 120, pp. 140-147; Kattan N., Thome J.R., Favrat D., 1998. Flow boiling in horizontal tubes: part 2 - new heat transfer data for five refrigerants. Journal of Heat Transfer, Transactions of ASME, Vol. 120, pp. 148-155; Kattan N., Thome JR., Favrat D., 1998. Flow boiling in horizontal tubes: part 3 - development of a new heat transfer model based on flow pattern. Journal of Heat Transfer, Transactions of ASME, Vol. 120, pp. 156-165), was found to express the local variations in heat transfer during the whole evaporation process. This model was modified to fit the three new refrigerants. The modified Kattan model offers a good prediction of the heat transfer results, with a standard deviation of 6.1%. (author)
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Reinaldo, Sanchez Arriagada.
Full Text Available Una correlación matemática para determinar el coeficiente convectivo de materia durante la evaporación de agua desde la superficie húmeda, fue desarrollada para su aplicación con aire húmedo con bajas diferencias sicrométricas y temperaturas del aire sobre los 60°C. La teoría clásica para determinar [...] coeficientes convectivos de calor y de materia, a través de parámetros adimensionales y de las analogías fenomenológicas difusivas, tienen validez sólo para aire seco. En el secado de sólidos, donde se requiere controlar las tasas de secado para evitar un daño físico en el producto, se impone la necesidad de operar con temperaturas bulbo húmedo por sobre los 40°C o diferencias sicrométricas moderadas. En esos rangos, las expresiones que relacionan los coeficientes convectivos de calor y materia, presentan errores que varían entre 26% y 113% para temperatura de bulbo húmedo entre 30°C y 70°C con diferencia sicrométrica de 10°C. La expresión formulada para esta aplicación, se plantea como una función de: el coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de calor, la temperatura bulbo húmedo y la diferencia sicrométrica. Los resultados obtenidos permiten establecer que, para las condiciones extremas de temperatura de bulbo húmedo y diferencia sicrométrica antes señalada el error se sitúa entre -1.4% a 2.14%, respecto del obtenido a partir de la metodología clásica La correlación obtenida es de forma polinomial, de fácil operación y viable de ser incorporada a cualquier modelo de simulación para la predicción de la dinámica del secado Abstract in english A mathematical correlation to determine the mass coefficient, during the evaporation of water from a wet surface, was developed for their application in wet air with low psychometric differential and with air temperature above 60°C. The classic theory that has been used in order to get heat and mass [...] convective coefficients, through non-dimensional parameters and phenomenological analogies, turns out to be valid only for dry air. In the particular case of solids drying, where operation requires to be performed under controlled drying rates, in order to prevent physical damage from affecting the product, is necessary to operate on a wet bulb temperature above 40ºC or at moderate psychometric differential. When we work under those ranges of temperature, the expressions that relate heat and mass convective coefficients show errors between 26% and 113% for wet temperature between 30°C and 70°C and psychometric difference of 30°C The expression that has been given for this application is stated as a function of the following: heat transfer coefficient, wet bulb temperature, and psychometric differential. The obtained results allow to settle down that, for the extreme conditions of wet bulb temperature and psychometric differences assigned before, the error is located among -1.4% to 2.14%, regarding the obtained through the classic methodology. The obtained correlation has polynomial form, of easy operation and viable of being incorporate to any simulation pattern for the prediction of the dynamics of the drying
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reinaldo Sanchez Arriagada
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Una correlación matemática para determinar el coeficiente convectivo de materia durante la evaporación de agua desde la superficie húmeda, fue desarrollada para su aplicación con aire húmedo con bajas diferencias sicrométricas y temperaturas del aire sobre los 60°C. La teoría clásica para determinar coeficientes convectivos de calor y de materia, a través de parámetros adimensionales y de las analogías fenomenológicas difusivas, tienen validez sólo para aire seco. En el secado de sólidos, donde se requiere controlar las tasas de secado para evitar un daño físico en el producto, se impone la necesidad de operar con temperaturas bulbo húmedo por sobre los 40°C o diferencias sicrométricas moderadas. En esos rangos, las expresiones que relacionan los coeficientes convectivos de calor y materia, presentan errores que varían entre 26% y 113% para temperatura de bulbo húmedo entre 30°C y 70°C con diferencia sicrométrica de 10°C. La expresión formulada para esta aplicación, se plantea como una función de: el coeficiente convectivo de transferencia de calor, la temperatura bulbo húmedo y la diferencia sicrométrica. Los resultados obtenidos permiten establecer que, para las condiciones extremas de temperatura de bulbo húmedo y diferencia sicrométrica antes señalada el error se sitúa entre -1.4% a 2.14%, respecto del obtenido a partir de la metodología clásica La correlación obtenida es de forma polinomial, de fácil operación y viable de ser incorporada a cualquier modelo de simulación para la predicción de la dinámica del secadoA mathematical correlation to determine the mass coefficient, during the evaporation of water from a wet surface, was developed for their application in wet air with low psychometric differential and with air temperature above 60°C. The classic theory that has been used in order to get heat and mass convective coefficients, through non-dimensional parameters and phenomenological analogies, turns out to be valid only for dry air. In the particular case of solids drying, where operation requires to be performed under controlled drying rates, in order to prevent physical damage from affecting the product, is necessary to operate on a wet bulb temperature above 40ºC or at moderate psychometric differential. When we work under those ranges of temperature, the expressions that relate heat and mass convective coefficients show errors between 26% and 113% for wet temperature between 30°C and 70°C and psychometric difference of 30°C The expression that has been given for this application is stated as a function of the following: heat transfer coefficient, wet bulb temperature, and psychometric differential. The obtained results allow to settle down that, for the extreme conditions of wet bulb temperature and psychometric differences assigned before, the error is located among -1.4% to 2.14%, regarding the obtained through the classic methodology. The obtained correlation has polynomial form, of easy operation and viable of being incorporate to any simulation pattern for the prediction of the dynamics of the drying
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new measurement method for measuring the mean fuel temperature as well as the fuel-to-coolant heat transfer coefficient of fast breeder reactor subassemblies (SA) is reported. The method is based on the individual heat balance of fuel SA's after fast reactor shut-downs and uses only the plants normal SA outlet temperature and neutron power signals. The method was used successfully at the french breeder prototype Super Phenix 1. The mean SA fuel temperature as well as the heat transfer coefficient of all SPX SA's have been determined at power levels between 15 and 90% of nominal power and increasing fuel burn-up from 3 to 83 EFPD (Equivalent of Full Power-Days). The measurements also provided fuel and whole SA time constants. The estimated accuracy of measured fuel parameters is in the order of 10%. Fuel temperatures and SA outlet temperature transients were also calculated with the SPX1 systems code DYN2 for exactly the same fuel and reactor operating parameters as in the experiments. Measured fuel temperatures were higher than calculated ones in all cases. The difference between measured and calculated core mean values increases from 50 K at low power to 180 K at 90% n.p. This is about the double of the experimental error margins. Measured SA heat transfer coefficients are by nearly 20% lower than corresponding heat transfer parameters used in the calculations. Discrepancies found between measured and calculated results also indicate that either the transient heat transfer in the gap between fuel and cladding (gap conductance) might not be exactly reproduced in the computer code or that the gap in the fresh fuel was larger than assumed in the calculations. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trumi? B.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In order to increase the active surface of platinum catalysts for ammonia oxidation and on the basis of theoretic considerations and tests in industrial environment, we have finally decided on their specific design. Efficiency on the newly designed catalyst was checked in industrial circumstances. A comparative analysis of the total ammonia recovery coefficient between the mentioned new catalysts and previously applied platinum catalysts was carried out. All advantages of catalysts with increased active surfaces were confirmed and a new method of their manufacturing process was selected.
Chiu, Rong-Shi Paul (Glenmont, NY); Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Abuaf, Nesim (Lincoln City, OR)
2002-01-01
An annular turbine shroud separates a hot gas path from a cooling plenum containing a cooling medium. Bumps are cast in the surface on the cooling side of the shroud. A surface coating overlies the cooling side surface of the shroud, including the bumps, and contains cooling enhancement material. The surface area ratio of the cooling side of the shroud with the bumps and coating is in excess of a surface area ratio of the cooling side surface with bumps without the coating to afford increased heat transfer across the element relative to the heat transfer across the element without the coating.
Jiang, Han; Browning, Robert; Fincher, Jason; Gasbarro, Anthony; Jones, Scooter; Sue, Hung-Jue
2008-05-01
To study the effects of surface roughness and contact load on the friction behavior and scratch resistance of polymers, a set of model thermoplastic olefins (TPO) systems with various surface roughness ( Ra) levels were prepared and evaluated. It is found that a higher Ra corresponds to a lower surface friction coefficient ( ?s). At each level of Ra, ?s gets larger as contact load increases, with a greater increase in ?s as Ra level increases. It is also observed that with increasing contact load and increasing Ra, the ?s tend to level off. In evaluating TPO scratch resistance, a lower ?s would delay the onset of ductile drawing-induced fish-scale surface deformation feature, thereby raising the load required to cause scratch visibility. However, as the contact load is further increased, the ?s evolves to become scratch coefficient of friction (SCOF) as significant sub-surface deformation and tip penetration occur and material displacement begins, i.e., ploughing. No dependence of Ra and ?s on the critical load for the onset of ploughing is observed. In this work, the distinction between ?s and SCOF will be illustrated. Approaches for improving scratch resistance of polymers via control of Ra are also discussed.
Haddag, B.; Atlati, S.; Nouari, M.; Zenasni, M.
2015-10-01
This paper deals with the modelling and identification of the heat exchange at the tool-workpiece interface in machining. A thermomechanical modelling has been established including heat balance equations of the tool-workpiece interface which take into account the heat generated by friction and the heat transfer by conduction due to the thermal contact resistance. The interface heat balance equations involve two coefficients: heat generation coefficient (HGC) of the frictional heat and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of the heat conduction (inverse of the thermal contact resistance coefficient). Using experimental average heat flux in the tool, estimated for several cutting speeds, an identification procedure of the HGC-HTC couple, involved in the established thermomechanical FE-based modelling of the cutting process, has been proposed, which gives the numerical heat flux equal the measured one for each cutting speed. Using identified values of the HGC-HTC couple, evolution laws are proposed for the HGC as function of cutting speed, and then as function of sliding velocity at the tool-workpiece interface. Such laws can be implemented for instance in a Finite Element code for machining simulations.
Effects of surface wettability on fast liquid transfer
Chen, H.; Tang, T.; Amirfazli, A.
2015-11-01
A systematic experimental study was performed to understand the role of surface contact angles in affecting the process of fast liquid transfer. Surfaces with different wettabilities were used, and the transfer ratio (?, the amount of liquid transferred to the acceptor surface over the total amount of liquid) was measured for each pair of surfaces. A numerical model based on the volume of fluid method was developed to help understand the experimental results. The surface wettability was shown to significantly affect the boundaries between three regimes based on stretching speeds: quasi-static (surface force dominated), transition (surface/viscous/inertia forces all important) and dynamic (viscous/inertia forces dominated). Specifically, the values of the boundary speeds were found to increase with |?0 - 0.5|, where ?0 is the transfer ratio in the quasi-static regime, and ?0 is governed by the surface receding contact angles. Based on our results, an empirical equation to describe the transfer ratio as function of stretching speed was proposed. This equation can also be used as a prediction tool for the value of ? for a fast transfer system.
Surface diffusion coefficient of Au atoms on single layer graphene grown on Cu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruffino, F., E-mail: francesco.ruffino@ct.infn.it; Cacciato, G.; Grimaldi, M. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia-Universitá di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy and MATIS IMM-CNR, via S. Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy)
2014-02-28
A 5?nm thick Au film was deposited on single layer graphene sheets grown on Cu. By thermal processes, the dewetting phenomenon of the Au film on the graphene was induced so to form Au nanoparticles. The mean radius, surface-to-surface distance, and surface density evolution of the nanoparticles on the graphene sheets as a function of the annealing temperature were quantified by scanning electron microscopy analyses. These quantitative data were analyzed within the classical mean-field nucleation theory so to obtain the temperature-dependent Au atoms surface diffusion coefficient on graphene: D{sub S}(T)=[(8.2±0.6)×10{sup ?8}]exp[?(0.31±0.02(eV)/(at) )/kT]?cm{sup 2}/s.
Correlation of the surface layer stress coefficient and stress corrosion cracking. I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The time to failure, the crack propagation velocity, and the surface layer stress of titanium (6Al--4V) and a 4130 steel were measured as a function of applied potential and concentration in solutions of HCl-CH3OH and NaCl. Compact tension specimens were used in the SCC tests. It is shown that a direct correlation, independent of the applied potential or solution concentration, exists between the surface layer stress and SCC. The data show that the resistance to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) decreases under conditions that enhance the strength of the surface layer. It appears that SCC occurs when the environmenal conditions raise the surface layer stress coefficient above a critical value
Chang, Wen-Ruey; Matz, Simon; Chang, Chien-Chi
2014-05-01
The maximum coefficient of friction that can be supported at the shoe and floor interface without a slip is usually called the available coefficient of friction (ACOF) for human locomotion. The probability of a slip could be estimated using a statistical model by comparing the ACOF with the required coefficient of friction (RCOF), assuming that both coefficients have stochastic distributions. An investigation of the stochastic distributions of the ACOF of five different floor surfaces under dry, water and glycerol conditions is presented in this paper. One hundred friction measurements were performed on each floor surface under each surface condition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was used to determine if the distribution of the ACOF was a good fit with the normal, log-normal and Weibull distributions. The results indicated that the ACOF distributions had a slightly better match with the normal and log-normal distributions than with the Weibull in only three out of 15 cases with a statistical significance. The results are far more complex than what had heretofore been published and different scenarios could emerge. Since the ACOF is compared with the RCOF for the estimate of slip probability, the distribution of the ACOF in seven cases could be considered a constant for this purpose when the ACOF is much lower or higher than the RCOF. A few cases could be represented by a normal distribution for practical reasons based on their skewness and kurtosis values without a statistical significance. No representation could be found in three cases out of 15. PMID:24268803
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gilles Hebrard
2009-11-01
Full Text Available The objective of this present paper is to propose a new theoretical prediction method of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k_{L}a occurring in a gas-liquid contactor based on the dissociation of the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient (k_{L} and the interfacial area (a. The calculated results have been compared with those obtained with the experimental process in a small-scale bubble column. Tap water was used as liquid phase and an elastic membrane with a single orifice as gas sparger. Only the dynamic bubble regime was considered in this work (Re_{OR}= 1501000 and We = 0.0024. This study has clearly shown that, whatever the operating conditions under test, the generated bubble diameters (d
Amirkhanov, I V; Pavlus, M; Puzynina, T P; Puzynin, I V; Sarhadov, I
2005-01-01
On the basis of the solution of a nonlinear diffusion equation with initial and boundary conditions, a transport coefficient of moisture in a sample of a porous material is found by minimization of a functional, which expresses diversion of the computed profile of moisture concentration in well-defined time moments from their experimental values for the defined moisture transport coefficient. In this case the transport coefficient as opposed to the previous works is found as a sum of the degree and exponential functions of the moisture concentration. The exponent of the power function depends on time. Thus, a more accurate coincidence of the computed profiles of the moisture concentration with their experimental profiles is gained in comparison to previous works performed by other authors. The exponential term provides a good coincidence of the mentioned profiles for big times nearby the boundary of the sample, where evaporation of the moisture to the atmosphere takes place.
Theory of the kinetic coefficients of the atomically rough surface of 4He crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The growth coefficient K (the velocity of growth per unit chemical potential difference) and the Onsager cross-coefficients b1 and b2, coupling growth and heat flow, are calculated for atomically rough surfaces of hcp 4He crystals. The calculation is based on the premise, suggested by Andreev and Parshin, that growth is limited by the collision of phonons and rotons with the interface. The calculated K is compared with that obtained by Keshiskev et al. from the damping of melting-freezing waves. The theory assumes that the excitations are in the ballistic regime where their mean free path is large compared to the wavelength of the melting-freezing waves. In the experiment only the phonons satisfy this condition, yet the theory agrees with the data even when roton scattering is important. Irreversible thermodynamics requires that the cross coefficients b1 and b2 be equal. This is shown by direct calculation. The value of b1 and b2 depends on the ratio of two integrals over the phonon transmission coefficient and it is evaluated for two models of the transmission. The theory agrees fairly well with a recent measurement of b1. A calculation of the dissipation in the hydrodynamic regime, where the free path is short, shows that the damping of melting-freezing waves should have a different dependence on frequency compared to the ballistic regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper presents a new heat transfer correlation of water at supercritical pressure after review on existing heat transfer correlations. The new correlation is optimized by genetic algorithms based on existing test data. Based on current results, we conclude that genetic algorithms are effective to search a global optimized correlation but it is important to carefully select representative and authentic test data to reach an optimized solution and special attention needs to be paid on the deteriorated heat transfer region in the design of supercritical water reactor because it can not be predicted well by any correlations reviewed. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Infra-red thermographic study of Taylor bubble train flow in square mini-channel. • Design of experiments for measurement of local streamwise Nusselt number. • Minimizing conjugate heat transfer effects and resulting errors in data reduction. • Benchmarking against single-phase flow and three-dimensional computations. • Local heat transfer enhancement up to two times due to Taylor bubble train flow. -- Abstract: In mini/micro confined internal flow systems, Taylor bubble train flow takes place within specific range of respective volume flow ratios, wherein the liquid slugs get separated by elongated Taylor bubbles, resulting in an intermittent flow situation. This unique flow characteristic requires understanding of transport phenomena on global, as well as on local spatio-temporal scales. In this context, an experimental design methodology and its validation are presented in this work, with an aim of measuring the local heat transfer coefficient by employing high-resolution InfraRed Thermography. The effect of conjugate heat transfer on the true estimate of local transport coefficients, and subsequent data reduction technique, is discerned. Local heat transfer coefficient for (i) hydrodynamically fully developed and thermally developing single-phase flow in three-side heated channel and, (ii) non-boiling, air–water Taylor bubble train flow is measured and compared in a mini-channel of square cross-section (5 mm × 5 mm; Dh = 5 mm, Bo ? 3.4) machined on a stainless steel substrate (300 mm × 25 mm × 11 mm). The design of the setup ensures near uniform heat flux condition at the solid–fluid interface; the conjugate effects arising from the axial back conduction in the substrate are thus minimized. For benchmarking, the data from single-phase flow is also compared with three-dimensional computational simulations. Depending on the employed volume flow ratio, it is concluded that enhancement of nearly 1.2–2.0 times in time-averaged local streamwise Nusselt number can be obtained by Taylor bubble train flow, as compared to fully developed single-phase flow. This enhancement is attributed to the intermittent intrusion of Taylor bubbles in the liquid flow which drastically changes the local fluid temperature profiles. It is important to maintain proper boundary conditions during the experiment while estimating local heat transfer coefficient, especially in mini-micro systems
Surface-Phonon Polariton Contribution to Nanoscale Radiative Heat Transfer.
Rousseau, Emmanuel; Laroche, Marine; Greffet, Jean-Jacques
2009-01-01
Heat transfer between two plates of polar materials at nanoscale distance is known to be enhanced by several orders of magnitude as compared with its far-field value. In this article, we show that nanoscale heat transfer is dominated by the coupling between surface phonon-polaritons located on each interface. Furthermore, we derive an asymptotic closed-form expression of the radiative heat transfer between two polar materials in the near-field regime. We study the temperature dependence of th...
SAFARI 2000 Surface Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART), Dry Season 2000
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface-sensing Measurements for Radiative Transfer (SMART) and Chemical, Optical, and Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere (COMMIT) consist of a suite...
Molecular Boundary Conditions and Accommodation Coefficient on A Nonequilibrium Liquid Surface
Tsuruta, Takaharu; Tokunaga, Atsushi; Nagayama, Gyoko
2011-05-01
The non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations have been carried out to obtain new evidence about inverted temperature profiles. We find that the inverted temperature profile occurs due to the excess energy of the reflecting molecules without contradiction to the second law. Therefore, a new definition of the accommodation coefficient for the reflecting molecule is proposed based on the energy of the reflecting molecule under the equilibrium condition. The accommodation coefficient decreases with increasing the mass flux in the vicinity of the liquid surface and this is the reason for the inverted temperature profile. Also, a direct simulation of Monte Carlo (DSMC) method has been performed with applying the molecular boundary condition developed in the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. An inverted temperature profile is obtained because the energy of the reflecting molecule cannot reach accommodations to that of the equilibrium ones.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rocha, Alan Carlos Bueno da
1997-07-01
A heat transfer (condenser) of a domestic freezer was tested in a vertical channel in order to study the influence of the chimney effect in the optimization of the heat transfer coefficient. The variation of the opening of the channel, position and the heating power of the heat exchanger in the heat transfer coefficient was considered. The influence of the surface emissivity on the heat transfer by thermal radiation was studied with the heat exchanger testes without paint and with black paint. The air velocity entering the channel was measured with a hot wire anemometer. In order to evaluate the chimney effect, the heat exchanger was testes in a open ambient. This situation simulates its operational conditions when installed on the freezer system. The variables collected in the experimental procedures was gathered in the form of dimensionless parameters as Nusselt, Rayleigh, Grashof and Prandtl numbers, and dimensional parameters of the convection. The results showed that the highest heat transfer value occurred when both a specific position and a specific channel opening were used. The experiments pointed out that the radiation contribution must be considered in heat transfer calculations. The conclusions showed that different channel openings can improve the heat transfer coefficient in this heat transfer exchanger. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, W.M.; Mei, S.C. [Department of Mechatronic Engineering, Huafan University, Shih Ting, Taipei 22305, Taiwan (China)
2006-01-15
The objective of the present study is to examine the detailed heat transfer coefficient distributions over a ribbed-surface under impingement of elliptic jet arrays using a liquid crystal thermograph technique. Both continuous and broken V-shaped-rib configurations with different exit flow orientations were considered. To examine the angled rib effects, three angled ribs were discussed under jet-to-plate spacing Z=3 for different Reynolds numbers. Measured results show that the local heat transfer rates over the ribbed-surface are characterized by obvious periodic-type variation of Nusselt number distributions. The downstream peaks are diminished for increasing crossflow effect. Compared to the results without ribs, the heat transfer over the ribbed-surface may be enhanced or retarded. Whereas, among the test angled-rib arrangements, the best heat transfer performance is obtained with a surface with 45{sup o} V-shape ribs. In addition, the surface with continuous ribs provides a better impingement heat transfer than that with broken ribs. (author)
Experimental study on augmentation of nucleate boiling heat transfer on nano porous surfaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Young Jae; Kim, Hyung Dae [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2012-10-15
Nucleate boiling broadly occurs in thermal hydraulic and safety systems of nuclear power plant (NPP). Heat transfer performance of nucleate boiling is closely related to efficiency and safety of NPPs. Hence, there have been numerous researches to effectively enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer performance. A number of recent studies have reported significant enhancements in nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient (NBHTC) and critical heat flux (CHF) by fabricating nano/microscale structures on a boiling surface. Wei et al. showed that both NBHTC and CHF can be significantly enhanced with micro pin finned structures. They explained enhancement of NBHTC and CHF that occurred by increase in effective heat transfer area due to micro pin finned structures. Ahn et al. reported 100% enhancement in CHF on a boiling surface with nano/micro hybrid structures. They analyzed CHF enhancement that was caused by improvement of surface wettability on Nano/micro hybrid structures. In this study, an ordered nano porous surface was prepared using anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) technique and nucleate boiling heat transfer performance was examined in a pool with FC 72. Furthermore, the pool boiling result on the nano porous surface was interpreted based on heterogeneous bubble nucleation theory from a cavity.
Filtering Non-Linear Transfer Functions on Surfaces
Heitz, Eric; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Poulin, Pierre; Neyret, Fabrice
2014-01-01
Applying non-linear transfer functions and look-up tables to procedural functions (such as noise), surface attributes, or even surface geometry are common strategies used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient transfer func...
Heat transfer enhancement of free surface MHD-flow by a protrusion wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Due to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect on the flow, which degrades heat transfer coefficients by pulsation suppression of external magnetic field on the flow, a hemispherical protrusion wall is applied to free surface MHD-flow system as a heat transfer enhancement, because the hemispherical protrusion wall has some excellent characteristics including high heat transfer coefficients, low friction factors and high overall thermal performances. So, the characteristics of the fluid flow and heat transfer of the free surface MHD-flow with hemispherical protrusion wall are simulated numerically and the influence of some parameters, such as protrusion height ?/D, and Hartmann number, are also discussed in this paper. It is found that, in the range of Hartmann number 30 ? Ha ? 70, the protrusion wall assemblies can achieve heat transfer enhancements (Nu/Nu0) of about 1.3-2.3 relative to the smooth channel, while the friction loss (f/f0) increases by about 1.34-1.45. Thus, the high Nusselt number can be obtained when the protrusion wall with a radically lower friction loss increase, which may help get much higher overall thermal performances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The pathway of farm product intake are very important for evaluating the human health risks caused by the long term global radioactive contamination. The main parameters contained in this pathway : the distribution coefficient(kd), the transfer coefficient by direct foliar absorption(K) and the transfer coefficient by root uptake(TF), were determined using the Sr-90 and Cs-137 environmental monitoring data in Japan. The major finding obtained in this study are as follows : (1) kd can be determined by the monitoring data of radionuclide concentration in soil, K by the concentration in farm products during larger fallout period, 1960's, and TF by the concentration in farm products during smaller fallout period, after 1970's. (2) The ranges of kd were determined as 10-300 for Sr-90 and 10-2,000(ml/g) for Cs-137. These ranges are smaller than the reported ranges, thus the accuracy for estimating kd were improved in this study. K are 0.03-1 for Sr-90 and 0.4-1(cm2·month/g) for Cs-137 ; TF are 0.001-0.06 for Sr-90 and 0.0005-0.001(-) for Cs-137. (author)
Laser texturing of Hastelloy C276 alloy surface for improved hydrophobicity and friction coefficient
Yilbas, B. S.; Ali, H.
2016-03-01
Laser treatment of Hastelloy C276 alloy is carried out under the high pressure nitrogen assisting gas environment. Morphological and metallurgical changes in the laser treated layer are examined using the analytical tools including, scanning electron and atomic force microscopes, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Microhardness is measured and the residual stress formed in the laser treated surface is determined from the X-ray data. The hydrophibicity of the laser treated surface is assessed using the sessile drop method. Friction coefficient of the laser treated layer is obtained incorporating the micro-tribometer. It is found that closely spaced laser canning tracks create a self-annealing effect in the laser treated layer and lowers the thermal stress levels through modifying the cooling rates at the surface. A dense structure, consisting of fine size grains, enhances the microhardness of the surface. The residual stress formed at the surface is compressive and it is in the order of -800 MPa. Laser treatment improves the surface hydrophobicity significantly because of the formation of surface texture composing of micro/nano-pillars.
Jebaraj Johnley Muthuraj, Josiah
Cathodic protection is widely used for corrosion prevention. However, this process generates hydrogen at the protected metal surface, and diffusion of hydrogen through the metal may cause hydrogen embrittlement or hydrogen induced stress corrosion cracking. Thus the choice of a metal for use as fasteners depends upon its hydrogen uptake, permeation, diffusivity and trapping. The diffusivity of hydrogen through four high strength alloys (AISI 4340, alloy 718, alloy 686, and alloy 59) was analyzed by an electrochemical method developed by Devanathan and Stachurski. The effect of plasma nitriding and microstructure on hydrogen permeation through AISI 4340 was studied on six different specimens: as-received (AR) AISI 4340, nitrided samples with and without compound layer, samples quenched and tempered (Q&T) at 320° and 520°C, and nitrided samples Q&T 520°C. Studies on various nitrided specimens demonstrate that both the gamma'-Fe 4N rich compound surface layer and the deeper N diffusion layer that forms during plasma nitriding reduce the effective hydrogen diffusion coefficient, although the gamma'-Fe4N rich compound layer has a larger effect. Multiple permeation transients yield evidence for the presence of only reversible trap sites in as-received, Q&T 320 and 520 AISI 4340 specimens, and the presence of both reversible and irreversible trap sites in nitrided specimens. Moreover, the changes in microstructure during the quenching and tempering process result in a significant decrease in the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen compared to as-received specimens. In addition, density functional theory-based molecular dynamics simulations yield hydrogen diffusion coefficients through gamma'- Fe4N one order of magnitude lower than through ?-Fe, which supports the experimental measurements of hydrogen permeation. The effect of microstructure and trapping was also studied in cold rolled, solutionized, and precipitation hardened Inconel 718 foils. The effective hydrogen diffusion coefficient is considerably higher for the solutionized Inconel 718 than for either the cold rolled or precipitation hardened specimens. Microstructural studies indicate that the reduced hydrogen diffusion coefficients in the latter specimens arise from hydrogen trapping at dislocations and precipitates that are present at much lower concentrations in the solutionized specimens. Repeated permeation transients provide evidence for irreversible hydrogen trapping in the cold rolled and precipitation hardened specimens, but such effects are insignificant in the solutionized specimens. The effect of trapping in determining the hydrogen diffusion coefficients was also studied in alloy 686 and 59 specimens. Microstructural studies indicate the presence of bcc-Mo rich inclusions concentrated along the grain boundaries in alloy 686 specimens, but randomly distributed in alloy 59 specimens. Multiple permeation transients show an increase in diffusion coefficient values for the decay transients compared to rise transients in alloy 686 specimens. On the other hand, the first rise transient had a lower diffusion coefficient compared to successive rise and decay transients in alloy 59 specimens. Effective diffusion coefficient (Deff) values of hydrogen in multiple permeation transients suggest that hydrogen trapping sites are predominantly reversible in alloy 686, but mixed reversible and irreversible in alloy 59.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An improved method is presented for the prediction of heat transfer coefficients in turbulent falling liquid films with or without interfacial shear for both heating or condensation. A modified Mudawwar and El-Masri's semiempirical turbulence model, particularly to extend its use for the turbulent falling film with high interfacial shear, is used to replace the eddy viscosity model incorporated in the unified approach proposed by Yih and Liu. The liquid film thickness and asymptotic heat transfer coefficients against the film Reynolds number for wide range of interfacial shear predicted by both present and existing methods are compared with experimental data. The results show that, in general, predictions of the modified model agree more closely with experimental data than that of existing models. Comparisons of the predictions of the present model with that of existing models and the experimental data show that agreement is fairly good and consistent. A brief summary of the results are as follows: (1) As opposed to the previous model, present model utilizes a continuous linear variation of eddy viscosity near the interfacial surface. For freely falling liquid film, the present model reduce to the Mudawwar and El-Masri's model. (2) The curves of the present model for the heat transfer coefficients with liquid film Reynolds number have positive slopes in turbulent regime while the curves obtained by other models have negative slopes particularly for condensation. (3) The two criteria for transition from laminar to turbulent film flow, one for low interfacial shear and the other for high interfacial shear, respectively are shown to give the best agreement with the data for the present method
Uptake Coefficients of NO3 Radicals on Solid Surfaces of Sea-Salts
Gratpanche, F.; Sawerysyn, J.-P.
1999-02-01
Uptake coefficients of nitrate radicals (? NO_3) have been measured by a technique involving a coated-wall flow tube with radical detection by E.P.R. spectrometry. The variation of NO3 concentration in the gas phase was followed indirectly by monitoring OH radicals produced by the titration reaction H + NO_3. The mean initial value of ? NO3 measured on solid NaCl surfaces was (1.7± 1.2)× 10-2) in the temperature range 258-301 K, while for solid NaBr surfaces the value was (0.11 ± 0.06) at 293 K. In each case, errors limits correspond to one standard deviation. For NaBr, a slight negative temperature dependence was observed over the investigated range, 243-293 K, which can be represented by ?_NO_3^NaBr = 1.6 ?ft(begin{array}{l}+1.8 -0.9) × 10-3exp [(1210± 200)/T]. An analysis of the results shows that under some conditions the heterogeneous loss of nitrate radicals on sea-salt aerosol particles at ambient temperature could be competitive with their loss by homogeneous reaction in the marine troposphere at night. Les coefficients de capture des radicaux nitrate (? NO_3) sur des surfaces de sels marins (NaCl et NaBr) ont été mesurés aux températures troposphériques en utilisant la technique du réacteur à écoulement à paroi recouverte couplée à un spectromètre de résonance paramagnétique électronique (R.P.E). La variation de la concentration en phase gazeuse des radicaux nitrate en présence des surfaces étudiées est suivie en mesurant le signal R.P.E des radicaux OH produits par la réaction de titrage H + NO3. Pour des températures comprises entre 258 et 301 K, la valeur moyenne du coefficient de capture initial (? NO_3) sur des surfaces solides de NaCl est égal à (1.7± 1.2)× 10-2). Sur des surfaces solides de NaBr, (? NO_3) est égal à (0.11 ± 0.06) à 293 K. L'incertitude correspond à une déviation standard. Par ailleurs, pour ce type de surfaces, une légère dépendance négative avec la température est observée dans la gamme de température examinée (243-293 K) : ?_NO_3^NaBr = 1.6 ?ft(begin{array}{l}+1.8 -0.9) × 10-3exp [(1210± 200)/T]. A température ambiante, la disparition hétérogène des radicaux nitrate sur des particules d'aérosols marins pourrait être compétitive avec leur disparition en phase gazeuse durant la nuit.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Izák, Pavel; Kárászová, Magda; Šim?ík, Miroslav; Friess, K.; Sedláková, Zuzana; R?ži?ka, Marek; Šolcová, Olga
Bratislava : AXIMA Graphics Design & Printing Services, 2014, s. 91 ISBN 978-80-89475-13-1. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /41./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA TA ?R TE01020080; GA ?R GA14-12695S Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : ionic liquid membrane * transport properties * trafer coefficients Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering
Volumetric mass transfer coefficients characterising VOC absorption in water/silicone oil mixtures
Dumont, Eric; Darracq, Guillaume; Couvert, Annabelle; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Thomas, Diane; Andres, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre
2013-01-01
The physical absorption of three Volatile Organic Compounds (dimethyldisulphide (DMDS), dimethylsulphide (DMS) and toluene) in "water/silicone oil" systems at a constant flow rate for mixtures of different compositions (f = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 100%) was investigated using a dynamic absorption method. The results indicate that silicone oil addition leads to a dramatic decrease in KLa which can be related to the change in the partition coefficient (Hmix). They confirm the results obtained for ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piping systems of nuclear power plants include connections of branches conveying fluids at different temperatures. Thermal-hydraulic fluctuations arising from the turbulent mixing of the flows can affect the inner wall of the pipes and can lead to fatigue damage. In order to assess the high-cycle thermal fatigue damages risks of the NPP mixing zones, the knowledge of the temperature fluctuations transfer from fluid to structure is necessary. Some tests were performed in order to evaluate the unsteady heat transfer coefficient in a mixing zone, and especially during the FATHER experiment, which was initiated by AREVA NP, CEA and EDF to study thermal fatigue phenomena. More precisely, a specific sensor called 'coefh' was used during the experiments. This sensor records simultaneously local temperature fluctuations in the fluid and in the structure thanks to thermocouples incorporated in the body of the sensor, which is specifically designed to capture the rapid unsteady temperature fluctuations. This paper describes and compares different approaches that could be used to evaluate a heat transfer coefficient from the 'coefh' fluid and structure unsteady temperature measurements. A specific attention is paid to the impact of the phase difference between the fluid and the structure temperature measurements. (author)
Lewandowska, Monika; Malinowski, Leszek
2016-01-01
The data resulting from the thermal-hydraulic test of the ITER TF CICC are used to determine the flow partition and the overall effective heat transfer coefficient (hBC) between bundle and central channel in a direct way, i.e. by analysis of the heat transfer between both flow channels, based on the mass and energy balance equations and the readings of thermometers located inside the cable. In cases without a local heat source in the considered cable segment the obtained hBC values were consistent with those obtained in earlier studies by analysis of experimental data using indirect methods. It was also observed that the transverse heat transfer was strongly enhanced in a cable segment heated from outside. This phenomenon results from the mass transfer from the bundle region to the central channel. The experimental hBC data obtained for the case without a heat source in the considered segment were also compared with those calculated using various heat transfer correlations.
A technique for measuring the heat transfer coefficient inside a Bridgman furnace
Rosch, W.; Jesser, W.; Debnam, W.; Fripp, A.; Woodell, G.; Pendergrass, T. K.
1993-01-01
Knowledge of the amount of heat that is conducted, advected and radiated between an ampoule and the furnace is important for understanding vertical Bridgman crystal growth. This heat transfer depends on the temperature, emissivities and geometries of both the furnace and ampoule, as well as the choice of ambient gas inside the furnace. This paper presents a method which directly measures this heat transfer without the need to know any physical properties of the furnace, the ampoule, or the gaseous environment. Data are given for one specific furnace in which this method was used.
Determination of transfer coefficients soil/vegetation by means of site-specific soil parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transfer of Sr and Cs to different forms of vegetation is influenced by a great number of soil properties, some parameters playing a key part for certain nuclides. The dominant factor for the uptake of Sr is the exchangeable Ca content of the soil. The transfer of Cs to different plants on the other hand is affected by several properties of the soil in about equal strength, for different types of plant and soil one or the other parameter having got greater influence. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB
Momentum transfer in a Brillouin surface scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The theory of acoustic excitation scattering in the surface of Brilloiun of opaque materials, is related to the question of momentum transfexed from radiation fields to the material when the incident eight is scattered in a measurable spectrum. (A.C.A.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This document presents tables of diet-to-milk transfer coefficients for radioactive and stable isotopes in the cow. The values are based on an extensive literature review of the secretion of radioisotopes in milk and the concentrations of radioactive or stable isotopes in milk and feed. Transfer coefficients were compiled and tabulated for isotopes of more than 70 elements. The values are summarized in a table of elemental transfer coefficients and also organized into separate tables that reveal their elemental systematics and the effects of physical and chemical form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present work is devoted to an estimation of the transfer coefficient between reared oyster mushrooms and their support die, which was injected with known activity of Am-241 and Pu-242. After 2 months when we get the reared mushrooms of cane oyster mushrooms were dried and prepared by liquid extraction with Aliquat 336. The samples were measured by ?-spectrometry. The results of activity Am-241 and Pu-242 in the mushrooms body and residual activity in the support were detected and calculated. (authors)
Gracia, A.; David, Damien; Castell, Albert; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Virgone, Joseph
2013-01-01
This paper provides a new correlation to determine the heat transfer coefficient between an air flow and a plate made of phase change material (PCM ). This correlation was built for the simulation of heat storage units containing PCM plates subjected to an inlet temperature step. The presented correlation has the following form: View the MathML sourceNux,tPCM=NuPSM*fPCM. The first term NuPSM is for a plate made of traditional material. The term fPCM is a perturbation due to the phase change i...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhihui Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study investigates the frequency bifurcation phenomena of a typical voltage-fed resonant converter based on mutual induction model. It is found that the Zero Current Switching (ZCS operating frequency has the bifurcation region as the coupling coefficient varies due to the distance. The expression for the bifurcation boundary is derived and analyzed. Such results are very useful for guiding the design of practical Inductively Coupled Power Transfer (ICPT systems especially in applications which have the requirement of the position flexibility. Analytical results are verified both via MATLAB simulations and experimental prototype.
Measurement of the 2H(p,n) pp transverse polarization transfer coefficient at 20.4 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transverse polarization transfer coefficient, K/suby//suby/', has been measured for the reaction 2H(p,n) pp at 18degree for E/subp/=20.4 MeV as a function of neutron energy. Although predictions based on a three-body separable-potential model with S-wave N-N interactions are in reasonable agreement with the data, the need for a three-body theory with more realistic N-N forces is indicated
Jafar Ghani Majeed
2013-01-01
The volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KG.a) for SO2 removal from gas mixture into aqueous Na2SO3 solution was studied in a plate column at constant temperature ( 25 , and liquid holdup. The KG.a values were evaluated over ranges of operating independent variables: gas flow rate (QG), SO2 concentration in inlet gas (CSO2, in), and concentration of aqueous Na2SO3 solution (CNa2SO3). The experimental results showed that KG.a decreased with i...
Sieres, Jaime; Fernández-Seara, José
2008-08-01
The ammonia purification process is critical in ammonia water absorption refrigeration systems. In this paper, a detailed and a simplified analytical model are presented to characterize the performance of the ammonia rectification process in packed columns. The detailed model is based on mass and energy balances and simultaneous heat and mass transfer equations. The simplified model is derived and compared with the detailed model. The range of applicability of the simplified model is determined. A calculation procedure based on the simplified model is developed to determine the volumetric mass transfer coefficients in the vapour phase from experimental data. Finally, the proposed model and other simple calculation methods found in the general literature are compared.
The effect of the liquid-solid system properties on the interline heat transfer coefficient
Wayner, P. C., Jr.
1977-01-01
A theoretical procedure to determine the heat transfer characteristics of the interline region of an evaporating meniscus using the macroscopic optical and thermophysical properties of the system is outlined. The analysis is based on the premise that the interline transport processes are controlled by the London-van der Waals forces between condensed phases (solid and liquid). The procedure is used to compare the relative size of the interline heat sink of various systems using a constant heat flux model. This solution demonstrates the importance of the interline heat flow number which is evaluated for various systems. The heat transfer characteristics of the decane-steel system are numerically compared with those of the carbon tetrachloride-quartz system.
Application of FLECHT reflood heat transfer coefficients to C-E's 16 x 16 fuel bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
NRC has approved a FLECHT based reflood heat transfer correlation (designated MOD-1C) for use on the C-E 14 x 14 fuel assembly. This report proposes a procedure for applying the MOD-1C correlation to the C-E 16 x 16 fuel assembly. The procedure applies a non-constant correction factor to the MOD-1C correlation. This correction factor accounts for the geometric differences between the 14 x 14 and 16 x 16 fuel assemblies. Comparison with experimental data corroborates the applicability of the correction method. A computer program called THERM which presents a physical model of the reflood heat transfer process is described. This program was employed to establish the significant parameters involved in the geometric correction factor. Thus, the acceptability of the correction factor is based on the comparisons with experimental data rather than on the THERM program
Evaluation of Heat and Mass Transfer Coefficients for R134a/DMF Bubble Absorber
Suresh, M; Mani, A.
2011-01-01
The Vapour Absorption Refrigeration System (VARS) has generated renewed interest and is being viewed as one of the alternatives for vapour compression refrigeration due to its potential for waste heat utilization. To improve the efficiency of these systems, it is necessary to study heat and mass transfer processes in absorption system components. The absorber, one of the crucial components in VARS is considered for study. Experimental investigation is carried out to study heat and mass transf...
Rajesh Ghosh* and Sounak Bhattacherjee
2013-01-01
An adequate supply of oxygen in aqueous solution becomes the focal point of interest when it comes to the growth and maintenance of most aerobic microbial and tissue cultures used for biochemical and pharmaceutical production. Unfortunately, oxygen mass transfer to the growth medium serves as a major growth limiting factor owing to it’s low solubility in aqueous solutions. (Approximately 10 ppm at ambient temperature and pressure). The reaction rate is such that as oxygen enters the liquid ph...
The effect of ambient temperature on the shoe-surface interface release coefficient.
Torg, J S; Stilwell, G; Rogers, K
1996-01-01
Previous studies of the shoe-surface interface correlated foot fixation with cleat length, configuration, and material composition as well as turf type and surface conditions. Our study examined the effect of temperature on the rotational torsion resistance of artificial turf football shoes. Five football shoe models, a flat-soled basketball-style turf shoe, a natural grass soccer-style shoe, and three multistudded turf shoes, were studied on dry Astro Turf at five temperatures (range, 52 degrees F to 110 degrees F). An assay device, a prosthetic foot mounted on a loaded stainless steel shaft, was used to determine the force necessary to release a shoe from the turf's surface. We used a torque wrench to apply a rotational force so that each shoe was pivoted counterclockwise through an arc of 60 degrees. Our results indicated that release coefficients differ within and among the shoe models at various turf temperatures. We also found that an increase in turf temperature, in combination with cleat characteristics, affects shoe-surface interface friction and potentially places the athlete's knee and ankle at risk of injury. Based on an established risk criterion, which correlated shoe-surface interface combinations in the laboratory with documented clinical occurrences, only the flat-soled basketball-style turf shoe could be designated "safe" or "probably safe" at all five temperatures. PMID:8638758
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sundus Hussein Abd
2012-01-01
Full Text Available In this research, an experimental study was conducted to high light the impact of the exterior shape of a cylindrical body on the forced and free convection heat transfer coefficients when the body is hold in the entrance of an air duct. The impact of changing the body location within the air duct and the air speed are also demonstrated. The cylinders were manufactured with circular, triangular and square sections of copper for its high thermal conductivity with appropriate dimensions, while maintaining the surface area of all shapes to be the same. Each cylinder was heated to a certain temperature and put inside the duct at certain locations. The temperature of the cylinder was then monitored. The heat transfer coefficient were then calculated for forced convection for several Reynolds number (4555-18222.The study covered free convection impact for values of Rayleigh number ranging between (1069-3321. Imperical relationships were obtained for all cases of forced and free convection and compared with equations of circular cylindrical shapes found in literature. These imperical equations were found to be in good comparison with that of other sources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present study, the effect of delta-wing vortex generators(DWVG) on the local heat transfer of the plate fin-oval tube was experimentally analyzed for Reynolds numbers for 2000, 2500 and 3200. The local heat transfer coefficient of the fin surface for four type DWVGs was measured by the naphthalene sublimation technique. As the results, the distribution of the heat transfer coefficient at rear of DWVGs showed longitudinal contours for common flow down DWVGs and wavy contours for common flow up DWVGs. The distribution showed many cell type contours at near wall and downstream for all DWVGs. Compared to case without DWVGs in present experimental tests, all DWVGs showed the best enhancement of heat transfer at Re=2000. Of 4 cases of DWVGs, D type showed the best enhancement of heat transfer
Marquardt, Katharina; Dohmen, Ralf; Wagner, Johannes
2014-05-01
Diffusion along interface and grain boundaries provides an efficient pathway and may control chemical transport in rocks as well as their mechanical strength. Besides the significant relevance of these diffusion processes for various geologic processes, experimental data are still very limited (e.g., Dohmen & Milke, 2010). Most of these data were measured using polycrystalline materials and the formalism of LeClaire (1951) to fit integrated concentration depth profiles. To correctly apply this formalism, certain boundary conditions of the diffusion problem need to be fulfilled, e.g., surface diffusion is ignored, and furthermore the lattice diffusion coefficient has to be known from other studies or is an additional fitting parameter, which produces some ambiguity in the derived grain boundary diffusion coefficients. We developed an experimental setup where we can measure the lattice and grain boundary diffusion coefficients simultaneously but independent and demonstrate the relevance of surface diffusion for typical grain boundary diffusion experiments. We performed Mg2SiO4 bicrystal diffusion experiments, where a single grain boundary is covered by a thin-film of pure Ni2SiO4 acting as diffusant source, produced by pulsed laser deposition. The investigated grain boundary is a 60° (011)/[100]. This specific grain boundary configuration was modeled using molecular dynamics for comparison with the experimental observations in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both, experiment and model are in good agreement regarding the misorientation, whereas there are still some disagreements regarding the strain fields along the grain boundary that are of outmost importance for the strengths of the material. The subsequent diffusion experiments were carried out in the temperature range between 800° and 1450° C. The inter diffusion profiles were measured using the TEMs energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer standardized using the Cliff-Lorimer equation and EMPA measurements. To evaluate the obtained diffusion profiles we adapted the isolated grain boundary model, first proposed by Fisher (1951) to match several observations: (i) Anisotropic diffusion in forsterite, (ii) fast diffusion along the grain boundary, (iii) fast diffusion on the surface of the sample. The latter process is needed to explain an additional flux of material from the surface into the grain boundary. Surface and grain boundary diffusion coefficients are on the order of 10000 times faster than diffusion in the lattice. Another observation was that in some regions the diffusion profiles in the lattice were greatly extended. TEM observations suggest here that surface defects (nano-cracks, ect.) have been present, which apparently enhanced the diffusion through the bulk lattice. Dohmen, R., & Milke, R. (2010). Diffusion in Polycrystalline Materials: Grain Boundaries, Mathematical Models, and Experimental Data. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 72(1), 921-970. Fisher, J. C. (1951). Calculations of Diffusion Penetration Curves for Surface and Grain Boundary Diffusion. Journal of Applied Physics, 22(1), 74-77. Le Claire, A. D. (1951). Grain boundary diffusion in metals. Philosophical Magazine A, 42(328), 468-474.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Dieng
2013-02-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize thermal insulating local material, kapok, from a study in 3 dimensions in Cartesian coordinate and in dynamic frequency regime. From a study a 3 dimensional the heat transfer through a material made of wool kapok (thermal conductivity: &lambda = 0,035 W/m/K; density: &rho = 12, 35 kg/m3; thermal diffusivity: &alpha = 17, 1.10-7 m2 /s is presented. The evolution curves of temperature versus convective heat transfer coefficient have helped highlight the importance of pulse excitation and the depth in the material. The thermal impedance is studied from representations of Nyquist and Bode diagrams allowing characterizing the thermal behavior from thermistors. The evolution of the thermal impedance with the thermal capacity of the material is presented.
Determining the moderator temperature coefficient by fitting the noise analysis transfer function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Previous researchers have established that the value of the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) of reactivity is contained in correlations between fluctuations of the neutron flux and core-exit coolant temperature. Both the root-mean-square method and the frequency response function (FRF) technique are used to determine the absolute magnitude of the MTC. Normally, these methods are used in conjunction with the phase angle technique, which is used to ascertain the MTC sign; however, a recent study has determined that a boundary exists on the range of MTC values for which the phase angle from noise analysis can be used. This paper describes a fitting method to determine both the MTC sign and magnitude in a single analysis in order to overcome such limitations
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Araí A. Bernárdez, Pécora; Maria Regina, Parise.
2006-09-01
Full Text Available This work shows the experimental study of a continuous gas-solid fluidized bed with an immersed tube where cold water is heated by fluidized solid particles presenting inlet temperature from 450 to 700°C. Experiments were carried out in order to verify the influence of solid particle flow rate and d [...] istance between baffles immersed in a shallow fluidized bed. The solid material was 254µm diameter silica sand particles, fluidized by air in a 0.90m long and 0.15m wide heat exchanger. The measurements were taken at steady state conditions for solid mass flow rate from 10 to 100 kg/h, in a heat exchanger with the presence of 5 or 8 baffles. Bed temperature measurements along the length of the heat exchanger were experimentally obtained and heat balances for differential control volumes of the heat exchanger were made in order to obtain the axial profile of the bed-to-tube heat transfer coefficient. The results showed that heat transfer coefficient increases with the solid particle mass flow rate and with the presence of baffles, suggesting that these are important factors to be considered in the design of such heat exchanger.
Zajaczkowski, Bartosz; Halon, Tomasz; Krolicki, Zbigniew
2016-02-01
In this paper we study the influence of sub-atmospheric pressure on nucleate boiling. Sixteen correlations for pool boiling available in literature are gathered and evaluated. Analysis is performed in the pressure range 1-10 kPa and for heat flux densities 10-45 kW/m2. Superheats are set between 6.2 and 28.7 K. The results of calculations were compared with experimental values for the same parameters. The experiments were conducted using isolated glass cylinder and water boiling above the copper plate. Results show that low pressure adjust the character of boiling curve—the curve flattened and the natural convection region of boiling is shifted towards higher wall temperature superheats due to the influence of low pressure on the bubble creation and process of its departure. In result, 8 of 16 analyzed correlations were determined as completely invalid in subatmospheric conditions and the remaining set of equations was compared to experimental results. Experimentally obtained values of heat transfer coefficients are between 1 and 2 kW/m2K. With mean absolute deviation (MAD) we have found that the most accurate approximation of heat transfer coefficient is obtained using Mostinski reduced pressure correlation (0.13-0.35 MAD) and Labuntsov correlation (0.12-0.89 MAD).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The diet-milk transfer coefficient, Fm (Bq L-1 output in milk divided by Bq d-1 intake to the animal) was studied for eight radionuclides that previously had been given little attention. The Fm values for cows and goats, respectively, were: 2.3 x 10(-5) and 1.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 99m/Tc, 1.4 x 10(-4) and 8.5 x 10(-4) for /sup 95m/Tc, 1.1 x 10(-2) for 99Tc (goats only); 1.7 x 10(-3) and 9 x 10(-3) for 99Mo; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.4 x 10(-3) for /sup 123m/Te; 4.8 x 10(-4) and 4.6 x 10(-3) for 133Ba; 5.5 x 10(-7) and 5.5 x 10(-6) for 95Zr; and 4.1 x 10(-7) and 6.4 x 10(-6) for 95Nb. The goat/cow transfer coefficient ratios for milk were approximately 10, but the goat/cow ratios for meat varied by three orders of magnitude
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kongdej LIMPAIBOON
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of process variables on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient of oxygen, KLa, in a stirred bioreactor using the static gassing-out method. In this study, various process conditions were chosen, including 3 parameters, namely, concentration of glucose in medium (10, 15 and 20 g/l, air flow rate (1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 vvm, and agitation rate (300, 400, 500 and 600 rpm. From the results, it was found that the KLa increased with increasing air flow rate and/or speed of agitation, but decreased with increasing concentration of glucose in medium. The maximum KLa occurred when the concentration of glucose in medium was the least (10 g/l, with an air flow rate of 1.75 vvm, and an agitation rate of 600 rpm. Correlations have been developed for the estimation of volumetric mass transfer coefficients at various process conditions for medium with different glucose concentrations. The exponent values representing dependence of KLa on the process conditions were then compared with literature values.
The momentum transfer cross section and transport coefficients for low energy electrons in mercury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The momentum transfer cross section for electrons incident on mercury atoms has been determined from the solution of Dirac-Fock scattering equations which included both static and dynamic multipole polarization potentials as well as full anti-symmetrization to incorporate exchange effects. This cross section is in excellent agreement between 0.2 and 3.0 eV with the cross section derived from the most recent experimental measurements. The discrepancy below 0.2 eV has been investigated using two-term transport theory
Investigation into the heat transfer performance of helically ribbed surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The first part of an investigation into flow and heat transfer in annular channels and seven pin clusters is described. One of the main aims of the project is to improve cluster heat transfer prediction codes for helically ribbed surfaces. A study is made of the heat transfer and flow characteristics of a helically ribbed pin in an annular channel. It is shown that the swirling flow, which is induced by the helical ribs, gives rise to substantially enhanced diffusivity levels. This phenomenon had not been taken into account by previous analysis techniques. The methods for analysing heat transfer and pressure drop data from annular channels which were originally developed for non-swirling flow are generalised to accommodate swirling flow. The new methods are shown to be consistent with empirical data. Roughness parameter data is presented for helically ribbed surfaces with an axial rib pitch into height ratio of about 7. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adsorption of radionuclides on soils and sediments is commonly quantified by distribution coefficients (Kd values). This paper examines the relationship between Kd values for uranium(VI) adsorption and the specific surface area (SSA) of geologic materials. We then investigate the potential applicability of normalising uranium (U) Kd measurements using the SSA, to produce 'Ka values' as a generic expression of the affinity of U for the surface. The data for U provide a reasonably coherent set of Ka values on various solid phases, both with and without ligands. The Ka representation provides a way of harmonising datasets obtained for materials having different specific surface areas, and accounting for the effects of ligands in different systems. In addition, this representation may assist in developing U sorption models for complex materials. However, a significant limitation of the Ka concept is that sorption of radionuclides at trace levels can be dominated by interactions with specific surface sites, whose abundances are not reflected by the SSA. Therefore, calculated Ka values should be interpreted cautiously.
Frequency comb transferred by surface plasmon resonance.
Geng, Xiao Tao; Chun, Byung Jae; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong; Yoon, Hana; Kim, Dong-Eon; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seungchul
2016-01-01
Frequency combs, millions of narrow-linewidth optical modes referenced to an atomic clock, have shown remarkable potential in time/frequency metrology, atomic/molecular spectroscopy and precision LIDARs. Applications have extended to coherent nonlinear Raman spectroscopy of molecules and quantum metrology for entangled atomic qubits. Frequency combs will create novel possibilities in nano-photonics and plasmonics; however, its interrelation with surface plasmons is unexplored despite the important role that plasmonics plays in nonlinear spectroscopy and quantum optics through the manipulation of light on a subwavelength scale. Here, we demonstrate that a frequency comb can be transformed to a plasmonic comb in plasmonic nanostructures and reverted to the original frequency comb without noticeable degradation of <6.51 × 10(-19) in absolute position, 2.92 × 10(-19) in stability and 1?Hz in linewidth. The results indicate that the superior performance of a well-defined frequency comb can be applied to nanoplasmonic spectroscopy, quantum metrology and subwavelength photonic circuits. PMID:26898307
Frequency comb transferred by surface plasmon resonance
Geng, Xiao Tao; Chun, Byung Jae; Seo, Ji Hoon; Seo, Kwanyong; Yoon, Hana; Kim, Dong-Eon; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seungchul
2016-01-01
Frequency combs, millions of narrow-linewidth optical modes referenced to an atomic clock, have shown remarkable potential in time/frequency metrology, atomic/molecular spectroscopy and precision LIDARs. Applications have extended to coherent nonlinear Raman spectroscopy of molecules and quantum metrology for entangled atomic qubits. Frequency combs will create novel possibilities in nano-photonics and plasmonics; however, its interrelation with surface plasmons is unexplored despite the important role that plasmonics plays in nonlinear spectroscopy and quantum optics through the manipulation of light on a subwavelength scale. Here, we demonstrate that a frequency comb can be transformed to a plasmonic comb in plasmonic nanostructures and reverted to the original frequency comb without noticeable degradation of <6.51 × 10?19 in absolute position, 2.92 × 10?19 in stability and 1?Hz in linewidth. The results indicate that the superior performance of a well-defined frequency comb can be applied to nanoplasmonic spectroscopy, quantum metrology and subwavelength photonic circuits. PMID:26898307
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volume-transfer coefficients of uranyl nitrate and nitric acid are determined during extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate diluted with a mixture of saturated hydrocarbons in centrifugal extractor. The interface area is determined experimentally by two independent methods: using solidification of dispersed phase or its sedimentation. Both methods give close results. Uranium and nitric acid mass-transfer coefficients are calculated with regard to the interface area
Calculation on fluorescence resonance energy transfer on surfaces.
Dewey, T G; Hammes, G.G.
1980-01-01
A general method for estimating fluorescence resonance energy transfer between distributions of donors and acceptors on surfaces is presented. Continued fraction approximants are obtained from equivalent power series expansions of the change in quantum yield in terms of the fluorescent lifetimes or the steady-state fluorescence. These approximants provide analytic equations for the analysis of energy transfer and error bounds for the approximants. Specific approximants are derived for five mo...
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Enrique, Torres-Tamayo; Yoalbys, Retirado-Medianeja; Ever, Góngora-Leyva.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available La pérdida de eficiencia del proceso de enfriamiento del licor amoniacal, mediante el uso de intercambiadores de calor de placas, está asociada a imprecisiones en la estimación de los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la acumulación de incrustaciones en la superficie de intercambio. El objeti [...] vo de la investigación es determinar los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la influencia de las incrustaciones en la pérdida de eficiencia de la instalación. Mediante un procedimiento iterativo se estableció la ecuación del número de Nusselt y su relación con el número de Reynolds y Prandtl. Se utilizó un diseño experimental multifactorial. Los resultados predicen el conocimiento de los coeficientes para el cálculo del número de Nusselt en ambos fluidos. Los valores de los coeficientes del licor amoniacal son inferiores, ello se debe a la presencia de componentes gaseosos. La ecuación obtenida muestra correspondencia con el modelo de Buonapane, el error comparativo es del 3,55 %. Abstract in english The loss of efficiency of the ammonia liquor cooling process, by means of the plate heat exchanger, is associated to the incorrect estimate of the heat transfer coefficients and the accumulation of inlays in the exchange surface. The objective of the investigation is to determine the transfer coeffi [...] cients and the influence of the inlays in the efficiency loss of the installation. By means of an iterative procedure was obtained the Nusselt number equation and the relationship with the Reynolds and Prandtl number, for it was used it a design experimental multifactorial. The results predict the knowledge of the coefficients for the calculation of the Nusselt number for both fluids. The ammonia liquor coefficients values are inferior, due to the presence of gassy components. The obtained equation shows correspondence with the Buonapane pattern, the comparative error is 3,55 %.
Ibrahim, Mounir; Kannapareddy, Mohan; Tew, Roy C.; Dudenhoefer, James E.
1991-01-01
Twelve different cases of multidimensional models of Stirling engine components for space applications have been numerically investigated for oscillating, incompressible laminar flow with heat transfer. The cases studied covered wide ranges of Valensi number (from 44 to 700), Re(max) number (from 8250 to 60,000), and relative amplitude of fluid motion of 0.686 and 1.32. The Nusselt numbers obtained from the present study indicate a very complex shape with respect to time and axial location in the channel. The results indicate that three parameters can be used to define the local Nusselt number variation, namely: time average, amplitude, and phase angle. These parameters could be correlated respectively using: Re(max), Va and Re(max), and the relative amplitude of fluid motion.
Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer from microporous surfaces in a small channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The continuously increasing requirement for high heat transfer rate in a compact space can be met by combining the small channel/microchannel and heat transfer enhancement methods during fluid subcooled flow boiling. In this paper, the sintered microporous coating, as an efficient means of enhancing nucleate boiling, was applied to a horizontal, rectangular small channel. Water flow boiling heat transfer characteristics from the small channel with/without the microporous coating were experimentally investigated. The small channel, even without the coating, presented flow boiling heat transfer enhancement at low vapor quality due to size effects of the channel. This enhancement was also verified by under-predictions from macro-scale correlations. In addition to the enhancement from the channel size, all six microporous coatings with various structural parameters were found to further enhance nucleate boiling significantly. Effects of the coating structural parameters, fluid mass flux and inlet subcooling were also investigated to identify the optimum condition for heat transfer enhancement. Under the optimum condition, the microporous coating could produce the heat transfer coefficients 2.7 times the smooth surface value in subcooled flow boiling and 3 times in saturated flow boiling. The combination of the microporous coating and small channel led to excellent heat transfer performance, and therefore was deemed to have promising application prospects in many areas such as air conditioning, chip cooling, refrigeration systems, and many others involving compact heat exchangers. (authors)
Fouling of roughened stainless steel surfaces during convective heat transfer to aqueous solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The deterioration of heat transfer performance due to fouling is the prime cause for higher energy consumption and inefficiency in many industrial heat exchangers such as those in power plants, refineries, food and dairy industries. Fouling is also a very complex process in which many geometrical, physical and operating parameters are involved with poorly understood interaction. Among them, the surface roughness is an important surface characteristic that would greatly influence crystallisation fouling mechanisms and hence deposition morphology and stickability to the surface. In this work, the effect of the surface roughness of AISI 304 BA stainless steel surfaces on fouling of an aqueous solution with inverse solubility behaviour has been investigated under convective heat transfer. Several experiments have been performed on roughened surfaces ranging from 0.18 to 1.55 ?m for different bulk concentrations and heat fluxes. The EDTA titration method was used to measure the concentration of the calcium sulphate salt in order to maintain it at constant value during each fouling run. Experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient of very rough surfaces (1.55 ?m) decreases more rapidly than that of 0.54 ?m. Several facts contribute to this behaviour notably (1) increased of primary heterogeneous nucleation rate on the surfaces; (2) reduction of local shear stress in the valleys and (3) reduced removal rate of the crystals from the surfaces where the roughness elements protrude out of the viscous sub-layer. The results also show linear and proportional variation of the fouling rate and heat flux within the range of operating conditions. In addition, the deposition process in terms of fouling rate could only be affected at lower surface contact angles. Such results would particularly be of interest for new surface treatment technologies which aim at altering the surface texture
Ellwood, R; Stratoudaki, T; Sharples, S D; Clark, M; Somekh, M G
2015-11-01
Much interest has arisen in nonlinear acoustic techniques because of their reported sensitivity to variations in residual stress, fatigue life, and creep damage when compared to traditional linear ultrasonic techniques. However, there is also evidence that the nonlinear acoustic properties are also sensitive to material microstructure. As many industrially relevant materials have a polycrystalline structure, this could potentially complicate the monitoring of material processes when using nonlinear acoustics. Variations in the nonlinear acoustoelastic coefficient on the same length scale as the microstructure of a polycrystalline sample of aluminum are investigated in this paper. This is achieved by the development of a measurement protocol that allows imaging of the acoustoelastic response of a material across a samples surface at the same time as imaging the microstructure. The development, validation, and limitations of this technique are discussed. The nonlinear acoustic response is found to vary spatially by a large factor (>20) between different grains. A relationship is observed when the spatial variation of the acoustoelastic coefficient is compared to the variation in material microstructure. PMID:26627757
Heat transfer characteristics of a back-corrugated absorber surface for solar air collectors
Shockey, K. A.; Pearson, J. T.; Dewitt, D. P.
1981-11-01
The present study experimentally examines a back-corrugated absorber-convector comprised of a rectangularly corrugated plate attached to the back side of a flat absorber plate with a high temperature, high strength adhesive. The upper surface is subjected to a heat flux from a blanket-type electric heater simulating solar irradiation. The corrugated plate configuration creates two parallel airflow channel types. The two channels have different geometries and, therefore, may have different heat transfer characteristics. An apparatus was designed to determine the local convective heat transfer coefficients along each of the channels. The results show that the back-corrugated absorber-convector has much better thermal performance than the simple flat-plate absorber-convector, mainly because of the increased connective heat transfer area.
Transfer matrix treatment of atomic chemisorption on transition metal surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The atomic adsorption of hydrogen on paramagnetic nickel 100 surface is studied, using the Green's function formalism and the transfer matrix technique, which allows the treatment of the geometry of the system in a simple manner. Electronic correlation at the adatom orbital in a self consistent Hartree-Fock approach is incorporated. The adsorption energy, local density of states and charge transfer between the solid and the adatom are calculated for different crystal structures (sc and fcc) and adatom positions at the surface. The results are discussed in comparison with other theories and with available experimental data, with satisfactory agreement. (Author)
Lu, C.-H.; Beckmann, M.; Unz, S.; Gloess, D.; Frach, P.; Holst, E.; Lasagni, A.; Bieda, M.
2016-01-01
It is well known that dropwise condensation corresponds to a high heat transfer coefficient. The high performance enhancement of dropwise condensation in comparison to filmwise condensation is attributed to the ability of non-wetting droplets to be shed from the surface by gravity, therefore reducing the overall thermal resistance. The common treatments to carry out the hydrophobic surface for dropwise condensation are coating and structure. The improvement of heat transfer efficiency by combination of surface treatments with coating and groove structure has been proved compared of surface with single surface treatment by coating or groove structure. Based on this result, in this study presents a model developed to predict the heat transfer efficiency of dropwise condensation for surface with coating and groove structure features. The model is established by heat transfer though a single droplet with the drop size distribution. The heat transfer of single drop is not only analyzed as combination of thermal resistances, but also considered capillary effect of droplet due to groove geometry and properties of surface. In addition, the model results are validated with experimental data which is investigated by varied modification of vapor side metallic surface properties at low absolute pressure. It can be a reference to design industrial condensers of heat exchangers in the future. Further to optimize the surface properties and improve the higher heat transfer performance of dropwise condensation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heat transfer is a crucial aspect for hot stamping process, the fully austenitized boron steel blank with temperature about 900°C is transferred to the tool, then formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. The desired fully martensitic transformation will happen only if the cooling rate exceeds a critical value approximately 27 K/s. During such process, the heat transfer coefficient (abbreviated as HTC) between the tool and blank plays a decisive role for the variation of the blank temperature. In this work, a theoretical formula based on the joint-roughness model is presented to describe the law of HTC, which relies on the roughness, hardness, and other material parameters of the tool and blank. Moreover, a non-contact temperature measuring system based on the infrared thermal camera is built to catch the temperature change course, and then the HTC value is derived through the inverse analysis. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the change rule of HTC especially its dependence on the process pressure will be discussed in detail
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ameel Mohammed Rahman Al-Mayah
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The study of oxygen mass transfer was conducted in a laboratory scale 5 liter stirred bioreactor equipped with one Rushton turbine impeller. The effects of superficial gas velocity, impeller speed, power input and liquid viscosity on the oxygen mass transfer were considered. Air/ water and air/CMC systems were used as a liquid media for this study. The concentration of CMC was ranging from 0.5 to 3 w/v. The experimental results show that volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient increases with the increase in the superficial gas velocity and impeller speed and decreases with increasing liquid viscosity. The experimental results of kla were correlated with a mathematical correlation describing the influences of the considered factors (the overall power input and the superficial gas velocity over the studied rages. The predicted kla values give acceptable results compared with the experimental values. The following correlations were obtained: Air/water system Air/CMC system (0.5w/v Air/CMC system (1w/v Air/CMC system (2w/v Air/CMC system (3w/v
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Han, Xianhong; Hao, Xin; Yang, Kun; Zhong, Yaoyao [Institute of Forming Technology and Equipment, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Hua Shan Road, Shanghai, 200030 (China)
2013-12-16
Heat transfer is a crucial aspect for hot stamping process, the fully austenitized boron steel blank with temperature about 900°C is transferred to the tool, then formed rapidly and quenched in the cooled tool. The desired fully martensitic transformation will happen only if the cooling rate exceeds a critical value approximately 27 K/s. During such process, the heat transfer coefficient (abbreviated as HTC) between the tool and blank plays a decisive role for the variation of the blank temperature. In this work, a theoretical formula based on the joint-roughness model is presented to describe the law of HTC, which relies on the roughness, hardness, and other material parameters of the tool and blank. Moreover, a non-contact temperature measuring system based on the infrared thermal camera is built to catch the temperature change course, and then the HTC value is derived through the inverse analysis. Based on the theoretical and experimental results, the change rule of HTC especially its dependence on the process pressure will be discussed in detail.
Serrating Nozzle Surfaces for Complete Transfer of Droplets
Kim, Chang-Jin " CJ" Yi, Uichong
2010-01-01
A method of ensuring the complete transfer of liquid droplets from nozzles in microfluidic devices to nearby surfaces involves relatively simple geometric modification of the nozzle surfaces. The method is especially applicable to nozzles in print heads and similar devices required to dispense liquid droplets having precise volumes. Examples of such devices include heads for soft printing of ink on paper and heads for depositing droplets of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or protein solutions on glass plates to form microarrays of spots for analysis. The main purpose served by the present method is to ensure that droplets transferred from a nozzle have consistent volume, as needed to ensure accuracy in microarray analysis or consistent appearance of printed text and images. In soft printing, droplets having consistent volume are generated inside a print head, but in the absence of the present method, the consistency is lost in printing because after each printing action (in which a drop is ejected from a nozzle), a small residual volume of liquid remains attached to the nozzle. By providing for complete transfer of droplets (and thus eliminating residual liquid attached to the nozzle) the method ensures consistency of volume of transferred droplets. An additional benefit of elimination of residue is prevention of cross-contamination among different liquids printed through the same nozzle a major consideration in DNA microarray analysis. The method also accelerates the printing process by minimizing the need to clean a printing head to prevent cross-contamination. Soft printing involves a hydrophobic nozzle surface and a hydrophilic print surface. When the two surfaces are brought into proximity such that a droplet in the nozzle makes contact with the print surface, a substantial portion of the droplet becomes transferred to the print surface. Then as the nozzle and the print surface are pulled apart, the droplet is pulled apart and most of the droplet remains on the print surface. The basic principle of the present method is to reduce the liquid-solid surface energy of the nozzle to a level sufficiently below the intrinsic solid-liquid surface energy of the nozzle material so that the droplet is not pulled apart and, instead, the entire droplet volume becomes transferred to the print surface. In this method, the liquid-solid surface energy is reduced by introducing artificial surface roughness in the form of micromachined serrations on the inner nozzle surface (see figure). The method was tested in experiments on soft printing of DNA solutions and of deionized water through 0.5-mm-diameter nozzles, of which some were not serrated, some were partially serrated, and some were fully serrated. In the nozzles without serrations, transfer was incomplete; that is, residual liquids remained in the nozzles after printing. However, in every nozzle in which at least half the inner surface was serrated, complete transfer of droplets to the print surface was achieved.
Some observations on boiling heat transfer with surface oscillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effects of surface oscillation on pool boiling heat transfer are experimentally studied. Experiments were performed in saturated ethanol and distilled water, covering the range from nucleate to film boiling except in the transition region. Two different geometries were employed as the heating surface with the same wetting area, stainless steel pipe and molybdenum ribbon. The results confirm earlier work on the effect of surface oscillation especially in lower heat flux region of nucleate boiling. Interesting boiling behavior during surface oscillation is observed, which was not referred to in previous work. (2 figures) (Author)
Heat and mass transfer effect on hydromagnetic flow of a moving permeable vertical surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Numerical results are presented for the effects of heat and mass transfer on hydromagnetic flow of a moving permeable vertical surface. The surface is maintained at linear temperature and concentration variations. The nonlinear-coupled boundary layer equations were transformed and the resulting ordinary differential equations were solved by perturbation technique. Numerical results for the dimensionless velocity profiles, the temperature profiles, the local friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are presented for various values of Prandtl number, suction/blowing parameter, Schrnidt number, buoyancy ratio and Hartmann number. The effects of the different parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles as well as skin friction and wall heat transfer are evaluated. Favorable comparisons with previously published work confirm the correctness of numerical results
Characteristics of transient heat transfer on a hot surface during cooling with spray
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental study has been done to make clear effect of mass flux and subcooling of spray liquid, gravity and thermal properties of solid material on spray cooling of a cylindrical hot block surface. A cooling history is divided into four time periods determined by behavior of spray droplets on the hot surface. Heat transfer coefficient during wetted period increases about 100 times larger than that for non-wetted period. We tried to correlate a wetting time giving sudden wall temperature drop with two groups of parameters which was determined from conjugate heat transfer with heat conduction of the hot solid. The two parameter groups correlate experimental data fairly well in spite of simple assumptions for the derivation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • A new set of 2D convective heat transfer correlations is proposed. • It takes into account different horizontal and lateral superficial velocities. • It is based on previously established correlations. • It is validated against recent CLARA experiments. • It has to be implemented in a 0D MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) code. - Abstract: During an hypothetical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident with core meltdown and vessel failure, corium would fall directly on the concrete reactor pit basemat if no water is present. The high temperature of the corium pool maintained by the residual power would lead to the erosion of the concrete walls and basemat of this reactor pit. The thermal decomposition of concrete will lead to the release of a significant amount of gases that will modify the corium pool thermal hydraulics. In particular, it will affect heat transfers between the corium pool and the concrete which determine the reactor pit ablation kinetics. A new set of convective heat transfer coefficients in a pool with different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities is modeled and validated against the recent CLARA experimental program. 155 tests of this program, in two size configurations and a high range of investigated viscosity, have been used to validate the model. Then, a method to define different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities in a 0D code is proposed together with a discussion about the possible viscosity in the reactor case when the pool is semi-solid. This model is going to be implemented in the 0D ASTEC/MEDICIS code in order to determine the impact of the convective heat transfer in the concrete ablation by corium
Experimental &Theoretical Analysis Of Heat Transfer Augmentation From Dimpled Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhananjay R.Giram
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In the present work the heat transfer characteristics and the pressure drop of the forced convection apparatus of six dimpled plates is studied. Six test plates with varying dimple densities; by varying the input voltage Nusselt No. variation was recorded. It is found that Nusselt No. increases as the dimple density increases .Also it was found that percentage increase in Nusselt No. is greater for staggered dimple arrangement. The sample experimental results obtained are presented in graphical forms as shown in Figure shows the calculated results based on the observations to show the comparative Nusselt numbers enhancements with that obtained with different parameters combinations. Dimpled typical technique that offers a higher heat transfer increase at the cost of mild pressure drop penalty. This study investigates the heat transfer characteristics of Plate with dimpled surface. Over the past couple of years the focus on using concavities or dimples provides enhanced heat transfer has been documented by a number of researchers.
Taslim, M. E.; Spring, S. D.
1991-06-01
An experimental investigation is conducted using liquid crystals to study the effects of turbulator profile and spacing on heat transfer coefficient. Friction factors are also measured and both friction factor and heat transfer results for fifteen turbulator geometries are compared. All test configurations position the turbulators on two opposite walls of a rectangular test section in a staggered arrangement with an angle of attack to the mainstream flow of 90 degrees. It is concluded that while turbulators with aspect ratios greater than unity produce higher heat transfer coefficients at the expense of higher pressure losses, 'jersey-barrier' shaped turbulators, properly spaced, are very effective in heat removal with moderate pressure losses.
The FLUFF code for calculating finned surface heat transfer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A computer code, for calculating steady state or transient heat fluxes to or from a finned surface, is described. Heat transfer both by convection and by radiation is considered and absorption and emission of radiation by a gas within the fin cavity can be modelled. (author)
Mitigated subsurface transfer line leak resulting in a surface pool
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This analysis evaluates the mitigated consequences of a potential waste transfer spill from an underground pipeline. The spill forms a surface pool. One waste composite, a 67% liquid, 33% solid, from a single shell tank is evaluated. Even drain back from a very long pipeline (50,000 ft), does not pose dose consequences to the onsite or offsite individual above guideline values
Wang, Tao; Jiang, Yu-Yan; Jiang, Hai-Chang; Guo, Cong; Guo, Chao-Hong; Tang, Da-Wei; Rong, Li-Jian
2015-07-01
A number of technologies have been developed to enhance boiling heat transfer (BHT). The enhancements of BHT depend on the size and geometry of the micro/mini structures and it seems difficult to design a structure that is optimum for all heat transfer conditions. This letter reports a study on adaptive control and enhancement of BHT by shape-memory alloy (SMA) structures. The experimental results of BHT on structured porous surfaces show that the SMA surface with recoverable structures has advantages for heat transfer both in the improvement of heat transfer coefficient and in the extending of operating range. The potential applications of such enhancement structures in diverse heat transfer devices are perhaps the most exciting.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main correlations likely to be suitable for describing heat transfers between the fluid and wall during decompression are analyzed. The most important experimental work on the boiling crisis in the transient regime is presented. Experimental studies are then treated. The test installation (OMEGA experiment), the instumentation used and the experiments realized are described. The purpose of these experiments was to establish heat exchange laws for decompression conditions. Local and instantaneous exchange coefficients were determined in a heated test section together with the thermohydraulic parameters of the flow. The methods used to investigate the measurements made and to analyze their validity are described. Finally, the test results are presented and discussed. It is shown that under certain conditions, the boiling crisis can be determined with a permanent regime correlation. An attempt is made to establish a correlation for the transition boiling zone from these results. A test reconstitution calculation based on a two-fluid model is presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Torrella, Enrique [Department of Applied Thermodynamics, Camino de Vera, 14, Polytechnic University of Valencia, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Navarro-Esbri, Joaquin; Cabello, Ramon [Department of Technology, Campus de Riu Sec,University Jaume I, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)
2006-03-01
The present paper presents experimental results obtained from a refrigerating vapour-compression plant's shell-and-tube (1-2) evaporator working with R407C. Several tests have been carried out to study the influence of the evaporating pressure and the refrigerant's mass flow rate on the refrigerant's boiling heat-transfer coefficient inside horizontal tubes. This work has been performed by analyzing the variations of the evaporator's overall thermal-resistance, computed using the effectiveness-NTU method, considering the influence of pressure drops and glide at the evaporator, and finally transferring the results and conclusions to the boiling heat-transfer coefficient. It has been observed that the variations of the boiling heat-transfer coefficient show a dependence on the evaporating temperature and the refrigerant's mass-flow rate, which has been analyzed in the test range. [Author].
Newton, Robert; Doan, Brandon; Meese, Michael; Conroy, Brian; Black, Kevin; Sebstianelli, Wayne; Kramer, William
2002-07-01
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a significant difference in the co-efficient of friction (Fc) between old versus new wrestling shoes and mats and to investigate the effect of perspiration. Fc was measured by dragging a weighted shoe over a wrestling mat surface and measuring the vertical and horizontal forces produced. Three different shoe conditions were assessed over two mat types for both wet and dry conditions for a total of 12 conditions. To simulate the wet condition, saline solution was smeared over the surface of the mat. There was a significant effect of shoe, mat, and wet/dry conditions. In addition, significant interactions of shoe by mat, shoe by dry/wet, and mat by dry/wet were observed. Overall, Fc was 36% higher for the new wrestling mat compared to the old wrestling mat. Application of the saline solution reduced Fc by 14% compared to the dry condition. Comparison of the mean Fc for all three shoe types revealed the Fc for the older design shoe was 23% to 28% lower than the brand new shoe and the worn newer design, respectively. A high Fc, such as in the new mat/new shoe combination, has the potential to increase the risk of knee and ankle injuries by fixing the foot more securely to the ground. PMID:14658373
Flow boiling heat transfer on nanowire-coated surfaces with highly wetting liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owing to the recent advances in nanotechnology, one significant progress in energy technology is increased cooling ability. It has recently been shown that nanowires can improve pool boiling heat transfer due to the unique features such as enhanced wetting and enlarged nucleation sites. Applying such nanowires on a flow boiling, which is another major class of boiling phenomenon that is associated with forced convection, is yet immature and scarce despite its importance in various applications such as liquid cooling of energy, electronics and refrigeration systems. Here, we investigate flow boiling heat transfer on surfaces that are coated with SiNWs (silicon nanowires). Also, we use highly-wetting dielectric liquid, FC-72, as a working fluid. An interesting wetting behavior is observed where the presence of SiNWs reduces wetting and wicking that in turn leads to significant decrease of CHF (critical heat flux) compared to the plain surface, which opposes the current consensus. Also, the effects of nanowire length and Reynolds number on the boiling heat transfer are shown to be highly nonmonotonic. We attempt to explain such an unusual behavior on the basis of wetting, nucleation and forced convection, and we show that such factors are highly coupled in a way that lead to unusual behavior. - Highlights: • Observation of suppressed wettability in the presence of surface roughness (nanowires). • Significant reduction of critical heat flux in the presence of nanowires. • Nonmonotonic behavior of heat transfer coefficient vs. nanowire length and Reynolds number
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mr.M Basavaraju
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The morphological features of the surface in both micro and macro levels are important factors governing the tribological behavior of the contacting surfaces. Surface hardness is also an important factor which governs the friction and wear behaviors of the contacting surfaces. Surface morphology of a tool is an important factor as it primarily controls the tribological behavior at the interface which in turn controls the surface finish of products. In the present investigation a pin-on-plate sliding tester was used to identify the effect of surface morphology and hardness on co-efficient of friction and transfer layer which characterizes the tribological behavior. The morphology of mild steel (EN8 plate surfaces were modified by employing three different surface modification methods like grinding (silicon carbide wheel polishing, shot blasting and electric discharge machining methods. Surface roughness parameters which characterize the morphology of the steel plates were measured using a three dimensional optical profilometer. Role of hardness is studied by employing lead, copper and Aluminum (Al6082 pins which were slid against steel plates. Experiments were conducted for plate inclination angles of 1, 1.5,2 and 2.5 degrees. Normal load was varied from 1 to 150N during the tests. Experiments were conducted under dry condition in ambient environment. Scanning electron microscope was used to study the formation of transfer layer on plate and pin surfaces. It was observed that the co-efficient of friction and transfer layer formation were found to depend on the surface morphology of the harder surface. The quantum of transfer layer formation on the surfaces is found to increase with increase in surface roughness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of the transverse convex surface curvature on the fully developed turbulent flow and heat transfer in concentric annular ducts with smooth surfaces were studied both analytically and experimentally. It is seen from the study that both the friction and heat transfer coefficients increase with decreasing value of the inner core radius of concentric annuli, Ri. It is concluded from the study that, while the effect of the transverse concave curvature on fluid flow and heat transfer is negligible, that of the transverse convex curvature is rather significant. It is further deduced from the present study that the tube-based heat transfer correlations, especially CHF in nuclear fuel channels, should not be applied to flow outside of tube bundles or in a subchannel whose heated surfaces are convex
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The pipe thinning phenomenon which is due to flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) is one of the major causes of unexpected troubles at current nuclear power plants. In order to prevent these troubles in the future, it is highly important to understand and analyze FAC mechanism. So, we calculated three dimensional flow to evaluate a turbulence energy and a mass transfer coefficient at pipe surface which is one of the key parameters of corrosion model. (author)
Triangulating Nucleic Acid Conformations Using Multicolor Surface Energy Transfer.
Riskowski, Ryan A; Armstrong, Rachel E; Greenbaum, Nancy L; Strouse, Geoffrey F
2016-02-23
Optical ruler methods employing multiple fluorescent labels offer great potential for correlating distances among several sites, but are generally limited to interlabel distances under 10 nm and suffer from complications due to spectral overlap. Here we demonstrate a multicolor surface energy transfer (McSET) technique able to triangulate multiple points on a biopolymer, allowing for analysis of global structure in complex biomolecules. McSET couples the competitive energy transfer pathways of Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) with gold-nanoparticle mediated Surface Energy Transfer (SET) in order to correlate systematically labeled points on the structure at distances greater than 10 nm and with reduced spectral overlap. To demonstrate the McSET method, the structures of a linear B-DNA and a more complex folded RNA ribozyme were analyzed within the McSET mathematical framework. The improved multicolor optical ruler method takes advantage of the broad spectral range and distances achievable when using a gold nanoparticle as the lowest energy acceptor. The ability to report distance information simultaneously across multiple length scales, short-range (10-50 Å), mid-range (50-150 Å), and long-range (150-350 Å), distinguishes this approach from other multicolor energy transfer methods. PMID:26795549
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper shows the results of a study on the influence of the changes of the heat transfer coefficient ''k'' on the exergetic losses in some selected equipment components of the thermal system and on the alternations of unit electric power. The changes of the ''k'' may be due to the fouling of the heat exchange surfaces or errors in the design. This research concerned with two feed-water heaters (low- and high-pressure) and the steam reheater situated behind the moisture separator. The research was conducted for the range of the ratio ? (of actual to the design value of ''k'') from 0.5 to 1.5 of its value assumed in the design. The mathematical model considers off-design operating conditions in the whole thermal system, which result from the change of the coefficient ''k'' in the selected parts of the thermal system. The decomposition method and Seild's multilevel iterative process were used to solve the problem. The research proved that the capacity of the unit during operation may differ from the design value - 1000 MW - from ten to twenty MW due to alternations of the operation value of ''k'' from the design one. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs
Rate coefficients for collisional population transfer between 3p54p argon levels at 300 0K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The population transfer between excited 3p54p argon levels induced by the collisional process Ar* (3p54p)/sub i/ + Ar(1S0) arrow-right-left Ar* (3p54p)/sub j/ + Ar(1S0) + Î”E was studied in the afterglow of an argon pulsed discharge, at the pressure range of 0.2--1 Torr. Selective population of one particular argon 3p54p level was achieved by laser excitation from one metastable state by use of a tunable cw dye laser. The populations of the laser-excited level and of the collisional excited levels were determined by intensity measurements of the fluorescence line and of the sensitized fluorescence lines. The time-dependence study of the populations of the metastable state, of the laser-excited state, and of the collisional excited states was carried out to ascertain the product channel and to determine the collisional transfer rate coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dr.S Ranganatha
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Hot and cold forming of metals is carried out in industry for manufacturing engineering components. Such manufacturing processes employ dies, whose surface condition is one of the factors which characterize the surface finish of engineering components. The surface finish of engineering components is largely influenced by the tribological phenomenon at die and components interface. Lubrication, morphology and hardness of die surface are found to control surface finish of the products. In the present investigation a pin-on-plate sliding tester was used to identify the effect of surface morphology, lubrication and hardness on co-efficient of friction and transfer layer which characterizes the tribological behaviour. The morphology of mild steel (EN8 plate surfaces were modified by employing three different surface modification methods like grinding (silicon carbide wheel polishing, shot blasting and electric discharge machining methods. Surface roughness parameters which characterize the morphology of the steel plates were measured using a three dimensional optical profilometer. Role of hardness is studied by employing lead, copper and Aluminum (Al6082 pins which were slid against steel plates. Experiments were conducted for plate inclination angles of 1, 1.5,2 and 2.5 degrees. Normal load was varied from 1 to 150N during the tests. Experiments were conducted under lubricated condition in ambient environment. Scanning electron microscope was used to study the formation of transfer layer on plate and pin surfaces. It was observed that the co-efficient of friction and transfer layer formation were found to depend on the surface morphology of the harder surface under lubricated condition. The quantum of transfer layer formation on the surfaces is found to increase with increase in surface roughness.
Newton, James E.; Vanfossen, G. James; Poinsatte, Phillip E.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.
1988-01-01
Wind tunnels typically have higher free stream turbulence levels than are found in flight. Turbulence intensity was measured to be 0.5 percent in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the cloud making sprays off and around 2 percent with cloud making equipment on. Turbulence intensity for flight conditions was found to be too low to make meaningful measurements for smooth air. This difference between free stream and wing tunnel conditions has raised questions as to the validity of results obtained in the IRT. One objective of these tests was to determine the effect of free stream turbulence on convective heat transfer for the NASA Lewis LEWICE ice growth prediction code. These tests provide in-flight heat transfer data for a NASA-0012 airfoil with a 533 cm chord. Future tests will measure heat transfer data from the same airfoil in the Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Roughness was obtained by the attachment of small, 2 mm diameter hemispheres of uniform size to the airfoil in three different patterns. Heat transfer measurements were recorded in flight on the NASA Lewis Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Measurements were taken for the smooth and roughened surfaces at various aircraft speeds and angles of attack up to four degrees. Results are presented as Frossling number versus position on the airfoil for various roughnesses and angles of attack.
van Fossen, G. James; de Witt, Kenneth J.; Newton, James E.; Poinsatte, Phillip E.
1988-01-01
Wind tunnels typically have higher free stream turbulence levels than are found in flight. Turbulence intensity was measured to be 0.5 percent in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) with the cloud making sprays off and around 2 percent with cloud making equipment on. Turbulence intensity for flight conditions was found to be too low to make meaningful measurements for smooth air. This difference between free stream and wind tunnel conditions has raised questions as to the validity of results obtained in the IRT. One objective of these tests was to determine the effect of free stream turbulence on convective heat transfer for the NASA Lewis LEWICE ice growth prediction code. These tests provide in-flight heat transfer data for a NASA-0012 airfoil with a 533 cm chord. Future tests will measure heat transfer data from the same airfoil in the Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Roughness was obtained by the attachment of small, 2 mm diameter hemispheres of uniform size to the airfoil in three different patterns. Heat transfer measurements were recorded in flight on the NASA Lewis Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Measurements were taken for the smooth and roughened surfaces at various aircraft speeds and angles of attack up to four degrees. Results are presented as Frossling number versus position on the airfoil for various roughnesses and angles of attack.