WorldWideScience

Sample records for supernova remnant shock

  1. Reverse-Shock in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Lu, F J; Zheng, S J; Zhang, S N; Long, X; Aschenbach, B

    2015-01-01

    Thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants (SNRs) is usually dominated by the emission lines of the supernova (SN) ejecta, which are widely believed being crossed and thus heated by the inwards propagating reverse shock (RS). Previous works using imaging X-ray data have shown that the ejecta are heated by the RS by locating the peak emission region of the most recently ionized matter, which is found well separated towards the inside from the outermost boundary. Here we report the discovery of a systematic increase of the Sulfur (S) to Silicon (Si) K$\\alpha$ line flux ratio with radius in Tycho's SNR. This allows us, for the first time, to present continuous radial profiles of the ionization age and, furthermore, the elapsed ionization time since the onset of the ionization, which tells the propagation history of the ionization front into the SNR ejecta.

  2. Particle acceleration by shocks in supernova remnants

    Bell, A R

    2013-01-01

    Particle acceleration occurs on a range of scales from AU in the heliosphere to Mpc in clusters of galaxies and to energies ranging from MeV to EeV. A number of acceleration processes have been proposed, but diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) is widely invoked as the predominant mechanism. DSA operates on all these scales and probably to the highest energies. DSA is simple, robust and predicts a universal spectrum. However there are still many unknowns regarding particle acceleration. This paper focuses on the particular question of whether supernova remnants (SNR) can produce the Galactic CR spectrum up to the knee at a few PeV. The answer depends in large part on the detailed physics of diffusive shock acceleration.

  3. Shock Destruction of Dust in Supernova Remnants

    Shull, J.

    2009-07-01

    In this AR-Theory program, we propose to carry out a series of investigations of grain injection, transport, and destruction using hydrodynamical models of reverse-shocked SN ejecta. In a young supernova remnant {SNR} such as Cas A or SN 1987A the outer blast wave strikes surrounding circumstellar matter, and reverse shocks propagate inward toward the interior debris, which may contain large amounts of newly formed dust. Our major theoretical goals are to determine how much dust is destroyed in shocked SNR ejecta, as they are decelerated by the reverse shocks, and to study how these ejecta are lighted up in optical, X-ray, andIR line emission. Numerical codes will be used to study grain destruction in metal-enriched ejecta and to interpret the morphologies, proper motions, and emissivities of these fast-moving ejecta, observed by Hubble in many young SNRs. We intend to undertake the following tasks: {1} Compile the latest gas-grain data {sputtering yields vs projectile energy for H, He, and heavy ions}; {2} Incorporate gas-grain and grain-grain interactions with radiative cooling rates {X-ray, optical, IR line emission} of sputtered atoms and ions; {3} Compute adaptive-mesh hydrodynamical models of ejecta-shock interactions; {4} Use these ejecta models to compute grain destruction, grain heating, plasma cooling, and spectral diagnostics in metal-enriched environments; {5} Apply our results to specific SNRs {Cas A, SN 1987A, G292, etc} to interpret ejecta morphologies, proper motions, and emissivities; {6} assess the net efficiency of supernova dust injection.

  4. Cosmic Ray Spectrum in Supernova Remnant Shocks

    Kang, Hyesung

    2010-01-01

    We perform kinetic simulations of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) expanding into a uniform interstellar medium (ISM). Bohm-like diffusion assumed, and simple models for Alfvenic drift and dissipation are adopted. Phenomenological models for thermal leakage injection are considered as well. We find that the preshock gas temperature is the primary parameter that governs the cosmic ray (CR) acceleration efficiency and energy spectrum, while the CR injection rate is a secondary parameter. For SNRs in the warm ISM, if the injection fraction is larger than 10^{-4}, the DSA is efficient enough to convert more than 20 % of the SN explosion energy into CRs and the accelerated CR spectrum exhibits a concave curvature flattening to E^{-1.6}. Such a flat source spectrum near the knee energy, however, may not be reconciled with the CR spectrum observed at Earth. On the other hand, SNRs in the hot ISM, with an injection fraction smaller than 10^{-4}, are inefficient accelerators with...

  5. Particle Acceleration at Shocks: Insights from Supernova Remnant Shocks

    T. W. Jones

    2011-12-01

    I review some basic properties of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in the context of young supernova remnants (SNRs). I also point out some key differences with cosmological, cluster-related shocks. DSA seems to be very efficient in strong, young SNR shocks. Provided the magnetic fields exceed some hundreds of Gauss (possibly amplified by CR related dynamics), these shocks can accelerate cosmic ray hadrons to PeV energies in the time available to them. Electron energies, limited by radiative losses, are likely limited to the TeV range. Injection of fresh particles at these shocks is poorly understood, but hadrons are much more easily injected than the more highly magnetized electrons. That seems supported by observational data, as well. So, while CR protons in young SNRs may play very major roles in the SNR evolution, the CR electron populations have minimal such impact, despite their observational importance.

  6. Shock evolution in non-radiative supernova remnants

    Tang, Xiaping

    2016-01-01

    We present a new analytical approach to derive approximate solutions describing the shock evolution in non-radiative supernova remnants (SNRs). We focus on the study of the forward shock; applications to the reverse shock are also discussed briefly. The spherical shock evolution of a SNR in both the interstellar medium with a constant density profile and a circumstellar medium with a wind density profile is studied. The new solution is significantly simplified compared to previous analytical models, e.g. Truelove&McKee 1999, as it only depends on the asymptotic behaviors of the remnant during its evolution. We compare our new analytical solution with both numerical simulations and previous analytical models, finding that a few percent accuracy is achieved. For a uniform ambient medium, the accuracy of our analytical approximation is comparable with that in Truelove&McKee 1999. For a wind density profile medium, our solution performs better, especially when the ejecta envelope has a steep density profi...

  7. Supernova Remnant Shock - Molecular Cloud Interactions: Masers as tracers of hadronic particle acceleration

    Frail, Dale A

    2011-01-01

    We review the class of galactic supernova remnants which show strong interactions with molecular clouds, revealed through shock-excited hydroxyl masers. These remnants are preferentially found among the known GeV and TeV detections of supernova remnants. It has been argued that the masers trace out the sites of hadronic particle acceleration. We discuss what is known about the physical conditions of these shocked regions and we introduce a potential new maser tracer for identifying the sites of cosmic ray acceleration. This review includes a reasonably complete bibliography for researchers new to the topic of shock-excited masers and supernova remnants.

  8. The Role of Diffusive Shock Acceleration on Nonequilibrium Ionization in Supernova Remnant Shocks II: Emitted Spectra

    Patnaude, Daniel J.; Slane, Patrick; Raymond, John C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    We present a grid of nonequilibrium ionization models for the X-ray spectra from supernova remnants undergoing efficient diffusive shock acceleration. The calculation follows the hydrodynamics of the blast wave as well as the time-dependent ionization of the plasma behind the shock. The ionization state is passed to a plasma emissivity code to compute the thermal X-ray emission, which is combined with the emission from nonthermal synchrotron emission to produce a self-consistent model for the...

  9. Supernova remnants and their supernovae

    Observing supernova remnants provides important clues to the nature of supernova explosions. Conversely, the late stages of stellar evolution and the mechanism of supernova explosions affect supernova remnants through circumstellar matter, stellar remnants, and nucleosynthesis. The elements of supernova classification and the connection between supernova type and remnant properties are explored. A special emphasis is placed on SN 1987a which provides a unique opportunity to learn the connection between the star that exploded and the remnant that will develop in this lifetime

  10. On cosmic-ray production efficiency at supernova remnant shocks propagating into realistic diffuse interstellar medium

    Shimoda, Jiro; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo; Bamba, Aya; Vink, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations, we show that the efficiency of cosmic-ray (CR) production at supernova remnants (SNRs) is over-predicted if it is estimated based on proper motion measurements of H$\\alpha$ filaments in combination with shock-jump conditions. Density fluctuations of upstream medium make shock waves rippled and oblique almost everywhere. The kinetic energy of the shock wave is transfered into that of downstream turbulence as well as thermal energy which is related to the shock velocity component normal to the shock surface. In our case, the apparent efficiency goes up as high as $10\\sim40\\ \\%$ in spite of no CR acceleration.

  11. APEX observations of supernova remnants - I. Non-stationary MHD-shocks in W44

    Anderl, S; Güsten, R

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The interaction of supernova remnants (SNRs) with molecular clouds gives rise to strong molecular emission in the far-IR and sub-mm wavelength regimes. The application of MHD shock models in the interpretation of this line emission can yield valuable information on the energetic and chemical impact of supernova remnants. Methods. New mapping observations with the APEX telescope in CO (3-2), (4-3), (6-5), (7-6) and 13CO (3-2) towards two regions in the supernova remnant W44 are presented. Integrated intensities are extracted on five different positions, corresponding to local maxima of CO emission. The integrated intensities are compared to the outputs of a grid of models, which combine an MHD shock code with a radiative transfer module based on the large velocity gradient approximation. Results. All extracted spectra show ambient and line-of-sight components as well as blue- and red-shifted wings indicating the presence of shocked gas. Basing the shock model fits only on the highest-lying transitions th...

  12. The Role of Diffusive Shock Acceleration on Nonequilibrium Ionization in Supernova Remnant Shocks II: Emitted Spectra

    Patnaude, Daniel J; Raymond, John C; Ellison, Donald C

    2010-01-01

    We present a grid of nonequilibrium ionization models for the X-ray spectra from supernova remnants undergoing efficient diffusive shock acceleration. The calculation follows the hydrodynamics of the blast wave as well as the time-dependent ionization of the plasma behind the shock. The ionization state is passed to a plasma emissivity code to compute the thermal X-ray emission, which is combined with the emission from nonthermal synchrotron emission to produce a self-consistent model for the thermal and nonthermal emission from cosmic-ray dominated shocks. We show how plasma diagnostics such as the G'-ratio of He-like ions, defined as the ratio of the sum of the intercombination, forbidden, and satellite lines to the resonance line, can vary with acceleration efficiency, and discuss how the thermal X-ray emission, when the time-dependent ionization is not calculated self-consistently with the hydrodynamics, can differ from the thermal X-ray emission from models which do account for the hydrodynamics. Finally...

  13. Broad Balmer line emission and cosmic ray acceleration efficiency in supernova remnant shocks

    Morlino, G.; P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri); Bandiera, R.; Amato, E.

    2013-01-01

    Balmer emission may be a powerful diagnostic tool to test the paradigm of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in young supernova remnant (SNR) shocks. The width of the broad Balmer line is a direct indicator of the downstream plasma temperature. In case of efficient particle acceleration an appreciable fraction of the total kinetic energy of the plasma is channeled into CRs, therefore the downstream temperature decreases and so does the broad Balmer line width. This width also depends on the level o...

  14. Molecular and Ionic shocks in the Supernova Remnant 3C391

    Reach, William T.; Rho, Jeonghee; Jarrett, T. H.; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier

    2001-01-01

    New observations of the supernova remnant 3C391 are in the H2 2.12 micron and [Fe II] 1.64 micron narrow-band filters at the Palomar 200-inch telescope, and in the 5-15 micron CVF on ISOCAM. Shocked H2 emission was detected from the region 3C391:BML, where broad millimeter CO and CS lines had previously been detected. A new H2 clump was confirmed to have broad CO emission, demonstrating that the near-infrared H2 images can trace previously undetected molecular shocks. The [Fe II] emission has...

  15. Dust Destruction by the Reverse Shock in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    Micelotta, Elisabetta R; Slavin, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are important sources of interstellar dust, potentially capable of producing one solar mass of dust in their explosively expelled ejecta. However, unlike other dust sources, the dust has to survive the passage of the reverse shock, generated by the interaction of the supernova blast wave with its surrounding medium. Knowledge of the net amount of dust produced by CCSNe is crucial for understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the local and high-redshift universe. Our aim is to identify the dust destruction mechanisms in the ejecta, and derive the net amount of dust that survives the passage of the reverse shock. We use analytical models for the evolution of a supernova blast wave and of the reverse shock, with special application to the clumpy ejecta of the remnant of Cassiopeia A. We assume that the dust resides in cool oxygen-rich clumps that are uniformly distributed within the remnant and surrounded by a hot X-ray emitting plasma, and that the dust consists of silic...

  16. H$\\alpha$ Imaging spectroscopy of Balmer-dominated shocks in Tycho's supernova remnant

    Knežević, Sladjana; van de Ven, Glenn; Font, Joan; Raymond, John C; Ghavamian, Parviz; Beckman, John

    2016-01-01

    We present Fabry-P\\'erot interferometric observations of the narrow H$\\alpha$ component in the shock front of the historical supernova remnant Tycho (SN 1572). Using GH$\\alpha$FaS (Galaxy H$\\alpha$ Fabry-P\\'erot Spectrometer) on the William Herschel Telescope, we observed a great portion of the shock front in the northeastern (NE) region of the remnant. The angular resolution of $\\sim$1$^{\\prime\\prime}$ and spectral resolving power of R$\\sim$21 000 together with the large field-of-view (3.4$^{\\prime}$ $\\times$ 3.4$^{\\prime}$) of the instrument allow us to measure the narrow H$\\alpha$-line width in 73 bins across individual parts of the shock simultaneously and thereby study the indicators of several shock precursors in a large variety of shock front conditions. Compared to previous studies, the detailed spatial resolution of the filament also allows us to mitigate possible artificial broadening of the line from unresolved differential motion and projection. Covering one quarter of the remnant's shell, we conf...

  17. Molecular and Ionic shocks in the Supernova Remnant 3C391

    Reach, W T; Jarrett, T H; Lagage, P O; Reach, William T.; Rho, Jeonghee; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier

    2001-01-01

    New observations of the supernova remnant 3C391 are in the H2 2.12 micron and [Fe II] 1.64 micron narrow-band filters at the Palomar 200-inch telescope, and in the 5-15 micron CVF on ISOCAM. Shocked H2 emission was detected from the region 3C391:BML, where broad millimeter CO and CS lines had previously been detected. A new H2 clump was confirmed to have broad CO emission, demonstrating that the near-infrared H2 images can trace previously undetected molecular shocks. The [Fe II] emission has a significantly different distribution, being brightest in the bright radio bar, at the interface between the supernova remnant and the giant molecular cloud, and following filaments in the radio shell. The near-infrared [Fe II] and the mid-infrared 12-18 micron filter images are the first images to reveal the radiative shell of 3C391. The mid-infrared spectrum is dominated by bright ionic lines and H2 S(2) through S(7). There are no aromatic hydrocarbons associated with the shocks, nor is their any mid-infrared continuu...

  18. Reverse and Forward Shock X-ray Emission in an Evolutionary Model of Supernova Remnants undergoing Efficient Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Ellison, Donald C; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Slane, Patrick O

    2014-01-01

    We present new models for the forward and reverse shock thermal X-ray emission from core-collapse and Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) which include the efficient production of cosmic rays via non-linear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Our CR-hydro-NEI code takes into account non-equilibrium ionization (NEI), hydrodynamic effects of efficient CR production on the SNR evolution, and collisional temperature equilibration among heavy ions and electrons in both the shocked supernova (SN) ejecta and the shocked circumstellar material. While X-ray emission is emphasized here, our code self-consistently determines both thermal and non-thermal broadband emission from radio to TeV energies. We include Doppler broadening of the spectral lines by thermal motions of the ions and by the remnant expansion. We study, in general terms, the roles which the ambient environment, progenitor models, temperature equilibration, and processes related to DSA have on the thermal and non-thermal spectra. The study of X-ray line em...

  19. Electron Heating, Magnetic Field Amplification, and Cosmic Ray Precursor Length at Supernova Remnant Shocks

    Laming, J Martin; Ghavamian, Parviz; Rakowski, Cara

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the observability, by direct and indirect means, of a shock precursor arising from magnetic field amplification by cosmic rays. We estimate the depth of such a precursor under conditions of nonresonant amplification, which can provide magnetic field strengths comparable to those inferred for supernova remnants. Magnetic field generation occurs as the streaming cosmic rays induce a plasma return current, and may be quenched either by nonresonant or resonant channels. In the case of nonresonant saturation, the cosmic rays become magnetized and amplification saturates at higher magnetic fields. The precursor can extend out to $10^{17} - 10^{18}$ cm and is potentially detectable. If resonant saturation occurs, the cosmic rays are scattered by turbulence and the precursor length will likely be much smaller. The dependence of precursor length on shock velocity has implications for electron heating. In the case of resonant saturation, this dependence is similar to that in the more familiar resonantly ...

  20. Progress on multi-waveband observations of supernova remnants

    Yang, Xuejuan; Lu, FangJun; Tian, Wenwu

    2008-01-01

    The development of observational techniques has inriched our knowledge of supernova remnants. In this paper, we review the main progresses in the last decade, including new discoveries of supernova remnants and the associated (rare type of) pulsars, nucleosynthesis, the interaction between supernova remnants and molecular clouds, dust in the supernova remnants, shock physics, and cosmic ray accelerations.

  1. Detailed studies of shock-cloud interaction toward the young supernova remnants

    Sano, H.; Fukui, Y.

    2016-06-01

    In young supernova remnants (SNRs; ˜2000 yrs), the study of the interaction between the shock waves and the inhomogeneous interstellar gas is a key element in understanding the SNR evolution, cosmic-ray acceleration, and multi-wavelength emission. In particular, TeV γ-ray and synchrotron X-ray bright SNRs, RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622, and N132D have been considered good candidates for an efficient cosmic-ray accelerator via shock-cloud interaction (Sano et al. 2013, 2015a; Fukui 2013). In RXJ1713, we performed imaging and spectral analysis of the Suzaku X-rays and compared it with the interstellar gas distribution (Sano et al. 2013; 2015b). The shock interaction with dense gas clumps enhances turbulence and magnetic fields up to mG around the clumps, which was observed as limb-brightening of the synchrotron X-rays and hard spectra with photon indexes of less than 2.4. Moreover, turbulence and magnetic field amplifications may promote an additional acceleration of cosmic-ray electrons. In contrast, the synchrotron X-rays also become bright toward diffuse gas regions due to the high shock velocity. In this talk, we introduce the recent results of shock-cloud interaction toward RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622, and N132D using the Suzaku, XMM-Newton, Chandra X-rays, and interstellar gas datasets.

  2. Post-adiabatic supernova remnants in the interstellar magnetic field. Parallel and perpendicular shocks

    Petruk, O; Beshley, V

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-rays from hadronic collisions are expected from supernova remnants (SNRs) located near molecular clouds. The temperature on the shock interacting with the dense environment quickly reaches $10^5$ K. The radiative losses of plasma become essential in the evolution of SNRs. They decrease the thermal pressure and essentially increase the density behind the shock. The presence of ambient magnetic field may considerably alter the behavior of the post-adiabatic SNRs comparing to hydrodynamic scenario. In the present paper, the magneto-hydrodynamic simulations of radiative shocks in magnetic field are performed. High plasma compression due to the radiative losses results also in the prominent increase of the strength of the tangential component of magnetic field behind the shock and the decrease of the parallel one. If the strength of the tangential field before the shock is higher than about $3\\mathrm{\\mu G}$ it prevents formation of the very dense thin shell. The higher the strength of the tangential magneti...

  3. Infrared analysis of supernova remnants

    Infrared observations of supernova remnants obtained with the infrared astronomical satellite provide new insights into the dynamics and energetics of the remnants, and into their interaction with the ambient interstellar medium. In most remnants the infrared emission arises from dust that is collisonally heated by the x-ray emitting gas. The infrared observations can therefore be used as a diagnostic for the physical conditions of the shocked gas. In particular, it is shown that all the prominent x-ray remnants in the galaxy and in the LMC cool mainly by dust grain collisions instead of atomic processes

  4. A Generalized Model of Nonlinear Diffusive Shock Acceleration Coupled to an Evolving Supernova Remnant

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2012-01-01

    To better model the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) with the associated coupling between CR production and SNR dynamics, we have generalized an existing cr-hydro-NEI code (i.e., Ellison et al. 2012) to include the following processes: (1) an explicit calculation of the upstream precursor structure including the position dependent flow speed, density, temperature, and magnetic field strength; (2) a momentum and space dependent CR diffusion coefficient; (3) an explicit calculation of magnetic field amplification (MFA); (4) calculation of the maximum CR momentum using the amplified magnetic field; (5) a finite Alfven speed for the particle scattering centers; and (6) the ability to accelerate a superthermal seed population of CRs as well as the ambient thermal plasma. While a great deal of work has been done modeling SNRs, most work has concentrated on either the continuum emission from relativistic electrons or ions, or the thermal emission from the shock heated plasma. Ou...

  5. Reverse and forward shock X-ray emission in an evolutionary model of supernova remnants undergoing efficient diffusive shock acceleration

    We present new models for the forward and reverse shock thermal X-ray emission from core-collapse and Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) that include the efficient production of cosmic rays (CR) via nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Our CR-hydro-NEI code takes into account non-equilibrium ionization, hydrodynamic effects of efficient CR production on the SNR evolution, and collisional temperature equilibration among heavy ions and electrons in both the shocked supernova (SN) ejecta and the shocked circumstellar material. While X-ray emission is emphasized here, our code self-consistently determines both thermal and non-thermal broadband emission from radio to TeV energies. We include Doppler broadening of the spectral lines by thermal motions of the ions and by the remnant expansion. We study, in general terms, the roles that the ambient environment, progenitor models, temperature equilibration, and processes related to DSA have on the thermal and non-thermal spectra. The study of X-ray line emission from young SNRs is a powerful tool for determining specific SN elemental contributions and for providing critical information that helps to understand the type and energetics of the explosion, the composition of the ambient medium in which the SN exploded, and the ionization and dynamics of the hot plasma in the shocked SN ejecta and interstellar medium. With the approaching launch of the next-generation X-ray satellite Astro-H, observations of spectral lines with unprecedented high resolution will become a reality. Our self-consistent calculations of the X-ray spectra from various progenitors will help interpret future observations of SNRs.

  6. Supernova Remnants in High Definition

    Slane, Patrick; Badenes, Carles; Freyer, Chris; Hughes, Jack; Lee, Herman Shiu-Hang; Lopez, Laura; Patnaude, Daniel; Reynolds, Steve; Temim, Tea; Williams, Brian; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    As the observable products of explosive stellar death, supernova remnants reveal some of the most direct information on the physics of the explosions, the properties of the progenitor systems, and the demographics of compact objects formed in the supernova events. High sensitivity X-ray observations have allowed us to probe the properties of the shocked plasma, providing constraints on abundances and ionization states that connect directly progenitor masses and metallicities, the nature of th...

  7. Non-relativistic perpendicular shocks modeling young supernova remnants: nonstationary dynamics and particle acceleration at forward and reverse shocks

    Wieland, Volkmar; Niemiec, Jacek; Rafighi, Iman; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    For parameters that are applicable to the conditions at young supernova remnants, we present results of 2D3V particle-in-cell simulations of a non-relativistic plasma shock with a large-scale perpendicular magnetic field inclined at 45-deg angle to the simulation plane to approximate 3D physics. We developed an improved clean setup that uses the collision of two plasma slabs with different density and velocity, leading to the development of two distinctive shocks and a contact discontinuity. The shock formation is mediated by Weibel-type filamentation instabilities that generate magnetic turbulence. Cyclic reformation is observed in both shocks with similar period, for which we note global variations on account of shock rippling and local variations arising from turbulent current filaments. The shock rippling occurs on spatial and temporal scales given by gyro-motions of shock-reflected ions. The drift motion of electrons and ions is not a gradient drift, but commensurates with E x B drift. We observe a stabl...

  8. Supernova remnants and the ISM

    Supernova remnants can reaccelerate cosmic rays and modify their distribution during the cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy. Cosmic ray observations (in particular the boron-to-carbon data) strongly limit the permitted amount of reacceleration, which is used to set an upper limit on the expansion of supernova remnants, and a lower limit on the effective density of the ISM swept up by supernova shocks. The constraint depends on the theory of cosmic ray propagation: the standard Leaky Box model requires a high effective density, > 1 -3, and is probably inconsistent with the present picture of the ISM. Modifying the Leaky Box model to include a moderate amount of weak-shock reacceleration, a self consistent solution is found, where the effective density in this solution is ∼ 0.1 cm-3

  9. Time dependent diffusive shock acceleration and its application to middle aged supernova remnants

    Tang, Xiaping

    2016-01-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations show that middle aged supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds (MCs) can be sources of both GeV and TeV emission. Based on the MC association, two scenarios have been proposed to explain the observed gamma-ray emission. In one, energetic cosmic ray (CR) particles escape from the SNR and then illuminate nearby MCs, producing gamma-ray emission, while the other involves direct interaction between the SNR and MC. In the direct interaction scenario, re-acceleration of pre-existing CRs in the ambient medium is investigated while particles injected from the thermal pool are neglected in view of the slow shock speeds in middle aged SNRs. However, standard diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) theory produces a steady state particle spectrum that is too flat compared to observations, which suggests that the high energy part of the observed spectrum has not yet reached a steady state. We derive a time dependent DSA solution in the test particle limit for re-acceleration of...

  10. A GENERALIZED MODEL OF NONLINEAR DIFFUSIVE SHOCK ACCELERATION COUPLED TO AN EVOLVING SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Oiwake-cho Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ellison, Donald C., E-mail: lee@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: nagataki@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: don_ellison@ncsu.edu [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Box 8202, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    To better model the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) with the associated coupling between CR production and SNR dynamics, we have generalized an existing cr-hydro-NEI code to include the following processes: (1) an explicit calculation of the upstream precursor structure including the position-dependent flow speed, density, temperature, and magnetic field strength; (2) a momentum- and space-dependent CR diffusion coefficient; (3) an explicit calculation of magnetic field amplification; (4) calculation of the maximum CR momentum using the amplified magnetic field; (5) a finite Alfven speed for the particle scattering centers; and (6) the ability to accelerate a superthermal seed population of CRs, as well as the ambient thermal plasma. While a great deal of work has been done modeling SNRs, most work has concentrated on either the continuum emission from relativistic electrons or ions or the thermal emission from the shock heated plasma. Our generalized code combines these elements and describes the interplay between CR production and SNR evolution, including the nonlinear coupling of efficient diffusive shock acceleration, based mainly on the work of P. Blasi and coworkers, and a non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) calculation of thermal X-ray line emission. We believe that our generalized model will provide a consistent modeling platform for SNRs, including those interacting with molecular clouds, and improve the interpretation of current and future observations, including the high-quality spectra expected from Astro-H. SNR RX J1713.7-3946 is modeled as an example.

  11. Nonrelativistic Perpendicular Shocks Modeling Young Supernova Remnants: Nonstationary Dynamics and Particle Acceleration at Forward and Reverse Shocks

    Wieland, Volkmar; Pohl, Martin; Niemiec, Jacek; Rafighi, Iman; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2016-03-01

    For parameters that are applicable to the conditions at young supernova remnants, we present results of two-dimensional, three-vector (2D3V) particle-in-cell simulations of a non-relativistic plasma shock with a large-scale perpendicular magnetic field inclined at a 45^\\circ angle to the simulation plane to approximate three-dimensional (3D) physics. We developed an improved clean setup that uses the collision of two plasma slabs with different densities and velocities, leading to the development of two distinctive shocks and a contact discontinuity. The shock formation is mediated by Weibel-type filamentation instabilities that generate magnetic turbulence. Cyclic reformation is observed in both shocks with similar period, for which we note global variations due to shock rippling and local variations arising from turbulent current filaments. The shock rippling occurs on spatial and temporal scales produced by the gyro-motions of shock-reflected ions. The drift motion of electrons and ions is not a gradient drift, but is commensurate with {\\boldsymbol{E}}× {\\boldsymbol{B}} drift. We observe a stable supra-thermal tail in the ion spectra, but no electron acceleration because the amplitude of the Buneman modes in the shock foot is insufficient for trapping relativistic electrons. We see no evidence of turbulent reconnection. A comparison with other two-dimensional (2D) simulation results suggests that the plasma beta and the ion-to-electron mass ratio are not decisive for efficient electron acceleration, but the pre-acceleration efficacy might be reduced with respect to the 2D results once 3D effects are fully accounted for. Other microphysical factors may also play a part in limiting the amplitude of the Buneman waves or preventing the return of electrons to the foot region.

  12. GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AS SITES OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION

    Manami Sasaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Supernova remnants, owing to their strong shock waves, are likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Studies of supernova remnants in X-rays and gamma rays provide us with new insights into the acceleration of particles to high energies. This paper reviews the basic physics of supernova remnant shocks and associated particle acceleration and radiation processes. In addition, the study of supernova remnant populations in nearby galaxies and the implications for Galactic cosmic ray distribution are discussed.

  13. FISICA Integral Field Spectroscopy of the Shocked Iron Gas in the Supernova Remnant G11.2--0.3

    Moon, Dae-Sik; Eikenberry, Stephen S.; Koo, Bon-Chul; Raines, S. Nicholas; Gruel, Nicolas

    2006-02-01

    We have recently discovered strong iron line ([Fe II] (lambda)1.644 (mu)m) emission in the young supernova remnant G11.2-0.3. The iron line emission occurs at the south-eastern shell edge of G11.2-0.3, and positionally overlaps with the very strong X-ray and radio emission of the supernova remnant. The iron line emission is most likely caused by the shock acceleration of G11.2-0.3 interacting with the ambient medium. We propose to carry out JH-band integral-field spectroscopy of the two iron line clumps in G11.2-0.3 with FISICA, an image-slicing integral-field unit for FLAMINGOS, which will give us a uniquely comprehensive view of the strong shock acceleration of a SNR.

  14. Radio emission from Supernova Remnants

    Dubner, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    The explosion of a supernova releases almost instantaneously about 10^51 ergs of mechanic energy, changing irreversibly the physical and chemical properties of large regions in the galaxies. The stellar ejecta, the nebula resulting from the powerful shock waves, and sometimes a compact stellar remnant, constitute a supernova remnant (SNR). They can radiate their energy across the whole electromagnetic spectrum, but the great majority are radio sources. Almost 70 years after the first detection of radio emission coming from a SNR, great progress has been achieved in the comprehension of their physical characteristics and evolution. We review the present knowledge of different aspects of radio remnants, focusing on sources of the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds, where the SNRs can be spatially resolved. We present a brief overview of theoretical background, analyze morphology and polarization properties, and review and critical discuss different methods applied to determine the radio spectrum and distances....

  15. Progenitors of Recombining Supernova Remnants

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2012-01-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with the ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, is recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the time of the superno...

  16. Production of Magnetic Turbulence by Cosmic Rays Drifting Upstream of Supernova Remnant Shocks

    Stroman, Thomas; Niemiec, Jacek; Pohl, Martin; Nishikawa, Ken-ichi

    2008-01-01

    I will present results of our recent two- and three-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations of magnetic-turbulence production by cosmic-ray ions drifting upstream of supernova remnant shocks. These studies' aim is twofold: test recent predictions of strong amplification in short wavelength, non-resonant wave modes, and study the subsequent evolution of the magnetic turbulence, including its backreaction on cosmic-ray trajectories. We confirm that the drifting cosmic rays give rise to a turbulent magnetic field, but show that an oblique filamentary mode grows more rapidly than the non-resonant parallel modes found in analytical theory. The field perturbations grow more slowly than estimated using a quasi-linear analytical approach for the parallel plane-wave mode, and saturate in amplitude at deltaB/B approximately equal to 1. The backreaction of the magnetic turbulence on the particles leads to an alignment of the bulk-flow velocities of the cosmic rays and the background medium. This is an essential characteristic of cosmic ray-modified shocks: the upstream flow speed is continuously changed by the cosmic rays. The reduction of relative drift between cosmic rays and background medium accounts for the saturation of the instability at only moderate magnetic-field amplitudes. It is possible that the prolonged magnetic field growth observed in recent MHD simulations results from a cosmic-ray current assumed to be constant and thus immune to the backreaction from the turbulent field. We speculate that the parallel plane-wave mode found in analytical treatments very quickly leads co filamentation, which we observe in our PIC modeling and is also apparent in the MHD simulations.

  17. Environmental impact of Supernova Remnants

    Dubner, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    The explosion of a supernovae (SN) represents the sudden injection of about 10^51 ergs of thermal and mechanical energy in a small region of space, causing the formation of powerful shock waves that propagate through the interstellar medium at speeds of several thousands of km/s. These waves sweep, compress and heat the interstellar material that they encounter, forming the supernova remnants. Their evolution over thousands of years change forever, irreversibly, not only the physical but also the chemical properties of a vast region of space that can span hundreds of parsecs. This contribution briefly analyzes the impact of these explosions, discussing the relevance of some phenomena usually associated with SNe and their remnants in the light of recent theoretical and observational results.

  18. Radio Emission from Supernova Remnants: Implications for Post-Shock Magnetic Field Amplification and the Magnetic Fields of Galaxies

    Thompson, Todd A; Murray, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Using observations from the literature, we show that the non-thermal radio luminosity (L) of supernova remnants (SNRs) is a strong function of the average gas surface density (Sigma) of the galaxy in which the remnants reside, from normal spirals to luminous starbursts. We combine a simple theory for electron cooling in SNRs with the observed radio luminosities to estimate the remnant magnetic field strength (B_SNR): the correlation between L and Sigma implies that B_SNR also increases with Sigma. We explore two interpretations of this correlation: (1) B_SNR is generated by post-shock magnetic field amplification, with B_SNR^2 proportional to Sigma and (2) B_SNR results from shock-compression of the ambient ISM magnetic field (B_ISM), with B_ISM being larger in denser galaxies. We find that shock compression is, on average, sufficient to produce the observed radio emission from SNRs in the densest starbursts; amplification of post-shock magnetic fields is not required. By contrast, in normal spirals post-shoc...

  19. Supernova Remnants in High Definition

    Slane, Patrick; Badenes, Carles; Freyer, Chris; Hughes, Jack; Lee, Herman Shiu-Hang; Lopez, Laura; Patnaude, Daniel; Reynolds, Steve; Temim, Tea; Williams, Brian; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2015-10-01

    As the observable products of explosive stellar death, supernova remnants reveal some of the most direct information on the physics of the explosions, the properties of the progenitor systems, and the demographics of compact objects formed in the supernova events. High sensitivity X-ray observations have allowed us to probe the properties of the shocked plasma, providing constraints on abundances and ionization states that connect directly progenitor masses and metallicities, the nature of the explosions (core-collapse vs. thermonuclear), and the physics of shock heating and particle acceleration in fast shocks. Studies of SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds have provided information on source demographics in a low metallicity environment, and deep searches for point sources in Galactic SNRs imply that many remnants contain rapidly cooling neutron stars or black holes. Based on Chandra observations, we know that crucial measurements required to advance our knowledge in these areas are possible only with much more sensitive observations at high angular resolution. From identifying the effects of particle acceleration on the post-shock gas in young SNRs like Tycho to obtaining spatially resolved spectra - and identifying compact objects - for young SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds, the capabilities of a facility like the X-ray Surveyor are required. Here I present a summary of recent advances brought about by spectral investigations of SNRs, and discuss particular examples of new advances that will be enabled by X-ray Surveyor capabilities.

  20. Time-dependent shock acceleration of particles. Effect of the time-dependent injection, with application to supernova remnants

    Petruk, Oleh

    2016-01-01

    Three approaches are considered to solve the equation which describes the time-dependent diffusive shock acceleration of test particles at the non-relativistic shocks. At first, the solution of Drury (1983) for the particle distribution function at the shock is generalized to any relation between the acceleration time-scales upstream and downstream and for the time-dependent injection efficiency. Three alternative solutions for the spatial dependence of the distribution function are derived. Then, the two other approaches to solve the time-dependent equation are presented, one of which does not require the Laplace transform. At the end, our more general solution is discussed, with a particular attention to the time-dependent injection in supernova remnants. It is shown that, comparing to the case with the dominant upstream acceleration time-scale, the maximum momentum of accelerated particles shifts toward the smaller momenta with increase of the downstream acceleration time-scale. The time-dependent injectio...

  1. Forbidden Iron Lines and Dust Destruction in Supernova Remnant Shocks: The Case of N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Dopita, Michael A.; Seitenzahl, Ivo R.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Winkler, P. Frank; Blair, William P.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of a complete integral-field survey of the bright supernova remnant (SNR) N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, obtained with the WiFeS instrument mounted on the ANU 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. From theoretical shock modeling with the new MAPPINGS 5.1 code, we have, for the first time, subjected the optical Fe emission line spectrum of an SNR to a detailed abundance and dynamical analysis covering eight separate stages of ionization. This allows us to derive the dust depletion factors as a function of ionization stage. We have shown that there is substantial (30%–90%) destruction of Fe-bearing dust grains in these fast shocks (v s ∼ 250 km s‑1), and we have confirmed that the dominant dust destruction occurs through the non-thermal sputtering and grain–grain collision mechanisms developed in a number of theoretical works.

  2. Forbidden Iron Lines and Dust Destruction in Supernova Remnant Shocks: The Case of N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Dopita, Michael A; Sutherland, Ralph S; Vogt, Frédéric P A; Winkler, P Frank; Blair, William P

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a complete integral field survey of the bright SNR N49 in the LMC, obtained with the WiFeS instrument mounted on the ANU 2.3m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. From theoretical shock modelling with the new MAPPINGS 5.1 code we have, for the first time, subjected the optical Fe emission line spectrum of a supernova remnant to a detailed abundance and dynamical analysis covering 8 separate stages of ionisation. This allows us to derive the dust depletion factors as a function of ionisation stage. We have shown that there is substantial (30% - 90%) destruction of Fe-bearing dust grains in these fast shocks ($v_s \\sim 250$ km/s), and we have confirmed that the dominant dust destruction is through the non-thermal sputtering and grain-grain collision mechanisms developed in a number of theoretical works.

  3. Dust Destruction in Fast Shocks of Core-Collapse Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Williams, B J; Reynolds, S P; Blair, W P; Ghavamian, P; Hendrick, S P; Long, K S; Points, S; Raymond, J C; Sankrit, R; Smith, R C; Winkler, P F; Williams, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    We report observations with the MIPS instrument aboard the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope} (SST) of four supernova remnants (SNRs) believed to be the result of core-collapse SNe: N132D (0525-69.6), N49B (0525-66.0), N23 (0506-68.0), and 0453-68.5. All four of these SNRs were detected in whole at 24 $\\mu$m and in part at 70 $\\mu$m. Comparisons with {\\it Chandra} broadband X-ray images show an association of infrared (IR) emission with the blast wave. We attribute the observed IR emission to dust that has been collisionally heated by electrons and ions in the hot, X-ray emitting plasma, with grain size distributions appropriate for the LMC and the destruction of small grains via sputtering by ions. As with our earlier analysis of Type Ia SNRs, models can reproduce observed 70/24 $\\mu$m ratios only if effects from sputtering are included, destroying small grains. We calculate the mass of dust swept up by the blast wave in these remnants, and we derive a dust-to-gas mass ratio of several times less than the often a...

  4. New Evidence for Efficient Collisionless Heating of Electrons at the Reverse Shock of a Young Supernova Remnant

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Badenes, Carles; Hughes, John P.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Foster, Adam R.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Petre, Robert; Slane, Patrick O.; Smith, Randall K.

    2013-01-01

    Although collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysics, certain key aspects of them are not well understood. In particular, the process known as collisionless electron heating, whereby electrons are rapidly energized at the shock front, is one of the main open issues in shock physics. Here, we present the first clear evidence for efficient collisionless electron heating at the reverse shock of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR), revealed by Fe K diagnostics using high-quality X-ray data obtained by the Suzaku satellite. We detect K beta (3p yields 1s) fluorescence emission from low-ionization Fe ejecta excited by energetic thermal electrons at the reverse shock front, which peaks at a smaller radius than Fe K alpha (2p yields 1s) emission dominated by a relatively highly ionized component. Comparisons with our hydrodynamical simulations imply instantaneous electron heating to a temperature 1000 times higher than expected from Coulomb collisions alone. The unique environment of the reverse shock, which is propagating with a high Mach number into rarefied ejecta with a low magnetic field strength, puts strong constraints on the physical mechanism responsible for this heating and favors a cross-shock potential created by charge deflection at the shock front. Our sensitive observation also reveals that the reverse shock radius of this SNR is about 10% smaller than the previous measurement using the Fe K alpha morphology from the Chandra observations. Since strong Fe K beta fluorescence is expected only from low-ionization plasma where Fe ions still have many 3p electrons, this feature is key to diagnosing the plasma state and distribution of the immediate postshock ejecta in a young SNR.

  5. Supernova remnant 1987 A

    A dense circumstellar shell, with radius of about 0.5 lt-yr, surrounds SN 1987 A. In 16 yr or less after outburst, the expanding debris of SN 1987 A will strike this shell. When it does, the hot gas and relativistic electrons resulting from the forward and reverse shocks will radiate X-rays, infrared radiation, and nonthermal radio waves. The remnant of SN 1987 A will then become one of the brightest X-ray and radio sources in the LMC. 23 refs

  6. Barrel-shaped supernova remnants

    The authors argue that the majority of radio supernova remnants have a three-dimensional distribution of emissivity which is barrel shaped, with little emission from the end-caps. They examine some mechanisms which could produce this distribution

  7. LOCALIZED SiO EMISSION TRIGGERED BY THE PASSAGE OF THE W51C SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCK

    The region toward W51C is a convincing example of interaction between a supernova remnant (SNR) and a surrounding molecular cloud. Large electron abundances have been reported toward the position W51C-E located in this interaction region, and it was proposed that the enhanced ionization fraction was due to cosmic ray particles freshly accelerated by the SNR shock. We present Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of the H13CO+(1-0) and DCO+(2-1) emission lines centered at position W51C-E. These observations confirm the previous scenario of cosmic-ray-induced ionization at this location. In addition, SiO(2-1) emission has been successfully mapped in the close vicinity of W51C-E, with a spatial resolution of 7''. The morphology and kinematics of the SiO emission are analyzed and strongly suggest that this emission is produced by the passage of the SNR primary shock. Put in conjunction with the enhanced ionization fraction in this region, we give a consistent picture in which the W51C-E position is located downstream of the shock, where a large reservoir of freshly accelerated particles is available

  8. X-ray haloes around supernova remnants

    Recent observations of the Cas-A supernova remnant have shown X-ray emissions not only from the interior, but also from a fainter 'halo' extending beyond what is normally regarded as the outer boundary, or shock front. The authors suggest that this may be due to the diffusion of energetic, charged particles out of the remnant giving rise to precursor structure of the type predicted by the theory of diffusive shock acceleration. If this is the case we are seeing thermal emission from ambient gas heated by compression and wave dissipation. (author)

  9. The blast wave of Tycho's supernova remnant

    Cassam-Chenai, Gamil; Hughes, John P.; Ballet, Jean; Decourchelle, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We use the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study the region in the Tycho supernova remnant between the blast wave and the shocked ejecta interface or contact discontinuity. This zone contains all the history of the shock-heated gas and cosmic-ray acceleration in the remnant. We present for the first time evidence for significant spatial variations of the X-ray synchrotron emission in the form of spectral steepening from a photon index of 2.6 right at the blast wave to a value of 3.0 several arcs...

  10. Hydrodynamic simulations of the interaction of supernova shock waves with a clumpy environment: the case of the RX J0852.0-4622 (Vela Jr) supernova remnant

    Obergaulinger, M.; Iyudin, A. F.; Muller, E.; Smoot, G. F.

    2014-01-01

    Observations in all electromagnetic bands show that many supernova remnants (SNRs) have a very aspherical shape. This can be the result of asymmetries in the supernova explosion or a clumpy circumstellar medium. We study the generation of inhomogeneities and the mixing of elements arising from these two sources in multidimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the propagation of a supernova blast wave into a cloudy environment. We model a specific SNR, Vela Jr (RX J0852.0-4622). By comparing ou...

  11. Non Parametric Determination of Acceleration Characteristics in Supernova Shocks Based on Spectra of Cosmic Rays and Remnant Radiation

    Petrosian, Vahe

    2016-07-01

    We have developed an inversion method for determination of the characteristics of the acceleration mechanism directly and non-parametrically from observations, in contrast to the usual forward fitting of parametric model variables to observations. This is done in the frame work of the so-called leaky box model of acceleration, valid for isotropic momentum distribution and for volume integrated characteristics in a finite acceleration site. We consider both acceleration by shocks and stochastic acceleration where turbulence plays the primary role to determine the acceleration, scattering and escape rates. Assuming a knowledge of the background plasma the model has essentially two unknown parameters, namely the momentum and pitch angle scattering diffusion coefficients, which can be evaluated given two independent spectral observations. These coefficients are obtained directly from the spectrum of radiation from the supernova remnants (SNRs), which gives the spectrum of accelerated particles, and the observed spectrum of cosmic rays (CRs), which are related to the spectrum of particles escaping the SNRs. The results obtained from application of this method will be presented.

  12. Non-linear diffusive acceleration of heavy nuclei in supernova remnant shocks

    Caprioli, D.; P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri); Amato, E.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We describe a semi-analytical approach to non-linear diffusive shock acceleration in the case in which nuclei other than protons are also accelerated. The structure of the shock is determined by the complex interplay of all nuclei, and in turn this shock structure determines the spectra of all components. The magnetic field amplification upstream is described as due to streaming instability of all nuclear species. The amplified magnetic field is then taken into account for...

  13. Electron acceleration by young supernova remnant blast waves

    Blandford, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Some general considerations regarding relativistic particle acceleration by young supernova remnants are reviewed. Recent radio observations of supernova remnants apparently locate the bounding shock and exhibit large electron density gradients which verify the presence of strong particle scattering. The radio 'rim' in Tycho's remnant has been found to contain a predominantly radial magnetic field. This may be attributable to an instability of the shock surface and a progress report on an investigation of the stability of strong shocks in partially ionized media is presented.

  14. Molecular clouds near supernova remnants

    The physical properties of molecular clouds near supernova remnants were investigated. Various properties of the structure and kinematics of these clouds are used to establish their physical association with well-known remmnants. An infrared survey of the most massive clouds revealed embedded objects, probably stars whose formation was induced by the supernova blast wave. In order to understand the relationship between these and other molecular clouds, a control group of clouds was also observed. Excitation models for dense regions of all the clouds are constructed to evaluate molecular abundances in these regions. Those clouds that have embedded stars have lower molecular abundances than the clouds that do not. A cloud near the W28 supernova remnant also has low abundances. Molecular abundances are used to measure an important parameter, the electron density, which is not directly observable. In some clouds extensive deuterium fractionation is observed which confirms electron density measurements in those clouds. Where large deuterium fractionation is observed, the ionization rate in the cloud interior can also be measured. The electron density and ionization rate in the cloud near W28 are higher than in most clouds. The molecular abundances and electron densities are functions of the chemical and dynamical state of evolution of the cloud. Those clouds with lowest abundances are probably the youngest clouds. As low-abundance clouds, some clouds near supernova remnants may have been recently swept from the local interstellar material. Supernova remnants provide sites for star formation in ambient clouds by compressing them, and they sweep new clouds from more diffuse local matter

  15. Plerionic Supernova Remnants

    Safi-Harb, Samar

    2012-01-01

    Plerions represent ideal laboratories for the search for neutron stars, the study of their relativistic winds, and their interaction with their surrounding supernova ejecta and/or the interstellar medium. As well, they are widely believed to represent efficient engines for particle acceleration up to the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum (at about 1E15 eV). Multi-wavelength observations from the radio to the highest TeV energies, combined with modelling, have opened a new window to study these ...

  16. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the movie For the first time, a multiwavelength three-dimensional reconstruction of a supernova remnant has been created. This stunning visualization of Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, the result of an explosion approximately 330 years ago, uses data from several telescopes: X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and optical data from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, Ariz., and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT 2.4-meter telescope, also at Kitt Peak. In this visualization, the green region is mostly iron observed in X-rays. The yellow region is a combination of argon and silicon seen in X-rays, optical, and infrared including jets of silicon plus outer debris seen in the optical. The red region is cold debris seen in the infrared. Finally, the blue reveals the outer blast wave, most prominently detected in X-rays. Most of the material shown in this visualization is debris from the explosion that has been heated by a shock moving inwards. The red material interior to the yellow/orange ring has not yet encountered the inward moving shock and so has not yet been heated. These unshocked debris were known to exist because they absorb background radio light, but they were only recently discovered in infrared emission with Spitzer. The blue region is composed of gas surrounding the explosion that was heated when it was struck by the outgoing blast wave, as clearly seen in Chandra images. To create this visualization, scientists took advantage of both a previously known phenomenon the Doppler effect and a new technology that bridges astronomy and medicine. When elements created inside a supernova, such as iron, silicon and argon, are heated they emit light at certain wavelengths. Material moving towards the observer will have shorter wavelengths and material moving away will have longer wavelengths. Since the amount

  17. Featured Image: Modeling Supernova Remnants

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    This image shows a computer simulation of the hydrodynamics within a supernova remnant. The mixing between the outer layers (where color represents the log of density) is caused by turbulence from the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, an effect that arises when the expanding core gas of the supernova is accelerated into denser shell gas. The past standard for supernova-evolution simulations was to perform them in one dimension and then, in post-processing, manually smooth out regions that undergo Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence (an intrinsically multidimensional effect). But in a recent study, Paul Duffell (University of California, Berkeley) has explored how a 1D model could be used to reproduce the multidimensional dynamics that occur in turbulence from this instability. For more information, check out the paper below!CitationPaul C. Duffell 2016 ApJ 821 76. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/821/2/76

  18. Formation of supernova remnants: The pre-blast-wave phase

    The effect of stellar structure on supernova remnant formation is studied with a series of computer models of a 1051 erg explosion in a 15 M/sub sun/ star. We find that immediately after the explosion shock wave travels down a steep density gradient, the material in the gradient goes into free expansion, forming a collapsible piston. At the outer edge of such a piston are two shock waves: the expanding supernova shock and a reverse shock moving back into the collapsible piston. Until the piston is completely collapsed it is Rayleigh-Taylor stable, but after collpse the inner material behaves as a massive piston and the interface is R-T unstable. If there is a significant mass in an external density gradient, the material between the supernova shock moving out through the interstellar medium and the reverse shock will be a singificant source of x-rays during the pre--blast-wave phase of remnant formation

  19. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  20. First Simulations of Core- Collapse Supernovae to Supernova Remnants with SNSPH

    Ellinger, Carola I.; Rockefeller, Gabriel; Fryer, Christopher L.; Young, Patrick A.; Park, Sangwook

    2013-01-01

    We present the first 3-dimensional simulations following the evolution of supernova shocks from their inception in the stellar core through the development of a supernova remnant into the Sedov phase. Our set of simulations use two different progenitors and two different conditions for the structure of the circumstellar environment. These calculations demonstrate the role that supernova instabilities (the instabilities that develop as the shock drive through the star) play in defining the str...

  1. Low Frequency Insights Into Supernova Remnants

    Dyer, K K; Borkowski, K J; Dyer, Kristy K.; Reynolds, Stephen P; Borkowski, Kazik J.

    2000-01-01

    Low frequency observations at 330 and 74 MHz can provide new insights into supernova remnants (SNR). We can test theoretical predictions for spectral index variations. Nonlinear models of shock acceleration predict that the spectra from young SNR should be slightly concave rather than power laws -- flattening toward higher energies. However, few SNR are bright and compact enough to be studied at millimeter wavelengths, restricting studies to the small range from 6 to 20 cm (a factor of 1.7 in electron energies). Observations at 330 MHz increase the electron energy baseline to a factor of 4, while providing sensitivity to larger spatial scales that are resolved out by centimeter-wavelength interferometers. Such observations can also separate thermal from nonthermal emission and detect excess free-free absorption associated with cool gas in remnants. Wide field images also provide an efficient census of both thermal and nonthermal sources over a large region.

  2. The peculiar supernova remnant CTB 80

    Mavromatakis, F; Paleologou, E V; Papamastorakis, J

    2001-01-01

    Deep CCD exposures of the peculiar supernova remnant CTB 80 in the light of major optical lines have been obtained. These images reveal significant shock heated emission in the area of the remnant. The sulfur line image shows emission in the north along the outer boundary of the IRAS and HI shells. The comparison between the [OIII] and [OII] line images further suggest the presence of significant inhomogeneities in the interstellar medium. The flux calibrated images do not indicate the presence of incomplete recombination zones, and we estimate that the densities of the preshock clouds should not exceed a few atoms per cm^3. The area covered by the optical radiation along with the radio emission at 1410 MHz suggest that CTB 80 occupies a larger angular extent than was previously known.

  3. OH (1720 MHz) Masers and Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnants

    Yusef-Zadeh, F.; Wardle, M.; Rho, J.; M. SAKANO

    2002-01-01

    Radio surveys of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy have uncovered 19 SNRs accompanied by OH maser emission at 1720 MHz. This unusual class of maser sources is suggested to be produced behind a shock front from the expansion of a supernova remnant running into a molecular cloud. An important ingredient of this model is that X-ray emission from the remnant enhances the production of OH molecule. The role of X-ray emission from maser emitting (ME) SNRs is investigated by comparing the X-ra...

  4. Vivid View of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    2008-01-01

    This composite image of the Tycho supernova remnant combines infrared and X-ray observations obtained with NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space observatories, respectively, and the Calar Alto observatory, Spain. It shows the scene more than four centuries after the brilliant star explosion witnessed by Tycho Brahe and other astronomers of that era. The explosion has left a blazing hot cloud of expanding debris (green and yellow). The location of the blast's outer shock wave can be seen as a blue sphere of ultra-energetic electrons. Newly synthesized dust in the ejected material and heated pre-existing dust from the area around the supernova radiate at infrared wavelengths of 24 microns (red). Foreground and background stars in the image are white.

  5. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Supernova Remnants

    Williams, B.

    2012-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) provide a laboratory for studying various astrophysical processes, including particle acceleration, thermal and non thermal emission processes across the spectrum, distribution of heavy elements, the physics of strong shock waves, and the progenitor systems and environments of supernovae. Long studied in radio and X-rays, the past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the detection and subsequent study of SNRs in the infrared and gamma-ray regimes. Understanding the evolution of SNRs and their interaction with the interstellar medium requires a multi-wavelength approach. I will review the various physical processes observed in SNRs and how these processes are intertwined. In particular, I will focus on X-ray and infrared observations, which probe two very different but intrinsically connected phases of the ISM: gas and dust. I will discuss results from multi-wavelength studies of several SNRs at various stages of evolution, including Kepler, RCW 86, and the Cygnus Loop.

  6. Supernova remnants: the X-ray perspective

    Vink, Jacco

    2011-01-01

    Supernova remnants are beautiful astronomical objects that are also of high scientific interest, because they provide insights into supernova explosion mechanisms, and because they are the likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. X-ray observations are an important means to study these objects.And in particular the advances made in X-ray imaging spectroscopy over the last two decades has greatly increased our knowledge about supernova remnants. It has made it possible to map the products of fr...

  7. Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants

    Seward, Frederick D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.

  8. A simple model for electron plasma heating in supernova remnants

    Malyshev, D; Drury, L O'C; Aharonian, F A

    2010-01-01

    Context: Multiwavelength observations of supernova remnants can be explained within the framework of diffusive shock acceleration theory, which allows effective conversion of the explosion energy into cosmic rays. Although the models of nonlinear shocks describe reasonably well the nonthermal component of emission, certain issues, including the heating of the thermal electron plasma and the related X-ray emission, still remain open. Methods: Numerical solution of the equations of the Chevalier model for supernova remnant evolution, coupled with Coulomb scattering heating of the electrons. Results: The electron temperature and the X-ray thermal Bremsstrahlung emission from supernova remnants have been calculated as functions of the relevant parameters. Since only the Coulomb mechanism was considered for electron heating, the values obtained for the electron temperatures should be treated as lower limits. Results from this work can be useful to constrain model parameters for observed SNRs.

  9. Runaway Stars in Supernova Remnants

    Pannicke, Anna; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Dinçel, Baha

    2016-07-01

    Half of all stars and in particular 70 % of the massive stars are a part of a multiple system. A possible development for the system after the core collapse supernova (SN) of the more massive component is as follows: The binary is disrupted by the SN. The formed neutron star is ejected by the SN kick whereas the companion star either remains within the system and is gravitationally bounded to the neutron star, or is ejected with a spatial velocity comparable to its former orbital velocity (up to 500 km/s). Such stars with a large peculiar space velocity are called runaway stars. We present our observational results of the supernova remnants (SNRs) G184.6-5.8, G74.0-8.5 and G119.5+10.2. The focus of this project lies on the detection of low mass runaway stars. We analyze the spectra of a number of candidates and discuss their possibility of being the former companions of the SN progenitor stars. The spectra were obtained with INT in Tenerife, Calar Alto Astronomical Observatory and the University Observatory Jena. Also we investigate the field stars in the neighborhood of the SNRs G74.0-8.5 and G119.5+10.2 and calculate more precise distances for these SNRs.

  10. The early evolution of supernova remnants

    This paper discusses how the density distribution of the supernova ejecta and that of the surrounding medium are the most important parameters for the early evolution of supernova remnants. The distribution of the ejecta depends on the detailed hydrodynamics of the explosion, but the outer parts of a supernova can probably be represented by a steep power law density distribution with radius. Self-similar solutions are especially useful for modeling the interaction of a supernova with its surroundings. The supernova first interacts with mass loss from the progenitor star. Evidence for circumstellar interaction is present in a number of extra-galactic supernovae, including SN1987a

  11. Supernova remnants in the GC region

    Asvarov, Abdul

    2016-07-01

    Along with the central Black hole the processes of active star formation play very important role in the energetics of the Galactic center region. The SNe and their remnants (SNRs) are the main ingredients of the processes of star formation. SNRs are also the sources of electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths from the optical to hard gamma rays. In the presented work we consider the physics of supernova remnants evolving in extreme environmental conditions which are typical for the region of the Galactic center. Because of the high density and strong inhomogeneity of the surrounding medium these objects remain practically invisible at almost all wavelengths. We model evolution of SNR taking into account the pressure of the surrounding medium and the gravitational field of the matter (stars, compact clouds, dark matter) inside the remnant. As it is well established, considerable portion of the kinetic energy of the SNR can be converted into the cosmic ray particles by diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. Therefore the effect of particle acceleration is also included in the model (with the effectiveness of acceleration as a free parameter). Using the observed radiation fluxes at different wavelengths we attempt to obtain limits on the parameters of the model of the Galactic Center, namely, the frequency of star birth, the average density of the matter and radiation field, etc.

  12. Extended OH(1720 MHz) Maser Emission from Supernova Remnants

    Hewitt, J W; Wardle, M; Roberts, D A

    2007-01-01

    Compact OH(1720 MHz) masers have proven to be excellent signposts for the interaction of supernova remnants with adjacent molecular clouds. Less appreciated has been the weak, extended OH(1720 MHz) emission which accompanies strong compact maser sources. Recent single-dish and interferometric observations reveal the majority of maser-emitting supernova remnants have accompanying regions of extended maser emission. Enhanced OH abundance created by the passing shock is observed both as maser emission and absorption against the strong background of the remnant. Modeling the observed OH profiles gives an estimate of the physical conditions in which weak, extended maser emission arises. I will discuss how we can realize the utility of this extended maser emission, particularly the potential to measure the strength of the post-shock magnetic field via Zeeman splitting over these large-scales.

  13. Synthesis surveys of southern supernova remnants

    A report is presented detailing observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Fleurs and Molonglo synthesis radio telescopes. Fifty-four remnants have been mapped with at least one of these instruments, eleven with both. Approximately half of the maps have been published and a key to these publications is given

  14. Young Supernova Remnants: Issues and Prospects

    McKee, Christopher F.

    2001-01-01

    After reviewing recent work on the dynamics of young supernova remnants (YSNRs) and discussing how YSNRs can be used as physics laboratories, I discuss several challenges: Where are the very young SNRs in the Galaxy? Can very young SNRs produce gamma ray bursts? The Connections Challenge: Can one infer the nature of the supernova and its progenitor star from observations of the YSNR?

  15. Supernova remnants: the X-ray perspective

    J. Vink

    2012-01-01

    Supernova remnants are beautiful astronomical objects that are also of high scientific interest, because they provide insights into supernova explosion mechanisms, and because they are the likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. X-ray observations are an important means to study these objects. And i

  16. An infrared survey of galactic supernova remnants

    Presented are preliminary results from a survey of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the data base collected by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). About one-third of the known galactic SNRs are visible in the IRAS data. Confusion with other sources in the galactic plane prohibits the detection of many remnants. The objects that are detected have similar spectral characteristics and temperatures, except that the three youngest remnants known, Tycho, Kepler, and Cassiopeia A, are distinctly warmer

  17. Circumstellar Nebulae in Young Supernova Remnants

    Chu, Y.-H.

    2000-01-01

    Supernovae descendent from massive stars explode in media that have been modified by their progenitors' mass loss and UV radiation. The supernova ejecta will first interact with the circumstellar material shed by the progenitors at late evolutionary stages, and then interact with the interstellar material. Circumstellar nebulae in supernova remnants can be diagnosed by their small expansion velocities and high [N II]/H$\\alpha$ ratios. The presence of circumstellar nebulae appears ubiquitous a...

  18. Asymmetric supernova remnants generated by Galactic, massive runaway stars

    Meyer, D M -A; Mackey, J; Velazquez, P F; Gusdorf, A

    2015-01-01

    After the death of a runaway massive star, its supernova shock wave interacts with the bow shocks produced by its defunct progenitor, and may lose energy, momentum, and its spherical symmetry before expanding into the local interstellar medium (ISM). We investigate whether the initial mass and space velocity of these progenitors can be associated with asymmetric supernova remnants. We run hydrodynamical models of supernovae exploding in the pre-shaped medium of moving Galactic core-collapse progenitors. We find that bow shocks that accumulate more than about 1.5 Mo generate asymmetric remnants. The shock wave first collides with these bow shocks 160-750 yr after the supernova, and the collision lasts until 830-4900 yr. The shock wave is then located 1.35-5 pc from the center of the explosion, and it expands freely into the ISM, whereas in the opposite direction it is channelled into the region of undisturbed wind material. This applies to an initially 20 Mo progenitor moving with velocity 20 km/s and to our i...

  19. Chandra Observations of Tycho’s Supernova Remnant

    U. Hwang; R. Petre; A. E. Szymkowiak; S. S. Holt

    2002-03-01

    We present a new Chandra observation of Tycho’s supernova remnant with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. Multicolor X-ray imaging reveals new details of the outer shock and ejecta. At energies between 4 and 6 keV, the outline of the outer shock is clearly revealed in X-rays for the first time. The distribution of the emission from lines of Si and Fe are confirmed to have a different morphology from each other, and the Si ejecta are shown to extend to the blast shock at several locations. Characteristic spectra of the outer shock and ejecta are also presented.

  20. Origin of Radially Aligned Magnetic Fields in Young Supernova Remnants

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested by radio observations of polarized synchrotron emissions that downstream magnetic field in some young supernova remnants are oriented radially. We study magnetic field distribution of turbulent supernova remnant driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability -- in other words, the effect of rippled shock -- by using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations. We find that the induced turbulence has radially biased anisotropic velocity dispersion that leads to a selective amplification of the radial component of the magnetic field. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is induced by the interaction between the shock and upstream density fluctuations. Future high-resolution polarization observation can distinguish the following candidates responsible for the upstream density fluctuations: (i) inhomogeneity caused by the cascade of large-scale turbulence in the ISM so-called the big-power-law-in-the-sky, (ii) structures generated by the Drury instability in the cosmic-ray modified shock, a...

  1. X-ray images of supernova remnants

    Einstein observations of supernova remnants have been review and analyzed. Images of 44 galactic remnants have been reprocessed, merged when necessary, and collected. Some bright remnants were viewed with both moderate and high resolution instruments (IPC with 1 ft. resolution and HRI with 4 in. resolution). Some IPC images of nearby remnants have been separated into 2 energy bands, 0.2-0.6 keV and 0.6-4.5 keV; whereas most images cover the band 0.2-4.5 keV. These images are illustrated in this paper

  2. Nonthermal Emission of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    TANG Yun-Yong; FANG Jun; ZHANG Li

    2011-01-01

    The time-dependent non-thermal particle and photon spectra are reproduced for a Type Ia SNR Tycho with radio,x-ray,GeV and TeV emission within the framework of the diffusive shock acceleration of the non-thermal particles.TeV photons can come from the inverse Compton scattering of relativistic electrons and from the π0-decay process in proton-proton interaction.The results show that (1) the hadronic case can model the observed multiwavelength spectrum well and,peculiarly,the π0-decay process appears to be necessary to explain the GeV emission;and (2) magnetic field amplification is vital in the SNR.Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) is a Type Ia SNR with an age of 438 y.At radio band,the images indicate a clear shell-like morphology with enhanced emission along the northeastern edge of the remnant,[1,2] the spectral index and the fiux density at 1.4 GHz are 0.65 and 40.5 Jy,respectively.[3]%The time-dependent non-thermal particle and photon spectra are reproduced for a Type /a SNR Tycho with radio, x-ray, GeV and TeV emission within the framework of the diffusive shock acceleration of the non-thermal particles. TeV photons can come from the inverse Compton scattering of relativistic electrons and from theπ°-decay process in proton-proton interaction. The results show that (1) the hadronic case can model the observed multiwavelength spectrum well and, peculiarly, the π°-decay process appears to be necessary to explain the GeV emission; and (2) magnetic field amplification is vital in the SNR.

  3. OH (1720 MHz) Masers and Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnants

    Yusef-Zadeh, F; Rho, J; Sakano, M

    2003-01-01

    Radio surveys of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy have uncovered 19 SNRs accompanied by OH maser emission at 1720 MHz. This unusual class of maser sources is suggested to be produced behind a shock front from the expansion of a supernova remnant running into a molecular cloud. An important ingredient of this model is that X-ray emission from the remnant enhances the production of OH molecule. The role of X-ray emission from maser emitting (ME) SNRs is investigated by comparing the X-ray induced ionization rate with theory. One aspect of this model is verified: there is a strong association between maser emitting and mixed-morphology (MM) or thermal composite SNRs --center-filled thermal X-ray emission surrounded by shell-like radio morphology. We also present ROSAT and ASCA observations of two maser emitting SNRs: G21.8--0.6 (Kes 69) and G357.7--0.1 (Tornado).

  4. Interaction of a Pulsar Wind with the Expanding Supernova Remnant

    Jun, B I

    1997-01-01

    Recent HST observations of the Crab Nebula show filamentary structures that appear to originate from the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability operating on the supernova ejecta accelerated by the pulsar-driven wind. In order to understand the origin and formation of the filaments in the Crab Nebula, we study the interaction of a pulsar wind with the uniformly expanding supernova remnant by means of numerical simulation. By performing two-dimensional numerical simulations, we find three independent instabilities in the interaction region between the pulsar wind and the expanding supernova remnant. The most important instability develops as the shock driven by the pulsar bubble becomes accelerated ($r \\propto t^{6/5}$). The instability produces pronounced filamentary structures that resemble the observed filaments in the Crab Nebula. Our numerical simulations can reproduce important observational features of the Crab Nebula. The high density heads in the R-T finger tips are produced because of the compressibility o...

  5. Isothermal blast wave model of supernova remnants

    The validity of the ''adiabatic'' assumption in supernova remnant calculations is examined, and the alternative extreme of an isothermal blast wave is explored. It is concluded that, because of thermal conductivity, the large temperature gradients predicted by the adiabatic model probably are not maintained in nature. Self-similar solutions to the hydrodynamic equations for an isothermal blast wave have been found and studied. These solutions are then used to determine the relationship between X-ray observations and inferred parameters of supernova remnants. A comparison of the present results with those for the adiabatic model indicates differences which are less than present observational uncertainties. It is concluded that most parameters of supernova remnants inferred from X-ray measurements are relatively insensitive to the specifics of the blast wave model

  6. Isothermal blast wave model of supernova remnants

    Solinger, A.; Buff, J.; Rappaport, S.

    1975-01-01

    The validity of the 'adiabatic' assumption in supernova-remnant calculations is examined, and the alternative extreme of an isothermal blast wave is explored. It is concluded that, because of thermal conductivity, the large temperature gradients predicted by the adiabatic model probably are not maintained in nature. Self-similar solutions to the hydrodynamic equations for an isothermal blast wave have been found and studied. These solutions are then used to determine the relationship between X-ray observations and inferred parameters of supernova remnants. A comparison of the present results with those for the adiabatic model indicates differences which are less than present observational uncertainties. It is concluded that most parameters of supernova remnants inferred from X-ray measurements are relatively insensitive to the specifics of the blast-wave model.

  7. New supernova remnant results from radio surveys

    Helfand, D. J.

    Our knowledge of the Galactic supernova remnant population is woefully incomplete A total of 231 remnants appear in the latest catalog Green 2004 whereas we expect the total population to be between 500 and 1000 Helfand et al 1989 The current discovery rate of new remnants has averaged about four per year over the past two decades In recent years a number of new Galactic plane radio surveys have been undertaken which offer the possibility of significantly increasing this discovery rate For example the VLA MAGPIS survey Helfand et al 2006 has identified fifty new remnant candidates in a 27-degree swath of Galactic longitude Unsurprisingly this high-resolution survey finds many more small-diameter remnants than past single-dish observations increasing by seven-fold the number of remnants with diameters less than 5 arcmin in this region of the Galaxy Brogan et al report 90 cm observations in this region identifying up to 35 new remnants I will review all published results on new radio remnants highlighting the impact of these discoveries on our understanding of the remnant population and noting the value of observations from the mid-infrared to TeV gamma rays in defining the Galaxy s remnant population This work is supported in part by grant AST 05-07598 from the National Science Foundation

  8. Gamma-Rays from Heavy Nuclei Accelerated in Supernova Remnants

    Caprioli, D.; P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri); Amato, E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the theoretical and observational implications of the acceleration of protons and heavier nuclei in supernova remnants (SNRs). By adopting a semi-analytical technique, we study the non-linear interplay among particle acceleration, magnetic field generation and shock dynamics, outlining a self-consistent scenario for the origin of the spectrum of Galactic cosmic rays as produced in this class of sources. Moreover, the inferred chemical abundances suggest nuclei heavier than Hydr...

  9. Outflow from supernovae as a possible cause of the finefibered structure of supernova remnants

    Arguments are given which point out some sort of connection between filaments in supernova remnants and exploded stars in them. A stellar wind from the presupernova which has Wolf-Rayet star parameters is considered as a possible example of this connection. The wind consists, by suggestion, of both rarefied phase and dense clusters. At the stage of the wind deceleration, the clusters cannot be stopped. They throw out the wind and move through the interstellar medium at a large velocity, shocking the gas before them. It is shown that the evolution of the gas disturbed by the cluster leads to formation of a structure similar to the one observed in the supernova remnants. The required wind power is less than that of the Wolf-Rayet stars by an order of magnitude. Slowly expanding HI clouds discovered around some supernova remnants may be the interstellar gas carried away by the wind rarefied component

  10. X-Ray Measured Dynamics of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Hayato, Asami; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We present X-ray proper-motion measurements of the forward shock and reverse-shocked ejecta in Tycho's supernova remnant, based on three sets of archival Chandra data taken in 2000, 2003, and 2007. We find that the proper motion of the edge of the remnant (i.e., the forward shock and protruding ejecta knots) varies from 0.''20 yr-1 (expansion index m = 0.33, where R = tm ) to 0.''40 yr-1 (m = 0.65) with azimuthal angle in 2000-2007 measurements, and 0.''14 yr-1 (m = 0.26) to 0.''40 yr-1 (m = 0.65) in 2003-2007 measurements. The azimuthal variation of the proper motion and the average expansion index of [approx]0.5 are consistent with those derived from radio observations. We also find proper motion and expansion index of the reverse-shocked ejecta to be 0.''21-0.''31 yr-1 and 0.43-0.64, respectively. From a comparison of the measured m-value with Type Ia supernova evolutionary models, we find a pre-shock ambient density around the remnant of [less, similar]0.2 cm-3.

  11. Neutron Star/Supernova Remnant Associations

    Kaspi, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence for associations between neutron stars and supernova remnants is reviewed. After summarizing the situation for young radio pulsars, I consider the evidence from associations that young neutron stars can have properties very different from those of radio pulsars. This, though still controversial, shakes our simple perception of the Crab pulsar as prototypical of the young neutron star population.

  12. Evolution of magnetic fields in supernova remnants

    Schure, K.M.; Vink, J.; Achterberg, A.; Keppens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNR) are now widely believed to be a source of cosmic rays (CRs) up to an energy of 10(15) eV. The magnetic fields required to accelerate CRs to sufficiently high energies need to be much higher than can result from compression of the circumstellar medium (CSM) by a factor 4, as

  13. Transport of magnetic turbulence in Supernova remnants

    Brose, Robert; Pohl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context. Supernova remnants are known as sources of galactic cosmic rays for their non-thermal emission of radio waves, X-rays, and gamma-rays. However, the observed soft broken power-law spectra are hard to reproduce within standard acceleration theory based on the assumption of Bohm diffusion and steady-state calculations. Aims. We point out that a time-dependent treatment of the acceleration process together with a self-consistent treatment of the scattering turbulence amplification is necessary. Methods. We numerically solve the coupled system of transport equations for cosmic rays and isotropic Alfvenic turbulence. The equations are coupled through the growth rate of turbulence determined by the cosmic-ray gradient and the spatial diffusion coefficient of cosmic rays determined by the energy density of the turbulence. The system is solved on a co-moving expanding grid extending upstream for dozens of shock radii, allowing for the self-consistent study of cosmic-ray diffusion in the vicinity of their acce...

  14. Gamma-ray Emission from Crushed Clouds in Supernova Remnants

    Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Funk, Stefan; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that the radio and gamma-ray emission observed from newly-found "GeV-bright" supernova remnants (SNRs) can be explained by a model, in which a shocked cloud and shock-accelerated cosmic rays (CRs) frozen in it are simultaneously compressed by the supernova blastwave as a result of formation of a radiative cloud shock. Simple reacceleration of pre-existing CRs is generally sufficient to power the observed gamma-ray emission through the decays of neutral pions produced in hadronic interactions between high-energy protons (nuclei) and gas in the compressed-cloud layer. This model provides a natural account of the observed synchrotron radiation in SNRs W51C, W44 and IC 443 with flat radio spectral index, which can be ascribed to a combination of secondary and reaccelerated electrons and positrons.

  15. Gamma-Ray Emission From Crushed Clouds in Supernova Remnants

    Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Blandford, Roger D.; Funk, Stefan; /SLAC; Tajima, Hiroyasu; /Nagoya U., Solar-Terrestrial Environ. Lab.; Tanaka, Takaaki; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2010-10-27

    It is shown that the radio and gamma-ray emission observed from newly-found 'GeV-bright' supernova remnants (SNRs) can be explained by a model, in which a shocked cloud and shock-accelerated cosmic rays (CRs) frozen in it are simultaneously compressed by the supernova blastwave as a result of formation of a radiative cloud shock. Simple reacceleration of pre-existing CRs is generally sufficient to power the observed gamma-ray emission through the decays of {pi}{sup 0}-mesons produced in hadronic interactions between high-energy protons (nuclei) and gas in the compressed-cloud layer. This model provides a natural account of the observed synchrotron radiation in SNRs W51C, W44 and IC 443 with flat radio spectral index, which can be ascribed to a combination of secondary and reaccelerated electrons and positrons.

  16. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Young Galactic Supernova Remnants

    Koo, Bon-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Young Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) are where we can observe closely the supernova (SN) ejecta and its interaction with circumstellar/interstellar medium. Therefore, they provide an opportunity to explore the explosion and the final stage of the evolution of massive stars. Near-infrared (NIR) emission lines in SNRs mostly originate from shocked dense material. In shocked SN ejecta, forbidden lines from heavy ions are prominent, while in shocked circumstellar/interstellar medium, [Fe II] and H2 lines are prominent. [Fe II] lines are strong in both media, and therefore [Fe II] line images provide a good starting point for the NIR study of SNRs. There are about twenty SNRs detected in [Fe II] lines, some of which have been studied in NIR spectroscopy. We will review the NIR [Fe II] observations of SNRs and introduce our recent NIR spectroscopic study of the young core-collapse SNR Cas A where we detected strong [P II] lines.

  17. Transport of magnetic turbulence in supernova remnants

    Brose, R.; Telezhinsky, I.; Pohl, M.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Supernova remnants are known as sources of Galactic cosmic rays for their nonthermal emission of radio waves, X-rays, and gamma rays. However, the observed soft broken power-law spectra are hard to reproduce within standard acceleration theory based on the assumption of Bohm diffusion and steady-state calculations. Aims: We point out that a time-dependent treatment of the acceleration process together with a self-consistent treatment of the scattering turbulence amplification is necessary. Methods: We numerically solve the coupled system of transport equations for cosmic rays and isotropic Alfvénic turbulence. The equations are coupled through the growth rate of turbulence determined by the cosmic-ray gradient and the spatial diffusion coefficient of cosmic rays determined by the energy density of the turbulence. The system is solved on a comoving expanding grid extending upstream for dozens of shock radii, allowing for the self-consistent study of cosmic-ray diffusion in the vicinity of their acceleration site. The transport equation for cosmic rays is solved in a test-particle approach. Results: We demonstrate that the system is typically not in a steady state. In fact, even after several thousand years of evolution, no equilibrium situation is reached. The resulting time-dependent particle spectra strongly differ from those derived assuming a steady state and Bohm diffusion. Our results indicate that proper accounting for the evolution of the scattering turbulence and hence the particle diffusion coefficient is crucial for the formation of the observed soft spectra. In any case, the need to continuously develop magnetic turbulence upstream of the shock introduces nonlinearity in addition to that imposed by cosmic-ray feedback.

  18. Fermi LAT Observations of Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds

    Castro, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We report the detection of gamma-ray emission coincident with four supernova remnants (SNRs) using data from the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. G349.7+0.2, CTB 37A, 3C 391 and G8.7-0.1 are supernova remnants known to be interacting with molecular clouds, as evidenced by observations of hydroxyl (OH) maser emission at 1720 MHz in their directions. SNR shocks are expected to be sites of cosmic rays acceleration, and clouds of dense material can provide effective targets for production of gamma-rays from pion-decay. The observations reveal unresolved sources in the direction of G349.7+0.2, CTB 37A and 3C 391, and a possibly extended source coincident with G8.7-0.1, all with significance levels greater than 10 sigma.

  19. Supernova Remnant Evolution: from explosion to dissipation

    Leahy, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Here is considered the full evolution of a spherical supernova remnant. We start by calculating the early time ejecta dominated stage and continue through the different phases of interaction with the circumstellar medium, and end with the dissipation and merger phase. The physical connection between the phases reveals new results. One is that the blast wave radius during the adiabatic phase is significantly smaller than it would be, if one does notaccount for the blast wave interaction with the ejecta.

  20. OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    2002-01-01

    This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of the tattered debris of a star that exploded 3,000 years ago as a supernova. This supernova remnant, called N132D, lies 169,000 light-years away in the satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. A Hubble Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 image of the inner regions of the supernova remnant shows the complex collisions that take place as fast moving ejecta slam into cool, dense interstellar clouds. This level of detail in the expanding filaments could only be seen previously in much closer supernova remnants. Now, Hubble's capabilities extend the detailed study of supernovae out to the distance of a neighboring galaxy. Material thrown out from the interior of the exploded star at velocities of more than four million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second) plows into neighboring clouds to create luminescent shock fronts. The blue-green filaments in the image correspond to oxygen-rich gas ejected from the core of the star. The oxygen-rich filaments glow as they pass through a network of shock fronts reflected off dense interstellar clouds that surrounded the exploded star. These dense clouds, which appear as reddish filaments, also glow as the shock wave from the supernova crushes and heats the clouds. Supernova remnants provide a rare opportunity to observe directly the interiors of stars far more massive than our Sun. The precursor star to this remnant, which was located slightly below and left of center in the image, is estimated to have been 25 times the mass of our Sun. These stars 'cook' heavier elements through nuclear fusion, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, iron etc., and the titanic supernova explosions scatter this material back into space where it is used to create new generations of stars. This is the mechanism by which the gas and dust that formed our solar system became enriched with the elements that sustain life on this planet. Hubble spectroscopic observations will be used to determine the exact

  1. Future GLAST observations of Supernova remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    Funk, S

    2007-01-01

    Shell-type Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been known to harbour a population of ultra-relativistic particles, accelerated in the Supernova shock wave by the mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration. Experimental evidence for the existence of electrons up to energies of ~100 TeV was first provided by the detection of hard X-ray synchrotron emission as e.g. in the shell of the young SNR SN1006. Furthermore using theoretical arguments shell-type Supernova remnants have long been considered as the main accelerator of protons - Cosmic rays - in the Galaxy; definite proof of this process is however still missing. Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) - diffuse structures surrounding young pulsars - are another class of objects known to be a site of particle acceleration in the Galaxy, again through the detection of hard synchrotron X-rays such as in the Crab Nebula. Gamma-rays above 100 MeV provide a direct access to acceleration processes. The GLAST Large Area telescope (LAT) will be operating in the energy range betwee...

  2. Evolution of multiple supernova remnants

    Vasiliev, Evgenii O; Bondarev, Roman; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Heating of the interstellar medium by multiple supernovae (SNe) explosions is at the heart of producing galaxy-scale outflows in starburst galaxies. Standard models of outflows assume a high efficiency of SNe in heating the gas to X-ray emitting temperatures and to fill the central region of starburst with hot gas, in order to launch vigorous outflows. We study the efficiency of multiple SNe in heating the interstellar medium (ISM) and filling the volume with gas of high temperatures, with 2-D and 3-D hydrodynamic simulations. We argue that SNe have to be clustered in space and time (and be coherent) in order to compensate for the radiative loss. In particular, we find that in coherent cases, the filling factor of gas with $3 \\times 10^6$ K can be at the most $\\le 0.3$ and the total heating efficiency $\\le 0.3$, for gas with density $1$ cm$^{-3}$ and $0.1\\hbox{--}1$ Z$_\\odot$. The heating efficiency and filling factors are much smaller in incoherent cases. Comparing our results to the commonly adopted efficie...

  3. Using optical lines to study particle acceleration at supernova remnants

    Morlino, Giovanni [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The shocks of several young supernova remnants (SNR) are often associated with very thin optical filaments dominated by Balmer emission resulting from charge-exchange and collisional excitation between neutral Hydrogen from the interstellar medium and shocked protons and electrons. Optical lines are a direct probe of the conditions at the shock, in particular the width of the narrow and broad components reflect the temperature upstream and downstream of the shock, respectively. When the shock accelerate efficiently non-thermal particles, the shock structure changes producing anomalous Balmer lines and it is possible to use their line shape and their spatial profile to check the efficiency of SNR shocks in accelerating cosmic rays. Here we illustrate the kinetic theory of shock acceleration in presence of neutrals with some applications to young SNRs. We show that in three cases (RCW 86, SNR 0509-67.5 and Tycho) anomalous Balmer lines can be explained assuming that a fraction of ∼ 10% of the total shock kinetic energy is converted into not thermal particles, while in one single case, the northwestern part of SN 1006, there is no evidence of efficient acceleration.

  4. Three Supernova Remnants observed by BeppoSAX

    Vink, Jacco

    1998-01-01

    We present the results of three observations of shell-type supernova remnants observed by BeppoSAX. Two of the remnants (N132D and Cas A) are oxygen rich supernova remnants. They were observed during the PV phase. SN1006 was observed during A01. For SN1006 we present preliminary results on the abundance measurements based on the emission from the center of the remnant.

  5. Simulation of the growth of the 3D Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Supernova Remnants using an expanding reference frame

    Fraschetti, Federico; Ballet, Jean; Decourchelle, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Context: The Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities generated by the deceleration of a supernova remnant during the ejecta-dominated phase are known to produce finger-like structures in the matter distribution which modify the geometry of the remnant. The morphology of supernova remnants is also expected to be modified when efficient particle acceleration occurs at their shocks. Aims: The impact of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities from the ejecta-dominated to the Sedov-Taylor phase is investigated over one octant of the supernova remnant. We also study the effect of efficient particle acceleration at the forward shock on the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Methods: We modified the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code RAMSES to study with hydrodynamic numerical simulations the evolution of supernova remnants in the framework of an expanding reference frame. The adiabatic index of a relativistic gas between the forward shock and the contact discontinuity mimics the presence of accelerated particles. Results: The ...

  6. Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Long, Knox S.; Patnaude, Daniel; Raymond, John C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Williams, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    We have obtained new HST/WFC3 images of Kepler's supernova remnant in H-alpha (F656N) and [N II] (F658N) emission line filters. The bright radiative shocks in dense clumps are detected in both filters, while non-radiative shocks are seen as faint filaments only in the H-alpha image. Most of these Balmer filaments lie around the periphery of the remnant where the blast wave encounters partially neutral interstellar gas. We compare the new images with HST/ACS images taken nearly 10 years previously, and find that these filaments tracing the forward shock have moved 0.6"-0.9" between the two epochs. Assuming a distance of 4 kpc to the remnant, these proper motions correspond to shock velocities of 1160-1740 km/s, which are consistent with the published values, 1550-2000 km/s (e.g. Blair et al. 1991, ApJ 366, 484). We also find a few Balmer filaments with highly non-radial proper motions. In one particularly interesting case in the projected interior of the remnant, SE of the center, the shock appears to have wrapped around a sharp density enhancement and moved about 0.3" in the period between the observations.The images allow us to study the evolution of the shock around an ejecta knot, which is punching through the remnant boundary in the northwest. The forward shock, visible as an arcuate Balmer filament, has moved about 1". At the trailing edges, the system of radiative knots formed by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities have undergone significant changes - some knots have disappeared, new ones have appeared, and many have changed in brightness. Elsewhere in the remnant we find changes in the relative intensities of many small, bright knots over the 10 year baseline, indicating the short radiative lifetimes of these features.This work has been supported in part by grant HST-GO-12885 to the Universities Space Research Association.

  7. Supernova Remnants In The Magellanic Clouds

    Filipović, Miroslav D.; Bozzetto, Luke M.

    2016-01-01

    We present initial results of an ongoing study of the supernova remnants (SNRs) and candidates in the Magellanic Clouds. Some 108 objects in both Clouds are considered to be either an SNR or a reliable candidate. This represents the most complete sample of known SNRs in any galaxy. therefore, this study allows us to study SNR population properties such as the size and spectral index distribution. Here, we also show 12 known Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs from type Ia SN explosions and briefly co...

  8. Supernova Remnants In The Magellanic Clouds

    Filipović, Miroslav D

    2016-01-01

    We present initial results of an ongoing study of the supernova remnants (SNRs) and candidates in the Magellanic Clouds. Some 108 objects in both Clouds are considered to be either an SNR or a reliable candidate. This represents the most complete sample of known SNRs in any galaxy. therefore, this study allows us to study SNR population properties such as the size and spectral index distribution. Here, we also show 12 known Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs from type Ia SN explosions and briefly comment on their importance.

  9. Cosmic ray acceleration search in Supernova Remnants

    Galactic Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are among the best candidates as source of cosmic rays due to energetics, observed rate of explosion and as possible sites where the Fermi mechanisms naturally plays a key role. Evidence of hadronic acceleration processes taking place in SNRs are being collected with the Fermi-LAT, whose sensitivity in the range 100MeV–100GeV is crucial for disentangling possible hadronic contribution from inverse Compton or bremsstrahlung leptonic component. A survey of the detected SNRs will be given, focusing the attention on the role of the environment and the evolution stage of the SNR in the interpretation of the observed γ-ray spectra

  10. Cosmic ray acceleration search in Supernova Remnants

    Giordano, Francesco; Di Venere, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Galactic Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are among the best candidates as source of cosmic rays due to energetics, observed rate of explosion and as possible sites where the Fermi mechanisms naturally plays a key role. Evidence of hadronic acceleration processes taking place in SNRs are being collected with the Fermi-LAT, whose sensitivity in the range 100MeV–100GeV is crucial for disentangling possible hadronic contribution from inverse Compton or bremsstrahlung leptonic component. A survey of the detected SNRs will be given, focusing the attention on the role of the environment and the evolution stage of the SNR in the interpretation of the observed γ-ray spectra.

  11. Approximate supernova remnant dynamics with cosmic ray production

    Supernova explosions are the most violent and energetic events in the galaxy and have long been considered probable sources of cosmic rays. Recent shock acceleration models treating the cosmic rays (CR's) as test particles nb a prescribed supernova remnant (SNR) evolution, indeed indicate an approximate power law momentum distribution f sub source (p) approximation p(-a) for the particles ultimately injected into the interstellar medium (ISM). This spectrum extends almost to the momentum p = 1 million GeV/c, where the break in the observed spectrum occurs. The calculated power law index approximately less than 4.2 agrees with that inferred for the galactic CR sources. The absolute CR intensity can however not be well determined in such a test particle approximation

  12. Non-thermal acceleration mechanisms in supernova remnant shells

    Decourchelle, Anne

    2008-01-01

    A review of the main issues in the field of particle acceleration in Supernova Remnants is provided in the context of future X-ray observations with Simbol-X. After a summary of the nonthermal acceleration mechanisms at work, I briefly review the observations of supernova remnants in hard X-rays and in gamma rays. Open issues are discussed in this framework.

  13. The First Fermi LAT Supernova Remnant Catalog

    Acero, F.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caputo, R.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen, J. M.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D’Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J. W.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Iafrate, G.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Katsuta, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Laffon, H.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Magill, J.; Maldera, S.; Marelli, M.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; Reposeur, T.; Rousseau, R.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schmid, J.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vianello, G.; Wells, B.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yassine, M.; den Hartog, P. R.; Zimmer, S.

    2016-05-01

    To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. A mock catalog in which the positions of known remnants are scrambled in Galactic longitude allows us to determine an upper limit of 22% on the number of GeV candidates falsely identified as SNRs. We have also developed a method to estimate spectral and spatial systematic errors arising from the diffuse interstellar emission model, a key component of all Galactic Fermi LAT analyses. By studying remnants uniformly in aggregate, we measure the GeV properties common to these objects and provide a crucial context for the detailed modeling of individual SNRs. Combining our GeV results with multiwavelength (MW) data, including radio, X-ray, and TeV, we demonstrate the need for improvements to previously sufficient, simple models describing the GeV and radio emission from these objects. We model the GeV and MW emission from SNRs in aggregate to constrain their maximal contribution to observed Galactic cosmic rays.

  14. Supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae and their interaction

    van der Swaluw, E.

    2001-01-01

    A supernova explosion marks the end of the evolution of a massive star. What remains of the exploded star is a high density neutron star or a black hole. The material which has been ejected by the supernova explosion will manifest itself as a supernova remnant: a hot bubble of gas expanding in the interstellar medium. This thesis deals with the phenomena after the supernova explosion. The emphasis will be on those supernova remnants which are interacting with a pulsar wind nebula. The latter ...

  15. A Survey of Hydroxyl Toward Supernova Remnants: Evidence for Extended 1720 MHz Maser Emission

    Hewitt, J W; Wardle, M

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of GBT observations of all four ground-state hydroxyl (OH) transitions toward 16 supernova remnants which show OH(1720 MHz) maser emission. This species of maser is well established as an excellent tracer of an ongoing interaction between the remnant and dense molecular material. For ten remnants we detect a significantly higher flux density with a single dish than has been reported with interferometric observations. We infer that spatially extended, low level maser emission is a common phenomenon that traces the large-scale interaction in maser-emitting supernova remnants. Additionally we use a collisional pumping model to fit the physical conditions under which OH is excited behind the supernova shock front.

  16. Supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebulae and their interaction

    Swaluw, E. van der

    2001-01-01

    A supernova explosion marks the end of the evolution of a massive star. What remains of the exploded star is a high density neutron star or a black hole. The material which has been ejected by the supernova explosion will manifest itself as a supernova remnant: a hot bubble of gas expanding in the

  17. Infrared [Fe II] and Dust Emissions from Supernova Remnants

    Koo, Bon-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are strong thermal emitters of infrared radiation. The most prominent lines in the near-infrared spectra of SNRs are [Fe II] lines. The [Fe II] lines are from shocked dense atomic gases, so they trace SNRs in dense environments. After briefly reviewing the physics of the [Fe II] emission in SNR shocks, I describe the observational results which show that there are two groups of SNRs bright in [Fe II] emission: middle-aged SNRs interacting with molecular clouds and young core-collapse SNRs in dense circumstellar medium. The SNRs belonging to the former group are also bright in near-infrared H$_2$ emission, indicating that both atomic and molecular shocks are pervasive in these SNRs. The SNRs belonging to the latter group have relatively small radii in general, implying that most of them are likely the remnants of SN IIL/b or SN IIn that had strong mass loss before the explosion. I also comment on the "[Fe II]-H$_2$ reversal" in SNRs and on using the [Fe II]-line luminosity as an indic...

  18. Detecting X-ray Synchrotron Emission in Supernova Remnants Implications for Abundances and Cosmic Rays

    Dyer, K K; Borkowski, K J; Petre, R; Dyer, Kristy K.; Reynolds, Stephen P; Borkowski, Kazik J.; Petre, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The 10^51 ergs released in a supernova have far reaching consequences in the galaxy, determining elemental abundances, accelerating cosmic rays, and affecting the makeup of the interstellar medium. Recently the spectra of several supernova remnants have been found to be dominated by nonthermal emission. Separating the thermal and nonthermal components is important not only for the understanding of cosmic-ray acceleration and shock microphysics properties but for accurate assessment of the temperatures and line strengths. New models designed to model spatially resolved synchrotron X-rays from type Ia supernovae can contribute to the understanding of both the thermal physics (dynamics, abundances) and nonthermal physics (shock acceleration, magnetic-field amplification) of supernova remnants. I will describe model fits to SN 1006, emphasizing the physical constraints that can be placed on SNRs, abundances, and the cosmic-ray acceleration process.

  19. New supernova remnants in M33

    Existing catalogues of supernova remnants (SNRs) in external galaxies are very incomplete. Potentially however, such examples are of great importance in understanding SNRs, since the distances to objects in a given sample are essentially the same and since absorption is small (compared to galactic SNRs). The authors present Hα + [NII], Hβ, [SII], [OIII], and 6100 angstrom continuum CCD images of nine selected areas in M33 using the KPNO 4m. In addition to the six SNRs already known to exist in the fields we have surveyed, we have identified 21 other nebulae with [SII]:Hα + [NII] ratios which may be SNRs. Spectra of seven of these nebulae were obtained subsequently and show that the majority are indeed SNRs

  20. Discovery of optical candidate supernova remnants in Sagittarius

    Alikakos, J; Christopoulou, P E; Goudis, C D

    2012-01-01

    During an [O III] survey for planetary nebulae, we identified a region in Sagittarius containing several candidate Supernova Remnants and obtained deep optical narrow-band images and spectra to explore their nature. The images of the unstudied area have been obtained in the light of Halpha+[N II], [S II] and [O III]. The resulting mosaic covers an area of 1.4x1.0 deg^2 where filamentary and diffuse emission was discovered, suggesting the existence of more than one supernova remnants (SNRs) in the area. Deep long slit spectra were also taken of eight different regions. Both the flux calibrated images and the spectra show that the emission from the filamentary structures originates from shock-heated gas, while the photo-ionization mechanism is responsible for the diffuse emission. Part of the optical emission is found to be correlated with the radio at 4850 MHz suggesting their association, while the WISE infrared emission found in the area at 12 and 22 micron marginally correlates with the optical. The presenc...

  1. Limits on Enhanced Radio Wave Scattering by Supernova Remnants

    Spitler, L G; Spitler, Laura G.; Spangler, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    We report multifrequency observations with the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) of the compact radio sources J0128+6306 and J0547+2721, which are viewed through the supernova remnants G127.1+0.5 and S147, respectively. Observations were made at frequencies of 1.427, 1.667, 2.271, and 4.987 GHz. The lines of sight to these sources pass through the shock wave and upstream and downstream turbulent layers of their respective supernova remnants, and thus might detect cosmic-ray generated turbulence produced during the Fermi acceleration process. For both sources, we detect interstellar scattering, characterized by a component of the angular size which scales as the square of the observing wavelength. The magnitude of the scattering is characterized by an effective scattering angular size theta_S0 at a frequency of 1 GHz of 13.2 +/- 2.6 milliarcseconds (mas) for J0128+6306 and 6.7 +/- 2.2 mas for J0547+2721. These angular sizes are consistent with the ``incidental'' scattering for any line of sight out of the g...

  2. The imprint of presupernova evolution on supernova remnants

    Badenes Montoliu, Carles; Bravo Guil, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of Type Ia supernova binary system progenitors is highly uncertain. Several evolutionary models predict that the accretion of mass onto the white dwarf is accompanied by mass ejection from the binary in the form of a powerful wind, but very few observations have been made during the initial phase of formation of supernova remnants, when the interaction of supernova ejecta with presupernova wind could be tested. Here we present hydrodynamical simulations of supernova ejecta inter...

  3. Generation of Cosmic rays in Historical Supernova Remnants

    Sinitsyna V.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of observations of two types of Galactic supernova remnants with the SHALON mirror Cherenkov telescope of Tien-Shan high-mountain Observatory: the shell-type supernova remnants Tycho, Cas A and IC 443; plerions Crab Nebula, 3c58(SN1181 and Geminga (probably plerion. The experimental data have confirmed the prediction of the theory about the hadronic generation mechanism of very high energy (800 GeV - 100 TeV gamma-rays in Tycho's supernova remnant. The data obtainedsuggest that the very high energy gamma-ray emission in the objects being discussedis different in origin.

  4. CORRELATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT MASERS AND GAMMA-RAY SOURCES

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds are potentially exciting systems in which to detect evidence of cosmic ray acceleration. Prominent γ-ray emission is produced via the decay of neutral pions when cosmic rays encounter nearby dense clouds. In many of the SNRs coincident with γ-ray sources, the presence of OH (1720 MHz) masers is used to identify interaction with dense gas and to provide a kinematic distance to the system. In this Letter we use statistical tests to demonstrate that there is a correlation between these masers and a class of GeV- to TeV-energy γ-ray sources coincident with interacting remnants. For pion decay the γ-ray luminosity provides a direct estimate of the local cosmic ray density. We find the cosmic ray density is enhanced by one to two orders of magnitude over the local solar value, comparable to X-ray-induced ionization in these remnants. The inferred ionization rates are sufficient to explain non-equilibrium chemistry in the post-shock gas, where high columns of hydroxyl are observed.

  5. Observation of the Supernova Remnant IC 443 with VERITAS

    Humensky, T B

    2007-01-01

    Shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs) accelerate particles at the shock front between the expanding remnant and the swept-up interstellar medium. If these particles include protons and nuclei, very-high-energy gamma-ray emission may result from the decay of pions produced in interactions between cosmic rays and the local insterstellar medium. For SNRs that are interacting with a nearby molecular cloud, such as IC 443, the enhanced matter density provides a target medium that can amplify the gamma-ray emission. IC 443 also contains the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) CXOU J061705.3+222127. PWNe are the most plentiful galactic sources of very-high-energy gamma rays, which are produced in the shock formed at the collision of the pulsar wind with the ambient medium. VERITAS is an array of four 12-m telescopes dedicated to gamma-ray astronomy in the energy band above 100 GeV. Located on Mt. Hopkins in southern Arizona, VERITAS operated during the 2006-2007 season in 2-, 3-, and 4-telescope observation modes. In this talk,...

  6. Progress toward the Laboratory Simulation of Young Supernova Remnants

    Progress in experiments to simulate the hydrodynamics of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the laboratory is reported. The experiment design involves shock heating of a dense material, which expands to become the ejecta that drive a blast wave through low-density foam. In the design, a variety of issues, such as radiative preheat of the unshocked matter, had to be addressed. A careful analysis of the scaling between hydrodynamic systems shows that the experiment is a good, scaled model of a local region in a young SNR. Measurements of the basic hydrodynamic behavior for two blast-wave velocities are nearly complete. Measurements of hydrodynamic instabilities at the contact surface between the ejecta and the low-density matter will commence in the near future. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  7. HST/ACS Narrowband Imaging of the Kepler Supernova Remnant

    Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P.; Frattare, Lisa M.; Rudnick, Lawrence; DeLaney, Tracey; Harrus, Ilana M.; Ennis, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    We present narrowband images of the Kepler supernova remnant obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The images, with an angular resolution of 0.05" reveal the structure of the emitting gas in unprecedented detail. Radiative and nonradiative shocks are found in close proximity, unresolvable in gromd-based spectra, indicating that the pre-shock medium is highly clumped. The ionization structure, traced by differences in the [0 111] to [N 11] flux ratio, varies on subarcsecond scales. The variation is due to 110th differences in shock velocity as well as gradients in the evolutionary stage of the shocks. A prollinent complex of knots protruding beyond the boundary of the rennallt in the northwest is found to consist of bright radiative knots, collected by arcuate nonradiative filaments. Based on the coincidence of the optical emission with a bright isolated knot of X-ray emission, we infer that this feature is due to a Rayleigh-Taylor finger that formed at the contact discontinuity and overtook the primary blast wave.

  8. Dust in a Type Ia Supernova Progenitor: Spitzer Spectroscopy of Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the relatively poorly-understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's Supernova Remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 micron IR spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 micron, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the AGB stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength IRS and IRAC data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally-heated dust emission from fast shocks (> 1000 km/s) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are approx 80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km/s) into moderate density material (n(sub o) approx 50-100 / cubic cm) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

  9. Six Years of Chandra Observations of Supernova Remnants

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Hughes, John P.

    2005-01-01

    We present a review of the first six years of Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of supernova remnants. From the official "first-light" observation of Cassiopeia A that revealed for the first time the compact remnant of the explosion, to the recent million-second spectrally-resolved observation that revealed new details of the stellar composition and dynamics of the original explosion, Chandra observations have provided new insights into the supernova phenomenon. We present an admittedly ...

  10. The Hot and Energetic Universe: The astrophysics of supernova remnants and the interstellar medium

    Decourchelle, A; Badenes, C; Ballet, J; Bamba, A; Bocchino, F; Kaastra, J; Kosenko, D; Lallement, R; Lee, J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Miceli, M; Paerels, F; Petre, R; Pinto, C; Plucinsky, P; Renaud, M; Sasaki, M; Smith, R; Tatischeff, V; Tiengo, A; Valencic, L; Vink, J; Wang, D; Wilms, J

    2013-01-01

    The study of both supernova remnants and the hot and cold phases of the interstellar medium are essential for understanding the final stages of stellar evolution and their feedback on the evolution of galaxies through injection of energy and heavy elements. These studies are also crucial for understanding the physics of supernovae, their cosmological implication, and the origin of galactic cosmic rays. The unique capabilities of Athena+ will allow us to explore a new parameter space. Spatially-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy using Athena+ X-IFU of young remnants will allow to characterize individual parcels of ejected material in the line of sight in terms of kinematics, ionization and composition, providing access to the three dimensional geometry of the explosion. Athena+ will also allow studying shock physics and particle acceleration in supernova remnants, as well as their interaction with their environment. Athena+ X-IFU will also characterize the ionization mechanisms competing in forming the comp...

  11. X-ray emission of the hot gas and of accelerated particles in supernova remnants

    The current observations seem to support the theory that the shock wave of supernova remnants accelerate electrons (representing about 1% of cosmic rays) of the interstellar medium up to energies of about 1015 eV. However there is still no solid evidence that supernova remnants also accelerate protons (major component of cosmic rays). The X-ray observations of those supernova remnants with the satellite XMM-Newton can provide crucial information on the acceleration mechanisms and on this population of accelerated particles. This thesis presents the X-ray analysis of the supernova remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and SN 1006 for which it has been shown that they accelerate electrons efficiently. As a result, these objects are very good targets to compare the theoretical models of acceleration to the observation. For the first object, I constructed through new XMM-Newton observations, the first high-angular resolution mosaic of the entire supernova remnant. I then compared the X- and gamma-ray emission of this object in order to understand the nature of the gamma-ray emission. This spectral and morphological comparison allowed me to discuss the two possible origins of the gamma-ray radiation (issued by electrons or by protons). For SN 1006, I studied the density of the ambient medium in which the shock wave propagates. This density is a key parameter for the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant and for studying a future gamma-ray emission. The study of X-ray emission of the gas heated by the shock wave allowed me to better estimate of the value of the density so far poorly constrained for this object. (author)

  12. The laboratory simulation of unmagnetized supernova remnants Absence of a blast wave

    Borovsky, J. E.; Pongratz, M. B.; Roussel-Dupre, R. A.; Tan, T.-H.

    1984-01-01

    Supernova remnants are experimentally simulated by irradiating spherical targets with eight-beam carbon dioxide laser in a chamber containing finite amounts of neutral gas, the gas being ionized by radiation from the hot target. The expansion velocities of the target plasmas are approximately the same as the expansion velocities of supernova ejecta and the experiment is successfully scaled to the case of a supernova remnant in an unmagnetized, low-density, interstellar medium. No sweep-up of the ambient plasma is detected, indicating that no hydrodynamic shock wave is formed to couple the target ejecta to the ambient gas. The experiment implies that if supernova ejecta couple to the interstellar medium, magnetic-field effects may be crucial to the physical description.

  13. Supernova Remnant Progenitor Masses in M31

    Jennings, Zachary G; Murphy, Jeremiah W; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dolphin, Andrew E; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Using HST photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main sequence masses (MZAMS) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and use CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history (SFH) of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star and assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the MZAMS from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNR. We identify significant young SF around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of 2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining 6 SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped ...

  14. VERITAS Observations of the Geminga Supernova Remnant

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Geminga was first detected as a gamma-ray point source by the SAS-2 gamma-ray satellite observatory and the COS-B X-ray satellite observatory. Subsequent observations have identified Geminga as a heavily obscured radio-quiet pulsar associated with a nearby (250 pc) late Sedov phase (300,000 year) supernova remnant. The Geminga pulsar is the second brightest source detected by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi gamma-ray satellite (Fermi-LAT) and has been frequently advanced as a source of the anomalous excess of cosmic ray positrons reported by PAMELA, Fermi-LAT, and AMS-2. It is surrounded by a compact X-ray pulsar wind nebula. Observations above 10 TeV by the water Cherenkov observatory Milagro have also revealed a diffuse gamma-ray halo around Geminga extending over several square degrees. Since 2007 the VERITAS IACT observatory has performed observations of Geminga and the surrounding halo region. However, the standard methods of source detection in VERITAS data have insufficient sensitivity to ang...

  15. Long slit echelle spectroscopy of supernova remnants IN M33

    The authors have obtained long slit echelle spectroscopy for 10 of the brightest supernova remnants in M33 using the KPNO 4 m telescope. The profiles at IIα indicate bulk motions in the range 100--350 km s-1 in these remnants. Nearly all of the objects show signs of contamination by low velocity II II emission at some level. This affects the line intensities measured from low resolution data and may affect diameter measurements of these remnants

  16. Five Years in the Mid-Infrared Development of the SN 1987A Supernova Remnant

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2009-01-01

    Spitzer has been used to monitor the mid-IR evolution of SN 1987A over a 5 year period as it develops into a supernova remnant through interaction with its surrounding environment. This interaction is dominated by the collision of the ejecta with the pre-existing equatorial ring. The mid-IR continuum indicates an increasing mass of shock-heated silicate dust, but without any significant change in temperature of the dust grains. Comparison of the IR and X-ray evolution of the remnant can be used to infer plasma conditions and the processing of the dust in the shock-heated X-ray emitting gas.

  17. Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jonghee; Hwang, Una

    2013-01-01

    The ejecta of the Cas A supernova remnant has a complex morphology, consisting of dense fast-moving line emitting knots and diffuse X-ray emitting regions that have encountered the reverse shock, as well as more slowly expanding, unshocked regions of the ejecta. Using the Spitzer 5-35 micron IRS data cube, and Herschel 70, 100, and 160 micron PACS data, we decompose the infrared emission from the remnant into distinct spectral components associated with the different regions of the ejecta. Such decomposition allows the association of different dust species with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories, and determination of the dust heating mechanisms. Our decomposition identified three characteristic dust spectra. The first, most luminous one, exhibits strong emission features at approx. 9 and 21 micron, and a weaker 12 micron feature, and is closely associated with the ejecta knots that have strong [Ar II] 6.99 micron and [Ar III] 8.99 micron emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low MgO-to-SiO2 ratios. A second, very different dust spectrum that has no indication of any silicate features, is best fit by Al2O3 dust and is found in association with ejecta having strong [Ne II] 12.8 micron and [Ne III] 15.6 micron emission lines. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that best matched by magnesium silicates with relatively high MgO-to-SiO2 ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray emitting shocked ejecta and the shocked interstellar/circumstellar material. All three spectral components include an additional featureless cold dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with [Si II] 34.8 micron emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. The dust mass giving rise to the warm dust component is about approx. 0.1solar M. However, most of the dust mass

  18. Discovery of optical candidate supernova remnants in Sagittarius

    Alikakos, J.; Boumis, P.; Christopoulou, P. E.; Goudis, C. D.

    2012-08-01

    During an [O III] survey of planetary nebulae, we identified a region in Sagittarius containing several candidate supernova remants (SNRs) and obtained deep optical narrow-band images and spectra to explore their nature. We obtained images of the area of interest by acquiring observations in the emission lines of Hα + [N II], [S II] and [O III]. The resulting mosaic covers an area of 1.4° × 1.0°, where both filamentary and diffuse emission was discovered, suggesting that there is more than one SNR in the area. Deep long-slit spectra were also taken of eight different regions. Both the flux-calibrated images and the spectra show that the emission from the filamentary structures originates from shock-heated gas, while the photo-ionization mechanism is responsible for the diffuse emission. Part of the optical emission is found to be correlated with the radio at 4850 MHz suggesting that they are related, while the infrared emission found in the area at 12 μm and 22 μm marginally correlates with the optical. The presence of the [O III] emission line in one of the candidate SNRs implies that the shock velocities in the interstellar "clouds" are between 120 km s-1 and 200 km s-1, while its absence in the other candidate SNRs indicates that the shock velocities there are slower. For all candidate remnants, the [S II] λλ 6716/6731 ratio indicates that the electron densities are below 240 cm-3, while the Hα emission is measured to be between 0.6 and 41 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. The existence of eight pulsars within 1.5° of the center of the candidate SNRs also implies that there are many SNRs in the area as well as that the detected optical emission could be part of a number of supernovae explosions.

  19. Acceleration of cosmic rays in supernova-remnants

    It is commonly accepted that supernova-explosions are the dominant source of cosmic rays up to an energy of 10 to the 14th power eV/nucleon. Moreover, these high energy particles provide a major contribution to the energy density of the interstellar medium (ISM) and should therefore be included in calcuations of interstellar dynamic phenomena. For the following the first order Fermi mechanism in shock waves are considered to be the main acceleration mechanism. The influence of this process is twofold; first, if the process is efficient (and in fact this is the case) it will modify the dynamics and evolution of a supernova-remnant (SNR), and secondly, the existence of a significant high energy component changes the overall picture of the ISM. The complexity of the underlying physics prevented detailed investigations of the full non-linear selfconsistent problem. For example, in the context of the energy balance of the ISM it has not been investigated how much energy of a SN-explosion can be transfered to cosmic rays in a time-dependent selfconsistent model. Nevertheless, a lot of progress was made on many aspects of the acceleration mechnism

  20. Dynamics of Fe-Ni Bubbles in Young Supernova Remnants

    Blondin, J M; Reynolds, S P

    2001-01-01

    Observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) have revealed the presence of extensive mixing of radioactive material in SN ejecta. The mixing of radioactive material, mostly freshly synthesized Ni, is not complete, which leads to a two-phase SN ejecta structure. The low-density phase consists of Fe bubbles, created by the energy input from radioactive Co and Ni, surrounded by compressed high-density metal-rich ejecta. We report on the theoretical investigation of supernova remnant (SNR) dynamics with the two-phase SN ejecta. We first present 3-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a single Fe bubble immersed in an outer ejecta envelope, and compare the results with previous work on shock-cloud interactions. We then consider randomly distributed Fe bubbles with an average volume filling fraction of 1/2. We find that the presence of Fe bubbles leads to vigorous turbulence and mixing of Fe with other heavy elements and with the ambient normal-abundance gas. The turbulent energy can be an order of magnitude la...

  1. Multi-dimensional simulations of the expanding supernova remnant of SN 1987A

    Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L. [International center for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR) M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Reville, B. [Center for Plasma Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Wagner, A. Y., E-mail: tobympotter@gmail.com [Center for Computational Sciences, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-10-20

    The expanding remnant from SN 1987A is an excellent laboratory for investigating the physics of supernovae explosions. There is still a large number of outstanding questions, such as the reason for the asymmetric radio morphology, the structure of the pre-supernova environment, and the efficiency of particle acceleration at the supernova shock. We explore these questions using three-dimensional simulations of the expanding remnant between days 820 and 10,000 after the supernova. We combine a hydrodynamical simulation with semi-analytic treatments of diffusive shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification to derive radio emission as part of an inverse problem. Simulations show that an asymmetric explosion, combined with magnetic field amplification at the expanding shock, is able to replicate the persistent one-sided radio morphology of the remnant. We use an asymmetric Truelove and McKee progenitor with an envelope mass of 10 M {sub ☉} and an energy of 1.5 × 10{sup 44} J. A termination shock in the progenitor's stellar wind at a distance of 0.''43-0.''51 provides a good fit to the turn on of radio emission around day 1200. For the H II region, a minimum distance of 0.''63 ± 0.''01 and maximum particle number density of (7.11 ± 1.78) × 10{sup 7} m{sup –3} produces a good fit to the evolving average radius and velocity of the expanding shocks from day 2000 to day 7000 after explosion. The model predicts a noticeable reduction, and possibly a temporary reversal, in the asymmetric radio morphology of the remnant after day 7000, when the forward shock left the eastern lobe of the equatorial ring.

  2. Supernova Remnants in the Local Group I: A model for the radio luminosity function and visibility times of supernova remnants

    Sarbadhicary, Sumit K; Chomiuk, Laura; Caprioli, Damiano; Huizenga, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) in Local Group galaxies offer unique insights into the origin of different types of supernovae. In order to take full advantage of these insights, one must understand the intrinsic and environmental diversity of SNRs in the context of their host galaxies. We introduce a semi-analytic model that reproduces the statistical properties of a radio continuum-selected SNR population, taking into account the detection limits of radio surveys, the range of SN kinetic energies, the measured ISM and stellar mass distribution in the host galaxy from multi-wavelength images and the current understanding of electron acceleration and field amplification in SNR shocks from first-principle kinetic simulations. Applying our model to the SNR population in M33, we reproduce the SNR radio luminosity function with a median SN rate of $\\sim 3.1 \\times 10^{-3}$ per year and an electron acceleration efficiency, $\\epsilon_{\\rm{e}} \\sim 4.2 \\times 10^{-3}$. We predict that the radio visibility times of $\\sim 7...

  3. The Impact of a Supernova Remnant on Fast Radio Bursts

    Piro, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond bursts of radio radiation that appear to come from cosmological distances. Although their progenitors remain mysterious, the timescales and energetics of the events have lead to many theories associating FRBs with young neutron stars. Motivated by this, I explore the interaction of FRBs with young supernova remnants (SNRs), and I discuss the potential observational consequences and constraints of such a scenario. As the SN ejecta plows into the interstellar medium (ISM), a reverse shock is generated that passes back through the material and ionizes it. This leads to a dispersion measure (DM) associated with the SNR as well as a time derivative for DM. Times when DM is high are generally overshadowed by free-free absorption, which, depending on the mass of the ejecta and the density of the ISM, may be probed at frequencies of $400\\,{\\rm MHz}$ to $1.4\\,{\\rm GHz}$ on timescales of $\\sim100-500\\,{\\rm yrs}$ after the SN. Magnetic fields generated at the reverse shock may be...

  4. TeV Gamma-Rays from Old Supernova Remnants

    Yamazaki, R; Bamba, A; Yoshida, T; Tsuribe, T; Takahara, F; Yamazaki, Ryo; Kohri, Kazunori; Bamba, Aya; Yoshida, Tatsuo; Tsuribe, Toru; Takahara, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    We study the emission from an old supernova remnant (SNR) with an age of around 10^5 yrs and that from a giant molecular cloud (GMC) encountered by the SNR. When the SNR age is around 10^5 yrs, hadron acceleration is efficient enough to emit TeV gamma-rays both at the shock of the SNR and that in the GMC. The maximum energy of primarily accelerated electrons is so small that TeV gamma-rays and X-rays are dominated by hadronic processes, pi^0-decay and synchrotron radiation from secondary electrons, respectively. However, if the SNR is older than several 10^5 yrs, there are few high-energy particles emitting TeV gamma-rays because of the energy loss effect and/or the wave damping effect occurring at low-velocity isothermal shocks. It is found that the ratio of TeV gamma-ray (1-10 TeV) to X-ray (2-10 keV) energy flux can be more than ~10^2. Such a source showing large flux ratio may be a possible origin of recently discovered unidentified TeV sources.

  5. Slow Diffusion of Cosmic-Rays around a Supernova Remnant

    Fujita, Yutaka; Takahara, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    We study the escape of cosmic-ray protons accelerated at a supernova remnant (SNR). We are interested in their propagation in interstellar medium (ISM) after they leave the shock neighborhood where they are accelerated, but when they are still near the SNR with their energy density higher than that in the average ISM. Using Monte-Carlo simulations, we found that the cosmic-rays with energies of <~TeV excite Alfven waves around the SNR on a scale of the SNR itself if the ISM is highly ionized. Thus, even if the cosmic-rays can leave the shock, scattering by the waves prevents them from moving further away from the SNR. The cosmic-rays form a slowly expanding cosmic-ray bubble, and they spend a long time around the SNR. This means that the cosmic-rays cannot actually escape from the SNR until a fairly late stage of the SNR evolution. This is consistent with some results of Fermi and H.E.S.S. observations.

  6. The Imprint of Presupernova Winds on Supernova Remnant Evolution: Towards More Realistic Models for Type Ia Supernova Remnants and their Spectra

    Badenes, C.; E. Bravo

    2002-01-01

    Supernova remnants are usually analysed in the light of hydrodynamical models of the interaction of supernova ejecta with either a constant density ambient medium or a circumstellar medium produced by a constant presupernova wind. However, the ejection of energetic wind during the presupernova phase changes the ambient medium structure and, consequently, the early supernova remnant evolution. We have analysed the evolution of young remnants of type Ia supernovae, focusing on the imprint of th...

  7. The Impact of a Supernova Remnant on Fast Radio Bursts

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2016-06-01

    Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are millisecond bursts of radio radiation whose progenitors, so far, remain mysterious. Nevertheless, the timescales and energetics of these events have lead to many theories associating FRBs with young neutron stars (NSs). Motivated by this, I explore the interaction of FRBs with young supernova remnants (SNRs), and I discuss the potential observational consequences and constraints of such a scenario. As the supernova (SN) ejecta plows into the interstellar medium (ISM), a reverse shock is generated that passes back through the material and ionizes it. This leads to a dispersion measure (DM) associated with the SNR as well as a time derivative for DM. The times when DM is high are generally overshadowed by free–free absorption, which, depending on the mass of the ejecta and the density of the ISM, may be probed at frequencies of 400 {{MHz}}–1.4 {{GHz}} on timescales of ∼100–500 years after the SN. Magnetic fields generated at the reverse shock may be high enough to explain Faraday rotation that has been measured for one FRB. If FRBs are powered by the spin energy of a young NS (rather than by magnetic energy), the NS must have a magnetic field ≲ {10}11{--}{10}12 {{G}} to ensure that it does not spin down too quickly while the SNR is still optically thick at radio frequencies. In the future, once there are distance measurements to FRBs and their energetics are better understood, the spin of the NS can also be constrained.

  8. Interactions Between CRs and MCs in the Vicinity of Supernova Remnants

    Hewitt, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Supernovae are incredibly energetic events which drive the dynamic state of the interstellar medium and accelerate cosmic rays up to energies of a few PeV. I present multi-wavelength observations constraining the shocks, chemistry, dust grain processing, and magnetic fields in a large sample of supernova remnants interacting with dense clouds. These are among the most luminous Galactic sources detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Surprisingly, spectral breaks are seen between GeV and TeV energies. Radio spectral breaks have also been detected for a few remnants, providing clear evidence that supernovae are a significant source of hadronic cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Resolving the origin of these spectral breaks will allow the physics of cosmic ray acceleration and diffusion to be probed.

  9. Non-linear diffusion of cosmic rays escaping from supernova remnants I: the effect of neutrals

    Nava, Lara; Marcowith, Alexandre; Morlino, Giovanni; Ptuskin, Vladimir S

    2016-01-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the main sources of galactic Cosmic Rays (CR). Within this framework, particles are accelerated at supernova remnant shocks and then released in the interstellar medium. The mechanism through which CRs are released and the way in which they propagate still remain open issues. The main difficulty is the high non-linearity of the problem: CRs themselves excite the magnetic turbulence that confines them close to their sources. We solve numerically the coupled differential equations describing the evolution in space and time of the escaping particles and of the waves generated through the CR streaming instability. The warm ionized and warm neutral phases of the interstellar medium are considered. These phases occupy the largest fraction of the disk volume, where most supernovae explode, and are characterised by the significant presence of neutral particles. The friction between those neutrals and ions results in a very effective wave damping mechanism. It is found that stream...

  10. SUPERNOVA REMNANT PROGENITOR MASSES IN M31

    Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (MZAMS) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the MZAMS from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of ∼2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dM∝Mα, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) (α = –2.35). In particular, we find values of α outside the range –2.7 ≥ α ≥ –4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of MMax > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a minimum mass for core collapse between 7.0 and 7.8 M☉.

  11. SUPERNOVA REMNANT PROGENITOR MASSES IN M31

    Jennings, Zachary G.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington Seattle, Box 351580, WA 98195 (United States); Murphy, Jeremiah W. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: zachjenn@uw.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (M{sub ZAMS}) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the M{sub ZAMS} from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of {approx}2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup {alpha}}, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) ({alpha} = -2.35). In particular, we find values of {alpha} outside the range -2.7 {>=} {alpha} {>=} -4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of M{sub Max} > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a

  12. Multifrequency Studies of Bright Radio Supernova Remnants. III. X-Ray and Radio Observations of 3C 397

    Dyer, K. K.; Reynolds, S. P.

    1999-01-01

    Radio-bright, presumably young supernova remnants offer the opportunity of studying strong-shock physics and the nature of the interaction of ejected material with the surrounding medium. We use VLA and ROSAT images of the radio-bright supernova remnant 3C 397 (G41.1--0.3) to examine the shock structure in both thermal X-ray emission and nonthermal radio emission. The unusual rectangular morphology can be seen in VLA maps at 20 and 6 cm wavelength at a resolution of 6", and in ROSAT HRI image...

  13. Planck intermediate results XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants

    Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.;

    2016-01-01

    The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 16 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the mechanism for...... microwave emission. In only one case, IC 443, is there high-frequency emission clearly from dust associated with the supernova remnant. In all cases, the low-frequency emission is from synchrotron radiation. As predicted for a population of relativistic particles with energy distribution that extends...

  14. X-Ray Studies of Supernova Remnants: A Different View of Supernova Explosions

    Badenes, Carles

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions of Chandra have revolutionized our view of the X-ray emission from supernova remnants. The excellent data sets accumulated on young, ejecta dominated objects like Cas A or Tycho present a unique opportunity to study at the same time the chemical and physical structure of the explosion debris and the characteristics of the circumstellar medium sculpted by the progenitor before the explosion. Supernova remnants can thus put strong constraints o...

  15. The oxygen-rich supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    The authors report ultraviolet and optical spectra of 1E 0102--7219, the oxygen-rich supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The UV data contain strong lines of oxygen, carbon, neon, and magnesium. OI recombination lines in the optical and UV permit the relative line intensities to be determined from 1200 angstrom to 1 micron. Models assuming shock excitation and x-ray photoionization have been calculated and compared with the observations

  16. Supernova 1987A: a Template to Link Supernovae to their Remnants

    Orlando, S; Pumo, M L; Bocchino, F

    2015-01-01

    The emission of supernova remnants reflects the properties of both the progenitor supernovae and the surrounding environment. The complex morphology of the remnants, however, hampers the disentanglement of the two contributions. Here we aim at identifying the imprint of SN 1987A on the X-ray emission of its remnant and at constraining the structure of the environment surrounding the supernova. We performed high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations describing SN 1987A soon after the core-collapse and the following three-dimensional expansion of its remnant between days 1 and 15000 after the supernova. We demonstrated that the physical model reproducing the main observables of SN 1987A during the first 250 days of evolution reproduces also the X-ray emission of the subsequent expanding remnant, thus bridging the gap between supernovae and supernova remnants. By comparing model results with observations, we constrained the explosion energy in the range $1.2-1.4\\times 10^{51}$~erg and the envelope mass in the rang...

  17. Onion-shell model for cosmic ray electrons and radio synchrotron emission in supernova remnants

    The spectrum of cosmic ray electrons, accelerated in the shock front of a supernova remnant (SNR), is calculated in the test-particle approximation using an onion-shell model. Particle diffusion within the evolving remnant is explicity taken into account. The particle spectrum becomes steeper with increasing radius as well as SNR age. Simple models of the magnetic field distribution allow a prediction of the intensity and spectrum of radio synchrotron emission and their radial variation. The agreement with existing observations is satisfactory in several SNR's but fails in other cases. Radiative cooling may be an important effect, especially in SNR's exploding in a dense interstellar medium

  18. On the Nonthermal Emission from the Supernova Remnant W51C

    FANG, JUN; ZHANG Li

    2010-01-01

    The middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is an interesting source for the interaction of the shell with a molecular cloud. The shell emits intense radio synchrotron photons, and high-energy gamma-rays from the remnant have been detected using the {\\it Fermi} Large Area Telescope (LAT), the H.E.S.S. telescope, and the Milagro gamma-ray observatory. Based on a semi-analytical approach to the nonlinear shock acceleration process, we investigate the multiband nonthermal emission from W51C. Th...

  19. The TeV Morphology of the Interacting Supernova Remnant IC 443

    Humensky, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The middle-aged supernova remnant IC 443 is interacting with molecular gas in its surroundings. $Fermi$-LAT has established that its gamma-ray emission at low energies shows the "pion bump" that is characteristic of hadronic emission. TeV emission was previously established by MAGIC and VERITAS at a site of interaction between the shock front and a molecular cloud. VERITAS has continued to observe IC 443 and can now resolve the emission on few-arcmin scales. We will present results on the emission morphology and discuss possible sources of the emission, including the shell of the remnant and other gaseous structures in the vicinity.

  20. Interstellar and ejecta dust in the cas a supernova remnant

    Infrared continuum observations provide a means of investigating the physical composition of the dust in the ejecta and swept up medium of the Cas A supernova remnant (SNR). Using low-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra (5-35 μm), and broad-band Herschel PACS imaging (70, 100, and 160 μm), we identify characteristic dust spectra, associated with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories. The most luminous spectrum exhibits strong emission features at ∼9 and 21 μm and is closely associated with ejecta knots with strong Ar emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low Mg to Si ratios. Another dust spectrum is associated with ejecta having strong Ne emission lines. It has no indication of any silicate features and is best fit by Al2O3 dust. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that are best matched by magnesium silicates with a relatively high Mg to Si ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray-emitting shocked ejecta, but it is also evident in regions where shocked interstellar or circumstellar material is expected. However, the identification of dust composition is not unique, and each spectrum includes an additional featureless dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. Most of the dust mass in Cas A is associated with this unidentified cold component, which is ≲ 0.1 M ☉. The mass of warmer dust is only ∼0.04 M ☉.

  1. The Neutron Star Born in the Antlia Supernova Remnant

    Tetzlaff, Nina; Torres, Guillermo; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Hohle, Markus Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Among all known young nearby neutron stars, we search for the neutron star that was born in the same supernova event that formed the Antlia supernova remnant (SNR). We also look for a runaway star that could have been the former companion to the neutron star (if it exists) and then got ejected due to the same supernova. We find the pulsar PSR J0630-2834 to be the best candidate for a common origin with the Antlia SNR. In that scenario the SNR is ~1.2 Myr old and is presently located at a dist...

  2. TYPING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS USING X-RAY LINE EMISSION MORPHOLOGIES

    We present a new observational method to type the explosions of young supernova remnants (SNRs). By measuring the morphology of the Chandra X-ray line emission in 17 Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs with a multipole expansion analysis (using power ratios), we find that the core-collapse SNRs are statistically more asymmetric than the Type Ia SNRs. We show that the two classes of supernovae can be separated naturally using this technique because X-ray line morphologies reflect the distinct explosion mechanisms and structure of the circumstellar material. These findings are consistent with recent spectropolarimetry results showing that core-collapse supernovae explosions are intrinsically more asymmetric.

  3. Supernova 1987A: A young supernova remnant in an aspherical progenitor wind

    Gaensler, B. M.; Manchester, R. N.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Wheaton, V; Tzioumis, A. K.; Reynolds, J. E.; Kesteven, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between the ejecta from Supernova 1987A and surrounding material is producing steadily brightening radio and X-ray emission. The new-born supernova remnant has been significantly decelerated by this interaction, while its morphology reflects the axisymmetric nature of the progenitor wind.

  4. Supernova 1987A A young supernova remnant in an aspherical progenitor wind

    Gaensler, B M; Staveley-Smith, L; Wheaton, V C; Tzioumis, A K; Reynolds, J E; Kesteven, M J

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between the ejecta from Supernova 1987A and surrounding material is producing steadily brightening radio and X-ray emission. The new-born supernova remnant has been significantly decelerated by this interaction, while its morphology reflects the axisymmetric nature of the progenitor wind.

  5. Are the models for type Ia supernova progenitors consistent with the properties of supernova remnants?,

    Badenes, C.; Hughes, J. P.; E. Bravo; Langer, N.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the relationship between the models for progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae and the properties of the supernova remnants that evolve after the explosion. Most models for Type Ia progenitors in the single-degenerate scenario predict substantial outflows during the presupernova evolution. Expanding on previous work, we estimate the imprint of these outflows on the structure of the circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion, and the effect that this modified circ...

  6. HI absorption spectra for Supernova Remnants in the VGPS survey

    Leahy, Denis

    2016-01-01

    The set of supernova remnants (SNR) from Green's SNR catalog which are found in the VLA Galactic Plane Survey (VGPS) are the objects considered in this study. For these SNR, we extract and analyse HI absorption spectra in a uniform way and construct a catalogue of absorption spectra and distance determinations.

  7. Expectation on Observation of Supernova Remnants with the LHAASO Project

    Liu, Ye; Chen, Songzhan; Chen, Yang; Cui, Shuwang; He, Huihai; Huang, Xingtao; Ma, Xinhua; Yuan, Qiang; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the most important acceleration sites for cosmic rays (CRs) below $\\sim10^{15}$ eV in the Galaxy. High energy photons, either directly from the shocks of the SNRs or indirectly from the interaction between SNRs and the nearby clouds, are crucial probes for the CR acceleration. Big progresses on observations of SNRs have been achieved by space- and ground-based $\\gamma$-ray facilities. However, whether $\\gamma$-rays come from accelerated hadrons or not, as well as their connection with the CRs observed at Earth, remains in debate. Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), the next generation experiment, is designed to survey the northern part of the very high energy $\\gamma$-ray sky from $\\sim 0.3$ TeV to PeV with the sensitivity of $\\lesssim1\\%$ of the Crab nebula flux. In this paper, we indicate that LHAASO will be dedicated to enlarging the $\\gamma$-ray SNR samples and improving the spectral and morphological measurements. These measurements, especiall...

  8. An integral view of fast shocks around supernova 1006.

    Nikolić, Sladjana; van de Ven, Glenn; Heng, Kevin; Kupko, Daniel; Husemann, Bernd; Raymond, John C; Hughes, John P; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Supernova remnants are among the most spectacular examples of astrophysical pistons in our cosmic neighborhood. The gas expelled by the supernova explosion is launched with velocities ~1000 kilometers per second into the ambient, tenuous interstellar medium, producing shocks that excite hydrogen lines. We have used an optical integral-field spectrograph to obtain high-resolution spatial-spectral maps that allow us to study in detail the shocks in the northwestern rim of supernova 1006. The two-component Hα line is detected at 133 sky locations. Variations in the broad line widths and the broad-to-narrow line intensity ratios across tens of atomic mean free paths suggest the presence of suprathermal protons, the potential seed particles for generating high-energy cosmic rays. PMID:23413189

  9. Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: The Proper Motions of Balmer Filaments

    Sankrit, Ravi; Raymond, John C.; Blair, William P.; Long, Knox S.; Williams, Brian J.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the proper motions of Balmer-dominated filaments in Kepler’s supernova remnant using high resolution images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by about 10 years. We use the improved proper motion measurements and revised values of shock velocities to derive a distance to Kepler of {5.1}-0.7+0.8 kpc. The main shock around the northern rim of the remnant has a typical speed of 1690 km s-1 and is encountering material with densities of about 8 cm-3. We find evidence for the variation of shock properties over small spatial scales, including differences in the driving pressures as the shock wraps around a curved cloud surface. We find that the Balmer filaments ahead of the ejecta knot on the northwest boundary of the remnant are becoming fainter and more diffuse. We also find that the Balmer filaments associated with circumstellar material in the interior regions of the remnant are due to shocks with significantly lower velocities and that the brightness variations among these filaments trace the density distribution of the material, which may have a disk-like geometry. Based on observations made with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  10. Second Epoch Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Kepler's Supernova Remnant: The Proper Motions of Balmer Filaments

    Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S; Williams, Brian J; Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Patnaude, Daniel J; Reynolds, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    We report on the proper motions of Balmer-dominated filaments in Kepler's supernova remnant using high resolution images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope at two epochs separated by about 10 years. We use the improved proper motion measurements and revised values of shock velocities to derive a distance to Kepler of 5.1 [+0.8, -0.7] kpc. The main shock around the northern rim of the remnant has a typical speed of 1690 km/s and is encountering material with densities of about 8 cm^-3. We find evidence for the variation of shock properties over small spatial scales, including differences in the driving pressures as the shock wraps around a curved cloud surface. We find that the Balmer filaments ahead of the ejecta knot on the northwest boundary of the remnant are becoming fainter and more diffuse. We also find that the Balmer filaments associated with circumstellar material in the interior regions of the remnant are due to shocks with significantly lower velocities and that the brightness variations amon...

  11. Properties of optically selected supernova remnant candidates in M33

    Lee, Jong Hwan; Lee, Myung Gyoon, E-mail: leejh@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Narrowband images covering strong emission lines are efficient for surveying supernova remnants (SNRs) in nearby galaxies. Using the narrowband images provided by the Local Group Galaxy Survey, we searched for SNRs in M33. Culling the objects with enhanced [S II]/Hα and round morphology in the continuum-subtracted Hα and [S II] images, we produced a list of 199 sources. Among them, 79 are previously unknown. Their progenitor and morphology types were classified. A majority of the sample (170 objects) are likely remnants of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), and 29 are remnants of Type Ia SNe. The cumulative size distribution of these objects is found to be similar to that of the M31 remnants derived in a similar way. We obtain a power-law slope, α = 2.38 ± 0.05. Thus, a majority of the sources are considered to be in the Sedov-Taylor phase, consistent with previous findings. The histogram of the emission-line ratio ([S II]/Hα) of the remnants has two concentrations at [S II]/Hα ∼ 0.55 and ∼0.8, as in M31. Interestingly, L {sub X} (and L {sub 20cm}) of the compact center-bright objects are correlated with their optical luminosity. The remnants with X-ray emission have brighter optical surface brightnesses and smaller diameters than those without X-ray emission.

  12. Properties of Optically Selected Supernova Remnant Candidates in M33

    Lee, Jong Hwan; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2014-10-01

    Narrowband images covering strong emission lines are efficient for surveying supernova remnants (SNRs) in nearby galaxies. Using the narrowband images provided by the Local Group Galaxy Survey, we searched for SNRs in M33. Culling the objects with enhanced [S II]/Hα and round morphology in the continuum-subtracted Hα and [S II] images, we produced a list of 199 sources. Among them, 79 are previously unknown. Their progenitor and morphology types were classified. A majority of the sample (170 objects) are likely remnants of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), and 29 are remnants of Type Ia SNe. The cumulative size distribution of these objects is found to be similar to that of the M31 remnants derived in a similar way. We obtain a power-law slope, α = 2.38 ± 0.05. Thus, a majority of the sources are considered to be in the Sedov-Taylor phase, consistent with previous findings. The histogram of the emission-line ratio ([S II]/Hα) of the remnants has two concentrations at [S II]/Hα ~ 0.55 and ~0.8, as in M31. Interestingly, L X (and L 20 cm) of the compact center-bright objects are correlated with their optical luminosity. The remnants with X-ray emission have brighter optical surface brightnesses and smaller diameters than those without X-ray emission.

  13. Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds: X-ray and Gamma-ray Signatures

    Slane, P; Ellison, D C; Dubner, G; Castro, D

    2014-01-01

    The giant molecular clouds (MCs) found in the Milky Way and similar galaxies play a crucial role in the evolution of these systems. The supernova explosions that mark the death of massive stars in these regions often lead to interactions between the supernova remnants (SNRs) and the clouds. These interactions have a profound effect on our understanding of SNRs. Shocks in SNRs should be capable of accelerating particles to cosmic ray (CR) energies with efficiencies high enough to power Galactic CRs. X-ray and gamma-ray studies have established the presence of relativistic electrons and protons is some SNRs and provided strong evidence for diffusive shock acceleration as the primary acceleration mechanism, including strongly amplified magnetic fields, temperature and ionization effects on the shock-heated plasmas, and modifications to the dynamical evolution of some systems. Because protons dominate the overall energetics of the CRs, it is crucial to understand this hadronic component even though electrons are ...

  14. A Possible Site of Cosmic Ray Acceleration in the Supernova Remnant IC 443

    Keohane, J W; Gotthelf, E V; Ozaki, M; Koyama, K; Keohane, Jonathan W.

    1997-01-01

    We present evidence for shock acceleration of cosmic rays to high energies (about 10 TeV) in the supernova remnant IC 443. X-ray imaging spectroscopy with ASCA reveals two regions of particularly hard emission: an unresolved source embedded in an extended emission region, and a ridge of emission coincident with the southeastern rim. Both features are located on part of the radio shell where the shock wave is interacting with molecular gas, and together they account for a majority of the emission at 7 keV. Though we would not have noticed it a priori, the unresolved feature is coincident with one resolved by the ROSAT HRI. Because this feature overlaps a unique region of flat radio spectral index (alpha 5,000 km/s). We conclude that the anomalous feature is most likely tracing enhanced particle acceleration by shocks that are formed as the supernova blast wave impacts the ring of molecular clouds.

  15. Supernova Ejecta in the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    Borkowski, K J; Hwang, U; Green, D A; Petre, R; Krishnamurthy, K; Willett, R

    2013-01-01

    G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of about 1900, and most likely located near the Galactic Center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities larger than about 18,000 km/s have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially-resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs: Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe Kalpha emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating tha...

  16. Oxygen emission in remnants of thermonuclear supernovae as a probe for their progenitor system

    Kosenko, D; Kromer, M; Blinnikov, S I; Pakmor, R; Kaastra, J S

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in numerical simulations of thermonuclear supernova explosions brings up a unique opportunity in studying the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. Coupling state-of-the-art explosion models with detailed hydrodynamical simulations of the supernova remnant evolution and the most up-to-date atomic data for X-ray emission calculations makes it possible to create realistic synthetic X-ray spectra for the supernova remnant phase. Comparing such spectra with high quality observations of supernova remnants could allow to constrain the explosion mechanism and the progenitor of the supernova. The present study focuses in particular on the oxygen emission line properties in young supernova remnants, since different explosion scenarios predict a different amount and distribution of this element. Analysis of the soft X-ray spectra from supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud and confrontation with remnant models for different explosion scenarios suggests that SNR 0509-67.5 could originate from a de...

  17. The supernova remnant W51C: a plausible source of galactic cosmic rays?

    Gozzini, S. R.; Carmona, E.; Jankowski, F.; Krause, J.; Reichardt, I.; MAGIC Collaboration

    2013-02-01

    Supernova remnants are a probable site of acceleration of particles via diffusive shock processes. High energies carried by electrons or protons are radiated into photons detectable from radio to γ rays. MAGIC has recently observed W51C, one of the most luminous galactic supernova remnants, and completed its spectrum between 50 GeV and 5 TeV. We modelled different processes for high energy photon emission of this source, and compared the predictions with the measured spectral energy distribution. It is plausible that hadrons are accelerated in the expansion front of this source, in interaction with the surrounding molecular cloud, and photons are produced in the decay of neutral mesons created in hadronic collisions.

  18. First optical detection from the supernova remnant G 15.1-1.6

    Boumis, P; Christopoulou, P E; Mavromatakis, F; Xilouris, E M; Goudis, C D

    2008-01-01

    Deep optical CCD images of the supernova remnant G 15.1-1.6 were obtained and filamentary and diffuse emission has been discovered. The images, taken in the emission lines of Halpha+[N II], [S II] and [O III], reveal filamentary and diffuse structures all around the remnant. The radio emission at 4850 MHz in the same area is found to be well correlated with the brightest optical filaments. The IRAS 60 micron emission may also be correlated with the optical emission but to a lesser extent. The flux calibrated images suggest that the optical emission originates from shock-heated gas ([S II]/Halpha > 0.4), while there is a possible HII region ([S II]/Halpha ~0.3) contaminating the supernova remnant's emission to the east. Furthermore, deep long-slit spectra were taken at two bright filaments and also show that the emission originates from shock heated gas. An [O III] filamentary structure has also been detected further to the west but it lies outside the remnant's boundaries and possibly is not associated to it....

  19. Energy Dependence of Synchrotron X-Ray Rims in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Tran, Aaron; Petre, Robert; Ressler, Sean M; Reynolds, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Several young supernova remnants exhibit thin X-ray bright rims of synchrotron radiation at their forward shocks. Thin rims require strong magnetic field amplification beyond simple shock compression if rim widths are only limited by electron energy losses. But, magnetic field damping behind the shock could produce similarly thin rims with less extreme field amplification. Variation of rim width with energy may thus discriminate between competing influences on rim widths. We measured rim widths around Tycho's supernova remnant in 5 energy bands using an archival 750 ks Chandra observation. Rims narrow with increasing energy and are well described by either loss-limited or damped scenarios, so X-ray rim width-energy dependence does not uniquely specify a model. But, radio counterparts to thin rims are not loss-limited and better reflect magnetic field structure. Joint radio and X-ray modeling favors magnetic damping in Tycho's SNR with damping lengths ~1--5% of remnant radius and magnetic field strengths ~50--...

  20. The 1st Fermi Lat Supernova Remnant Catalog

    Acero, Fabio; Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, Marco; Baldini, Luca; Ballet, Jean; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, Roger; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, Raffaella; Bottacini, Eugenio; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. A mock catalog in which the positions of known remnants are scrambled in Gala...

  1. The Bubble-like Interior of the Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    Milisavljevic, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The death of massive stars is believed to involve aspheric explosions initiated by the collapse of an iron core. The specifics of how these catastrophic explosions proceed remain uncertain due, in part, to limited observational constraints on various processes that can introduce asymmetries deep inside the star. Here we present near-infrared observations of the young Milky Way supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, descendant of a type IIb core-collapse explosion, and a three-dimensional map of its interior, unshocked ejecta. The remnant's interior has a bubble-like morphology that smoothly connects to and helps explain the multi-ringed structures seen in the remnant's bright reverse shocked main shell of expanding debris. This internal structure may have originated from turbulent mixing processes that encouraged the development of outwardly expanding plumes of radioactive 56Ni-rich ejecta. If this is true, substantial amounts of its decay product, 56Fe, may still reside in these interior cavities.

  2. G306.3-0.9: A Newly Discovered Young Galactic Supernova Remnant

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Loi, Syheh T.; Murphy, Tara; Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Gehrels, Neil; Kennea, Jamie A.; Siegel, Michael H.; Gelbord, Jonathan; Kuin, Paul; Moss, Vanessa; Reeves, Sarah; Robbins, William J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Reis, Rubens C.; Petre, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of 160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24µm, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

  3. Galactic Propagation of Cosmic Rays from Individual Supernova Remnants

    Nierstenhoefer, Nils; Schuppan, Florian; Tjus, Julia Becker

    2015-01-01

    It is widely believed that supernova remnants are the best candidate sources for the observed cosmic ray flux up to the knee, i.e. up to ~PeV energies. Indeed, the gamma-ray spectra of some supernova remnants can be well explained by assuming the decay of neutral pions which are created in hadronic interactions. Therefore, fitting the corresponding gamma spectra allows us to derive the spectra of cosmic rays at the source which are locally injected into our Galaxy. Using these spectra as a starting point, we propagate the cosmic rays through the Galaxy using the publicly available GALPROP code. Here, we will present first results on the contribution of those SNRs to the total cosmic ray flux and discuss implications.

  4. Understanding hadronic gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants

    We aim to test the plausibility of a theoretical framework in which the gamma-ray emission detected from supernova remnants may be of hadronic origin, i.e., due to the decay of neutral pions produced in nuclear collisions involving relativistic nuclei. In particular, we investigate the effects induced by magnetic field amplification on the expected particle spectra, outlining a phenomenological scenario consistent with both the underlying Physics and the larger and larger amount of observational data provided by the present generation of gamma experiments, which seem to indicate rather steep spectra for the accelerated particles. In addition, in order to study to study how pre-supernova winds might affect the expected emission in this class of sources, the time-dependent gamma-ray luminosity of a remnant with a massive progenitor is worked out. Solid points and limitations of the proposed scenario are finally discussed in a critical way

  5. New supernova remnants from deer radio continuum surveys

    Based on radio continuum surveys of the Galactic plane at wavelengths of 21 cm and 11 cm we have so far identified about 32 new supernova remnants in the area 357 degrees .4 ≤ l ≤ 76 degrees, |b| ≤ 5 degrees. This increases the number of known objects in this field by about 68%. Most of them are in the galactic latitude range |b| > 0 degrees.5. Some implications are discussed

  6. Fermi Large Area Telescope Detection of Supernova Remnant RCW 86

    Yuan, Qiang; Liu, Siming; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Using $5.4$ year Fermi-LAT data, we report the detection of GeV $\\gamma$-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnant RCW 86 (G315.4-2.3) with a significance of $\\sim5.1\\sigma$. The data slightly favors an extended emission of this supernova remnant. The spectral index of RCW 86 is found to be very hard, $\\Gamma\\sim1.4$, in the $0.4$ to $300$ GeV range. A one zone leptonic model can well fit the multi-wavelength data from radio to very high energy $\\gamma$-rays. The very hard GeV $\\gamma$-ray spectrum and the inferred low gas density seem to disfavor the hadronic origin of the $\\gamma$-rays. The $\\gamma$-ray behavior of RCW 86 is very similar to several other TeV shell-type supernova remnants, e.g., RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622, SN 1006 and HESS J1731-347.

  7. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT RCW 86

    Using 5.4 yr Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we report the detection of GeV γ-ray emission from the shell-type supernova remnant RCW 86 (G315.4-2.3) with a significance of ∼5.1σ. The data slightly favors an extended emission of this supernova remnant. The spectral index of RCW 86 is found to be very hard, Γ ∼ 1.4, in the 0.4-300 GeV range. A one-zone leptonic model can well fit the multi-wavelength data from radio to very high energy γ-rays. The very hard GeV γ-ray spectrum and the inferred low gas density seem to disfavor a hadronic origin for the γ-rays. The γ-ray behavior of RCW 86 is very similar to several other TeV shell-type supernova remnants, e.g., RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622, SN 1006, and HESS J1731-347

  8. A Newly Recognized Very Young Supernova Remnant in M83

    Blair, William P; Long, Knox S; Whitmore, Bradley C; Kim, Hwihyun; Soria, Roberto; Kuntz, K D; Plucinsky, Paul P; Dopita, Michael A; Stockdale, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    As part of a spectroscopic survey of supernova remnant candidates in M83 using the Gemini-South telescope and GMOS, we have discovered one object whose spectrum shows very broad lines at H$\\alpha$, [O~I] 6300,6363, and [O~III] 4959,5007, similar to those from other objects classified as `late time supernovae.' Although six historical supernovae have been observed in M83 since 1923, none were seen at the location of this object. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images show a nearly unresolved emission source, while Chandra and ATCA data reveal a bright X-ray source and nonthermal radio source at the position. Objects in other galaxies showing similar spectra are only decades post-supernova, which raises the possibility that the supernova that created this object occurred during the last century but was missed. Using photometry of nearby stars from the HST data, we suggest the precursor was at least 17 $\\rm M_{sun}$, and the presence of broad H$\\alpha$ in the spectrum makes a type II supernova likely....

  9. Correlation of Supernova Remnant Masers and Gamma-Ray Sources

    Hewitt, John W; Wardle, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds are potentially exciting systems in which to detect evidence of cosmic ray acceleration. Prominent gamma-ray emission is produced via the decay of neutral pions when cosmic rays encounter the nearby dense clouds. In many of the supernova remnants coincident with gamma-ray sources, the presence of OH(1720 MHz) masers is used to identify interaction with dense gas and to provide a kinematic distance to the system. In this paper we use statistical tests to demonstrate that there is a correlation between these masers and a class of GeV- to TeV-energy gamma-ray sources coincident with interacting remnants. For pion decay, the gamma-ray luminosity provides a direct estimate of the local cosmic ray density. We find the cosmic ray density is enhanced by one to two orders of magnitude over the local solar value, comparable to X-ray-induced ionization in these remnants. The inferred ionization rates are sufficient to explain non-equilibrium chemistry in the post-shoc...

  10. 3D simulations of young core-collapse supernova remnants undergoing efficient particle acceleration

    Ferrand, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Within our Galaxy, supernova remnants are believed to be the major sources of cosmic rays up to the "knee". However important questions remain regarding the share of the hadronic and leptonic components, and the fraction of the supernova energy channelled into these components. We address such question by the means of numerical simulations that combine a hydrodynamic treatment of the shock wave with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. Performing 3D simulations allows us to produce synthetic projected maps and spectra of the thermal and non-thermal emission, that can be compared with multi-wavelength observations (in radio, X-rays, and gamma-rays). Supernovae come in different types, and although their energy budget is of the same order, their remnants have different properties, and so may contribute in different ways to the pool of Galactic cosmic-rays. Our first simulations were focused on thermonuclear supernovae, like Tycho's SNR, that usually occur in a mostly undisturbed medium. Here we present...

  11. Supernova Shock Breakout from a Red Supergiant

    Schawinski, Kevin; Justham, Stephen; Wolf, Christian; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Steenbrugge, Katrien C.; Bell, Tony; Roeser, Hermann-Josef; Walker, Emma; Astier, Pierre; Balam, Dave; Balland, Christophe; Carlberg, Ray; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominque

    2008-01-01

    Massive stars undergo a violent death when the supply of nuclear fuel in their cores is exhausted, resulting in a catastrophic "core-collapse" supernova. Such events are usually only detected at least a few days after the star has exploded. Observations of the supernova SNLS-04D2dc with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer space telescope reveal a radiative precursor from the supernova shock before the shock reached the surface of the star and show the initial expansion of the star at the beginning ...

  12. Supernova Ejecta in the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Hwang, Una; Green, David A.; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of approximately 1900, and most likely located near the Galactic Center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities (is) approximately greater than 18,000 km s-1 have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially-resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs: Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe K alpha emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including 56Ni) with velocities greater than 18,000 km s-1 were ejected by this SN. But in the inner west rim, we find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity products of O-burning were also ejected. G1.9+0.3 appears similar to energetic Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. The pronounced asymmetry in the ejecta distribution and abundance inhomogeneities are best explained by a strongly asymmetric SN explosion, similar to those produced in some recent 3D delayed-detonation Type Ia models.

  13. Hadronic Scenarios for Gamma-Ray Emission from Three Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds

    Yu, Huan; Fang, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2014-04-01

    GeV γ-rays detected with the large area telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray space telescope in the direction of HB21, MSH 17-39 and G337.0-0.1 have been recently reported. The three supernova remnants (SNRs) show interactions with molecular clouds, and they are effective gamma-ray emitters as the relativistic protons accelerated by the SNR shocks inelastically colliding with the dense gas in the clouds. The origin of the observed γ-rays for the three remnants is investigated in the scenario of the diffusive shock acceleration. In the model, a part of the SNR shock transmits into the nearby molecular clouds, and the shock velocity is greatly reduced. As a result, a shock with a relatively low Alfvén Mach number is generated, and the spectra of the accelerated protons and the γ-ray photons produced via proton-proton interaction can be obtained. The results show that the observed γ-ray spectra for the three SNRs interacting with the molecular clouds can be reproduced. It can be concluded that the hadronic origin of the γ-rays for the three SNRs is approved, and the ability of SNR shocks to accelerate protons is also supported.

  14. A CO (J = 1-0) survey of five supernova remnants at l = 70 degrees-110 degrees

    A program of CO observations of five selected supernova remnants is in progress on the 4-m radio telescope at Nagoya. The authors report observations of two supernova remnants, G78.2 + 2.1 (the γ Cygni SNR) and HB21. In these two remnants we have obtained evidence for the interaction between the supernova remnants and molecular gas

  15. R-Process Ejecta in the VELA Supernova Remnant

    Wallerstein, George

    1990-12-01

    Groundbased, X-ray and radio studies reveal many properties of supernovae but none except for the neutrinos from SN1987A have been able to tell us anything about the mechanism of the explosion. By looking for r-process and heavy iron-peak isotopes we can estimate the amount of neutronized material ejected and hence get a grip on what actually happened during the explosion. We will search for interstellar absorption lines of KrI, HgII, Os II, W II, and Pt II in stars within and behind the Vela supernova remnant. Substantial quantities of these elements are expected to be ejected in supernova explosions. However, recent competing theories of the supernova explosion mechanism predict differing amounts of r-process ejecta and in this way our observation will provide important constraints on these models. This will be a direct observational input on the supernova mechanism, a theoretical problem on which much time, effort, and manpower have been expended.

  16. Molecular environment of the supernova remnant IC 443: Discovery of the molecular shells surrounding the remnant

    We have carried out 12CO, 13CO, and C18O observations toward the mixed morphology supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443. The observations cover a 1.°5 × 1.°5 area and allow us to investigate the overall molecular environment of the remnant. Some northern and northeastern partial shell structure of CO gas is around the remnant. One of the partial shells, about 5' extending beyond the northeastern border of the remnant's bright radio shell, seems to just confine the faint radio halo. On the other hand, some faint CO clumps can be discerned along the eastern boundary of the faint remnant's radio halo. Connecting the eastern CO clumps, the northeastern partial shell structures, and the northern CO partial shell, we can see that a half molecular ring structure appears to surround the remnant. The LSR velocity of the half-ring structure is in the range of –5 km s–1 to –2 km s–1, which is consistent with that of the –4 km s–1 molecular clouds. We suggest that the half-ring structure of the CO emission at V LSR ∼ –4 km s–1 is associated with the SNR. The structures are possibly swept up by the stellar winds of SNR IC 443's massive progenitor. Based on the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-IR database, 62 young stellar object (YSO) candidates are selected within the radio halo of the remnant. These YSO candidates concentrated along the boundary of the remnant's bright radio shell are likely to be triggered by the stellar winds from the massive progenitor of SNR IC 443.

  17. Discovery of A Large Cavity around the Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Chen, Xuepeng; Yang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    We present large-field (3x2 deg^2) and high-sensitivity CO(1-0) molecular line observations toward the Tycho's supernova remnant, using the 13.7-meter radio telescope of the Purple Mountain Observatory. Based on the CO observations, we discover a large cavity around the remnant, with radii of about 0.3x0.6 deg (or ~13x27 pc at a distance of 2.5 kpc), which is further supported by the complementary infrared images from the space telescopes. The observed CO line broadenings and asymmetries in the surrounding clouds, the infrared pillar-like structures found around the remnant, in concert with enhanced 12CO(2-1)/(1-0) intensity ratio detected in previous studies, indicate strong interaction of the large cavity with a wind in the region. After excluding the scenario of a large bubble produced by bright massive stars, we consider that the large cavity could be most likely explained by the accretion wind from the progenitor system of the Tycho's supernova. The CO gas kinematics indicates that the large cavity is ex...

  18. Interaction between the Supernova Remnant HB 3 and the Nearby Star-Forming Region W3

    Zhou, Xin; Fang, Min; Su, Yang; Sun, Yan; Chen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    We performed millimeter observations in CO lines toward the supernova remnant (SNR) HB 3. Substantial molecular gas around -45 km s^-1 is detected in the conjunction region between the SNR HB 3 and the nearby W3 complex. This molecular gas is distributed along the radio continuum shell of the remnant. Furthermore, the shocked molecular gas indicated by line wing broadening features is also distributed along the radio shell and inside it. By both morphological correspondence and dynamical evidence, we confirm that the SNR HB 3 is interacting with the -45 km s^-1 molecular cloud (MC), in essence, with the nearby H II region/MC complex W3. The red-shifted line wing broadening features indicate that the remnant is located at the nearside of the MC. With this association, we could place the remnant at the same distance as the W3/W4 complex, which is 1.95 +- 0.04 kpc. The spatial distribution of aggregated young stellar object candidates (YSOc) shows a correlation to the shocked molecular strip associated with the ...

  19. HFPK 334: An unusual supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Crawford, E. J.; Filipović, M. D. [University of Western Sydney (Australia); McEntaffer, R. L.; Brantseg, T.; Heitritter, K.; Roper, Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Haberl, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Urošević, D., E-mail: e.crawford@uws.edu.au [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-11-01

    We present new Australia Telescope Compact Array radio-continuum and XMM-Newton/Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the unusual supernova remnant (SNR) HFPK 334 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The remnant follows a shell-type morphology in the radio continuum and has a size of ∼20 pc at the SMC distance. The X-ray morphology is similar; however, we detect a prominent point source close to the center of the SNR exhibiting a spectrum with a best-fit power law with a photon index of Γ = 2.7 ± 0.5. This central point source is most likely a background object and cannot be directly associated with the remnant. The high temperature, nonequilibrium conditions in the diffuse region suggest that this gas has been recently shocked and points toward a younger SNR with an age of ≲ 1800 yr. With an average radio spectral index of α = –0.59 ± 0.09, we find that an equipartition magnetic field for the remnant is ∼90 μG, a value typical of younger SNRs in low-density environments. Also, we report the detection of scattered radio polarization across the remnant at 20 cm, with a peak fractional polarization level of 25% ± 5%.

  20. Interaction Between Supernova Remnant G22.7-0.2 And The Ambient Molecular Clouds

    Su, Yang; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Ping; Chen, Yang

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out 12CO (J=1-0 and 2-1), 13CO (J=1-0), and C18O (J=1-0) observations in the direction of the supernova remnant (SNR) G22.7-0.2. A filamentary molecular gas structure, which is likely part of a larger molecular complex with VLSR~75-79 km/s, is detected and is found to surround the southern boundary of the remnant. In particular, the high-velocity wing (77-110 km/s) in the 12CO (J=1-0 and J=2-1) emission shows convincing evidence of the interaction between SNR G22.7-0.2 and the 75-79 km/s molecular clouds (MCs). Spectra with redshifted profiles, a signature of shocked molecular gas, are seen in the southeastern boundary of the remnant. The association between the remnant and the 77 km/s MCs places the remnant at the near distance of 4.0-4.8 kpc, which agrees with a location on the Scutum-Crux arm. We suggest that SNR G22.7-0.2, SNR W41, and HII region G022.760-0.485 are at the same distance and are associated with GMC G23.0-0.4.

  1. Spitzer IRS Observations of the XA Region in the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    Sankrit, R; Bautista, M; Gaetz, T J; Williams, B J; Blair, W P; Borkowski, K J; Long, K S

    2014-01-01

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 micron wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km/s shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is mat...

  2. Radio structure of the remnant of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572)

    The radio emission from the remnant of Tycho's supernova of 1572 arises in a nearly circular, clumpy shell. A very distinct, thin bright rim just outside the main shell can be seen around most of the periphery of the remnant. The outer edge of radio emission, usually defined by this bright rim, coincides perfectly with the outer X-ray boundary. Most of the emission is polarized by a modest amount, with the outer rim particularly prominent. Observations at several wavelengths are used to map out the rotation measure at high angular resolution, and determine the intrinsic magnetic field direction. The magnetic field shows a somewhat cellular pattern but with a net radial orientation and a generally fairly low degree of polarization. 44 refs

  3. 84 gigahertz observations of five Crab-like supernova remnants

    Flux density measurements at 3.6 mm have been made to extend the frequency coverage for three Crablike remnants and two Crablike components within remnants whose large-scale morphologies show shell-type structure. All five objects show flat, polarized, nonthermal radio spectra and associated X-ray emission characteristic of this class. The flux density is found to be lower than expected on the basis of an extrapolation of the spectrum from lower frequencies. If this is due to steepening caused by evolutionary effects, severe constraints can be put on the characteristics of the objects showing spectral steepening: all must be less than 2000 yr old, and the supernovae in which they were born must all have had very unusual properties. 30 refs

  4. Constraints on the distribution of supernova remnants with Galactocentric radius

    Green, D A

    2015-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy are an important source of energy injection into the interstellar medium, and also of cosmic rays. Currently there are 294 known SNRs in the Galaxy, and their distribution with Galactocentric radius is of interest for various studies. Here I discuss some of the statistics of Galactic SNRs, including the observational selection effects that apply, and difficulties in obtaining distances for individual remnants from the `Sigma-D' relation. Comparison of the observed Galactic longitude distribution of a sample of bright Galactic SNRs -- which are not strongly affected by selection effects -- with those expected from models is used to constrain the Galactic distribution of SNRs. The best-fitting power-law/exponential model is more concentrated towards the Galactic centre than the widely used distribution obtained by Case & Bhattacharya (1998).

  5. Dynamics of supernova remnants in the Galactic Centre

    Bortolas, Elisa; Spera, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The Galactic centre (GC) is a unique place to study the extreme dynamical processes occurring near a super-massive black hole (SMBH). Here we simulate a large set of binaries orbiting the SMBH while the primary member undergoes a supernova (SN) explosion, in order to study the impact of SN kicks on the orbits of stars and dark remnants in the GC. We find that SN explosions are efficient in scattering neutron stars and other light stars on new (mostly eccentric) orbits, while black holes (BHs) tend to retain memory of the orbit of their progenitor star. SN kicks are thus unable to eject BHs from the GC: a cusp of dark remnants may be lurking in the central parsec of our Galaxy.

  6. High-energy antiprotons from old supernova remnants

    Blasi, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    A recently proposed model (arXiv:0903.2794) explains the rise in energy of the positron fraction measured by the PAMELA satellite in terms of hadronic production of positrons in aged supernova remnants, and acceleration therein. Here we present a preliminary calculation of the anti-proton flux produced by the same mechanism. While the model is consistent with present data, a rise of the antiproton to proton ratio is predicted at high energy, which strikingly distinguishes this scenario from other astrophysical explanations of the positron fraction (like pulsars). We briefly discuss important implications for Dark Matter searches via antimatter.

  7. Radio and X-ray emission from supernova remnants

    In this paper it was studied the statistical correlation between radio and X-ray emissions from shell-type supernova remnants (SNR). The primary aim of this study is to test the model of radio emission of shell-type SNRs presented by one of the authors. Based on this model of radio emission, by using the Monte Carlo techniques we have simulated statistical relations radio - X-ray luminosities (not surface brightnesses) which then were compared with the observations. X-ray emission is assumed to be thermal. To have a uniform statistical material it was used observational data on the SNRs in Magellanic Clouds

  8. Discovery of a pre-existing molecular filament associated with supernova remnant G127.1+0.5

    We performed millimeter observations in CO lines toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G127.1+0.5. We found a molecular filament at 4-13 km s–1 consisting of two distinct parts: a straight part coming out of the remnant region and a curved part in the remnant region. The curved part is coincides well with the bright SNR shell detected in 1420 MHz radio continuum and mid-infrared observations in the northeastern region. In addition, redshifted line wing broadening is found only in the curved part of the molecular filament, which indicates a physical interaction. These provide strong evidences, for the first time, to confirm the association between an SNR and a pre-existing long molecular filament. Multi-band observations in the northeastern remnant shell could be explained by the interaction between the remnant shock and the dense molecular filament. RADEX radiative transfer modeling of the quiet and shocked components yield physical conditions consistent with the passage of a non-dissociative J-type shock. We argue that the curved part of the filament is fully engulfed by the remnant's forward shock. A spatial correlation between aggregated young stellar objects (YSOs) and the adjacent molecular filament close to the SNR is also found, which could be related to the progenitor's activity.

  9. New Models for X-Ray Synchrotron Radiation from the Remnant of Supernova 1006 AD

    Dyer, K K; Borkowski, K J

    2000-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays up to energies of around 10^15 eV are assumed to originate in supernova remnants (SNRs). The shock wave of a young SNR like SN 1006 AD can accelerate electrons to energies greater than 1 TeV, where they can produce synchrotron radiation in the X-ray band. A new model (SRESC) designed to model synchrotron X-rays from Type Ia supernovae can constrain values for the magnetic-field strength and electron scattering properties, with implications for the acceleration of the unseen ions which dominate the cosmic-ray energetics. New observations by ASCA, ROSAT, and RXTE have provided enormously improved data, which now extend to higher X-ray energies. These data allow much firmer constraints. We will describe model fits to these new data on SN 1006 AD, emphasizing the physical constraints that can be placed on SNRs and on the cosmic-ray acceleration process.

  10. 3D simulations of the non-thermal broad-band emission from young supernova remnants including efficient particle acceleration

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar

    2014-01-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. In this paper, we explore how the non-thermal emission from young remnants can be used to probe the production of energetic particles at the shock (both protons and electrons). Our model couples hydrodynamic simulations of a supernova remnant with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. We include two important back-reaction loops upstream of the shock: energetic particles can (i) modify the flow structure and (ii) amplify the magnetic field. As the latter process is not fully understood, we use different limit cases that encompass a wide range of possibilities. We follow the history of the shock dynamics and of the particle transport downstream of the shock, which allows us to compute the non-thermal emission from the remnant at any given age. We do this in 3D, in order to generate projected maps that can be compared with observations. We observe that completely different recipes for the magnetic field can lead to sim...

  11. High-Energy Emission from the Composite Supernova Remnant MSH 15-56

    Temim, Tea; Castro, Daniel; Plucinsky, Paul; Gelfand, Joseph; Dickel, John R

    2013-01-01

    MSH 15-56 (G326.3-1.8) is a composite supernova remnant (SNR) that consists of an SNR shell and a displaced pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the radio. We present XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of the remnant that reveal a compact source at the tip of the radio PWN and complex structures that provide evidence for mixing of the supernova (SN) ejecta with PWN material following a reverse shock interaction. The X-ray spectra are well fitted by a non-thermal power-law model whose photon index steepens with distance from the presumed pulsar, and a thermal component with an average temperature of 0.55 keV. The enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur in some regions, and the similar temperature and ionization timescale, suggest that much of the X-ray emission can be attributed to SN ejecta that have either been heated by the reverse shock or swept up by the PWN. We find one region with a lower temperature of 0.3 keV that appears to be in ionization equilibrium. Assuming the Sedov model, we derive a number of...

  12. Spitzer observations of the N157B supernova remnant and its surroundings

    Micelotta, E R; Israel, F P; 10.1051/0004-6361/200809849

    2009-01-01

    (Aims): We study the LMC interstellar medium in the field of the nebula N157B, which contains a supernova remnant, an OB association, ionized gas, and high-density dusty filaments in close proximity. We investigate the relative importance of shock excitation by the SNR and photo-ionization by the OB stars, as well as possible interactions between the supernova remnant and its environment. (Methods): We apply multiwavelength mapping and photometry, along with spatially resolved infrared spectroscopy, to identifying the nature of the ISM using new infrared data from the Spitzer space observatory and X-ray, optical, and radio data from the literature. (Results): The N157B SNR has no infrared counterpart. Infrared emission from the region is dominated by the compact blister-type HII region associated with 2MASS J05375027-6911071 and excited by an O8-O9 star. This object is part of an extended infrared emission region that is associated with a molecular cloud. We find only weak emission from the shock-indicator [F...

  13. Spitzer Observations of the Type Ia Supernova Remnant N103B: Kepler's Older Cousin?

    Williams, Brian J; Reynolds, Stephen P; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C; Long, Knox S; Blair, William P; Winkler, P Frank; Sankrit, Ravi; Hendrick, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm$^{-3}$, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements towards regions of higher than average density. This density is similar to that in Kepler's SNR, a Type Ia interacting with a circumstellar medium. Optical images show H$\\alpha$ emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the "18 $\\mu$m" silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 $\\mu$m. We propose that the dense...

  14. Spitzer Observations of Dust Destruction in the Puppis A Supernova Remnant

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dweek, Eli; Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hwang, Una; Long, Knox X.; Petre, Robert; Rho, Jeonghee; Winkler, P. Frank

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the Puppis A supernova remnant (SNR) with a neighboring molecular cloud provides a unique opportunity to measure the amount of grain destruction in an SNR shock. Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS imaging of the entire SNR at 24, 70, and 160 micrometers shows an extremely good correlation with X-ray emission, indicating that the SNR's IR radiation is dominated by the thermal emission of swept-up interstellar dust, collisionally heated by the hot shocked gas. Spitzer IRS spectral observations targeted both the Bright Eastern Knot (BEK) of the SNR where a small cloud has been engulfed by the supernova blast wave and outlying portions of the associated molecular cloud that are yet to be hit by the shock front. Modeling the spectra from both regions reveals the composition and the grain size distribution of the interstellar dust, both in front of and behind the SNR shock front. The comparison shows that the ubiquitous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of the interstellar medium are destroyed within the BEK, along with nearly 25% of the mass of graphite and silicate dust grains.

  15. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON PROCESSING IN THE BLAST WAVE OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT N132D

    We present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 14-36 μm mapping observations of the supernova remnant N132D in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study focuses on the processing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that we previously identified in the southern blast wave. The mid-infrared spectra show strong continuum emission from shock-heated dust and a unique, nearly featureless plateau in the 15-20 μm region, which we attribute to PAH molecules. The typical PAH emission bands observed in the surrounding interstellar medium ahead of the blast wave disappear, which indicates shock processing of PAH molecules. The PAH plateau appears most strongly at the outer edge of the blast wave and coincides with diffuse X-ray emission that precedes the brightest X-ray and optical filaments. This suggests that PAH molecules in the surrounding medium are swept up and processed in the hot gas of the blast wave shock, where they survive the harsh conditions long enough to be detected. We also observe a broad emission feature at 20 μm appearing with the PAH plateau. We speculate that this feature is either due to FeO dust grains or connected to the processing of PAHs in the supernova blast wave shock.

  16. Spitzer IRS observations of the XA region in the cygnus loop supernova remnant

    Sankrit, Ravi [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Raymond, John C.; Gaetz, Terrance J. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bautista, Manuel [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo MI 49008-5252 (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27607 (United States); Long, Knox S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 μm wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km s{sup –1} shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is matched by a shock of about 150 km s{sup –1} that has cooled and begun to recombine. The post-shock region has a swept-up column density of about 1.3 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –2}, and the gas has reached a temperature of 7000-8000 K. The spectrum of the Cusp indicates that roughly half of the refractory silicon and iron atoms have been liberated from the grains. Dust emission is not detected at either position.

  17. Dynamical evolution of supernova remnants breaking through molecular clouds

    Cho, Wankee; Koo, Bon-Chul

    2015-01-01

    We carry out three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the supernova remnants (SNRs) produced inside molecular clouds (MCs) near their surface using the HLL code (Harten et al. 1983). We explore the dynamical evolution and the X-ray morphology of SNRs after breaking through the MC surface for ranges of the explosion depths below the surface and the density ratios of the clouds to the intercloud media (ICM). We find that if an SNR breaks out through an MC surface in its Sedov stage, the outermost dense shell of the remnant is divided into several layers. The divided layers are subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and fragmented. On the other hand, if an SNR breaks through an MC after the remnant enters the snowplow phase, the radiative shell is not divided to layers. We also compare the predictions of previous analytic solutions for the expansion of SNRs in stratified media with our onedimensional simulations. Moreover, we produce synthetic X-ray surface brightness in order to research the center-bri...

  18. The 1st Fermi Lat Supernova Remnant Catalog

    Acero, Fabio; Ajello, Marco; Baldini, Luca; Ballet, Jean; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, Roger; Bloom, E D; Bonino, Raffaella; Bottacini, Eugenio; Bregeon, J; Bruel, Philippe; Buehler, Rolf; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, Rob A; Caputo, R; Caragiulo, Micaela; Caraveo, Patrizia A; Casandjian, Jean Marc; Cavazzuti, Elisabetta; Cecchi, Claudia; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, Stefano; Claus, R; Cohen, J M; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Cominsky, L R; Condon, B; Conrad, Jan; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; Angelis, A; Palma, F; Desiante, Rachele; Digel, S W; Venere, L; Drell, Persis S; Drlica-Wagner, Alex; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, Anna; Fukazawa, Prof Yasushi; Funk, Prof Stefan; Fusco, P; Gargano, Fabio; Gasparrini, Dario; Giglietto, Nicola; Giommi, Paolo; Giordano, Francesco; Giroletti, Marcello; Glanzman, Tom; Godfrey, Gary; Gomez-Vargas, G A; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M -H; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, Sylvain; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, Elizabeth; Hewitt, J W; Hill, A B; Horan, Deirdre; Hou, X; Iafrate, Giulia; Jogler, Tobias; J'ohannesson, G; Johnson, Anthony S; Kamae, T; Katagiri, Hideaki; Kataoka, Prof Jun; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kerr, Matthew; Knodlseder, J; Kocevski, Prof Dale; Kuss, M; Laffon, Helene; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, Luca; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne; Li, J; Li, L; Longo, Francesco; Loparco, Francesco; Lovellette, Michael N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Magill, J; Maldera, S; Marelli, Martino; Mayer, Michael; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, Peter F; Mitthumsiri, Warit; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Moiseev, Alexander A; Monzani, Maria Elena; Moretti, E; Morselli, Aldo; Moskalenko, Igor V; Murgia, Prof Simona; Nemmen, Prof Rodrigo; Nuss, Eric; Ohsugi, Takashi; Omodei, Nicola; Orienti, Monica; Orlando, Elena; Ormes, Jonathan F; Paneque, David; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Prof Vahe'; Piron, Frederic; Pivato, Giovanna; Porter, Troy; Rain`o, S; Rando, Riccardo; Razzano, Massimiliano; Razzaque, Soebur; Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Prof Olaf; Renaud, Matthieu; Reposeur, Thierry; Rousseau, Mr Romain; Parkinson, P M; Schmid, J; Schulz, A; Sgr`o, C; Siskind, Eric J; Spada, Francesca; Spandre, Gloria; Spinelli, Paolo; Strong, Andrew W; Suson, Daniel; Tajima, Hiro; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Tanaka, T; Thayer, Jana B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, Omar; Torres, Prof Diego F; Tosti, Gino; Troja, Eleonora; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Vianello, G; Wells, B; Wood, Kent; Wood, M; Yassine, Manal; Zimmer, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    To uniformly determine the properties of supernova remnants (SNRs) at high energies, we have developed the first systematic survey at energies from 1 to 100 GeV using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Based on the spatial overlap of sources detected at GeV energies with SNRs known from radio surveys, we classify 30 sources as likely GeV SNRs. We also report 14 marginal associations and 245 flux upper limits. A mock catalog in which the positions of known remnants are scrambled in Galactic longitude, allows us to determine an upper limit of 22% on the number of GeV candidates falsely identified as SNRs. We have also developed a method to estimate spectral and spatial systematic errors arising from the diffuse interstellar emission model, a key component of all Galactic Fermi LAT analyses. By studying remnants uniformly in aggregate, we measure the GeV properties common to these objects and provide a crucial context for the detailed modeling of individual SNRs. Combining our GeV results with multiwavele...

  19. Evolution of Supernova Remnants near the Galactic Center

    Yalinewich, Almog; Sari, Re'em

    2016-01-01

    Supernovae near the galactic center evolve differently from regular galactic supernovae. This is mainly due to the environment into which the supernova remnants propagate. Instead of a static, uniform density medium, SNRs near the galactic center propagate into a wind swept environment with a velocity away from the galactic center, and a graded density profile. This causes these SNRs to be non - spherical, and to evolve faster than their galactic counterparts. We develop an analytic theory for the evolution of explosions within a stellar wind, and verify it using a hydrodynamic code. We show that such explosions can evolve in one of three possible morphologies. Using these results we discuss the association between the two SNRs (SGR East and SGR A's bipolar radio/X-ray Lobes) and the two neutron stars (the cannonball and SGR J1745-2900) near the galactic center. We show that, given the morphologies of the SNR and positions of the neutron stars, the only possible association is between SGR A's bipolar radio/X-...

  20. A Chandra X-Ray Survey of Ejecta in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin

    2011-01-01

    We present a survey of the X-ray emitting ejecta in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant based on an extensive analysis of over 6000 spectral regions extracted on 2.5-10" angular scales using the Chandra 1 Ms observation. We interpret these results in the context of hydrodynamical models for the evolution of the remnant. The distributions of fitted temperature and ionization age are highly peaked and suggest that the ejecta were subjected to multiple secondary shocks. Based on the fitted emission measure and element abundances, and an estimate of the emitting volume, we derive masses for the X-ray emitting ejecta as well as showing the distribution of the mass of various elements over the remnant. The total shocked Fe mass appears to be roughly 0.14 Solar Mass, which accounts for nearly all of the mass expected in Fe ejecta. We find two populations of Fe ejecta, that associated with normal Si-burning and that associated with alpha-rich freeze-out, with a mass ratio of approximately 2:1. Surprisingly, essentially all of this Fe (both components) is well outside the central regions of the SNR, presumably having been ejected by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. We discuss this, and its implications for the neutron star kick.

  1. High-velocity, high-excitation neutral carbon in a cloud in the Vela supernova remnant

    Jenkins, Edward B.; Wallerstein, George

    1995-01-01

    HD 72089 is situated behind the Vela supernova remnant, and the interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of this star are remarkable for two reasons. First, there are six distinct velocity components that span the (heliocentric) velocity range -60 to +121 km/s in the lines of Na I and Ca II. Second, two of the components at high velocity, one at +85 km/s and another at +121.5 km/s, have densities that are large enough to produce observable lines from neutral carbon. The gas moving at +121.5 km/s has such a large pressure that the excited fine-structure levels of the ground electronic state of C I are collisionally populated nearly in proportion to their level degeneracies. This high-velocity gas exhibits unusually low column densities of Mg I and Na I, compared to that of C I. We propose that the +121.5 km/s component represents gas that has cooled and recombined in a zone that follows a shock driven into a cloud by the very recent passage of a supernova blast wave. A representative preshock density of n(sub H) approximately = 13/cc and velocity v(sub s) = 100 km/s is indicated by the strength of diffuse (O III) emission lines seen in directions very near HD 72089. The strong collisional population of excited C I and apparent absence of excited levels of O I give a most favorable fit to the conditions 1000 less than n(sub H) less than 2900/cc over a temperature range 300 less than T less than 1000 K. The fact that the compression is not substantially more than this indicates that the preshock gas may have had an embedded, transverse magnetic field with a strength B greater than or approximately = 1 micro-G. The large dynamical pressure of the supernova blast wave that would be needed to create the cloud shock that we describe implies that the energy of the supernova was 8 x 10(exp 51) ergs, if the Vela remnant is 500 pc away. We can bring this value much closer to typical supernova energies E less than or approximately = 10(exp 51) ergs if the distance to the

  2. Molecules and dust in Cassiopeia A: II - Dust sputtering and diagnosis for dust survival in supernova remnants

    Biscaro, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We study the dust evolution in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. We follow the processing of dust grains formed in the Type II-b supernova by modelling the sputtering of grains located in dense ejecta clumps crossed by the reverse shock. Further sputtering in the inter-clump medium once the clumps are disrupted by the reverse shock is investigated. The dust evolution in the dense ejecta clumps of Type II-P supernovae and their remnants is also studied. We study oxygen-rich clumps that describe the ejecta oxygen core, and carbon-rich clumps that correspond to the outermost carbon-rich ejecta zone. We consider the dust components formed in the supernova, several reverse shock velocities and inter-clump gas temperatures, and derive dust grain size distributions and masses as a function of time. We find that non-thermal sputtering in clumps is important and accounts for reducing the grain population by ~ 40% to 80% in mass, depending on the clump gas over-density and the grain type and size. A Type II-b SN form...

  3. Supernova Shock Breakout from a Red Supergiant

    Schawinski, Kevin; Wolf, Christian; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Steenbrugge, Katrien C; Bell, Tony; Roeser, Hermann-Josef; Walker, Emma; Astier, Pierre; Balam, Dave; Balland, Christophe; Basa, Stephane; Carlberg, Ray; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominque; Guy, Julien; Hardin, Delphine; Hook, Isobel; Howell, Andy; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris; Regnault, Nicolas; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2008-01-01

    Massive stars undergo a violent death when the supply of nuclear fuel in their cores is exhausted, resulting in a catastrophic `core-collapse' supernova. Such events are usually detected long after the star has exploded. Here we report the first detection of the radiative precursor from a supernova shock before it has reached the surface of a star followed by the initial expansion of the star at the beginning of the explosion. Theoretical models of the ultraviolet light curve show that the progenitor was a red supergiant, as expected for this type of supernova. These observations provide a promising and novel way to probe the physics of core-collapse supernovae and the internal structures of their progenitors.

  4. Supernova Remnants and the Interstellar Medium of M83: Imaging & Photometry with WFC3 on HST

    Dopita, Michael A; Long, Knox S; Mutchler, Max; Whitmore, Bradley C; Kuntz, Kip D; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard E; Calzetti, Daniela; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael; Frogel, Jay A; O'Connell, Robert; Hall, Donald; Holtzman, Jon A; Kimble, Randy A; MacKenty, John; McCarthy, Patrick; Paresce, Francesco; Saha, Abhijit; Silk, Joe; Sirianni, Marco; Trauger, John; Walker, Alistair R; Windhorst, Rogier; Young, Erick

    2010-01-01

    We present Wide Field Camera 3 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope within a single field in the southern grand design star-forming galaxy M83. Based on their size, morphology and photometry in continuum-subtracted H$\\alpha$, [\\SII], H$\\beta$, [\\OIII] and [\\OII] filters, we have identified 60 supernova remnant candidates, as well as a handful of young ejecta-dominated candidates. A catalog of these remnants, their sizes and, where possible their H$\\alpha$ fluxes are given. Radiative ages and pre-shock densities are derived from those SNR which have good photometry. The ages lie in the range $2.62 < log(\\tau_{\\rm rad}/{\\rm yr}) < 5.0$, and the pre-shock densities at the blast wave range over $0.56 < n_0/{\\rm cm^{-3}} < 1680$. Two populations of SNR have been discovered. These divide into a nuclear and spiral arm group and an inter-arm population. We infer an arm to inter-arm density contrast of 4. The surface flux in diffuse X-rays is correlated with the inferred pre-shock density, indicati...

  5. Discovery of optical emission from the supernova remnant G 32.8-0.1 (Kes 78)

    Boumis, P; Alikakos, J; Christopoulou, P E; Mavromatakis, F; Katsiyannis, A C; Goudis, C D

    2009-01-01

    Deep optical CCD images of the supernova remnant G 32.8-0.1 were obtained where filamentary and diffuse emission was discovered. The images were acquired in the emission lines of Halpha+[N II] and [S II]. Filamentary and diffuse structures are detected in most areas of the remnant, while no significant [O III] emission is present. The flux-calibrated images suggest that the optical emission originates from shock-heated gas since the [S II]/Halpha ratio is greater than 1.2. The Spitzer images at 8 micron and 24 micron show a few filamentary structures to be correlated with the optical filaments, while the radio emission at 1.4 GHz in the same area is found to be very well correlated with the brightest optical filaments. Furthermore, the results from deep long-slit spectra also support the origin of the emission to be from shock-heated gas ([S II]/Halpha > 1.5). The absence of [O III] emission indicates slow shocks velocities into the interstellar "clouds" (< 100 km/s), while the [S II] 6716/6731 ratio indic...

  6. Dusty Blastwaves of Two Young LMC Supernova Remnants: Constraints on Postshock Compression

    Williams, Brian J; Reynolds, Stephen P; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C; Long, Knox S; Blair, William P; Sankrit, Ravi; Smith, R Chris; Points, Sean; Winkler, P Frank; Hendrick, Sean P

    2011-01-01

    We present results from mid-IR spectroscopic observations of two young supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) done with the {\\it Spitzer Space Telescope}. We imaged SNRs B0509-67.5 and B0519-69.0 with {\\it Spitzer} in 2005, and follow-up spectroscopy presented here confirms the presence of warm, shock heated dust, with no lines present in the spectrum. We use model fits to {\\it Spitzer} IRS data to estimate the density of the postshock gas. Both remnants show asymmetries in the infrared images, and we interpret bright spots as places where the forward shock is running into material that is several times denser than elsewhere. The densities we infer for these objects depend on the grain omposition assumed, and we explore the effects of differing grain porosity on the model fits. We also analyze archival {\\it XMM-Newton} RGS spectroscopic data, where both SNRs show strong lines of both Fe and Si, coming from ejecta, as well as strong O lines, which may come from ejecta or shocked ambient ...

  7. 3D simulations of supernova remnants evolution including non-linear particle acceleration

    Ferrand, Gilles; Ballet, Jean; Teyssier, Romain; Fraschetti, Federico

    2009-01-01

    If a sizeable fraction of the energy of supernova remnant shocks is channeled into energetic particles (commonly identified with Galactic cosmic rays), then the morphological evolution of the remnants must be distinctly modified. Evidence of such modifications has been recently obtained with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray satellites. To investigate these effects, we coupled a semi-analytical kinetic model of shock acceleration with a 3D hydrodynamic code (by means of an effective adiabatic index). This enables us to study the time-dependent compression of the region between the forward and reverse shocks due to the back reaction of accelerated particles, concomitantly with the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability at the contact discontinuity. Density profiles depend critically on the injection level eta of particles: for eta up to about 10^-4 modifications are weak and progressive, for eta of the order of 10^-3 modifications are strong and immediate. Nevertheless, the extension of the...

  8. The contribution of supernova remnants to the galactic cosmic ray spectrum

    Caprioli, D; Blasi, P

    2009-01-01

    The supernova paradigm for the origin of galactic cosmic rays has been deeply affected by the development of the non-linear theory of particle acceleration at shock waves. Here we discuss the implications of applying such theory to the calculation of the spectrum of cosmic rays at Earth as accelerated in supernova remnants and propagating in the Galaxy. The spectrum is calculated taking into account the dynamical reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock, the generation of magnetic turbulence which enhances the scattering near the shock, and the dynamical reaction of the amplified field on the plasma. Most important, the spectrum of cosmic rays at Earth is calculated taking into account the flux of particles escaping from upstream during the Sedov-Taylor phase and the adiabatically decompressed particles confined in the expanding shell and escaping at later times. We show how the spectrum obtained in this way is well described by a power law in momentum with spectral index close to -4, despite the co...

  9. Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds: X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Signatures

    Slane, Patrick; Bykov, Andrei; Ellison, Donald C.; Dubner, Gloria; Castro, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The giant molecular clouds (MCs) found in the Milky Way and similar galaxies play a crucial role in the evolution of these systems. The supernova explosions that mark the death of massive stars in these regions often lead to interactions between the supernova remnants (SNRs) and the clouds. These interactions have a profound effect on our understanding of SNRs. Shocks in SNRs should be capable of accelerating particles to cosmic ray (CR) energies with efficiencies high enough to power Galactic CRs. X-ray and γ-ray studies have established the presence of relativistic electrons and protons in some SNRs and provided strong evidence for diffusive shock acceleration as the primary acceleration mechanism, including strongly amplified magnetic fields, temperature and ionization effects on the shock-heated plasmas, and modifications to the dynamical evolution of some systems. Because protons dominate the overall energetics of the CRs, it is crucial to understand this hadronic component even though electrons are much more efficient radiators and it can be difficult to identify the hadronic component. However, near MCs the densities are sufficiently high to allow the γ-ray emission to be dominated by protons. Thus, these interaction sites provide some of our best opportunities to constrain the overall energetics of these particle accelerators. Here we summarize some key properties of interactions between SNRs and MCs, with an emphasis on recent X-ray and γ-ray studies that are providing important constraints on our understanding of cosmic rays in our Galaxy.

  10. Observations of Supernova Remnants with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Egron, E; Loru, S; Iacolina, M N; Marongiu, M; Righini, S; Mulas, S; Murtas, G; Bachetti, M; Concu, R; Melis, A; Trois, A; Ricci, R; Pilia, M

    2016-01-01

    In the frame of the Astronomical Validation activities for the 64m Sardinia Radio Telescope, we performed 5-22 GHz imaging observations of the complex-morphology supernova remnants (SNRs) W44 and IC443. We adopted innovative observing and mapping techniques providing unprecedented accuracy for single-dish imaging of SNRs at these frequencies, revealing morphological details typically available only at lower frequencies through interferometry observations. High-frequency studies of SNRs in the radio range are useful to better characterize the spatially-resolved spectra and the physical parameters of different regions of the SNRs interacting with the ISM. Furthermore, synchrotron-emitting electrons in the high-frequency radio band are also responsible for the observed high-energy phenomenology as -e.g.- Inverse Compton and bremsstrahlung emission components observed in gamma-rays, to be disentangled from hadron emission contribution (providing constraints on the origin of cosmic rays).

  11. Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays from Supernova Remnants

    Berezhko, E G

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the results of recent measurements of Galactic cosmic ray (GCRs) energy spectra and the spectra of nonthermal emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to determine their consistency with GCR origin in SNRs. It is shown that the measured primary and secondary CR nuclei energy spectra as well as the observed positron-to-electron ratio are consistent with the origin of GCRs up to the energy 10^17 eV in SNRs. Existing SNR emission data provide evidences for efficient CR production in SNRs accompanied by significant magnetic field amplification. In some cases the nature of the detected gamma-ray emission is difficult to determine because key SNR parameters are not known or poorly constrained.

  12. Type Ia Supernova Remnants: Shaping by Iron Bullets

    Tsebrenko, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Using 2D numerical hydrodynamical simulations of type Ia supernova remnants (SNR Ia) we show that iron clumps few times denser than the rest of the SN ejecta might form protrusions in an otherwise spherical SNR. Such protrusions exist in some SNR Ia, e.g., SNR 1885 and Tycho. Iron clumps are expected to form in the deflagration to detonation explosion model. In SNR Ia where there are two opposite protrusions, termed ears, such as Kepler's SNR and SNR G1.9+0.3, our scenario implies that the dense clumps, or iron bullets, were formed along an axis. Such a preferred axis can result from a rotating white dwarf progenitor. If our claim holds, this offers an important clue to the SN Ia explosion scenario.

  13. The Likely Fermi Detection of the Supernova Remnant SN 1006

    Xing, Yi; Wang, Zhongxiang; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Yang

    2016-05-01

    We report the likely detection of γ-ray emission from the northeast shell region of the historical supernova remnant (SNR) SN 1006. Having analyzed seven years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Pass 8 data for the region of SN 1006, we found a GeV gamma-ray source detected with ∼ 4σ significance. Both the position and spectrum of the source match those of HESS J1504‑418, respectively, which is TeV emission from SN 1006. Considering the source as the GeV γ-ray counterpart to SN 1006, the broadband spectral energy distribution is found to be approximately consistent with the leptonic scenario that has been proposed for the TeV emission from the SNR. Our result has likely confirmed the previous study of the SNRs with TeV shell-like morphology: SN 1006 is one of them sharing very similar peak luminosity and spectral shape.

  14. Origin of Galactic Cosmic Rays from Supernova Remnants

    Berezhko, E.G., E-mail: berezhko@ikfia.ysn.ru

    2014-11-15

    We analyze the results of recent measurements of Galactic cosmic ray (GCRs) energy spectra and the spectra of nonthermal emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to determine their consistency with GCR origin in SNRs. It is shown that the measured primary and secondary CR nuclei energy spectra as well as the observed positron-to-electron ratio are consistent with the origin of GCRs up to the energy 10{sup 17} eV in SNRs. Existing SNR emission data provide evidences for efficient CR production in SNRs accompanied by significant magnetic field amplification. In some cases the nature of the detected γ-ray emission is difficult to determine because key SNR parameters are not known or poorly constrained.

  15. Molecules and dust in Cassiopeia A. II. Dust sputtering and diagnosis of supernova dust survival in remnants

    Biscaro, Chiara; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    We study the dust evolution in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. We follow the processing of dust grains that formed in the Type II-b supernova ejecta by modelling the sputtering of grains. The dust is located in dense ejecta clumps that are crossed by the reverse shock. We also investigate further sputtering in the inter-clump medium gas once the clumps have been disrupted by the reverse shock. The dust evolution in the dense ejecta clumps of Type II-P supernovae and their remnants is also explored. We study oxygen-rich clumps that describe the oxygen core of the ejecta, and carbon-rich clumps that correspond to the outermost carbon-rich ejecta zone. We consider the various dust components that form in the supernova, several reverse shock velocities and inter-clump gas temperatures, and derive grain-size distributions and masses for the dust as a function of time. Both non-thermal sputtering within clumps and thermal sputtering in the inter-clump medium gas are studied. We find that non-thermal sputtering in the clumps is important for all supernova types and accounts for reducing the grain population by ~ 40% to 80% in mass, depending on the clump gas over-density, the grain type and size, and the shock velocity in the clump. A Type II-b SN forms small grains that are sputtered within the clumps and in the inter-clump medium. For Cas A, silicate grains do not survive thermal sputtering in the inter-clump medium, while alumina, silicon carbide, and carbon dust may survive in the remnant. Our derived masses of currently processed silicate, alumina and carbon grains agree well with the values derived from the observations of warm dust, and seem to indicate that the dust is currently being processed within clumps by non-thermal sputtering. Out of the ~ 0.03M⊙ of dust formed in the ejecta, between 30% and 60% of this mass is present today in Cas A, and only 6% to 11% of the initial mass will survive the remnant phase. Grains formed in Type II-P supernovae are

  16. Spectra of accelerated particles at supernova shocks in the presence of neutral hydrogen: the case of Tycho

    Morlino, G

    2015-01-01

    The presence of neutral hydrogen in the shock proximity changes the structure of the shock and affects the spectra of particles accelerated through the first order Fermi mechanism. This phenomenon has profound implications for the interpretation of the multifrequency spectra of radiation from supernova remnants. Neutrals that undergo charge exchange with hot ions downstream of the shock may result in fast neutrals moving towards the upstream gas, where they can suffer additional charge exchange or ionisation reactions, thereby depositing energy and momentum upstream. Here we discuss the implications of this neutral return flux, already predicted in our previous work on neutral mediated supernova shocks and show how the spectra of accelerated particles turn out to be appreciably steeper than $p^{-4}$, thereby affecting the gamma ray spectra from supernova remnants in general and from Tycho specifically. The theory that describes non-linear diffusive shock acceleration in the presence of neutral hydrogen has be...

  17. NH$_3$(3,3) and CH$_3$OH near Supernova Remnants: GBT and VLA Observations

    McEwen, Bridget; Sjouwerman, Loránt

    2016-01-01

    We report on Green Bank Telescope 23.87 GHz NH$_3$(3,3), emission observations in five supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds (G1.4$-$0.1, IC443, W44, W51C, and G5.7$-$0.0). The observations show a clumpy gas density distribution, and in most cases the narrow line widths of $\\sim3-4$\\,km\\,s$^{-1}$ are suggestive of maser emission. Very Large Array observations reveal 36~GHz and/or 44~GHz CH$_3$OH, maser emission in a majority (72\\%) of the NH$_3$, peak positions towards three of these SNRs. This good positional correlation is in agreement with the high densities required for the excitation of each line. Through these observations we have shown that CH$_3$OH, and NH$_3$, maser emission can be used as indicators of high density clumps of gas shocked by supernova remnants, and provide density estimates thereof. Modeling of the optical depth of the NH$_3$(3,3) emission is compared to that of CH$_3$OH, constraining the densities of the clumps to a typical density of the order of $10^5$~cm$^{-3}$ for ...

  18. FUSE Observations of an X-Ray Bright Region in the Vela Supernova Remnant

    Sankrit, R; Blair, W P; Sembach, K R; Jenkins, E B; Sankrit, Ravi

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of a FUSE observation of an X-ray selected knot in the Vela supernova remnant. Spectra were obtained through the 30"x30" low resolution aperture and the 4"x20" medium resolution aperture. O VI 1032,1038 and C III 977 are detected strongly in both spectra, and S VI 933,944 is detected weakly only in the larger aperture spectrum. We also report the first detection of C II 1037 emission in a supernova remnant. The spectra show the presence of two kinematic components along the line of sight - one with both low and high excitation emission centered at a velocity of -50 km/s and another with only low excitation emission centered at a velocity of +100 km/s. We associate the -50 km/s component with the observed X-ray knot, and find a dynamical pressure of 3.7x10^{-10} dyne cm^{-2} driving the shock. We compare our results with data obtained using the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope at nearby locations and find that differences in the spectra imply the existence of two emitting components in the ...

  19. Radioactive Scandium in the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Green, David A; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of thermal X-ray emission from the youngest Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3, from a 237-ks Chandra observation. We detect strong K-shell lines of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. In addition, we detect a 4.1 keV line with 99.971% confidence which we attribute to 44Sc, produced by electron capture from 44Ti. Combining the data with our earlier Chandra observation allows us to detect the line in two regions independently. For a remnant age of 100 yr, our measured total line strength indicates synthesis of $(1 - 7) \\times 10^{-5}$ solar masses of 44Ti, in the range predicted for both Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) supernovae, but somewhat smaller than the $2 \\times 10^{-4}$ solar masses reported for Cas A. The line spectrum indicates supersolar abundances. The Fe emission has a width of about 26,000 km/s, consistent with an age of about 100 yr and with the inferred mean shock velocity of 14,000 km/s deduced assuming a distance of 8.5 kpc. Most thermal emission comes from regions of lower ...

  20. The supernova remnant W44: a ase of cosmic-Ray reacceleration

    Cardillo, Martina; Blasi, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are thought to be the primary sources of Galactic Cosmic Rays (CRs). In the last few years, the wealth of gamma-ray data collected by GeV and TeV instruments has provided important information about particle energisation in these astrophysical sources, allowing us to make progress in assessing their role as CR accelerators. In particular, the spectrum of the gamma-ray emission detected by AGILE and Fermi-LAT from the two middle aged Supernova Remnants (SNRs) W44 and IC443, has been proposed as a proof of CR acceleration in SNRs. Here we discuss the possibility that the radio and gamma-ray spectra from W44 may be explained in terms of re-acceleration and compression of Galactic CRs. The recent measurement of the interstellar CR flux by Voyager I has been instrumental for our work, in that the result of the reprocessing of CRs by the shock in W44 depends on the CR spectrum at energies that are precluded to terrestrial measurement due to solar modulation. We introduce both CR protons an...

  1. Fermi LAT gamma-ray observations of the supernova remnant HB21

    Pivato, G; Tibaldo, L

    2013-01-01

    We present the analysis of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) \\g-ray observations of HB 21, a mixed-morphology supernova remnant. Such supernova remnants are characterized by an interior thermal X-ray plasma, surrounded by a wider nonthermal shell emitting at radio frequencies. HB 21 has a large angular size, making it a good candidate for detailed morphological and spectral studies with the LAT. The radio extension is $2^\\circ\\times1^\\circ$, compared to the LAT 68% containment angle of $\\sim1^\\circ$ at 1 GeV. To understand the origin of \\g-ray emission, we compare LAT observations with other wavelengths that trace non-thermal radio synchrotron, nearby molecular clouds, shocked molecular clumps, and the central X-ray plasma. Finally, we model possible hadronic and leptonic emission mechanisms. We conclude that \\g-rays from HB 21 are likely the result of electron bremsstrahlung or proton-proton collisions with dense material due to interaction with the nearby clouds.

  2. RADIOACTIVE SCANDIUM IN THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    We report the discovery of thermal X-ray emission from the youngest Galactic supernova remnant G1.9+0.3, from a 237 ks Chandra observation. We detect strong Kα lines of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. In addition, we detect a 4.1 keV line with 99.971% confidence which we attribute to 44Sc, produced by electron capture from 44Ti. Combining the data with our earlier Chandra observation allows us to detect the line in two regions independently. For a remnant age of 100 yr, our measured total line strength indicates synthesis of (1-7) x 10-5 M sun of 44Ti, in the range predicted for both Type Ia and core-collapse supernovae (SNe), but somewhat smaller than the 2 x 10-4 M sun reported for Cas A. The line spectrum indicates supersolar abundances. The Fe emission has a width of about 28,000 km s-1, consistent with an age of ∼100 yr and with the inferred mean shock velocity of 14,000 km s-1 deduced assuming a distance of 8.5 kpc. Most thermal emission comes from regions of lower X-ray but higher radio surface brightness. Deeper observations should allow more detailed spatial mapping of 44Sc, with significant implications for models of nucleosynthesis in Type Ia SNe.

  3. DISCOVERY OF NEW INTERACTING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN THE INNER GALAXY

    OH(1720 MHz) masers are excellent signposts of interaction between supernova remnants (SNRs) and molecular clouds. Using the Green Bank Telescope and Very Large Array we have surveyed 75 SNRs and six candidates for masers. Four SNRs are detected with OH masers: G5.4-1.2, G5.7-0.0, G8.7-0.1, and G9.7-0.0. Two SNRs, G5.7-0.0 and G8.7-0.1, have TeV γ-ray counterparts which may indicate a local cosmic ray enhancement. It has been noted that maser-emitting (ME) SNRs are preferentially distributed in the molecular ring and nuclear disk. We use the present and existing surveys to demonstrate that masers are strongly confined to within |l| ≤ 50 deg. at a rate of 15% of the total SNR population. All new detections are within 10 deg. Galactic longitude emphasizing this trend. Additionally, a substantial number of SNR masers have peak fluxes at or below the detection threshold of existing surveys. This calls into question whether maser surveys of Galactic SNRs can be considered complete and how many ME remnants remain to be detected in the Galaxy.

  4. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT S147

    Katsuta, J.; Uchiyama, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Tajima, H.; Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Lande, J. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Hanabata, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Lemoine-Goumard, M. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2p3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, 33175 Gradignan (France); Takahashi, T., E-mail: katsuta@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: uchiyama@slac.stanford.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2012-06-20

    We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around supernova remnant (SNR) S147 (G180.0-1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2-10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5{sigma} confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} (d/1.3 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with the prominent H{alpha} filaments of SNR S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral {pi} mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions in the filaments. The reacceleration of the pre-existing cosmic rays and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the energy density required of high-energy protons.

  5. Searches for continuous gravitational waves from nine young supernova remnants

    Aasi, J; Abbott, R; Abbott, T; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Alemic, A; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Amariutei, D; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C; Areeda, J S; Ast, S; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Aylott, B E; Babak, S; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barbet, M; Barclay, S; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Bauer, Th S; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C; Benacquista, M; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Biscans, S; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, C D; Blair, D; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonelli, L; Bonnand, R; Bork, R; Born, M; Boschi, V; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Bridges, D O; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchman, S; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Bustillo, J Calderón; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, Y; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P -F; Colla, A; Collette, C; Colombini, M; Cominsky, L; Constancio,, M; Conte, A; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coulon, J -P; Countryman, S; Couvares, P; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Cutler, C; Dahl, K; Canton, T Dal; Damjanic, M; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dartez, L; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Di Fiore, L; Di Lieto, A; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Dominguez, E; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S; Eberle, T; Edo, T; Edwards, M; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H -B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Essick, R; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fournier, J -D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fuentes-Tapia, S; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; Gergely, L Á; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gleason, J; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gordon, N; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S; Goßler, S; Gouaty, R; Gräf, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guido, C J; Guo, X; Gushwa, K; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Hanke, M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M; Hartman, M T; Haster, C -J; Haughian, K; Hee, S; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huerta, E; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh, M; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Islas, G; Isler, J C; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M; Jang, H; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Ji, Y; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, H; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Keiser, G M; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khazanov, E A; Kim, C; Kim, K; Kim, N G; Kim, N; Kim, Y -M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kline, J; Koehlenbeck, S; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, A; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Larson, S; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Le, J; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B; Lewis, J; Li, T G F; Libbrecht, K; Libson, A; Lin, A C; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lockett, V; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J; Lubinski, M J; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macarthur, J; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R; Mageswaran, M; Maglione, C; Mailand, K; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McLin, K; McWilliams, S; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Meinders, M; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moe, B; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohanty, S D; Mohapatra, S R P; Moore, B; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Mukherjee, S; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nagy, M F; Nardecchia, I; Nash, T; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, I; Neri, M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A H; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oppermann, P; Oram, R; O'Reilly, B; Ortega, W; O'Shaughnessy, R; Osthelder, C; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Padilla, C; Pai, A; Pai, S; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Papa, M A; Paris, H; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patrick, Z; Pedraza, M; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J; Poggiani, R; Post, A; Poteomkin, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E; Quiroga, G; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Rácz, I; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajalakshmi, G; Rakhmanov, M; Ramirez, K; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Reula, O; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Sammut, L; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sannibale, V; Santiago-Prieto, I; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Sawadsky, A; Scheuer, J; Schilling, R; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sidery, T L; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L; Singh, R; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, R J E; Smith-Lefebvre, N D; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Souradeep, T; Staley, A; Stebbins, J; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Steplewski, S; Stevenson, S; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B; Szczepanczyk, M; Szeifert, G; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Tellez, G; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Tse, M; Tshilumba, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; Brand, J F J van den; Broeck, C van den; van der Sluys, M V; van Heijningen, J; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vincent-Finley, R; Vinet, J -Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L -W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Wessels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Williams, L; Williams, R; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Xie, S; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, Q; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J -P; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S; Zweizig, J

    2014-01-01

    We describe directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth LIGO science data run. The targets were nine young supernova remnants not associated with pulsars; eight of the remnants are associated with non-pulsing suspected neutron stars. One target's parameters are uncertain enough to warrant two searches, for a total of ten. Each search covered a broad band of frequencies and first and second frequency derivatives for a fixed sky direction. The searches coherently integrated data from the two LIGO interferometers over time spans from 5.3-25.3 days using the matched-filtering F-statistic. We found no credible gravitational-wave signals. We set 95% confidence upper limits as strong (low) as $4\\times10^{-25}$ on intrinsic strain, $2\\times10^{-7}$ on fiducial ellipticity, and $4\\times10^{-5}$ on r-mode amplitude. These beat the indirect limits from energy conservation and are within the range of theoretical predictions for neutron-star ellipticities and r-mode amplitudes.

  6. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT S147

    We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around supernova remnant (SNR) S147 (G180.0–1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2-10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5σ confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 ± 0.6) × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 × 1034 (d/1.3 kpc)2 erg s–1 in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with the prominent Hα filaments of SNR S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral π mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions in the filaments. The reacceleration of the pre-existing cosmic rays and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the energy density required of high-energy protons.

  7. Search for surviving companions in type Ia supernova remnants

    The nature of the progenitor systems of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear. One way to distinguish between the single-degenerate scenario and double-degenerate scenario for their progenitors is to search for the surviving companions (SCs). Using a technique that couples the results from multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with calculations of the structure and evolution of main-sequence- (MS-) and helium-rich SCs, the color and magnitude of MS- and helium-rich SCs are predicted as functions of time. The SC candidates in Galactic type Ia supernova remnants (Ia SNR) and nearby extragalactic Ia SNRs are discussed. We find that the maximum detectable distance of MS SCs (helium-rich SCs) is 0.6-4 Mpc (0.4-16 Mpc), if the apparent magnitude limit is 27 in the absence of extinction, suggesting that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda Galaxy are excellent environments in which to search for SCs. However, only five Ia SNRs have been searched for SCs, showing little support for the standard channels in the singe-degenerate scenario. To better understand the progenitors of SNe Ia, we encourage the search for SCs in other nearby Ia SNRs.

  8. Search for surviving companions in type Ia supernova remnants

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan [Physik Department, Universität Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Ricker, Paul M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Taam, Ronald E., E-mail: kuo-chuan.pan@unibas.ch, E-mail: pmricker@illinois.edu, E-mail: r-taam@northwestern.edu, E-mail: taam@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The nature of the progenitor systems of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) is still unclear. One way to distinguish between the single-degenerate scenario and double-degenerate scenario for their progenitors is to search for the surviving companions (SCs). Using a technique that couples the results from multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with calculations of the structure and evolution of main-sequence- (MS-) and helium-rich SCs, the color and magnitude of MS- and helium-rich SCs are predicted as functions of time. The SC candidates in Galactic type Ia supernova remnants (Ia SNR) and nearby extragalactic Ia SNRs are discussed. We find that the maximum detectable distance of MS SCs (helium-rich SCs) is 0.6-4 Mpc (0.4-16 Mpc), if the apparent magnitude limit is 27 in the absence of extinction, suggesting that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda Galaxy are excellent environments in which to search for SCs. However, only five Ia SNRs have been searched for SCs, showing little support for the standard channels in the singe-degenerate scenario. To better understand the progenitors of SNe Ia, we encourage the search for SCs in other nearby Ia SNRs.

  9. Gamma-ray emission from young supernova remnants: Hadronic or leptonic?

    Gabici, Stefano; Aharonian, Felix

    2016-07-01

    The debate on the nature of the gamma-ray emission from young supernova remnants is still open. Ascribing such emission to hadronic rather than leptonic processes would provide an evidence for the acceleration of protons and nuclei, and this fact would fit with the very popular (but not proven) paradigm that supernova remnants are the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Here, we discuss this issue with a particular focus on the best studied gamma-ray-bright supernova remnant: RX J1713.7-3946.

  10. Gamma-ray emission from young supernova remnants: hadronic or leptonic?

    Gabici, S.; Aharonian, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    The debate on the nature of the gamma-ray emission from young supernova remnants is still open. Ascribing such emission to hadronic rather than leptonic processes would provide an evidence for the acceleration of protons and nuclei, and this fact would fit with the very popular (but not proven) paradigm that supernova remnants are the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Here, we discuss this issue with a particular focus on the best studied gamma-ray-bright supernova remnant: RX~J1713.7-3946.

  11. EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO REMNANT OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES FROM DAY 7000

    Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Zanardo, G.; Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K., E-mail: ncy@bohr.physics.hku.hk [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2013-11-10

    We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600{sup +150}{sub -}200 km s{sup –1} between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400{sup +100}{sub -200} km s{sup –1} after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive evidence for a physical slowing of the shock at any given latitude in the expanding remnant, and that a change of radio morphology alone appears to dominate the evolution. This is supported by our ring-only fits which show a constant expansion of 3890 ± 50 km s{sup –1} without deceleration between days 4000 and 9000. We suggest that once the emission latitude no longer decreases, the expansion velocity obtained from the torus model should return to the same value as that measured with the ring model.

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO REMNANT OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES FROM DAY 7000

    We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600+150-200 km s–1 between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400+100-200 km s–1 after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive evidence for a physical slowing of the shock at any given latitude in the expanding remnant, and that a change of radio morphology alone appears to dominate the evolution. This is supported by our ring-only fits which show a constant expansion of 3890 ± 50 km s–1 without deceleration between days 4000 and 9000. We suggest that once the emission latitude no longer decreases, the expansion velocity obtained from the torus model should return to the same value as that measured with the ring model

  13. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Galactic Supernova Remnant Puppis A with the XMM-Newton RGS

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Petre, Robert; Yamada, Shinya; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Konami, Saori; Tamagawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution X-ray spectra of cloud-shock interaction regions in the eastern and northern rims of the Galactic supernova remnant Puppis A, using the Reflection Grating Spectrometer onboard the XMM-Newton satellite. A number of emission lines including K(alpha) triplets of He-like N, O , and Ne are clearly resolved for the first time. Intensity ratios of forbidden to resonance lines in the triplets are found to be higher than predictions by thermal emission models having plausible plasma parameters. The anomalous line ratios cannot be reproduced by effects of resonance scattering, recombination, or inner-shell ionization processes, but could be explained by charge-exchange emission that should arise at interfaces between the cold/warm clouds and the hot plasma. Our observations thus provide observational support for charge-exchange X-ray emission in supernova remnants.

  14. Multifrequency Studies of Bright Radio Supernova Remnants; 3, X-Ray and Radio Observations of 3C 397

    Dyer, K K

    1999-01-01

    Radio-bright, presumably young supernova remnants offer the opportunity of studying strong-shock physics and the nature of the interaction of ejected material with the surrounding medium. We use VLA and ROSAT images of the radio-bright supernova remnant 3C 397 (G41.1--0.3) to examine the shock structure in both thermal X-ray emission and nonthermal radio emission. The unusual rectangular morphology can be seen in VLA maps at 20 and 6 cm wavelength at a resolution of 6", and in ROSAT HRI images. The X-ray images resemble the radio strongly, except for a small, possibly un resolved X-ray hot spot near the center. There is no variation in the X-ray hardness ratio from ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter data across the remnant, suggesting that at least between 0.4 and 2 keV, the interior emission is not different in character from that in the bright shell regions. Thus 3C 397 is not a member of the ``thermal composite'' or ``mixed-morphology'' class (Rho 1998). The remnant is unpolarized at 20 cm, and ...

  15. Evolution of the Radio Remnant of Supernova 1987A: Morphological Changes from Day 7000

    Ng, C -Y; Potter, T M; Staveley-Smith, L; Gaensler, B M; Manchester, R N; Tzioumis, A K

    2013-01-01

    We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased, such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600+150-200 km/s between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400+100-200 km/s after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive eviden...

  16. Two evolved supernova remnants with newly identified Fe-rich cores in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Kavanagh, Patrick J; Bozzetto, Luke M; Points, Sean D; Crawford, Evan J; Dickel, John; Filipovic, Miroslav D; Haberl, Frank; Maggi, Pierre; Whelan, Emma T

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the evolved supernova remnants MCSNR J0506-7025 and MCSNR J0527-7104 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Methods. We used data from XMM-Newton, the Australian Telescope Compact Array, and the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey to study their broadband emission and used Spitzer and HI data to gain a picture of their environments. We performed a multi-wavelength morphological study and detailed radio and X-ray spectral analyses to determine their physical characteristics. Results. Both remnants were found to have bright X-ray cores, dominated by Fe L-shell emission, consistent with reverse shock heated ejecta with determined Fe masses in agreement with Type Ia explosion yields. A soft X-ray shell, consistent with swept-up interstellar medium, was observed in MCSNR J0506-7025, suggestive of a remnant in the Sedov phase. Using the spectral fit results and the Sedov self-similar solution, we estimated the age of MCSNR J0506-7025 to be ~16-28 kyr, with an initial explos...

  17. The faint supernova remnant G 34.7-0.4 (W44)

    Mavromatakis, F; Goudis, C D; Mavromatakis, Fotis; Boumis, Panayotis; Goudis, Christos D.

    2003-01-01

    Flux calibrated images of the known supernova remnant G 34.7-0.4 in basic optical emission lines are presented. The low ionization images show a relatively flat flux distribution. The diffuse and patchy morphology of the detected optical emission may indicate the presence of turbulent magnetic fields. Typical observed Halpha+[N II] fluxes are ~8 x 10^{-17} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} arcsec^{-2}, while the [S II] fluxes are lower around 4 x 10^{-17} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} arcsec^{-2}. Emission in the medium ionization line of [O III] 5007 A is not detected within our sensitivity limits, probably due to the heavy extinction towards the remnant. The long-slit spectra reveal strong [S II] and [N II] emission relative to Halpha and moderate [O I] 6300 A emission. Shock velocities in the range of 110-150 km/s and low electron densities are estimated. Archival MSX infrared data show emission in the south and west areas of the remnant matching rather well the optical and radio emission.

  18. XMM-Newton Studies of the Supernova Remnant G350.0$-$2.0

    Karpova, A; Zyuzin, D; Danilenko, A; Shibanov, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of XMM-Newton observations of the Galactic mixed-morphology supernova remnant G350.0$-$2.0. Diffuse thermal X-ray emission fills the north-western part of the remnant surrounded by radio shell-like structures. We did not detect any X-ray counterpart of the latter structures, but found several bright blobs within the diffuse emission. The X-ray spectrum of the most part of the remnant can be described by a collisionally-ionized plasma model VAPEC with solar abundances and a temperature of $\\approx 0.8$ keV. The solar abundances of plasma indicate that the X-ray emission comes from the shocked interstellar material. The overabundance of Fe was found in some of the bright blobs. We also analysed the brightest point-like X-ray source 1RXS J172653.4$-$382157 projected on the extended emission. Its spectrum is well described by the two-temperature optically thin thermal plasma model MEKAL typical for cataclysmic variable stars. The cataclysmic variable source nature is supported by the presenc...

  19. Three-dimensional simulations of the non-thermal broadband emission from young supernova remnants including efficient particle acceleration

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Decourchelle, Anne, E-mail: gferrand@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: anne.decourchelle@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/Irfu, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris VII), CEA Saclay, bât. 709, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2014-07-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. In this paper, we explore how the non-thermal emission from young remnants can be used to probe the production of energetic particles at the shock (both protons and electrons). Our model couples hydrodynamic simulations of a supernova remnant with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. We include two important back-reaction loops upstream of the shock: energetic particles can (1) modify the flow structure and (2) amplify the magnetic field. As the latter process is not fully understood, we use different limit cases that encompass a wide range of possibilities. We follow the history of the shock dynamics and of the particle transport downstream of the shock, which allows us to compute the non-thermal emission from the remnant at any given age. We do this in three dimensions, in order to generate projected maps that can be compared with observations. We observe that completely different recipes for the magnetic field can lead to similar modifications of the shock structure, although to very different configurations of the field and particles. We show how this affects the emission patterns in different energy bands, from radio to X-rays and γ-rays. High magnetic fields (>100 μG) directly impact the synchrotron emission from electrons, by restricting their emission to thin rims, and indirectly impact the inverse Compton emission from electrons and also the pion decay emission from protons, mostly by shifting their cut-off energies to respectively lower and higher energies.

  20. Physical processes and infrared emission from the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant

    Dwek, E.; Hauser, M. G.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Gillett, F. C.; Rice, W. L.

    1987-01-01

    IRAS 12-100 micron data on the Cas A remnant are presented, and various physical mechanisms and astrophysical sites that may contribute to the observed infrared emission are analyzed. The contributions of various sources of infrared emission to the IRAS fluxes are found to be small. The residual infrared emission is attributed to thermal emission from dust which is swept up by the expanding supernova blast wave and collisionally heated by the postshock X-ray emitting gas. The calculations are consistent with a shock velocity of 1800 km/s and a preshock gas density of about 2/cu cm. The mass of the swept-up gas is about 0.6 solar mass. An excess of 12 micron thermal emission in the spectrum of Cas A suggests the presence of very small particles in the preshocked gas.

  1. HI 21 cm Emission Line Study of Southern Galactic Supernova Remnants

    Koo, B C; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Koo, Bon-Chul; Kang, Ji-hyun

    2004-01-01

    We have searched for HI 21 cm line emission from shocked atomic gas associated with southern supernova remnants (SNRs) using data from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. Among the 97 sources studied, we have detected 10 SNRs with high-velocity HI emission confined to the SNR. The large velocity and the spatial confinement suggest that the emission is likely from the gas accelerated by the SN blast wave. We also detected 22 SNRs which show HI emission significantly brighter than the surrounding regions over a wide ($>10$\\kms) velocity interval. The association with these SNRs is less certain. We present the parameters and maps of the excess emission in these SNRs. We discuss in some detail the ten individual SNRs with associated high-velocity HI emission.

  2. Escaping the accelerator; how, when and in what numbers do cosmic rays get out of supernova remnants?

    Drury, Luke O'C

    2010-01-01

    The escape of charged particles accelerated by diffusive shock acceleration from supernova remnants is shown to be a more complex process than normally appreciated. Using a box model it is shown that the high-energy end of the spectrum can exhibit spectral breaks even with no formal escape as a result of geometrical dilution and changing time-scales. It is pointed out that the bulk of the cosmic ray particles at lower energies must be produced and released in the late stages of the remnant's evolution whereas the high energy particles are produced early on; this may explain recent observations of slight compositional variations with energy. Escape resulting from ion-neutral friction in dense and partially ionized media is discussed briefly and some comments made on the use of so-called "free escape boundary conditions". Finally estimates are made of the total production spectrum integrated over the life of the remnant.

  3. The faint supernova remnant G 116.5+1.1 and the detection of a new candidate remnant

    Mavromatakis, F.; Boumis, P.; Xilouris, E.M.; Papamastorakis, J.; Alikakos, J.

    2005-01-01

    The extended supernova remnant G 116.5+1.1 was observed in the optical emission lines of Halpha+[N II], [S II] and [O III]; deep long-slit spectra were also obtained. The morphology of the remnant's observed emission is mainly diffuse and patchy in contrast to the known filamentary emission seen along the western limb. The bulk of the detected emission in the region appears unrelated to the remnant but there is one area of emission in the south-east which is characterized by a [S II]/Halpha r...

  4. Supernova Remnants in the Fossil Starburst in M82

    De Grijs, R; Becker, G D; Chevalier, R A; Gallagher, J S; Grijs, Richard de; O'Connell, Robert W; Becker, George D; Chevalier, Roger A; Gallagher, John S

    1999-01-01

    We report the discovery of ten compact H-alpha-bright sources in the post-starburst region northeast of the center of M82, ``M82 B.'' These objects have H alpha luminosities and sizes consistent with Type II supernova remnants (SNRs). They fall on the same H alpha surface brightness-diameter (Sigma-D) relation defined by SNRs in other nearby star-forming galaxies, with the M82 candidates lying preferentially at the small diameter end. These are the first candidates for optically-visible SNRs in M82 outside the heavily obscured central starburst within ~250 pc from the galactic center. If these sources are SNRs, they set an upper limit to the end of the starburst in region ``B2,'' about 500 pc from the galaxy's core, of ~50 Myr. Region ``B1,'' about 1000 pc from the core, lacks good SNR candidates and is evidently somewhat older. This suggests star formation in the galaxy has propagated inward toward the present-day intense starburst core.

  5. Discovery of New Interacting Supernova Remnants in the Inner Galaxy

    Hewitt, John W

    2009-01-01

    OH(1720 MHz) masers are excellent signposts of interaction between supernova remnants(SNRs) and molecular clouds. Using the GBT and VLA we have surveyed 75 SNRs and six candidates for maser emission. Four new interacting SNRs are detected with OH masers: G5.4-1.2, G5.7-0.0, G8.7-0.1 and G9.7-0.0. The newly detected interacting SNRs G5.7-0.0 and G8.7-0.1 have TeV gamma-ray counterparts which may indicate a local cosmic ray enhancement. It has been noted that maser-emitting SNRs are preferentially distributed in the Molecular Ring and Nuclear Disk. We use the present and existing surveys to demonstrate that masers are strongly confined to within 50 degrees Galactic longitude at a rate of 15 percent of the total SNR population. All new detections are within 10 degrees Galactic longitude emphasizing this trend. Additionally, a substantial number of SNR masers have peak fluxes at or below the detection threshold of existing surveys. This calls into question whether maser surveys of Galactic SNRs can be considered ...

  6. Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant

    Arendt, Richard G; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jeonghee; Hwang, Una

    2014-01-01

    Infrared continuum observations provide a means of investigating the physical composition of the dust in the ejecta and swept up medium of the Cas A supernova remnant. Using low resolution Spitzer IRS spectra (5-35 $\\mu$m), and broad-band Herschel PACS imaging (70, 100, and 160 $\\mu$m), we identify characteristic dust spectra, associated with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories. The most luminous spectrum exhibits strong emission features at $\\sim9$ and 21 $\\mu$m and is closely associated with ejecta knots with strong Ar emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low Mg to Si ratios. Another dust spectrum is associated with ejecta having strong Ne emission lines. It has no indication of any silicate features, and is best fit by Al$_2$O$_3$ dust. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that are best matched by magnesium silicates with a relatively high Mg to Si ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray e...

  7. Grammage of cosmic rays around Galactic supernova remnants

    D'Angelo, Marta; Amato, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The residence time of cosmic rays (CRs) in the Galaxy is usually inferred from the measurement of the ratio of secondary-to-primary nuclei, such as the boron (B)/carbon (C) ratio, which provides an estimate of the amount of matter traversed by CRs during their propagation, the so called CR grammage. However, after being released by their parent sources, for instance supernova remnants (SNRs), CRs must cross the disc of the Galaxy, before entering the much lower density halo, in which they are believed to spend most of the time before eventually escaping the Galaxy. In the near-source region, the CR propagation is shown to be dominated by the non-linear self-generation of waves. Here we show that due to this effect, the time that CRs with energies up to $\\sim$ 10 TeV spend within a distance $L_{c}\\sim 100$ pc from the sources is much larger than naive estimates would suggest. The corresponding grammage is close to current estimates of the total grammage traversed throughout the whole Galaxy. Moreover, there is...

  8. Direct Ejecta Velocity Measurements of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Sato, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    We present the first direct ejecta velocity measurements of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR). Chandra's high angular resolution images reveal a patchy structure of radial velocities in the ejecta that can be separated into distinct redshifted, blueshifted, and low velocity ejecta clumps or blobs. The typical velocities of the redshifted and blueshifted blobs are <~ 7,800 km/s and <~ 5,000 km/s, respectively. The highest velocity blobs are located near the center, while the low velocity ones appear near the edge as expected for a generally spherical expansion. Systematic uncertainty on the velocity measurements from gain calibration was assessed by carrying out joint fits of individual blobs with both the ACIS-I and ACIS-S detectors. We identified an annular region (~3.3'-3.5'), where the surface brightness in the Si, S, and Fe K lines reaches a peak while the line width reaches a minimum value. These minimum line widths correspond to ion temperatures of ~1 MeV for each of the three species, in excellent ...

  9. Two remarkably thin CO filaments toward the supernova remnant G109.1-1.0

    The authors have observed the semicircular supernova remnant G109.1--1.0 in the J = 1-0 transition of CO with the Nobeyama 45-m radio telescope. It is found that two remarkably thin molecular filaments delineate the inner boundary of the x-ray jet feature in this remnant. These filaments seem to have experienced evaporation due to the hot gas in the remnant

  10. Infrared Spectral Mapping of Supernova Remnants. I. N63A and Its Environment

    Caulet, Adeline; Williams, Rosa M.

    2012-12-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of the supernova remnant (SNR) N63A and its native H II region N63 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We measure nebular fine-structure lines, H2 lines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lines contribute half of the flux in the Spitzer 24 μm image of N63A shocked lobes, but only Electron densities are low everywhere; the differences in mid-IR line ratios separate N63A plasma and its high-excitation surroundings from N63A low-excitation optical lobes. We compare the observed line fluxes and ratios within N63A's shocked lobes and plasma with the predictions from models for moderate and fast shocks to constrain pre-shock densities and shock velocities. N63A's photoionized lobe contains a warm photodissociation region in pressure equilibrium with optically ionized gas. We apply a physical dust model to our spectra supplemented by MIPS photometry. We derive the intensity of radiation heating the dust, the mass fraction due to PAHs, and the masses of dust within our sampled regions and of cooler grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. N63A's shocked lobes and plasma contain ~0.07 M ⊙ of hot grains, comparable to amounts in other SNRs. Within N63A there is ~0.7 M ⊙ of warm grains exposed to >=100 times the intensity of the local interstellar radiation field. Within the regions, 92% of the total dust mass resides in cool grains emitting <=27% of their mid-IR luminosity. In loving memory of Sylvie Caulet-Maugendre: "I used to believe in forever, but forever is too good to be true." A. A. Milne, Winnie-the-Pooh.

  11. Chandra X-ray Observatory Arcsecond Imaging of the Young, Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant 1E0102.2-7219

    Gaetz, T. J.; Butt, Yousaf M.; Edgar, Richard J.; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Schlegel, Eric M.; Smith, Randall K.

    2000-01-01

    We present observations of the young, Oxygen-rich supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219 taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory during Chandra's Orbital Activation and Checkout phase. The boundary of the blast wave shock is clearly seen for the first time, allowing the diameter of the remnant and the mean blast wave velocity to be determined accurately. The prominent X-ray bright ring of material may be the result of the reverse shock encountering ejecta; the radial variation of O VII vs. O VIII emi...

  12. Constraining the Age and Distance of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7 by Hα Expansion Measurements

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Fesen, Robert; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2016-08-01

    We present deep Hα images of portions of the X-ray bright, but optically faint, Galactic supernova remnant G156.2+5.7, revealing numerous and delicately thin non-radiative filaments, which mark the location of the remnant’s forward shock. These new images show that these filaments have a complex structure not visible on previous lower resolution optical images. By comparing Hα images taken in 2004 at the McDonald Observatory and in 2015–2016 at the Kiso Observatory, we set a stringent 1σ upper limit of expansion to be 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 06 yr‑1. This proper motion, combined with a shock speed of 500 km s‑1, inferred from X-ray spectral analyses, gives a distance of ≳1.7 kpc. In addition, a simple comparison of expansion indices of several supernova remnants allows us to infer the age of the remnant to be a few tens of thousands years old. These estimates are more straightforward and reliable than any other previous studies, and clearly rule out the possibility that G156.2+5.7 is physically associated with part of the Taurus–Auriga cloud and dust complex at a distance of 200–300 pc.

  13. X-RAY EJECTA KINEMATICS OF THE GALACTIC CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.0+1.8

    We report on the results from the analysis of our 114 ks Chandra High Energy Transmision Grating Spectrometer observation of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. To probe the three-dimensional structure of the clumpy X-ray emitting ejecta material in this remnant, we measured Doppler shifts in emission lines from metal-rich ejecta knots projected at different radial distances from the expansion center. We estimate radial velocities of ejecta knots in the range of –2300 ≲ vr  ≲ 1400 km s–1. The distribution of ejecta knots in velocity versus projected-radius space suggests an expanding ejecta shell with a projected angular thickness of ∼90'' (corresponding to ∼3 pc at d = 6 kpc). Based on this geometrical distribution of the ejecta knots, we estimate the location of the reverse shock approximately at the distance of ∼4 pc from the center of the supernova remnant, putting it in close proximity to the outer boundary of the radio pulsar wind nebula. Based on our observed remnant dynamics and the standard explosion energy of 1051 erg, we estimate the total ejecta mass to be ≲8 M ☉, and we propose an upper limit of ≲35 M ☉ on the progenitor's mass

  14. X-ray ejecta kinematics of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8

    Bhalerao, Jayant; Dewey, Daniel; Hughes, John P; Mori, Koji; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results from the analysis of our 114 ks Chandra HETGS observation of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. To probe the 3D structure of the clumpy X-ray emitting ejecta material in this remnant, we measured Doppler shifts in emission lines from metal-rich ejecta knots projected at different radial distances from the expansion center. We estimate radial velocities of ejecta knots in the range of -2300 <~ v_r <~ 1400 km s^-1. The distribution of ejecta knots in velocity vs. projected-radius space suggests an expanding ejecta shell with a projected angular thickness of ~90" (corresponding to ~3 pc at d = 6 kpc). Based on this geometrical distribution of the ejecta knots, we estimate the location of the reverse shock approximately at the distance of ~4 pc from the center of the supernova remnant, putting it in close proximity to the outer boundary of the radio pulsar wind nebula. Based on our observed remnant dynamics and the standard explosion energy of 10^51 erg, we est...

  15. X-RAY EJECTA KINEMATICS OF THE GALACTIC CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.0+1.8

    Bhalerao, Jayant; Park, Sangwook [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, P.O. Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Dewey, Daniel [MIT Kavli Institute, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Mori, Koji [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Lee, Jae-Joon, E-mail: jayant.bhalerao@mavs.uta.edu [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-10

    We report on the results from the analysis of our 114 ks Chandra High Energy Transmision Grating Spectrometer observation of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. To probe the three-dimensional structure of the clumpy X-ray emitting ejecta material in this remnant, we measured Doppler shifts in emission lines from metal-rich ejecta knots projected at different radial distances from the expansion center. We estimate radial velocities of ejecta knots in the range of –2300 ≲ v{sub r}  ≲ 1400 km s{sup –1}. The distribution of ejecta knots in velocity versus projected-radius space suggests an expanding ejecta shell with a projected angular thickness of ∼90'' (corresponding to ∼3 pc at d = 6 kpc). Based on this geometrical distribution of the ejecta knots, we estimate the location of the reverse shock approximately at the distance of ∼4 pc from the center of the supernova remnant, putting it in close proximity to the outer boundary of the radio pulsar wind nebula. Based on our observed remnant dynamics and the standard explosion energy of 10{sup 51} erg, we estimate the total ejecta mass to be ≲8 M {sub ☉}, and we propose an upper limit of ≲35 M {sub ☉} on the progenitor's mass.

  16. Numerical code for fitting radial emission profile of a shell supernova remnant: Application

    Opsenica Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present IDL (Interactive Data Language codes for fitting a theoretical emission profile of a shell supernova remnant (SNR to the mean profile of an SNR obtained from radio observations. Two considered theoretical models are: 1 a shell with constant emissivity and 2 a synchrotron shell with radially aligned magnetic field. The codes were applied to several observed supernova remnants. Good results are obtained in five considered cases, which justify the use of our code for remnants that are bright (so that observational errors are not large and spherically symmetric enough.

  17. Nonuniform Expansion of the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Green, David A.; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of the X-ray expansion of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant, G1.9+0.3, using Chandra observations in 2007, 2009, and 2011. The measured rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, decreasing radially by about 60 along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis from 0.84 plus or minus 0.06% yr(exp -1) to 0.52% plus or minus 0.03 yr(exp -1). This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120-190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9+0.3 and implying a significant deceleration of the blast wave. The synchrotron-dominated X-ray emission brightens at a rate of 1.9% plus or minus 0.4% yr(exp -1). We identify bright outer and inner rims with the blast wave and reverse shock, respectively. Sharp density gradients in either the ejecta or ambient medium are required to produce the sudden deceleration of the reverse shock or the blast wave implied by the large spread in expansion ages. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as may be found at a wind termination shock, requiring strong mass loss in the progenitor.

  18. Proper Motions of H-alpha filaments in the Supernova Remnant RCW 86

    Helder, E A; Bamba, A; Bleeker, J A M; Burrows, D N; Ghavamian, P; Yamazaki, R

    2013-01-01

    We present a proper motion study of the eastern shock-region of the supernova remnant RCW 86 (MSH 14-63, G315.4-2.3), based on optical observations carried out with VLT/FORS2 in 2007 and 2010. For both the northeastern and southeastern regions, we measure an average proper motion of H-alpha filaments of 0.10 +/- 0.02 arcsec/yr, corresponding to 1200 +/- 200 km/s at 2.5kpc. There is substantial variation in the derived proper motions, indicating shock velocities ranging from just below 700 km/s to above 2200 km/s. The optical proper motion is lower than the previously measured X-ray proper motion of northeastern region. The new measurements are consistent with the previously measured proton temperature of 2.3 +/- 0.3 keV, assuming no cosmic-ray acceleration. However, within the uncertainties, moderately efficient (< 27 per cent) shock acceleration is still possible. The combination of optical proper motion and proton temperature rule out the possibility that RCW 86 has a distance less than 1.5kpc. The simil...

  19. The Fermi Bubbles as a Scaled-up Version of Supernova Remnants

    Fujita, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we treat the Fermi bubbles as a scaled-up version of supernova remnants (SNRs). The bubbles are created through activities of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) or starbursts at the Galactic center (GC). Cosmic-rays (CRs) are accelerated at the forward shocks of the bubbles like SNRs, which means that we cannot decide whether the bubbles were created by the SMBH or starbursts from the radiation from the CRs. We follow the evolution of CR distribution by solving a diffusion-advection equation, considering the reduction of the diffusion coefficient by CR streaming. In this model, gamma-rays are created through hadronic interaction between CR protons and the gas in the Galactic halo. In the GeV band, we can well reproduce the observed flat distribution of gamma-ray surface brightness, because some amount of gas is left behind the shock. The edge of the bubbles is fairly sharp owing to the high gas density behind the shock and the reduction of the diffusion coefficient there. The latter also contr...

  20. Nonthermal radiation of young supernova remnants: the case of Cas A

    Zirakashvili, V N; Yang, R; Ona-Wilhelmi, E; Tuffs, R J

    2013-01-01

    The processes responsible for the broad-band radiation of the young supernova remnant Cas A are explored using a new code which is designed for a detailed treatment of the diffusive shock acceleration of particles in nonlinear regime. The model is based on spherically symmetric hydrodynamic equations complemented with transport equations for relativistic particles. Electrons, protons and the oxygen ions accelerated by forward and reverse shocks are included in the numerical calculations. We show that the available multi-wavelength observations in the radio, X-ray and gamma-ray bands can be best explained by invoking particle acceleration by both forward and reversed shocks. Although the TeV gamma-ray observations can be interpreted by interactions of both accelerated electrons and protons/ions, the measurements by Fermi LAT at energies below 1 GeV give a tentative preference to the hadronic origin of gamma-rays. Then, the acceleration efficiency in this source, despite the previous claims, should be very high...

  1. The composite form of the supernova remnant 3C 400.2: two interacting supernova remnants or a single supernova remnant with a blow-out?

    Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz; Margarita Rosado; Eduardo de la Fuente

    2006-01-01

    3C 400.2 es un remanente de supernova galáctico que presenta una morfología que asemeja dos cascarones de diámetros diferentes que se traslapan. Estudiamos la cinemática de ambos cascarones para saber si esta morfología especial es debida al resultado de dos explosiones de supernova diferentes, o bien, a la explosión de una única supernova en un medio que tenga un gradiente de densidad abrupto. Los datos cinemáticos concuerdan mejor con la segunda hipótesis.

  2. The composite form of the supernova remnant 3C 400.2: two interacting supernova remnants or a single supernova remnant with a blow-out?

    Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available 3C 400.2 es un remanente de supernova galáctico que presenta una morfología que asemeja dos cascarones de diámetros diferentes que se traslapan. Estudiamos la cinemática de ambos cascarones para saber si esta morfología especial es debida al resultado de dos explosiones de supernova diferentes, o bien, a la explosión de una única supernova en un medio que tenga un gradiente de densidad abrupto. Los datos cinemáticos concuerdan mejor con la segunda hipótesis.

  3. Re-examination of the Expected gamma-ray emission of supernova remnant SN 1987A

    Berezhko, E G; Voelk, H J

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear kinetic theory, combining cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) with their gas dynamics, is used to re-examine the nonthermal properties of the remnant of SN 1987A for an extended evolutionary period of 5-50 yr. This spherically symmetric model is approximately applied to the different features of the SNR which consist of (i) a blue supergiant wind and bubble, and (ii) of the swept-up red supergiant (RSG) wind structures in the form of an HII region, an equatorial ring (ER), and an hourglass region. The RSG wind involves a mass loss rate that decreases significantly with elevation above and below the equatorial plane. The model adapts recent three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations by Potter et al. (2014) which use a significantly smaller ionized mass of the ER than assumed in the earlier studies by the present authors. The SNR shock has recently swept up the ER which is the densest region in the immediate circumstellar environment. Therefore the expected gamma-ray energy f...

  4. 3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of the Galactic Supernova Remnant CTB 109

    Bolte, Jan; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Using detailed 3D hydrodynamic simulations we study the nature of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) CTB 109 (G109.1-1.0), which is well-known for its semicircular shape and a bright diffuse X-ray emission feature inside the SNR. Our model has been designed to explain the observed morphology, with a special emphasis on the bright emission feature inside the SNR. Moreover, we determine the age of the remnant and compare our findings with X-ray observations. With CTB 109 we test a new method of detailed numerical simulations of diffuse young objects, using realistic initial conditions derived directly from observations. We performed numerical 3D simulations with the RAMSES code. The initial density structure has been directly taken from $^{12}$CO emission data, adding an additional dense cloud, which, when it is shocked, causes the bright emission feature. From parameter studies we obtained the position $(\\ell , b)=(109.1545^\\circ , -1.0078^\\circ)$ for an elliptical cloud with $n_\\text{cloud}=25~\\text{cm}^{-3...

  5. A Broadband X-Ray Study of the Supernova Remnant 3C 397

    Safi-Harb, S; Arnaud, K A; Keohane, J W; Borkowski, K J; Dyer, K K; Reynolds, S P; Hughes, J P

    2000-01-01

    We present an X-ray study of the radio bright supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 397 with ROSAT, ASCA, and RXTE. A central X-ray spot seen with the ROSAT High-Resolution Imager hints at the presence of a pulsar-powered component, and gives this SNR a composite X-ray morphology. Combined ROSAT and ASCA imaging show that the remnant is highly asymmetric, with its hard X-ray emission peaking at the western lobe. The spectrum of 3C 397 is heavily absorbed, and dominated by thermal emission with emission lines evident from Mg, Si, S, Ar and Fe. Single-component models fail to describe the spectrum, and at least two components are required. We use a set of non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) models (Borkowski et al. in preparation). The temperatures from the soft and hard components are 0.2 keV and 1.6 keV respectively. The corresponding ionization time-scales $n_0 t$ ($n_0$ being the pre-shock hydrogen density) are 6 $\\times 10^{12}$ cm$^{-3}$ s and 6 $\\times$ 10$^{10}$ cm$^{-3}$ s, respectively. The spectrum obtained with t...

  6. G11.2-0.3: The Young Remnant of a Stripped-Envelope Supernova

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Roberts, Mallory S E

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a 400-ks Chandra observation of the young shell supernova remnant (SNR) G11.2-0.3, containing a pulsar and pulsar-wind nebula (PWN). We measure a mean expansion rate for the shell since 2000 of 0.0277+/-0.0018% per yr, implying an age between 1400 and 2400 yr, and making G11.2-0.3 one of the youngest core-collapse SNRs in the Galaxy. However, we find very high absorption ($A_V \\sim 16^m \\pm 2^m$), confirming near-IR determinations and ruling out a claimed association with the possible historical SN of 386 CE. The PWN shows strong jets and a faint torus within a larger, more diffuse region of radio emission and nonthermal X-rays. Central soft thermal X-ray emission is anticorrelated with the PWN; that, and more detailed morphological evidence, indicates that the reverse shock has already reheated all ejecta and compressed the PWN. The pulsar characteristic energy-loss timescale is well in excess of the remnant age, and we suggest that the bright jets have been produced since the recompres...

  7. G 2.4 + 1.4: a supernova remnant or ring nebula around a peculiar star

    G2.4+1.4 is a probable nonthermal radio source and an optical nebula which appears to be a supernova remnant (SNR). It also contains an O vi sequence star of great excitation. We present new radiofrequency continuum and (nil) H 92α observations, optical spectroscopy, and Fabry-Perot scanner observations of the nebula. The object distance (5 kpc), origin of gas kinematics (SNR expansion), and mode of excitation of the gas (photoexcitation and/or shock wave) remain uncertain. We discuss the possible roles of the O vi star as ''runaway'' in a SNR, as a source of photoexcitation, and as an ejector of a ''counterfeit'' SNR

  8. Nonthermal radiation of young supernova remnants: The case of Cas A

    Zirakashvili, V. N. [Pushkov Institute for Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radiowave Propagation, 142190 Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Aharonian, F. A.; Yang, R.; Oña-Wilhelmi, E.; Tuffs, R. J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-04-20

    The processes responsible for the broadband radiation of the young supernova remnant Cas A are explored by using a new code that is designed for a detailed treatment of the diffusive shock acceleration of particles in the nonlinear regime. The model is based on spherically symmetric hydrodynamic equations complemented with transport equations for relativistic particles. Electrons, protons, and the oxygen ions accelerated by forward and reverse shocks are included in the numerical calculations. We show that the available multi-wavelength observations in the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands can be best explained by invoking particle acceleration by both forward and reversed shocks. Although the TeV gamma-ray observations can be interpreted by interactions of both accelerated electrons and protons/ions, the measurements by Fermi Large Area Telescope at energies below 1 GeV give a tentative preference to the hadronic origin of gamma-rays. Then, the acceleration efficiency in this source, despite the previous claims, should be very high; 25% of the explosion energy (or approximately 3 × 10{sup 50} erg) should already be converted to cosmic rays, mainly by the forward shock. At the same time, the model calculations do not provide extension of the maximum energy of accelerated protons beyond 100 TeV. In this model, the acceleration of electrons is dominated by the reverse shock; the required 10{sup 48} erg can be achieved under the assumption that the injection of electrons (positrons) is supported by the radioactive decay of {sup 44}Ti.

  9. Geneva University: Particle Acceleration in supernova remnants and its implications for the origin of galactic cosmic rays

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 28 March 2012 SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE 11h15 - Science III, Auditoire 1S081 Particle Acceleration in supernova remnants and its implications for the origin of galactic cosmic rays Prof. Pasquale BLASI INAF, Arcetri Observatory, Firenze The process of cosmic ray energization in supernova remnant shocks is described by the theory of non linear diffusive shock acceleration (NLDSA). Such theory is able to describe the acceleration itself, the dynamical reaction of accelerated particles on the shock, and the crucial phenomenon of the magnetic field amplification, the very key to generate high energy cosmic rays. I will illustrate the basic aspects of this theoretical framework, as well as its successes and problems. I will then discuss the observations, in X-rays an...

  10. A Chandra View Of Nonthermal Emission In The Northwestern Region Of Supernova Remnant RCW 86: Particle Acceleration And Magnetic Fields

    Castro, Daniel; Slane, Patrick O; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2013-01-01

    The shocks of supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to accelerate particles to cosmic ray (CR) energies. The amplification of the magnetic field due to CRs propagating in the shock region is expected to have an impact on both the emission from the accelerated particle population, as well as the acceleration process itself. Using a 95 ks observation with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) onboard the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we map and characterize the synchrotron emitting material in the northwestern region of RCW 86. We model spectra from several different regions, filamentary and diffuse alike, where emission appears dominated by synchrotron radiation. The fine spatial resolution of Chandra allows us to obtain accurate emission profiles across 3 different non-thermal rims in this region. The narrow width (l = 10''-30'') of these filaments constrains the minimum magnetic field strength at the post-shock region to be approximately 80 {\\mu}G.

  11. Interaction between supernova remnant G22.7–0.2 and the ambient molecular clouds

    We have carried out 12CO (J = 1-0 and 2-1), 13CO (J = 1-0), and C18O (J = 1-0) observations in the direction of the supernova remnant (SNR) G22.7–0.2. A filamentary molecular gas structure, which is likely part of a larger molecular complex with V LSR ∼ 75-79 km s–1, is detected and is found to surround the southern boundary of the remnant. In particular, the high-velocity wing (77-110 km s–1) in the 12CO (J = 1-0 and J = 2-1) emission shows convincing evidence of the interaction between SNR G22.7–0.2 and the 75-79 km s–1 molecular clouds (MCs). Spectra with redshifted profiles, a signature of shocked molecular gas, are seen in the southeastern boundary of the remnant. The association between the remnant and the 77 km s–1 MCs places the remnant at the near distance of 4.4 ± 0.4 kpc, which agrees with a location on the Scutum-Crux arm. We suggest that SNR G22.7–0.2, SNR W41, and H II region G022.760-0.485 are at the same distance and are associated with GMC G23.0–0.4.

  12. CHANDRA AND XMM OBSERVATIONS OF THE COMPOSITE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G327.1-1.1

    We present new X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of a composite supernova remnant G327.1-1.1 using the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. G327.1-1.1 has an unusual morphology consisting of a symmetric radio shell and an off center nonthermal component that indicates the presence of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Radio observations show a narrow finger of emission extending from the PWN structure toward the northwest. X-ray studies with ASCA, ROSAT, and BeppoSAX revealed elongated extended emission and a compact source at the tip of the finger that may be coincident with the actual pulsar. The high resolution Chandra observations provide new insight into the structure of the inner region of the remnant. The images show a compact source embedded in a cometary structure from which a trail of X-ray emission extends in the southeast direction. The Chandra images also reveal two prong-like structures that appear to originate from the vicinity of the compact source and extend into a large bubble that is oriented in the northwest direction, opposite from the bright radio PWN. The emission from the entire radio shell is detected in the XMM data and can be characterized by a thermal plasma model with a temperature of ∼ 0.3 keV, which we use to estimate the physical properties of the remnant. The peculiar morphology of G327.1-1.1 may be explained by the emission from a moving pulsar and a relic PWN that has been disrupted by the reverse shock.

  13. Nonuniform Expansion of the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    Borkowski, K J; Green, D A; Hwang, U; Petre, R; Krishnamurthy, K; Willett, R

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of X-ray expansion of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3, using Chandra observations in 2007, 2009, and 2011. The measured rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, decreasing radially by about 60% along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis from 0."84% +/- 0."06% per yr to 0."52% +/- 0."03% per yr. This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120-190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9+0.3, and implying a significant deceleration of the blast wave. The spatially-integrated dominantly synchrotron X-ray flux increases at 1.9% +/- 0.4% per yr. We identify the outer and inner rims with the blast wave and reverse shock, respectively. Sudden large density gradients in either ejecta or ambient medium are required to produce the sudden deceleration of the reverse shock or the blast wave implied by the large spread in expansion ages. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as found at a win...

  14. Optical observations of the supernova remnant G 69.4+1.2

    Mavromatakis, F; Paleologou, E V; Mavromatakis, Fotis; Boumis, Panayotis; Paleologou, Euthimios V.

    2002-01-01

    We performed deep optical observations of the area of the new supernova remnant G 69.4+1.2 in the emission lines of [O III], Halpha+[N II] and [S II]. The low ionization images reveal diffuse and filamentary emission in the central and south, south-west areas of our field. Estimates of the [S II]/Halpha ratio suggest that the detected emission in these areas originates from shock heated gas, while the strong extended source in the north must be an HII region. The medium ionization image of [O III] shows a single filament close to the field center. Emission from [O III] is not detected elsewhere in the field but only in the north from LBN 069.96+01.35. Deep long-slit spectra taken at the position of the [O III] filament suggest shock velocities ~120 km/s, while in other areas velocities around 50 km/s are expected. The sulfur lines ratio indicates electron densities less than 120 cm^{-3}. The absolute Halpha flux is ~5 x 10^{-17} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} arcsec^{-2}. The optical emission is very well correlated with...

  15. SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF M83: IMAGING AND PHOTOMETRY WITH THE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    We present Wide Field Camera 3 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope within a single field in the southern grand design star-forming galaxy M83. Based on their size, morphology, and photometry in continuum-subtracted Hα, [S II], Hβ, [O III], and [O II] filters, we have identified 60 supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, as well as a handful of young ejecta-dominated candidates. A catalog of these remnants, their sizes and, where possible, their Hα fluxes are given. Radiative ages and pre-shock densities are derived from those SNRs that have good photometry. The ages lie in the range 2.62 rad/yr) 0/cm-3 min = 16+7-5 Msun. Finally, we give evidence for the likely detection of the remnant of the historical supernova, SN1968L.

  16. Observational study of ion-electron equilibration and of cloud evaporation in supernova remnants under the HEAO-2 guest investigator program

    Teske, R. G.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of three selected supernovae remnants (Cygnus Loop, IC 443, and Puppis A) were made in the forbidden coronal iron lines (Fe X) lambda 6374 and (Fe XIV) lambda 5303. The resulting data was compared quantitatively with Einstein images of the same objects, and an attempt was made to determine (a) the process by which ion and electron energies are equilibrated behind the shock front in the ISM and (b) whether cloud evaporation occurs within the hot remnant interiors. Spatially-resolved X ray emission were modeled for Sedov-Taylor blast wave models of supernovae remnants (SNR) under conditions of non-equlibrium ionization. The computations are intended to provide results that can be directly compared with Einstein high resolution image (HRI) and imaging proportional counter (IPS) data. The computer program for predicting the spatial distribution of HRI and IPS counting rates was completed, and final testing of it had begun.

  17. RX-J0852−4622: THE NEAREST HISTORICAL SUPERNOVA REMNANT – AGAIN

    Bernd Aschenbach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RX-J0852−4622, a supernova remnant, is demonstrated to be closer than 500 pc, based on the measurements of the angular radius, the angular expansion rate and the TeV g-ray flux. This is a new method of limiting the distance to any supernova remnant with hadronic induced TeV g-ray flux. The progenitor star of RX-J0852−4622 probably exploded in its blue supergiant wind, like SN 1987A, preceeded by a red supergiant phase. A cool dense shell, expected around the outskirts of the red wind, my have been identified. The distance (200 pc and age (680 yr of the supernova remnant, originally proposed, are supported.

  18. High-Velocity H I Gas in Supernova Remnants

    Koo, Bon-Chul

    1993-05-01

    Using the Hat Creek 85 foot telescope, we had carried out a survey of H I 21 cm emission lines toward all 103 known northern supernova remnants (SNRs) in order to find rapidly expanding SNR shells (Koo & Heiles 1991). We detected 15 SNRs that have associated high-velocity (HV) H I gas, most of which are quite likely the gas accelerated by the SN blast wave. Although the large beam-size (FWHM~ 30') of the 85 foot telescope prevented us to see the structure of the HV H I gas, the H I mass distribution in line-of-sight velocity suggested clumpy shell structures in several SNRs. In order to resolve the structure of the HV H I gas, we have been carrying out high-resolution H I 21 cm line observations using the Arecibo telescope and the VLA. We report preliminary results on two SNRs, CTB 80 and W51. In CTB 80, the VLA observations revealed fast moving H I clumps, which have a dense (n_H ~ 100 cm(-3) ) core surrounded by a relatively diffuse envelope. The clumps are small, 3 pc to 5 pc, and have velocities between +40 km s(-1) and +80 km s(-1) with respect to the systematic velocity of CTB 80. The clumps have relatively large momentum per unit volume, which implies that they have been swept-up at an early stage of the SNR evolution. By analyzing the Arecibo data, we found that the interstellar medium around CTB 80 is far from being uniform and homogeneous, which explains the peculiar morphology of CTB 80 in infrared and radio continuum. In W51, HV H I gas moving up to v_LSR>+150 km s(-1) has been detected. The H I distribution is elongated along the northwest-southeast direction, and the peak is very close to an X-ray bright region. We discuss the implications of our results in relation to the X-ray and the radio continuum morphology of W51. This work was supported in part by NON DIRECTED RESEARCH FUND, Korea Research Foundation, 1992.

  19. Spitzer observations of the type IA supernova remnant N103B: Kepler's older cousin?

    We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm–3, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements toward regions of higher than average density. This density is similar to that in Kepler's SNR, a Type Ia interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). Optical images show Hα emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the '18 μm' silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 μm. We propose that the dense material is circumstellar material lost from the progenitor system, as with Kepler. If the CSM interpretation is correct, this remnant would become the second member, along with Kepler, of a class of Type Ia remnants characterized by interaction with a dense CSM hundreds of years post-explosion. A lack of N enhancement eliminates symbiotic asymptotic giant branch progenitors. The white dwarf companion must have been relatively unevolved at the time of the explosion.

  20. Spitzer observations of the type IA supernova remnant N103B: Kepler's older cousin?

    Williams, Brian J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Physics Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Raymond, John C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Long, Knox S. [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Sankrit, Ravi [SOFIA Science Center, NASA AMES Research Center, M/S N211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Winkler, P. Frank [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Hendrick, Sean P., E-mail: brian.j.williams@nasa.gov [Physics Department, Millersville University, P.O. Box 1002, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm{sup –3}, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements toward regions of higher than average density. This density is similar to that in Kepler's SNR, a Type Ia interacting with a circumstellar medium (CSM). Optical images show Hα emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the '18 μm' silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 μm. We propose that the dense material is circumstellar material lost from the progenitor system, as with Kepler. If the CSM interpretation is correct, this remnant would become the second member, along with Kepler, of a class of Type Ia remnants characterized by interaction with a dense CSM hundreds of years post-explosion. A lack of N enhancement eliminates symbiotic asymptotic giant branch progenitors. The white dwarf companion must have been relatively unevolved at the time of the explosion.

  1. Observations of Supernova Remnants and Pulsar Wind Nebulae: A VERITAS Key Science Project

    Humensky, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The study of supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae was one of the Key Science Projects for the first two years of VERITAS observations. VERITAS is an array of four imaging Cherenkov telescopes located at the Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona. Supernova remnants are widely considered to be the strongest candidate for the source of cosmic rays below the knee at around 10^15 eV. Pulsar wind nebulae are synchrotron nebulae powered by the spin-down of energetic young pulsars, and comprise one of the most populous very-high-energy gamma-ray source classes. This poster will summarize the results of this observation program.

  2. Fermi-LAT Detection of the Young SuperNova Remnant Tycho

    Giordano, F.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Ballet, J.; Bechtol, K.; Funk, S; Lande, J.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Rainò, S.; Tanaka, T.; O. Tibolla(Universität Würzburg, D-97074 Würzburg, Germany); Uchiyama, Y.

    2011-01-01

    After almost three years of data taking in sky survey mode, the \\emph{Fermi}-LAT has detected $\\gamma$-ray emission toward the Tycho's Supernova Remnant (SNR). The Tycho SNR is among the youngest remnants in the Galaxy, originating from a Type Ia Supernova in AD 1572. The $\\gamma$-ray integral flux from 400 MeV up to 100 GeV has been measured to be (3.5$\\pm1.1_{stat}\\pm0.7_{syst}$)$\\times10^{-9}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with a photon index of 2.3$\\pm0.2_{stat}\\pm0.1_{syst}$.

  3. \\emph{Fermi}-LAT Detection of the Young SuperNova Remnant Tycho

    Giordano, F; Ballet, J; Bechtol, K; Funk, S; Lande, J; Mazziotta, M N; Rain`o, S; Tanaka, T; Tibolla, O; Uchiyama, Y

    2011-01-01

    After almost three years of data taking in sky survey mode, the \\emph{Fermi}-LAT has detected $\\gamma$-ray emission toward the Tycho's Supernova Remnant (SNR). The Tycho SNR is among the youngest remnants in the Galaxy, originating from a Type Ia Supernova in AD 1572. The $\\gamma$-ray integral flux from 400 MeV up to 100 GeV has been measured to be (3.5$\\pm1.1_{stat}\\pm0.7_{syst}$)$\\times10^{-9}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with a photon index of 2.3$\\pm0.2_{stat}\\pm0.1_{syst}$.

  4. Evolution of the radio remnant of supernova 1987A: Morphological changes from day 7000

    Ng, SCY; Zanardo, G; Potter, TM; Staveley-Smith, L.; Gaensler, BM; Manchester, RN; Tzioumis, AK

    2013-01-01

    We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased, such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the eas...

  5. X-Rays from Supernova Shocks in Dense Mass Loss

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Irwin, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Type IIn and related supernovae show evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium that produces most of the supernova luminosity. X-ray emission from shock heated gas is crucial for the energetics of the interaction and can provide diagnostics on the shock interaction. Provided that the shock is at an optical depth tau_w\\la c/v_s in the wind, where c is the speed of light and v_s is the shock velocity, a viscous shock is expected that heats the gas to a high temperature. For ...

  6. The Balmer-dominated northeast limb of the Cygnus loop supernova remnant

    Hester, J. Jeff; Raymond, John C.; Blair, William P.

    1994-01-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the Balmar-dominated northeast limb of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Data presented include H alpha (O III), and X-ray images, UV and visible spectrophotometry, and high-resolution spectroscophy. The two relatively bright Balmer-dominated filaments visible on the POSS prints are seen to be part of a very smooth and regular complex of filaments. These filaments mark the current location of the blast wave and are seen to bound the sharply limb-brightened X-ray emission, including the previously reported X-ray, 'halo.' The (O III)/h beta ratio throughout the region is approximately 0.1, except for regions in which the shock is undergoing a transition from nonradiative to incomplete radiative to incomplete radiative conditions. At these locations (O III) emission from the cooling region is quite strong, while collisionally excited Balmer-line emission can be weak because of photoionization of the preshock medium by UV from the nascent cooling region. As a result (O III)/H beta is greater than 100 in some locations. The nonradiative/radiative transition is best studied along the length of the northwestern of the two brightest filaments, where the shock velocity and swept-up column go from approximately 180 km/s and 10(exp 17)/sq cm at one end to approximately 140 km/s and 8 x 10(exp 17)/cm at the other. There are also a number of locations of such incomplete radiative emission where the shock has recently encountered denser regions with characteristic sizes of approximately 10(exp 18) cm. There is a considerable amount of evidence that the shock has decelerated from approximately 400 km/s to less than 200 km/s in the last 1000 yr. We interpret this as the result of the blast wave hitting the wall of a cavity which surround the supernova precursor and succeed in matching a wide range of data with a reflected shock model in which the density ofthe cavity wall is approximately 1.2/cu cm and the density in the interior of the

  7. Search for cosmic ray origins by the study of supernova remnants associated with molecular clouds with HESS and test of HESS II sampling system

    The H.E.S.S. telescope (High energy Stereoscopic System), located in Namibia, is currently the most efficient for the observation of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. It is composed of 4 large diameter telescopes working in stereoscopic mode and allows an unequaled survey of the galactic plane at these extreme wavelengths. The H.E.S.S. experiment showed the presence of high energy particles up to 100 TeV within supernova remnant. This astrophysical objects are believed to be the main particle accelerator within the Galaxy. However, the particle nature remains unclear. This thesis presents a new observational approach in order to show hadronic particles acceleration through diffusive shock within supernova remnant. A search of supernova remnant associated with molecular cloud have been led within the HESS source catalog and the H.E.S.S. observations. An analysis of the new VHE gamma-ray source in Monoceros and its interpretation are presented. As well, the analysis and interpretation of new observations of the unidentified source HESS J1745-303 are presented. The multi-wavelength analysis of the new source HESS J1714-385, coincident with the supernova remnant CTB37A is presented. A contribution to the H.E.S.S. phase II building is also presented. This second phase consists in the building of a fifth telescope at the center of the existing system. The series tests of the new camera sampling system are reported. (author)

  8. Ejecta detection in the middle-aged Galactic supernova remnant G296.1-0.5 observed with Suzaku

    Gok, F

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report the detection of ejecta in the middle-aged Galactic supernova remnant G296.1-0.5 with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Suzaku satellite. The spectra of three lobes, north, southeast and southwest and inter-lobe regions, consist of soft (0.3-2.0 keV) emission originated from non-equilibrium ionization plasma. In north, southeast and inter-lobe regions, the thermal emission can be represented by a one-component, in southwest region it can be represented by two- component non-equilibrium ionization (VNEI) model. The spectra of studied regions have lines of N, O, Ne, Mg and Si elements. Si emission from this remnant is shown for the first time in this work. Enhanced abundances of Ne, Mg and Si elements obtained show the ejecta contribution in all regions. Assuming that the remnant is in Sedov phase, we obtained ambient density n0 ~ 0.45 cm-3, age t ~ 2.8 x 104 yr, shock velocity Vs ~ 320 km s-1, shock temperature Ts ~ 1.2 x 106 K, and swept-up mass Msw ~ 340 M at an adopted dist...

  9. DEM L241, A SUPERNOVA REMNANT CONTAINING A HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY

    Seward, F. D. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Charles, P. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Foster, D. L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Dickel, J. R.; Romero, P. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 1919 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Z. I.; Perry, M.; Williams, R. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Columbus State University, Coca Cola Space Science Center, 701 Front Avenue, Columbus, GA 31901 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    A Chandra observation of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant DEM L241 reveals an interior unresolved source which is probably an accretion-powered binary. The optical counterpart is an O5III(f) star making this a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period likely to be of the order of tens of days. Emission from the remnant interior is thermal and spectral information is used to derive density and mass of the hot material. Elongation of the remnant is unusual and possible causes of this are discussed. The precursor star probably had mass >25 M {sub Sun}.

  10. An X-Ray Study of the Supernova Remnant G290.1-0.8

    Slane, Patrick; Smith, Randall K.; Hughes, John P.; Petre, Robert

    2001-01-01

    G290.1-0.8 (MSH 11-61A) is a supernova remnant (SNR) whose X-ray morphology is centrally bright. However, unlike the class of X-ray composite SNRs whose centers are dominated by nonthermal emission, presumably driven by a central pulsar, we show that the X-ray emission from G290.1-0.8 is thermal in nature, placing the remnant in an emerging class which includes such remnants as W44, W28, 3C391, and others. The evolutionary sequence which leads to such X-ray properties is not well understood. ...

  11. G11.2-0.3: The Young Remnant of a Stripped-envelope Supernova

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.

    2016-03-01

    We present results of a 400 ks Chandra observation of the young shell supernova remnant (SNR) G11.2-0.3, containing a pulsar and pulsar-wind nebula (PWN). We measure a mean expansion rate for the shell since 2000 of 0.0277 ± 0.0018% yr-1, implying an age between 1400 and 2400 yr, and making G11.2-0.3 one of the youngest core-collapse SNRs in the Galaxy. However, we find very high absorption (AV ˜ 16m ± 2m), confirming near-IR determinations and ruling out a claimed association with the possible historical SN of 386 CE. The PWN shows strong jets and a faint torus within a larger, more diffuse region of radio emission and nonthermal X-rays. Central soft thermal X-ray emission is anticorrelated with the PWN; that, and more detailed morphological evidence, indicates that the reverse shock has already reheated all ejecta and compressed the PWN. The pulsar characteristic energy-loss timescale is well in excess of the remnant age, and we suggest that the bright jets have been produced since the recompression. The relatively pronounced shell and diffuse hard X-ray emission in the interior, enhanced at the inner edge of the shell, indicate that the immediate circumstellar medium into which G11.2-0.3 is expanding was quite anisotropic. We propose a possible origin for G11.2-0.3 in a stripped-envelope progenitor that had lost almost all its envelope mass, in an anisotropic wind or due to binary interaction, leaving a compact core whose fast winds swept previously lost mass into a dense irregular shell, and which exploded as a SN cIIb or Ibc.

  12. Evolution Of Post-Impact Remnant Helium Stars In Type Ia Supernova Remnants Within The Single-Degenerate Scenario

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Taam, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are still under debate. Based on recent hydrodynamics simulations, non-degenerate companions in the single-degenerate scenario (SDS) should survive the supernova impact. One way to distinguish between the SDS and the double-degenerate scenario is to search for the post-impact remnant stars (PIRSs) in SN Ia remnants. Using a technique that combines multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with one-dimensional stellar evolution simulations, we have examined the post-impact evolution of helium-rich binary companions in the SDS. It is found that these helium-rich PIRSs (He PIRSs) dramatically expand and evolve to a luminous phase ($L\\sim 10^4 L_\\odot$) about 10 years after a supernova explosion. Subsequently, they contract and evolve to become hot blue-subdwarf-like (sdO-like) stars by releasing gravitational energy, persisting as sdO-like stars for several million years before evolving to the helium red-giant phase. We therefore predict that an sdO-like st...

  13. Electron acceleration in supernova remnants and diffuse gamma rays above 1 GeV

    Pohl, M.; Esposito, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The recently observed X-ray synchrotron emission from four supernova remnants (SNRs) has strengthened the evidence that cosmic-ray electrons are accelerated in SNRs. We show that if this is indeed the case, the local electron spectrum will be strongly time-dependent, at least above roughly 30 Ge...

  14. Observations of supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae at gamma-ray energies

    Hewitt, John W

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, gamma-ray astronomy has entered a golden age thanks to two major breakthroughs: Cherenkov telescopes on the ground and the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite. The sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) detected at gamma-ray energies is now much larger: it goes from evolved supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds up to young shell-type supernova remnants and historical supernova remnants. Studies of SNRs are of great interest, as these analyses are directly linked to the long standing issue of the origin of the Galactic cosmic rays. In this context, pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) need also to be considered since they evolve in conjunction with SNRs. As a result, they frequently complicate interpretation of the gamma-ray emission seen from SNRs and they could also contribute directly to the local cosmic ray spectrum, particularly the leptonic component. This paper reviews the current results and thinking on SNRs and PWNe and their connection to cosmic ray product...

  15. High-resolution radial velocity mapping of optical filaments in evolved supernova remnants

    The authors report on observations of the kinematical structure of optical filaments in evolved supernova remnants, using an imaging Fabry--Perot interferometer. The radial velocity characteristics as seen in [OIII] λ5007 emission in one area in the Cygnus Loop are described, where four kinematically different components contributing to the emission can be recognized

  16. A statistical study of the correlation of galactic supernova remnants and spiral arms

    A statistical study of the correlation of galactic supernova remnants with spiral arms and the disk is presented. SNR apparently have a larger radial scale length than disk stars. The authors estimate that only about 10 percent of the galactic SNR have been detected

  17. Low Radio Frequency Observations and Spectral Modelling of the Remnant of Supernova 1987A

    Callingham, J R; Zanardo, G; Staveley-Smith, L; Hancock, P J; Hurley-Walker, N; Bell, M E; Dwarakanath, K S; Franzen, T M O; Hindson, L; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Kapinska, A; For, B Q; Lenc, E; McKingley, B; Offringa, A R; Procopio, P; Wayth, R B; Wu, C; Zheng, Q

    2016-01-01

    We present Murchison Widefield Array observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A between 72 and 230 MHz, representing the lowest frequency observations of the source to date. This large lever arm in frequency space constrains the properties of the circumstellar medium created by the progenitor of SNR 1987A when it was in its red supergiant phase. As of late-2013, the radio spectrum of SNR 1987A between 72 MHz and 8.64 GHz does not show any deviation from a non-thermal power-law with a spectral index of $-0.74 \\pm 0.02$. This spectral index is consistent with that derived at higher frequencies, beneath 100 GHz, and with a shock in its adiabatic phase. A spectral turnover due to free-free absorption by the circumstellar medium has to occur below 72 MHz, which places upper limits on the optical depth of $\\leq$ 0.1 at a reference frequency of 72 MHz, emission measure of $\\lesssim$ 13,000 cm$^{-6}$ pc, and an electron density of $\\lesssim$ 110 cm$^{-3}$. This upper limit on the electron density is consistent...

  18. Supernova Remnants in the Sedov Expansion Phase Thermal X-Ray Emission

    Borkowski, K J; Reynolds, S P

    2001-01-01

    Improved calculations of X-ray spectra for supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Sedov-Taylor phase are reported, which for the first time include reliable atomic data for Fe L-shell lines. This new set of Sedov models also allows for a partial collisionless heating of electrons at the blast wave and for energy transfer from ions to electrons through Coulomb collisions. X-ray emission calculations are based on the updated Hamilton-Sarazin spectral model. The calculated X-ray spectra are succesfully interpreted in terms of three distribution functions: the electron temperature and ionization timescale distributions, and the ionization timescale averaged electron temperature distribution. The comparison of Sedov models with a frequently used single nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) timescale model reveals that this simple model is generally not an appropriate approximation to X-ray spectra of SNRs. We find instead that plane-parallel shocks provide a useful approximation to X-ray spectra of SNRs, particularly for youn...

  19. Study of TeV shell supernova remnants at gamma-ray energies

    Acero, F; Renaud, M; Ballet, J; Hewitt, J W; Rousseau, R; Tanaka, T

    2015-01-01

    The breakthrough developments of Cherenkov telescopes in the last decade have led to angular resolution of 0.1{\\deg} and an unprecedented sensitivity. This has allowed the current generation of Cherenkov telescopes to discover a population of supernova remnants (SNRs) radiating in very-high-energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-rays. A number of those VHE SNRs exhibit a shell-type morphology spatially coincident with the shock front of the SNR. The members of this VHE shell SNR club are RX J1713.7-3946, Vela Jr, RCW 86, SN 1006, and HESS J1731-347. The latter two objects have been poorly studied in high-energy (HE, 0.1 5 sigma. With this Fermi analysis, we now have a complete view of the HE to VHE gamma-ray emission of TeV shell SNRs. All five sources have a hard HE photon index (<1.8) suggesting a common scenario where the bulk of the emission is produced by accelerated electrons radiating from radio to VHE gamma-rays through synchrotron and inverse Compton processes. In addition when correcting for the distance,...

  20. Two new supernova remnants in OB associations in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Smith, R. Chris; Chu, You-Hua; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Oey, M. S.; Klein, Uli

    1994-01-01

    We discovered two extended x-ray sources in a Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Positron Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observation pointed at the H II region N9 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These two sources are in the H II regions N4D and N9. The x-ray characteristics suggest that both might be supernova remnants (SNRs). Follow-up charge coupled device (CCD) images taken with interference filters show high (S II)/H-alpha ratios in the optical nebulae of these x-ray sources, confirming the presence of high velocity shocks commonly seen in SNRs. These two sources are also detected in the radio continuum at 8.55 and 4.75 GHz; both appear nonthermal compared to nearby H II regions. The confirmation of these two SNRs demonstrates that many SNRs in or near H II regions have been overlooked in previous surveys, and that the ROSAT x-ray survey combined with an optical CCD imaging survey of the Magellanic Clouds would provide the most effective way to uncover SNRs.

  1. Supernova Remnant 1987A: The Latest Report from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    Park, S; Burrows, D N; Garmire, G P; McCray, D; Park, Sangwook; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Burrows, David N.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Cray, Dick Mc

    2005-01-01

    We continue monitoring supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A with the {\\it Chandra X-ray Observatory}. As of 2004 January, bright X-ray spots in the northwest and the southwest are now evident in addition to the bright eastern ring. The overall X-ray spectrum, Since 2002 December, can be described by a planar shock with an electron temperature of $\\sim$2.1 keV. The soft X-ray flux is now 8 $\\times$ 10$^{-13}$ ergs cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, which is about five times higher than four years ago. This flux increase rate is consistent with our prediction based on an exponential density distribution along the radius of the SNR between the H{\\small II} region and the inner ring. We still have no direct evidence of a central point source, and place an upper limit of $L_X$ = 1.3 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ ergs s$^{-1}$ on the 3$-$10 keV band X-ray luminosity.

  2. Dust Destruction in Type Ia Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Borkowski, K J; Reynolds, S P; Blair, W P; Ghavamian, P; Sankrit, R; Hendrick, S P; Long, K S; Raymond, J C; Smith, R C; Points, S; Winkler, P F; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Williams, Brian J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Blair, William P.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Sankrit, Ravi; Hendrick, Sean P.; Long, Knox S.; Raymond, John C.; Points, Sean

    2006-01-01

    We present first results from an extensive survey of Magellanic Clouds supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We describe IRAC and MIPS imaging observations at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8, 24, and 70 microns of four Balmer-dominated Type Ia SNRs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC): DEM L71 (0505-67.9), 0509--67.5, 0519--69.0, and 0548-70.4. None was detected in the four short-wavelength IRAC bands, but all four were clearly imaged at 24 microns, and two at 70 microns. A comparison of these images to Chandra broadband X-ray images shows a clear association with the blast wave, and not with internal X-ray emission associated with ejecta. Our observations are well described by 1-D shock models of collisionally heated dust emission, including grain size distributions appropriate for the LMC, grain heating by collisions with both ions and electrons, and sputtering of small grains. Model parameters are constrained by X-ray, optical, and far-ultraviolet observations. Our models can reproduce observed 70/24...

  3. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0-8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is ∼ 1 x 1033 erg s-1 between 1-100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0o.7 ± 0o.1 and 1o.6 ± 0o.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, Hα filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  4. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE CYGNUS LOOP SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0–8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is ∼1 × 1033 erg s–1 between 1 and 100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0.07 ± 0.01 and 1.06 ± 0.01. Given the association among X-ray rims, Hα filaments, and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  5. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    Katagiri, H; Ballet, J; Giordano, F; Grenier, I A; Porter, T A; Roth, M; Tibolla, O; Uchiyama, Y; Yamazaki, R

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope(LAT) onboard the \\textit{Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope} in the region of the supernova remnant(SNR) Cygnus Loop(G74.0$-$8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2--100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2--3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is $\\sim$ $1 \\times 10^{33}$erg s$^{-1}$ between 1--100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0$^\\circ$.7 $\\pm$ 0$^\\circ$.1 and 1$^\\circ$.6 $\\pm$ 0$^\\circ$.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, \\halpha filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasona...

  6. Spectra of accelerated particles at supernova shocks in the presence of neutral hydrogen: the case of Tycho

    Morlino, G.; Blasi, P.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The presence of neutral hydrogen in the shock proximity changes the structure of the shock and affects the spectra of particles accelerated through the first-order Fermi mechanism. This phenomenon has profound implications for the interpretation of the multifrequency spectra of radiation from supernova remnants. Aims: Neutrals that undergo charge exchange with hot ions downstream of the shock may result in fast neutrals moving towards the upstream gas, where they can suffer additional charge exchange or ionisation reactions, thereby depositing energy and momentum upstream. Here we discuss the implications of this neutral return flux, which was already predicted in our previous work on neutral mediated supernova shocks, and show how the spectra of accelerated particles turn out to be appreciably steeper than p-4, thereby affecting the gamma ray spectra from supernova remnants in general and from Tycho specifically. Methods: The theory that describes non-linear diffusive shock acceleration in the presence of neutral hydrogen has been developed in recent years. Here we use a semi-analytical theory developed in previous work and specialise our predictions to the case of the Tycho supernova shock, where there is evidence from gamma ray observations that the spectrum of the parent cosmic rays is steeper than expected from the traditional theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Results: We show that, if the fraction of neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of the Tycho supernova shock is, as suggested by observations, ~70-90%, then spectra of accelerated protons steeper than p-4 may be a natural consequence of charge exchange reactions and the associated neutral return flux. The spectral shape is affected by this phenomenon for particles with energies below ~100-1000 GeV, for which the diffusion length is less than or at most comparable to the path length of charge exchange and ionisation upstream of the shock.

  7. sup 4 sup 4 Ti decay gamma-ray emission from young galactic supernova remnants

    Iyudin, A F

    1999-01-01

    The discovery by COMPTEL of the sup 4 sup 4 Ti line emission at 1.16 MeV from the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) Cas A has opened a new window for the investigation of SNR properties. This discovery also shows a way that could help to uncover missing young remnants of Galactic SNe that might have occurred some hundred years ago. Contrary to the situation at other wavelengths, in the gamma-ray band the Galaxy is almost transparent, so that otherwise obscured supernova remnants may be detectable up to A sub v approx 10 sup 3 in gamma-ray line emission. This is one of the direct ways to complement historical observations of Galactic SNe. Here we present preliminary results of the 6 year sup 4 sup 4 Ti line emission survey performed by COMPTEL on-board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO).

  8. X-ray emission from supernova remnants with particular reference to the Cygnus Loop

    Observational or theoretical results related to the study of supernova remnants (SNRs) are described. Some background information is given by reviewing the present status of our knowledge of supernovae and supernova remnants, both from theory and observations. Also the distribution of all known radio, optical, and X-ray SNRs in the Galaxy is shown and a comparison is made. The X-ray observations of the well-known X-ray SNR the Cygnus Loop are discussed in detail and the discovery of a new X-ray emitting SNR W44 is described. Other radio sources are investigated, and the observed X-ray emission of SNRs are analysed using thermal spectra like exponential or bremsstrahlung spectra. The X-ray line spectrum that emerges from SNRs is described in detail. (Auth.)

  9. The complex relations between Supernova Remnants and Neutron Stars

    G. Dubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se espera que la mayor a de las supernovas (SN produzca una estrella de neutrones (EN observable como pulsar en ondas de radio. Las observaciones, sin embargo, muestran escasas coincidencias entre restos de supernovas (RSN y EN. Se presenta una puesta al d a de resultados de observaciones multiespectrales llevadas a cabo para investigar este aspecto. El trabajo se focaliza en la comprensi on actual de las nebulosas de viento de pulsares, as como en las diferentes formas en que puede manifestarse una estrella de neutrones, tales como pulsares an omalos en rayos X, estrellas de neutrones radio-quietas y repetidores en rayos blandos.

  10. Crushing of interstellar gas clouds in supernova remnants. I. The role of thermal conduction and radiative losses

    Orlando, S; Reale, F; Bocchino, F; Rosner, R; Plewa, T; Siegel, A

    2005-01-01

    We model the hydrodynamic interaction of a shock wave of an evolved supernova remnant with a small interstellar gas cloud like the ones observed in the Cygnus loop and in the Vela SNR. We investigate the interplay between radiative cooling and thermal conduction during cloud evolution and their effect on the mass and energy exchange between the cloud and the surrounding medium. Through the study of two cases characterized by different Mach numbers of the primary shock (M = 30 and 50, corresponding to a post-shock temperature $T\\approx 1.7\\times 10^6$ K and $\\approx 4.7\\times 10^6$ K, respectively), we explore two very different physical regimes: for M = 30, the radiative losses dominate the evolution of the shocked cloud which fragments into cold, dense, and compact filaments surrounded by a hot corona which is ablated by the thermal conduction; instead, for M = 50, the thermal conduction dominates the evolution of the shocked cloud, which evaporates in a few dynamical time-scales. In both cases we find that ...

  11. A high-resolution radio survey of the Vela supernova remnant

    Bock, D; Green, A J

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a high-resolution radio continuum (843 MHz) survey of the Vela supernova remnant. The contrast between the structures in the central pulsar-powered nebula of the remnant and the synchrotron radiation shell allows the remnant to be identified morphologically as a member of the composite class. The data are the first of a composite remnant at spatial scales comparable with those available for the Cygnus Loop and the Crab Nebula, and make possible a comparison of radio, optical and soft X-ray emission from the resolved shell filaments. The survey, made with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope, covers an area of 50 square degrees at a resolution of 43'' x 60'', while imaging structures on scales up to 30'.

  12. ON THE AMPLIFICATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD BY A SUPERNOVA BLAST SHOCK WAVE IN A TURBULENT MEDIUM

    We have performed extensive two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations to study the amplification of magnetic fields when a supernova blast wave propagates into a turbulent interstellar plasma. The blast wave is driven by injecting high pressure in the simulation domain. The interstellar magnetic field can be amplified by two different processes, occurring in different regions. One is facilitated by the fluid vorticity generated by the 'rippled' shock front interacting with the background turbulence. The resulting turbulent flow keeps amplifying the magnetic field, consistent with earlier work. The other process is facilitated by the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the contact discontinuity between the ejecta and the shocked medium. This can efficiently amplify the magnetic field and tends to produce the highest magnetic field. We investigate the dependence of the amplification on numerical parameters such as grid-cell size and on various physical parameters. We show that the magnetic field has a characteristic radial profile such that the downstream magnetic field gets progressively stronger away from the shock. This is because the downstream magnetic field needs a finite time to reach the efficient amplification, and will get further amplified in the Rayleigh-Taylor region. In our simulation, we do not observe a systematic strong magnetic field within a small distance to the shock. This indicates that if the magnetic-field amplification in supernova remnants indeed occurs near the shock front, other processes such as three-dimensional instabilities, plasma kinetics, and/or cosmic ray effect may need to be considered to explain the strong magnetic field in supernova remnants.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE PROGENITORS OF THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE ASSOCIATED WITH THE LMC SUPERNOVA REMNANTS 0505-67.9 AND 0509-68.7

    Although Type Ia supernovae have been heavily scrutinized due to their use in making cosmological distance estimates, we are still unable to definitively identify the progenitors for the entire population. While answers have been presented for certain specific systems, a complete solution remains elusive. We present observations of two supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud, SNR 0505-67.9 and SNR 0509-68.7, for which we have identified the center of the remnant and the 99.73% containment central region in which any companion star left over after the supernova must be located. Both remnants have a number of potential ex-companion stars near their centers; all possible single and double degenerate progenitor models remain viable for these two supernovae. Future observations may be able to identify the true ex-companions for both remnants

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE PROGENITORS OF THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE ASSOCIATED WITH THE LMC SUPERNOVA REMNANTS 0505-67.9 AND 0509-68.7

    Pagnotta, Ashley [Department of Astrophysics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024 (United States); Schaefer, Bradley E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    Although Type Ia supernovae have been heavily scrutinized due to their use in making cosmological distance estimates, we are still unable to definitively identify the progenitors for the entire population. While answers have been presented for certain specific systems, a complete solution remains elusive. We present observations of two supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud, SNR 0505-67.9 and SNR 0509-68.7, for which we have identified the center of the remnant and the 99.73% containment central region in which any companion star left over after the supernova must be located. Both remnants have a number of potential ex-companion stars near their centers; all possible single and double degenerate progenitor models remain viable for these two supernovae. Future observations may be able to identify the true ex-companions for both remnants.

  15. Swift/BAT detection of hard X-rays from Tycho's Supernova Remnant: Evidence for Titanium-44

    Troja, E; La Parola, V; Hartmann, D; Baumgartner, W; Markwardt, C; Barthelmy, S; Cusumano, G; Gehrels, N

    2014-01-01

    We report Swift/BAT survey observations of the Tycho's supernova remnant, performed over a period of 104 months since the mission's launch. The remnant is detected with high significance (>10 sigma) below 50 keV. We detect significant hard X-ray emission in the 60-85 keV band, above the continuum level predicted by a simple synchrotron model. The location of the observed excess is consistent with line emission from radioactive Titanium-44, so far reported only for Type II supernova explosions. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the galactic supernova rate, and nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernova.

  16. Tools for Dissecting Supernova Remnants Observed with Chandra: Methods and Application to the Galactic Remnant W49B

    Lopez, Laura A; Pooley, David A; Jeltema, Tesla E

    2008-01-01

    We introduce methods to quantify the X-ray morphologies of supernova remnants observed with the Chandra X-ray Telescope. These include a power-ratio technique to measure morphological asymmetries, correlation-length analysis to probe chemical segregation and distribution, and wavelet-transform analysis to quantify X-ray substructure. We demonstrate the utility and accuracy of these techniques on relevant synthetic data. Additionally, we show the methods' capabilities by applying them to the 55-ks Chandra ACIS observation of the galactic supernova remnant W49B. We analyze the images of prominent emission lines in W49B and use the results to discern physical properties. We find that the iron morphology is very distinct from the other elements: it is statistically more asymmetric, more segregated, and has 25% larger emitting substructures than the lighter ions. Comparatively, the silicon, sulfur, argon, and calcium are well-mixed, more isotropic, and have smaller, equally-sized emitting substructures. Based on f...

  17. A Deep Chandra Observation of the Oxygen-Rich Supernova Remnant 0540-69.3 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Park, Sangwook; Slane, Patrick O; Mori, Koji; Burrows, David N

    2009-01-01

    Using our deep ~120 ks Chandra observation, we report on the results from our spatially-resolved X-ray spectral analysis of the "oxygen-rich" supernova remnant (SNR) 0540-69.3 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We conclusively establish the nonthermal nature of the "arcs" in the east and west boundaries of the SNR, which confirms the cosmic-ray electron acceleration in the supernova shock (B ~ 20-140 microG). We report tentative evidence for Fe overabundance in the southern region close to the outer boundary of the SNR. While such a detection would be intriguing, the existence of Fe ejecta is not conclusive with the current data because of poor photon statistics and limited plasma models. If it is verified using deeper X-ray observations and improved plasma models, the presence of Fe ejecta, which was produced in the core of the supernova, near the SNR's outer boundary would provide an intriguing opportunity to study the explosive nucleosynthesis and the ejecta mixing in this young core-collapse SNR. There is no ...

  18. Large-area [Fe II] Line Mapping of the Supernova Remnant IC 443 with the IRSF/SIRIUS

    Kokusho, Takuma; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of near-infrared (near-IR) [Fe II] line mapping of the supernova remnant IC 443 with IRSF/SIRIUS, using the two narrow-band filters tuned for the [Fe II] 1.257 μm and [Fe II] 1.644 μm lines. Covering a large area of 30' × 35', our observations reveal that [Fe II] filamentary structures exist all over the remnant, not only in an ionic shock shell, but also in a molecular shock shell and a central region inside the shells. With the two [Fe II] lines, we performed corrections for dust extinction to derive the intrinsic line intensities. We also obtained the intensities of thermal emission from the warm dust associated with IC 443, using the far- and mid-IR images taken with AKARI and Spitzer, respectively. As a result, we find that the [Fe II] line emission relative to the dust emission notably enhances in the inner central region. We discuss causes of the enhanced [Fe II] line emission, estimating the Fe+ and dust masses.

  19. Large-area [Fe II] Line Mapping of the Supernova Remnant IC443 with the IRSF/SIRIUS

    Kokusho, Takuma; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of near-infrared (near-IR) [Fe II] line mapping of the supernova remnant IC443 with the IRSF/SIRIUS, using the two narrow-band filters tuned for the [Fe II] 1.257 micron and [Fe II] 1.644 micron lines. Covering a large area of 30' x 35', our observations reveal that [Fe II] filamentary structures exist all over the remnant, not only in an ionic shock shell, but also in a molecular shock shell and a central region inside the shells. With the two [Fe II] lines, we performed corrections for dust extinction to derive the intrinsic line intensities. We also obtained the intensities of thermal emission from the warm dust associated with IC443, using the far- and mid-IR images taken with AKARI and Spitzer, respectively. As a result, we find that the [Fe II] line emission relative to the dust emission notably enhances in the inner central region. We discuss causes of the enhanced [Fe II] line emission, estimating the Fe+ and dust masses.

  20. SEARCH FOR GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443 WITH THE MAGIC TELESCOPE

    R. J. García López

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available TeV observations of Supernova remnants (SNRs and, in particular, of SNRs which appear to be physically related to EGRET sources are a prime target for the MAGIC telescope. MAGIC's spatial resolution and sensi- tivity can probe the main mechanism responsible for producing high energy photons in the SNR neighbourhood. Based on a recent systematical analysis of the molecular environment of the vicinity of all SNR-EGRET source pairs, the IC 443 remnant was chosen for observations with MAGIC. We brie y describe the observational strategy which provided the detection of a new very-high energy gamma-ray source: MAGIC 0616+225.

  1. Spatially resolved X-ray line spectroscopy of Tycho's supernova remnant

    Gotthelg, Eric V.; Hwang, Una

    1996-01-01

    Narrow band X-ray images of Tycho's supernova remnant, acquired with the solid-state spectrometer onboard the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), are presented. The remnant is mapped in several prominent emission lines and in the 1.4 keV to 1.7 keV and 4 keV to 6 keV continua. A spatial resolution of approximately 0.5 min was obtained. No significant correlation was found for Tycho between the X-ray 4 keV to 6 keV continuum and the radio morphology.

  2. A new candidate supernova remnant G 70.5+1.9

    Mavromatakis, F; Meaburn, J; Caulet, A

    2009-01-01

    A compact complex of line emission filaments in the galactic plane has the appearance of those expected of an evolved supernova remnant though non-thermal radio and X-ray emission have not yet been detected. This optical emission line region has now been observed with deep imagery and both low and high-dispersion spectroscopy. Diagnostic diagrams of the line intensities from the present spectra and the new kinematical observations both point to a supernova origin. However, several features of the nebular complex still require an explanation within this interpretation.

  3. Elemental Abundances in the Possible Type Ia Supernova Remnant G344.7-0.1

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Tanaka, Masaomi; Maeda, Keiichi; Slane, Patrick O.; Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K.; Katsuda, Satoru; Yoshii, Rie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G344.7-0.1 have commonly claimed its origin to be a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion, based on its highly asymmetric morphology and/or proximity to a star forming region. In this paper, however, we present an X-ray spectroscopic study of this SNR using Suzaku, which is supportive of a Type Ia origin. Strong K-shell emission from lowly ionized Fe has clearly been detected, and its origin is determined, for the first time, to be the F...

  4. Detection of Extremely Broad Water Emission from the molecular cloud interacting Supernova Remnant G349.7+0.2

    Rho, J; Boogert, A; Kaufman, M; Gusdorf, A

    2015-01-01

    We performed Herschel HIFI, PACS and SPIRE observations towards the molecular cloud interacting supernova remnant G349.7+0.2. An extremely broad emission line was detected at 557 GHz from the ground state transition 1_{10}-1_{01} of ortho-water. This water line can be separated into three velocity components with widths of 144, 27 and 4 km/s. The 144 km/s component is the broadest water line detected to date in the literature. This extremely broad line width shows importance of probing shock dynamics. PACS observations revealed 3 additional ortho-water lines, as well as numerous high-J carbon monoxide (CO) lines. No para-water lines were detected. The extremely broad water line is indicative of a high velocity shock, which is supported by the observed CO rotational diagram that was reproduced with a J-shock model with a density of 10^4 cm^{-3} and a shock velocity of 80 km/s. Two far-infrared fine-structure lines, [O~I] at 145 micron and [C~II] line at 157 micron, are also consistent with the high velocity J-...

  5. A young supernova remnant illuminating nearby molecular clouds with cosmic rays

    Cui, Y.; Pühlhofer, G.; Santangelo, A.

    2016-06-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) HESS J1731-347 displays strong nonthermal TeV γ-ray and X-ray emission, thus the object is presently accelerating particles to very high energies. A distinctive feature of this young SNR is the nearby (~30 pc in projection) extended source HESS J1729-345, which is currently unidentified but is in spatial projection coinciding with known molecular clouds (MC). We model the SNR evolution to explore whether the TeV emission from HESS J1729-345 can be explained as emission from runaway hadronic cosmic rays (CRs) that are illuminating these MCs. The observational data of HESS J1729-345 and HESS J1731-347 can be reproduced using core-collapse SN models for HESS J1731-347. Starting with different progenitor stars and their presupernova environment, we model potential SNR evolution histories along with the CR acceleration in the SNR and the diffusion of the CRs. A simplified three-dimensional structure of the MCs is introduced based on data of that region, adopting a distance of 3.2 kpc to the source. A Monte Carlo based diffusion model for the escaping CRs is developed to deal with the inhomogeneous environment. The fast SNR forward shock speed, as implied from the X-ray data, can easily be explained when employing scenarios with progenitor star masses between 20 M⊙ and 25 M⊙, where the SNR shock is still expanding inside the main-sequence (MS) bubble at present time. The TeV spectrum of HESS J1729-345 is satisfactorily fitted by the emission from the highest energy CRs that have escaped the SNR, using a standard Galactic CR diffusion coefficient in the interclump medium. The TeV image of HESS J1729-345 can be explained with a reasonable three-dimensional structure of MCs. The TeV emission from the SNR itself is dominated by leptonic emission in this model. We also explore scenarios where the shock is starting to encounter the dense MS progenitor wind bubble shell. The escaping hadronic CR hypothesis for the γ-ray emission of HESS J1729

  6. Fermi-LAT Discovery of Extended Gamma-Ray Emission in the Direction of Supernova Remnant W51C

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Baring, M.G.; /Rice U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bouvier, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Ecole Polytechnique; /more authors..

    2012-03-30

    The discovery of bright gamma-ray emission coincident with supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is reported using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. W51C is a middle-aged remnant ({approx}10{sup 4} yr) with intense radio synchrotron emission in its shell and known to be interacting with a molecular cloud. The gamma-ray emission is spatially extended, broadly consistent with the radio and X-ray extent of SNR W51C. The energy spectrum in the 0.2-50 GeV band exhibits steepening toward high energies. The luminosity is greater than 1 x 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} given the distance constraint of D > 5.5 kpc, which makes this object one of the most luminous gamma-ray sources in our Galaxy. The observed gamma-rays can be explained reasonably by a combination of efficient acceleration of nuclear cosmic rays at supernova shocks and shock-cloud interactions. The decay of neutral p mesons produced in hadronic collisions provides a plausible explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of the accelerated protons amounts to {bar n}{sub H} W{sub p} {approx_equal} 5 x 10{sup 51} (D/6 kpc){sup 2} erg cm{sup -3}. Electron density constraints from the radio and X-ray bands render it difficult to explain the LAT signal as due to inverse Compton scattering. The Fermi LAT source coincident with SNR W51C sheds new light on the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  7. FERMI LAT DISCOVERY OF EXTENDED GAMMA-RAY EMISSION IN THE DIRECTION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT W51C

    The discovery of bright gamma-ray emission coincident with supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is reported using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. W51C is a middle-aged remnant (∼104 yr) with intense radio synchrotron emission in its shell and known to be interacting with a molecular cloud. The gamma-ray emission is spatially extended, broadly consistent with the radio and X-ray extent of SNR W51C. The energy spectrum in the 0.2-50 GeV band exhibits steepening toward high energies. The luminosity is greater than 1 x 1036 erg s-1 given the distance constraint of D > 5.5 kpc, which makes this object one of the most luminous gamma-ray sources in our Galaxy. The observed gamma-rays can be explained reasonably by a combination of efficient acceleration of nuclear cosmic rays at supernova shocks and shock-cloud interactions. The decay of neutral π mesons produced in hadronic collisions provides a plausible explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of the accelerated protons amounts to n-barHWp≅5 x 1051 (D/6 kpc)2 erg cm-3. Electron density constraints from the radio and X-ray bands render it difficult to explain the LAT signal as due to inverse Compton scattering. The Fermi LAT source coincident with SNR W51C sheds new light on the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  8. A search for supernova-remnant masers toward unidentified EGRET sources

    Supernova remnants expanding into adjacent molecular clouds are believed to be sites of cosmic ray acceleration and sources of energetic gamma-rays. Under certain environmental conditions, such interactions also give rise to unusual OH masers in which the 1720 MHz satellite line dominates over the more common 1665/7 MHz emission. Motivated by the apparent coincidence of a handful of EGRET sources with OH(1720 MHz) maser-producing supernova remnants, we have carried out a search using the Very Large Array for new OH(1720 MHz) masers within the error regions of 11 unidentified EGRET sources at low Galactic latitude. While a previously known maser associated with an HII region was serendipitously detected, initial results indicate that no new masers were found down to a limiting flux of, typically, 50 mJy. We discuss the implications of this result on the nature of the unidentified Galactic EGRET sources

  9. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT TYCHO

    Giordano, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Naumann-Godo, M.; Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Lande, J.; Tanaka, T.; Uchiyama, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Mazziotta, M. N.; Raino, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Tibolla, O., E-mail: francesco.giordano@ba.infn.it, E-mail: Melitta.Naumann-Godo@cea.fr [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik and Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    After almost three years of data taking in sky-survey mode, the Fermi Large Area Telescope has detected {gamma}-ray emission toward Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR). The Tycho SNR is among the youngest remnants in the Galaxy, originating from a Type Ia Supernova in AD 1572. The {gamma}-ray integral flux from 400 MeV up to 100 GeV has been measured to be (3.5 {+-} 1.1{sub stat} {+-} 0.7{sub syst}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with a photon index of 2.3 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.1{sub syst}. A simple model consistent with TeV, X-ray, and radio data is sufficient to explain the observed emission as originating from {pi}{sup 0} decays as a result of cosmic-ray acceleration and interaction with the ambient medium.

  10. Ionization of protoplanetary disks by galactic cosmic rays, solar protons, and by supernova remnants

    Kataoka, Ryuho

    2016-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays and solar protons ionize the present terrestrial atmosphere, and the air showers are simulated by well-tested Monte-Carlo simulations, such as PHITS code. We use the latest version of PHITS to evaluate the possible ionization of protoplanetary disks by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar protons, and by supernova remnants. The attenuation length of GCR ionization is updated as 118 g cm-2, which is approximately 20% larger than the popular value. Hard and soft possible spectra of solar protons give comparable and 20% smaller attenuation lengths compared with those from standard GCR spectra, respectively, while the attenuation length is approximately 10% larger for supernova remnants. Further, all of the attenuation lengths become 10% larger in the compound gas of cosmic abundance, e.g. 128 g cm-2 for GCRs, which can affect the minimum estimate of the size of dead zones in protoplanetary disks when the incident flux is unusually high.

  11. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT TYCHO

    After almost three years of data taking in sky-survey mode, the Fermi Large Area Telescope has detected γ-ray emission toward Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR). The Tycho SNR is among the youngest remnants in the Galaxy, originating from a Type Ia Supernova in AD 1572. The γ-ray integral flux from 400 MeV up to 100 GeV has been measured to be (3.5 ± 1.1stat ± 0.7syst)× 10–9 cm–2 s–1 with a photon index of 2.3 ± 0.2stat ± 0.1syst. A simple model consistent with TeV, X-ray, and radio data is sufficient to explain the observed emission as originating from π0 decays as a result of cosmic-ray acceleration and interaction with the ambient medium.

  12. Detection of Extremely Broad Water Emission from the Molecular Cloud Interacting Supernova Remnant G349.7+0.2

    Rho, J.; Hewitt, J. W.; Boogert, A.; Kaufman, M.; Gusdorf, A.

    2015-10-01

    We performed Herschel HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE observations toward the molecular cloud interacting supernova remnant G349.7+0.2. An extremely broad emission line was detected at 557 GHz from the ground state transition 110-101 of ortho-water. This water line can be separated into three velocity components with widths of 144, 27, and 4 km s-1. The 144 km s-1 component is the broadest water line detected to date in the literature. This extremely broad line width shows the importance of probing shock dynamics. PACS observations revealed three additional ortho-water lines, as well as numerous high-J carbon monoxide (CO) lines. No para-water lines were detected. The extremely broad water line is indicative of a high velocity shock, which is supported by the observed CO rotational diagram that was reproduced with a J-shock model with a density of 104 cm-3 and a shock velocity of 80 km s-1. Two far-infrared fine-structure lines, [O i] at 145 μm and [C ii] line at 157 μm, are also consistent with the high velocity J-shock model. The extremely broad water line could be simply from short-lived molecules that have not been destroyed in high velocity J-shocks; however, it may be from more complicated geometry such as high-velocity water bullets or a shell expanding in high velocity. We estimate the CO and H2O densities, column densities, and temperatures by comparison with RADEX and detailed shock models. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  13. The Cherenkov Telescope Array potential for the study of young supernova remnants

    Acharya, B.S.; Aramo, C.; Babic, A.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Janeček, Petr; Mandát, Dušan; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, Mar (2015), s. 152-164. ISSN 0927-6505 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12AR013; GA MŠk LE13012; GA MŠk LG14019 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : acceleration of particles * gamma rays: general * ISM: supernova remnants * radiation mechanisms: non-termal Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.584, year: 2014

  14. The Interaction of Supernova Remnant G357.7+0.3 with the Interstellar Medium

    Phillips, J.P.; Marquez-Lugo, R. A.

    2010-01-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) G357.7+0.3 appears to have caused considerable shredding of the local interstellar medium (ISM), leading to the formation of multiple cloud fragments having bright rims and cometary structures. We investigate five of these regions using mid-infrared (MIR) imaging and photometry deriving from the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), as well as photometry deriving from the 2MASS near-infrared all sky survey, the Mid-Course Science Experiment (MSX), and the Multiband Imagin...

  15. A progenitor binary and an ejected mass donor remnant of faint type Ia supernovae

    Geier, S.; Marsh, T. R.; Wang, B; Dunlap, B.; Barlow, B. N.; Schaffenroth, V.; Chen, X.; Irrgang, A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Ziegerer, E.; Kupfer, T.; Miszalski, B.; Heber, U.; Han, Z.; Shporer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) are the most important standard candles for measuring the expansion history of the universe. The thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf can explain their observed properties, but neither the progenitor systems nor any stellar remnants have been conclusively identified. Underluminous SN Ia have been proposed to originate from a so-called double-detonation of a white dwarf. After a critical amount of helium is deposited on the surface through accretion from a close ...

  16. Shell-like structure in 41.9 + 58, a powerful supernova remnant in M82

    An EVN map of the compact radio source 41.9 + 58 in M82 reveals a distorted shell-like structure with dimensions 0.56 x 0.32 pc. This map, together with a limit on the present expansion velocity and the steady decay of the flux density convinces us that 41.9 + 58 is a powerful supernova remnant whose progenitor probably exploded 40-50 yr ago. (author)

  17. Interaction of Supernovae remnants: From the circumstellar medium to the terrestrial laboratory

    Velarde, P.; García Senz, Domingo; Bravo Guil, Eduardo; Ogando, F; Relaño, A.; Oliva, E.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) represents a useful and natural laboratory for gasdynamics studies. In this paper the results of several hydrodynamical simulations of the propagation and early phases of interaction of two SNRs embedded in a homogeneous interstellar environment are shown. In particular, the hydrodynamic evolution and collision of twin SNRs during their self-similar stage has been simulated using a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrocode. In addition, the results of a d...

  18. Dust Processing in Supernova Remnants: Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS Observations

    Hewitt, John W.; Petre, Robert; Katsuda Satoru; Andersen, M.; Rho, J.; Reach, W. T.; Bernard, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS observations of 14 Galactic Supernova Remnants previously identified in the GLIMPSE survey. We find evidence for SNR/molecular cloud interaction through detection of [OI] emission, ionic lines, and emission from molecular hydrogen. Through black-body fitting of the MIPS SEDs we find the large grains to be warm, 29-66 K. The dust emission is modeled using the DUSTEM code and a three component dust model composed of populations of big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We find the dust to be moderately heated, typically by 30-100 times the interstellar radiation field. The source of the radiation is likely hydrogen recombination, where the excitation of hydrogen occurred in the shock front. The ratio of very small grains to big grains is found for most of the molecular interacting SNRs to be higher than that found in the plane of the Milky Way, typically by a factor of 2--3. We suggest that dust shattering is responsible for the relative over-abundance of small grains, in agreement with prediction from dust destruction models. However, two of the SNRs are best fit with a very low abundance of carbon grains to silicate grains and with a very high radiation field. A likely reason for the low abundance of small carbon grains is sputtering. We find evidence for silicate emission at 20 $\\mu$m in their SEDs, indicating that they are young SNRs based on the strong radiation field necessary to reproduce the observed SEDs.

  19. NEUTRAL PION EMISSION FROM ACCELERATED PROTONS IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT W44

    We present the AGILE gamma-ray observations in the energy range 50 MeV-10 GeV of the supernova remnant (SNR) W44, one of the most interesting systems for studying cosmic-ray production. W44 is an intermediate-age SNR (∼20, 000 years) and its ejecta expand in a dense medium as shown by a prominent radio shell, nearby molecular clouds, and bright [S II] emitting regions. We extend our gamma-ray analysis to energies substantially lower than previous measurements which could not conclusively establish the nature of the radiation. We find that gamma-ray emission matches remarkably well both the position and shape of the inner SNR shocked plasma. Furthermore, the gamma-ray spectrum shows a prominent peak near 1 GeV with a clear decrement at energies below a few hundreds of MeV as expected from neutral pion decay. Here we demonstrate that (1) hadron-dominated models are consistent with all W44 multiwavelength constraints derived from radio, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations; (2) ad hoc lepton-dominated models fail to explain simultaneously the well-constrained gamma-ray and radio spectra, and require a circumstellar density much larger than the value derived from observations; and (3) the hadron energy spectrum is well described by a power law (with index s = 3.0 ± 0.1) and a low-energy cut-off at Ec = 6 ± 1 GeV. Direct evidence for pion emission is then established in an SNR for the first time.

  20. Discovery of molecular shells associated with supernova remnants. (II) Kesteven 75

    Su, Yang; Yang, Ji; Koo, Bon-Chul; Zhou, Xin; Jeong, Il-Gyo; Zhang, Chun-Guang

    2008-01-01

    The young composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kesteven 75, with a pulsar wind nebula at its center, has an unusual morphology with a bright southern half-shell structure in multiwavelengths. The distance to Kes 75 has long been uncertain. Aiming to address these issues, we have made millimeter spectroscopic observations of the molecular gas toward the remnant. The V_{LSR}~83--96 km/s molecular clouds (MCs) are found to overlap a large north-western region of the remnant and are suggested to be located in front of the SNR along the line of sight. Also in the remnant area, the V_{LSR}= 45--58 km/s MC shows a blue-shifted broadening in the 12CO (J=1-0) line profile and a perturbed position-velocity structure near the edge of the remnant, with the intensity centroid sitting in the northern area of the remnant. In particular, a cavity surrounded by a molecular shell is unveiled in the intensity map in the broadened blue wing (45--51 km/s), and the southern molecular shell follows the bright partial SNR shell seen in...

  1. An X-ray and Radio Study of the Varying Expansion Velocities in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Williams, Brian J; Hewitt, John W; Blondin, John M; Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Ghavamian, Parviz; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P

    2016-01-01

    We present newly obtained X-ray and radio observations of Tycho's supernova remnant using {\\it Chandra} and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in 2015 and 2013/14, respectively. When combined with earlier epoch observations by these instruments, we now have time baselines for expansion measurements of the remnant of 12-15 year in the X-rays and 30 year in the radio. The remnant's large angular size allows for proper motion measurements at many locations around the periphery of the blast wave. We find, consistent with earlier measurements, a clear gradient in the expansion velocity of the remnant, despite its round shape. The proper motions on the western and southwestern sides of the remnant are about a factor of two higher than those in the east and northeast. We showed in an earlier work that this is related to an offset of the explosion site from the geometric center of the remnant due to a density gradient in the ISM, and using our refined measurements reported here, we find that this offset is $\\sim 23"...

  2. A search for supernova remnants in the nearby spiral galaxy M 74 (NGC 628)

    Sonbaş, E.; Akyüz, A.; Balman, Ş.; Özel, M. E.

    2010-07-01

    An optical search was carried out for supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Sc type nearby spiral galaxy M 74, using ground-based observations at the TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG, Antalya/Turkey) and the Special Astrophysics Observatory (SAO, Russia). Observations were supplemented by the spectral analysis of archived X-ray data from XMM-Newton and Chandra. The survey of M 74 covered ~9 arcmin2 with [S II], Hα, and their continuum filters. Interference filter images of M 74 were obtained the with the 1.5 m Russian Turkish Telescope (RTT150) at TUG and spectral data taken with the 6 m Bolsoi Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) at SAO. The emission nebulae with continuum-subtracted line ratio values of [S II]λλ6716,6731 /Hα ≥ 0.4 are identified as SNRs. Follow-up spectroscopy confirmed optical SNR identifications. We have identified nine new SNR candidates in M 74 with [S II]/Hα ≥ 0.4 as the basic criterion. The [S II]/Hα ratio ranges from 0.40 to 0.91 and Hα intensities from 2.8 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 to 1.7 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. We also present spectral follow-up observations of these SNR candidates, however, we are able to spectrally confirm only three of them (SNR2, SNR3, and SNR5). The lack of confirmation for the rest might come from contamination by the nearby H II emission regions, as well as from the inaccurate positioning of the long slit on these objects. In addition, we searched the XMM-Newton and Chandra Observatory archival data for the X-ray counterparts to the optically identified candidates. We find positional coincidence with only three SNR candidates, SNR1, SNR2, and SNR8. The spectrum of SNR2 yields a shock temperature of 10.8 keV with an ionization timescale of 1.6 × 1010 s cm-3, indicating a relatively young remnant in an early Sedov phase, which is not supported by our optical wavelength analysis. Given the high luminosity of 1039 erg s-1 and the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum, we favor an ultra luminous X-ray source interpretation for

  3. Viscid and inviscid self-similar blast waves: spherical, isothermal flows and inferences for supernova remnants

    The spherically symmetric, self-similar flow behind a blast wave from a point explosion in a medium whose density varies with distance as rsup(-ω) is investigated with the assumption that the flow is isothermal and viscid. If 0<ω<ωsub(c) where ωsub(c)=[13-(160)sup(1/2)]/9 Lerche and Vasyliunas have shown in the inviscid situation that there exist two critical points in the flow speed-radial distance plane, and that all solutions are degenerate in that they pass through the lower critical point with the same slope. The present paper shows that as the viscosity tends to zero, the viscid flow does not tend towards the inviscid flow pattern. Now the validity of adiabatic blast wave models has elsewhere been shown to be questionable for supernova remnants, and the inviscid blast wave models have also been shown to be inappropriate for supernova remnants. Taken together with these previous results, the results of the present calculations strongly suggest that the assumption of isothermal blast wave behaviour of supernova remnants, either viscid or inviscid is not valid. (Auth.)

  4. Isothermal self-similar blast wave theory of supernova remnants driven by relativistic gas pressure

    The spherically symmetric, self-similar flow behind a blast wave from a point explosion in a medium whose density varies with distance as rsup(-ω) is investigated with the assumption that the flow is both isothermal and contains a relativistic component of pressure. A self-similar solution is shown to exist only if both the blast wave speed, usub(s), and the local sound speed, w, are constant. If Ω [equivalent to ω(1-w2/c2)] lies in 1 >Ω>0, there exists a critical point in the radial distance-flow velocity plane. To be physically acceptable, the solution must pass through the origin and through the critical point and then through to the blast front; solution branches between these points exist, although a proper connection at the critical point has not been demonstrated. It is concluded that isothermal self-similar blast waves do not provide a valid model for a supernova remnant driven by a relativistic gas pressure. Since the validity of the adiabatic blast wave models has elsewhere been shown to be questionable, it is doubtful whether the self-similar property can be involved at all in the case of supernova remnants. This raises serious questions of interpretation of quantities deduced for supernova remnants on the basis of the use of self-similar models. (Auth.)

  5. Diffuse neutrinos from extragalactic supernova remnants: Dominating the 100 TeV IceCube flux

    Sovan Chakraborty

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available IceCube has measured a diffuse astrophysical flux of TeV–PeV neutrinos. The most plausible sources are unique high energy cosmic ray accelerators like hypernova remnants (HNRs and remnants from gamma ray bursts in star-burst galaxies, which can produce primary cosmic rays with the required energies and abundance. In this case, however, ordinary supernova remnants (SNRs, which are far more abundant than HNRs, produce a comparable or larger neutrino flux in the ranges up to 100–150 TeV energies, implying a spectral break in the IceCube signal around these energies. The SNRs contribution in the diffuse flux up to these hundred TeV energies provides a natural baseline and then constrains the expected PeV flux.

  6. Searching for the Time Variation in Supernova Remnant RX J1713.7-3946

    Sezer, Aytap; Cui, Xiaohong; Bamba, Aya; Ohira, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Supernova Remnant RX J1713.7-3946 emits synchrotron X-rays and very high energy $\\gamma$-rays. Recently, thermal X-ray line emission is detected from ejecta plasma. CO and HI observations indicate that a highly inhomogeneous medium surrounding the SNR. It is interacting with dense molecular clouds in the northwest and the southwest of the remnant. The origin of the $\\gamma$-ray emission from RX J1713.7-3946 is still uncertain. Detection of rapid variability in X-ray emission from RX J1713.7-3946 indicates the magnetic field $B$ $\\sim$ mG. In this work, we investigate the time variation in X-ray flux, luminosity and photon index of RX J1713.7-3946. For this investigation, we study the northwest part of the remnant using Suzaku data in 2006 and 2010. We present preliminary results based on our analysis and interpretations about these X-ray time variability.

  7. Discriminating the Progenitor Type of Supernova Remnants with Iron K-Shell Emission

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Petre, Robert; Nakano, Toshio; Castro, Daniel; Enoto, Teruaki; Hiraga, Junko S; Hughes, John P; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Safi-Harb, Samar; Slane, Patrick O; Smith, Randall K; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) retain crucial information about both their parent explosion and circumstellar material left behind by their progenitor. However, the complexity of the interaction between supernova ejecta and ambient medium often blurs this information, and it is not uncommon for the basic progenitor type (Ia or core-collapse) of well-studied remnants to remain uncertain. Here we present a powerful new observational diagnostic to discriminate between progenitor types and constrain the ambient medium density of SNRs solely using Fe K-shell X-ray emission. We analyze all extant Suzaku observations of SNRs and detect Fe K alpha emission from 23 young or middle-aged remnants, including five first detections (IC 443, G292.0+1.8, G337.2-0.7, N49, and N63A). The Fe K alpha centroids clearly separate progenitor types, with the Fe-rich ejecta in Type Ia remnants being significantly less ionized than in core-collapse SNRs. Within each progenitor group, the Fe K alpha luminosity and centroid are well correlate...

  8. Nuclear reactions in shock wave front during supernova events

    Lavrukhina, A. K.

    1985-01-01

    The new unique isotopic anomalous coponent of Xe(XeX) was found in the carbonaceous chondrites. It is enriched in light shielded isotopes (124Xe and 126Xe) and in heavy nonshielded isotopes (134Xe and 136Xe. All characteristics of Xe-X can be explained by a model of nucleosynthesis of the Xe isotopes in shock wave front passed through the He envelope during supernova events. The light isotopes are created by p process and the heavy isotopes are created by n process (slow r process). They were captured with high temperature carbon grains condensing by supernova shock waves.

  9. A joint spectro-imaging analysis of the XMM-Newton and HESS observations of the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946

    Acero, F; Decourchelle, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Ortega, M; Giacani, E; Dubner, G; Cassam-Chenai, G

    2009-01-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946 (also known as G347.3-0.5) is part of the class of remnants dominated by synchrotron emission in X-rays. It is also one of the few shell-type SNRs observed at TeV energies allowing to investigate particle acceleration at SNRs shock. Our goal is to compare spatial and spectral properties of the remnant in X- and gamma-rays to understand the nature of the TeV emission. This requires to study the remnant at the same spatial scale at both energies. To complement the non-thermal spectrum of the remnant, we attempt to provide a reliable estimate for the radio flux density. In radio, we revisited ATCA data and used HI and mid-infrared observations to disentangle the thermal from the non-thermal emission. In X-rays, we produced a new mosaic of the remnant and degraded the spatial resolution of the X-ray data to the resolution of the HESS instrument to perform spatially resolved spectroscopy at the same spatial scale in X- and gamma-rays. Radial profiles were obtained to inv...

  10. Observations of the young supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of the young Supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We clearly detect a source positionally coincident with the SNR. The source is extended with a best-fit extension of 0.55$^{\\circ} \\pm 0.04^{\\circ}$ matching the size of the non-thermal X-ray and TeV gamma-ray emission from the remnant. The positional coincidence and the matching extended emission allows us to identify the LAT source with the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-394...

  11. Shock-Turbulence Interaction in Core-Collapse Supernovae

    Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Radice, David; Berdibek, Shapagat

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear shell burning in the final stages of the lives of massive stars is accompanied by strong turbulent convection. The resulting fluctuations aid supernova explosion by amplifying the non-radial flow in the post-shock region. In this work, we investigate the physical mechanism behind this amplification using a linear perturbation theory. We model the shock wave as a one-dimensional planar discontinuity and consider its interaction with vorticity and entropy perturbations in the upstream flow. We find that, as the perturbations cross the shock, their total turbulent kinetic energy is amplified by a factor of $\\sim\\!2$, while the average linear size of turbulent eddies decreases by about the same factor. These values are not sensitive to the parameters of the upstream turbulence and the nuclear dissociation efficiency at the shock. Finally, we discuss the implication of our results for the supernova explosion mechanism. We show that the upstream perturbations can decrease the critical neutrino luminosity fo...

  12. Fermi-LAT Observation of Supernova Remnant S147

    Katsuta, J.; Uchiyama, Y.; Tanaka, T.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Tajima, H.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Nagoya U., Solar-Terrestrial Environ. Lab.; Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Lande, J.; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ballet, J.; /AIM, Saclay; Hanabata, Y.; /Hiroshima U.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; /CENBG, Gradignan; Takahashi, T.; /JAXA, Sagamihara

    2012-08-17

    We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around SNR S147 (G180.0-1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2-10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5{sigma} confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 {+-} 0.6) x 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 x 10{sup 34} (d/1.3 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with prominent H{alpha} filaments of S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral {pi} mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions in the filaments. Reacceleration of pre-existing CRs and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the required energy density of high-energy protons.

  13. Fermi-LAT Observation of Supernova Remnant S147

    Katsuta, Junichiro; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Bechtol, Keith; Funk, Stefan; Lande, Joshua; Ballet, Jean; Hanabata, Yoshitaka; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around SNR S147 (G180.0-1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2--10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5sigma confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 \\pm 0.6) x 10^{-8} photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 x 10^{34} (d/1.3 kpc)^2 erg s^{-1} in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with prominent Halpha filaments of S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral pi mesons produced through the proton--proton collisions in the filaments. Reacceleration of pre-existing CRs and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the required energy...

  14. The Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant in X-Rays

    J. Martin Laming

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Revisamos el progreso alcanzado hasta la fecha en el an alisis del proyecto de observaci on \\1 million second Chandra Very Large Project (VLP" en el remanente de supernova Cassiopeia A. Exploramos la posibilidad de que Cas A explotase en un \\burbuja". El viento de supergigante roja dentro del cual se expande la onda de choque de la explosi on, fue posiblemente seguido por un per odo corto de viento tenue y r apido de Wolf-Rayet previo a la explosi on, dejando una regi on de baja densidad en el centro, rodeado por el viento de supergigante roja de mayor densidad. Tambi en revisamos el estado actual de las observaciones de rayos X duros y la determinaci on de la masa de 44Ti que se piensa que se eyect o en la explosi on, con miras a las restricciones que esto pone a la explosi on en si misma, y d onde se puedan encontrar los productos del decaimiento del 44Ti

  15. The Detection of Far Ultraviolet Line Emission from Balmer-Dominated Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Ghavamian, Parviz; Sankrit, Ravi; Hughes, John P; Raymond, John C

    2007-01-01

    We present the first far ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of the four known Balmer-dominated supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud, acquired with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. The remnants DEM L 71 (0505-67.9), 0509-67.5, 0519-69.0 and 0548-70.4 are all in the non-radiative stages of evolution and exhibit expansion speeds ranging from ~ 500 km/s to ~ 5000 km/s. We have detected broad emission lines of Ly beta, Ly gamma, C III and O VI in DEM L 71 (V(FWHM) ~ 1000 km/s) and have detected broad Ly beta and O VI emission in 0519-69.0, (V(FWHM) ~ 3000 km/s). In addition, broad Ly beta emission (V(FWHM) ~ 3700 km/s) has been observed in 0509-67.5, the first detection of broad line emission from this SNR. No emission was detected in our FUSE spectrum of 0548-70.4, allowing us to place only upper limits on the FUV line fluxes. The spectra of these SNRs are unaffected by postshock cooling, and provide valuable probes of collisionless heating efficiency in high Mach number shocks. We have used ...

  16. Modeling of the Vela complex including the Vela supernova remnant, the binary system gamma2 Velorum, and the Gum nebula

    Sushch, Iurii; Neronov, Andrii

    2010-01-01

    We study the geometry and dynamics of the Vela complex including the Vela supernova remnant (SNR), the binary system gamma2 Velorum and the Gum nebula. We show that the Vela SNR belongs to a subclass of non-Sedov adiabatic remnants in a cloudy interstellar medium (ISM), the dynamics of which is determined by the heating and evaporation of ISM clouds. We explain observable characteristics of the Vela SNR with a SN explosion with energy 1.4 x 10^50 ergs near the step-like boundary of the ISM with low intercloud densities (~ 10^{-3} cm^{-3}) and with a volume-averaged density of clouds evaporated by shock in the north-east (NE) part about four times higher than the one in the south-west (SW) part. The observed asymmetry between the NE and SW parts of the Vela SNR could be explained by the presence of a stellar wind bubble (SWB) blown by the nearest-to-the Earth Wolf-Rayet (WR) star in the gamma2 Velorum system. We show that the size and kinematics of gamma2 Velorum SWB agree with predictions of numerical calcula...

  17. Discovery of X-Ray-Emitting O-Ne-Mg-Rich Ejecta in the Galactic Supernova Remnant Puppis A

    Katsuda, Satoru; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Park, Sangwook; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of X-ray-emitting O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta in the middle-aged Galactic O-rich supernova remnant Puppis A with Chandra and XMM-Newton. We use line ratios to identify a low-ionization filament running parallel to the northeastern edge of the remnant that requires super-solar abundances, particularly for O, Ne, and Mg, which we interpret to be from O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta. Abundance ratios of Ne/O, Mg/O, and Fe/O are measured to be [approx]2, [approx]2, and <0.3 times the solar values. Our spatially resolved spectral analysis from the northeastern rim to the western rim otherwise reveals sub-solar abundances consistent with those in the interstellar medium. The filament is coincident with several optically emitting O-rich knots with high velocities. If these are physically related, the filament would be a peculiar fragment of ejecta. On the other hand, the morphology of the filament suggests that it may trace ejecta heated by a shock reflected strongly off the dense ambient clouds near the northeastern rim.

  18. Molecular environment and thermal X-ray spectroscopy of the semicircular young composite supernova remnant 3C 396

    Su, Yang; Yang, Ji; Koo, Bon-Chul; Zhou, Xin; Lu, Deng-Rong; Jeong, Il-Gyo; DeLaney, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated the molecular gas environment of the semicircular composite supernova remnant (SNR) 3C 396 in multiwavelengths and performed a Chandra spatially resolved thermal X-ray spectroscopic study of this young SNR. With our CO millimeter observations toward 3C 396, we find that the molecular gas at V(LSR)~84km/s can better explain the multiwavelength properties of the remnant than the V(LSR)=67-72km/s molecular gas that is suggested by Lee et al. (2009). At 84km/s, the western boundary of the SNR is perfectly confined by the western molecular wall. The CO emission fades out from west to east, indicating that the eastern region is of low gas density. In particular, a finger/pillar-like molecular cloud (MC) intruding inside the SNR border is revealed in the southwest (SW). The shock interaction with the "pillar tip" can well explain the X-ray and radio enhancement in the SW and some infrared filaments there. The SNR-MC interaction is also favored by the relatively elevated 12CO J=2-1/J=1-0 line rat...

  19. Multi-frequency study of the newly confirmed supernova remnant MCSNR J0512-6707 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Kavanagh, P J; Bozzetto, L M; Points, S D; Filipovic, M D; Maggi, P; Haberl, F; Crawford, E J

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the supernova remnant MCSNR J0512-6707 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We used new data from XMM-Newton to characterise the X-ray emission and data from the Australian Telescope Compact Array, the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey, and Spitzer to gain a picture of the environment into which the remnant is expanding. We performed a morphological study, determined radio polarisation and magnetic field orientation, and performed an X-ray spectral analysis. We estimated the its size to be 24.9 (\\pm1.5) x 21.9 (\\pm1.5) pc, with the major axis rotated ~29 deg east of north. Radio polarisation at 3 cm and 6 cm indicate a higher degree of polarisation in the NW and SE tangentially oriented to the SNR shock front, indicative of an SNR compressing the magnetic field threading the interstellar medium. The X-ray spectrum is unusual as it requires a soft (~0.2 keV) CIE thermal plasma of interstellar medium abundance, in addition to a harder component. Using our results and the Sedov dynamical mode...

  20. The end of amnesia: A new method for measuring the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using manganese lines in supernova remnants

    Badenes Montoliu, Carles; Bravo Guil, Eduardo; Hughes, J. P.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn to Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kalpha X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remna...

  1. Cosmic-ray-induced ionization in molecular clouds adjacent to supernova remnants - Tracing the hadronic origin of GeV gamma radiation

    Schuppan, F.; Becker, J. K.; Black, J. H.; Casanova, S.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic gamma rays (GeV to TeV photon energy) have been detected toward several supernova remnants (SNR) associated with molecular clouds. If the gamma rays are produced mainly by hadronic processes rather than leptonic processes like bremsstrahlung, then the flux of energetic cosmic ray (CR) nuclei (>1 GeV) required to produce the gamma rays can be inferred at the site where the particles are accelerated in SNR shocks. It is of great interest to understand the acceleration of the CR of low...

  2. Discovery of TeV Gamma Ray Emission from Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Acciari, V A; Arlen, T; Aune, T; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cannon, A; Cesarini, A; Ciupik, L; Collins-Hughes, E; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Duke, C; Errando, M; Finley, J P; Finnegan, G; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gall, D; Gillanders, G H; Godambe, S; Griffin, S; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hughes, J P; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Kaaret, P; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; LeBohec, S; Madhavan, A S; Maier, G; Majumdar, P; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Orr, M; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Park, N; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Saxon, D B; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Senturk, G Demet; Slane, P; Smith, A W; Tešić, G; Theiling, M; Thibadeau, S; Tsurusaki, K; Varlotta, A; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Vivier, M; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Weisgarber, T; Williams, D A; Wood, M; Zitzer, B

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) G120.1+1.4, known as Tycho's supernova remnant. Observations performed in the period 2008-2010 with the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory reveal weak emission coming from the direction of the remnant, compatible with a point source located at $00^{\\rm h} \\ 25^{\\rm m} \\ 27.0^{\\rm s},\\ +64^{\\circ} \\ 10^{\\prime} \\ 50^{\\prime\\prime}$ (J2000). The TeV photon spectrum measured by VERITAS can be described with a power-law $dN/dE = C(E/3.42\\;\\textrm{TeV})^{-\\Gamma}$ with $\\Gamma = 1.95 \\pm 0.51_{stat} \\pm 0.30_{sys}$ and $C = (1.55 \\pm 0.43_{stat} \\pm 0.47_{sys}) \\times 10^{-14}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$TeV$^{-1}$. The integral flux above 1 TeV corresponds to $\\sim 0.9%$ percent of the steady Crab Nebula emission above the same energy, making it one of the weakest sources yet detected in TeV gamma rays. We present both leptonic and hadronic models which can describe the data. The lowest magnetic field allowed in these models ...

  3. Spectroscopic mapping of the physical properties of supernova remnant N\\,49

    Pauletti, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    Physical conditions inside a supernova remnant can vary significantly between different positions. However, typical observational data are integrated data or contemplate specific portions of the remnant. We study the spatial variation in the physical properties of the N\\,49 supernova remnant based on a spectroscopic mapping of the whole nebula. Long-slit spectra were obtained with the slit ($\\sim4\\arcmin \\times 1.03\\arcsec$) aligned along the east-west direction from 29 different positions spaced by $2\\arcsec$ in declination. A total of 3248 1D spectra were extracted from sections of $2\\arcsec$ of the 2D spectra. More than 60 emission lines in the range 3550\\,\\AA{} to 8920\\,\\AA{} were measured in these spectra. Maps of the fluxes and of intensity ratios of these emission lines were built with a spatial resolution of $2\\arcsec \\times 2\\arcsec$. An electron density map has been obtained using the [S\\,{\\sc ii}]\\,$\\lambda6716/\\lambda6731$ line ratio. Values vary from $\\sim$500\\,cm$^{-3}$ at the northeast region t...

  4. Fermi-Lat and WMAP Observations of the Puppis a Supernova Remnant

    Hewitt, John William; Grondin, M. H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Reposeur, T.; Ballet, J.; Tanaka, T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of GeV gamma-ray emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Puppis A is among the faintest supernova remnants yet detected at GeV energies, with a luminosity of only 2.7×10(exp 34) (D/2.2 kpc)(exp 2) erg s(exp -1) between 1 and 100 GeV. The gamma-ray emission from the remnant is spatially extended, with a morphology matching that of the radio and X-ray emission, and is well described by a simple power law with an index of 2.1. We attempt to model the broadband spectral energy distribution, from radio to gamma-rays, using standard nonthermal emission mechanisms. To constrain the relativistic electron population we use 7 years of WMAP data to extend the radio spectrum up to 93 GHz. Both leptonic and hadronic dominated models can reproduce the nonthermal spectral energy distribution, requiring a total content of cosmic ray (CR) electrons and protons accelerated in Puppis A of at least WCR is approx. (1 - 5)×10 (exp 49) erg.

  5. Fermi-LAT and WMAP observations of the Puppis A Supernova Remnant

    Hewitt, J W; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Reposeur, T; Ballet, J; Tanaka, T

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of GeV \\gamma-ray emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Puppis A is among the faintest supernova remnants yet detected at GeV energies, with a luminosity of only 2.7x10^34 (D/2.2 kpc)^2 erg/s between 1 and 100 GeV. The \\gamma-ray emission from the remnant is spatially extended, with a morphology matching that of the radio and X-ray emission, and is well described by a simple power law with an index of 2.1. We attempt to model the broadband spectral energy distribution, from radio to \\gamma-rays, using standard nonthermal emission mechanisms. To constrain the relativistic electron population we use 7 years of WMAP data to extend the radio spectrum up to 93 GHz. Both leptonic and hadronic dominated models can reproduce the nonthermal spectral energy distribution, requiring a total content of cosmic ray (CR) electrons and protons accelerated in Puppis A of at least (1-5)x10^49 erg.

  6. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. I: spectrum and chemical composition

    Blasi, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. In particular, at high energies we assume that D(E)\\sim E^{\\delta}, with $\\delta=1/3$ and $\\delta=0.6$ being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars, with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. We find that the stochastic fluctuations induced by the spatial and temporal distribution of supernovae, together with the effect of spallation of nuclei, lead to mild but sensible violations of the simple, leaky-box-inspired rule that the spectrum observed at Earth is $N(E)\\propto E^{-\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha=\\gamma+\\delta$, where $\\gamma$ is the slope of the co...

  7. An X-ray View of the Zoo of Compact Objects and Associated Supernova Remnants

    Safi-Harb, Samar

    2015-08-01

    Core-collapse explosions of massive stars leave behind some of the most exotic compact objects in the Universe. These include: rotation-powered pulsars like the Crab, powering pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) observed across the electromagnetic spectrum; highly magnetized neutron stars ("magnetars") shining or bursting at high-energies; and X-ray emitting “Central Compact Objects” (CCOs) with intrinsic properties and emission mechanism that remain largely unknown. I will highlight this observed diversity of compact stellar remnants from an X-ray perspective, and address the connection between their properties and those of their hosting supernova remnants (SNRs). In particular I will highlight topics related to their formation and evolution, including: 1) which supernovae make magnetars and the shell-less PWNe?, 2) what can we learn from the apparent age discrepancy between SNRs and their associated pulsars? I will conclude with prospects for observations of SNRs with the upcoming ASTRO-H X-ray mission. The unprecedented spectral resolution on board of ASTRO-H’s micro-calorimeter will particularly open a new discovery window for supernova progenitors' science.

  8. Magnetar Driven Shock Breakout and Double Peaked Supernova Light Curves

    Kasen, Daniel; Bildsten, Lars

    2015-01-01

    The light curves of some luminous supernovae are suspected to be powered by the spindown energy of a rapidly rotating magnetar. Here we describe a possible signature of the central engine: a burst of shock breakout emission occurring several days after the supernova explosion. The energy input from the magnetar inflates a high-pressure bubble that drives a shock through the pre-exploded supernova ejecta. If the magnetar is powerful enough, that shock will near the ejecta surface and become radiative. At the time of shock breakout, the ejecta will have expanded to a large radius (~10^{14} cm) so that the radiation released is at optical/ultraviolet wavelengths (T ~ 20,000 K) and lasts for several days. The luminosity and timescale of this magnetar driven shock breakout are similar to the first peak observed recently in the double-peaked light curve of SN-LSQ14BDQ. However, for a large region of model parameter space, the breakout emission is predicted to be dimmer than the diffusive luminosity from direct magn...

  9. Limits on the Number of Galactic Young Supernova Remnants Emitting in the Decay Lines of 44Ti

    Dufour, François

    2013-01-01

    We revise the assumptions of the parameters involved in predicting the number of supernova remnants detectable in the nuclear lines of the decay chain of 44Ti. Specifically, we consider the distribution of the supernova progenitors, the supernova rate in the Galaxy, the ratios of supernova types, the Galactic production of 44Ti, and the 44Ti yield from supernovae of different types, to derive credible bounds on the expected number of detectable remnants. We find that, within 1 sigma uncertainty, the Galaxy should contain an average of 5.1+2.4-2.0 remnants detectable to a survey with a 44Ti decay line flux limit of 10E-5 photons/cm2/s, with a probability of detecting a single remnant of (2.7+10.0-2.4)%, and an expected number of detections between 2 and 9 remnants, making the single detection of Cas A unlikely but consistent with our models. Our results show that the probability of detecting the brightest 44Ti flux source at the high absolute Galactic longitude of Cas A or above is ~10%. Using the detected flu...

  10. Peering into the heart of the M82 starburst: Type II supernova remnants and a possible relic GRB?

    Fenech, Danielle Marie; Beswick, Robert; Muxlow, Tom; Argo, Megan

    2015-08-01

    M82 is considered the archetypal starburst galaxy and at a distance of ~3.6 Mpc is one of the closest examples of its kind. It therefore provides a unique opportunity to study a star-forming environment in detail and particularly the discrete products of star-formation such as supernova remnants (SNR) and HII regions. Supernovae and supernova remnants play an important role in the feedback of energy and material into the surrounding interstellar medium as evidenced in M82 by the galactic superwind driven by the numerous supernovae, SNR and massive stellar winds.Radio observations can be used to see into the core of the star-forming region in the centre of M82 as they are unaffected by the gas and dust associated with such an intense starburst environment. Since their discovery in the 1970s, radio observations have been used to study and monitor the evolution of the ~100 supernova remnants at the heart of this galaxy.We present multi-epoch millarcsecond resolution images of the most compact supernova remnants in M82, spanning 25 years of evolution. In particular, we will discuss one of the quintessential SNR 43.31+59.2 as well as the unusual object 41.95+57.5 and its potential as a GRB afterglow.

  11. The Relation Between the Surface Brightness and the Diameter for Galactic Supernova Remnants

    Guseinov, O H; Sezer, A; Tagieva, S O; Guseinov, Oktay H.; Ankay, Askin; Sezer, Aytap; Tagieva, Sevinc O.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we have constructed a relation between the surface brightness ($\\Sigma$) and diameter (D) of Galactic C- and S-type supernova remnants (SNRs). In order to calibrate the $\\Sigma$-D dependence, we have carefully examined some intrinsic (e.g. explosion energy) and extrinsic (e.g. density of the ambient medium) properties of the remnants and, taking into account also the distance values given in the literature, we have adopted distances for some of the SNRs which have relatively more reliable distance values. These calibrator SNRs are all C- and S-type SNRs, i.e. F-type SNRs (and S-type SNR Cas A which has an exceptionally high surface brightness) are excluded. The Sigma-D relation has 2 slopes with a turning point at D=36.5 pc: $\\Sigma$(at 1 GHz)=8.4$^{+19.5}_{-6.3}

  12. Highly Clumpy Structure of the Thermal Composite Supernova Remnant 3C391 Unveiled by Chandra

    Chen, Y; Slane, P O; Wang, Q D; Chen, Yang; Su, Yang; Slane, Patrick O.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of the internal thermal X-ray emission seen in ``thermal composite" supernova remnants is still uncertain. Chandra observation of the 3C391 shows a southeast-northwest elongated morphology and unveils a highly clumpy structure of the remnant. Detailed spatially resolved spectral analysis for the small-scale features reveals normal metal abundance and uniform temperature for the interior gas. The properties of the hot gas comparatively favor the cloudlet evaporation model as a main mechanism for the ``thermal composite" X-ray appearance, though radiative rim and thermal conduction may also be effective. A faint protrusion is found in Si and S lines out of the southwest radio border.

  13. Suzaku Studies of the Supernova Remnant CTB~109 Hosting the Magnetar 1E~2259+586

    Nakano, Toshio; Hiraga, Junoko S; Uchiyama, Hideki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Enoto, Teruaki

    2015-01-01

    Ages of the magnetar 1E 2259+586 and the associated supernova remnant CTB~109 were studied. Analyzing the Suzaku data of CTB~109, its age was estimated to be $\\sim$14~kyr, which is much shorter than the measured characteristic age of 1E 2259+586, 230 kyr. This reconfirms the previously reported age discrepancy of this magnetar/remnant association, and suggests that the characteristic ages of magnetars are generally over-estimated as compared to their true ages. This discrepancy is thought to arise because the former are calculated without considering decay of the magnetic fields. This novel view is supported independently by much stronger Galactic-plane concentration of magnetars than other pulsars. The process of magnetic field decay in magnetars is mathematically modeled. It is implied that magnetars are much younger objects than previously considered, and can dominate new-born neutron stars.

  14. X-ray characteristics of the Lupus Loop and SN1006 supernova remnants

    The spatial extent of the Lupus Loop and spectra for the Lupus Loop and SN1006 supernova remnants have been determined with a rocket-borne payload. The Lupus Loop is an extended source of soft X-rays (approx. 300' diam) that shows a correlation between its brightest X-ray and radio-emission regions. Its spectrum is characterized by a temperature of 350 eV. Thus, the Lupus Loop appears similar to Vela X and Cygnus Loop, although much weaker. Emission from SN1006 is spatially unresolved and exhibits a harder spectrum than that of the Lupus Loop. All spectral data (0.2 100 keV) from our observation and previous observations are satisfactorily fit with a power law (index = 2.15). This spectral dependence suggests the possibility that a rotating neutron star is the underlying source of the radiated energy although such an interpretation appears inconsistent with the remnant's morphology. (orig.)

  15. A hydrodynamical model of Kepler's supernova remnant constrained by x-ray spectra

    The remnant of the historical supernova observed by Kepler in 1604 was recently observed in x-rays by the EXOSAT satellite up to 10 keV. A strong Fe K emission line around 6.5 keV is readily apparent in the spectrum. From an analysis of the light curve of the SN, reconstructed from historical descriptions, a previous study proposed to classify it as type I. Standard models of SN I based on carbon deflagration of white dwarf predict the synthesis of about 0.5 M circle of iron in the ejecta. Observing the iron line is a crucial check for such models. It has been argued that the light curve of Sn II-L is very similar to that of SN I and that the original observations are compatible with either type. In view of this uncertainty the authors have run a hydrodynamics-ionization code for both SN II and SN I remnants

  16. Interaction of supernova remnants: From the circumstellar medium to the terrestrial laboratory

    Velarde, P.; García-Senz, D.; Bravo, E.; Ogando, F.; Relaño, A.; García, C.; Oliva, E.

    2006-09-01

    The evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) represents a useful and natural laboratory for gasdynamics studies. In this paper the results of several hydrodynamical simulations of the propagation and early phases of interaction of two SNRs embedded in a homogeneous interstellar environment are shown. In particular, the hydrodynamic evolution and collision of twin SNRs during their self-similar stage has been simulated using a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrocode. In addition, the results of a detailed simulation that attempts to set the adequate conditions to reproduce the same phenomenon through laser ablation of two plastic plugs at the laboratory scale are presented. These results indicate that both large-scale and small-scale simulations display several common features that can be used to design an experiment aimed to validate the hydrodynamical codes. Of particular interest are the structures found around the juncture of the two colliding shells produced by the interaction of the remnants.

  17. Interaction of supernova remnants: From the circumstellar medium to the terrestrial laboratory

    The evolution of supernova remnants (SNRs) represents a useful and natural laboratory for gasdynamics studies. In this paper the results of several hydrodynamical simulations of the propagation and early phases of interaction of two SNRs embedded in a homogeneous interstellar environment are shown. In particular, the hydrodynamic evolution and collision of twin SNRs during their self-similar stage has been simulated using a two-dimensional Lagrangian hydrocode. In addition, the results of a detailed simulation that attempts to set the adequate conditions to reproduce the same phenomenon through laser ablation of two plastic plugs at the laboratory scale are presented. These results indicate that both large-scale and small-scale simulations display several common features that can be used to design an experiment aimed to validate the hydrodynamical codes. Of particular interest are the structures found around the juncture of the two colliding shells produced by the interaction of the remnants

  18. Cavity of Molecular Gas Associated with Supernova Remnant 3C 397

    Jiang, Bing; Wang, Junzhi; Su, Yang; Zhou, Xin; Safi-Harb, Samar; DeLaney, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    3C 397 is a radio and X-ray bright Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) with an unusual rectangular morphology. Our CO observation obtained with the Purple Mountain Observatory at Delingha reveals that the remnant is well confined in a cavity of molecular gas, and embedded at the edge of a molecular cloud (MC) at the local standard of rest systemic velocity of ~32 km/s. The cloud has a column density gradient increasing from southeast to northwest, perpendicular to the Galactic plane, in agreement with the elongation direction of the remnant. This systemic velocity places the cloud and SNR 3C 397 at a kinematic distance of ~10.3 kpc. The derived mean molecular density (~10-30 cm^-3) explains the high volume emission measure of the X-ray emitting gas. A 12CO line broadening of the ~32 km/s component is detected at the westmost boundary of the remnant, which provides direct evidence of the SNR-MC interaction and suggests multi-component gas there with dense (~10^4 cm^-3) molecular clumps. We confirm the previous de...

  19. H.E.S.S. observations of the supernova remnant RCW 86

    Hoppe, S

    2007-01-01

    The shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) RCW 86 - possibly associated with the historical supernova SN 185 - was observed during the past three years with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.), an array of four atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes located in Namibia. The multi-wavelength properties of RCW 86, e.g. weak radio emission and North-East X-ray emission almost entirely consisting of synchroton radiation, resemble those of two very-high energy (VHE; > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emitting SNRs RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852-4622. The H.E.S.S. observations reveal a new extended source of VHE gamma-ray emission.The morphological and spectral properties of this new source will be presented.

  20. The Lower Limit for Masses of Progenitors of Supernova Remnants and Radio Pulsars

    Tagieva, S O; Ankay, A; Tagieva, Sevinc O.; Guseinov, Oktay H.; Ankay, Askin

    2003-01-01

    We examined correlations between young radio pulsars (PSRs), Supernova remnants (SNRs) which have different surface brightness values and young star formation regions (SFRs). Angular correlation of PSRs with SFRs is reliable up to 4 kpc and considerably strong up to 3 kpc from the Sun. On average this correlation is stronger for Galactic anticenter directions compared to Galactic central directions. Angular correlation of SNRs with SFRs is weaker and depends on the surface brightness of the SNR. Spatial correlation of PSRs with SFRs is also stronger than spatial correlation of SNRs with SFRs. Dim SNRs show weak spatial correlation with SFRs. These investigations and analysis of various data show that the lower limit for masses of progenitors of PSRs is about 9 M$_{\\odot}$ and of SNRs (or supernovae) is about 7 M$_{\\odot}$.

  1. The Cold Dust Content of the Oxygen-Rich Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8

    Ghavamian, Parviz

    2016-01-01

    We present far-infrared images of the Galactic oxygen-rich supernova remnant (SNR) G292.0+1.8, acquired with the PACS and SPIRE instruments of the Herschel Space Observatory. We find that the SNR shell is detected in the PACS blue (100 micron) band, but not in the red (160 micron) band, broadly consistent with results from AKARI observations. There is no discernible emission from G292.0+1.8 in SPIRE imagery at 250, 350 and 500 micron. Comparing the 100 micron emission to that observed with Spitzer, at 24 and 70 micron, we find a very similar appearance for G292.0+1.8 at all three wavelengths. The IR emission is dominated by dust from non-radiative circumstellar shocks. In addition, the radiatively shocked O-rich clump known as the 'Spur' on the eastern side of G292.0+1.8, is clearly detected in the PACS blueimages, with marginal detection in the red. Fitting the existing 14-40 micron IRS spectra of the Spur together with photometric measurements from 70 micron MIPS and 100 micron PACS photometry, we place an ...

  2. Gamma-Ray Bursts Subset and Supernova Remnants Low Radio-Frequency Turnover

    LIU Xiang

    2000-01-01

    Durations of gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) are featured by >2s subset and <2s one, with initial corresponding energy ratio being 20:1. It is found that supernova remants(SNR 's) turnover frequencies peak at 100 and 500 MHz. After assuming that GRB's originate from hypernova and making an analysis on the evolution of GRB's, we find that the initial energy of two GRB subsets leads to a different radio-frequency turnover of their remnant spectra, which accords positively with the turnover-frequency ratio of SNR's.

  3. Soft x-ray emission from the Lupus Loop and SN 1006 supernova remnants

    X-ray maps of the Lupus region have been obtained in a raster scan observation from SAS 3. These show the Lupus Loop to be a faint, extended source of soft x-rays with a temperature about 2.5 x 106 K. The most prominent feature of the region is the A.D. 1006 supernova remnant, which is unexpectedly bright at 0.2--1.0 keV. One speculative interpretation of the low-energy flux from SN 1006 is as blackbody radiation from a hot neutron star

  4. Secondary Cosmic Ray Nuclei from Supernova Remnants and Constraints to the Propagation Parameters

    Tomassetti, N.; Donato, F.

    2012-01-01

    The secondary-to-primary B/C ratio is widely used to study the cosmic ray (CR) propagation processes in the Galaxy. It is usually assumed that secondary nuclei such as Li-Be-B are entirely generated by collisions of heavier CR nuclei with the interstellar medium (ISM). We study the CR propagation under a scenario where secondary nuclei can also be produced or accelerated from galactic sources. We consider the processes of hadronic interactions inside supernova remnants (SNRs) and re-accelerat...

  5. Detection of Class I Methanol (CH3OH) Maser Candidates in Supernova Remnants

    Pihlström, Y. M.; Sjouwerman, L. O.; Frail, D. A.; Claussen, M. J.; Mesler, R. A.; McEwen, B. C.

    2013-01-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to search for 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol (CH3OH) lines in a sample of 21 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Mainly the regions of the SNRs with 1720 MHz OH masers were observed. Despite the limited spatial extent covered in our search, methanol masers were detected in both G1.4-0.1 and W28. Additional masers were found in SgrAEast. More than 40 masers were found in G1.4-0.1 which we deduce are due to interactions between the SNR and at l...

  6. A supernova remnant coincident with the slow X-ray pulsar AX J1845-0258

    Gaensler, B. M.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Vasisht, G.

    1999-01-01

    We report on Very Large Array observations in the direction of the recently-discovered slow X-ray pulsar AX J1845-0258. In the resulting images, we find a 5-arcmin shell of radio emission; the shell is linearly polarized with a non-thermal spectral index. We class this source as a previously unidentified, young (< 8000 yr), supernova remnant (SNR), G29.6+0.1, which we propose is physically associated with AX J1845-0258. The young age of G29.6+0.1 is then consistent with the interpretation tha...

  7. Enhanced abundances in three large-diameter mixed-morphology supernova remnants

    Lazendic, J.; Slane, P.

    2005-01-01

    We present an X-ray study of three mixed-morphology supernova remnants (SNRs), HB 21, CTB 1 and HB 3, using archival ASCA and ROSAT data. These data are complemented by archival Chandra X-ray Observatory data for CTB 1 and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatory data for HB 3. The spectra from HB 21 and HB 3 are well-described with a single-temperature thermal plasma in ionization equilibrium, while a two-temperature thermal plasma is found in CTB 1. We found enhanced abundances in all three SNRs. The e...

  8. Class I Methanol (CH$_{3}$OH) Maser Conditions near Supernova Remnants

    McEwen, Bridget C.; Pihlström, Ylva M.; Sjouwerman, Loránt O.

    2014-01-01

    We present results from calculations of the physical conditions necessary for the occurrence of 36.169 ($4_{-1}-3_{0}\\, E$), 44.070 ($7_{0}-6_{1}\\,A^+$), 84.521 ($5_{-1}-4_{0}\\,E$), and 95.169 ($8_{0}-7_{1}\\,A^+$) GHz methanol (CH$_3$OH) maser emission lines near supernova remnants (SNRs), using the MOLPOP-CEP program. The calculations show that given a sufficient methanol abundance, methanol maser emission arises over a wide range of densities and temperatures, with optimal conditions at $n\\...

  9. IRAS observations of collisionally heated dust in Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnants

    IRAS additional observations show that luminous far-IR sources are associated with the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) supernova remnants N63A, N49, N49B, and N186D. Comparison of the IRAS and x-ray data shows that a substantial fraction of the IR emission from three of the SNRs can be accounted for by collisionally heated dust. The ratio of dust-grain cooling to total atomic cooling is ∼ 10 in x-ray emitting gas (T ∼ 106 K). The authors show why dust cooling does not dominate, but probably speeds SNR evolution in an inhomogeneous interstellar medium

  10. Characterizing Supernova Remnant and Molecular Cloud Interaction Sites Using Methanol (CH3OH) Masers

    McEwen, Bridget; Pihlstrom, Ylva; Sjouwerman, Lorant

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical masers are useful probes of the physical conditions of the gas in which they are formed. Masers form under specific physical conditions and therefore, can be used to trace distinct environments. In particular, collisionally excited 36 and 44 GHz methanol (CH3OH) and 1720 MHz hydroxl (OH) masers are found associated with shocked gas produced by the interaction between supernova remnants (SNRs) and molecular clouds (MCs). The overall goal of my thesis research is to combine modeling and observations to characterize the properties and formation of CH3OH masers in these SNR/MC interaction regions. More accurate information of the density (and density gradients) could, for example, be used as inputs or constraints for models of SNR cosmic ray acceleration. In this talk, I will present results from calculations of the physical conditions necessary for the occurence of 36.169, 44.070, 84.521, and 95.169 GHz CH3OH maser lines near SNRs, using a coupled radiative transfer and level population code. The modeling shows that given a sufficient CH3OH abundance, CH3OH maser emission arises over a wide range of densities and temperatures, with optimal conditions at n ~ 104 to 106 cm-3 and T > 60 K, overlapping with masing conditions for OH masers. Furthermore, the 36 and 44 GHz transitions display more significant maser optical depths compared to the 84 and 95 GHz transitions over the majority of the physical conditions. The line intensity ratios between multiple transitions significantly change with altering physical conditions and can be used to constrain the physical parameters of the gas where CH3OH masers are detected. I use the modeling results as a diagnostic tool to interpret the observational results of a sample of SNRs with previous and recent CH3OH maser detections (G1.4-0.1, W28, Sgr A East, G5.7-0.0, W44 and W51C). I will also discuss the close spatial and kinematic correlation of CH3OH masers and ammonia (NH3 (3,3)) emission peaks, which is a reliable

  11. Do all the Crab-like supernova remnants have an x-ray photon index near a value of 2?

    The X-ray spectra of four Crab-like supernova remnants (G21.5-0.9, 3C 58, MSH 15-52 and CTB 87) were observed with the Large Area Counter (LAC) on board the Ginga Satellite. Precise X-ray spectra in the energy range 2-20 keV were obtained. Each spectrum obeys a single power law with a photon index of about 2. This slope is similar to those of well-observed Crab-like supernova remnants; Crab nebula, Vela X, and 1E 0540-693. Thus, the X-ray synchrotron radiation from all, or most, Crab-like supernova remnants is likely to have a power-law spectrum with a photon index of about 2. (author)

  12. The properties of gamma-ray images of supernova remnants due to proton-proton interactions

    Beshley, V

    2011-01-01

    MAGIC and H.E.S.S experiments are the first to produce images of supernova remnats (SNRs) in TeV gamma-rays. The gamma-radiation are produced either by electrons (due to inverse-Compton scatterings) or protons (due to pion decays). We present a method to synthesize gamma-ray images of Sedov SNRs due to hadronic emission. The model is developed in the frame of a classic approach to proton acceleration and hydrodynamics of the shocks in a uniform interstellar medium; it includes energy losses of relativistic protons due to pp interactions. Our calculations show that these losses are important only for large densities of protons as it could be in case of interactions of the supernova shock with molecular cloud. Numerical simulations are used to synthesize radial profiles of hadronic TeV gamma-rays.

  13. SWIFT/BAT DETECTION OF HARD X-RAYS FROM TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT: EVIDENCE FOR TITANIUM-44

    We report Swift/Burst Alert Telescope survey observations of the Tycho's supernova remnant, performed over a period of 104 months since the mission's launch. The remnant is detected with high significance (>10σ) below 50 keV. We detect significant hard X-ray emission in the 60-85 keV band, above the continuum level predicted by a simple synchrotron model. The location of the observed excess is consistent with line emission from radioactive titanium-44, so far reported only for Type II supernova explosions. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the galactic supernova rate, and nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernova

  14. G25.5 + 0.2: a very young supernova remnant or a galactic planetary nebula?

    G25.5 + 0.2, a radio source suggested by previous authors to be a very young galactic supernova remnant, is more likely to be a planetary nebula. Its IRAS colours and fluxes and its radio spectrum and morphology are all consistent with the properties of planetary nebulae; its radio flux and distance imply a large mass of ionized gas, which is expected from a Type I planetary nebula lying in the galactic plane. We suggest some definitive observations which should be able to determine whether this interesting object is a planetary nebula or a supernova remnant. (author)

  15. The Search for Faint Radio Supernova Remnants in the Outer Galaxy: Five New Discoveries

    Gerbrandt, Stephanie; Kothes, Roland; Geisbuesch, Joern; Tung, Albert

    2014-01-01

    High resolution and sensitivity large-scale radio surveys of the Milky Way are critical in the discovery of very low surface brightness supernova remnants (SNRs), which may constitute a significant portion of the Galactic SNRs still unaccounted for (ostensibly the Missing SNR problem). The overall purpose here is to present the results of a systematic, deep data-mining of the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey (CGPS) for faint, extended non-thermal and polarized emission structures that are likely the shells of uncatalogued supernova remnants. We examine 5$\\times$5 degree mosaics from the entire 1420 MHz continuum and polarization dataset of the CGPS after removing unresolved point sources and subsequently smoothing them. Newly revealed extended emission objects are compared to similarly-prepared CGPS 408 MHz continuum mosaics, as well as to source-removed mosaics from various existing radio surveys at 4.8 GHz, 2.7 GHz, and 327 MHz, to identify candidates with non-thermal emission characteristics. We integrate fl...

  16. The Neutron Star in the Supernova Remnant PKS 1209-52

    Zavlin, V E; Trümper, J E

    1997-01-01

    We re-analyzed soft X-ray data collected with the ROSAT and ASCA observatories on a candidate neutron star (NS) near the center of the supernova remnant PKS 1209-52. We fitted the observed spectra with NS atmosphere models. The hydrogen atmosphere fits yield more realistic parameters of the NS and the intervening hydrogen column than the traditional blackbody fit. In particular, for a NS of mass 1.4 M_ødot and radius 10 km, we obtained the NS surface temperature T_{eff}=(1.4-1.9)*10^6 K and distance d=1.6-3.3 kpc versus T=(4.2-4.6)*10^6 K and (implausible) d=11-13 kpc for the blackbody fit, at a 90% confidence level. Our fits suggest that the surface magnetic field is either very weak, B < 10^{10} G, or it exceeds 2*10^{12} G. The hydrogen column density inferred from the atmosphere fits, n_H=(0.7-2.2)*10^{21} cm^{-2}, agrees fairly well with independent estimates obtained from UV observations of nearby stars, radio data, and X-ray spectrum of the shell of the supernova remnant, whereas the blackbody and ...

  17. Chandra and H.E.S.S. observations of the Supernova Remnant CTB 37B

    Aharonian, F; Barresde Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brucker, J; Buhler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chaves, R C G; Chounet, L M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Dalton, M; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata, A; Domainko, W; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, S; Fuling, M; Gabici, S; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, Y A; Gallant, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Jung, I; Katarzynski, K; Kaufmann, S; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khelifi, B; Keogh, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J P; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J P; de Ona Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Reimer, O; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schock, F M; Schroder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2008-01-01

    The >100 GeV gamma-ray source, HESS J1713-381, apparently associated with the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) CTB 37B, was discovered using H.E.S.S. in 2006. X-ray follow-up observations with Chandra were performed in 2007 with the aim of identifying a synchrotron counterpart to the TeV source and/or thermal emission from the SNR shell. These new Chandra data, together with additional TeV data, allow us to investigate the nature of this object in much greater detail than was previously possible. The new X-ray data reveal thermal emission from a ~4' region in close proximity to the radio shell of CTB 37B. The temperature of this emission implies an age for the remnant of ~5000 years (assuming a spherical Sedov expansion), disfavouring a suggested association with the supernova of AD 373. A bright (approx 7 x10^-13erg cm^-2 s^-1) and unresolved (<1'') source (CXOU J171405.7-381031) with a soft (Gamma ~ 3.3) non -thermal spectrum is also detected in coincidence with the radio shell. Absorption indicates a ...

  18. Comparison of the expected and observed supernova remnant counts with Fermi/LAT

    Vovk Ie.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available SNRs are commonly believed to be the accelerators of the galactic cosmic rays – mainly protons – and are expected to produce γ-rays through the inelastic proton-proton collisions. Fermi/LAT was expected to detect many of those, but only a dozen is listed in the recent Fermi/LAT 2nd Source catalogue. To test whether the observed number of SNRs is in agreement with the above assumption, we use a simplified model of an SNR and calculate the predicted amount of the observable remnants taking into account their distribution in the Galaxy and the sensitivity of Fermi/LAT. We find that the observed number of SNRs agrees with the prediction of our model if we assume a low, ≪ 1 cm−3, number density of the SNR's ambient medium. The result, presented here, suggests, that on average the supernova explosions happen in the under-dense regions, such as bubbles, creating by the winds of the progenitor stars. Under this natural supposition our result finds an agreement with the assumption, that the observed population of supernovae remnants is indeed responsible for the production of the galactic cosmic rays.

  19. The End of Amnesia: Measuring the Metallicities of Type Ia SN Progenitors with Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants

    Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo; Hughes, John P.

    2009-05-01

    The Mn to Cr mass ratio in supernova ejecta has recently been proposed as a tracer of Type Ia SN progenitor metallicity. We review the advantages and problems of this observable quantity, and discuss them in the framework of the Tycho Supernova Remnant. The fluxes of the Mn and Cr Kα lines in the X-ray spectra of Tycho observed by the Suzaku satellite suggests a progenitors of supersolar metallicity.

  20. The End of Amnesia: Measuring the Metallicities of Type Ia SN Progenitors with Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants

    Badenes, Carles; Hughes, John P

    2009-01-01

    The Mn to Cr mass ratio in supernova ejecta has recently been proposed as a tracer of Type Ia SN progenitor metallicity. We review the advantages and problems of this observable quantity, and discuss them in the framework of the Tycho Supernova Remnant. The fluxes of the Mn and Cr Kalpha lines in the X-ray spectra of Tycho observed by the Suzaku satellite suggests a progenitor of supersolar metallicity.

  1. The Supernova Blast Wave and the Molecular Cloud: an Observational Study of Molecular Shock Emission.

    Richter, Matthew Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Shock waves in molecular clouds heat, compress, accelerate, and chemically alter the gas they encounter. Despite their crucial role in determining the physical state of the dense interstellar medium and despite their making possible direct observations of H_2, molecular shocks are still poorly understood, as evidenced by the many discrepancies between theory and observations. In my dissertation, I use the supernova remnant IC 443 as a laboratory to test our understanding of shock -excited H_2 emission. By examining roughly 20 separate 2-4 μm Ha transitions, I find the non-uniform temperature structure essentially reproduces that found in Orion Peak 1, and so is consistent with the partially dissociating J-shock model presented by Brand and collaborators. Subsequent mid-infrared observations of the pure rotational S(2) transition at 12 mu m strengthens these conclusions. Velocity resolved line profiles of the strong 1-0 S(1) transition uncover a relationship between the remnant's large-scale geometry and the line profile's full-width at 10% intensity, centroid, and shape. The relationship contradicts any model requiring local bow geometries to explain broad H_2 line widths. Comparing the 1-0 S(1) data with similar observations of the 2-1 S(1) line, I demonstrate that the excitation temperature in the shocked gas depends primarily on position, not velocity. Taken together, the identical velocity extent of the 1-0 S(1) and the 2-1 S(1) lines and their upper state energy separation of E/k ~ 6000 K proves the H_2 -emitting gas reaches its full velocity dispersion prior to cooling below roughly 1500 K. Finally, I compare, with similar spatial and spectral resolution, H_2 and HCO^+ J = 1 - 0 and find evidence for temperature gradients as a result of both preshock density inhomogeneities and postshock cooling.

  2. Supernova envelope shock origin of cosmic rays: a review

    The hydrodynamic shock origin of cosmic rays in the envelope of a Type I presupernova star is reviewed. The possibility of accelerating ultrahigh energy particles to greater than or equal to 1018 eV is unique to the shock mechanism and currently no other suggested galactic or extragalactic site is likely. In this paper a review of the work leading to a renewed commitment to the origin of cosmic rays in the shock ejected envelope of supernova is given. The degree to which this interpretation applies to the origin of all cosmic rays is certainly uncertain and does not exclude the possibility of a fraction of the lower energy cosmic rays being accelerated in collisionless plasma shocks in the interstellar medium. 45 references, 3 figures

  3. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. I: spectrum and chemical composition

    In this paper we investigate the effect of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. In particular, at high energies we assume that D(E)∝Eδ, with δ = 1/3 and δ = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars, with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. We find that the stochastic fluctuations induced by the spatial and temporal distribution of supernovae, together with the effect of spallation of nuclei, lead to mild but sensible violations of the simple, leaky-box-inspired rule that the spectrum observed at Earth is N(E)∝E−α with α = γ+δ, where γ is the slope of the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the sources. Spallation of nuclei, even with the small rates appropriate for He, may account for small differences in spectral slopes between different nuclei, possibly providing an explanation for the recent CREAM observations. For δ = 1/3 we find that the slope of the proton and helium spectra are ∼ 2.67 and ∼ 2.6 respectively (with fluctuations depending on the realization of source distribution) at energies around ∼ 1 TeV (to be compared with the measured values of 2.66±0.02 and 2.58±0.02). For δ = 0.6 the hardening of the He spectra is not observed. The stochastic effects discussed above cannot be found in ordinary propagation calculations, such as GALPROP, where these effects and the point like nature of the sources are not taken into account. We also comment on the effect of time dependence of the escape of cosmic rays from supernova remnants, and of a possible clustering of the sources in superbubbles. In a second paper we will discuss the implications of

  4. Diffusive propagation of cosmic rays from supernova remnants in the Galaxy. I: spectrum and chemical composition

    Blasi, Pasquale; Amato, Elena, E-mail: blasi@arcetri.astro.it, E-mail: amato@arcetri.astro.it [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5 — 50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of stochasticity in the spatial and temporal distribution of supernova remnants on the spectrum and chemical composition of cosmic rays observed at Earth. The calculations are carried out for different choices of the diffusion coefficient D(E) experienced by cosmic rays during propagation in the Galaxy. In particular, at high energies we assume that D(E)∝E{sup δ}, with δ = 1/3 and δ = 0.6 being the reference scenarios. The large scale distribution of supernova remnants in the Galaxy is modeled following the distribution of pulsars, with and without accounting for the spiral structure of the Galaxy. We find that the stochastic fluctuations induced by the spatial and temporal distribution of supernovae, together with the effect of spallation of nuclei, lead to mild but sensible violations of the simple, leaky-box-inspired rule that the spectrum observed at Earth is N(E)∝E{sup −α} with α = γ+δ, where γ is the slope of the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the sources. Spallation of nuclei, even with the small rates appropriate for He, may account for small differences in spectral slopes between different nuclei, possibly providing an explanation for the recent CREAM observations. For δ = 1/3 we find that the slope of the proton and helium spectra are ∼ 2.67 and ∼ 2.6 respectively (with fluctuations depending on the realization of source distribution) at energies around ∼ 1 TeV (to be compared with the measured values of 2.66±0.02 and 2.58±0.02). For δ = 0.6 the hardening of the He spectra is not observed. The stochastic effects discussed above cannot be found in ordinary propagation calculations, such as GALPROP, where these effects and the point like nature of the sources are not taken into account. We also comment on the effect of time dependence of the escape of cosmic rays from supernova remnants, and of a possible clustering of the sources in superbubbles. In a second paper we will discuss the

  5. H.E.S.S. upper limits for Kepler's supernova remnant

    Aharonian, F; Barresde Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Berge, D; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Bolz, O; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brucker, J; Buhler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chounet, L M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Dalton, M; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata, A; Domainko, i W; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Fuling, M; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, J F Glicenstein G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Jung, I; Katarzynski, K; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khelifi, B; Keogh, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J P; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Naumann-Godo, M; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J P; de Ona Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Renaud, M; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schock, F M; Schroder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Wagner, A; Zech, J

    2008-01-01

    Observations of Kepler's supernova remnant (G4.5+6.8) with the H.E.S.S. telescope array in 2004 and 2005 with a total live time of 13 h are presented. Stereoscopic imaging of Cherenkov radiation from extensive air showers is used to reconstruct the energy and direction of the incident gamma rays. No evidence for a very high energy (VHE: >100 GeV) gamma-ray signal from the direction of the remnant is found. An upper limit (99% confidence level) on the energy flux in the range 230 GeV - 12.8 TeV of 8.6 x 10^{-13} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} is obtained. In the context of an existing theoretical model for the remnant, the lack of a detectable gamma-ray flux implies a distance of at least 6.4 kpc. A corresponding upper limit for the density of the ambient matter of 0.7 cm^{-3} is derived. With this distance limit, and assuming a spectral index Gamma = 2, the total energy in accelerated protons is limited to E_p < 8.6 x 10^{49} erg. In the synchrotron/inverse Compton framework, extrapolating the power law measured by RX...

  6. A Broadband Study of the Emission from the Composite Supernova Remnant MSH 11-62

    Slane, Patrick; Hughes, John P.; Temim, Tea; Rousseau, Romain; Castro, Daniel; Foight, Dillon; Gaensler, B. M.; Funk, Stefan; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Moffett, David A.

    2012-01-01

    MSH 11-62 (G29U)-Q.1) is a composite supernova remnant for which radio and X-ray observations have identified the remnant shell as well as its central pulsar wind nebula. The observations suggest a relatively young system expanding into a low-density region. Here, we present a study of MSH ll-62 using observations with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Fermi observatories, along with radio observations from the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We identify a compact X-ray source that appears to be the putative pulsar that powers the nebula, and show that the X-ray spectrum of the nebula bears the signature of synchrotron losses as particles diffuse into the outer nebula. Using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, we identify gamma-ray emission originating from MSH 11-62. With density constraints from the new X-ray measurements of the remnant, we model the evolution of the composite system in order to constrain the properties of the underlying pulsar and the origin of the gamma-ray emission.

  7. High Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy and Imaging of Supernova Remnant N132D

    Behar, Ehud; Rasmussen, Andrew; Griffiths, R. Gareth; Dennerl, Konrad; Audard, Marc; Aschenbach, Bernd

    2000-01-01

    The observation of the supernova remnant N132D by the scientific instruments on board the XMM-Newton satellite is presented. The X-rays from N132D are dispersed into a detailed line-rich spectrum using the Reflection Grating Spectrometers. Spectral lines of C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe are identified. Images of the remnant, in narrow wavelength bands, produced by the European Photon Imaging Cameras reveal a complex spatial structure of the ionic distribution. While K - shell Fe seems to originate near the centre, all of the other ions are observed along the shell. An emission excess of O(6+) over O(7+) is detected on the northeastern edge of the remnant. This can be a sign of hot ionising conditions, or it can reflect a relatively cool region. Spectral fitting of the CCD spectrum suggests high temperatures in this region, but a detailed analysis of the atomic processes involved in producing the O(6+) spectral lines leads to the conclusion that the intensities of these lines alone cannot provide a conclusive distinction between the two scenarios.

  8. CCD soft X-ray observations of the Puppis a supernova remnant

    Berthiaume, G. D.; Burrows, D. N.; Garmire, G. P.; Nousek, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    We present the first images and spectra of an astronomical object, other than the Sun, acquired with a charge coupled device (CCD) imaging X-ray spectrometer. During a 230 s sounding rocket observation, we have acquired moderate-resolution spectra and moderate-resolution images of a portion of the Pup A supernova remnant (SNR). Based on these data, we conclude that the X-ray spectrum of Pup A is inconsistent with any single-temperature equilibrium or nonequilibrium plasma model. We find evidence for variations in the emitting plasma on scales as small as 5.0 min and as large as 30.0 min. The spatial structure of the spectral variations in the remnant is found to be inconsistent with the standard Sedov model for the evolution of a SRN into a homogeneous interstellar medium (ISM). We suggest that the remnant is expanding into a region of the ISM having a density of approximately 1 cm(exp -3) with inhomogeneities on the order of 50%. We have found evidence for the presence of a knot of plasma enriched in neon, but require more data to be conclusive.

  9. SRAO CO Observation of 11 Supernova Remnants in l = 70 to 190 deg

    Jeong, Il-Gyo; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Jea-Joon; Lee, Jung-Won; Kang, Hyunwoo

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of 12CO J = 1-0 line observations of eleven Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) obtained using the Seoul Radio Astronomy Observatory (SRAO) 6-m radio telescope. The observation was made as a part of the SRAO CO survey of SNRs between l = 70 and 190 deg, which is intended to identify SNRs interacting with molecular clouds. The mapping areas for the individual SNRs are determined to cover their full extent in the radio continuum. We used halfbeam grid spacing (60") for 9 SNRs and full-beam grid spacing (120") for the rest. We detected CO emission towards most of the remnants. In six SNRs, molecular clouds showed a good spatial relation with their radio morphology, although no direct evidence for the interaction was detected. Two SNRs are particularly interesting: G85.4+0.7, where there is a filamentary molecular cloud along the radio shell, and 3C434.1, where a large molecular cloud appears to block the western half of the remnant. We briefly summarize the results obtained for individual S...

  10. A progenitor binary and an ejected mass donor remnant of faint type Ia supernovae

    Geier, S.; Marsh, T. R.; Wang, B.; Dunlap, B.; Barlow, B. N.; Schaffenroth, V.; Chen, X.; Irrgang, A.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Ziegerer, E.; Kupfer, T.; Miszalski, B.; Heber, U.; Han, Z.; Shporer, A.; Telting, J. H.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Østensen, R. H.; O'Toole, S. J.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2013-06-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) are the most important standard candles for measuring the expansion history of the universe. The thermonuclear explosion of a white dwarf can explain their observed properties, but neither the progenitor systems nor any stellar remnants have been conclusively identified. Underluminous SN Ia have been proposed to originate from a so-called double-detonation of a white dwarf. After a critical amount of helium is deposited on the surface through accretion from a close companion, the helium is ignited causing a detonation wave that triggers the explosion of the white dwarf itself. We have discovered both shallow transits and eclipses in the tight binary system CD-30°11223 composed of a carbon/oxygen white dwarf and a hot helium star, allowing us to determine its component masses and fundamental parameters. In the future the system will transfer mass from the helium star to the white dwarf. Modelling this process we find that the detonation in the accreted helium layer is sufficiently strong to trigger the explosion of the core. The helium star will then be ejected at such high velocity that it will escape the Galaxy. The predicted properties of this remnant are an excellent match to the so-called hypervelocity star US 708, a hot, helium-rich star moving at more than 750 km s-1, sufficient for it to leave the Galaxy. The identification of both progenitor and remnant provides a consistent picture of the formation and evolution of underluminous SNIa.

  11. XMM-Newton detection of the supernova remnant G304.6+0.1 (Kes 17)

    Combi, J A; Sanchez-Ayaso, E; Romero, G E; Marti, J; Luque-Escamilla, P L; Mu?noz-Arjonilla, A J; Sanchez-Sutil, J R; Lopez-Santiago, J

    2010-01-01

    Aims. We report the first detailed X-ray study of the supernova remnant (SNR) G304.6+0.1, achieved with the XMM-Newton mission. Methods. The powerful imaging capability of XMM-Newton was used to study the X-ray characteristics of the remnant at different energy ranges. The X-ray morphology and spectral properties were analyzed. In addittion, radio and mid-infrared data obtained with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope and the Spitzer Space Telescope were used to study the association with the detected X-ray emission and to understand the structure of the SNR at differents wavelengths. Results. The SNR shows an extended and arc-like internal structure in the X-ray band with out a compact point-like source inside the remnant. We find a high column density of NH in the range 2.5-3.5x1022 cm-2, which supports a relatively distant location (d $\\geq$ 9.7 kpc). The X-ray spectrum exhibits at least three emission lines, indicating that the X-ray emission has a thin thermal plasma origin, although a non-therm...

  12. Constraining the Age and Distance of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7 by H-alpha Expansion Measurements

    Katsuda, Satoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Fesen, Robert; Milisavljevic, Dan

    2016-01-01

    We present deep H-alpha images of portions of the X-ray bright but optically faint Galactic supernova remnant G156.2+5.7, revealing numerous and delicately thin nonradiative filaments which mark the location of the remnant's forward shock. These new images show that these filaments have a complex structure not visible on previous lower resolution optical images. By comparing H-alpha images taken in 2004 at the McDonald Observatory and in 2015-2016 at the Kiso Observatory, we set a stringent 1-sigma upper limit of expansion to be 0.06 arcsec/yr. This proper motion, combined with a shock speed of 500 km/s inferred from X-ray spectral analyses, gives a distance of > 1.7 kpc. In addition, a simple comparison of expansion indices of several SNRs allows us to infer the age of the remnant to be a few 10,000 yr old. These estimates are more straightforward and reliable than any other previous studies, and clearly rule out a possibility that G156.2+5.7 is physically associated with part of the Taurus-Auriga cloud and ...

  13. A Herschel PACS and SPIRE study of the dust content of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant

    Barlow, M J; Swinyard, B M; Sibthorpe, B; Besel, M -A; Wesson, R; Ivison, R J; Dunne, L; Gear, W K; Gomez, H L; Hargrave, P C; Henning, Th; Leeks, S J; Lim, T L; Olofsson, G; Polehampton, E T

    2010-01-01

    Using the 3.5-m Herschel Space Observatory, imaging photometry of Cas A has been obtained in six bands between 70 um and 500 um with the PACS and SPIRE instruments, with angular resolutions ranging from 6 to 37". In the outer regions of the remnant the 70-um PACS image resembles the 24-um image Spitzer image, with the emission attributed to the same warm dust component, located in the reverse shock region. At longer wavelengths, the three SPIRE bands are increasingly dominated by emission from cold interstellar dust knots and filaments, particularly across the central, western and southern parts of the remnant. Nonthermal emission from the northern part of the remnant becomes prominent at 500 um. We have estimated and subtracted the contributions from the nonthermal, warm dust and cold interstellar dust components. We confirm and resolve for the first time a cool (~35 K) dust component, emitting at 70-160 um, that is located interior to the reverse shock region, with an estimated mass of 0.075 Msun.

  14. A deep Chandra observation of oxygen-rich supernova remnant B0049-73.6 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Schenck, Andrew; Park, Sangwook [Box 19059, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Burrows, David N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Lee, Jae-Joon [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Mori, Koji, E-mail: andrew.schenck@mavs.uta.edu [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibana-dai Nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan)

    2014-08-10

    We report on the initial results from our deep Chandra observation (450 ks) of O-rich supernova remnant (SNR) B0049-73.6 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. We detect small metal-rich ejecta features extending out to the outermost boundary of B0049-73.6, which were not seen in the previous data with a shorter exposure. The central nebula is dominated by emission from reverse-shocked ejecta material enriched in O, Ne, Mg, and Si. O-rich ejecta distribution is relatively smooth throughout the central nebula. In contrast, the Si-rich material is highly structured. These results suggest that B0049-73.6 was produced by an asymmetric core-collapse explosion of a massive star. The estimated abundance ratios among these ejecta elements are in plausible agreement with the nucleosynthesis products from the explosion of a 13-15 M{sub ☉} progenitor. The central ring-like (in projection) ejecta nebula extends to ∼9 pc from the SNR center. This suggests that the contact discontinuity may be located at a further distance from the SNR center than the previous estimate. We estimate the Sedov age of ∼17,000 yr and an explosion energy of E{sub 0} ∼1.7 × 10{sup 51} erg for B0049-73.6. We place a stringent upper limit on the 2-7 keV band luminosity of L{sub X} ∼ 8.5 × 10{sup 31} erg s{sup –1} for the embedded compact stellar remnant at the center of B0049-73.6.

  15. Spitzer Spectroscopy of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8: Structure and Composition of the Oxygen-Rich Ejecta

    Ghavamian, Parviz; Blair, William P; Long, Knox S; Tappe, Achim; Park, Sangwook; Winkler, P Frank

    2009-01-01

    We present mid-infrared (5-40 micron) spectra of shocked ejecta in the Galactic oxygen-rich supernova remnant G292.0+1.8, acquired with the IRS spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope. The observations targeted two positions within the brightest oxygen-rich feature in G292.0+1.8. Emission lines of [Ne II] 12.8, [Ne III] 15.5, 36.0, [Ne V] 24.3 and [O IV] 25.9 are detected from the shocked ejecta. No discernible mid-IR emission from heavier species such as Mg, Si, S, Ar or Fe is detected in G292.0+1.8. We also detect a broad emission bump between 15 and 28 microns in spectra of the radiatively shocked O-rich ejecta in G292.0+1.8. We suggest that this feature arises from either shock-heated Mg2SiO4 (forsterite) dust in the radiatively shocked O-rich ejecta, or collisional excitation of PAHs in the blast wave of the SNR. If the former interpretation is correct, this would be the first mid-IR detection of ejecta dust in G292.0+1.8. A featureless dust continuum is also detected from non-radiative shocks ...

  16. IDENTIFICATION CAMPAIGN OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT CANDIDATES IN THE MILKY WAY. I. CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF G308.3-1.4

    ROSAT all-sky survey data have provided another window in which to search for supernova remnants (SNRs). In re-examining this data archive, a list of unidentified extended X-ray objects have been suggested as promising SNR candidates. However, most of these targets have not yet been fully explored by state-of-the-art X-ray observatories. To select a pilot target for a long-term identification campaign, we observed the brightest candidate, G308.3-1.4, with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. An incomplete shell-like X-ray structure that is well correlated with the radio shell emission at 843 MHz has been revealed. The X-ray spectrum suggests the presence of a shock-heated plasma. All these evidences confirm G308.3-1.4 as an SNR. The brightest X-ray point source detected in this field of view is also the one located closest to the geometrical center of G308.3-1.4, which has a soft spectrum. The intriguing temporal variability and the identification of the optical/infrared counterpart rule out the possibility of an isolated neutron star. On the other hand, the spectral energy distribution from the Ks band to the R band suggests a late-type star. Together with a putative periodicity of ∼1.4 hr, the interesting excesses in the V and B bands and in Hα suggest that this source is a promising candidate for a compact binary that survived a supernova explosion.

  17. A DETAILED X-RAY INVESTIGATION OF PSR J2021+4026 AND THE γ-CYGNI SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Hui, C. Y.; Seo, K. A. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lin, L. C. C.; Huang, R. H. H.; Wu, J. H. K.; Kong, A. K. H. [Institute of Astronomy and Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Hu, C. P.; Chou, Y. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Trepl, L. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitäts-Sternwarte, Universität Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Takata, J.; Wang, Y.; Cheng, K. S., E-mail: cyhui@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong)

    2015-01-20

    We have investigated the field around the radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar, PSR J2021+4026, with a ∼140 ks XMM-Newton observation and ∼56 ks archival Chandra data. Through analyzing the pulsed spectrum, we show that the X-ray pulsation is purely thermal in nature, which suggests that the pulsation originated from a hot polar cap with T ∼ 3 × 10{sup 6} K on the surface of a rotating neutron star. On the other hand, the power-law (PL) component that dominates the pulsar emission in the hard band is originated from off-pulse phases, which possibly comes from a pulsar wind nebula. In re-analyzing the Chandra data, we have confirmed the presence of a bow-shock nebula that extends from the pulsar to the west by ∼10 arcsec. The orientation of this nebular feature suggests that the pulsar is probably moving eastward, which is consistent with the speculated proper motion by extrapolating from the nominal geometrical center of the supernova remnant (SNR) G78.2+2.1 to the current pulsar position. For G78.2+2.1, our deep XMM-Newton observation also enables a study of the central region and part of the southeastern region with superior photon statistics. The column absorption derived for the SNR is comparable to that for PSR J2021+4026, which supports their association. The remnant emission in both of the examined regions is in a non-equilibrium ionization state. Also, the elapsed time of both regions after shock-heating is apparently shorter than the Sedov age of G78.2+2.1. This might suggest that the reverse shock has reached the center not long ago. Apart from PSR J2021+4026 and G78.2+2.1, we have also serendipitously detected an X-ray flash-like event, XMM J202154.7+402855, from this XMM-Newton observation.

  18. Chandra and XMM-Newton study of the supernova remnant Kes 73 hosting the magnetar 1E 1841-045

    We present a Chandra and XMM-Newton study of the supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 73 hosting the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1841–045. The Chandra image reveals clumpy structures across the remnant with enhanced emission along the western rim. The X-ray emission fills the radio shell and spatially correlates with the infrared image. The global X-ray spectrum is described by a two-component thermal model with a column density N H = 2.6−0.3+0.4×1022 cm–2 and a total luminosity of LX = 3.3−0.5+0.7×1037 erg s–1 (0.5-10 keV, at an assumed distance of 8.5 kpc). The soft component is characterized by a temperature kTs = 0.5−0.2+0.1 keV, a high ionization timescale, and enhanced Si and S abundances, suggesting emission that is dominated by shocked ejecta. The hard component has a temperature kTh = 1.6−0.7+0.8 keV, a relatively low ionization timescale, and mostly solar abundances suggesting emission that is dominated by interstellar/circumstellar shocked material. A spatially resolved spectroscopy study reveals no significant variations in the spectral properties. We infer an SNR age ranging between 750 yr and 2100 yr, an explosion energy of 3.0−1.8+2.8×1050 erg and a shock velocity of (1.2 ± 0.3)×103 km s–1 (under the Sedov phase assumption). We also discuss the possible scenario for Kes 73 expanding into the late red-supergiant wind phase of its massive progenitor. Comparing the inferred metal abundances to core-collapse nucleosynthesis model yields, we estimate a progenitor mass ≳20 M ☉, adding a candidate to the growing list of highly magnetized neutron stars proposed to be associated with very massive progenitors.

  19. FERMI-LAT Observations of Supernova Remnant G5.7-0.1, Believed to be Interacting with Molecular Clouds

    Joubert, Timothy; Slane, Patrick; Gelfand, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of $\\gamma$-ray emission coincident with the supernova remnant (SNR) G5.7-0.1 using data from the Large Area Telescope on board the {\\it Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope}. SNR shocks are expected to be sites of cosmic ray acceleration, and clouds of dense material can provide effective targets for production of $\\gamma$-rays from $\\pi^0$-decay. The SNR is known to be interacting with molecular clouds, as evidenced by observations of hydroxyl (OH) maser emission at 1720 MHz in its direction. The observations reveal a $\\gamma$-ray source in the direction of SNR G5.7-0.1, positioned nearby the bright $\\gamma$-ray source SNR W28. We model the broadband emission (radio to $\\gamma$-ray) using a one-zone model, and after considering scenarios in which the MeV-TeV sources originate from either $\\pi^0$-decay or leptonic emission, conclude that a considerable component of the $\\gamma$-ray emission comes from the $\\pi^0$-decay channel. Finally, constraints were placed on the reported ambiguity of ...

  20. A detailed X-ray investigation of PSR J2021+4026 and $\\gamma$-Cygni supernova remnant

    Hui, C Y; Lin, L C C; Huang, R H H; Hu, C P; Wu, J H K; Trepl, L; Takata, J; Wang, Y; Chou, Y; Cheng, K S; Kong, A K H

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the field around the radio-quiet $\\gamma$-ray pulsar, PSR J2021+4026, with a ~140 ks XMM-Newton observation and a ~56 ks archival Chandra data. Through analyzing the pulsed spectrum, we show that the X-ray pulsation is purely thermal in nature which suggests the pulsation is originated from a hot polar cap with $T\\sim3\\times10^{6}$ K on the surface of a rotating neutron star. On the other hand, the power-law component that dominates the pulsar emission in the hard band is originated from off-pulse phases, which possibly comes from a pulsar wind nebula. In re-analyzing the Chandra data, we have confirmed the presence of bow-shock nebula which extends from the pulsar to west by ~10 arcsec. The orientation of this nebular feature suggests that the pulsar is probably moving eastward which is consistent with the speculated proper motion by extrapolating from the nominal geometrical center of the supernova remnant (SNR) G78.2+2.1 to the current pulsar position. For G78.2+2.1, our deep XMM-Newto...

  1. H.E.S.S. reveals a lack of TeV emission from the supernova remnant Puppis A

    :,; Aharonian, F; Benkhali, F Ait; Akhperjanian, A G; Angüner, E O; Backes, M; Balenderan, S; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Tjus, J Becker; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Chadwick, P M; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fernandez, D; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Grondin, M -H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Häffner, S; Hahn, J; Harris, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, F; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J -P; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Méhault, J; Meintjes, P J; Menzler, U; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Oakes, L; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reichardt, I; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, {Ł }; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J -P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorster, M; Vuillaume, T; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; Ward, M; Weidinger, M; Weitzel, Q; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2014-01-01

    Puppis A is an interesting ~4 kyr-old supernova remnant (SNR) that shows strong evidence of interaction between the forward shock and a molecular cloud. It has been studied in detail from radio frequencies to high-energy (HE, 0.1-100 GeV) gamma-rays. An analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has shown an extended HE gamma-ray emission with a 0.2-100 GeV spectrum exhibiting no significant deviation from a power law, unlike most of the GeV-emitting SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds. This makes it a promising target for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) to probe the gamma-ray emission above 100 GeV. Very-high-energy (VHE, E >= 0.1 TeV) gamma-ray emission from Puppis A is for the first time searched for with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). The analysis of the H.E.S.S. data does not reveal any significant emission towards Puppis A. The derived upper limits on the differential photon flux imply that its broadband gamma-ray spectrum must exhibit a spectral break or cutoff. By ...

  2. A search for supernova remnants in NGC 6946 using the [Fe II] 1.64 μm line

    Bruursema, Justice; Meixner, Margaret [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Long, Knox S.; Otsuka, Masaaki, E-mail: justiceb@pha.jhu.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Shock models indicate and observations show that in the infrared (IR), supernova remnants (SNRs) emit strongly in [Fe II] at 1.64 μm. Here, we report the results of a search for SNRs in NGC 6946 relying on [Fe II] 1.64 μm line emission, where we employed an adjacent [Fe II]{sub Off} filter to accurately assess the local continuum levels. For this study, we used the WIYN High Resolution Infrared Camera on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope to image NGC 6946 in broadbands J and H and narrowbands [Fe II], [Fe II]{sub Off}, Paβ, and Paβ{sub Off}. From our search, we have identified 48 SNR candidates (SNRcs), 6 of which are coincident with sources found in prior radio, optical, and/or X-ray studies. The measured [Fe II] fluxes of our SNRcs range from 1.5 × 10{sup –16} to 4.2 × 10{sup –15} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2} and are among the highest of previously published extragalactic SNR [Fe II] fluxes. All of the candidates now need to be confirmed spectroscopically. However, the fact that we detect as many objects as we did suggests that [Fe II] can be used as an effective search tool to find extragalactic SNRs.

  3. A Spatially Resolved Study of the Synchrotron Emission and Titanium in Tycho's Supernova Remnant with NuSTAR

    Lopez, Laura A; Reynolds, Stephen P; An, Hongjun; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Eriksen, Kristoffer A; Fryer, Chris L; Hailey, Charles J; Harrison, Fiona A; Madsen, Kristin K; Stern, Daniel K; Zhang, William W; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We report results from deep observations (750 ks) of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) with NuSTAR. Using these data, we produce narrow-band images over several energy bands to identify the regions producing the hardest X-rays and to search for radioactive decay line emission from 44Ti. We find that the hardest (>10 keV) X-rays are concentrated in the southwest of Tycho, where recent Chandra observations have revealed high emissivity "stripes" associated with particles accelerated to the knee of the cosmic-ray spectrum. We do not find evidence of 44Ti, and we set tight limits on its presence which exclude the reported Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL detections and correspond to an upper-limit 44Ti mass of M44 < 8.4e-5 Msun for a distance of 2.3 kpc. We perform spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of sixty-six regions across Tycho. We map the best-fit rolloff frequency of the hard X-ray spectra, and we compare these results to measurements of the shock expansion and ambient density. We find that the highest energ...

  4. The End of Amnesia: A New Method for Measuring the Metallicity of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Using Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants

    Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo; Hughes, John P.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn-to-Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kα X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remnant recently detected by Suzaku, to derive a metallicity of log (Z) = - 1.32+ 0.67-0.33 for the progenitor of this supernova, which corresponds to log (Z/Z⊙) = 0.60+ 0.31-0.60 according to the latest determination of the solar metallicity by Asplund and coworkers. The uncertainty in the measurement is large, but metallicities much smaller than the solar value can be confidently discarded. We discuss the implications of this result for future research on Type Ia supernova progenitors.

  5. The End of Amnesia: A New Method for Measuring the Metallicity of Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Using Manganese Lines in Supernova Remnants

    Badenes, Carles; Hughes, John P

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new method to measure the metallicity of Type Ia supernova progenitors using Mn and Cr lines in the X-ray spectra of young supernova remnants. We show that the Mn to Cr mass ratio in Type Ia supernova ejecta is tightly correlated with the initial metallicity of the progenitor, as determined by the neutron excess of the white dwarf material before thermonuclear runaway. We use this correlation, together with the flux of the Cr and Mn Kalpha X-ray lines in the Tycho supernova remnant recently detected by Suzaku (Tamagawa et al. 2008) to derive a metallicity of log(Z) = -1.32 (+0.67,-0.33) for the progenitor of this supernova, which corresponds to log(Z/Zsun)= 0.60 (+0.31,-0.60) according to the latest determination of the solar metallicity by Asplund et al. (2005). The uncertainty in the measurement is large, but metallicities much smaller than the solar value can be confidently discarded. We discuss the implications of this result for future research on Type Ia supernova progenitors.

  6. Interaction of Supernova Remnants with Interstellar Clouds: From the Nova Laser to the Galaxy

    The interaction of strong shock waves, such as those generated by the explosion of supernovae with interstellar clouds, is a problem of fundamental importance in understanding the evolution and the dynamics of the interstellar medium (ISM) as it is disrupted by shock waves. The physics of this essential interaction sheds light on several key questions: (1) What is the rate and total amount of gas stripped from the cloud, and what are the mechanisms responsible? (2) What is the rate of momentum transfer to the cloud? (3) What is the appearance of the shocked cloud, its morphology and velocity dispersion? (4) What is the role of vortex dynamics on the evolution of the cloud? (5) Can the interaction result in the formation of a new generation of stars? To address these questions, one of us has embarked on a comprehensive multidimensional numerical study of the shock cloud problem using high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hydrodynamics. Here we present the results of a series of Nova laser experiments investigating the evolution of a high-density sphere embedded in a low-density medium after the passage of a strong shock wave, thereby emulating the supernova shock-cloud interaction. The Nova laser was utilized to generate a strong (∼Mach 10) shock wave which traveled along a miniature beryllium shock tube, 750 μm in diameter, filled with a low-density plastic emulating the ISM. Embedded in the plastic was a copper microsphere (100 μm in diameter) emulating the interstellar cloud. Its morphology and evolution as well as the shock wave trajectory were diagnosed via side-on radiography. We describe here experimental results of this interaction for the first time out to several cloud crushing times and compare them to detailed two- and three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations using both arbitrary Lagrangian and Eulerian hydrodynamics (ALE) as well as high-resolution AMR hydrodynamics. We briefly discuss the key hydrodynamic instabilities

  7. Radio-continuum observations of small, radially polarised Supernova Remnant J0519-6902 in the large Magellanic cloud

    Bozzetto L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on new Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA observations of SNR J0519-6902. The Supernova Remnant (SNR is small in size (~8 pc and exhibits a typical SNR spectrum with α = -0.53±0.07, with steeper spectral indices towards the northern limb of the remnant. SNR J0519-6902 contains a low level of radially orientated polarisation at wavelengths of 3 and 6 cm, which is typical of younger SNRs. A fairly strong magnetic field was estimated to ~171µG. The remnant appears to be the result of a typical Type Ia supernova, sharing many properties with another small and young Type Ia LMC SNR, J0509-6731. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176005

  8. Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Kes 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of approximately 1.5 keY, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keY. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked supernova (SN) ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from SN ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the X-ray emitting gas. The IR spectrum of the shell is dominated by continuum emission from dust with little, or no line emission. Modeling the IR spectrum shows that the dust is heated to a temperature of approximately 140 K by a relatively dense, hot plasma that also gives rise to the hot X-my emission component. The density inferred from the IR emission is significantly higher than the density inferred from the X-ray models, suggesting a low filling factor for this X-my emitting gas. The total mass of the warm dust component is at least 1.3 x 10(exp -2) x solar mass, assuming no significant dust destruction has occurred in the shell. The IR data also reveal the presence of an additional plasma component with a cooler temperature, consistent with the 0.2 keV gas component. Our IR analysis therefore provides an independent verification of the cooler component of the X-ray emission. The complementary analyses of the X-ray and IR emission provide

  9. The Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope discovers the Pulsar in the Young Galactic Supernova-Remnant CTA 1

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W.B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M.G.; Bastieri, Denis; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2009-05-15

    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves (supernova remnants, SNRs) are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 ms, a period derivative of 3.614 x 10{sup -13} s s{sup -1}. Its characteristic age of 10{sup 4} years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. It is conjectured that most unidentified Galactic gamma ray sources associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars.

  10. The Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope discovers the Pulsar in the Young Galactic Supernova-Remnant CTA 1

    Abdo, A A; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bogaert, G; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Carlson, P; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Davis, D S; Dermer, C D; De Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Harding, A K; Hartman, R C; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Kanai, Y; Kanbach, G; Katagiri, H; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Kishishita, T; Kiziltan, B; Kndlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Komin*, N; Kühn, F; Kuss, M; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Lonjou, V; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mineo, T; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nolan, P L; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepé, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piano, G; Pieri, L; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rain, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sánchez, D; Sander, A; Saz-Parkinson, P M; Schalk, T L; Sellerholm, A; Sgr, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Usher, T L; Van Etten, A; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Wang, P; Watters, K; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yasuda, H; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2008-01-01

    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves (supernova remnants, SNRs) are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 ms, a period derivative of 3.614 x 10-13 s s-1 . Its characteristic age of 104 years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. It is conjectured that most unidentified Galactic gamma ray sources associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars.

  11. The Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope discovers the Pulsar in the Young Galactic Supernova-Remnant CTA 1

    Energetic young pulsars and expanding blast waves (supernova remnants, SNRs) are the most visible remains after massive stars, ending their lives, explode in core-collapse supernovae. The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has unveiled a radio quiet pulsar located near the center of the compact synchrotron nebula inside the supernova remnant CTA 1. The pulsar, discovered through its gamma-ray pulsations, has a period of 316.86 ms, a period derivative of 3.614 x 10-13 s s-1. Its characteristic age of 104 years is comparable to that estimated for the SNR. It is conjectured that most unidentified Galactic gamma ray sources associated with star-forming regions and SNRs are such young pulsars

  12. A Herschel PACS and SPIRE study of the dust content of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant

    Barlow, M.J.; Krause, O; Swinyard, B.M.; Sibthorpe, B.; Besel, M. -A.; Wesson, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Dunne, L.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P.C.; Henning, Th.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Olofsson, G.

    2010-01-01

    Using the 3.5-m Herschel Space Observatory, imaging photometry of Cas A has been obtained in six bands between 70 um and 500 um with the PACS and SPIRE instruments, with angular resolutions ranging from 6 to 37". In the outer regions of the remnant the 70-um PACS image resembles the 24-um image Spitzer image, with the emission attributed to the same warm dust component, located in the reverse shock region. At longer wavelengths, the three SPIRE bands are increasingly dominated by emission fro...

  13. Mapping supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae across decades of energy

    Hewitt, John W.

    2016-04-01

    Ground- and space-based gamma ray observatories of the past decade have given us a new understanding of particle accelerators in our galaxy. The improved spatial resolution and sensitivity of recent gamma-ray surveys of the Galactic plane have resolved confusion of sources identified numerous sources to study the physics of particle acceleration and the diffusion of energetic particles into the galaxy. Here I highlight some recent studies of Galactic accelerators from GeV to TeV energies, that allow us to disentangle hadronic from leptonic emission, constrain cosmic ray diffusion, and measure the conditions of particle acceleration. Supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae are found to be the two most common Galactic sources identified in very high energy gamma rays, and the future capabilities of CTA promise a dramatic increase in our knowledge of these classes which are currently limited to only a few of the most well-studied cases.

  14. Spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of Supernova 1987A with ALMA & ATCA

    Zanardo, Giovanna; Indebetouw, Remy; Chevalier, Roger A; Matsuura, Mikako; Gaensler, Bryan M; Barlow, Michael J; Fransson, Claes; Manchester, Richard N; Baes, Maarten; Kamenetzky, Julia R; Lakicevic, Masha; Lundqvist, Peter; Marcaide, Jon M; Marti-Vidal, Ivan; Meixner, Margaret; Ng, C -Y; Park, Sangwook; Sonneborn, George; Spyromilio, Jason; van Loon, Jacco Th

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of Supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz ($\\lambda$ 3.2 mm to 450 $\\mu$m), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component ($S_{\

  15. Detection of class I methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) maser candidates in supernova remnants

    Pihlström, Y. M.; Mesler, R. A.; McEwen, B. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, MSC07 4220, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Sjouwerman, L. O.; Frail, D. A.; Claussen, M. J., E-mail: ylva@unm.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Lopezville Road 1001, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array to search for 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) lines in a sample of 21 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Mainly the regions of the SNRs with 1720 MHz OH masers were observed. Despite the limited spatial extent covered in our search, methanol masers were detected in both G1.4–0.1 and W28. Additional masers were found in Sgr A East. More than 40 masers were found in G1.4–0.1, which we deduce are due to interactions between the SNR and at least two separate molecular clouds. The six masers in W28 are associated with the molecular cloud that is also associated with the OH maser excitation. We discuss the possibility that the methanol maser may be more numerous in SNRs than the OH maser, but harder to detect due to observational constraints.

  16. Detection of Class I Methanol (CH3OH) Maser Candidates in Supernova Remnants

    Pihlström, Y M; Frail, D A; Claussen, M J; Mesler, R A; McEwen, B C

    2013-01-01

    We have used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to search for 36 GHz and 44 GHz methanol (CH3OH) lines in a sample of 21 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs). Mainly the regions of the SNRs with 1720 MHz OH masers were observed. Despite the limited spatial extent covered in our search, methanol masers were detected in both G1.4-0.1 and W28. Additional masers were found in SgrAEast. More than 40 masers were found in G1.4-0.1 which we deduce are due to interactions between the SNR and at least two separate molecular clouds. The six masers in W28 are associated with the molecular cloud that is also associated with the OH maser excitation. We discuss the possibility that the methanol maser may be more numerous in SNRs than the OH maser, but harder to detect due to observational constraints.

  17. Modelling high-resolution spatially-resolved Supernova Remnant spectra with the Sardinia Radio Telescope

    Loru, Sara; Egron, Elise; Iacolina, Noemi; Righini, Simona; Marongiu, Marco; Mulas, Sara; Murtas, Giulia; Simeone, Davide; Pilia, Maura; Bachetti, Matteo; Trois, Alessio; Ricci, Roberto; Melis, Andrea; Concu, Raimondo

    2016-01-01

    Supernova Remnants (SNRs) exhibit spectra featured by synchrotron radio emission arising from the relativistic electrons, and high-energy emission from both leptonic (Bremsstrahlung and Inverse Compton) and hadronic processes (${\\pi}^0$ mesons decay) which are a direct signature of cosmic rays acceleration. Thanks to radio single-dish imaging observations obtained in three frequency bands (1.6, 7, 22 GHz) with the Sardinia Radio Telescope (www.srt.inaf.it), we can model different SNR regions separately. Indeed, in order to disentangle interesting and peculiar hadron contributions in the high-energy spectra (gamma-ray band) and better constrain SNRs as cosmic rays emitters, it is crucial to fully constrain lepton contributions first through radio-observed parameters. In particular, the Bremsstrahlung and Inverse Compton bumps observed in gamma-rays are bounded to synchrotron spectral slope and cut-off in the radio domain. Since these parameters vary for different SNR regions and electron populations, spatially...

  18. Anisotropic transport and early dynamical impact of Cosmic Rays around Supernova remnants

    Girichidis, Philipp; Walch, Stefanie; Hanasz, Michal

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel implementation of cosmic rays (CR) in the magneto-hydrodynamic code FLASH. CRs are described as separate fluids with different energies. CR advection, energy dependent anisotropic diffusion with respect to the magnetic field and adiabatic losses to follow the evolution of spectra are taken into account. We present a first study of the transport and immediate (~150 kyr) dynamical impact of CRs on the turbulent magnetised interstellar medium around supernova remnants on scales up to 80 pc. CR diffusion quickly leads to an efficient acceleration of low-density gas (mainly perpendicular to the magnetic field) with accelerations up to two orders of magnitude above the thermal values. Peaked (at 1 GeV) CR injection spectra have a stronger impact on the dynamics than power-law spectra. For realistic magnetic field configurations low energy CRs (with smaller diffusion coefficients) distribute anisotropically with large spatial variations of a factor of ten and more. Adiabatic losses can change the ...

  19. Detection of the characteristic pion-decay signature in supernova remnants.

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Busetto, G; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Cillis, A N; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbel, S; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J W; Hill, A B; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kataoka, J; Katsuta, J; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mignani, R P; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Romoli, C; Sánchez-Conde, M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Simeon, P E; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stecker, F W; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yamazaki, R; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2013-02-15

    Cosmic rays are particles (mostly protons) accelerated to relativistic speeds. Despite wide agreement that supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sources of galactic cosmic rays, unequivocal evidence for the acceleration of protons in these objects is still lacking. When accelerated protons encounter interstellar material, they produce neutral pions, which in turn decay into gamma rays. This offers a compelling way to detect the acceleration sites of protons. The identification of pion-decay gamma rays has been difficult because high-energy electrons also produce gamma rays via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering. We detected the characteristic pion-decay feature in the gamma-ray spectra of two SNRs, IC 443 and W44, with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This detection provides direct evidence that cosmic-ray protons are accelerated in SNRs. PMID:23413352

  20. Unified model for the gamma-ray emission of supernova remnants

    Yuan, Qiang; Bi, Xiao-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are one of the most probable sources of the Galactic cosmic rays. According to the locally observed fluxes of cosmic ray protons and electrons, the electron-to-proton number ratio at the source is derived to be about 1%. Assuming such a ratio is universal for all SNRs, we propose a unified model that ascribes the distinct $\\gamma$-ray spectra of different SNRs to the variation of the medium density. For the low density environment, the $\\gamma$-ray emission is inverse-Compton dominated. For the high density environment like systems of high-energy particles interacting with molecular clouds, the $\\gamma$-ray emission is $\\pi^0$-decay dominated. This self-consistent picture can be regarded as evidence in supporting the SNR-origin of the Galactic cosmic rays.

  1. Detection of the Characteristic Pion-Decay Signature in Supernova Remnants

    :,; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Busetto, G; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Çelik, Ö; Charles, E; Chaty, S; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Cillis, A N; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Corbel, S; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M -H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J; Hill, A B; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kataoka, J; Katsuta, J; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mignani, R P; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Romoli, C; Sánchez-Conde, M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Simeon, P E; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stecker, F W; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Thorsett, S E; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Tinivella, M; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yamazaki, R; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S; 10.1126/science.1231160

    2013-01-01

    Cosmic rays are particles (mostly protons) accelerated to relativistic speeds. Despite wide agreement that supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sources of galactic cosmic rays, unequivocal evidence for the acceleration of protons in these objects is still lacking. When accelerated protons encounter interstellar material, they produce neutral pions, which in turn decay into gamma rays. This offers a compelling way to detect the acceleration sites of protons. The identification of pion-decay gamma rays has been difficult because high-energy electrons also produce gamma rays via bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering. We detected the characteristic pion-decay feature in the gamma-ray spectra of two SNRs, IC 443 and W44, with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. This detection provides direct evidence that cosmic-ray protons are accelerated in SNRs.

  2. Thin Circular Disc Shells of Radio Sources Around Supernova Remnant G16.2-2.7

    俞志尧

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new model of distinct thin circular disc shells to analyse the radio map of the supernova remnant (SNR) G16.2-2.7 from NRAO VLA Sky Survey at 1.4 GHz and the radio sources around it. It is obtained that the 20 radio sources around the SNR G16.2-2.7 distribute on the four thin circular disc shells. The results support the shell-like structure strongly and further indicate that the shell-like structure is several thin circular disc shells. Because the shell-like structure dominates the total sample, our result is important for research of the radio morphology of SNRs.

  3. Evidence for Recombining Plasma in the Supernova Remnant G346.6-0.2

    Yamauchi, Shigeo; Koyama, Katsuji; Yonemori, Manami

    2012-01-01

    We present the Suzaku results of the supernova remnant (SNR) G346.6-0.2. The X-ray emission has a center-filled morphology with the size of 6' x 8' within the radio shell. Neither an ionization equilibrium nor non-equilibrium (ionizing) plasma can reproduce the spectra remaining shoulder-like residuals in the 2-4 keV band. These structures are possibly due to recombination of free electrons to the K-shell of He-like Si and S. The X-ray spectra are well fitted with a plasma model in a recombination dominant phase. We propose that the plasma was in nearly full ionized state at high temperature of 5 keV, then the plasma changed to a recombining phase due to selective cooling of electrons to lower temperature of 0.3 keV. G346.6-0.2 would be in an epoch of the recombining phase.

  4. Neutrino emission from a GRB afterglow shock during an inner supernova shock breakout

    Yu, Yun-Wei; Zheng, Xiao-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The observations of a nearby low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (GRB) 060218 associated with supernova SN 2006aj may imply an interesting astronomical picture where a supernova shock breakout locates behind a relativistic GRB jet. Based on this picture, we study neutrino emission for early afterglows of GRB 060218-like GRBs, where neutrinos are expected to be produced from photopion interactions in a GRB blast wave that propagates into a dense wind. Relativistic protons for the interactions are accelerated by an external shock, while target photons are basically provided by the incoming thermal emission from the shock breakout and its inverse-Compton scattered component. Because of a high estimated event rate of low-luminosity GRBs, we would have more opportunities to detect afterglow neutrinos from a single nearby GRB event of this type by IceCube. Such a possible detection could provide evidence for the picture described above.

  5. Instabilities and the adiabatic and isothermal blast wave models for supernova remnants

    Isenberg as well as lerche and Vasyliunas proposed the existence of an instability to radial perturbations in adiabatic and isothermal models of self-similar supernova blast waves. Their derivations fail to impose the physical conservation laws at the shock (i.e., the Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions) as boundary conditions, and their claim of an instability is unsubstantiated. Although as analytic demonstration of the stability of the adiabatic self-similar solution does not presently exist, the cumulative result of three decades of gas dynamic experimentation and numerical simulation provides unmistakable evidence for the stabilty of self-similar blast waves

  6. X-RAY SPECTRAL VARIATIONS IN THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    The discovery of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3 has allowed a look at a stage of SNR evolution never before observed. We analyze the 50 ks Chandra observation with particular regard to spectral variations. The very high column density (NH ∼ 6 x 1022 cm-2) implies that dust scattering is important, and we use a simple scattering model in our spectral analysis. The integrated X-ray spectrum of G1.9+0.3 is well described by synchrotron emission from a power-law electron distribution with an exponential cutoff. Using our measured radio flux and including scattering effects, we find a rolloff frequency of 5.4(3.0, 10.2) x 1017 Hz (hνroll = 2.2 keV). Including scattering in a two-region model gives lower values of νroll by over a factor of 2. Dividing G1.9+0.3 into six regions, we find a systematic pattern in which spectra are hardest (highest νroll) in the bright southeast and northwest limbs of the shell. They steepen as one moves around the shell or into the interior. The extensions beyond the bright parts of the shell have the hardest spectra of all. We interpret the results in terms of dependence of shock acceleration properties on the obliquity angle θBn between the shock velocity and a fairly uniform upstream magnetic field. This interpretation probably requires a Type Ia event. If electron acceleration is limited by synchrotron losses, the spectral variations require obliquity-dependence of the acceleration rate independent of the magnetic-field strength.

  7. Supernova Remnants Associated with Molecular Clouds in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Banas, K R; Bronfman, L; Nyman, L A A; Banas, Kenneth R.; Hughes, John P.

    1996-01-01

    We used the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) to search for CO emission associated with three supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud: N49, N132D, and N23. Observations were carried out in the J=2-1 rotational transition of CO (230.5 GHz) where the half power beamwidth of the SEST is 23". Molecular clouds were discovered near N49 and N132D; no CO emission was discovered in the region we mapped near N23. The N49 cloud has a peak line temperature of 0.75 K, spatial scale of ~7 pc and virial mass of ~30,000 solar masses. The N132D cloud is brighter with a peak temperature of 5 K; it is also larger ~22 pc and considerably more massive 200,000 solar masses. The velocities derived for the clouds near N49 and N132D, +286.0 km/s and +264.0 km/s, agree well with the previously known velocities of the associated SNRs: +286 km/s and +268 km/s, respectively. ROSAT X-ray images show that the ambient density into which the remnants are expanding appears to be significantly increased in the directio...

  8. Discovery of a VHE gamma-ray source coincident with the supernova remnant CTB 37A

    Aharonian, F; Barresde Almeida, U; Bazer-Bachi, A R; Behera, B; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Bernlöhr, K; Boisson, C; Borrel, V; Braun, I; Brion, E; Brucker, J; Buhler, R; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Boutelier, T; Carrigan, S; Chadwick, P M; Chaves, R; Chounet, L M; Clapson, A C; Coignet, G; Cornils, R; Costamante, L; Dalton, M; Degrange, B; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ata, A; Domainko, W; O'Connor-Drury, L; Dubois, F; Dubus, G; Dyks, J; Egberts, K; Emmanoulopoulos, D; Espigat, P; Farnier, C; Feinstein, F; Fiasson, A; Förster, A; Fontaine, G; Funk, S; Fuling, M; Gabici, S; Gallant, Y A; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Goret, P; Hadjichristidis, C; Hauser, D; Hauser, M; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hinton, J A; Hoffmann, A; Hofmann, W; Holleran, M; Hoppe, S; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; De Jager, O C; Jung, I; Katarzynski, K; Kaufmann, S; Kendziorra, E; Kerschhaggl, M; Khangulyan, D; Khelifi, B; Keogh, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Lamanna, G; Latham, I J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J P; Lohse, T; Martin, J M; Martineau-Huynh, O; Marcowith, A; Masterson, C; Maurin, D; McComb, T J L; Moderski, R; Moulin, E; Nakajima, H; Naumann-Godo, M; De Naurois, Mathieu; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Olive, J P; de Ona Wilhelmi, E; Orford, K J; Osborne, J L; Ostrowski, M; Panter, M; Pedaletti, G; Pelletier, G; Petrucci, P O; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, Andreas G; Raubenheimer, B C; Raue, M; Rayner, S M; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Ruppel, J; Sahakian, V V; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schock, F M; Schroder, R; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Shalchi, A; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spangler, D; Stawarz, L; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Superina, G; Tam, P H; Tavernet, J P; Terrier, R; Tibolla, O; Van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Vialle, J P; Vincent, P; Vivier, M; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A

    2008-01-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) complex CTB 37 is an interesting candidate for observations with Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray telescopes such as H.E.S.S. In this region, three SNRs are seen. One of them is potentially associated with several molecular clouds, a circumstance that can be used to probe the acceleration of hadronic cosmic rays. This region was observed with the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescopes and the data were analyzed with standard H.E.S.S. procedures. Recent X-ray observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton were used to search for X-ray counterparts. The discovery of a new VHE gamma-ray source HESS J1714-385 coincident with the remnant CTB 37A is reported. The energy spectrum is well described by a power-law with a photon index of Gamma =2.30pm0.13 and a differential flux at 1 TeV of Phi_0 = (8.7 pm 1.0_{stat} pm 1.8_{sys})x10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}TeV^{-1}. The integrated flux above 1 TeV is equivalent to 3% of the flux of the Crab nebula above the same energy. This VHE gamma-ray source is a counterpar...

  9. Chandra and XMM Observations of the Composite Supernova Remnant G327.1-1.1

    Temim, Tea; Gaensler, B M; Hughes, John P; van der Swaluw, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We present new X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of a composite supernova remnant G327.1-1.1 using the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. G327.1-1.1 has an unusual morphology consisting of a symmetric radio shell and an off center nonthermal component that indicates the presence of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Radio observations show a narrow finger of emission extending from the PWN structure towards the northwest. X-ray studies with ASCA, ROSAT, and BeppoSAX revealed elongated extended emission and a compact source at the tip of the finger that may be coincident with the actual pulsar. The high resolution Chandra observations provide new insight into the structure of the inner region of the remnant. The images show a compact source embedded in a cometary structure, from which a trail of X-ray emission extends in the southeast direction. The Chandra images also reveal two prong-like structures that appear to originate from the vicinity of the compact source and extend into a large bubble that is oriente...

  10. Radio-continuum emission from the young galactic supernova remnant G1.9+0.3

    de Horta A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of a new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA radio-continuum observation of supernova remnant (SNR G1.9+0.3, which at an age of ~181±25 years is the youngest known in the Galaxy. We analysed all available radio-continuum observations at 6-cm from the ATCA and Very Large Array. Using this data we estimate an expansion rate for G1.9+0.3 of 0.563%±0.078% per year between 1984 and 2009. We note that in the 1980's G1.9+0.3 expanded somewhat slower (0.484% per year than more recently (0.641% per year. We estimate that the average spectral index between 20-cm and 6-cm, across the entire SNR is α={0.72±0.26 which is typical for younger SNRs. At 6-cm, we detect an average of 6% fractionally polarised radio emission with a peak of 17%§3%. The polarised emission follows the contours of the strongest of X-ray emission. Using the new equipartition formula we estimate a magnetic field strength of B≈273μG, which to date, is one of the highest magnetic field strength found for any SNR and consistent with G1.9+0.3 being a very young remnant.

  11. X-Ray Emitting Ejecta of Supernova Remnant N132D

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Reynolds, Stephen P

    2007-01-01

    The brightest supernova remnant in the Magellanic Clouds, N132D, belongs to the rare class of oxygen-rich remnants, about a dozen objects that show optical emission from pure heavy-element ejecta. They originate in explosions of massive stars that produce large amounts of O, although only a tiny fraction of that O is found to emit at optical wavelengths. We report the detection of substantial amounts of O at X-ray wavelengths in a recent 100 ks Chandra ACIS observation of N132D. A comparison between subarcsecond-resolution Chandra and Hubble images reveals a good match between clumpy X-ray and optically emitting ejecta on large (but not small) scales. Ejecta spectra are dominated by strong lines of He- and H-like O; they exhibit substantial spatial variations partially caused by patchy absorption within the LMC. Because optical ejecta are concentrated in a 5 pc radius elliptical expanding shell, the detected ejecta X-ray emission also originates in this shell.

  12. FERMI-LAT AND WMAP OBSERVATIONS OF THE PUPPIS A SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    We report the detection of GeV γ-ray emission from the supernova remnant (SNR) Puppis A with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Puppis A is among the faintest SNRs yet detected at GeV energies, with a luminosity of only 2.7 × 1034 (D/2.2 kpc)2 erg s–1 between 1 and 100 GeV. The γ-ray emission from the remnant is spatially extended, with a morphology matching that of the radio and X-ray emission, and is well described by a simple power law with an index of 2.1. We attempt to model the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED), from radio to γ-rays, using standard nonthermal emission mechanisms. To constrain the relativistic electron population we use 7 years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to extend the radio spectrum up to 93 GHz. Both leptonic- and hadronic-dominated models can reproduce the nonthermal SED, requiring a total content of cosmic-ray electrons and protons accelerated in Puppis A of at least W CR ≈ (1-5) × 1049 erg.

  13. FERMI-LAT AND WMAP OBSERVATIONS OF THE PUPPIS A SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Hewitt, J. W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Grondin, M.-H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Reposeur, T. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux-Gradignan, Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2p3, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Tanaka, T., E-mail: john.w.hewitt@nasa.gov, E-mail: marie-helene.grondin@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We report the detection of GeV {gamma}-ray emission from the supernova remnant (SNR) Puppis A with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Puppis A is among the faintest SNRs yet detected at GeV energies, with a luminosity of only 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} (D/2.2 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} between 1 and 100 GeV. The {gamma}-ray emission from the remnant is spatially extended, with a morphology matching that of the radio and X-ray emission, and is well described by a simple power law with an index of 2.1. We attempt to model the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED), from radio to {gamma}-rays, using standard nonthermal emission mechanisms. To constrain the relativistic electron population we use 7 years of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data to extend the radio spectrum up to 93 GHz. Both leptonic- and hadronic-dominated models can reproduce the nonthermal SED, requiring a total content of cosmic-ray electrons and protons accelerated in Puppis A of at least W {sub CR} Almost-Equal-To (1-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg.

  14. Discovery of Recombining Plasma in the Supernova Remnant 3C 391

    Sato, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Odaka, Hirokazu; Nakashima, Shinya

    2014-01-01

    Recent X-ray study of middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) reveals strong radiative recombination continua (RRCs) associated with overionized plasmas, of which the origin still remains uncertain. We report our discovery of an RRC in the middle-aged SNR 3C 391. If the X-ray spectrum is fitted with a two-temperature plasma model in collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), residuals of Si XIV Ly alpha line at 2.006 keV, S XVI Ly alpha line at 2.623 keV and the edge of RRC of Si XIII at 2.666 keV are found. The X-ray spectrum is better described by a composite model consisting of a CIE plasma and a recombining plasma (RP). The abundance pattern suggests that the RP is associated to the ejecta from a core-collapse supernova with a progenitor star of 15 solar mass. There is no significant difference of the recombining plasma parameters between the southeast region and the northwest region surrounded by dense molecular clouds. We also find a hint of Fe I K alpha line at 6.4 keV (~2.4 sigma detection) from the sout...

  15. A Systematic Study of Evolved Supernova Remnants in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds with Suzaku

    Takeuchi, Yoko; Tamagawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Typing the origin (i.e., Type Ia or core-collapse) of supernova remnants (SNRs) is crucial to determine the rates of supernova (SN) explosions in a galaxy, which is a key to understand its recent chemical evolution. However, evolved SNRs in the so-called Sedov phase are dominated by the swept-up interstellar medium (ISM), making it difficult to determine their ejecta composition and thus SN type. Here we present a systematic X-ray study of nine evolved SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds, DEM L238, DEM L249, 0534-69.9, 0548-70.4, B0532-71.0, B0532-67.5, 0103-72.6, 0049-73.6, and 0104-72.3, using archival data of the Suzaku satellite. Although Suzaku does not spatially resolve the SN ejecta from the swept-up ISM due to the limited angular resolution, its excellent energy resolution has enabled clear separation of emission lines in the soft X-ray band. This leads to the finding that the `spatially-integrated' spectra of the evolved (~10^4 yr) SNRs are still significantly contributed by emission from the ejecta at the...

  16. Cr-K Emission Line as a Constraint on the Progenitor Properties of Supernova Remnants

    Yang, X J; Lu, F J; Li, Aigen; Xiang, F Y; Xiao, H P; Zhong, J X

    2013-01-01

    We perform a survey of the Cr, Mn and Fe-K emission lines in young supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite {\\sl Suzaku}. The Cr and/or Mn emission lines are detected in 3C\\,397 and 0519-69.0 for the first time. We also confirm the detection of these lines in Kepler, W49B, N103B and Cas A. We derive the line parameters (i.e., the line centroid energy, flux and equivalent width [EW]) for these six sources and perform a correlation analysis for the line center energies of Cr, Mn and Fe. Also included in the correlation analysis are Tycho and G344.7-0.1 for which the Cr, Mn and Fe-K line parameters were available in the literature through {\\sl Suzaku} observations. We find that the line center energies of Cr correlates very well with that of Fe and that of Mn. This confirms our previous findings that the Cr, Mn and Fe are spatially co-located, share a similar ionization state, and have a common origin in the supernova nucleo-synthesis. We find that the ratio of the EW of the Cr emiss...

  17. Elemental Abundances in the Possible Type Ia Supernova Remnant G344.7-0.1

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Maeda, Keiichi; Slane, Patrick O; Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K; Katsuda, Satoru; Yoshii, Rie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G344.7-0.1 have commonly claimed its origin to be a core-collapse supernova (SN) explosion, based on its highly asymmetric morphology and/or proximity to a star forming region. In this paper, however, we present an X-ray spectroscopic study of this SNR using Suzaku, which is supportive of a Type Ia origin. Strong K-shell emission from lowly ionized Fe has clearly been detected, and its origin is determined, for the first time, to be the Fe-rich SN ejecta. The abundance pattern is highly consistent with that expected for a somewhat-evolved Type Ia SNR. It is suggested, therefore, that the X-ray point-like source CXOU J170357.8-414302 located at the SNR's geometrical center is not associated with the SNR but is likely to be a foreground object. Our result further indicates that G344.7-0.1 is the first possible Type Ia SNR categorized as a member of the so-called "mixed-morphology" class. In addition, we have detected emission from He-like Al at ~1.6 keV, th...

  18. Evidence of hadronic interaction in Tycho Supernova Remnant using Fermi-LAT data

    Caragiulo, M., E-mail: micaela.caragiulo@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Di Venere, L., E-mail: leonardo.divenere@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica M. Merlin dell' Università e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has observed Tycho Supernova Remnant in the MeV-GeV energy range. The spectrum has been studied using the first three years of data and new data are being collected. We present a multiwavelength model of the observed spectrum from radio to TeV energy range, based on the hypothesis of hadronic origin of γ-rays. As described by the Fermi acceleration theory, a single proton population was considered, modeled with a simple power-law in momentum. The photon emissivity is computed following Kamae et al (2006) [T. Kamae, et al., ApJ 647 (2006) 692]. The leptonic component is also taken into account according to Giordano et al. (2012) [F. Giordano, et al., ApJ 744 (2012) L2] prescriptions and it turns out to be negligible with respect to the hadronic one. The model returns a spectral index of 2.23(±0.05) and an acceleration efficiency of 5% of the total kinetic energy expelled in Supernova explosion and it may provide a hint of the acceleration processes in SNRs up to energies close to the knee of cosmic ray spectrum. This work shows that experimental data can be easily explained with a simple model, representing a good test for the acceleration theory.

  19. Hard-X-ray emission lines from the decay of 44Ti in the remnant of supernova 1987A.

    Grebenev, S A; Lutovinov, A A; Tsygankov, S S; Winkler, C

    2012-10-18

    It is assumed that the radioactive decay of (44)Ti powers the infrared, optical and ultraviolet emission of supernova remnants after the complete decay of (56)Co and (57)Co (the isotopes that dominated the energy balance during the first three to four years after the explosion) until the beginning of active interaction of the ejecta with the surrounding matter. Simulations show that the initial mass of (44)Ti synthesized in core-collapse supernovae is (0.02-2.5) × 10(-4) solar masses (M circled dot). Hard X-rays and γ-rays from the decay of this (44)Ti have been unambiguously observed from Cassiopeia A only, leading to the suggestion that values of the initial mass of (44)Ti near the upper bound of the predictions occur only in exceptional cases. For the remnant of supernova 1987A, an upper limit to the initial mass of (44)Ti of supernova 1987A in the narrow band containing two direct-escape lines of (44)Ti at 67.9 and 78.4 keV. The measured line fluxes imply that this decay provided sufficient energy to power the remnant at late times. We estimate that the initial mass of (44)Ti was (3.1 ± 0.8) × 10(-4), which is near the upper bound of theoretical predictions. PMID:23075986

  20. DYNAMICS OF X-RAY-EMITTING EJECTA IN THE OXYGEN-RICH SUPERNOVA REMNANT PUPPIS A REVEALED BY THE XMM-NEWTON REFLECTION GRATING SPECTROMETER

    Using the unprecedented spectral resolution of the reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) on board XMM-Newton, we reveal dynamics of X-ray-emitting ejecta in the oxygen-rich supernova remnant Puppis A. The RGS spectrum shows prominent K-shell lines, including O VII Heα forbidden and resonance, O VIII Lyα, O VIII Lyβ, and Ne IX Heα resonance, from an ejecta knot positionally coincident with an optical oxygen-rich filament (the so-called Ω filament) in the northeast of the remnant. We find that the line centroids are blueshifted by 1480 ± 140 ± 60 km s–1 (the first and second term errors are measurement and calibration uncertainties, respectively), which is fully consistent with that of the optical Ω filament. Line broadening at 654 eV (corresponding to O VIII Lyα) is obtained to be σ ∼10 cm–3 s. We show that the oxygen and electron temperatures as well as the ionization timescale can be reconciled if the ejecta knot was heated by a collisionless shock whose velocity is ∼600-1200 km s–1 and was subsequently equilibrated due to Coulomb interactions. The RGS spectrum also shows relatively weak K-shell lines of another ejecta feature located near the northeastern edge of the remnant, from which we measure redward Doppler velocities of 650 ± 70 ± 60 km s–1.

  1. The shocking development of lithium (and boron) in supernovae

    It is shown that significant amounts of Li-7 and B-11 are produced in Type 2 supernovae. The synthesis of these rare elements occurs as the supernova shock traverses the base of the hydrogen envelope burning He-3 to masses 7 and 11 via alpha capture. The yields in this process are sufficient to account for the difference in lithium abundance observed between Pop 2 and Pop 1 stars. Since lithium (and boron) would, in this manner, be created in the same stars that produce the bulk of the heavy elements, the lithium abundance even in old Pop 1 stars would be high (as observed). The B-11 production may remedy the long-standing problem of the traditional spallation scenario to account for the observed isotopic ratio of boron. Observational consequences of this mechanism are discussed, including the evolution of lithium and boron isotope ratios in the Galaxy and the possible use of the boron yields to constrain the number of blue progenitor Type 2 supernovae

  2. SHOCK BREAKOUT IN TYPE II PLATEAU SUPERNOVAE: PROSPECTS FOR HIGH-REDSHIFT SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

    Shock breakout is the brightest radiative phenomenon in a supernova (SN) but is difficult to be observed owing to the short duration and X-ray/ultraviolet (UV)-peaked spectra. After the first observation from the rising phase reported in 2008, its observability at high redshift is attracting enormous attention. We perform multigroup radiation hydrodynamics calculations of explosions for evolutionary presupernova models with various main-sequence masses M MS, metallicities Z, and explosion energies E. We present multicolor light curves of shock breakouts in Type II plateau SNe, being the most frequent core-collapse SNe, and predict apparent multicolor light curves of shock breakout at various redshifts z. We derive the observable SN rate and reachable redshift as functions of filter x and limiting magnitude m x,lim by taking into account an initial mass function, cosmic star formation history, intergalactic absorption, and host galaxy extinction. We propose a realistic survey strategy optimized for shock breakout. For example, the g'-band observable SN rate for m g',lim = 27.5 mag is 3.3 SNe deg-2 day-1 and half of them are located at z ≥ 1.2. It is clear that the shock breakout is a beneficial clue for probing high-z core-collapse SNe. We also establish ways to identify shock breakout and constrain SN properties from the observations of shock breakout, brightness, timescale, and color. We emphasize that the multicolor observations in blue optical bands with ∼hour intervals, preferably over ≥2 continuous nights, are essential to efficiently detect, identify, and interpret shock breakout.

  3. Chandra and XMM-Newton imaging and spectroscopic study of the supernova remnant Kes 73 hosting the magnetar 1E 1841-045

    Kumar, Harsha S; Slane, Patrick; Gothelf, E V

    2013-01-01

    We present a Chandra and XMM-Newton study of the supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 73 hosting the anomalous X-ray pulsar 1E 1841-045. The Chandra image reveals clumpy structures across the remnant with enhanced emission along the western rim. The X-ray emission fills the radio shell and spatially correlates with the infrared image. The global X-ray spectrum is described by a two-component thermal model with a column density N_H ~ 2.6e22 cm^{-2} and a total luminosity of L_X ~ 3.3e37 ergs/s (0.5-10 keV, at an assumed distance of 8.5 kpc). The soft component is characterized by a temperature kT_s ~ 0.5 keV, a high ionization timescale, and enhanced Si and S abundances suggesting emission that is dominated by shocked ejecta. The hard component has a temperature kT_h ~ 1.6 keV, a relatively low ionization timescale, and mostly solar abundances suggesting emission that is dominated by interstellar/circumstellar shocked material. A spatially resolved spectroscopy study reveals no significant variations in the spectral pr...

  4. G346.6-0.2: A Rare Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnant with Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    Auchettl, Katie Amanda; Wong, B. T. T.; Ng, Chi Yung; Slane, Patrick O.

    2016-04-01

    The detection of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) provides us with a unique window into studying particle acceleration at the shock-front of an SNR. All of the 14 or so SNRs in which non-thermal X-ray synchrotron emission has been detected are shell-like in nature, and show no evidence of interaction with large nearby molecular clouds. Here we present a new X-ray study of the molecular cloud interacting mixed-morphology SNR G346.6-0.2 using XMM-Newton. We found that the X-ray emission arises from a cool recombining plasma with subsolar abundance, confirming previous Suzaku results. In addition, we identified an additional power-law component in the spectrum, with a photon index of ~2. We investigated its possible origin and conclude that this is most likely synchrotron emission produced by particles accelerated at the shock. We also derive the age of the remnant to be 1.8-2.3 kyrs assuming a distance of 8.3 kpc, which is much younger than previously suggested, while based on its morphology, Galactic location and the density of its environment as derived from our X-ray analysis, the progenitor of G346.6-0.2 was most likely a massive star.

  5. Fermi-LAT Discovery of Extended Gamma-ray Emission in the Direction of Supernova Remnant W51C

    Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of bright gamma-ray emission coincident with supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is reported using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. W51C is a middle-aged remnant (~10^4 yr) with intense radio synchrotron emission in its shell and known to be interacting with a molecular cloud. The gamma-ray emission is spatially extended, broadly consistent with the radio and X-ray extent of SNR W51C. The energy spectrum in the 0.2-50 GeV band exhibits steepe...

  6. Kes 73: A Young Supernova Remnant with an X-ray Bright, Radio-quiet Central Source

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Vasisht, G.

    1997-01-01

    We clarify the nature of the small-diameter supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 73 and its central compact source, 1E 1841-045, using X-ray data acquired with the ASCA Observatory. We introduce a spatio-spectral decomposition technique necessary to disentangle the ASCA spectrum of the compact source from the barely resolved shell-type remnant. The source spectrum (1 - 8 keV) is characterized by an absorbed power-law with a photon index ~ 3.4 and N_H ~ 3.0E22 cm^-2, possibly non-thermal in nature. Thi...

  7. Discovery of thermal X-ray emission in the Supernova Remnant G337.8-0.1 (Kes 41)

    Combi, J. A.; Albacete-Colombo, J. F.; MARTI, J

    2008-01-01

    We report here on the first detection at X-ray wavelengths of the Supernova Remnant (SNR) G337.8-0.1, carried out with the XMM-Newton Observatory. Using the X-ray observations, we studied the X-ray morphology of the remnant at different energy ranges, analysed the spectral properties and investigated a possible variable behavior. The SNR shows a diffuse filled-center structure in the X-ray region with an absence of a compact source in its center. We find a high column density of N_H > 6.9 * 1...

  8. Late-time Evolution of Composite Supernova Remnants: Deep Chandra Observations and Hydrodynamical Modeling of a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula in SNR G327.1-1.1

    Temim, Tea; Kolb, Christopher; Blondin, John; Hughes, John P; Bucciantini, Niccolo

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the evolution of composite supernova remnants (SNRs) and the eventual fate of relativistic particles injected by their pulsars, we present a multifaceted investigation of the interaction between a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its host SNR G327.1-1.1. Our 350 ks Chandra X-ray observations of SNR G327.1-1.1 reveal a highly complex morphology; a cometary structure resembling a bow shock, prong-like features extending into large arcs in the SNR interior, and thermal emission from the SNR shell. Spectral analysis of the non-thermal emission offers clues about the origin of the PWN structures, while enhanced abundances in the PWN region provide evidence for mixing of supernova ejecta with PWN material. The overall morphology and spectral properties of the SNR suggest that the PWN has undergone an asymmetric interaction with the SNR reverse shock (RS) that can occur as a result of a density gradient in the ambient medium and/or a moving pulsar that displaces the PWN from the center ...

  9. Evolution of Dust in Primordial Supernova Remnants: Can Dust Grains Formed in the Ejecta Survive and be Injected into the Early Interstellar Medium?

    Nozawa, Takaya; Habe, Asao; Dwek, Eli; Umeda, Hideyuki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of dust that formed at Population III supernova (SN) explosions and its processing through the collisions with the reverse shocks resulting from the interaction of the SN ejecta with the ambient medium. In particular, we investigate the transport of the shocked dust within the SN remnant (SNR), and its effect on the chemical composition, the size distribution, and the total mass of dust surviving in SNR. We find that the evolution of the reverse shock, and hence its effect on the processing of the dust depends on the thickness of the envelope retained by the progenitor star. Furthermore, the transport and survival of the dust grains depend on their initial radius, a_{ini}, and composition: For Type II SNRs expanding into the interstellar medium (ISM) with a density of n_{H,0}=1 cm^{-3}, small grains with a_{ini} ~ 0.2 micron are ejected into the ISM without decreasing their sizes significantly. We find that the total mass fraction of dust that is destroyed by the reverse shock ra...

  10. Supernova VLBI

    Bartel, N.

    2009-08-01

    We review VLBI observations of supernovae over the last quarter century and discuss the prospect of imaging future supernovae with space VLBI in the context of VSOP-2. From thousands of discovered supernovae, most of them at cosmological distances, ˜50 have been detected at radio wavelengths, most of them in relatively nearby galaxies. All of the radio supernovae are Type II or Ib/c, which originate from the explosion of massive progenitor stars. Of these, 12 were observed with VLBI and four of them, SN 1979C, SN 1986J, SN 1993J, and SN 1987A, could be imaged in detail, the former three with VLBI. In addition, supernovae or young supernova remnants were discovered at radio wavelengths in highly dust-obscured galaxies, such as M82, Arp 299, and Arp 220, and some of them could also be imaged in detail. Four of the supernovae so far observed were sufficiently bright to be detectable with VSOP-2. With VSOP-2 the expansion of supernovae can be monitored and investigated with unsurpassed angular resolution, starting as early as the time of the supernova's transition from its opaque to transparent stage. Such studies can reveal, in a movie, the aftermath of a supernova explosion shortly after shock break out.

  11. The population of X-ray supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Kavanagh, P. J.; Sasaki, M.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Filipović, M. D.; Vasilopoulos, G.; Pietsch, W.; Points, S. D.; Chu, Y.-H.; Dickel, J.; Ehle, M.; Williams, R.; Greiner, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: We present a comprehensive X-ray study of the population of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Using primarily XMM-Newton observations, we conduct a systematic spectral analysis of LMC SNRs to gain new insight into their evolution and the interplay with their host galaxy. Methods: We combined all the archival XMM-Newton observations of the LMC with those of our Very Large Programme LMC survey. We produced X-ray images and spectra of 51 SNRs, out of a list of 59 objects compiled from the literature and augmented with newly found objects. Using a careful modelling of the background, we consistently analysed all the X-ray spectra and measure temperatures, luminosities, and chemical compositions. The locations of SNRs are compared to the distributions of stars, cold gas, and warm gas in the LMC, and we investigated the connection between the SNRs and their local environment, characterised by various star formation histories. We tentatively typed all LMC SNRs, in order to constrain the ratio of core-collapse to type Ia SN rates in the LMC. We also compared the column densities derived from X-ray spectra to H i maps, thus probing the three-dimensional structure of the LMC. Results: This work provides the first homogeneous catalogue of the X-ray spectral properties of SNRs in the LMC. It offers a complete census of LMC remnants whose X-ray emission exhibits Fe K lines (13% of the sample), or reveals the contribution from hot supernova ejecta (39%), which both give clues to the progenitor types. The abundances of O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe in the hot phase of the LMC interstellar medium are found to be between 0.2 and 0.5 times the solar values with a lower abundance ratio [α/Fe] than in the Milky Way. The current ratio of core-collapse to type Ia SN rates in the LMC is constrained to NCC/NIa=1.35(-0.24+0.11), which is lower than in local SN surveys and galaxy clusters. Our comparison of the X-ray luminosity functions of SNRs in Local Group

  12. Spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova 1987A with ALMA and ATCA

    Zanardo, Giovanna; Staveley-Smith, Lister [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), M468, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Indebetouw, Remy; Chevalier, Roger A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Matsuura, Mikako; Barlow, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gaensler, Bryan M. [Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Center, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Manchester, Richard N. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Kamenetzky, Julia R. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Lakićević, Maša [Institute for the Environment, Physical Sciences and Applied Mathematics, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Marcaide, Jon M. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain); Martí-Vidal, Ivan [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala (Sweden); Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Park, Sangwook, E-mail: giovanna.zanardo@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, 108 Science Hall, Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); and others

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz (λ 3.2 mm to 450 μm), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component (S {sub ν}∝ν{sup –0.73}) and the thermal component originating from dust grains at T ∼ 22 K. This excess could be due to free-free flux or emission from grains of colder dust. However, a second flat-spectrum synchrotron component appears to better fit the SED, implying that the emission could be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The residual emission is mainly localized west of the SN site, as the spectral analysis yields –0.4 ≲ α ≲ –0.1 across the western regions, with α ∼ 0 around the central region. If there is a PWN in the remnant interior, these data suggest that the pulsar may be offset westward from the SN position.

  13. Spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova 1987A with ALMA and ATCA

    We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz (λ 3.2 mm to 450 μm), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component (S ν∝ν–0.73) and the thermal component originating from dust grains at T ∼ 22 K. This excess could be due to free-free flux or emission from grains of colder dust. However, a second flat-spectrum synchrotron component appears to better fit the SED, implying that the emission could be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The residual emission is mainly localized west of the SN site, as the spectral analysis yields –0.4 ≲ α ≲ –0.1 across the western regions, with α ∼ 0 around the central region. If there is a PWN in the remnant interior, these data suggest that the pulsar may be offset westward from the SN position.

  14. A systematic study of evolved supernova remnants in the large and small Magellanic Clouds with Suzaku

    Takeuchi, Yoko; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Tamagawa, Toru

    2016-06-01

    Identifying the origin type (i.e., Type Ia or core-collapse) of supernova remnants (SNRs) is crucial to determining the rates of supernova (SN) explosions in a galaxy, which is a key to understanding its recent chemical evolution. However, evolved SNRs in the so-called Sedov phase are dominated by the swept-up interstellar medium (ISM), making it difficult to determine their ejecta composition and thus SN type. Here we present a systematic X-ray study of nine evolved SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds, DEM L238, DEM L249, 0534-69.9, 0548-70.4, B0532-71.0, B0532-67.5, 0103-72.6, 0049-73.6, and 0104-72.3, using archival data of the Suzaku satellite. Although Suzaku does not spatially resolve the SN ejecta from the swept-up ISM due to the limited angular resolution, its excellent energy resolution has enabled clear separation of emission lines in the soft X-ray band. This leads to the finding that the "spatially integrated" spectra of the evolved (˜104 yr) SNRs are still significantly contributed by emission from the ejecta at energies around 1 keV. The Fe/Ne mass ratios, determined mainly from the well-resolved Fe L-shell and Ne K-shell lines, clearly divide the observed SNRs into the Type Ia and core-collapse groups, confirming some previous typing made by Chandra observations that had utilized its extremely high angular resolution. This demonstrates that spatially integrated X-ray spectra of old SNRs can also be used to discriminate their progenitor type, which would be helpful for future systematic studies of extragalactic SNRs with ASTRO-H and beyond.

  15. THE METAL-ENRICHED THERMAL COMPOSITE SUPERNOVA REMNANT KESTEVEN 41 (G337.8-0.1) IN A MOLECULAR ENVIRONMENT

    Zhang, Gao-Yuan; Chen, Yang; Zhou, Ping [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023 (China); Su, Yang [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhou, Xin [Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210093 (China); Pannuti, Thomas G. [Space Science Center, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Morehead State University, 235 Martindale Drive, Morehead, KY 40351 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    The physical nature of thermal composite supernova remnants (SNRs) remains controversial. We have revisited the archival XMM-Newton and Chandra data of the thermal composite SNR Kesteven 41 (Kes 41 or G337.8–0.1) and performed a millimeter observation toward this source in the {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O lines. The X-ray emission, mainly concentrated toward the southwestern part of the SNR, is characterized by distinct S and Ar He-like lines in the spectra. The X-ray spectra can be fitted with an absorbed nonequilibrium ionization collisional plasma model at a temperature of 1.3-2.6 keV and an ionization timescale of 0.1-1.2 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup –3} s. The metal species S and Ar are overabundant, with 1.2-2.7 and 1.3-3.8 solar abundances, respectively, which strongly indicate the presence of a substantial ejecta component in the X-ray-emitting plasma of this SNR. Kes 41 is found to be associated with a giant molecular cloud (MC) at a systemic local standard of rest velocity of –50 km s{sup –1} and confined in a cavity delineated by a northern molecular shell, a western concave MC that features a discernible shell, and an H I cloud seen toward the southeast of the SNR. The birth of the SNR in a preexisting molecular cavity implies a mass of ≳ 18 M {sub ☉} for the progenitor if it was not in a binary system. Thermal conduction and cloudlet evaporation seem to be feasible mechanisms to interpret the X-ray thermal composite morphology, and the scenario of gas reheating by the shock reflected from the cavity wall is quantitatively consistent with the observations. An updated list of thermal composite SNRs is also presented in this paper.

  16. Elemental abundances of the supernova remnant G292.0+1.8: Evidence for a massive progenitor

    Hughes, John P.; Singh, K. P.

    1994-02-01

    We present a comprehensive nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) analysis of X-ray spectral data from the Einstein Observatory and EXOSAT for the supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. The spectra are well described by a single-temperature, single-timescale NEI model with kT = 1.64-0.19+0.29 keV and net = (5.55-1.12+1.2 x 1010s/cu cm, which establishes that this remnant is indeed young and in the ionizing phase of evolution of its X-ray spectrum. We determine the abundances of the elements O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, and Fe and examine their variation over the allowed range of column density, kT, and net. Numerical calculations of the nucleosynthesis expected for a 25 solar mass progenitor agree best with the fitted abundances; in fact the minimum rms percent difference between this model and the derived abundances is only 15%. From the fitted emission measure and a simple geometric model of the remnant we estimate the mass of X-ray-emitting plasma to be 9.3-6.2+1.19 solar mass, for an assumed distance of 4.8 +/- 1.6 kpc. Additional errors on this mass estimate, from clumping of the ejecta, for example, may be substantial. No evidence was found for a difference in the thermodynamic state of the plasma as a function of elemental composition based on analysis of the individual ionization timescales of the various species. In this sense then, G292.0+1.8 resembles the remnant Cas A (another product of a massive star supernova), while it is different from the remnants of SN 1572 (Tycho) and SN 1006, both of which are believed to be from Type Ia supernovae.

  17. DISCOVERY OF TeV GAMMA-RAY EMISSION TOWARD SUPERNOVA REMNANT SNR G78.2+2.1

    Aliu, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Archambault, S. [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Arlen, T.; Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Cannon, A.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Bouvier, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bradbury, S. M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Duke, C., E-mail: amandajw@iastate.edu [Department of Physics, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 50112-1690 (United States); and others

    2013-06-20

    We report the discovery of an unidentified, extended source of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission, VER J2019+407, within the radio shell of the supernova remnant SNR G78.2+2.1, using 21.4 hr of data taken by the VERITAS gamma-ray observatory in 2009. These data confirm the preliminary indications of gamma-ray emission previously seen in a two-year (2007-2009) blind survey of the Cygnus region by VERITAS. VER J2019+407, which is detected at a post-trials significance of 7.5 standard deviations in the 2009 data, is localized to the northwestern rim of the remnant in a region of enhanced radio and X-ray emission. It has an intrinsic extent of 0.23 Degree-Sign .23 {+-} 0. Degree-Sign 03{sub stat-0 Degree-Sign .02sys}{sup +0 Degree-Sign .04} and its spectrum is well-characterized by a differential power law (dN/dE = N{sub 0} Multiplication-Sign (E/TeV){sup -{Gamma}}) with a photon index of {Gamma} = 2.37 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.20{sub sys} and a flux normalization of N{sub 0} = 1.5 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.4{sub sys} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photon TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. This yields an integral flux of 5.2 {+-} 0.8{sub stat} {+-} 1.4{sub sys} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} photon cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} above 320 GeV, corresponding to 3.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. We consider the relationship of the TeV gamma-ray emission with the GeV gamma-ray emission seen from SNR G78.2+2.1 as well as that seen from a nearby cocoon of freshly accelerated cosmic rays. Multiple scenarios are considered as possible origins for the TeV gamma-ray emission, including hadronic particle acceleration at the SNR shock.

  18. CHANDRA AND XMM-NEWTON STUDIES OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.2-0.5 ASSOCIATED WITH THE PULSAR J1119-6127

    We present the first detailed imaging and spatially resolved spectroscopic study of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G292.2-0.5, associated with the high-magnetic field radio pulsar (PSR) J1119-6127, using Chandra and XMM-Newton. The high-resolution X-ray images reveal a partially limb-brightened morphology in the west, with diffuse emission concentrated toward the interior of the remnant unlike the complete shell-like morphology observed at radio wavelengths. The spectra of most of the diffuse emission regions within the remnant are best described by a two-component thermal+non-thermal model. The thermal component is described by a plane-parallel, non-equilibrium ionization plasma model with a temperature kT ranging from 1.3+0.3–0.2 keV in the western side of the remnant to 2.3+2.9–0.5 keV in the east, a column density increasing from 1.0+0.1–0.6 × 1022 cm–2 in the west to 1.8+0.2–0.4 × 1022 cm–2 in the east, and a low ionization timescale ranging from (5.7+0.8–0.7) × 109 cm–3 s in the SNR interior to (3.6+0.7–0.6) × 1010 cm–3 s in the western side—suggestive of expansion of a young remnant in a low-density medium. The spatial and spectral differences across the SNR are consistent with the presence of a dark cloud in the eastern part of the SNR, absorbing the soft X-ray emission, as also revealed by the optical image of that region. The spectra from some of the regions also show slightly enhanced metal abundances from Ne, Mg, and Si, hinting at the first evidence for ejecta heated by the reverse shock. Comparing our inferred metal abundances to core-collapse nucleosynthesis models yields, we estimate a high progenitor mass of ∼30 M☉ suggesting a Type Ib/c supernova. We confirm the presence of non-thermal X-ray emission from regions close to the pulsar, with the emission characterized by a power-law model with a hard photon index similar to that seen in the compact pulsar wind nebula. We estimate an SNR age range between 4.2 kyr

  19. XMM-Newton observations of the supernova remnant RX J0852.0-4622/GRO J0852-4642

    Iyudin, A F; Becker, W; Dennerl, K; Haberl, F

    2004-01-01

    RX J0852.0-4622 is a shell type supernova remnant with a power law spectrum in the south-eastern corner of the Vela supernova remnant. We report XMM-Newton observations of three fields centered on the rim of the remnant and confirm the power law shape of the spectra with no prominent emission lines as previously obtained with ASCA. The emission line feature at ~4.1 keV indicated in the ASCA/SIS spectrum of the northern field is detected and found in the southern and western fields, as well, with a total significance of slightly more than 4 sigmas. The line position is improved and the feature is centered on 4.45 +/- 0.05 keV. We suggest this line feature to be emission from Ti and Sc. The measured X-ray flux is consistent with the Ti gamma-ray flux previously measured with COMPTEL. We discuss various physical processes which may lead to the creation of these lines, and we discuss the implications for the progenitor and the supernova type.

  20. Young Supernovae as Experimental Sites to Study Electron Acceleration Mechanism

    Maeda, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Radio emissions from young supernovae (~ 1 year after the explosion) show a peculiar feature in the relativistic electron population at a shock wave, where their energy distribution is steeper than typically found in supernova remnants (SNRs) and than the prediction from the standard diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. This is especially established for a class of stripped envelope supernovae (SNe IIb/Ib/Ic) where a combination of high shock velocity and low circumstellar material (...