WorldWideScience

Sample records for supernova remnant shock

  1. Cosmic Ray Spectrum in Supernova Remnant Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Hyesung

    2010-01-01

    We perform kinetic simulations of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) expanding into a uniform interstellar medium (ISM). Bohm-like diffusion assumed, and simple models for Alfvenic drift and dissipation are adopted. Phenomenological models for thermal leakage injection are considered as well. We find that the preshock gas temperature is the primary parameter that governs the cosmic ray (CR) acceleration efficiency and energy spectrum, whi...

  2. Fermi acceleration at supernova remnant shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the physics of particle acceleration at non-relativistic shocks exploiting two different and complementary approaches, namely a semi-analytic modeling of cosmic-ray modified shocks and large hybrid (kinetic protons/fluid electrons) simulations. The former technique allows us to extract some information from the multi-wavelength observations of supernova remnants, especially in the gamma-ray band, while the latter returns fundamental insights into the details of particle injection and magnetic field amplification via plasma instabilities. In particular, we present the results of large hybrid simulations of non-relativistic shocks, discussing the properties of the transition from the thermal to the non-thermal component, the spectrum of which turns out to be the power-law predicted by first-order Fermi acceleration. Along with a rather effective magnetic field amplification, we find that more than 20% of the bulk energy is converted in non-thermal particles, altering significantly the dynamics of...

  3. Reverse-Shock in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, F J; Zheng, S J; Zhang, S N; Long, X; Aschenbach, B

    2015-01-01

    Thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants (SNRs) is usually dominated by the emission lines of the supernova (SN) ejecta, which are widely believed being crossed and thus heated by the inwards propagating reverse shock (RS). Previous works using imaging X-ray data have shown that the ejecta are heated by the RS by locating the peak emission region of the most recently ionized matter, which is found well separated towards the inside from the outermost boundary. Here we report the discovery of a systematic increase of the Sulfur (S) to Silicon (Si) K$\\alpha$ line flux ratio with radius in Tycho's SNR. This allows us, for the first time, to present continuous radial profiles of the ionization age and, furthermore, the elapsed ionization time since the onset of the ionization, which tells the propagation history of the ionization front into the SNR ejecta.

  4. Particle acceleration by shocks in supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, A R

    2013-01-01

    Particle acceleration occurs on a range of scales from AU in the heliosphere to Mpc in clusters of galaxies and to energies ranging from MeV to EeV. A number of acceleration processes have been proposed, but diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) is widely invoked as the predominant mechanism. DSA operates on all these scales and probably to the highest energies. DSA is simple, robust and predicts a universal spectrum. However there are still many unknowns regarding particle acceleration. This paper focuses on the particular question of whether supernova remnants (SNR) can produce the Galactic CR spectrum up to the knee at a few PeV. The answer depends in large part on the detailed physics of diffusive shock acceleration.

  5. Electrostatic Potentials in Supernova Remnant Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Baring, M G; Baring, Matthew G.; Summerlin, Errol J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the properties of supernova remnant shocks have been precipitated by the Chandra and XMM X-ray Observatories, and the HESS Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope in the TeV band. A critical problem for this field is the understanding of the relative degree of dissipative heating/energization of electrons and ions in the shock layer. This impacts the interpretation of X-ray observations, and moreover influences the efficiency of injection into the acceleration process, which in turn feeds back into the thermal shock layer energetics and dynamics. This paper outlines the first stages of our exploration of the role of charge separation potentials in non-relativistic electron-ion shocks where the inertial gyro-scales are widely disparate, using results from a Monte Carlo simulation. Charge density spatial profiles were obtained in the linear regime, sampling the inertial scales for both ions and electrons, for different magnetic field obliquities. These were readily integrated to a...

  6. Cosmic Ray Spectrum in Supernova Remnant Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Hyesung

    2010-01-01

    We perform kinetic simulations of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) in Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) expanding into a uniform interstellar medium (ISM). Bohm-like diffusion assumed, and simple models for Alfvenic drift and dissipation are adopted. Phenomenological models for thermal leakage injection are considered as well. We find that the preshock gas temperature is the primary parameter that governs the cosmic ray (CR) acceleration efficiency and energy spectrum, while the CR injection rate is a secondary parameter. For SNRs in the warm ISM, if the injection fraction is larger than 10^{-4}, the DSA is efficient enough to convert more than 20 % of the SN explosion energy into CRs and the accelerated CR spectrum exhibits a concave curvature flattening to E^{-1.6}. Such a flat source spectrum near the knee energy, however, may not be reconciled with the CR spectrum observed at Earth. On the other hand, SNRs in the hot ISM, with an injection fraction smaller than 10^{-4}, are inefficient accelerators with...

  7. Mechanism for strong shock electron heating in supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that collisionless shock waves propagating away from a supernova may be directly responsible for the 10 keV X-ray emission seen in supernova remnants. A sequence of plasma instabilities (Buneman and ion acoustic) between the reflected and/or transmitted ions and the background electrons at the foot of the shock front can give rise to rapid anomalous heating of electrons. Hybrid simulations of a perpendicular collisionless shock are presented to demonstrate that this heating can arise within a self-consistently computed shock structure. 15 references

  8. Shocks and Particle Acceleration in Supernova Remnants: Observational Features

    OpenAIRE

    Vink, Jacco

    2003-01-01

    The last ten years a number of observational advances have substantially increased our knowledge of shock phenomena in supernova remnants. This progress has mainly been made possible by the recent improvements in X-ray and Gamma-ray instrumentation. It has become clear that some shell-type supernova remnants, e.g. SN 1006, have X-ray emission dominated by synchrotron radiation, proving that electrons are accelerated up to 100 TeV. This is still an order of magnitude below 3E...

  9. Collisionless shock and supernova remnant simulations on VULCAN

    OpenAIRE

    Woolsey, Nc; Abou Ali, Y.; Evans, Rg; Grundy, Rad; Pestehe, Sj; Carolan, Pg; Conway, Nj; Dendy, Ro; Helander, P.; Mcclements, Kg; Kirk, Jg; Norreys, Pa; Notley, Mm; Rose, Sj

    2001-01-01

    The VULCAN [C. N. Danson et al., Opt. Commun. 103, 392 (1993)] laser at the UK Central Laser Facility is being used for laboratory-based simulations of collisionless shocks. By ensuring that key dimensionless parameters in the experiments have values similar to those of supernova remnants (SNRs), the hydrodynamics and magnetic field of the experiment are scaled to those of a SNR. This makes it possible to investigate experimentally the physics of collisionless magnetized shocks in such object...

  10. New insights on hadron acceleration at supernova remnant shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2013-01-01

    We outline the main features of nuclei acceleration at supernova remnant forward shocks, stressing the crucial role played by self-amplified magnetic fields in determining the energy spectrum observed in this class of sources. In particular, we show how the standard predictions of the non-linear theory of diffusive shock acceleration has to be completed with an additional ingredient, which we propose to be the enhanced velocity of the magnetic irregularities particles scatte...

  11. Destruction of Interstellar Dust in Evolving Supernova Remnant Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-04-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however, that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al., we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities ?200 km s?1 for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of ?2 compared to those of Jones et al., who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of ?3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of ?2–3 Gyr. These increases, while not able to resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step toward understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the ISM.

  12. Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, John C; Williams, Brian J; Blair, William P; Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Gaetz, Terrance J; Sankrit, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants, gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV $\\lambda$1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 micron and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the CIV intensity 10" behind the shock is too high compared to the intensities at the shock and 25" behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre-shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.

  13. Discovery of shocked CO within a supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shocked CO is seen within the supernova remnant IC 443, in association with the accelerated H I and OH clouds. The CO lines have velocity widths of 20 km s-1 and appear to be optically thin. Co column densities in the shocked gas, approx.1016 cm-2, are similar to those measured in the preshock cloud. The ratio of ground-state OH/CO column densities is enhanced by two orders of magnitude in one shocked region, as compared with preshock cloud

  14. Molecular Diagnostics of Supernova Remnant Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Lazendic, J. S.; Wardle, M.; Green, A. J.; Whiteoak, J. B.; Burton, M. G.

    2002-01-01

    We have undertaken a study of radio and infrared molecular-line emission towards several SNRs in order to investigate molecular signatures of SNR shocks, and to test models for OH maser production in SNRs. Here we present results on G349.7+0.2.

  15. Cosmic ray acceleration at perpendicular shocks in supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrand, Gilles; Shalchi, Andreas; Safi-Harb, Samar; Edmon, Paul; Mendygral, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to accelerate particles up to high energies through the mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Except for direct plasma simulations, all modeling efforts must rely on a given form of the diffusion coefficient, a key parameter that embodies the interactions of energetic charged particles with the magnetic turbulence. The so-called Bohm limit is commonly employed. In this paper we revisit the question of acceleration at perpendicular shocks, by employing a realistic model of perpendicular diffusion. Our coefficient reduces to a power-law in momentum for low momenta (of index $\\alpha$), but becomes independent of the particle momentum at high momenta (reaching a constant value $\\kappa_{\\infty}$ above some characteristic momentum $p_{\\rm c}$). We first provide simple analytical expressions of the maximum momentum that can be reached at a given time with this coefficient. Then we perform time-dependent numerical simulations to investigate the shape of the particle d...

  16. Supernova Remnant Shock - Molecular Cloud Interactions: Masers as tracers of hadronic particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Frail, Dale A

    2011-01-01

    We review the class of galactic supernova remnants which show strong interactions with molecular clouds, revealed through shock-excited hydroxyl masers. These remnants are preferentially found among the known GeV and TeV detections of supernova remnants. It has been argued that the masers trace out the sites of hadronic particle acceleration. We discuss what is known about the physical conditions of these shocked regions and we introduce a potential new maser tracer for identifying the sites of cosmic ray acceleration. This review includes a reasonably complete bibliography for researchers new to the topic of shock-excited masers and supernova remnants.

  17. Cosmic Ray Acceleration at Perpendicular Shocks in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Gilles; Danos, Rebecca J.; Shalchi, Andreas; Safi-Harb, Samar; Edmon, Paul; Mendygral, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to accelerate particles up to high energies through the mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Except for direct plasma simulations, all modeling efforts must rely on a given form of the diffusion coefficient, a key parameter that embodies the interactions of energetic charged particles with magnetic turbulence. The so-called Bohm limit is commonly employed. In this paper, we revisit the question of acceleration at perpendicular shocks, by employing a realistic model of perpendicular diffusion. Our coefficient reduces to a power law in momentum for low momenta (of index ?), but becomes independent of the particle momentum at high momenta (reaching a constant value ?? above some characteristic momentum p c). We first provide simple analytical expressions of the maximum momentum that can be reached at a given time with this coefficient. Then we perform time-dependent numerical simulations to investigate the shape of the particle distribution that can be obtained when the particle pressure back-reacts on the flow. We observe that for a given index ? and injection level, the shock modifications are similar for different possible values of p c, whereas the particle spectra differ markedly. Of particular interest, low values of p c tend to remove the concavity once thought to be typical of non-linear DSA, and result in steep spectra, as required by recent high-energy observations of Galactic SNRs.

  18. Dust sputtering by Reverse Shocks in Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Biman B.; Laskar, Tanmoy; Shull, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    We consider sputtering of dust grains, believed to be formed in cooling supernovae ejecta, under the influence of reverse shocks. In the regime of self-similar evolution of reverse shocks, we can follow the evolution of ejecta density and temperature analytically as a function of time in different parts of the ejecta, and calculate the sputtering rate of graphite and silicate grains embedded in the ejecta as they encounter the reverse shock. Through analytic (1D) calculation...

  19. Dust sputtering by Reverse Shocks in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    nath, Biman B; Shull, J Michael

    2008-01-01

    We consider sputtering of dust grains, believed to be formed in cooling supernovae ejecta, under the influence of reverse shocks. In the regime of self-similar evolution of reverse shocks, we can follow the evolution of ejecta density and temperature analytically as a function of time in different parts of the ejecta, and calculate the sputtering rate of graphite and silicate grains embedded in the ejecta as they encounter the reverse shock. Through analytic (1D) calculations, we find that a fraction of dust mass ($ 1\\hbox{--}20$% for silicates and %$\\le 5$% for graphites) can be sputtered by reverse shocks, the fraction varying with the grain size distribution and the steepness of the density profile of the ejecta mass. It is expected that many more grains will get sputtered in the region between the forward and reverse shocks, so that our analytical results provide a lower limit to the destroyed fraction of dust mass.

  20. On cosmic-ray production efficiency at supernova remnant shocks propagating into realistic diffuse interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Shimoda, Jiro; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo; Bamba, Aya; Vink, Jacco

    2014-01-01

    Using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations, we show that the efficiency of cosmic-ray (CR) production at supernova remnants (SNRs) is over-predicted if it is estimated based on proper motion measurements of H$\\alpha$ filaments in combination with shock-jump conditions. Density fluctuations of upstream medium make shock waves rippled and oblique almost everywhere. The kinetic energy of the shock wave is transfered into that of downstream turbulence as well as thermal energy which is related to the shock velocity component normal to the shock surface. In our case, the apparent efficiency goes up as high as $10\\sim40\\ \\%$ in spite of no CR acceleration.

  1. Particle simulation study of electron heating by counterstreaming ion beams ahead of supernova remnant shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Dieckmann, M. E.; Bret, A.; Sarri, G.; Alvaro, E. Perez; Kourakis, I.; Borghesi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The growth and saturation of Buneman-type instabilities is examined with a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation for parameters that are representative for the foreshock region of fast supernova remnant (SNR) shocks. A dense ion beam and the electrons correspond to the upstream plasma and a fast ion beam to the shock-reflected ions. The purpose of the 2D simulation is to identify the nonlinear saturation mechanisms, the electron heating and potential secondary instabilities that...

  2. An Integral View of Balmer-dominated Shocks in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Nikoli?, Sladjana; Heng, Kevin; Kupko, Daniel; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Aguerri, J Alfonso L; Serra, Joan Font; Beckman, John

    2013-01-01

    We present integral-field spectroscopic observations with the VIMOS-IFU at the VLT of fast (2000-3000 km/s) Balmer-dominated shocks surrounding the northwestern rim of the remnant of supernova 1006. The high spatial and spectral resolution of the instrument enable us to show that the physical characteristics of the shocks exhibit a strong spatial variation over few atomic scale lengths across 133 sky locations. Our results point to the presence of a population of non-thermal protons (10-100 keV) which might well be the seed particles for generating high-energy cosmic rays. We also present observations of Tycho's supernova remnant taken with the narrow-band tunable filter imager OSIRIS at the GTC and the Fabry-Perot interferometer GHaFaS at the WHT to resolve respectively the broad and narrow H\\alpha\\ lines across a large part of the remnant.

  3. The Role of Diffusive Shock Acceleration on Nonequilibrium Ionization in Supernova Remnant Shocks II: Emitted Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Patnaude, Daniel J; Raymond, John C; Ellison, Donald C

    2010-01-01

    We present a grid of nonequilibrium ionization models for the X-ray spectra from supernova remnants undergoing efficient diffusive shock acceleration. The calculation follows the hydrodynamics of the blast wave as well as the time-dependent ionization of the plasma behind the shock. The ionization state is passed to a plasma emissivity code to compute the thermal X-ray emission, which is combined with the emission from nonthermal synchrotron emission to produce a self-consistent model for the thermal and nonthermal emission from cosmic-ray dominated shocks. We show how plasma diagnostics such as the G'-ratio of He-like ions, defined as the ratio of the sum of the intercombination, forbidden, and satellite lines to the resonance line, can vary with acceleration efficiency, and discuss how the thermal X-ray emission, when the time-dependent ionization is not calculated self-consistently with the hydrodynamics, can differ from the thermal X-ray emission from models which do account for the hydrodynamics. Finally...

  4. APEX observations of supernova remnants - I. Non-stationary MHD-shocks in W44

    CERN Document Server

    Anderl, S; Güsten, R

    2014-01-01

    Aims. The interaction of supernova remnants (SNRs) with molecular clouds gives rise to strong molecular emission in the far-IR and sub-mm wavelength regimes. The application of MHD shock models in the interpretation of this line emission can yield valuable information on the energetic and chemical impact of supernova remnants. Methods. New mapping observations with the APEX telescope in CO (3-2), (4-3), (6-5), (7-6) and 13CO (3-2) towards two regions in the supernova remnant W44 are presented. Integrated intensities are extracted on five different positions, corresponding to local maxima of CO emission. The integrated intensities are compared to the outputs of a grid of models, which combine an MHD shock code with a radiative transfer module based on the large velocity gradient approximation. Results. All extracted spectra show ambient and line-of-sight components as well as blue- and red-shifted wings indicating the presence of shocked gas. Basing the shock model fits only on the highest-lying transitions th...

  5. The Role of Diffusive Shock Acceleration on Non-Equilibrium Ionization in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Patnaude, Daniel J; Slane, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    We present results of semi-analytic calculations which show clear evidence for changes in the non-equilibrium ionization behind a supernova remnant forward shock undergoing efficient diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). The efficient acceleration of particles (i.e., cosmic rays) lowers the shock temperature and raises the density of the shocked gas, thus altering the ionization state of the plasma in comparison to the test particle approximation where cosmic rays gain an insignificant fraction of the shock energy. The differences between the test particle and efficient acceleration cases are substantial and occur for both slow and fast temperature equilibration rates: in cases of higher acceleration efficiency, particular ion states are more populated at lower electron temperatures. We also present results which show that, in the efficient shock acceleration case, higher ionization fractions are reached noticeably closer to the shock front than in the test-particle case, clearly indicating that DSA may enhance...

  6. Electron Heating, Magnetic Field Amplification, and Cosmic Ray Precursor Length at Supernova Remnant Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, J. M.; Hwang, U.; Ghavamian, P.; Rakowski, C. E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the observability, by direct and indirect means, of a shock precursor arising from magnetic field amplification by cosmic rays. We estimate the depth of such a precursor under conditions of nonresonant amplification, which provides magnetic field strengths comparable to those inferred for supernova remnants. Magnetic field generation occurs as the streaming cosmic rays induce a plasma return current, and may be quenched either by nonresonant or resonant channels. In the former case, the cosmic rays become magnetized and amplification saturates at higher magnetic fields. The precursor can extend out to 10^17 - 10^18 cm and is potentially resolvable in Galactic supernova remnants. If the saturation occurs instead by resonant channels, the cosmic rays are scattered by turbulence and the precursor length will likely be too small to be resolvable with current instruments. The dependence of precursor length on shock velocity has implications for electron heating. In the case of resonant saturation, this dependence is similar to that in the more familiar resonantly generated shock precursor, which when expressed in terms of the cosmic ray diffusion coefficient ? and shock velocity v_s is ? /v_s. In the nonresonantly saturated case, the precursor length declines less quickly with increasing v_s. Where precursor length proportional to 1/v_s gives constant electron heating, as observed for instance by Ghavamian et al. and van Adelsberg et al., this increased precursor length would be expected to lead to higher electron temperatures at faster supernova remnant shocks than studied by these previous works as an indirect observation of the shock precursor. Existing results and new data analysis of SN 1006 and Cas A suggests some observational support for this idea. Work supported by NASA ADAP program and by basic research funds of the Office of Naval Research.

  7. Time-dependent Diffusive Shock Acceleration in Slow Supernova Remnant Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaping; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2015-02-01

    Recent gamma-ray observations show that middle-aged supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds can be sources of both GeV and TeV emission. Models involving reacceleration of preexisting cosmic rays (CRs) in the ambient medium and direct interaction between SNR and molecular clouds have been proposed to explain the observed gamma-ray emission. For the reacceleration process, standard diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) theory in the test particle limit produces a steady-state particle spectrum that is too flat compared to observations, which suggests that the high-energy part of the observed spectrum has not yet reached a steady state. We derive a time-dependent DSA solution in the test particle limit for situations involving reacceleration of preexisting CRs in the preshock medium. Simple estimates with our time-dependent DSA solution plus a molecular cloud interaction model can reproduce the overall shape of the spectra of IC 443 and W44 from GeV to TeV energies through pure ?0-decay emission. We allow for a power-law momentum dependence of the diffusion coefficient, finding that a power-law index of 0.5 is favored.

  8. Electron Heating, Magnetic Field Amplification, and Cosmic-Ray Precursor Length at Supernova Remnant Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, J. Martin; Hwang, Una; Ghavamian, Parviz; Rakowski, Cara

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the observability, by direct and indirect means, of a shock precursor arising from magnetic field amplification by cosmic rays. We estimate the depth of such a precursor under conditions of nonresonant amplification, which can provide magnetic field strengths comparable to those inferred for supernova remnants. Magnetic field generation occurs as the streaming cosmic rays induce a plasma return current, and it may be quenched by either nonresonant or resonant channels. In the case of nonresonant saturation, the cosmic rays become magnetized and amplification saturates at higher magnetic fields. The precursor can extend out to 1017-1018 cm and is potentially detectable. If resonant saturation occurs, the cosmic rays are scattered by turbulence and the precursor length will likely be much smaller. The dependence of precursor length on shock velocity has implications for electron heating. In the case of resonant saturation, this dependence is similar to that in the more familiar resonantly generated shock precursor, which when expressed in terms of the cosmic-ray diffusion coefficient kappav and shock velocity vs is kappav/vs . In the nonresonantly saturated case, the precursor length declines less quickly with increasing vs . Where precursor length proportional to 1/vs gives constant electron heating, this increased precursor length could be expected to lead to higher electron temperatures for nonresonant amplification. This should be expected at faster supernova remnant shocks than studied by previous works. Existing results and new data analysis of SN 1006 and Cas A suggest some observational support for this idea.

  9. Influence of Thermalisation on Electron Injection in Supernova Remnant Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Petruk, O.; Bandiera, R.

    2006-01-01

    Within a test-particle description of the acceleration process in parallel nonrelativistic shocks, we present an analytic treatment of the electron injection. We estimate the velocity distribution of the injected electrons as the product of the post-shock thermal distribution of electrons times the probability for electrons with a given velocity to be accelerated; the injection efficiency is then evaluated as the integral of this velocity distribution. We estimate the probab...

  10. Probing the Reverse Shock in an Oxygen-Rich Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetz, Terrancej.

    We will use FUSE to examine locations around the X-ray bright ring seen in the high resolution Chandra X-ray observations of the oxygen-rich supernova remnant 1E0102.2-7219. Our three FUSE MDRS pointings will sample regions with differing distributions of OIIIf emission and X-ray emission (largely OVII and OVIII). An additional off-target pointing will assess the continuum scattered from stars in the nearby HII region, allowing for a more reliable background subtraction. The resulting detailed information about the distribution and kinematics of OVI relative to the other components will show whether the OVI contribution is associated more with the X-ray ring (an ionizing reverse shock) or with the OIIIf filamentation radiative shocks driven into denser ejecta). Lastly, an enumeration of the mass contributions from the various ionization stages will allow a more reliable determination of the mass of oxygen in the remnant.

  11. Influence of Thermalisation on Electron Injection in Supernova Remnant Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Petruk, O

    2006-01-01

    Within a test-particle description of the acceleration process in parallel nonrelativistic shocks, we present an analytic treatment of the electron injection. We estimate the velocity distribution of the injected electrons as the product of the post-shock thermal distribution of electrons times the probability for electrons with a given velocity to be accelerated; the injection efficiency is then evaluated as the integral of this velocity distribution. We estimate the probability of a particle to be injected as that of going back to the upstream region at least once. This is the product of the probability of returning to the shock from downstream times that of recrossing the shock from downstream to upstream. The latter probability is expected to be sensitive to details of the process of electron thermalisation within the (collisionless) shock, a process that is poorly known. In order to include this effect, for our treatment we use results of a numerical, fully kinetic study, by Bykov & Uvarov (1999). Ac...

  12. 3-D Model of Broadband Emission from Supernova Remnants Undergoing Non-linear Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Ellison, Donald C.

    2008-07-02

    We present a 3-dimensional model of supernova remnants (SNRs) where the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant is modeled consistently with nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration occurring at the outer blast wave. The model includes particle escape and diffusion outside of the forward shock, and particle interactions with arbitrary distributions of external ambient material, such as molecular clouds. We include synchrotron emission and cooling, bremsstrahlung radiation, neutral pion production, inverse-Compton (IC), and Coulomb energy-loss. Boardband spectra have been calculated for typical parameters including dense regions of gas external to a 1000 year old SNR. In this paper, we describe the details of our model but do not attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. We also do not include magnetic field amplification (MFA), even though this effect may be important in some young remnants. In this first presentation of the model we don't attempt a detailed fit to any specific remnant. Our aim is to develop a flexible platform, which can be generalized to include effects such as MFA, and which can be easily adapted to various SNR environments, including Type Ia SNRs, which explode in a constant density medium, and Type II SNRs, which explode in a pre-supernova wind. When applied to a specific SNR, our model will predict cosmic-ray spectra and multi-wavelength morphology in projected images for instruments with varying spatial and spectral resolutions. We show examples of these spectra and images and emphasize the importance of measurements in the hard X-ray, GeV, and TeV gamma-ray bands for investigating key ingredients in the acceleration mechanism, and for deducing whether or not TeV emission is produced by IC from electrons or pion-decay from protons.

  13. Reverse and Forward Shock X-ray Emission in an Evolutionary Model of Supernova Remnants undergoing Efficient Diffusive Shock Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Ellison, Donald C; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Slane, Patrick O

    2014-01-01

    We present new models for the forward and reverse shock thermal X-ray emission from core-collapse and Type Ia supernova remnants (SNRs) which include the efficient production of cosmic rays via non-linear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Our CR-hydro-NEI code takes into account non-equilibrium ionization (NEI), hydrodynamic effects of efficient CR production on the SNR evolution, and collisional temperature equilibration among heavy ions and electrons in both the shocked supernova (SN) ejecta and the shocked circumstellar material. While X-ray emission is emphasized here, our code self-consistently determines both thermal and non-thermal broadband emission from radio to TeV energies. We include Doppler broadening of the spectral lines by thermal motions of the ions and by the remnant expansion. We study, in general terms, the roles which the ambient environment, progenitor models, temperature equilibration, and processes related to DSA have on the thermal and non-thermal spectra. The study of X-ray line em...

  14. Supernova Remnant SNR 0509 lithograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Hubble Space Telescope image shows what appears to be a delicate bubble of gas floating serenely in space. In actuality, the bubble is the visible remnant of a powerful supernova explosion called SNR 0509. The bubble was formed from gas being swept up by the expanding shock wave. In the accompanying educational activity, In Search of ... Supernova Remnants, students investigate supernova explosions and remnants through a level 1 inquiry activity using the images and text from the lithograph and other resources. A level 1 inquiry activity can help prepare students to become independent thinkers.

  15. OH Masers and Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Wardle, Mark; Mcdonnell, Korinne

    2012-01-01

    OH(1720 MHz) masers are created by the interaction of supernova remnants with molecular clouds. These masers are pumped by collisions in warm, shocked molecular gas with OH column densities in the range 10^{16}--10^{17} cm^{-2}. Excitation calculations suggest that inversion of the 6049 MHz OH line may occur at the higher column densities that have been inferred from main-line absorption studies of supernova remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. OH(6049 MHz) masers have th...

  16. Electron Heating, Magnetic Field Amplification, and Cosmic Ray Precursor Length at Supernova Remnant Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Laming, J Martin; Ghavamian, Parviz; Rakowski, Cara

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the observability, by direct and indirect means, of a shock precursor arising from magnetic field amplification by cosmic rays. We estimate the depth of such a precursor under conditions of nonresonant amplification, which can provide magnetic field strengths comparable to those inferred for supernova remnants. Magnetic field generation occurs as the streaming cosmic rays induce a plasma return current, and may be quenched either by nonresonant or resonant channels. In the case of nonresonant saturation, the cosmic rays become magnetized and amplification saturates at higher magnetic fields. The precursor can extend out to $10^{17} - 10^{18}$ cm and is potentially detectable. If resonant saturation occurs, the cosmic rays are scattered by turbulence and the precursor length will likely be much smaller. The dependence of precursor length on shock velocity has implications for electron heating. In the case of resonant saturation, this dependence is similar to that in the more familiar resonantly ...

  17. Supernova Remnants in Molecular Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier, Roger A.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular clouds are known to be clumpy, with dense molecular clumps occupying only a few percent of the volume. A supernova remnant then evolves primarily in the interclump medium, and becomes radiative at a radius of about 6 pc, forming a shell that is magnetically supported. When this shell interacts with the dense clumps, the molecular shock fronts are driven by a considerable overpressure compared to the pressure in the rest of the remnant. Observations of the remnants ...

  18. Time-dependent Diffusive Shock Acceleration in Slow Supernova Remnant Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Xiaping

    2014-01-01

    Recent gamma ray observations show that middle aged supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds can be sources of both GeV and TeV emission. Models involving re-acceleration of pre-existing cosmic rays in the ambient medium and direct interaction between supernova remnant and molecular clouds have been proposed to explain the observed gamma ray emission. For the re-acceleration process, standard DSA theory in the test particle limit produces a steady state particle spectrum that is too flat compared to observations, which suggests that the high energy part of the observed spectrum has not yet reached a steady state. We derive a time dependent DSA solution in the test particle limit for situations involving re-acceleration of pre-existing cosmic rays in the preshock medium. Simple estimates with our time dependent DSA solution plus a molecular cloud interaction model can reproduce the overall shape of the spectra of IC 443 and W44 from GeV to TeV energies through pure $\\pi^0$-decay emission. We allow ...

  19. H I ZEEMAN EXPERIMENTS OF SHOCKED ATOMIC GAS IN TWO SUPERNOVA REMNANTS INTERACTING WITH MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have carried out observations of Zeeman splitting of the H I 21 cm emission line from shocked atomic gas in the supernova remnants (SNRs) IC 443 and W51C using the Arecibo telescope. The observed shocked atomic gas is expanding at ?100 km s-1 and this is the first Zeeman experiment of such fast-moving, shocked atomic gas. The emission lines, however, are very broad and the systematic error due to baseline curvature hampers an accurate measurement of field strengths. We derive an upper limit of 100-150 ?G on the strength of the line-of-sight field component. These two SNRs are interacting with molecular clouds, but the derived upper limits are considerably smaller than the field strengths expected from a strongly shocked dense cloud. We discuss the implications and conclude that either the magnetic field within the telescope beam is mostly randomly oriented or the high-velocity H I emission is from a shocked interclump medium of relatively low density.

  20. Turbulence and particle acceleration in collisionless supernovae remnant shocks: II- Cosmic-ray transport

    CERN Document Server

    Marcowith, A; Pelletier, G; Marcowith, Alexandre; Lemoine, Martin; Pelletier, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Supernovae remnant shock waves could be at the origin of cosmic rays up to energies in excess of the knee ($E\\simeq3\\cdot 10^{15} $eV) if the magnetic field is efficiently amplified by the streaming of accelerated particles in the shock precursor. This paper follows up on a previous paper \\citep{pell05} which derived the properties of the MHD turbulence so generated, in particular its anisotropic character, its amplitude and its spectrum. In the present paper, we calculate the diffusion coefficients, also accounting for compression through the shock, and show that the predicted three-dimensional turbulence spectrum $k_\\perp S_{3\\rm d}(k_\\parallel,k_\\perp)\\propto k_\\parallel^{-1}k_\\perp^{-\\alpha}$ (with $k_\\parallel$ and $k_\\perp$ the wavenumber components along and perpendicular to the shock normal) generally leads to Bohm diffusion in the parallel direction. However, if the anisotropy is constrained by a relation of the form $k_\\parallel \\propto k_\\perp^{2/3}$, which arises when the turbulent energy cascade ...

  1. A Generalized Model of Nonlinear Diffusive Shock Acceleration Coupled to an Evolving Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2012-01-01

    To better model the efficient production of cosmic rays (CRs) in supernova remnants (SNRs) with the associated coupling between CR production and SNR dynamics, we have generalized an existing cr-hydro-NEI code (i.e., Ellison et al. 2012) to include the following processes: (1) an explicit calculation of the upstream precursor structure including the position dependent flow speed, density, temperature, and magnetic field strength; (2) a momentum and space dependent CR diffusion coefficient; (3) an explicit calculation of magnetic field amplification (MFA); (4) calculation of the maximum CR momentum using the amplified magnetic field; (5) a finite Alfven speed for the particle scattering centers; and (6) the ability to accelerate a superthermal seed population of CRs as well as the ambient thermal plasma. While a great deal of work has been done modeling SNRs, most work has concentrated on either the continuum emission from relativistic electrons or ions, or the thermal emission from the shock heated plasma. Ou...

  2. Broad Balmer line emission and cosmic ray acceleration efficiency in supernova remnant shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G; Bandiera, R; Amato, E

    2013-01-01

    Balmer emission may be a powerful diagnostic tool to test the paradigm of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in young supernova remnant (SNR) shocks. The width of the broad Balmer line is a direct indicator of the downstream plasma temperature. In case of efficient particle acceleration an appreciable fraction of the total kinetic energy of the plasma is channeled into CRs, therefore the downstream temperature decreases and so does the broad Balmer line width. This width also depends on the level of thermal equilibration between ions and neutral hydrogen atoms in the downstream. Since in general in young SNR shocks only a few charge exchange (CE) reactions occur before ionization, equilibration between ions and neutrals is not reached, and a kinetic description of the neutrals is required in order to properly compute Balmer emission. We provide a method for the calculation of Balmer emission using a self-consistent description of the shock structure in the presence of neutrals and CRs. We use a recently developed s...

  3. KINEMATICS OF SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS ADJACENT TO THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT W44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sashida, Tomoro; Oka, Tomoharu; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Aono, Kazuya; Matsumura, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Nagai, Makoto; Seta, Masumichi [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)

    2013-09-01

    We mapped molecular gas toward the supernova remnant W44 in the HCO{sup +} J = 1-0 line with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and in the CO J = 3-2 line with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope. High-velocity emission wings were detected in both lines over the area where the radio shell of W44 overlaps with the molecular cloud in the plane of the sky. We found that the average velocity distributions of the wing emission can be fit by a uniform expansion model. The best-fit expansion velocities are 12.2 {+-} 0.3 km s{sup -1} and 13.2 {+-} 0.2 km s{sup -1} in HCO{sup +} and CO, respectively. The non-wing CO J = 3-2 component is also fit by the same model with an expansion velocity of 4.7 {+-} 0.1 km s{sup -1}. This component might be dominated by a post-shock higher-density region where the shock velocity had slowed down. The kinetic energy of the shocked molecular gas is estimated to be (3.5 {+-} 1.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg. Adding this and the energy of the previously identified H I shell, we conclude that (1.2 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 50} erg has been converted into gas kinetic energy from the initial baryonic energy of the W44 supernova. We also found ultra-high-velocity CO J = 3-2 wing emission with a velocity width of {approx}100 km s{sup -1} at (l, b) = (+34. Degree-Sign 73, -0. Degree-Sign 47). The origin of this extremely high velocity wing is a mystery.

  4. Supernovae and supernova remnants at low frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    The importance of low-frequency observations of the intrinsic radio emission from supernovae and their remnants is discussed, with special attention given to an example of a peculiarity at low frequencies of the 38-MHz 'flare' observed from Cas A in the mid-1970s. It is suggested that, for explosions from supernovae in a low-density wind, it may be possible to follow the absorption over a large range of shock front radii. Absorption local to the remnants can occur in H II regions created by the supernovae or their progenitors and in the cooling layers of radiative shock fronts, or in the ionized interstellar medium. Observations of emission as well as of absorption are necessary to determine the location of the ionized gas.

  5. Analytical solutions for energy spectra of electrons accelerated by nonrelativistic shock-waves in shell type supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Zirakashvili, V. N.; Aharonian, F.

    2006-01-01

    %context {Recent observations of hard X-rays and very high energy gamma-rays from a number of young shell type supernova remnants indicate the importance of detailed quantitative studies of energy spectra of relativistic electrons formed via diffusive shock acceleration accompanied by intense nonthermal emission through synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering.} %aim {The aim of this work was derivation of exact asymptotic solutions of the kinetic equation which ...

  6. GALACTIC AND EXTRAGALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AS SITES OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Sasaki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Supernova remnants, owing to their strong shock waves, are likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Studies of supernova remnants in X-rays and gamma rays provide us with new insights into the acceleration of particles to high energies. This paper reviews the basic physics of supernova remnant shocks and associated particle acceleration and radiation processes. In addition, the study of supernova remnant populations in nearby galaxies and the implications for Galactic cosmic ray distribution are discussed.

  7. Observability and diagnostics in the X-ray band of shock-cloud interactions in supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, S; Miceli, M; Zhou, X; Reale, F; Peres, G

    2010-01-01

    X-ray emitting features originating from the interaction of supernova shock waves with small interstellar gas clouds are revealed in many X-ray observations of evolved supernova remnants (e.g. Cygnus Loop and Vela), but their interpretation is not straightforward. We develop a self-consistent method for the analysis and interpretation of shock-cloud interactions in middle-aged supernova remnants, which can provide the key parameters of the system and the role of relevant physical effects like the thermal conduction, without the need to run ad-hoc numerical simulations and to bother of morphology details. We explore all the possible values of the shock speed and cloud density contrast relevant to middle-aged SNRs with a set of hydrodynamic simulations of shock-cloud interaction, including the effects of thermal conduction and radiative cooling. From the simulations, we synthesize spatially and spectrally resolved focal-plane data as they would be collected with XMM-Newton/EPIC, an X-ray instrument commonly use...

  8. Production of Magnetic Turbulence by Cosmic Rays Drifting Upstream of Supernova Remnant Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroman, Thomas; Niemiec, Jacek; Pohl, Martin; Nishikawa, Ken-ichi

    2008-01-01

    I will present results of our recent two- and three-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations of magnetic-turbulence production by cosmic-ray ions drifting upstream of supernova remnant shocks. These studies' aim is twofold: test recent predictions of strong amplification in short wavelength, non-resonant wave modes, and study the subsequent evolution of the magnetic turbulence, including its backreaction on cosmic-ray trajectories. We confirm that the drifting cosmic rays give rise to a turbulent magnetic field, but show that an oblique filamentary mode grows more rapidly than the non-resonant parallel modes found in analytical theory. The field perturbations grow more slowly than estimated using a quasi-linear analytical approach for the parallel plane-wave mode, and saturate in amplitude at deltaB/B approximately equal to 1. The backreaction of the magnetic turbulence on the particles leads to an alignment of the bulk-flow velocities of the cosmic rays and the background medium. This is an essential characteristic of cosmic ray-modified shocks: the upstream flow speed is continuously changed by the cosmic rays. The reduction of relative drift between cosmic rays and background medium accounts for the saturation of the instability at only moderate magnetic-field amplitudes. It is possible that the prolonged magnetic field growth observed in recent MHD simulations results from a cosmic-ray current assumed to be constant and thus immune to the backreaction from the turbulent field. We speculate that the parallel plane-wave mode found in analytical treatments very quickly leads co filamentation, which we observe in our PIC modeling and is also apparent in the MHD simulations.

  9. High Energy Emission from Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Vink, Jacco

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses several aspects of current research on high energy emission from supernova remnants, covering the following main topics: 1) The recent evidence for magnetic field amplification near supernova remnant shocks, which makes that cosmic rays are more efficiently accelerated than previously thought. 2) The evidence that ions and electrons in some remnants have very different temperatures, and only equilibrate through Coulomb interactions. 3) The evidence that ...

  10. Shocks, Seyferts, and the Supernova Remnant Connection: A Chandra Observation of the Circinus Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, B.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Croston, J. H.; Evans, D. A.; Kharb, P.; Kraft, R. P.; Lenc, E.

    2012-10-01

    We analyze new Chandra observations of the nearest (D = 4 Mpc) Seyfert 2 active galaxy, Circinus, and match them to pre-existing radio, infrared, and optical data to study the kpc-scale emission. The proximity of Circinus allows us to observe in striking detail the structure of the radio lobes, revealing for the first time edge-brightened emission in both X-rays and radio. After considering various other possible scenarios, we show that this extended emission in Circinus is most likely caused by a jet-driven outflow, which is driving shells of strongly shocked gas into the halo of the host galaxy. In this context, we estimate Mach numbers {M} \\sim 2.7-3.6 and {M} \\sim 2.8-5.3 for the W and E shells, respectively. We derive temperatures of 0.74+0.06 -0.05 keV and 0.8-1.8 keV for the W and E shells and an expansion velocity of ~900-950 km s-1. We estimate that the total energy (thermal and kinetic) involved in creating both shells is ~2 × 1055 erg, and their age is ~106 yr. Comparing these results with those we previously obtained for Centaurus A, NGC 3801, and Mrk 6, we show that these parameters scale approximately with the radio power of the parent active galactic nucleus (AGN). The spatial coincidence between the X-ray and edge-brightened radio emission in Circinus resembles the morphology of some supernova remnant shocks. This parallel has been expected for AGNs but has never been observed before. We investigate what underlying mechanisms both types of systems may have in common, arguing that, in Circinus, the edge-brightening in the shells may be accounted for by a B field enhancement caused by shock compression but do not preclude some local particle acceleration. These results can be extrapolated to other low-power systems, particularly those with late-type hosts.

  11. OH Masers and Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, Mark

    2012-01-01

    OH(1720 MHz) masers are created by the interaction of supernova remnants with molecular clouds. These masers are pumped by collisions in warm, shocked molecular gas with OH column densities in the range 10^{16}--10^{17} cm^{-2}. Excitation calculations suggest that inversion of the 6049 MHz OH line may occur at the higher column densities that have been inferred from main-line absorption studies of supernova remnants with the Green Bank Telescope. OH(6049 MHz) masers have therefore been proposed as a complementary indicator of remnant-cloud interaction. This motivated searches for 6049 MHz maser emission from supernova remnants using the Parkes 63 m and Effelsberg 100 m telescopes, and the Australia Telescope Compact Array. A total of forty-one remnants have been examined by one or more of these surveys, but without success. To check the accuracy of the OH column densities inferred from the single-dish observations we modelled OH absorption at 1667 MHz observed with the Very Large Array towards three supernov...

  12. Radio Emission from Supernova Remnants: Implications for Post-Shock Magnetic Field Amplification and the Magnetic Fields of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Todd A; Murray, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Using observations from the literature, we show that the non-thermal radio luminosity (L) of supernova remnants (SNRs) is a strong function of the average gas surface density (Sigma) of the galaxy in which the remnants reside, from normal spirals to luminous starbursts. We combine a simple theory for electron cooling in SNRs with the observed radio luminosities to estimate the remnant magnetic field strength (B_SNR): the correlation between L and Sigma implies that B_SNR also increases with Sigma. We explore two interpretations of this correlation: (1) B_SNR is generated by post-shock magnetic field amplification, with B_SNR^2 proportional to Sigma and (2) B_SNR results from shock-compression of the ambient ISM magnetic field (B_ISM), with B_ISM being larger in denser galaxies. We find that shock compression is, on average, sufficient to produce the observed radio emission from SNRs in the densest starbursts; amplification of post-shock magnetic fields is not required. By contrast, in normal spirals post-shoc...

  13. Progenitors of Recombining Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Moriya, Takashi J.

    2012-01-01

    Usual supernova remnants have either ionizing plasma or plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium, i.e., the ionization temperature is lower than or equal to the electron temperature. However, the existence of recombining supernova remnants, i.e., supernova remnants with the ionization temperature higher than the electron temperature, is recently confirmed. One suggested way to have recombining plasma in a supernova remnant is to have a dense circumstellar medium at the t...

  14. Efficiency of charged-particle acceleration by shocks in supernova remnants and in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic-ray acceleration by shocks in supernova envelopes can explain certain properties of the radio emission of old SNRs. The pressure of the accelerated particles should contribute little to the envelope dynamics. An estimate is obtained for the level of turbulence required for this acceleration mechanism to operate in solar flares

  15. Supernova remnant morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, R. N.

    1994-04-01

    The morphology of supernova remnants is principally determined by two components, a shell formed by interaction of the supernova ejecta with the surrounding medium, and a nebula which is powered directly by the associated pulsar. This nebula, often called a 'plerion', is usually located within the shell. These two components appear to evolve independently; in many cases there is no detectable plerion and in a few cases, the Crab Nebula being the most notable example, there is no detectable shell. A 'theoretician's supernova remnant' has spherical symmetry, but observers know that this is rarely the case. There are four main possible sources of non-sphericity, namely, the surrounding interstellar medium, the circumstellar medium, the surpernova explosion, and the associated pulsar. Supernovae often occured in active star formation regions and these regions often have complex networks of cavities blown by strong stellar winds. A supernova remnant expanding in this environment can consist of a several shell-like structure. IC443 is a good example (Braun and Strom, 1986, Astron. Astrophys., 1264, 193). The enhancement of Supernova remnant (SNR) shell brightness toward the Galactic plane (Caswell, 1977, Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust., 3, 130) is further evidence of the influence of the large-scale structure of the interstellar medium. One of the most common forms of non-sphericity is a bilateral symmetry attributed to a barrel-shaped enhancement of the shell (Kesteven and Caswell, 1987, Astron. Astrophys., 183, 118). There is good evidence that this and the associated bi-annular structure often obseved (Manchester, 1987, Astron. Astrophys., 171, 205) ar due to structure in the circumstellar material resulting from mass loss from the pre-supernova star (Storey et al., 1992, Astron. Astrophys., 265, 752). non-spherical, resulting in corresponding non-spherical enhancements of the synchrotron emission. the synchrotron emission.

  16. Missing supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discrepancy between supernova explosion rates estimated from statistics of pulsars and of supernova remnants (SNRs) is well conciliated, if we consider that a considerable fraction of SNRs is missing. As the causes of missing SNRs, we have examined two cases, i.e., the supernova explosions have occurred in a hot, rarefied ambient matter or within stellar wind bubbles. For both cases, usual shell-forming radio SNRs are not expected at the stage, when their radii are smaller than --30 pc. From these, we predict the supernova rate would be (2 -- 5) x r sub(SN)sup(ob), with r sub(SN)sup(ob) being the rate determined from the counts of radio SNRs. This rate is not inconsistent with the one determined from pulsar statistics. Some other problems on missing SNRs will also be discussed. (author)

  17. A Hubble Space Telescope Measurement of the Forward Shock Velocity of the Supernova Remnant 0509-67.5 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Luke; Hughes, J. P.; Eriksen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Using two Hubble Space Telescope narrow-band H? images of the supernova remnant 0509-67.5 taken ~1 year apart we determine the proper motion expansion of the remnant’s forward shock. The first epoch image was obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys, while the second epoch was taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. The supernova remnant 0509-67.5 is a rare specimen in that it is a Balmer-dominated remnant, and its light echoes have shown spectra showing it to be of Ia origin and likely analogous to a SN1991T-type explosion (Rest et al. 2008). After examining the expansion velocity versus position angle we find the remnant’s forward shock to have a velocity of 6,500±200 km/s. We also examine proper motions of the forward shock where deep optical spectroscopy had been previously obtained by Helder et al. 2010 in the north-east and south-west of the remnant, and directly compare the width (FWHM) (3,900±900 km/s) of the broad H? emission line to the forward shock velocity. Comparing these values, along with the measured broad-to-narrow ratio of 0.08±0.02 (Helder et al. 2010), allows us to constrain the degree of equilibration, ?, between shocked electrons and protons (Te,shocked/Tp,shocked) in the NE to be analysis the remnant's age is between 230 and 390 years and it is expanding into an ambient medium with a density in the range 0.04-0.38 cm^{-3}.

  18. Supernova Remnants and GLAST

    OpenAIRE

    Slane, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    It has long been speculated that supernova remnants represent a major source of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Observations over the past decade have ceremoniously unveiled direct evidence of particle acceleration in SNRs to energies approaching the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum. Nonthermal X-ray emission from shell-type SNRs reveals multi-TeV electrons, and the dynamical properties of several SNRs point to efficient acceleration of ions. Observations of TeV gamma-ray emission...

  19. New Evidence for Efficient Collisionless Heating of Electrons at the Reverse Shock of a Young Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Badenes, Carles; Hughes, John P.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Foster, Adam R.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Petre, Robert; Slane, Patrick O.; Smith, Randall K.

    2013-01-01

    Although collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysics, certain key aspects of them are not well understood. In particular, the process known as collisionless electron heating, whereby electrons are rapidly energized at the shock front, is one of the main open issues in shock physics. Here, we present the first clear evidence for efficient collisionless electron heating at the reverse shock of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR), revealed by Fe K diagnostics using high-quality X-ray data obtained by the Suzaku satellite. We detect K beta (3p yields 1s) fluorescence emission from low-ionization Fe ejecta excited by energetic thermal electrons at the reverse shock front, which peaks at a smaller radius than Fe K alpha (2p yields 1s) emission dominated by a relatively highly ionized component. Comparisons with our hydrodynamical simulations imply instantaneous electron heating to a temperature 1000 times higher than expected from Coulomb collisions alone. The unique environment of the reverse shock, which is propagating with a high Mach number into rarefied ejecta with a low magnetic field strength, puts strong constraints on the physical mechanism responsible for this heating and favors a cross-shock potential created by charge deflection at the shock front. Our sensitive observation also reveals that the reverse shock radius of this SNR is about 10% smaller than the previous measurement using the Fe K alpha morphology from the Chandra observations. Since strong Fe K beta fluorescence is expected only from low-ionization plasma where Fe ions still have many 3p electrons, this feature is key to diagnosing the plasma state and distribution of the immediate postshock ejecta in a young SNR.

  20. Cosmic ray ionisation of a molecular cloud shocked by the W28 supernova remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Vaupré, Solenn; Ceccarelli, C; Dubus, G; Gabici, S; Montmerle, T

    2014-01-01

    Cosmic rays are an essential ingredient in the evolution of the interstellar medium, as they dominate the ionisation of the dense molecular gas, where stars and planets form. However, since they are efficiently scattered by the galactic magnetic fields, many questions remain open, such as where exactly they are accelerated, what is their original energy spectrum, and how they propagate into molecular clouds. In this work we present new observations and discuss in detail a method that allows us to measure the cosmic ray ionisation rate towards the molecular clouds close to the W28 supernova remnant. To perform these measurements, we use CO, HCO$^+$, and DCO$^+$ millimetre line observations and compare them with the predictions of radiative transfer and chemical models away from thermodynamical equilibrium. The CO observations allow us to constrain the density, temperature, and column density towards each observed position, while the DCO$^+$/HCO$^+$ abundance ratios provide us with constraints on the electron f...

  1. Superposition of supernovae remnant imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superposition of the X-ray, optical, and radio imagery of supernova remnants in the Cygnus Loop region is described. The radio data of the region was obtained using the Westerbork interferometer, and the optical image was recorded by the NASA Wide Field Camera. The X-ray imagery was obtained using the High Resolution Imager. The mechanisms by which the supernova ejecta and the swept-up material shock the interstellar medium are studied by the resampling of the imagery onto a common celestial grid. The initial results indicate a radio arc in the northeastern portion of the region that is along the faintest outermost filaments, and a separate radio arc along the brightest filaments

  2. Sensitive OH observations towards 16 supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitive observations made towards 16 supernova remnants in the 1.667-GHz OH line with the DRAO 26-m radio telescope are presented. These observations were made in a search for broad, asymmetric absorption features, such as that seen towards G189.1 + 3.0 (IC443), in order to identify remnants which are interacting with molecular clouds and producing shock-excited species. Absorption by shocked OH is indicated in the cases of G33.6 + 0.1 and G84.2 - 0.8. Useful constraints on distances to several remnants are also derived. (author)

  3. Antimatter production in supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Kachelriess, M; Tomas, R

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the energy spectra of cosmic rays (CR) and their secondaries produced in a supernova remnant (SNR), taking into account the time-dependence of the SNR shock. We model the trajectories of charged particles as a random walk with a prescribed diffusion coefficient, accelerating the particles at each shock crossing. Secondary production by CRs colliding with gas is included as a Monte Carlo process. We find that SNRs produce less antimatter than suggested previously: The positron/electron ratio and the antiproton/proton ratio are a few percent and few $\\times 10^{-5}$, respectively. Moreover, the obtained positron/electron ratio decreases with energy, while the antiproton/proton ratio rises at most by a factor of two above 10 GeV.

  4. Probing the Reverse Shock in an Oxygen-Rich Supernovae Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetz, Terrance (Principal Investigator); Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the O VI emission from the X-ray bright ring of the supernova remnant 1 E0102.2-729 in the small Magellanic cloud. Three pointings were positioned tangent to the ring, north (N), northeast (NE), and southeast (SE), to examine a range of X-ray emitting regions overlapping a range of optical [O III] nebulosity and to examine the velocity structure. One background pointing was also obtained, but it was contaminated by a star. The background levels in the pointings on the remnant were low enough that the background pointing was not required for the remaining analysis. The SE pointing was reobserved in August, 2004, in order to bring the total exposure up to the originally requested 15 ks. The archive notified us of the data's availability in mid September. Significant broad O VI 1032 and O VI 1038 emission was found, brightest in the NE and SE pointings. In the NE and SE pointings, the FWHM of the broad O VI component is approx.800-1000 km/s, while in the N pointing, the line is approx.1500 km/s wide. The O VI is redshifted in the N (approx.380 km/s) and NE (approx.60 km/s) but is blueshifted in the SE (approx. -160 km/s). These FUSE O VI velocity dispersions can be compared to the X-ray gas velocities inferred from Doppler distortions in the Chandra X-ray data as reported by Flanagan et al. 2004 (ApJ 605, 230). The bulk velocities in the X-ray bright ring of order +/- 1000 km/s, comparable to the velocity dispersion seen in the FUSE data. However, the X-ray data indicates a redshift of approx.1000 km/s in the SE, while the FUSE data show a blueshift of approx.160 km/s, underscoring the complex velocity structure in this remnant. The O VI fluxes estimated from the fits to the FUSE data were combined with X-ray (XMM- Newton) O VI1 and O VIII fluxes and compared with predictions from a plasma nonequilibrium ionization model in a "line-based" analysis. We found that the plasma departs significantly from collisional ionization equilibrium, particularly in the SE, and that the plasma excitation conditions vary among the pointings: the O plasma sees different conditions than the Ne and Mg plasmas.

  5. AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTRAL OBSERVATIONS OF SHOCKED H2 GAS OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present near-infrared (2.5-5.0 ?m) spectra of shocked H2 gas in the supernova remnant IC 443, obtained with the satellite AKARI. Three shocked clumps-known as B, C, and G-and one background region were observed, and only H2 emission lines were detected. Except in clump B, the extinction-corrected level population shows the ortho-to-para ratio of ?3.0. From the level populations of clumps C and G-both the one obtained with AKARI and the one extended with previous mid-infrared observations-we found that the ? = 0 levels are more populated than the ?>0 levels at a fixed level energy, which cannot be reproduced by any combination of H2 gas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The populations are described by the two-density power-law thermal admixture model, revised to include the collisions with H atoms. We attributed the lower (n(H2)=102.8-103.8 cm-3) and higher (n(H2)=105.4-105.8 cm-3) density gases to the shocked H2 gas behind C-type and J-type shocks, respectively, based on several arguments including the obtained high H I abundance n(H I)/n(H2) = 0.01. Under the hierarchical picture of molecular clouds, the C-type and J-type shocks likely propagate into 'clumps' and 'clouds' (interclump media), respectively. The power-law index b of 1.6 and 3.5, mainly determined by the lower density gas, is attributed to the shock-vely gas, is attributed to the shock-velocity diversity, which may be a natural result during shock-cloud interactions. According to our results, H2 ? = 1 ? 0 S(1) emission is mainly from J shocks propagating into interclump media. The H2 emission was also detected at the background region, and this diffuse H2 emission may originate from the collisional process in addition to ultraviolet photon pumping.

  6. Infrared Studies of Molecular Shocks in the Supernova Remnant HB21: I. Thermal Admixture of Shocked H_2 Gas in the North

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Burton, Michael G; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2008-01-01

    We present near- and mid-infrared observations on the shock-cloud interaction region in the northern part of the supernova remnant HB21, performed with the InfraRed Camera (IRC) aboard AKARI satellite and the Wide InfraRed Camera (WIRC) at the Palomar 5 m telescope. The IRC 7 um (S7), 11 um (S11), and 15 um (L15) band images and the WIRC H2 v = 1 -> 0 S(1) 2.12 um image show similar shock-cloud interaction features. We chose three representative regions, and analyzed their IRC emissions through comparison with H2 line emissions of several shock models. The IRC colors are well explained by the thermal admixture model of H2 gas--whose infinitesimal H2 column density has a power-law relation with the temperature T, dN ~ T^-b dT--with n(H2) ~ 10^3 cm^-3, b ~ 3, and N(H2 ;T > 100K) ~ 3x10^20 cm^-2. The derived b value may be understood by a bow shock picture, whose shape is cycloidal (cuspy) rather than paraboloidal. However, this picture raises another issue that the bow shocks must reside within ~0.01 pc size-sc...

  7. Supernova remnants as cosmic ray factories

    OpenAIRE

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2011-01-01

    In this work we investigate particle acceleration in supernova remnant shocks within a semi-analytical formalism which self-consistently accounts for particle acceleration, amplification of the magnetic field via streaming instability and back-reaction of both accelerated particles and magnetic turbulence on the shock dynamics. In particular, we study the interplay between particle injection and magnetic field amplification, showing how a phenomenological but reasonable satu...

  8. Antiprotons Produced in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhko, E G

    2014-01-01

    We present the energy spectrum of antiproton cosmic ray (CR) component calculated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic model of CR production in supernova remnants (SNR). The model includes reacceleration of already existing in interstellar medium antiprotons as well as creation of antiprotons in nuclear collisions of accelerated protons with gas nuclei and their subsequent acceleration by SNR shock. It is shown that antiprotons production in SNRs produces considerable effect in their resultant energy spectrum making it essentially flatter above 10 GeV so that the spectrum at TeV-energies increases by a factor of five. Calculated antiproton spectrum is well consistent with the PAMELA data, which correspond to energies below 100 GeV. As a consistency check we have also calculated within the same model the energy spectra of positrons and secondary nuclei and show that the measured boron-to-carbon and positron-to-electron ratios are consistent with the significant SNR contribution.

  9. The blast wave of Tycho's supernova remnant

    OpenAIRE

    Cassam-chenai, Gamil; Hughes, John P.; Ballet, Jean; Decourchelle, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We use the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study the region in the Tycho supernova remnant between the blast wave and the shocked ejecta interface or contact discontinuity. This zone contains all the history of the shock-heated gas and cosmic-ray acceleration in the remnant. We present for the first time evidence for significant spatial variations of the X-ray synchrotron emission in the form of spectral steepening from a photon index of 2.6 right at the blast wave to a value o...

  10. Particle acceleration and Tycho's supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle acceleration in shock waves may be very efficient at converting bulk kinetic energy into energy density in high-energy particles. The implications for the dynamics and evolution of a Sedov-type blast wave, are investigated with particular reference to determining the energy of the supernova event associated with Tycho's supernova remnant. It is found that X-ray and radio observations favour a low efficiency of conversion of kinetic energy to high-energy particles, a supernova explosion energy of about 8 x 1043 J, and an ambient density of about 4 atom cm-3. (author)

  11. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Pacini, Franco

    1999-01-01

    I briefly summarize some facts and ideas concerning the presence of neutron stars in Supernova remnants. While sources similar to the Crab Nebula require the presence of a central energetic object, shell-type remnants such as Cas A are compatible with the presence of neutron stars releasing a weak relativistic wind.

  12. A Bow Shock Nebula around a Compact X-Ray Source in the Supernova Remnant IC 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbert, Charles M.; Clearfield, Christopher R.; Williams, Nikolas E.; Keohane, Jonathan W.; Frail, Dale A.

    2001-06-01

    We present Chandra spectra and high-resolution images of the hard X-ray feature in the southern edge of the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 that reveal a comet-shaped nebula of hard emission that contains a softer point source at its apex. We also present 20, 6, and 3.5 cm Very Large Array maps that clearly show the cometary nebula. Based on the radio and X-ray morphology and spectrum, and the radio polarization properties, we argue that this object is a synchrotron nebula powered by the compact source that is physically associated with IC 443. The spectrum of the soft point source is adequately but not uniquely fitted by a blackbody model [kT=0.71+/-0.08 keV, L=(6.5+/-0.9)×1031 ergs s-1]. The morphology of the nebula can be explained by the supersonic motion of the neutron star (VNS~=250+/-50 km s-1), which causes the relativistic wind of the pulsar to terminate in a bow shock and trail behind as a synchrotron tail. This velocity is consistent with an age of 30,000 yr for the SNR and its associated neutron star.

  13. Non Parametric Determination of Acceleration Characteristics in Supernova Shocks Based on Spectra of Cosmic Rays and Remnant Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosian, Vahe; Chen, Qingrong

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an inversion method for determination of the characteristics of the acceleration mechanism directly and non-parametrically from observations, in contrast to the usual forward fitting of parametric model variables to observations. This is done in the frame work of the so-called leaky box model of acceleration, valid for isotropic momentum distribution and for volume integrated characteristics in a finite acceleration site. We consider both acceleration by shocks and stochastic acceleration where turbulence plays the primary role to determine the acceleration, scattering and escape rates. Assuming a knowledge of the background plasma the model has essentially two unknown parameters, namely the momentum and pitch angle scattering diffusion coefficients, which can be evaluated given two independent spectral observations. These coefficients are obtained directly from the spectrum of radiation from the supernova remnants (SNRs), which gives the spectrum of accelerated particles, and the observed spectrum of cosmic rays (CRs), which are related to the spectrum of particles escaping the SNRs. The results obtained from application of this method will be presented.

  14. Supernovae, supernova remnants, and superbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    Supernovae, supernova remmants, and superbubbles in the interstellar medium are reviewed, with an emphasis on infrared studies of these phenomena. Superbubbles are likely to be relevant for understanding such Galactic and extragalactic issues as the photoionization of gas in the Galactic halo, 'superwinds,' and the contribution of 'starbursts' to photoionization of the intergalactic medium.

  15. Molecules and dust in Cassiopeia A. I. Synthesis in the supernova phase and processing by the reverse shock in the clumpy remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscaro, Chiara; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2014-04-01

    Aims: We study the chemistry of the type IIb supernova ejecta, which led to the Cas A supernova remnant, to assess the chemical type and quantity of dust that forms and evolves in the remnant phase. We later model a dense oxygen-rich ejecta knot, which is crossed by the reverse shock in Cas A, to study the evolution of the clump gas phase and the possibility to reform dust clusters in the post-reverse shock gas. Methods: The chemistry is described by a chemical network that includes all possible processes that are efficient at high gas temperatures and densities. The formation of key bimolecular species (e.g., CO and SiO) and dust clusters of silicates, alumina, silica, metal carbides and sulphides, pure metals, and amorphous carbon is considered. A set of stiff, coupled ordinary differential equations is solved for the conditions pertaining to both the SN ejecta and the post-reverse shock gas. Results: We find that the ejecta of type IIb SNe are unable to form large amounts of molecules and molecular clusters that are precursors to dust grains, when compared to their type II-P counterparts, because of their diffuse ejecta. The ejecta gas density needs to be increased by several orders of magnitude to allow for the formation of dust clusters. We show that the chemical composition of the dust clusters that form changes drastically and gains in chemical complexity with increasing gas density. Hence, the ejecta of the Cas A supernova progenitor must have been in the form of dense clumps to account for the dust chemical composition and masses that have been inferred from infrared observations of Cas A. As for the impact of the reverse shock on dense ejecta clumps, we show that the ejecta molecules that are destroyed by the shock reform in the post-reverse shock gas with lower abundances than those of the initial ejecta clump, except for SiO. These molecules include CO, SiS, and O2. On the other hand, dust clusters are destroyed by the reverse shock and do not reform in the post-reverse shock gas, even for the highest gas density. These results indicate that the synthesis of dust grains out of the gas phase in the dense knots of Cas A and in other supernova remnants is unlikely.

  16. Supernova Remnant SNR 0509 Lithograph and In Search of... Supernova Remnants Classroom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This Hubble Space Telescope image shows what appears to be a delicate bubble of gas floating in space. In actuality, the bubble is the visible remnant of a powerful supernova explosion called SNR 0509. The bubble was formed from gas being swept up by the expanding shock wave. The accompanying activity is a curriculum support tool designed for use as an introductory inquiry activity. In the activity, students use the images and text on this lithograph to generate questions about supernova explosions and remnants. They will conduct research to answer their questions, and create a presentation to demonstrate their understanding of the material, providing supporting evidence from their research.

  17. The Remnants of Intergalactic Supernovae

    OpenAIRE

    Maoz, Dan; Waxman, Eli; Loeb, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    Intergalactic type-Ia supernovae (SNe-Ia) have been discovered recently in rich galaxy clusters, likely the descendants of an intergalactic stellar population found in recent years through a variety of tracers. We estimate the observational signatures of the associated SN remnants (SNRs) in the unusual intracluster medium (ICM) environment. If SNe-Ia still have a circumstellar medium (CSM) at the time of explosion, then their remnants are visible in the optical for ~100-1000...

  18. PAH and Dust Processing in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, J.; Andersen, M.; Tappe, A.; Reach, W. T.; Bernard, J. P.; Hewitt, J.

    2011-03-01

    I present observations of shock-processed PAHs and dust in supernova remnants (SNRs). Supernova shocks are one of the primary sites destroying, fragmenting and altering interstellar PAHs and dust. Studies of PAHs through supernova shocks had been limited because of confusion with PAHs in background emission. Spitzer observations with high sensitivity and resolution allow us to separate PAHs associated with the SNRs and unrelated, Galactic PAHs. In the young SNR N132D, PAH features are detected with a higher PAH ratio of 15-20/7.7 ?m than those of other astronomical objects, and we suggest large PAHs have survived behind the shock. We present the spectra of additional 14 SNRs observed with Spitzer IRS and MIPS SED covering the range of 5-90 ?m. Bright PAH features from 6.2 to 15-20 ?m are detected from many of SNRs which emit molecular hydrogen lines, indicating that both large and small PAHs survive in low velocity shocks. We observe a strong correlation between PAH detection and carbonaceous small grains, while a few SNRs with dominant silicate dust lack PAH features. We characterize PAHs depending on the shock velocity, preshock density and temperature of hot gas, and discuss PAH and dust processing in shocks and implication of PAH and dust cycles in ISM.

  19. Molecules and dust in Cas A: I - Synthesis in the supernova phase and processing by the reverse shock in the clumpy remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Biscaro, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We study the chemistry of the Type IIb supernova ejecta that led to the Cas A supernova remnant to assess the chemical type and quantity of dust that forms and evolves in the remnant phase. We later model a dense oxygen-rich ejecta knot that is crossed by the reverse shock in Cas A to study the evolution of the clump gas phase and the possibility to reform dust clusters in the post-reverse shock gas. Methods: A chemical network including all processes efficient at high gas temperatures and densities is considered. The formation of key bimolecular species (CO, SiO) and dust clusters is described. Stiff, coupled, ordinary, differential equations are solved for the conditions pertaining to both the SN ejecta and the post-reverse shock gas. Results: We find that the ejecta of Type IIb SNe are unable to form large amounts of molecules and dust clusters as opposed to their Type II-P counterparts because of their diffuse ejecta. The gas density needs to be increased by several orders of magnitude to allow the ...

  20. Molecular clouds near supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical properties of molecular clouds near supernova remnants were investigated. Various properties of the structure and kinematics of these clouds are used to establish their physical association with well-known remmnants. An infrared survey of the most massive clouds revealed embedded objects, probably stars whose formation was induced by the supernova blast wave. In order to understand the relationship between these and other molecular clouds, a control group of clouds was also observed. Excitation models for dense regions of all the clouds are constructed to evaluate molecular abundances in these regions. Those clouds that have embedded stars have lower molecular abundances than the clouds that do not. A cloud near the W28 supernova remnant also has low abundances. Molecular abundances are used to measure an important parameter, the electron density, which is not directly observable. In some clouds extensive deuterium fractionation is observed which confirms electron density measurements in those clouds. Where large deuterium fractionation is observed, the ionization rate in the cloud interior can also be measured. The electron density and ionization rate in the cloud near W28 are higher than in most clouds. The molecular abundances and electron densities are functions of the chemical and dynamical state of evolution of the cloud. Those clouds with lowest abundances are probably the youngest clouds. As low-abundance clouds, some clouds near supernova remnantclouds, some clouds near supernova remnants may have been recently swept from the local interstellar material. Supernova remnants provide sites for star formation in ambient clouds by compressing them, and they sweep new clouds from more diffuse local matter

  1. Measuring the cosmic ray acceleration efficiency of a supernova remnant

    OpenAIRE

    Helder, E. A.; Vink, J.; Bassa, C. G.; Bamba, A.; Bleeker, J. A. M.; Funk, S.; Ghavamian, P.; Heyden, K. J.; Verbunt, F.; Yamazaki, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic rays are the most energetic particles arriving at earth. Although most of them are thought to be accelerated by supernova remnants, the details of the acceleration process and its efficiency are not well determined. Here we show that the pressure induced by cosmic rays exceeds the thermal pressure behind the northeast shock of the supernova remnant RCW 86, where the X-ray emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from ultra-relativistic electrons. We determined t...

  2. Neutrinos from Supernovas and Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Vissani, Francesco; Costantini, Maria Laura

    2005-01-01

    Supernovae (SN) and supernova remnants (SNR) have key roles in galaxies, but their physical descriptions is still incomplete. Thus, it is of interest to study neutrino radiation to understand SN and SNR better. We will discuss: (1) The ~10 MeV thermal neutrinos that arise from core collapse SN, that were observed for SN1987A, and can be seen with several existing or planned experiments. (2) The 10-100 TeV neutrinos expected from galactic SNR (in particular from RX J1713.7-39...

  3. Observing Supernovae and Supernova Remnants with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Temim, Tea; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable near- and mid-infrared studies of supernovae (SN) and supernova remnants (SNR) in the Milky Way and galaxies throughout the local universe and to high redshift. JWST's instrumentation provides imaging, coronography, and spectroscopy (Rlaunch in 2018. The JWST observatory will be placed in an Earth-Sun L2 orbit by an Ariane 5 launch vehicle provided by ESA. The observatory is designed for a 5-year prime science mission, with consumables for 10 years of science operations. The first call for proposals for JWST observations will be released in 2017.

  4. Formation of supernova remnants: The pre-blast-wave phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of stellar structure on supernova remnant formation is studied with a series of computer models of a 1051 erg explosion in a 15 M/sub sun/ star. We find that immediately after the explosion shock wave travels down a steep density gradient, the material in the gradient goes into free expansion, forming a collapsible piston. At the outer edge of such a piston are two shock waves: the expanding supernova shock and a reverse shock moving back into the collapsible piston. Until the piston is completely collapsed it is Rayleigh-Taylor stable, but after collpse the inner material behaves as a massive piston and the interface is R-T unstable. If there is a significant mass in an external density gradient, the material between the supernova shock moving out through the interstellar medium and the reverse shock will be a singificant source of x-rays during the pre--blast-wave phase of remnant formation

  5. Using optical lines to study particle acceleration at supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Morlino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The shocks of several young supernova remnants (SNR) are often associated with very thin optical filaments dominated by Balmer emission resulting from charge-exchange and collisional excitation between neutral Hydrogen from the interstellar medium and shocked protons and electrons. Optical lines are a direct probe of the conditions at the shock, in particular the width of the narrow and broad components reflect the temperature upstream and downstream of the shock, respective...

  6. An X-Ray Pulsar, Metal-rich Ejecta, and Shocked Ambient Medium in the Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, J P; Park, S; Slane, P O; Friedman, Robert B.; Hughes, John P.; Park, Sangwook; Slane, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of pulsed X-ray emission from the compact object CXOU J112439.1-591620 within the Galactic supernova remnant G292.0+1.8 using the High Resolution Camera on the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The X-ray period is consistent with the extrapolation of the radio period and spindown rate of PSR J1124-5916. The X-ray pulse is single peaked and broad. There is no optical counterpart to a limit of M_V ~ 26. The pressure in the pulsar wind nebula is considerably less than that in the reverse-shock-heated ejecta and circumstellar medium, indicating that the reverse shock has not yet begun to interact with the nebula.

  7. Interstellar scattering of compact radio sources near supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, S. R.; Mutel, R. L.; Benson, J. M.; Cordes, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A multifrequency VLBI search for interstellar scattering of extragalactic radio sources near supernova remnants is reported. VLBI observations at 610, 1663, and 4991 MHz were made of compact sources near the supernova remnants CTA 1, G33.6 + 0.1, G74.9 + 1.2, and HB 21, and 610 MHz observations were also made of a source near HB 9. These observations were motivated by the possibility of enhanced cosmic ray-induced turbulence in front of supernova remnants, as expected in 'diffusive' theories of shock wave acceleration. Angular broadening is definitely seen in the case of the source 2013 + 370, which lies within 4 arcmin of the supernova remnant G74.9 + 1.2. Present observations cannot unambiguously attribute the scattering material to the supernova remnant, as the line of sight also passes through the Cygnus OB1 association. The source 1849 + 005 appears to be highly scattered, as fringes were not detected even on short baselines at 5 GHz. This result may be due to the low galactic longitude of this source rather than its proximity to the supernova remnant G 33.6 + 0.1. Broadening was not detected for sources whose lines of sight pass close to the supernova remnants HB 9, HB 21, and CTA 1.

  8. Identifying Elements in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This activity has students use X-ray line data to identify elements contained in supernova remnants. In groups of 2 or more, they will be given several X-ray spectra from the ASCA X-ray satellite and will be asked to determine what elements are present, using a chart listing elements and the energies of their emission lines. Following a class discussion of their results, they will be given ASTRO-E spectra of the same sources and asked to determine which elements are present. Finally, they will be given spectra from Constellation-X and asked to determine what elements are present. Students will then compare and contrast Supernova Remnant Spectral Data from the three different X-ray observatories as a class. This site contains links to the simulated spectra, chart, student worksheet, and instructions.

  9. Color Composite Image of the Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This image is a color composite of the supernova remnant E0102-72: x-ray (blue), optical (green), and radio (red). E0102-72 is the remnant of a star that exploded in a nearby galaxy known as the Small Magellanic Cloud. The star exploded outward at speeds in excess of 20 million kilometers per hour (12 million mph) and collided with surrounding gas. This collision produced two shock waves, or cosmic sonic booms, one traveling outward, and the other rebounding back into the material ejected by the explosion. The radio image, shown in red, was made using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The radio waves are due to extremely high-energy electrons spiraling around magnetic field lines in the gas and trace the outward moving shock wave. The Chandra X-ray Observatory image, shown in blue, shows gas that has been heated to millions of degrees by the rebounding, or reverse shock wave. The x-ray data show that this gas is rich in oxygen and neon. These elements were created by nuclear reactions inside the star and hurled into space by the supernova. The Hubble Space Telescope optical image, shown in green, shows dense clumps of oxygen gas that have 'cooled' to about 30,000 degrees. Photo Credit: X-ray (NASA/CXC/SAO); optical (NASA/HST): radio: (ACTA)

  10. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the movie For the first time, a multiwavelength three-dimensional reconstruction of a supernova remnant has been created. This stunning visualization of Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, the result of an explosion approximately 330 years ago, uses data from several telescopes: X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, infrared data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and optical data from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak, Ariz., and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT 2.4-meter telescope, also at Kitt Peak. In this visualization, the green region is mostly iron observed in X-rays. The yellow region is a combination of argon and silicon seen in X-rays, optical, and infrared including jets of silicon plus outer debris seen in the optical. The red region is cold debris seen in the infrared. Finally, the blue reveals the outer blast wave, most prominently detected in X-rays. Most of the material shown in this visualization is debris from the explosion that has been heated by a shock moving inwards. The red material interior to the yellow/orange ring has not yet encountered the inward moving shock and so has not yet been heated. These unshocked debris were known to exist because they absorb background radio light, but they were only recently discovered in infrared emission with Spitzer. The blue region is composed of gas surrounding the explosion that was heated when it was struck by the outgoing blast wave, as clearly seen in Chandra images. To create this visualization, scientists took advantage of both a previously known phenomenon the Doppler effect and a new technology that bridges astronomy and medicine. When elements created inside a supernova, such as iron, silicon and argon, are heated they emit light at certain wavelengths. Material moving towards the observer will have shorter wavelengths and material moving away will have longer wavelengths. Since the amount of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and position with resp

  11. The blast wave of Tycho's supernova remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Cassam-Chenai, G; Ballet, J; Decourchelle, A; Cassam-Chenai, Gamil; Hughes, John P.; Ballet, Jean; Decourchelle, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We use the Chandra X-ray Observatory to study the region in the Tycho supernova remnant between the blast wave and the shocked ejecta interface or contact discontinuity. This zone contains all the history of the shock-heated gas and cosmic-ray acceleration in the remnant. We present for the first time evidence for significant spatial variations of the X-ray synchrotron emission in the form of spectral steepening from a photon index of 2.6 right at the blast wave to a value of 3.0 several arcseconds behind. We interpret this result along with the profiles of radio and X-ray intensity using a self-similar hydrodynamical model including cosmic ray backreaction that accounts for the observed ratio of radii between the blast wave and contact discontinuity. Two different assumptions were made about the post-shock magnetic field evolution: one where the magnetic field (amplified at the shock) is simply carried by the plasma flow and remains relatively high in the post-shock region [synchrotron losses limited rim cas...

  12. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Gvaramadze, V V

    2002-01-01

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  13. Ortho-to-Para Ratio Studies of Shocked H2 Gas in the Two Supernova Remnants IC 443 and HB 21

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Moon, Dae-Sik

    2012-01-01

    We present near-infrared (2.5-5.0 {\\mu}m) spectral studies of shocked H2 gas in the two supernova remnants IC 443 and HB 21, which are well known for their interactions with nearby molecular clouds. The observations were performed with Infrared Camera (IRC) aboard the AKARI satellite. At the energy range 7000 K <= E(v,J) <= 20000 K, the shocked H2 gas in IC 443 shows an ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 2.4+0.3-0.2, which is significantly lower than the equilibrium value 3, suggesting the existence of non-equilibrium OPR. The shocked gas in HB 21 also indicates a potential non-equilibrium OPR in the range of 1.8-2.0. The level populations are well described by the power-law thermal admixture model with a single OPR, where the temperature integration range is 1000-4000 K. We conclude that the obtained non-equilibrium OPR probably originates from the reformed H2 gas of dissociative J-shocks, considering several factors such as the shock combination requirement, the line ratios, and the possibility that H2 gas ...

  14. The peculiar supernova remnant CTB 80

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatakis, F; Paleologou, E V; Papamastorakis, J

    2001-01-01

    Deep CCD exposures of the peculiar supernova remnant CTB 80 in the light of major optical lines have been obtained. These images reveal significant shock heated emission in the area of the remnant. The sulfur line image shows emission in the north along the outer boundary of the IRAS and HI shells. The comparison between the [OIII] and [OII] line images further suggest the presence of significant inhomogeneities in the interstellar medium. The flux calibrated images do not indicate the presence of incomplete recombination zones, and we estimate that the densities of the preshock clouds should not exceed a few atoms per cm^3. The area covered by the optical radiation along with the radio emission at 1410 MHz suggest that CTB 80 occupies a larger angular extent than was previously known.

  15. The molecular emission from old supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Gusdorf, Antoine; Anderl, Sibylle; Hezareh, Talayeh

    2014-01-01

    Supernovae constitute a critical source of energy input to the interstellar medium (ISM). In this short review, we focus on their latest phase of evolution, the supernova remnants (SNRs). We present observations of three old SNRs that have reached the phase where they interact with the ambient ISM: W28, IC443, and 3C391. We show that such objects make up clean laboratories to constrain the physical and chemical processes at work in molecular shock environments. Our studies subsequently allow us to quantify the impact of SNRs on their environment in terms of mass, momentum, and energy dissipation. In turn, their contribution to the energy balance of galaxies can be assessed. Their potential to trigger a further generation of star formation can also be investigated. Finally, our studies provide strong support for the interpretation of gamma-ray emission in SNRs, a crucial step to answer questions related to cosmic rays population and acceleration.

  16. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.

    2012-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) provide a laboratory for studying various astrophysical processes, including particle acceleration, thermal and non thermal emission processes across the spectrum, distribution of heavy elements, the physics of strong shock waves, and the progenitor systems and environments of supernovae. Long studied in radio and X-rays, the past decade has seen a dramatic increase in the detection and subsequent study of SNRs in the infrared and gamma-ray regimes. Understanding the evolution of SNRs and their interaction with the interstellar medium requires a multi-wavelength approach. I will review the various physical processes observed in SNRs and how these processes are intertwined. In particular, I will focus on X-ray and infrared observations, which probe two very different but intrinsically connected phases of the ISM: gas and dust. I will discuss results from multi-wavelength studies of several SNRs at various stages of evolution, including Kepler, RCW 86, and the Cygnus Loop.

  17. Vivid View of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This composite image of the Tycho supernova remnant combines infrared and X-ray observations obtained with NASA's Spitzer and Chandra space observatories, respectively, and the Calar Alto observatory, Spain. It shows the scene more than four centuries after the brilliant star explosion witnessed by Tycho Brahe and other astronomers of that era. The explosion has left a blazing hot cloud of expanding debris (green and yellow). The location of the blast's outer shock wave can be seen as a blue sphere of ultra-energetic electrons. Newly synthesized dust in the ejected material and heated pre-existing dust from the area around the supernova radiate at infrared wavelengths of 24 microns (red). Foreground and background stars in the image are white.

  18. Evolution of pulsar-driven supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio and X-ray observations of the growing class of Crab-line supernova remnants (''plerions'') suggest that a central pulsar dominates their evolution. We model a plerion as a spherical, homogeneous bubble of relativistic particles and magnetic field inflated by a pulsar amid uniformly expanding supernova ejecta. We calculate the dynamical evolution of the bubble, and the concurrent evolution of the synchrotron luminosity, for a variety of assumptions about field-particle coupling ad the nature of the ejecta. Free-free absorption keeps a model invisible at radio frequencies until approx.200 years after the supernova; after reaching a peak shortly thereafter, the radio spectral luminosity L/sub r/ drops steeply, L/sub r/ proportional t-4 to t-5. The X-ray spectral luminosity L/sub x/ generally rises slowly and can peak later than the radio, and the radio of X-ray to radio luminosities (L/sub x//L/sub r/) behaves in a complicated, non-monotomic fashion. This ratio is therefore a poor age indicator. After about 13,000 years, deceleration of the ejecta sends a reverse shock back through the remnant, compressing and rebrightening the bubble. It then fades slowly, the radio luminosity decreasing approximately as t-1

  19. Modeling the interaction of thermonuclear supernova remnants with circumstellar structures: The case of Tycho's supernova remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Chiotellis, A; Schure, K M; Vink, J; Kaastra, J S

    2013-01-01

    The well-established Type Ia remnant of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572) reveals discrepant ambient medium density estimates based on either the measured dynamics or on the X-ray emission properties. This discrepancy can potentially be solved by assuming that the supernova remnant (SNR) shock initially moved through a stellar wind bubble, but is currently evolving in the uniform interstellar medium with a relatively low density. We investigate this scenario by combining hydrodynamical simulations of the wind-loss phase and the supernova remnant evolution with a coupled X-ray emission model, which includes non-equilibrium ionization. For the explosion models we use the well-known W7 deflagration model and the delayed detonation model that was previously shown to provide good fits to the X-ray emission of Tycho's SNR. Our simulations confirm that a uniform ambient density cannot simultaneously reproduce the dynamical and X-ray emission properties of Tycho. In contrast, models that considered that the remnant was evo...

  20. Acoustic waves in supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the Mach number of a supernova shock wave, propagating through the hot interstellar gas, is less than the critical value 2.76, the interaction of the shock with an interstellar cloud produces a reflected pressure pulse that propagates away from the cloud as an acoustic wave. A preliminary analysis indicates that about 4% of the energy of an exploding supernova shell is converted into such waves. When the postshock gas temperature exceeds 2 x 106 K, waves as short as 6 pc are damped in less than a wavelength, returning the energy to the hot gas. Longer waves, especially at later stages, are less strongly damped, and are superposed in the hot gas to create a fluctuating magnetoacoustic field, with typical periods of about 105 years. In the warm neutral clouds at temperatures of about 8000 K these waves are rapidly damped by plasma slip (ambipolar diffusion), providing a heat source that may account for the temperatures of thse clouds

  1. Exosat observations of the Kepler supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medium-energy experiment on board Exosat was used to measure the X-ray spectrum of the Kepler supernova remnant over the range 1.5-10 keV. An Fe emission line was clearly resolved with an energy of about 6.5 keV and equivalent width of about 1.8 keV. This was superposed on a continuum with a temperature of 5.0(+3.8, -1.9) keV. The medium-energy spectrum is shown to be consistent with a model in which the Kepler SNR is presently in a Sedov phase of evolution, the 5 keV continuum arises from the shocked interstellar/circumstellar medium, and thermal (but not ionization) equilibrium exists between electrons and ions behind the primary shock front. However, in this case, an overabundance of iron by more than 6 times cosmic is required. 28 refs

  2. A revised Galactic supernova remnant catalogue

    OpenAIRE

    Green, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    A revised catalogue of 274 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) is presented, along with some simple statistics of their parameters. It is shown that the remnants that have recently been identified are generally faint, as is expected from the selection effects that apply to the identification of remnants.

  3. Einstein Observations of Galactic supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Frederick D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the observations of Galactic supernova remnants with the imaging detectors of the Einstein Observatory. X-ray surface brightness contours of 47 remnants are shown together with gray-scale pictures. Count rates for these remnants have been derived and are listed for the HRI, IPC, and MPC detectors.

  4. Supernova remnants: the X-ray perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vink, Jacco

    2011-01-01

    Supernova remnants are beautiful astronomical objects that are also of high scientific interest, because they provide insights into supernova explosion mechanisms, and because they are the likely sources of Galactic cosmic rays. X-ray observations are an important means to study these objects.And in particular the advances made in X-ray imaging spectroscopy over the last two decades has greatly increased our knowledge about supernova remnants. It has made it possible to map ...

  5. On the Origin of Asymmetries in Bilateral Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, S.; Bocchino, F.; Reale, F.; Peres, G.; Petruk, O.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: We investigate whether the morphology of bilateral supernova remnants (BSNRs) observed in the radio band is determined mainly either by a non-uniform interstellar medium (ISM) or by a non-uniform ambient magnetic field. METHODS: We perform 3-D MHD simulations of a spherical SNR shock propagating through a magnetized ISM. Two cases of shock propagation are considered: 1) through a gradient of ambient density with a uniform ambient magnetic field; 2) through a homogene...

  6. X-ray imaging: supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Einstein Observatory has provided astronomers with the first opportunity to obtain optical quality images of extended X-ray sources. Such pictures of supernova remnants, for example, yield a wealth of information on the dynamics and evolution of the expanding blast wave, the possible collapsed remnants of the exploded star, and the structure of the interstellar medium. The author reviews imaging observation of over 50 supernova remnants obtained during the first year of the Observatory's operation. Although analysis of these results is still in its infancy, it is already possible to draw important conclusions regarding models for stellar explosions, remnant evolution, neutron star formation, and the interstellar medium. (Auth.)

  7. Reacceleration of electrons in supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, M.; Wilhelm, A.; Telezhinsky, I.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The radio spectra of many shell-type supernova remnants show deviations from those expected on theoretical grounds. Aims: In this paper we determine the effect of stochastic reacceleration on the spectra of electrons in the GeV band and at lower energies, and we investigate whether reacceleration can explain the observed variation in radio spectral indices. Methods: We explicitely calculated the momentum diffusion coefficient for 3 types of turbulence expected downstream of the forward shock: fast-mode waves, small-scale non-resonant modes, and large-scale modes arising from turbulent dynamo activity. After noting that low-energy particles are efficiently coupled to the quasi-thermal plasma, a simplified cosmic-ray transport equation can be formulated and is numerically solved. Results: Only fast-mode waves can provide momentum diffusion fast enough to significantly modify the spectra of particles. Using a synchrotron emissivity that accurately reflects a highly turbulent magnetic field, we calculated the radio spectral index and find that soft spectra with index ? ? - 0.6 can be maintained over more than 2 decades in radio frequency, even if the electrons experience reacceleration for only one acceleration time. A spectral hardening is possible but considerably more frequency-dependent. The spectral modification imposed by stochastic reacceleration downstream of the forward shock depends only weakly on the initial spectrum provided by, e.g., diffusive shock acceleration at the shock itself.

  8. New Galactic supernova remnants discovered with IPHAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, L; Contreras, M E; Olguín, L; Frew, D J; Stupar, M; Vázquez, R; Wright, N J; Corradi, R L M; Morris, R A H

    2013-01-01

    As part of a systematic search programme of a 10-degree wide strip of the Northern Galactic plane we present preliminary evidence for the discovery of four (and possibly five) new supernova remnants (SNRs). The pilot search area covered the 19-20 hour right ascension zone sampling from +20 to +55 degrees in declination using binned mosaic images from the INT Photometric H-alpha Survey (IPHAS). The optical identification of the candidate SNRs was based mainly on their filamentary and arc-like emission morphologies, their apparently coherent, even if fractured structure and clear disconnection from any diffuse neighbouring HII region type nebulosity. Follow-up optical spectroscopy was undertaken, sampling carefully across prominent features of these faint sources. The resulting spectra revealed typical emission line ratios for shock excited nebulae which are characteristic of SNRs, which, along with the latest diagnostic diagrams, strongly support the likely SNR nature of these sources: G038.7-1.3 (IPHASX J1906...

  9. On the radio spectra of supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Uroševi?, Dejan

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical fundamentals of formation of the supernova remnant (SNR) continuum radio spectra are presented in this review. Mainly based on the Fermi 1 theory - also known as diffuse shock acceleration (DSA) - the different shapes (linear or curved in log-log scale) of SNR radio spectra are predicted for both young and evolved SNRs. On the other hand, some particular forms of spectra of older SNRs can be predicted by including the additional processes such as Fermi 2 acceleration mechanism or thermal bremsstrahlung radiation. Also, all of these theoretically predicted forms of radio spectra are compared with real spectra obtained from observations. Finally this review can represent some kind of "atlas" with initial patterns for the different kinds of SNR radio spectra - it should be helpful for radio astronomers in their interpretation of the observed radio spectra.

  10. Laser experiments to simulate supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment using a large laser facility to simulate young supernova remnants (SNRs) is discussed. By analogy to the SNR, the laboratory system includes dense matter that explodes, expansion and cooling to produce energetic, flowing plasma, and the production of shock waves in lower-density surrounding matter. The scaling to SNRs in general and to SN1987A in particular is reviewed. The methods and results of x-ray radiography, by which the system in diagnosed, are discussed. The data show that the hohlraum used to provide the energy for explosion does so in two ways--first, through its radiation pulse, and second, through an additional impulse that is attributed to stagnation pressure. Attempts to model these dynamics are discussed. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  11. Stellar masers, circumstellar envelopes, and supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Kemball, Athol J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the study or circumstellar masers and masers found toward supernova remnants. The review is organized by science focus area, including the astrophysics of extended stellar atmospheres, stellar mass-loss processes and outflows, late-type evolved stellar evolution, stellar maser excitation and chemistry, and the use of stellar masers as independent distance estimators. Masers toward supernova remnants are covered separately. Recent advance...

  12. Origin of Radially Aligned Magnetic Fields in Young Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested by radio observations of polarized synchrotron emissions that downstream magnetic field in some young supernova remnants are oriented radially. We study magnetic field distribution of turbulent supernova remnant driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability -- in other words, the effect of rippled shock -- by using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations. We find that the induced turbulence has radially biased anisotropic velocity dispersion that leads to a selective amplification of the radial component of the magnetic field. The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is induced by the interaction between the shock and upstream density fluctuations. Future high-resolution polarization observation can distinguish the following candidates responsible for the upstream density fluctuations: (i) inhomogeneity caused by the cascade of large-scale turbulence in the ISM so-called the big-power-law-in-the-sky, (ii) structures generated by the Drury instability in the cosmic-ray modified shock, a...

  13. Hadronic Gamma Rays from Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Moskalenko, I V; Malkov, M A; Diamond, P H

    2007-01-01

    A gas cloud near a supernova remnant (SNR) provides a target for pp-collisions leading to subsequent gamma-ray emission through neutral pion decay. The assumption of a power-law ambient spectrum of accelerated particles with index near -2 is usually built into models predicting the spectra of very-high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from SNRs. However, if the gas cloud is located at some distance from the SNR shock, this assumption is not necessarily correct. In this case, the particles which interact with the cloud are those leaking from the shock and their spectrum is approximately monoenergetic with the injection energy gradually decreasing as the SNR ages. The gamma-ray spectrum resulting from particle interactions with the gas cloud will be flatter than expected, with the cutoff defined by the pion momentum distribution in the laboratory frame. We evaluate the flux of particles escaping from a SNR shock and apply the results to the VHE diffuse emission detected by the HESS at the Galactic centre.

  14. A catalogue of 294 Galactic supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Green, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A revised catalogue of 294 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) is presented, along with some simple statistics. This catalogue has twenty more entries than did the previous version (from 2009), as 21 new remnants have been added, and one object has been removed as it has been identified as an HII region.

  15. An infrared survey of galactic supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented are preliminary results from a survey of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the data base collected by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). About one-third of the known galactic SNRs are visible in the IRAS data. Confusion with other sources in the galactic plane prohibits the detection of many remnants. The objects that are detected have similar spectral characteristics and temperatures, except that the three youngest remnants known, Tycho, Kepler, and Cassiopeia A, are distinctly warmer

  16. Young Supernova Remnants: Issues and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Mckee, Christopher F.

    2001-01-01

    After reviewing recent work on the dynamics of young supernova remnants (YSNRs) and discussing how YSNRs can be used as physics laboratories, I discuss several challenges: Where are the very young SNRs in the Galaxy? Can very young SNRs produce gamma ray bursts? The Connections Challenge: Can one infer the nature of the supernova and its progenitor star from observations of the YSNR?

  17. The Structure of the Oxygen-rich Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8 from Chandra X-ray Images Shocked Ejecta and Circumstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Hughes, J P; Slane, P O; Burrows, D N; Garmire, G P; Nousek, J A; Park, Sangwook; Roming, Peter W. A.; Hughes, John P.; Slane, Patrick O.; Burrows, David N.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Nousek, John A.

    2001-01-01

    We present results from the observation of the young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G292.0+1.8 with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on board the {\\it Chandra X-ray Observatory}. In the 0.3 $-$ 8 keV band, the high resolution ACIS images reveal a complex morphology consisting of knots and filaments, as well as the blast wave around the periphery of the SNR. We present equivalent width (EW) maps for the elemental species O, Ne, Mg, and Si, which allow us to identify regions of enhanced metallicity in the SNR. G292.0+1.8 is bright in O, Ne, and Si; weaker in S and Ar; with little Fe. The EW and broad-band images indicate that the metal-rich ejecta are distributed primarily around the periphery of the SNR. The central belt-like structure has normal solar-type composition, strongly suggesting that it is primarily emission from shocked circumstellar medium rather than metal-rich ejecta. We propose that the belt traces its origin to enhanced mass loss in the star's equatorial plane during the slow, re...

  18. Circumstellar Nebulae in Young Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Y. -h

    2000-01-01

    Supernovae descendent from massive stars explode in media that have been modified by their progenitors' mass loss and UV radiation. The supernova ejecta will first interact with the circumstellar material shed by the progenitors at late evolutionary stages, and then interact with the interstellar material. Circumstellar nebulae in supernova remnants can be diagnosed by their small expansion velocities and high [N II]/H$\\alpha$ ratios. The presence of circumstellar nebulae ap...

  19. Molecular clouds near supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of 14 SNR's in the 4.8 GHz absorption line of H2CO shows that two of them, W28 and W44, possibly interact with molecular clouds. The interaction leads to acceleration of a part of the molceular cloud to a velocity of approximately 5 km s-1 without a significant increase in the kinetic temperature or turbulence. The apparent long-term stability of galactic molecular clouds against gravitational collapse and subsequent star formation has stimulated proposals about possible sources of external pressure, such as shocks, which could upset this equilibrium and lead to collapse. The supernova blast wave was considered as such a shock by Herbst and Assousa (1977). This proposal can be tested by observations. The interaction between a SNR and a molecular cloud may result in a disturbance of the cloud such as changing of its geometry, introducing large velocity gradients, heating etc. Spectral line mapping of the molecular clouds toward SNR's might reveal cases of SNR-molecular cloud interactions and give details of the relevant physical processes. The observations presented were aimed at (i) a search for clouds interacting with SNR's; (ii) measuring physical parameters of the disturbed molecular gas. (Auth.)

  20. X-ray spectroscopy of supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information which can be obtained from X-ray spectroscopy of supernova remnants is considered. The fitting of X-ray detector counts to models of the incident spectrum is discussed, and the types of thermal emission models generally employed are presented, including the power law, black body, and thermal bremsstrahlung models of the continua and models of the emission of a hot, optically thin plasma in collisional equilibrium. Observations of 12 supernova remnants made with the Solid State Spectrometer on board the Einstein Observatory are reported, and metal abundances inferred from the lines of the eight remnants showing thermal spectra are summarized. Questions raised by the failure to observe the overabundance of Fe predicted by stellar evolution and hydrodynamic modeling are discussed, and the need to develop more detailed models of the conditions in a supernova remnant in order to interpret the X-ray spectra is noted

  1. Exploring the Physics of Type Ia Supernovae Through the X-ray Spectra of their Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes Montoliu, Carles; Borkowski, K.; Bravo Guil, Eduardo; Hughes, J. P.; Hwang, U.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of an ongoing project to use the X-ray observations of Type Ia Supernova Remnants to constrain the physical processes involved in Type Ia Supernova explosions. We use the Tycho Supernova Remnant (SN 1572) as a benchmark case, comparing its observed spectrum with models for the X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta generated from different kinds of Type Ia explosions. Both the integrated spectrum of Tycho and the spatial distribution of the Fe and Si e...

  2. Interacting supernova remnants: Tunnels in the sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional calculations of near-surface, atmospheric nuclear fireballs and interacting supernova remnants (SNRs) are presented. The fireball calculations demonstrate the ability of the LASL program YAQUI to reproduce known time-dependent evolution of fireballs. The SNR calculation describes the interaction of two remnants aged 6400 and 32000 years. A dense plug is formed which separates the two cavity volumes. The combined volume of the cavities is 80% of the sum of the volumes of two isolated remnants but exceeds the union volume of two overlapping, noninteracting remnants. The resultant tunnel fraction is then greater than the value derived from simple considerations

  3. A Spatial and Spectral Study of Nonthermal Filaments in Historical Supernova Remnants: Observational Results with Chandra

    OpenAIRE

    Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo; ??, ?.; ?????, ???; Yamazaki, Ryo?; Yoshida, Tatsuo; Terasawa, Toshio; Koyama, Katsuji

    2004-01-01

    The outer shells of young supernova remnants (SNRs) are the most plausible acceleration sites of high-energy electrons with the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. We studied spatial and spectral properties close to the shock fronts in four historical SNRs (Cas A, Kepler's remnant, Tycho's remnant, and RCW86) with excellent spatial resolution of Chandra. In all of the SNRs, hard X-ray emissions were found on the rims of the SNRs, which concentrate in very narrow regions ( so-called ...

  4. X-ray synchrotron emission from supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Ballet, J

    2005-01-01

    X-ray synchrotron emission tells us of the highest energy reached by accelerated electrons. In a few supernova remnants (SN 1006, G347.3-0.5) this is the dominant form of X-ray radiation, but in most it is superposed to the dominant thermal emission. Thanks to the spectro-imaging capability of Chandra and XMM-Newton, X-ray synchrotron emission has now been unambiguously detected in most young supernova remnants (Cas A, Tycho, Kepler). It arises in a very thin shell (a few arcsecs) at the blast wave. The thinness of that shell (much broader in the radio domain) implies that the high energy electrons cool down very fast behind the shock. The magnetic field that one deduces from that constraint is more than 100 muG behind the shock.

  5. X-Ray Measured Dynamics of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Hayato, Asami; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We present X-ray proper-motion measurements of the forward shock and reverse-shocked ejecta in Tycho's supernova remnant, based on three sets of archival Chandra data taken in 2000, 2003, and 2007. We find that the proper motion of the edge of the remnant (i.e., the forward shock and protruding ejecta knots) varies from 0.''20 yr-1 (expansion index m = 0.33, where R = tm ) to 0.''40 yr-1 (m = 0.65) with azimuthal angle in 2000-2007 measurements, and 0.''14 yr-1 (m = 0.26) to 0.''40 yr-1 (m = 0.65) in 2003-2007 measurements. The azimuthal variation of the proper motion and the average expansion index of [approx]0.5 are consistent with those derived from radio observations. We also find proper motion and expansion index of the reverse-shocked ejecta to be 0.''21-0.''31 yr-1 and 0.43-0.64, respectively. From a comparison of the measured m-value with Type Ia supernova evolutionary models, we find a pre-shock ambient density around the remnant of [less, similar]0.2 cm-3.

  6. X-RAY MEASURED DYNAMICS OF TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present X-ray proper-motion measurements of the forward shock and reverse-shocked ejecta in Tycho's supernova remnant, based on three sets of archival Chandra data taken in 2000, 2003, and 2007. We find that the proper motion of the edge of the remnant (i.e., the forward shock and protruding ejecta knots) varies from 0.''20 yr-1 (expansion index m = 0.33, where R = tm ) to 0.''40 yr-1 (m = 0.65) with azimuthal angle in 2000-2007 measurements, and 0.''14 yr-1 (m = 0.26) to 0.''40 yr-1 (m = 0.65) in 2003-2007 measurements. The azimuthal variation of the proper motion and the average expansion index of ?0.5 are consistent with those derived from radio observations. We also find proper motion and expansion index of the reverse-shocked ejecta to be 0.''21-0.''31 yr-1 and 0.43-0.64, respectively. From a comparison of the measured m-value with Type Ia supernova evolutionary models, we find a pre-shock ambient density around the remnant of ?-3.

  7. Complex structure of the supernova remnant HB 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HB 3 is an old, large (84 pc diameter) supernova remnant associated with the W3 H II region/molecular cloud complex. Observations of the imaging proportional counter (IPC) onboard the Einstein X-ray astronomy satellite have been reprocessed to yield a contour map of X-ray brightness and spectra of various regions of this remnant. The measured IPC flux is 2.4 x 10 to the -11th ergs per sq cm per s, giving a 0.2-4 keV luminosity of 1.6 x 10 to the 35th ergs/s for a column densityof 6 x 10 to the 21st per sq cm. The measured X-ray temperatures reveal a decrease from center to limb of the remnant of 1-0.3 keV. HB 3 is in the late adiabatic blast-wave phase of evolution, 30,000 to 50,000 yr old and with an initial blast energy of 3 x 10 to the 50th ergs. The X-ray map is compared with available radio and optical images. In X-rays, HB 3 has two components - a diffuse emission inside the 84 pc radio remnant and a ring of emission at the center of 30 pc in diameter. The diffuse emission is similar to that from other supernova remnants which are moderately obscured (column density, nH approximately 10 to the 22nd per sq cm). Three possibilities for the origin of the ring are explored: (1) a second supernova remnant, (2) a shocked shell in the interstellar medium surrounding HB 3, and (3) reverse-shock heated ejecta. There is no hot neutron star within the remnant. 30 references

  8. Supernova Remnants: acceleration of particles and gamma-ray emission

    OpenAIRE

    Voelk, H. J.

    2001-01-01

    Particle acceleration in the dynamically evolving environment of Supernova Remnants is discussed in the framework of a genuinely time-dependent nonlinear theory, assuming spherical symmetry. As a consequence the dependence of injection on the angle between shock normal and external magnetic field direction requires a renormalisation of the calculated particle fluxes. The recent observational results in TeV gamma-rays from such objects are discussed and found to be consistent...

  9. Supernova remnants as cosmic ray accelerators. SNR IC 443

    OpenAIRE

    Hnatyk, B.; Petruk, O.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that some supernova remnants (SNRs) may be responsible for some unidentified gamma-ray sources detected by EGRET instrument aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. If this is the case, gamma-rays are produced via pion production and decay from direct inelastic collisions of accelerated by SNR shock wave ultrarelativistic protons with target protons of the interstellar medium. We develop a 3-D hydrodynamical model of SNR IC 443 as a possible cosmic...

  10. Nonuniform abundances in young supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a young SNR, the possible variation in composition should not be ignored in interpreting observational data. As an example, it is explicitly shown that the Becker et al. observations of Tycho's supernova remnant with HEAO 2 (Einstein) Observatory are consistent with a previously calculated numerical model of a Type I supernova explosion incorporating decay of 56Ni. In young SNRs it may be possible to detect directly the compositions characteristic of the layered structure of the presupernova, not merely the average abundance

  11. Gamma-ray Emission from Crushed Clouds in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Funk, Stefan; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that the radio and gamma-ray emission observed from newly-found "GeV-bright" supernova remnants (SNRs) can be explained by a model, in which a shocked cloud and shock-accelerated cosmic rays (CRs) frozen in it are simultaneously compressed by the supernova blastwave as a result of formation of a radiative cloud shock. Simple reacceleration of pre-existing CRs is generally sufficient to power the observed gamma-ray emission through the decays of neutral pions produced in hadronic interactions between high-energy protons (nuclei) and gas in the compressed-cloud layer. This model provides a natural account of the observed synchrotron radiation in SNRs W51C, W44 and IC 443 with flat radio spectral index, which can be ascribed to a combination of secondary and reaccelerated electrons and positrons.

  12. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Young Galactic Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Koo, Bon-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Young Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) are where we can observe closely the supernova (SN) ejecta and its interaction with circumstellar/interstellar medium. Therefore, they provide an opportunity to explore the explosion and the final stage of the evolution of massive stars. Near-infrared (NIR) emission lines in SNRs mostly originate from shocked dense material. In shocked SN ejecta, forbidden lines from heavy ions are prominent, while in shocked circumstellar/interstellar medium, [Fe II] and H2 lines are prominent. [Fe II] lines are strong in both media, and therefore [Fe II] line images provide a good starting point for the NIR study of SNRs. There are about twenty SNRs detected in [Fe II] lines, some of which have been studied in NIR spectroscopy. We will review the NIR [Fe II] observations of SNRs and introduce our recent NIR spectroscopic study of the young core-collapse SNR Cas A where we detected strong [P II] lines.

  13. GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM CRUSHED CLOUDS IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the radio and gamma-ray emission observed from newly found 'GeV-bright' supernova remnants (SNRs) can be explained by a model in which a shocked cloud and shock-accelerated cosmic rays (CRs) frozen in it are simultaneously compressed by the supernova blast wave as a result of formation of a radiative cloud shock. Simple reacceleration of pre-existing CRs is generally sufficient to power the observed gamma-ray emission through the decays of ?0-mesons produced in hadronic interactions between high-energy protons (nuclei) and gas in the compressed-cloud layer. This model provides a natural account of the observed synchrotron radiation in SNRs W51C, W44, and IC 443 with flat radio spectral index, which can be ascribed to a combination of secondary and reaccelerated electrons and positrons.

  14. Reacceleration of electrons in supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Pohl, M; Telezhinsky, I

    2014-01-01

    The radio spectra of many shell-type supernova remnants show deviations from those expected on theoretical grounds. In this paper we determine the effect of stochastic reacceleration on the spectra of electrons in the GeV band and at lower energies, and we investigate whether or not reacceleration can explain the observed variation of radio spectral indices. We explicitely calculate the momentum diffusion coefficient for 3 types of turbulence expected downstream of the forward shock: fast-mode waves, small-scale non-resonant modes, and large-scale modes arising from turbulent dynamo activity. Noting that low-energy particles are efficiently coupled to the quasi-thermal plasma, a simplified cosmic-ray transport equation can be formulated and is numerically solved. Only fast-mode waves can provide momentum diffusion fast enough to significantly modify the spectra of particles. Using a synchrotron emissivity that accurately reflects a highly turbulent magnetic field, we calculate the radio spectral index and fin...

  15. Morphology of synchrotron emission in young supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Cassam-Chenai, G; Ballet, J; Ellison, D C; Cassam-Chenai, Gamil; Decourchelle, Anne; Ballet, Jean; Ellison, Donald C.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of test-particle and cosmic-ray modified hydrodynamics, we calculate synchrotron emission radial profiles in young ejecta-dominated supernova remnants (SNRs) evolving in an ambient medium which is uniform in density and magnetic field. We find that, even without any magnetic field amplification by Raleigh-Taylor instabilities, the radio synchrotron emission peaks at the contact discontinuity because the magnetic field is compressed and is larger there than at the forward shock. The X-ray synchrotron emission sharply drops behind the forward shock as the highest energy electrons suffer severe radiative losses.

  16. NON-MAXWELLIAN H? PROFILES IN TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The broad components of the H? lines in most non-radiative shocks can be fit with single-Gaussian components. We have obtained a high-quality spectrum of a position in Tycho's supernova remnant with the MMT and Blue Channel Spectrograph which shows, for the first time, that a single Gaussian does not provide an acceptable fit. This implies that a single temperature Maxwellian particle velocity distribution cannot produce the emission. Possible alternative explanations are explored, including multiple shocks along the line of sight, a pickup ion contribution, a non-thermal tail (Kappa distribution), emission from a precursor in a cosmic ray modified shock, or turbulence. An Hubble Space Telescope image shows a bright knot that might account for a low temperature contribution, and all the possibilities probably contribute at some level. We discuss the implications of each explanation for the shock parameters and physics of collisionless shocks, but cannot conclusively rule out any of them.

  17. Ultra High Energy Neutrinos from Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Mou

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we discuss possible ultra high energy ($\\ge$ TeV) neutrino emission from Supernova Remnants (SNRs), specifically the hadronic gamma ray production models. Recent very high energy (VHE) $\\gamma$ ray observation from SNRs is the main motivation behind this study.

  18. Neutron Star/Supernova Remnant Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspi, V. M.

    1999-01-01

    The evidence for associations between neutron stars and supernova remnants is reviewed. After summarizing the situation for young radio pulsars, I consider the evidence from associations that young neutron stars can have properties very different from those of radio pulsars. This, though still controversial, shakes our simple perception of the Crab pulsar as prototypical of the young neutron star population.

  19. The Cygnus Loop: An Older Supernova Remnant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, William

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Cygnus Loop, one of brightest and most easily studied of the older "remnant nebulae" of supernova outbursts. Discusses some of the historical events surrounding the discovery and measurement of the Cygnus Loop and makes some projections on its future. (TW)

  20. Supernovae and supernova remnants at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    The physical phenomena that are observable with X- and gamma-ray observations of supernovae are discussed with respect to possible high-energy astrophysics experiments. Prompt photospheric emission and its echo are discussed, supernova radioactivity and neutron star effects are examined, and circumstellar and interstellar interaction are reviewed. The primary uncertainties are found to be the hardening of the spectrum by non-LTE effects and the amount of absorption of the radiation from the initial soft X-ray burst. The radioactivity in supernovae is theorized to lead to gamma-ray lines and continuum emission unless the event is low-mass type II. Gamma-ray observations are proposed to examine the efficiency of particle acceleration, and high-resolution spectroscopy can provide data regarding ionization, temperature, composition, and velocities of the X-ray-emitting gas.

  1. Supernova Remnants acceleration of particles and gamma-ray emission

    CERN Document Server

    Völk, H J

    2001-01-01

    Particle acceleration in the dynamically evolving environment of Supernova Remnants is discussed in the framework of a genuinely time-dependent nonlinear theory, assuming spherical symmetry. As a consequence the dependence of injection on the angle between shock normal and external magnetic field direction requires a renormalisation of the calculated particle fluxes. The recent observational results in TeV gamma-rays from such objects are discussed and found to be consistent with theory. We conclude that for the present instrumental sensitivities there are no reasons to draw premature negative conclusions as to the possible origin of the Galactic Cosmic Rays below the "knee" in Supernova Remnants. In addition, theoretical predictions and observations are getting very close. Therefore the coming generation of ground-based and space-borne detectors will decide this basic question of astrophysics.

  2. The Rediscovery of the Antlia Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, Alexander; Benjamin, Robert A.; Gostisha, Martin; Haffner, L. Matthew; Hill, Alex S.; Barger, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    While undertaking a survey of velocity-resolved diffuse optical emission from the [S II] 6716 A line with the Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper, we have rediscovered the Antlia Supernova remnant, a 26 degree diameter remmant near the Gum Nebula that was originally detected in SHASSA (Southern H-alpha Sky Survey Atlas) by P. McCullough in 2002. The original discovery showed this remnant was associated with ¼ keV X-ray emission in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, and argued that Antlia was potentially the closest remnant to the Sun. We will present an analysis of the H-alpha and [S II] lines in this direction: the ratio of these lines indicate the shell is consistent with being a supernova remnant and the velocities allow us to constrain its age. We discuss this remnant in the context of the evolution of the entire Gum Nebula region, noting that its proximity and age make it possible to search for geochemical evidence of this remnant on Earth. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's REU program through NSF Award AST-1004881.

  3. Magnetic fields in supernova remnants and pulsar-wind nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, S P; Bocchino, F

    2011-01-01

    We review the observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) and pulsar-wind nebulae (PWNe) that give information on the strength and orientation of magnetic fields. Radio polarimetry gives the degree of order of magnetic fields, and the orientation of the ordered component. Many young shell supernova remnants show evidence for synchrotron X-ray emission. The spatial analysis of this emission suggests that magnetic fields are amplified by one to two orders of magnitude in strong shocks. Detection of several remnants in TeV gamma rays implies a lower limit on the magnetic-field strength (or a measurement, if the emission process is inverse-Compton upscattering of cosmic microwave background photons). Upper limits to GeV emission similarly provide lower limits on magnetic-field strengths. In the historical shell remnants, lower limits on B range from 25 to 1000 microGauss. Two remnants show variability of synchrotron X-ray emission with a timescale of years. If this timescale is the electron-acceleration or radiativ...

  4. Dust in Historical Galactic Type Ia Supernova Remnants with Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, H L; Nozawa, T; Krause, O; Gomez, E L; Matsuura, M; Barlow, M J; Besel, M -A; Dunne, L; Gear, W K; Hargrave, P; Henning, Th; Ivison, R J; Sibthorpe, B; Swinyard, B M; Wesson, R

    2011-01-01

    The origin of interstellar dust in galaxies is poorly understood, particularly the relative contributions from supernovae and the cool stellar winds of low-intermediate mass stars. Here, we present Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometry at 70-500um of the historical young supernova remnants: Kepler and Tycho; both thought to be the remnants of Type Ia explosion events. We detect a warm dust component in Kepler's remnant with T = 82K and mass 0.0031 M\\odot; this is spatially coincident with thermal X-ray emission optical knots and filaments, consistent with the warm dust originating in the circumstellar material swept up by the primary blast wave of the remnant. Similarly for Tycho's remnant, we detect warm dust at 90K with mass 0.0086 M\\odot. Comparing the spatial distribution of the warm dust with X-rays from the ejecta and swept-up medium, and Ha emission arising from the post-shock edge, we show that the warm dust is swept up interstellar material. We find no evidence of a cool (25-50 K) component of dust with...

  5. "Suzaku Highlight Results on Supernova Remnants"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Highlights of the early Suzaku (formerly Astro-E2) observations of supernova remnants are presented. Suzaku offers unique capabilities for the study of supernova remnants. The unprecedented combination of imaging and spectral resolution below 1 keV in the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) makes possible mapping of C, N and O abundances in Galactic remnants of all ages. The first detection of carbon lines in the Cygnus Loop and mapping of the O VII to O VIII ratio in SN 1006 demonstrate this capability. The XIS sensitivity to soft, low surface brightness emission is exemplified by spectroscopy in the 0.3-1.0 keV band of the North Polar Spur and other Galactic ISM structures. Such observations make possible inferences about plasma conditions and abundances. The sensitivity above 6 keV via a combination of the XIS (below 10 keV) and the Hard X-ray Detector (above 10 keV) allows broad band (2-40 keV) spectroscopy and mapping of extended remnants with hard emission components. These components are generally associated with sites of particle acceleration, and measuring their spectral shape potentially provides information about the TeV electron population and its acceleration and energy loss mechanisms. Examples of such remnants observed by Suzaku are the non-thermal emission dominated remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622, for which flux beyond 30 keV has been detected. The status of the mission and prospects for future groundbreaking observations of supernova remnants will be discussed.

  6. Parametric studies of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Kosenko, D; Decourchelle, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a library of numerical models of cosmic-ray accelerating supernova remnants (SNRs) evolving through a homogeneous ambient medium. We analyse distributions of the different energy components and diffusive shock acceleration time-scales for the models in various conditions. The library comprises a variety of SNR evolutionary scenarios and is used to map remnants with sufficiently known properties. This mapping constrains the respective ambient medium properties and the acceleration efficiency. Employing the library, we derive the ambient medium density, ambient magnetic field strength and the cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency for models of Tycho and SN 1006 remnants and refine the ages of SNR 0509-67.5 and SNR 0519-69.0.

  7. A 3D numerical model for Kepler's supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Roy, J. C.; Esquivel, A.; Velázquez, P. F.; Reynoso, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    We present new 3D numerical simulations for Kepler's supernova remnant. In this work we revisit the possibility that the asymmetric shape of the remnant in X-rays is the product of a Type Ia supernova explosion which occurs inside the wind bubble previously created by an AGB companion star. Due to the large peculiar velocity of the system, the interaction of the strong AGB wind with the interstellar medium results in a bow shock structure. In this new model we propose that the AGB wind is anisotropic, with properties such as mass-loss rate and density having a latitude dependence, and that the orientation of the polar axis of the AGB star is not aligned with the direction of motion. The ejecta from the Type Ia supernova explosion is modelled using a power-law density profile, and we let the remnant evolve for 400 yr. We computed synthetic X-ray maps from the numerical results. We find that the estimated size and peculiar X-ray morphology of Kepler's supernova remnant are well reproduced by considering an AGB mass-loss rate of 10-5 M? yr-1, a wind terminal velocity of 10 km s-1, an ambient medium density of 10-3 cm-3 and an explosion energy of 7 × 1050 erg. The obtained total X-ray luminosity of the remnant in this model reaches 6 × 1050 erg, which is within a factor of 2 of the observed value, and the time evolution of the luminosity shows a rate of decrease in recent decades of ˜2.4 per cent yr-1 that is consistent with the observations.

  8. Exploring the Kinematics of the Oxygen-Rich Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8: Ejecta Shells, Fast-Moving Knots and Shocked Circumstellar Material

    CERN Document Server

    Ghavamian, P; Willliams, T B; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hughes, John P.

    2005-01-01

    We present results of an in-depth optical study of the core collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8 using the Rutgers Fabry-Perot (RFP) imaging spectrometer. Our observations provide a detailed picture of the supernova remnant in the emission lines of [O III] 5007, Halpha and [N II] 6548. The [O III] Fabry-Perot scans reveal a bright crescent-shaped spur of previously known high-velocity (V_radial ~ 1500 km/s) O-rich ejecta located on the eastern side of the remnant. The spur consists of a semi-coherent structure of mostly redshifted material, along with several clumps that have apparently broken out of the more orderly shell-like expansion. The high velocity (>= 600 km/s) component of the spur also displays a scalloped morphology characteristic of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. We also find a large number of fast-moving knots (FMKs) of O-rich ejecta undetected in prior photographic plate images and similar to features seen in Cas A. The position-velocity distribution of the FMKs can be kinematically described ...

  9. On the Origin of Asymmetries in Bilateral Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, S; Reale, F; Peres, G; Petruk, O

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: We investigate whether the morphology of bilateral supernova remnants (BSNRs) observed in the radio band is determined mainly either by a non-uniform interstellar medium (ISM) or by a non-uniform ambient magnetic field. METHODS: We perform 3-D MHD simulations of a spherical SNR shock propagating through a magnetized ISM. Two cases of shock propagation are considered: 1) through a gradient of ambient density with a uniform ambient magnetic field; 2) through a homogeneous medium with a gradient of ambient magnetic field strength. From the simulations, we synthesize the synchrotron radio emission, making different assumptions about the details of acceleration and injection of relativistic electrons. RESULTS: We find that asymmetric BSNRs are produced if the line-of-sight is not aligned with the gradient of ambient plasma density or with the gradient of ambient magnetic field strength. We derive useful parameters to quantify the degree of asymmetry of the remnants that may provide a powerful diagnostic of t...

  10. Interaction of a Pulsar Wind with its Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Y.

    The wind from a young pulsar interacts with the remnant of the supernova which gave it birth, forming in general case a composite supernova remnant. The first point of interaction is the wind termination shock, which is the probable site for the accelera- tion of the electrons and positrons which radiate the observed plerionic emission, and whose location depends on the pressure in the plerionic nebula, which depends in turn on the evolutionary state of the SNR. A better understanding of particle acceleration at the relativistic wind termination shock and of the (magneto)hydrodynamical evolution of the plerion-shell system, when coupled with observations of the wind termination shock region, hold the prospect of constraining the poorly-known wind parameters, in particular its bulk Lorentz factor and magnetization. I will review recent developments in the theory of particle acceleration at relativistic shocks, the hydrodynamical evolution of composite SNRs, and pulsar wind evolution beyond the light cylinder, and show how these can help understand plerion spectra and the pulsar wind parameters, starting with the prototypical example of the Crab Nebula. I will then examine other specific observational examples of pulsar winds in SNRs, in particular G 21.5-0.9 and CTB 80, to illustrate the insights that may be gained from multi-wavelength observations, in particular those that "bridge the gap" between the usual radio and X-ray windows.

  11. A Supernova Remnant Collision with a Stellar Wind

    CERN Document Server

    Velazquez, P F; Raga, A C; Velazquez, Pablo F.; Koenigsberger, Gloria; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2003-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the interaction between supernova ejecta and a stellar wind are presented. We follow the temporal evolution of the shock fronts that are formed through such an interaction and determine the velocities, temperatures and densities. We model the X-ray emission from the SNR-stellar wind collision region and we compare it with recent results from X-ray observations carried out with the Chandra satellite of the SMC supernova remnant SNR 0057-7226 which could be interacting with the wind of the Wolf-Rayet system HD 5980. The simulations predict the presence of shell-like regions of enhanced X-ray emission which are consistent with the presence of X-ray emitting arcs in the Chandra image. Also the observed X-ray luminosity is comparable to the X-ray luminosities we obtain from the simulations for a supernova with an initial energy in the (1-5)E50 erg range.

  12. On neutron star/supernova remnant associations

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2000-01-01

    It is pointed out that a cavity supernova (SN) explosion of a moving massive star could result in a significant offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the supernova remnant (SNR). Therefore: a) the high implied transverse velocities of a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B1610-50, PSR B1757-24, SGR0525-66) could be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR; c) the...

  13. Supernova Ejecta in the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowski, K. J.; Reynolds, S. P.; Hwang, U.; Green, D. A.; Petre, R.; Krishnamurthy, K.; Willett, R.

    2013-01-01

    G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of about 1900, and most likely located near the Galactic Center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities larger than about 18,000 km/s have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially-resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data w...

  14. Central Compact Objects in Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, George G.; Sanwal, Divas; Teter, Marcus A.

    2007-01-01

    Central Compact Objects (CCOs) are a handful of soft X-ray sources located close to the centers of Supernova Remnants and supposed to be young, radio-quiet Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs). A clear understanding of their physics would be crucial in order to complete our view of the birth properties of INSs. We will review the phenomenologies of CCOs, underlining the most important, recent results, and we will discuss the possible relationships of such sources with other classes...

  15. Cosmic Ray Acceleration in Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Olwen

    2010-01-01

    High-energy astrophysics concerns itself with the origin of energetic particles nd photons in the universe. Some astrophysical objects which have been dentified as sources of energetic particles include the sun; flare stars; SNRs (supernova remnants); pulsars and AGN (active galactic nuclei). The search for an extraterrestrial source of radiation began in 1911 when the ustrian physicist Victor Hess initiated a series of balloon flights to determine he radiation intenstity variation as a f...

  16. The supernova remnant in 30 Dor B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical counterpart of the radio/X-ray supernova remnant in 30 Dor B in the LMC has been detected by direct imaging and spectroscopic techniques. Interesting properties at X-ray, optical and radio wavelengths are considered. Because it has a non-thermal X-ray spectrum and a flat radio spectrum, it may be a Crab-like SNR, but more evolved. (author)

  17. Simulation of the growth of the 3D Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Supernova Remnants using an expanding reference frame

    CERN Document Server

    Fraschetti, Federico; Ballet, Jean; Decourchelle, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Context: The Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities generated by the deceleration of a supernova remnant during the ejecta-dominated phase are known to produce finger-like structures in the matter distribution which modify the geometry of the remnant. The morphology of supernova remnants is also expected to be modified when efficient particle acceleration occurs at their shocks. Aims: The impact of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities from the ejecta-dominated to the Sedov-Taylor phase is investigated over one octant of the supernova remnant. We also study the effect of efficient particle acceleration at the forward shock on the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Methods: We modified the Adaptive Mesh Refinement code RAMSES to study with hydrodynamic numerical simulations the evolution of supernova remnants in the framework of an expanding reference frame. The adiabatic index of a relativistic gas between the forward shock and the contact discontinuity mimics the presence of accelerated particles. Results: The ...

  18. Far Ultraviolet Spectral Images of the Vela Supernova Remnant

    OpenAIRE

    Nishikida, K.; Edelstein, J.; Korpela, E. J.; Sankrit, R.; Feuerstein, W. M.; Min, K. W.; Shinn, J-h; Lee, D-h; Yuk, I-s; Jin, H.; Seon, K-i

    2006-01-01

    We present far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectral-imaging observations of the Vela supernova remnant (SNR), obtained with the Spectroscopy of Plasma Evolution from Astrophysical Radiation (SPEAR) instrument, also known as FIMS. The Vela SNR extends 8 degrees in the FUV and its global spectra are dominated by shock-induced emission lines. We find that the global FUV line luminosities can exceed the 0.1-2.5 keV soft X-ray luminosity by an order of magnitude. The global O VI:C III rati...

  19. Eruption of supernova shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial burst of radiation from a supernova occurs as the shock wave which was generated by the explosion in the stellar core propagates into the photosphere. It is shown that the radiative hydrodynamics in the photospheric region should not be very sensitive to whether ordinary diffusion or flux-limited diffusion is used. Examination of the published numerical studies indicates that the radiation from the erupting supernova shock wave accelerates the matter in front of the shock so that the velocity discontinuity vanishes; a gas-viscous shock does not form, and there is no intense burst of hard X-rays above several keV. The published estimates of the softer X-ray emission from supernova shock waves are unaffected by the considerations presented here

  20. New Limits on Enhanced Turbulence at Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L.; Spangler, S.

    2004-12-01

    Theories of cosmic ray acceleration by supernova remnants predict the existence of regions of intense magnetohydrodynamic turbulence upstream and downstream of the shock wave. Such regions are observed in the case of shock waves in the interplanetary medium, and the interplanetary turbulence possesses substantial density fluctuations. In the interplanetary medium, such turbulent regions produce enhanced radio propagation effects such as scintillations and angular broadening. In this paper, we report a search for enhanced angular broadening of the radio sources J0547+273 and J0128+631, observed through the supernova remnants S147 and G127.1+0.5, respectively. The observations were made with the Very Long Baseline Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in the Fall of 2002. Observations were made at wavelengths of 6, 13, 18, and 21 cm. These multifrequency observations allow the scattered and intrinsic structures of these sources to be distinguished. For both sources, angular broadening attributable to interstellar turbulence was measured. The scattering sizes correspond to 1 GHz angular diameters (FWHM) of 8.9 milliarcseconds (mas) for J0128+631 and 6.4 mas for J0547+273, with uncertainties of about 1 mas for both sources. The expected ``incidental'' angular broadening due to the interstellar medium along these lines of sight was estimated from an updated version of the model of Lazio and Cordes (ApJ 479, 238, 1998). The incidental angular size estimates are 9.5 mas and 6.5-7.0 mas for J0128+631 and J0547+273, respectively. We therefore find no evidence for an enhancement of scattering, and thus intense turbulence, associated with either supernova remnant. Quantitative limits on the properties of waves and turbulence will be presented. This work was supported by grant ATM03-54782 from the Division of Atmospheric Sciences, National Science Foundation.

  1. Kinematics of Supernova Remnants: Status of X-Ray Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dewey, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A supernova (SN) explosion drives stellar debris into the circumstellar material (CSM) filling a region on a scale of parsecs with X-ray emitting plasma. The velocities involved in supernova remnants (SNRs), thousands of km/s, can be directly measured with medium and high-resolution X-ray spectrometers and add an important dimension to our understanding of the last stages of the progenitor, the explosion mechanism, and the physics of strong shocks. After touching on the ingredients of SNR kinematics, I present a summary of the still-growing measurement results from SNR X-ray observations. Given the advances in 2D/3D hydrodynamics, data analysis techniques, and especially X-ray instrumentation, it is clear that our view of SNRs will continue to deepen in the decades ahead.

  2. Biermann Mechanism in Primordial Supernova Remnant and Seed Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanayama, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Keitaro; Kotake, Kei; Oguri, Masamune; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2005-11-01

    We study the generation of magnetic fields by the Biermann mechanism in the supernova explosions of the first stars. The Biermann mechanism produces magnetic fields in the shocked region between the bubble and interstellar medium (ISM), even if magnetic fields are absent initially. We perform a series of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the Biermann term and estimate the amplitude and total energy of the magnetic fields that are produced. We find that magnetic fields with amplitude 10-14 to 10-17 G are generated inside the bubble, although the amount of magnetic field generated depends on the specific values of the initial conditions. This corresponds to magnetic fields of 1028-1031 ergs for each supernova remnant, which is strong enough to be the seed magnetic field for a galactic and/or interstellar dynamo.

  3. Biermann mechanism in primordial supernova remnants and seed magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanayama, H.; Takahashi, K.; Kotake, K.; Oguri, M.; Ichiki, K.; Ohno, H.

    2006-06-01

    We have studied the generation of magnetic fields by the Biermann mechanism in the pair-instability supernovae explosions of the first stars. The Biermann mechanism produces magnetic fields in the shocked region between the bubble and interstellar medium (ISM), even if magnetic fields are absent initially. We have performed a series of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the Biermann term and estimate the amplitude and total energy of the produced magnetic fields. We find that magnetic fields with amplitude 10-14-10-17 G are generated inside the bubble, though the amount of magnetic fields generated depend on specific values of initial conditions. This corresponds to magnetic fields with total energy of 1028-1031 erg per each supernova remnant, which is strong enough to be the seed magnetic field for a galactic and/or interstellar dynamo.

  4. Galactic Cosmic Ray Origin Sites: Supernova Remnants and Superbubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, A M; Gladilin, P E; Osipov, S M; 10.1063/1.4772219

    2012-01-01

    We discuss processes in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) acceleration sites - supernova remnants, compact associations of young massive stars, and superbubbles. Mechanisms of efficient conversion of the mechanical power of the outflows driven by supernova shocks and fast stellar winds of young stars into magnetic fields and relativistic particles are discussed. The high efficiency of particle acceleration in the sources implies the importance of nonlinear feedback effects in a symbiotic relationship where the magnetic turbulence required to accelerate the CRs is created by the accelerated CRs themselves. Non-thermal emission produced by relativistic particles (both those confined in and those that escape from the cosmic accelerators) can be used to constrain the basic physical models of the GCR sources. High resolution X-ray synchrotron imaging, combined with GeV-TeV gamma ray spectra, is a powerful tool to probe the maximum energies of accelerated particles. Future MeV regime spectroscopy will provide unique inform...

  5. Spitzer Spectral Mapping of Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, J D T; Delaney, Tracey; Rho, Jeonghee; Gomez, Haley; Kozasa, Takashi; Reach, William; Isensee, Karl

    2008-01-01

    We present the global distribution of fine structure infrared line emission in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph. We identify emission from ejecta materials in the interior, prior to their encounter with the reverse shock, as well as from the post-shock bright ring. The global electron density increases by >~100 at the shock to ~10^4 cm^-3, providing evidence for strong radiative cooling. There is also a dramatic change in ionization state at the shock, with the fading of emission from low ionization interior species like [SiII], giving way to [SIV] and, at even further distances, high-energy X-rays from hydrogenic silicon. Two compact, crescent-shaped clumps with highly enhanced neon abundance are arranged symmetrically around the central neutron star. These neon crescents are very closely aligned with the "kick" direction of the compact object from the remnant's expansion center, tracing a new axis of explosion asymmetry. They indicate tha...

  6. Escape of Secondary Cosmic-Ray Positrons Produced in a Supernova Remnant

    OpenAIRE

    Kawanaka, Norita

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the acceleration and escape of secondary particles, especially positrons produced by hadronic interactions in a supernova remnant (SNR) shock. During the shock acceleration, protons would interact with ambient gas and produce charged secondary particles, which would also be accelerated in a SNR and injected into the interstellar medium as cosmic-rays (CRs). Some previous studies showed that the resulting positron spectrum at the SNR shock is harder than the primar...

  7. Supernovae. The bubble-like interior of the core-collapse supernova remnant Cassiopeia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Fesen, Robert A

    2015-01-30

    The death of massive stars is believed to involve aspheric explosions initiated by the collapse of an iron core. The specifics of these catastrophic explosions remain uncertain, due partly to limited observational constraints on asymmetries deep inside the star. Here we present near-infrared observations of the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, descendant of a type IIb core-collapse explosion, and a three-dimensional map of its interior unshocked ejecta. The remnant's interior has a bubble-like morphology that smoothly connects to and helps explain the multiringed structures seen in the remnant's bright reverse-shocked main shell of expanding debris. This internal structure may originate from turbulent mixing processes that encouraged outwardly expanding plumes of radioactive (56)Ni-rich ejecta. If this is true, substantial amounts of its decay product, (56)Fe, may still reside in these interior cavities. PMID:25635094

  8. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of the Vela supernova remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Danziger, I J; Wood, R

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary ultraviolet spectrum secured from the IUE satellite, of a bright filament in the Vela supernova remnant, displays both emission-line and continuum components. The emission-line spectrum shows the same anomalously low carbon-line strength reported previously for the Cygnus Loop. The continuum emission may be explained in terms of normal recombination processes in hydrogen and helium in a dense hot knot which dominates the field. The interpretation of the UV spectrum is supported by optical data for this region of Vela. (9 refs).

  9. Cosmic ray acceleration search in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Francesco; Di Venere, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Galactic Supernova Remnants (SNRs) are among the best candidates as source of cosmic rays due to energetics, observed rate of explosion and as possible sites where the Fermi mechanisms naturally plays a key role. Evidence of hadronic acceleration processes taking place in SNRs are being collected with the Fermi-LAT, whose sensitivity in the range 100MeV-100GeV is crucial for disentangling possible hadronic contribution from inverse Compton or bremsstrahlung leptonic component. A survey of the detected SNRs will be given, focusing the attention on the role of the environment and the evolution stage of the SNR in the interpretation of the observed ?-ray spectra.

  10. 5 GHz observations of galactic supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerhofer, P. E.; Kundu, M. R.; Becker, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Brightness and polarization distributions over several galactic supernova remnants have been observed at a wavelength of 6 cm. These observations have confirmed the nonthermal nature of most of the observed sources. It is suggested, however, that the objects G33.1-0.1 (KES 78), G35.6-0.0, G37.6-0.1, G37.7+0.1, and G37.9-0.4 are thermal. The results of these observations are presented in the form of total intensity contour maps with superimposed polarization vectors.

  11. Modeling of the Radio Emission from the Vela Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Sushch, Iurii

    2013-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are widely considered to be sites of Galactic cosmic ray (CR) acceleration. Vela is one of the nearest Galactic composite SNRs to Earth accompanied by the Vela pulsar and its pulsar wind nebula (PWN) Vela X. The Vela SNR is one of the most studied remnants and it benefits from precise estimates of various physical parameters such as distance and age. Therefore, it is a perfect object for a detailed study of physical processes in SNRs. The Vela SNR expands into the highly inhomogeneous cloudy interstellar medium (ISM) and its dynamics is determined by the heating and evaporation of ISM clouds. It features an asymmetrical X-ray morphology which is explained by the expansion into two media with different densities. This could occur if the progenitor of the Vela SNR exploded close to the edge of the stellar wind bubble of the nearby Wolf-Rayet star $\\gamma^2$Velorum and hence one part of the remnant expands into the bubble. The interaction of the ejecta and the main shock of the remnant ...

  12. Infrared [Fe II] and Dust Emissions from Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are strong thermal emitters of infrared radiation. The most prominent lines in the near-infrared spectra of SNRs are [Fe II] lines. The [Fe II] lines are from shocked dense atomic gases, so they trace SNRs in dense environments. After briefly reviewing the physics of the [Fe II] emission in SNR shocks, I describe the observational results which show that there are two groups of SNRs bright in [Fe II] emission: middle-aged SNRs interacting with molecular clouds and young core-collapse SNRs in dense circumstellar medium. The SNRs belonging to the former group are also bright in near-infrared H2 emission, indicating that both atomic and molecular shocks are pervasive in these SNRs. The SNRs belonging to the latter group have relatively small radii in general, implying that most of them are likely the remnants of SN IIL/b or SN IIn that had strong mass loss before the explosion. I also comment on the ``[Fe II]-H2 reversal'' in SNRs and on using the [Fe II]-line luminosity as an indicator of the supernova (SN) rate in galaxies. In the mid- and far-infrared regimes, thermal dust emission is dominant. The dust in SNRs can be heated either by collisions with gas species in a hot plasma or by radiation from a shock front. I discuss the characteristics of the infrared morphology of the SNRs interacting with molecular clouds and their dust heating processes. Finally, I give a brief summary of the detection of SN dust and crystalline silicate dust in SNRs.

  13. Azimuthal Density Variations Around the Rim of Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brian J; Ghavamian, Parviz; Hewitt, John W; Mao, S Alwin; Petre, Robert; Reynolds, Stephen P; Blondin, John M

    2013-01-01

    {\\it Spitzer} images of Tycho's supernova remnant in the mid-infrared reveal limb-brightened emission from the entire periphery of the shell and faint filamentary structures in the interior. As with other young remnants, this emission is produced by dust grains, warmed to $\\sim 100$ K in the post-shock environment by collisions with energetic electrons and ions. The ratio of the 70 to 24 $\\mu$m fluxes is a diagnostic of the dust temperature, which in turn is a sensitive function of the plasma density. We find significant variations in the 70/24 flux ratio around the periphery of Tycho's forward shock, implying order-of-magnitude variations in density. While some of these are likely localized interactions with dense clumps of the interstellar medium, we find an overall gradient in the ambient density surrounding Tycho, with densities 3-10 times higher in the NE than in the SW. This large density gradient is qualitatively consistent with the variations in the proper motion of the shock observed in radio and X-r...

  14. Infrared [Fe II] and Dust Emissions from Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Koo, Bon-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are strong thermal emitters of infrared radiation. The most prominent lines in the near-infrared spectra of SNRs are [Fe II] lines. The [Fe II] lines are from shocked dense atomic gases, so they trace SNRs in dense environments. After briefly reviewing the physics of the [Fe II] emission in SNR shocks, I describe the observational results which show that there are two groups of SNRs bright in [Fe II] emission: middle-aged SNRs interacting with molecular clouds and young core-collapse SNRs in dense circumstellar medium. The SNRs belonging to the former group are also bright in near-infrared H$_2$ emission, indicating that both atomic and molecular shocks are pervasive in these SNRs. The SNRs belonging to the latter group have relatively small radii in general, implying that most of them are likely the remnants of SN IIL/b or SN IIn that had strong mass loss before the explosion. I also comment on the "[Fe II]-H$_2$ reversal" in SNRs and on using the [Fe II]-line luminosity as an indic...

  15. NUMERICAL STUDY OF THE VISHNIAC INSTABILITY IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vishniac instability is thought to explain the complex structure of radiative supernova remnants in their Pressure-Driven Thin Shell (PDTS) phase after a blast wave (BW) has propagated from a central explosion. In this paper, the propagation of the BW and the evolution of the PDTS stage are studied numerically with the two-dimensional (2D) code HYDRO-MUSCL for a finite-thickness shell expanding in the interstellar medium (ISM). Special attention is paid to the adiabatic index, ?, and three distinct values are taken for the cavity (?1), the shell (?2), and the ISM (?3) with the condition ?2 1, ?3. This low value of ?2 accounts for the high density in the shell achieved by a strong radiative cooling. Once the spherical background flow is obtained, the evolution of a 2D-axisymmetric perturbation is computed from the linear to the nonlinear regime. The overstable mechanism, previously demonstrated theoretically by E. T. Vishniac in 1983, is recovered numerically in the linear stage and is expected to produce and enhance anisotropies and clumps on the shock front, leading to the disruption of the shell in the nonlinear phase. The period of the increasing oscillations and the growth rate of the instability are derived from several points of view (the position of the perturbed shock front, mass fluxes along the shell, and density maps), and the most unstable mode differing from the vanstable mode differing from the value given by Vishniac is computed. In addition, the influence of several parameters (the Mach number, amplitude and wavelength of the perturbation, and adiabatic index) is examined and for wavelengths that are large enough compared to the shell thickness, the same conclusion arises: in the late stage of the evolution of the radiative supernova remnant, the instability is dampened and the angular initial deformation of the shock front is smoothed while the mass density becomes uniform with the angle. As a result, our model shows that the supernova remnant returns to a stable evolution and the Vishniac instability does not lead to the fragmentation of the shock as predicted by the theory.

  16. A New Optical Sample of Supernova Remnants in M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Shawn M.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Duric, Nebojsa; Smith, R. Chris

    1998-07-01

    We present a new and larger sample of supernova remnants in the nearby spiral galaxy M33. The sample is based upon CCD interference filter observations obtained with the Kitt Peak 4 m telescope and spectroscopic observations obtained with the Multiple Mirror Telescope. Using optical emission-line ratios, supplemented by a radio continuum map of M33 (Duric et al.; Gordon et al.), we have identified 98 supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, of which 53 were previously unknown. We have obtained spectra of 27 SNR candidates, bringing the total number of M33 SNRs for which spectra are available to 72. All the spectra show the characteristic signature of shock-heated gas, which leads us to believe that the rest of the candidates are also supernova remnants. The large sample provides a useful database to investigate the global properties of SNRs. In this paper, we present a new cumulative number-diameter [N(

  17. Prospects for SNIa Explosion Mechanism Identification Through Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes, Carles; Bravo, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    We present the first results from an ongoing work aimed to use supernovae remnants to discriminate among different type Ia supernovae explosion models. We have computed the hydrodynamic interaction of supernova ejecta with the interstellar medium, obtaining the evolution of the density, temperature and ionization structure of the remnant. We have used ejecta profiles obtained from 1D hydrodynamic calculations of the different explosion mechanisms that are currently under deb...

  18. The fate of supernova remnants near quiescent supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Rimoldi, Alex; Piran, Tsvi; Zwart, Simon Portegies

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting observational evidence that most galactic nuclei host both supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and young populations of stars. With an abundance of massive stars, core-collapse supernovae are expected in SMBH spheres of influence. We develop a novel numerical method, based on the Kompaneets approximation, to trace supernova remnant (SNR) evolution in these hostile environments, where radial gas gradients and SMBH tides are present. We trace the adiabatic evolution of the SNR shock until 50% of the remnant is either in the radiative phase or is slowed down below the SMBH Keplerian velocity and is sheared apart. In this way, we obtain shapes and lifetimes of SNRs as a function of the explosion distance from the SMBH, the gas density profile and the SMBH mass. As an application, we focus here exclusively on quiescent SMBHs, because their light may not hamper detections of SNRs and because we can take advantage of the unsurpassed detailed observations of our Galactic Centre. Assuming that propertie...

  19. Discovery of optical candidate supernova remnants in Sagittarius

    CERN Document Server

    Alikakos, J; Christopoulou, P E; Goudis, C D

    2012-01-01

    During an [O III] survey for planetary nebulae, we identified a region in Sagittarius containing several candidate Supernova Remnants and obtained deep optical narrow-band images and spectra to explore their nature. The images of the unstudied area have been obtained in the light of Halpha+[N II], [S II] and [O III]. The resulting mosaic covers an area of 1.4x1.0 deg^2 where filamentary and diffuse emission was discovered, suggesting the existence of more than one supernova remnants (SNRs) in the area. Deep long slit spectra were also taken of eight different regions. Both the flux calibrated images and the spectra show that the emission from the filamentary structures originates from shock-heated gas, while the photo-ionization mechanism is responsible for the diffuse emission. Part of the optical emission is found to be correlated with the radio at 4850 MHz suggesting their association, while the WISE infrared emission found in the area at 12 and 22 micron marginally correlates with the optical. The presenc...

  20. Onion-shell model of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, T. J.; Volk, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    A method is devised to approximate the spatially averaged momentum distribution function for the accelerated particles at the end of the active lifetime of a supernova remnant. The analysis is confined to the test particle approximation and adiabatic losses are oversimplified, but unsteady shock motion, evolving shock strength, and non-uniform gas flow effects on the accelerated particle spectrum are included. Monoenergetic protons are injected at the shock front. It is found that the dominant effect on the resultant accelerated particle spectrum is a changing spectral index with shock strength. High energy particles are produced in early phases, and the resultant distribution function is a slowly varying power law over several orders of magnitude, independent of the specific details of the supernova remnant.

  1. N157B: X-ray evidence for a Crab-like supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Eric V.; Wang, Q. Daniel

    1996-01-01

    The X-ray observation of the supernova remnant N 157B is described. The Rosat High Resolution Imager (HRI) X-ray emission from the remnant was decomposed into point-like sources. The spectra showed abundance-enhanced neon and magnesium lines, indicating that the remnant originated in a massive progenitor. The flat and featureless data from the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) confirm the Crab-like nature of the remnant. By interpreting both the thermal spectral component and the shell as representing the remnant's outer shock, the age of the remnant was estimated to be 4 x 10(exp 3) yr and the energy release approximately 2 x 10(exp 50) erg.

  2. Physical Structure and Nature of Supernova Remnants in M101

    CERN Document Server

    Franchetti, N A; Chu, Y -H; Dunne, B C; Pannuti, T G; Kuntz, K D; Chen, C -H R; Grimes, C K; Aldridge, T M

    2012-01-01

    Supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in the giant spiral galaxy M101 have been previously identified from ground-based H-alpha and [SII] images. We have used archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) H-alpha and broad-band images as well as stellar photometry of 55 SNR candidates to examine their physical structure, interstellar environment, and underlying stellar population. We have also obtained high-dispersion echelle spectra to search for shocked high-velocity gas in 18 SNR candidates, and identified X-ray counterparts to SNR candidates using data from archival observations made by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Twenty-one of these 55 SNR candidates studied have X-ray counterparts, although one of them is a known ultra-luminous X-ray source. The multi-wavelength information has been used to assess the nature of each SNR candidate. We find that within this limited sample, ~16% are likely remnants of Type Ia SNe and ~45% are remnants of core-collapse SNe. In addition, about ~36% are large candidates which we sugg...

  3. ASCA observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant sample: Typing supernovae from their remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John P.; Hayashi, Ichizo; Helfand, David; Hwang, Una; Itoh, Masayuki; Kirshner, Robert; Koyama, Katsuji; Markert, Thomas; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Woo, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    We present our first results from a study of the supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from ASCA. The three remnants we have analyzed to date, 0509-67.5, 0519-69.0, and N103B, are among the smallest, and presumably also the youngest, in the Cloud. The X-ray spectra of these SNRs show strong K alpha emission lines of silicon, sulfur, argon, and calcium with no evidence for corresponding lines of oxygen, neon, or magnesium. The dominant feature in the spectra is a broad blend of emission lines around 1 keV which we attribute to L-shell emission lines of iron. Model calculations (Nomoto, Thielemann, & Yokoi 1984) show that the major products of nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernovae (SNs) are the elements from silicon to iron, as observed here. The calculated nucleosynthetic yields from Type Ib and II SNs are shown to be qualitatively inconsistent with the data. We conclude that the SNs which produced these remnants were of Type Ia. This finding also confirms earlier suggestions that the class of Balmer-dominated remnants arise from Type Ia SN explosions. Based on these early results from the LMC SNR sample, we find that roughly one-half of the SNRs produced in the LMC within the last approximately 1500 yr came from Type Ia SNs.

  4. Generation of Cosmic rays in Historical Supernova Remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of observations of two types of Galactic supernova remnants with the SHALON mirror Cherenkov telescope of Tien-Shan high-mountain Observatory: the shell-type supernova remnants Tycho, Cas A and IC 443; plerions Crab Nebula, 3c58(SN1181 and Geminga (probably plerion. The experimental data have confirmed the prediction of the theory about the hadronic generation mechanism of very high energy (800 GeV - 100 TeV gamma-rays in Tycho's supernova remnant. The data obtainedsuggest that the very high energy gamma-ray emission in the objects being discussedis different in origin.

  5. HST/ACS Narrowband Imaging of the Kepler Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P.; Frattare, Lisa M.; Rudnick, Lawrence; DeLaney, Tracey; Harrus, Ilana M.; Ennis, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    We present narrowband images of the Kepler supernova remnant obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The images, with an angular resolution of 0.05" reveal the structure of the emitting gas in unprecedented detail. Radiative and nonradiative shocks are found in close proximity, unresolvable in gromd-based spectra, indicating that the pre-shock medium is highly clumped. The ionization structure, traced by differences in the [0 111] to [N 11] flux ratio, varies on subarcsecond scales. The variation is due to 110th differences in shock velocity as well as gradients in the evolutionary stage of the shocks. A prollinent complex of knots protruding beyond the boundary of the rennallt in the northwest is found to consist of bright radiative knots, collected by arcuate nonradiative filaments. Based on the coincidence of the optical emission with a bright isolated knot of X-ray emission, we infer that this feature is due to a Rayleigh-Taylor finger that formed at the contact discontinuity and overtook the primary blast wave.

  6. The Hot and Energetic Universe: The astrophysics of supernova remnants and the interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Decourchelle, A; Badenes, C; Ballet, J; Bamba, A; Bocchino, F; Kaastra, J; Kosenko, D; Lallement, R; Lee, J; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Miceli, M; Paerels, F; Petre, R; Pinto, C; Plucinsky, P; Renaud, M; Sasaki, M; Smith, R; Tatischeff, V; Tiengo, A; Valencic, L; Vink, J; Wang, D; Wilms, J

    2013-01-01

    The study of both supernova remnants and the hot and cold phases of the interstellar medium are essential for understanding the final stages of stellar evolution and their feedback on the evolution of galaxies through injection of energy and heavy elements. These studies are also crucial for understanding the physics of supernovae, their cosmological implication, and the origin of galactic cosmic rays. The unique capabilities of Athena+ will allow us to explore a new parameter space. Spatially-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy using Athena+ X-IFU of young remnants will allow to characterize individual parcels of ejected material in the line of sight in terms of kinematics, ionization and composition, providing access to the three dimensional geometry of the explosion. Athena+ will also allow studying shock physics and particle acceleration in supernova remnants, as well as their interaction with their environment. Athena+ X-IFU will also characterize the ionization mechanisms competing in forming the comp...

  7. High-velocity gas associated with the supernova remnant S147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The star HD 36665, which lies behind the old supernova remnant S 147, has been observed with the IUE satellite. High-velocity interstellar absorption components of Fe II, Mg I, Mg II, Al II, C II and Si II were detected which originate in gas associated with the remnant. No such high-velocity lines were observed in the IUE spectrum of HD 40111 which is offset from the remnant. The high-velocity ultraviolet lines, together with new ground-based observations of high-velocity Ca II in HD 36665, have been analysed to determine column densities and to estimate the physical conditions in the high-velocity gas. The estimated level of depletions in the high-velocity gas is somewhat less than that normally observed in low-velocity interstellar gas, suggesting that sputtering of grains has occurred in the shock front of the supernova remnant. (author)

  8. Optical spectrum of the unusual supernova remnant G109.1 - 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Similarities in the x-ray and radio spectra of the new supernova remnant G109.1 - 1.0 and the SS433 - W50 pair have been investigated. A spectrum of the faint optical filaments associated with the large shell-like radio source has been obtained showing strong [S II] lambdalambda 6,717,6,731 emission relative to H?, which is characteristic of shock-heated gas and which confirms that the filaments are part of the supernova remnant, and is generally similar to spectra of the Cygnus Loop. By assuming pressure equilibrium between the optical filaments and the interior of the remnant an initial energy of 3 x 1051 erg is found, which is higher than that found from x-ray measurements. When compared with W50, the G109.1 - 1.0 remnant has filaments of higher density, and weaker [N II] emission. (U.K.)

  9. X-ray emission of the hot gas and of accelerated particles in supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current observations seem to support the theory that the shock wave of supernova remnants accelerate electrons (representing about 1% of cosmic rays) of the interstellar medium up to energies of about 1015 eV. However there is still no solid evidence that supernova remnants also accelerate protons (major component of cosmic rays). The X-ray observations of those supernova remnants with the satellite XMM-Newton can provide crucial information on the acceleration mechanisms and on this population of accelerated particles. This thesis presents the X-ray analysis of the supernova remnants RX J1713.7-3946 and SN 1006 for which it has been shown that they accelerate electrons efficiently. As a result, these objects are very good targets to compare the theoretical models of acceleration to the observation. For the first object, I constructed through new XMM-Newton observations, the first high-angular resolution mosaic of the entire supernova remnant. I then compared the X- and gamma-ray emission of this object in order to understand the nature of the gamma-ray emission. This spectral and morphological comparison allowed me to discuss the two possible origins of the gamma-ray radiation (issued by electrons or by protons). For SN 1006, I studied the density of the ambient medium in which the shock wave propagates. This density is a key parameter for the hydrodynamical evolution of the remnant and for studying a future gamma-ray emission. The study of X-ray emission of the gas heated by the shock wave allowed me to better estimate of the value of the density so far poorly constrained for this object. (author)

  10. Cygnus Superbubble as the remnant of a peculiar supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytic solution is obtained for the evolution of a supernova remnant during the radiative-cooling phase. The Cygnus Superbubble x-ray source could have been formed by the explosion of a single supernova releasing an energy of 1052--1053 erg. Analysis of the light curve of the NGC 1058 supernova 1961v demonstrates that it represents a roughly-equal2 x 1052 erg outburst of a supermassive (roughly-equal103 M/sub sun/) star. Giant shell sources may form an evolutionary sequence, exemplified by R136a as the presupernova, supernova 1961v, and the Superbubble as the remnant

  11. Five Years in the Mid-Infrared Development of the SN 1987A Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eliahu

    2009-01-01

    Spitzer has been used to monitor the mid-IR evolution of SN 1987A over a 5 year period as it develops into a supernova remnant through interaction with its surrounding environment. This interaction is dominated by the collision of the ejecta with the pre-existing equatorial ring. The mid-IR continuum indicates an increasing mass of shock-heated silicate dust, but without any significant change in temperature of the dust grains. Comparison of the IR and X-ray evolution of the remnant can be used to infer plasma conditions and the processing of the dust in the shock-heated X-ray emitting gas.

  12. Multi-dimensional simulations of the expanding supernova remnant of SN 1987A

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, T M; Reville, B; Ng, C -Y; Bicknell, G V; Sutherland, R S; Wagner, A Y

    2014-01-01

    The expanding remnant from SN 1987A is an excellent laboratory for investigating the physics of supernovae explosions. There are still a large number of outstanding questions, such the reason for the asymmetric radio morphology, the structure of the pre-supernova environment, and the efficiency of particle acceleration at the supernova shock. We explore these questions using three-dimensional simulations of the expanding remnant between days 820 and 10,000 after the supernova. We combine a hydrodynamical simulation with semi-analytic treatments of diffusive shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification to derive radio emission as part of an inverse problem. Simulations show that an asymmetric explosion, combined with magnetic field amplification at the expanding shock, is able to replicate the persistent one-sided radio morphology of the remnant. We use an asymmetric Truelove & McKee progenitor with an envelope mass of $10 M_{\\sun}$ and an energy of $1.5 \\times 10^{44} J$. A termination shock in the...

  13. DUST IN A TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR: SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF KEPLER'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of the relatively poorly understood progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae is of great importance in astrophysics, particularly given the important cosmological role that these supernovae play. Kepler's supernova remnant, the result of a Type Ia supernova, shows evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), suggesting a single-degenerate progenitor system. We present 7.5-38 ?m infrared (IR) spectra of the remnant, obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope, dominated by emission from warm dust. Broad spectral features at 10 and 18 ?m, consistent with various silicate particles, are seen throughout. These silicates were likely formed in the stellar outflow from the progenitor system during the asymptotic giant branch stage of evolution, and imply an oxygen-rich chemistry. In addition to silicate dust, a second component, possibly carbonaceous dust, is necessary to account for the short-wavelength Infrared Spectrograph and Infrared Array Camera data. This could imply a mixed chemistry in the atmosphere of the progenitor system. However, non-spherical metallic iron inclusions within silicate grains provide an alternative solution. Models of collisionally heated dust emission from fast shocks (>1000 km s–1) propagating into the CSM can reproduce the majority of the emission associated with non-radiative filaments, where dust temperatures are ?80-100 K, but fail to account for the highest temperatures detected, in e highest temperatures detected, in excess of 150 K. We find that slower shocks (a few hundred km s–1) into moderate density material (n0 ? 50-250 cm–3) are the only viable source of heating for this hottest dust. We confirm the finding of an overall density gradient, with densities in the north being an order of magnitude greater than those in the south.

  14. Multi-dimensional Simulations of the Expanding Supernova Remnant of SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Reville, B.; Ng, C.-Y.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.; Wagner, A. Y.

    2014-10-01

    The expanding remnant from SN 1987A is an excellent laboratory for investigating the physics of supernovae explosions. There is still a large number of outstanding questions, such as the reason for the asymmetric radio morphology, the structure of the pre-supernova environment, and the efficiency of particle acceleration at the supernova shock. We explore these questions using three-dimensional simulations of the expanding remnant between days 820 and 10,000 after the supernova. We combine a hydrodynamical simulation with semi-analytic treatments of diffusive shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification to derive radio emission as part of an inverse problem. Simulations show that an asymmetric explosion, combined with magnetic field amplification at the expanding shock, is able to replicate the persistent one-sided radio morphology of the remnant. We use an asymmetric Truelove & McKee progenitor with an envelope mass of 10 M ? and an energy of 1.5 × 1044 J. A termination shock in the progenitor's stellar wind at a distance of 0.''43-0.''51 provides a good fit to the turn on of radio emission around day 1200. For the H II region, a minimum distance of 0.''63 ± 0.''01 and maximum particle number density of (7.11 ± 1.78) × 107 m-3 produces a good fit to the evolving average radius and velocity of the expanding shocks from day 2000 to day 7000 after explosion. The model predicts a noticeable reduction, and possibly a temporary reversal, in the asymmetric radio morphology of the remnant after day 7000, when the forward shock left the eastern lobe of the equatorial ring.

  15. X-ray imaging of supernova remnants and neutron stars - can we distinguish Type I remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using X-ray imaging data to differentiate between Type I and Type II supernovae and to detect neutron stars in Type I remnants is considered. Based on an examination of Einstein Observatory X-ray images of supernova remnants, it is pointed out that, with the exceptions of Cas A and the Crab-like remnants, the structure of the interstellar medium dominates the X-ray emissivity of a remnent from early in its life. Imaging observations may, however, provide evidence for the type of event that created the remnant by allowing the estimation of the amount of ejecta thrown off in the explosion. X-ray observations have also been used to provide upper limits to the thermal emission from possible neutron stars in the five non-Crab-like historical remnants, which may indicate the lack of such objects and thereby impose constraints on the supernova model

  16. Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Dwek, Eli; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jonghee; Hwang, Una

    2013-01-01

    The ejecta of the Cas A supernova remnant has a complex morphology, consisting of dense fast-moving line emitting knots and diffuse X-ray emitting regions that have encountered the reverse shock, as well as more slowly expanding, unshocked regions of the ejecta. Using the Spitzer 5-35 micron IRS data cube, and Herschel 70, 100, and 160 micron PACS data, we decompose the infrared emission from the remnant into distinct spectral components associated with the different regions of the ejecta. Such decomposition allows the association of different dust species with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories, and determination of the dust heating mechanisms. Our decomposition identified three characteristic dust spectra. The first, most luminous one, exhibits strong emission features at approx. 9 and 21 micron, and a weaker 12 micron feature, and is closely associated with the ejecta knots that have strong [Ar II] 6.99 micron and [Ar III] 8.99 micron emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low MgO-to-SiO2 ratios. A second, very different dust spectrum that has no indication of any silicate features, is best fit by Al2O3 dust and is found in association with ejecta having strong [Ne II] 12.8 micron and [Ne III] 15.6 micron emission lines. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that best matched by magnesium silicates with relatively high MgO-to-SiO2 ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray emitting shocked ejecta and the shocked interstellar/circumstellar material. All three spectral components include an additional featureless cold dust component of unknown composition. Colder dust of indeterminate composition is associated with [Si II] 34.8 micron emission from the interior of the SNR, where the reverse shock has not yet swept up and heated the ejecta. The dust mass giving rise to the warm dust component is about approx. 0.1solar M. However, most of the dust mass is associated with the unidentified cold dust component. Its mass could be anywhere between 0.1 and 1 solar M, and is primarily limited by the mass of refractory elements in the ejecta. Given the large uncertainty in the dust mass, the question of whether supernovae can produce enough dust to account for ISM dust masses in the local and high-z universe remains largely unresolved.

  17. Coronal interstellar gas and supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interstellar gas can be heated to coronal temperatures by three sources: energetic particles, x-rays, and shock waves. The first two heat sources may be steady; if so, the resulting state of the gas is a function of a single parameter, the ratio of the gas pressure to the flux of particles or radiation. The author describes the atomic processes that determine the local state and spectral emissivity of the gas. Then the author describes the stationary equilibrium states that result from steady sources of heating or ionization and discuss qualitatively how these results will be modified when the source is transient. The author describes the physics of the interfaces between hot and cool interstellar gas, where electron thermal conduction may play an important role. Finally, the author shows how these concepts may be used to describe the structure and evolution of expanding interstellar shells caused by the action of supernovae and stellar winds

  18. Discovery of optical candidate supernova remnants in Sagittarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikakos, J.; Boumis, P.; Christopoulou, P. E.; Goudis, C. D.

    2012-08-01

    During an [O III] survey of planetary nebulae, we identified a region in Sagittarius containing several candidate supernova remants (SNRs) and obtained deep optical narrow-band images and spectra to explore their nature. We obtained images of the area of interest by acquiring observations in the emission lines of H? + [N II], [S II] and [O III]. The resulting mosaic covers an area of 1.4° × 1.0°, where both filamentary and diffuse emission was discovered, suggesting that there is more than one SNR in the area. Deep long-slit spectra were also taken of eight different regions. Both the flux-calibrated images and the spectra show that the emission from the filamentary structures originates from shock-heated gas, while the photo-ionization mechanism is responsible for the diffuse emission. Part of the optical emission is found to be correlated with the radio at 4850 MHz suggesting that they are related, while the infrared emission found in the area at 12 ?m and 22 ?m marginally correlates with the optical. The presence of the [O III] emission line in one of the candidate SNRs implies that the shock velocities in the interstellar "clouds" are between 120 km s-1 and 200 km s-1, while its absence in the other candidate SNRs indicates that the shock velocities there are slower. For all candidate remnants, the [S II] ?? 6716/6731 ratio indicates that the electron densities are below 240 cm-3, while the H? emission is measured to be between 0.6 and 41 × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. The existence of eight pulsars within 1.5° of the center of the candidate SNRs also implies that there are many SNRs in the area as well as that the detected optical emission could be part of a number of supernovae explosions.

  19. Strong evidence for hadron acceleration in Tycho's supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlino, G.; Caprioli, D.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Very recent gamma-ray observations of G120.1+1.4 (Tycho's) supernova remnant (SNR) by Fermi-LAT and VERITAS have provided new fundamental pieces of information for understanding particle acceleration and nonthermal emission in SNRs. Aims: We want to outline a coherent description of Tycho's properties in terms of SNR evolution, shock hydrodynamics, and multiwavelength emission by accounting for particle acceleration at the forward shock via first-order Fermi mechanism. Methods: We adopt here a quick and reliable semi-analytical approach to nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration. It includes magnetic field amplification due to resonant streaming instability and the dynamical backreaction on the shock of both cosmic rays (CRs) and self-generated magnetic turbulence. Results: We find that Tycho's forward shock accelerates protons up to at least 500 TeV, channelling into CRs about 10% of its kinetic energy. Moreover, the CR-induced streaming instability is consistent with all the observational evidence of very efficient magnetic field amplification (up to ~300 ?G). In such a strong magnetic field, the velocity of the Alfvén waves scattering CRs in the upstream is expected to be enhanced and to make accelerated particles feel an effective compression factor lower than 4, in turn leading to an energy spectrum steeper than the standard prediction ? E-2. This effect is crucial for explaining GeV-to-TeV gamma-ray spectrum as the result of neutral pions decay produced in nuclear collisions between accelerated nuclei and the background gas. Conclusions: The self-consistency of such hadronic scenario, along with the inability of the concurrent leptonic mechanism (inverse Compton scattering of relativistic electrons on several photon backgrounds) to reproduce both the shape and the normalization of the detected gamma-ray emission, represents the first clear and direct radiative evidence that hadron acceleration occurs efficiently in young Galactic SNRs.

  20. Supernova Remnant Progenitor Masses in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Jennings, Zachary G; Murphy, Jeremiah W; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Gilbert, Karoline M; Dolphin, Andrew E; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Using HST photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main sequence masses (MZAMS) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and use CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history (SFH) of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star and assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the MZAMS from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNR. We identify significant young SF around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of 2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining 6 SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped ...

  1. Expansion of the Optical Remnant from Tycho’s Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putko, Joseph; Winkler, P. Frank; Blair, William P.

    2015-01-01

    Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) is the expanding remnant from SN 1572, the penultimate Galactic supernova to have been recorded by contemporary observers. Its optical light is almost exclusively faint hydrogen Balmer emission around the periphery of the SNR, produced where fast nonradiative shocks encounter partly neutral preshock interstellar material. A variety of filaments, presumably thin sheets oriented tangentially, surround about one-third of the radio/X-ray shell. We have used CCD images, taken from KPNO over seven epochs from 1986 to 2009, to give the first optical expansion measurement of Tycho's SNR of the CCD era. Thirty filaments were identified and measured; the majority of them are at or near the remnant's outer rim and have proper motions from 0.19?? ± 0.01?? yr-1 to 0.26?? ± 0.02?? yr-1. The associated expansion indices, defined as the ratio of the current expansion rate to the historical mean, range from 0.35 ± 0.03 to 0.52 ± 0.05. Our measurements are consistent with those from the classic study by Kamper & van den Bergh (1978, ApJ, 224, 851) for the same filaments, but the CCD measurements have higher precision, and we have measured several additional fainter filaments. For direct comparison with X-ray and radio measurements, we selected the subset of optical filaments lying exactly at the outer rim, as identified in Chandra and VLA images. Considering only these filaments, virtually all have expansion indices greater than 0.40, the Sedov value. In addition to the rim filaments, there are several seen in the interior (in projection) that have smaller proper motions; these may have been decelerated, and/or they could be directed non-tangentially. Our final epoch of images, taken from the 3.5m WIYN telescope in 2009, reveals previously undetected extremely faint optical emission surrounding well over half of the remnant shell. This newly detected faint emission agrees well with the limb as defined in X-ray and radio images.This work has been supported in part by NSF grant AST-098566.

  2. Dynamics of Fe-Ni Bubbles in Young Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Blondin, J M; Reynolds, S P

    2001-01-01

    Observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) have revealed the presence of extensive mixing of radioactive material in SN ejecta. The mixing of radioactive material, mostly freshly synthesized Ni, is not complete, which leads to a two-phase SN ejecta structure. The low-density phase consists of Fe bubbles, created by the energy input from radioactive Co and Ni, surrounded by compressed high-density metal-rich ejecta. We report on the theoretical investigation of supernova remnant (SNR) dynamics with the two-phase SN ejecta. We first present 3-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a single Fe bubble immersed in an outer ejecta envelope, and compare the results with previous work on shock-cloud interactions. We then consider randomly distributed Fe bubbles with an average volume filling fraction of 1/2. We find that the presence of Fe bubbles leads to vigorous turbulence and mixing of Fe with other heavy elements and with the ambient normal-abundance gas. The turbulent energy can be an order of magnitude la...

  3. In my Beginning is my End: Dust Destruction in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micelotta, E.; Dwek, E.

    It has been demonstrated by observations that young supernovae (SNe) are indeed able to efficiently synthesize dust. However, it is unclear how much of the freshly formed dust can reach the interstellar medium and contribute to the observed emission. At the same time, SNe represent the major agent responsible for dust destruction. Because SNe are possibly the only viable dust factory in the early Universe, it is extremely important to establish the fate of the newly formed dust. Our work explores the possibility that a significant fraction of any dust formed after the explosion is destroyed within the supernova remnant itself. In the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant, dust emission has been observed associated with optical knots containing recently formed material. The dust present in such clumps is threatened by the reverse shock traveling through the ejecta toward the center of the remnant. The shock is able to disrupt the clumps and will inject the dust grains into a hot gas, where they will be eroded and possibly destroyed by thermal and inertial sputtering. We present a model that describes the propagation of the reverse shock into the supernova cavity and evaluates the modifications in the grain size distribution due to the encounter with the reverse shock. This is the first step required to quantify the amount of dust ultimately able to survive. Our model accounts for the variation of the physical properties of both the shock and the ejecta across the remnant. In particular, this means taking explicitly into consideration, for the first time in this kind of studies, the effect of clumping of the ejecta.

  4. Dense molecular cloud impacted by the W28 supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular spectra and an infrared survey of a dense molecular cloud obscuring a part of the optical nebulosity associated with the supernova remnant W28 have been obtained. The spectra reveal a warm dense core in a region of substantial line broadening near a maximum of nonthermal radio emission from the remnant. A small (approx.2 km s-1) shift in the velocity of peak molecular emission also occurs in this region. No embedded infrared source capable of heating the cloud appears to be present. The cloud appears to have been impacted by the expanding supernova remnant. The cloud appears to be an ambient cloud only recently compressed and heated by the nearby remnant; no evidence for star formation has been found. The remarkably broad HCO+ lines found near the cloud core originate in a region of enhanced ionization in the cloud, quite possibly resulting from penetration of the cloud by energetic radiation from the remnant

  5. The prevalence of supernova remnants among unidentified Galactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine Galactic radio sources were mapped to identify new Crab-like and composite supernova remnants. The sources were selected on the basis of existing stringent upper limits on their hydrogen recombination line fluxes. One new Cracb-like remnant, one new composite remnant, at least one, and probably two, new shell-like remnants, and a compact H II region were found, along with the expected collection of extragalactic objects. The results suggest that there are several hundred SNRs in the Galaxy which are detectable with current instruments, but which have yet to be identified. 15 refs

  6. Expansion of the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Carlton, A K; Reynolds, S P; Hwang, U; Petre, R; Green, D A; Krishnamurthy, K; Willett, R

    2011-01-01

    We present a measurement of the expansion and brightening of G1.9+0.3, the youngest Galactic supernova remnant, comparing Chandra X-ray images obtained in 2007 and 2009. A simple uniform expansion model describes the data well, giving an expansion rate of 0.642 +/- 0.049 % yr^-1, and a flux increase of 1.7 +/- 1.0 % yr^-1. Without deceleration, the remnant age would then be 156 +/- 11 yr, consistent with earlier results. Since deceleration must have occurred, this age is an upper limit; we estimate an age of about 110 yr, or an explosion date of about 1900. The flux increase is comparable to reported increases at radio wavelengths. G1.9+0.3 is the only Galactic supernova remnant increasing in flux, with implications for the physics of electron acceleration in shock waves

  7. X-ray surface brightness of Kepler's supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed Kepler's supernova remnant (SNR) with the imaging instruments on board the Einstein Observatory. The 0.15-4.5 keV flux incident on the Earth is 1.2 x 10-10 ergs cm-2 s-1; the flux corrected for interstellar absorption is 3.4 x 10-10 ergs cm-2 s-1 (L/sub x/ = 1.0 x 1036 ergs s-1 at D = 5 kpc) if the absorbing column density is N/sub H/ = 2.8 x 1021 cm-2. The remnant is circular and shows a strong shell which is at least 5 times brighter in the north than in the south. The X-ray observations do not unambiguously determine whether the remnant is in the adiabatic or the free expansion phase. If the remnant is in the adiabatic phase, the density of the interstellar medium (ISM) (2/sub e/>/sup 1/2/) surrounding Kepler's SNR must be about 5 cm-3. If the remnant is in the free expansion phase, where most of the emission arises from shock-heated ejecta, the ISM density must still be relatively high, n/sub i/> or approx. =0.1 cm-3. Even if the ISM is very inhomogeneous, with very many small, dense clouds, we show that the mean density of the ISM must be greater than approx.0.1 cm-3. In any case, the density of the x-ray emitting gas must be high (2/sub e/>/sup 1/2/ > or approxn2/sub e/>/sup 1/2/ > or approx. =10 cm-3), and the temperature must be fairly low (T/sub e/7 K). The relatively high ISM density which is required is surprising in view of Kepler's distance above the galactic plane, approx.600 pc. Possibly the ISM around Kepler's SNR and around other type i SNRs is dominated by the mass lost from the presupernova star

  8. Supernova remnants as cosmic ray accelerators SNR IC 443

    CERN Document Server

    Hnatyk, B I

    1998-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that some supernova remnants (SNRs) may be responsible for some unidentified gamma-ray sources detected by EGRET instrument aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. If this is the case, gamma-rays are produced via pion production and decay from direct inelastic collisions of accelerated by SNR shock wave ultrarelativistic protons with target protons of the interstellar medium. We develop a 3-D hydrodynamical model of SNR IC 443 as a possible cosmic gamma-ray source 2EG J0618+2234. The derived parameters of IC 443: the explosion energy E_o=2.7*10^{50} erg, the initial hydrogen number density n(0)=0.21 cm^{-3}, the mean radius R=9.6 pc and the age t=4500 yr result in too low gamma-ray flux, mainly because of the low explosion energy. Therefore, we investigate in detail the hydrodynamics of IC 443 interaction with a nearby massive molecular cloud and show that the reverse shock wave considerably increases the cosmic ray density in the interaction region. Meantime, the Rayleigh-Taylor i...

  9. Hadronic gamma-ray images of Sedov supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Beshley, V

    2011-01-01

    A number of modern experiments in high-energy astrophysics produce images of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the TeV and GeV gamma-rays. Either relativistic electrons (due to the inverse-Compton scattering) or protons (due to the pion decays) may be responsible for this emission. In particular, the broad-band spectra of SNRs may be explained in both leptonic and hadronic scenarios. Another kind of observational data, namely, images of SNRs, is an important part of experimental information. We present a method to model gamma-ray images of Sedov SNRs in uniform media and magnetic field due to hadronic emission. These gamma-rays are assumed to appear as a consequence of meson decays produced in inelastic collisions of accelerated protons with thermal protons downstream of the shock - a model would be relevant for SNRs without firm confirmations of the shock-cloud interaction, as e.g. SN1006. Distribution of surface brightness of the shell-like SNR is synthesized numerically for a number of configurations. An approx...

  10. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVA 1970G WITH CHANDRA: FILLING THE VOID BETWEEN SUPERNOVAE AND SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Stefan; Kuntz, K. D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the discovery of X-ray emission from SN 1970G in M101, 35 yr after its outburst, using deep X-ray imaging with the Chundra X-Ray Observatory. The Chandra ACIS spectrum shows that the emission is soft (52 keV) and characteristic of the reverse-shock region. The X-ray luminosity, Lo,,, = (1.1 3 0.2) x lo3# ergs s-1, is likely caused by the interaction of the supernova shock with dense circumstellar matter. If the material was deposited by the stellar wind from the progenitor, a mass-loss rate of M = (2.6 ? 0.4) x M, yr-I (v,/lO km s-I) is inferred. Utilizing the high-resolution Chandra ACIS data of SN 1970G and its environment, we reconstruct the X-ray lightcurve from previous ROSAT HRI, PSPC, and XMM-Newton EPIC observations, and find a best-fit linear rate of decline of L cc t-# with index s = 2.7 t 0.9 over a period of -20-35 yr after the outburst. As the oldest supernova detected in X-rays, SN 1970G allows, for the first time, direct observation of the transition from a supenova to its supernova remnant phase.

  11. X-RAY EMISSION FROM STRONGLY ASYMMETRIC CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL IN THE REMNANT OF KEPLER'S SUPERNOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepler's supernova remnant resulted from a thermonuclear explosion, but is interacting with circumstellar material (CSM) lost from the progenitor system. We describe a statistical technique for isolating X-ray emission due to CSM from that due to shocked ejecta. Shocked CSM coincides well in position with 24 ?m emission seen by Spitzer. We find most CSM to be distributed along the bright north rim, but substantial concentrations are also found projected against the center of the remnant, roughly along a diameter with position angle ?100°. We interpret this as evidence for a disk distribution of CSM before the supernova, with the line of sight to the observer roughly in the disk plane. We present two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of this scenario in qualitative agreement with the observed CSM morphology. Our observations require Kepler to have originated in a close binary system with an asymptotic giant branch star companion.

  12. Supernova Remnant Evolution in Wind Bubbles: A Closer Look at Kes 27

    CERN Document Server

    Dwarkadas, Vikram V

    2012-01-01

    Massive Stars (> 8 solar masses) lose mass in the form of strong winds. These winds accumulate around the star, forming wind-blown bubbles. When the star explodes as a supernova (SN), the resulting shock wave expands within this wind-blown bubble, rather than the interstellar medium. The properties of the resulting remnant, its dynamics and kinematics, the morphology, and the resulting evolution, are shaped by the structure and properties of the wind-blown bubble. In this article we focus on Kes 27, a supernova remnant (SNR) that has been proposed by Chen et al (2008) to be evolving in a wind-blown bubble, explore its properties, and investigate whether the properties could be ascribed to evolution of a SNR in a wind-blown bubble. Our initial model does not support this conclusion, due to the fact that the reflected shock is expanding into much lower densities.

  13. Interactions Between CRs and MCs in the Vicinity of Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Supernovae are incredibly energetic events which drive the dynamic state of the interstellar medium and accelerate cosmic rays up to energies of a few PeV. I present multi-wavelength observations constraining the shocks, chemistry, dust grain processing, and magnetic fields in a large sample of supernova remnants interacting with dense clouds. These are among the most luminous Galactic sources detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Surprisingly, spectral breaks are seen between GeV and TeV energies. Radio spectral breaks have also been detected for a few remnants, providing clear evidence that supernovae are a significant source of hadronic cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Resolving the origin of these spectral breaks will allow the physics of cosmic ray acceleration and diffusion to be probed.

  14. Neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of the supernova remnant HB 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosachinskii, I. V.

    2013-03-01

    The neutral hydrogen emission at 21 cm has been investigated with the RATAN-600 radio telescope in the vicinity of the supernova remnant HB9. A clumpyHI shell with radial motions surrounding the remnant has been detected. Its measured parameters contradict the connection with a shock wave from a supernova explosion. The shell formation under the action of a wind from a star that exploded as a supernova at the end of its evolution seems more realistic. The characteristics of the star obtained from the observed shell parameters are the following: a wind power of 0.5 × 1038 erg s-1, a mass-loss rate of 3.7 × 10-5 M ? yr-1, and an age of 3 × 106 yr. Given the measurement errors, the mass of the star is estimated to be >8 M ?.

  15. An integral view of fast shocks around supernova 1006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoli?, Sladjana; van de Ven, Glenn; Heng, Kevin; Kupko, Daniel; Husemann, Bernd; Raymond, John C; Hughes, John P; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Supernova remnants are among the most spectacular examples of astrophysical pistons in our cosmic neighborhood. The gas expelled by the supernova explosion is launched with velocities ~1000 kilometers per second into the ambient, tenuous interstellar medium, producing shocks that excite hydrogen lines. We have used an optical integral-field spectrograph to obtain high-resolution spatial-spectral maps that allow us to study in detail the shocks in the northwestern rim of supernova 1006. The two-component H? line is detected at 133 sky locations. Variations in the broad line widths and the broad-to-narrow line intensity ratios across tens of atomic mean free paths suggest the presence of suprathermal protons, the potential seed particles for generating high-energy cosmic rays. PMID:23413189

  16. The Imprint of Presupernova Winds on Supernova Remnant Evolution: Towards More Realistic Models for Type Ia Supernova Remnants and their Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes, C.; Bravo, E.

    2002-01-01

    Supernova remnants are usually analysed in the light of hydrodynamical models of the interaction of supernova ejecta with either a constant density ambient medium or a circumstellar medium produced by a constant presupernova wind. However, the ejection of energetic wind during the presupernova phase changes the ambient medium structure and, consequently, the early supernova remnant evolution. We have analysed the evolution of young remnants of type Ia supernovae, focusing on...

  17. Cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants: non-linear theory revised

    OpenAIRE

    Caprioli, Damiano

    2012-01-01

    A rapidly growing amount of evidences, mostly coming from the recent gamma-ray observations of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs), is seriously challenging our understanding of how particles are accelerated at fast shocks. The cosmic-ray (CR) spectra required to account for the observed phenomenology are in fact as steep as $E^{-2.2}--E^{-2.4}$, i.e., steeper than the test-particle prediction of first-order Fermi acceleration, and significantly steeper than what expected in ...

  18. Some properties of synchrotron radio and inverse-Compton gamma-ray images of supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Petruk, O.; Beshley, V.; Bocchino, F.; Orlando, S.

    2009-01-01

    The synchrotron radio maps of supernova remnants (SNRs) in uniform interstellar medium and interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) are analyzed, allowing different `sensitivity' of injection efficiency to the shock obliquity. The very-high energy gamma-ray maps due to inverse Compton process are also synthesized. The properties of images in these different wavelength bands are compared, with particular emphasis on the location of the bright limbs in bilateral SNRs. Recent H.E.S.S...

  19. Cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Tatischeff, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Galactic cosmic rays are widely believed to be accelerated in expanding shock waves initiated by supernova explosions. The theory of diffusive shock acceleration of cosmic rays is now well established, but two fundamental questions remain partly unanswered: what is the acceleration efficiency, i.e. the fraction of the total supernova energy converted to cosmic-ray energy, and what is the maximum kinetic energy achieved by particles accelerated in supernova explosions? Recent...

  20. The bubble-like interior of the core-collapse supernova remnant Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Fesen, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    The death of massive stars is believed to involve aspheric explosions initiated by the collapse of an iron core. The specifics of these catastrophic explosions remain uncertain, due partly to limited observational constraints on asymmetries deep inside the star. Here we present near-infrared observations of the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, descendant of a type IIb core-collapse explosion, and a three-dimensional map of its interior unshocked ejecta. The remnant’s interior has a bubble-like morphology that smoothly connects to and helps explain the multiringed structures seen in the remnant's bright reverse-shocked main shell of expanding debris. This internal structure may originate from turbulent mixing processes that encouraged outwardly expanding plumes of radioactive 56Ni-rich ejecta. If this is true, substantial amounts of its decay product, 56Fe, may still reside in these interior cavities.

  1. Study of the extended radio emission of two supernova remnants and four planetary nebulae associated to MIPSGAL bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Ingallinera, Adriano; Umana, Grazia; Leto, Paolo; Agliozzo, Claudia; Buemi, Carla

    2014-01-01

    We present radio observations of two supernova remnants and four planetary nebulae with the Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope. These objects are part of a larger sample of radio sources, discussed in a previous paper, counterpart of the MIPSGAL 24-micron compact bubbles. For the two supernova remnants we combined the interferometric observations with single-dish data to obtain both a high resolution and a good sensitivity to extended structures. We discuss in detail the entire combination procedure adopted and the reliability of the resulting maps. For one supernova remnant we pose a more stringent upper limit for the flux density of its undetected pulsar, and we also show prominent spectral index spatial variations, probably due to inhomogeneities in the magnetic field and in its ejecta or to an interaction between the supernova shock and molecular clouds. We eventually use the 5-GHz maps of the four planetary nebulae to estimate their distance and their ionized mass.

  2. SUPERNOVA REMNANT PROGENITOR MASSES IN M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (MZAMS) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the MZAMS from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of ?2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dM?M?, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) (? = –2.35). In particular, we find values of ? outside the range –2.7 ? ? ? –4.the range –2.7 ? ? ? –4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of MMax > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a minimum mass for core collapse between 7.0 and 7.8 M?.

  3. SUPERNOVA REMNANT PROGENITOR MASSES IN M31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Zachary G.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington Seattle, Box 351580, WA 98195 (United States); Murphy, Jeremiah W. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E., E-mail: zachjenn@uw.edu, E-mail: adolphin@raytheon.com [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    Using Hubble Space Telescope photometry, we age-date 59 supernova remnants (SNRs) in the spiral galaxy M31 and use these ages to estimate zero-age main-sequence masses (M{sub ZAMS}) for their progenitors. To accomplish this, we create color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and employ CMD fitting to measure the recent star formation history of the regions surrounding cataloged SNR sites. We identify any young coeval population that likely produced the progenitor star, then assign an age and uncertainty to that population. Application of stellar evolution models allows us to infer the M{sub ZAMS} from this age. Because our technique is not contingent on identification or precise location of the progenitor star, it can be applied to the location of any known SNRs. We identify significant young star formation around 53 of the 59 SNRs and assign progenitor masses to these, representing a factor of {approx}2 increase over currently measured progenitor masses. We consider the remaining six SNRs as either probable Type Ia candidates or the result of core-collapse progenitors that have escaped their birth sites. In general, the distribution of recovered progenitor masses is bottom-heavy, showing a paucity of the most massive stars. If we assume a single power-law distribution, dN/dM{proportional_to}M{sup {alpha}}, then we find a distribution that is steeper than a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) ({alpha} = -2.35). In particular, we find values of {alpha} outside the range -2.7 {>=} {alpha} {>=} -4.4 to be inconsistent with our measured distribution at 95% confidence. If instead we assume a distribution that follows a Salpeter IMF up to some maximum mass, then we find that values of M{sub Max} > 26 are inconsistent with the measured distribution at 95% confidence. In either scenario, the data suggest that some fraction of massive stars may not explode. The result is preliminary and requires more SNRs and further analysis. In addition, we use our distribution to estimate a minimum mass for core collapse between 7.0 and 7.8 M{sub Sun }.

  4. X-ray studies of supernova remnants: A different view of supernova explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes, Carles

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions of Chandra have revolutionized our view of the X-ray emission from supernova remnants. The excellent data sets accumulated on young, ejecta dominated objects like Cas A or Tycho present a unique opportunity to study at the same time the chemical and physical structure of the explosion debris and the characteristics of the circumstellar medium sculpted by the progenitor before the explosion. Supernova remnants can thus put st...

  5. Herschel Constraints on the Mass of Shocked Dust in the O-rich Supernova Remnant G292.0+1.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present PACS and SPIRE images of the Galactic SNR G292.0+1.8, acquired during the Cycle 2 GO program of the Herschel Space Telescope. The goal of these images was to search for newly formed ejecta dust in this O-rich SNR, as well as study dust heating and destruction on small scales behind shock. Dust emission from radiatively shocked O-rich ejecta is clearly detected in the PACS blue band image (60-85 microns) enabled in large part by the excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution of PACS at those wavelengths. This is firm evidence of cold, freshly synthesized dust in the ejecta of G292.0+1.8. The outer blast wave shock is also detected in the PACS blue band, as well as the belt of circumstellar material associated with shocked circumstellar wind from the stellar progenitor. We have placed upper limits on emission at longer wavelengths in the red-band PACS images (130-210 microns), as well as SPIRE images between 250 microns and 500 microns. Using flux limits from both the PACS and longer wavelength SPIRE images, as well as existing IRS mapping spectra of G292, we create a broad-band spectrum of the SNR in the 14-500 micron range, placing global constraints on the mass and temperature of shocked circumstellar and ejecta dust in G292.0+1.8.

  6. A Possible Site of Cosmic Ray Acceleration in the Supernova Remnant IC 443

    CERN Document Server

    Keohane, J W; Gotthelf, E V; Ozaki, M; Koyama, K; Keohane, Jonathan W.

    1997-01-01

    We present evidence for shock acceleration of cosmic rays to high energies (about 10 TeV) in the supernova remnant IC 443. X-ray imaging spectroscopy with ASCA reveals two regions of particularly hard emission: an unresolved source embedded in an extended emission region, and a ridge of emission coincident with the southeastern rim. Both features are located on part of the radio shell where the shock wave is interacting with molecular gas, and together they account for a majority of the emission at 7 keV. Though we would not have noticed it a priori, the unresolved feature is coincident with one resolved by the ROSAT HRI. Because this feature overlaps a unique region of flat radio spectral index (alpha 5,000 km/s). We conclude that the anomalous feature is most likely tracing enhanced particle acceleration by shocks that are formed as the supernova blast wave impacts the ring of molecular clouds.

  7. Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds: X-ray and Gamma-ray Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Slane, P; Ellison, D C; Dubner, G; Castro, D

    2014-01-01

    The giant molecular clouds (MCs) found in the Milky Way and similar galaxies play a crucial role in the evolution of these systems. The supernova explosions that mark the death of massive stars in these regions often lead to interactions between the supernova remnants (SNRs) and the clouds. These interactions have a profound effect on our understanding of SNRs. Shocks in SNRs should be capable of accelerating particles to cosmic ray (CR) energies with efficiencies high enough to power Galactic CRs. X-ray and gamma-ray studies have established the presence of relativistic electrons and protons is some SNRs and provided strong evidence for diffusive shock acceleration as the primary acceleration mechanism, including strongly amplified magnetic fields, temperature and ionization effects on the shock-heated plasmas, and modifications to the dynamical evolution of some systems. Because protons dominate the overall energetics of the CRs, it is crucial to understand this hadronic component even though electrons are ...

  8. TYPING SUPERNOVA REMNANTS USING X-RAY LINE EMISSION MORPHOLOGIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new observational method to type the explosions of young supernova remnants (SNRs). By measuring the morphology of the Chandra X-ray line emission in 17 Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud SNRs with a multipole expansion analysis (using power ratios), we find that the core-collapse SNRs are statistically more asymmetric than the Type Ia SNRs. We show that the two classes of supernovae can be separated naturally using this technique because X-ray line morphologies reflect the distinct explosion mechanisms and structure of the circumstellar material. These findings are consistent with recent spectropolarimetry results showing that core-collapse supernovae explosions are intrinsically more asymmetric.

  9. Exploring the supernova remnant G308.4-1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Prinz, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We present a detailed X-ray and radio wavelength study of G308.4-1.4, a candidate supernova remnant (SNR) in the ROSAT All Sky Survey and the MOST supernova remnant catalogue. Methods: The SNR candidate and its central point sources were studied using observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, SWIFT, the Australian Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 1.4 and 2.5 GHz and WISE infrared observation at 24 $\\mu$m. Results: We conclude that G308.4-1.4 is indeed a supernova remnant by means of its morphology matching at X-ray, radio and infrared wavelength, its spectral energy distribution in the X-ray band and its emission characteristics in the radio band. G308.4-1.4 is a shell-type SNR. X-ray, radio and infrared emission is seen only in the eastern part of the remnant due to a strong spatial density variation of the interstellar medium around the remnant. The X-ray emission can best be described by an absorbed non-equilibrium collisional plasma with a hydrogen density of $n_\\text{H}=(1.02\\pm 0.04)$ cm$^...

  10. Observations of the remnants of three historical supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio maps are presented of the supernova remnants G11.2-0.3, G348.5+0.1 and G348.7+0.3, all three of which have been suggested as candidates for the remnants of supernovae in the 4th century AD. An HRI X-ray image of G11.2-0.3 is also shown. G11.2-0.3 is a bright, symmetric shell remnant which looks very like Tycho's or Kepler's SNRs. Its parameters are consistent with an (undetected) supernovae explosion 300-500 yr ago, but an alternative interpretation, that it is the remnant of the explosion of a massive star in AD 386, cannot be excluded. G348.5+0.1 and G348.7+0.3 have weaker, more ragged shells than does G11.2-0.3 and are probably much older. This would be consistent with one of these two remnants being the relic of the AD 393 explosion. (author)

  11. $10^{51}$ Ergs The Evolution of Shell Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, T W; Jun, B I; Borkowski, K J; Dubner, G M; Frail, D A; Kang, H; Kassim, N E; McCray, R; Rudnick, Lawrence; Jun, Byung-Il; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Dubner, Gloria; Frail, Dale A.; Kang, Hyesung; Kassim, Namir E.; Cray, Richard Mc

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on a workshop hosted by the University of Minnesota, March 23-26, 1997. It addressed fundamental dynamical issues associated with the evolution of shell supernova remnants and the relationships between supernova remnants and their environments. The workshop considered, in addition to classical shell SNRs, dynamical issues involving X-ray filled composite remnants and pulsar driven shells, such as that in the Crab Nebula. Approximately 75 participants with wide ranging interests attended the workshop. An even larger community helped through extensive on-line debates prior to the meeting. Each of the several sessions, organized mostly around chronological labels, also addressed some underlying, general physical themes: How are SNR dynamics and structures modified by the character of the CSM and the ISM and vice versa? How are magnetic fields generated in SNRs and how do magnetic fields influence SNRs? Where and how are cosmic-rays (electrons and ions) produced in SNRs and how does their prese...

  12. Optical and Far-UV Spectroscopy of Knot D in the Vela Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Sankrit, R; Raymond, J C; Sankrit, Ravi; Blair, William P.; Raymond, John C.

    2003-01-01

    We present spectra of optical filaments associated with the X-ray knot D in the Vela supernova remnant. It has been suggested that Knot D is formed by a bullet of supernova ejecta, that it is a break-out of the shock front of the Vela SNR, and also that it is an outflow from the recently discovered remnant RXJ0852.0-4622. We find that Knot D is a bow shock propagating into an interstellar cloud with normal abundances and typical cloud densities (n_H ~ 4-11 cm^-3). Optical longslit spectra show that the [S II] 6716,6731 to Halpha line ratio is greater than unity, proving that the optical filaments are shock excited. The analysis of far-ultraviolet spectra obtained with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope and with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) LWRS aperture show that slower shocks (~100 km s^-1) produce most of the low ionization lines such as O III] 1662, while faster shocks (~180 km s^-1) produce the O VI 1032,1038 and other high ionization lines. C III and O VI lines are also detected in th...

  13. Are the Models for Type Ia Supernova Progenitors Consistent with the Properties of Supernova Remnants?

    OpenAIRE

    Badenes, C.; Hughes, J. P.; Bravo, E.; Langer, N.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the relationship between the models for progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae and the properties of the supernova remnants that evolve after the explosion. Most models for Type Ia progenitors in the single-degenerate scenario predict substantial outflows during the presupernova evolution. Expanding on previous work, we estimate the imprint of these outflows on the structure of the circumstellar medium at the time of the supernova explosion, and the effect that this m...

  14. Einstein X-ray observations of the supernova remnant HB21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leahy, D.A.

    1987-10-15

    In radio, HB21 is a large (approx. 2 deg diameter) supernova remnant. It has been observed with incomplete coverage by five Einstein IPC fields. Here is reported the first detection of X-ray emission from HB21. The 0.2-4 keV X-ray image of HB21 does not correlate well with radio maps. HB21 has an X-ray temperature of 7(+6, -2)x10/sup 6/ K and a luminosity of 1.9(+7.6, -1.2) x 10/sup 34/ erg s/sup -1/. A Sedov model applied to HB21 gives too large a temperature and shock velocity. Supernova remnant models for expansion into a 3-component ISM can fit HB9, from which an age of 8000-15000 yr is inferred.

  15. Einstein X-ray observations of the supernova remnant HB21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radio, HB21 is a large (approx. 2 deg diameter) supernova remnant. It has been observed with incomplete coverage by five Einstein IPC fields. Here is reported the first detection of X-ray emission from HB21. The 0.2-4 keV X-ray image of HB21 does not correlate well with radio maps. HB21 has an X-ray temperature of 7(+6, -2)x106 K and a luminosity of 1.9(+7.6, -1.2) x 1034 erg s-1. A Sedov model applied to HB21 gives too large a temperature and shock velocity. Supernova remnant models for expansion into a 3-component ISM can fit HB9, from which an age of 8000-15000 yr is inferred. (author)

  16. Properties of Optically Selected Supernova Remnant Candidates in M33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hwan; Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2014-10-01

    Narrowband images covering strong emission lines are efficient for surveying supernova remnants (SNRs) in nearby galaxies. Using the narrowband images provided by the Local Group Galaxy Survey, we searched for SNRs in M33. Culling the objects with enhanced [S II]/H? and round morphology in the continuum-subtracted H? and [S II] images, we produced a list of 199 sources. Among them, 79 are previously unknown. Their progenitor and morphology types were classified. A majority of the sample (170 objects) are likely remnants of core-collapse supernovae (SNe), and 29 are remnants of Type Ia SNe. The cumulative size distribution of these objects is found to be similar to that of the M31 remnants derived in a similar way. We obtain a power-law slope, ? = 2.38 ± 0.05. Thus, a majority of the sources are considered to be in the Sedov-Taylor phase, consistent with previous findings. The histogram of the emission-line ratio ([S II]/H?) of the remnants has two concentrations at [S II]/H? ~ 0.55 and ~0.8, as in M31. Interestingly, L X (and L 20 cm) of the compact center-bright objects are correlated with their optical luminosity. The remnants with X-ray emission have brighter optical surface brightnesses and smaller diameters than those without X-ray emission.

  17. No cold dust within the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Oliver; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Rieke, George H.; Lemke, Dietrich; Klaas, Ulrich; Hines, Dean C.; Gordon, Karl D.

    2004-12-01

    A large amount (about three solar masses) of cold (18K) dust in the prototypical type II supernova remnant Cassiopeia A was recently reported. It was concluded that dust production in type II supernovae can explain how the large quantities (~ 108 solar masses) of dust observed in the most distant quasars could have been produced within only 700 million years after the Big Bang. Foreground clouds of interstellar material, however, complicate the interpretation of the earlier submillimetre observations of Cas A. Here we report far-infrared and molecular line observations that demonstrate that most of the detected submillimetre emission originates from interstellar dust in a molecular cloud complex located in the line of sight between the Earth and Cas A, and is therefore not associated with the remnant. The argument that type II supernovae produce copious amounts of dust is not supported by the case of Cas A, which previously appeared to provide the best evidence for this possibility.

  18. No cold dust within the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, O; Rieke, G H; Lemke, D; Klaas, U; Hines, D C; Gordon, K D

    2004-01-01

    A large amount (about three solar masses) of cold (18 K) dust in the prototypical type II supernova remnant Cassiopeia A was recently reported. It was concluded that dust production in type II supernovae can explain how the large quantities (10^8 solar masses) of dust observed in the most distant quasars could have been produced within only 700 million years after the Big Bang. Foreground clouds of interstellar material, however, complicate the interpretation of the earlier submillimetre observations of Cas A. Here we report far-infrared and molecular line observations that demonstrate that most of the detected submillimetre emission originates from interstellar dust in a molecular cloud complex located in the line of sight between the Earth and Cas A, and is therefore not associated with the remnant. The argument that type II supernovae produce copious amounts of dust is not supported by the case of Cas A, which previously appeared to provide the best evidence for this possibility.

  19. Supernova Ejecta in the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Borkowski, K J; Hwang, U; Green, D A; Petre, R; Krishnamurthy, K; Willett, R

    2013-01-01

    G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of about 1900, and most likely located near the Galactic Center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities larger than about 18,000 km/s have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially-resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs: Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe Kalpha emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating tha...

  20. X-ray studies of supernova remnants: a different view of supernova explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes, Carles

    2010-04-20

    The unprecedented spatial and spectral resolutions of Chandra have revolutionized our view of the X-ray emission from supernova remnants. The excellent datasets accumulated on young, ejecta-dominated objects like Cas A or Tycho present a unique opportunity to study at the same time the chemical and physical structure of the explosion debris and the characteristics of the circumstellar medium sculpted by the progenitor before the explosion. Supernova remnants can thus put strong constraints on fundamental aspects of both supernova explosion physics and stellar evolution scenarios for supernova progenitors. This view of the supernova phenomenon is completely independent of, and complementary to, the study of distant extragalactic supernovae at optical wavelengths. The calibration of these two techniques has recently become possible thanks to the detection and spectroscopic follow-up of supernova light echoes. In this paper, I review the most relevant results on supernova remnants obtained during the first decade of Chandra and the impact that these results have had on open issues in supernova research. PMID:20404206

  1. Role of ejecta clumping and back-reaction of accelerated cosmic rays in the evolution of Type Ia supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, S.; Bocchino, F.; Miceli, M.; Petruk, O.; Pumo, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role played by initial clumping of ejecta and by efficient acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs) in determining the density structure of the post-shock region of a Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) through detailed 3D MHD modeling. Our model describes the expansion of a SNR through a magnetized interstellar medium (ISM), including the initial clumping of ejecta and the effects on shock dynamics due to back-reaction of accelerated CRs. The model predictions are c...

  2. Role of ejecta clumping and back-reaction of accelerated cosmic rays in the evolution of supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, S.; Bocchino, F.; Miceli, M.; Petruk, O.; Pumo, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    The thermal structure of the post-shock region of a young supernova remnant (SNR) is heavily affected by two main physical effects, the back-reaction of accelerated cosmic rays (CRs) and the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities developing at the contact discontinuity between the ejecta and the shocked interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we investigate the role played by both physical mechanisms in the evolution of SNRs through detailed 3D MHD modeling. Our model describes the exp...

  3. Oxygen emission in remnants of thermonuclear supernovae as a probe for their progenitor system

    CERN Document Server

    Kosenko, D; Kromer, M; Blinnikov, S I; Pakmor, R; Kaastra, J S

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in numerical simulations of thermonuclear supernova explosions brings up a unique opportunity in studying the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. Coupling state-of-the-art explosion models with detailed hydrodynamical simulations of the supernova remnant evolution and the most up-to-date atomic data for X-ray emission calculations makes it possible to create realistic synthetic X-ray spectra for the supernova remnant phase. Comparing such spectra with high quality observations of supernova remnants could allow to constrain the explosion mechanism and the progenitor of the supernova. The present study focuses in particular on the oxygen emission line properties in young supernova remnants, since different explosion scenarios predict a different amount and distribution of this element. Analysis of the soft X-ray spectra from supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud and confrontation with remnant models for different explosion scenarios suggests that SNR 0509-67.5 could originate from a de...

  4. The Bubble-like Interior of the Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    CERN Document Server

    Milisavljevic, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The death of massive stars is believed to involve aspheric explosions initiated by the collapse of an iron core. The specifics of how these catastrophic explosions proceed remain uncertain due, in part, to limited observational constraints on various processes that can introduce asymmetries deep inside the star. Here we present near-infrared observations of the young Milky Way supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, descendant of a type IIb core-collapse explosion, and a three-dimensional map of its interior, unshocked ejecta. The remnant's interior has a bubble-like morphology that smoothly connects to and helps explain the multi-ringed structures seen in the remnant's bright reverse shocked main shell of expanding debris. This internal structure may have originated from turbulent mixing processes that encouraged the development of outwardly expanding plumes of radioactive 56Ni-rich ejecta. If this is true, substantial amounts of its decay product, 56Fe, may still reside in these interior cavities.

  5. G306.3-0.9: A NEWLY DISCOVERED YOUNG GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Reis, Rubens C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Loi, Shyeh T.; Murphy, Tara; Moss, Vanessa; Reeves, Sarah; Robbins, William J.; Gaensler, B. M. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Gehrels, Neil; Petre, Robert [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kennea, Jamie A.; Siegel, Michael H.; Gelbord, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kuin, Paul, E-mail: markrey@umich.edu [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-01

    We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of {approx}160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24 {mu}m, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

  6. G306.3-0.9: A Newly Discovered Young Galactic Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Loi, Syheh T.; Murphy, Tara; Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Gueltekin, Kayhan; Gehrels, Neil; Kennea, Jamie A.; Siegel, Michael H.; Gelbord, Jonathan; Kuin, Paul; Moss, Vanessa; Reeves, Sarah; Robbins, William J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Reis, Rubens C.; Petre, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of 160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24µm, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

  7. G306.3–0.9: A NEWLY DISCOVERED YOUNG GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present X-ray and radio observations of the new Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3–0.9, recently discovered by Swift. Chandra imaging reveals a complex morphology, dominated by a bright shock. The X-ray spectrum is broadly consistent with a young SNR in the Sedov phase, implying an age of 2500 yr for a distance of 8 kpc, plausibly identifying this as one of the 20 youngest Galactic SNRs. Australia Telescope Compact Array imaging reveals a prominent ridge of radio emission that correlates with the X-ray emission. We find a flux density of ?160 mJy at 1 GHz, which is the lowest radio flux recorded for a Galactic SNR to date. The remnant is also detected at 24 ?m, indicating the presence of irradiated warm dust. The data reveal no compelling evidence for the presence of a compact stellar remnant.

  8. Small-scale structure in young supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent VLA observations of the shell supernova remnant SN 1006 AD and the Crablike remnant 3C 58 (SN 1181 AD?; Reynolds and Aller 1987) show features at high resolution that contain information on details of particle acceleration and transport in the remnants. Thin arcs at the edge of SN 1006 require time-variable particle acceleration and/or magnetic field amplification. Filaments in 3C 58 probably result from interaction of pulsar-generated relativistic fluid with filaments of thermal gas formed early in the remnant's life by cooling or dynamical instabilities. Their sharp edges imply efficient scattering by Alfven waves; as much as 1% of the large-scale magnetic energy density may be in magnetic turbulence on length scales of 1011 cm

  9. Validating the Supernova Remnant Hypothesis of the Cosmic Ray Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, Mikhail

    The century-old problem of the origin and acceleration of cosmic rays (CR) could soon be resolved. However, as it is impossible to trace CR back to their accelerators because of orbit scrambling in the galactic magnetic field, the solution will not be easy. Also the direct observations of a secondary gamma emission from supernova remnant (SNR) shocks, long suspected to be the main source of galactic CRs, are complicated by the contaminating electron emission. Therefore, the SNR hypothesis of the CR origin can be proven beyond a reasonable doubt only if the acceleration theory is fully consistent with the observations. However, the complexity of plasma dynamics in SNR shocks makes the validation of the SNR hypothesis very difficult. A study of the crucial plasma processes in SNR shocks is proposed. It will determine the three-way partitioning of the shock energy between accelerated particles (protons and electrons), turbulent magnetic fields and thermal plasma. The project includes a comparative analysis of three instabilities, arguably crucial to the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism: i.) the cyclotron resonance CR instability, ii.) the non- resonant CR-current driven (kink-type) instability and iii.) the acoustic CR-pressure gradient driven instability. By identifying the dominant instability depending on the local SNR environment, the spectra of different species of accelerated particles, their losses, and the broadband radiation will be calculated and compared to both direct observations of the secondary emission from major SNRs and to the measurements of the background CRs. The comparison will show whether the DSA mechanism production of CR in SNR is consistent with the observed emission. The remnants most visible in gamma rays expand into weakly ionized, dense gases. The physics of the CR production in such environments based on the three instabilities will be studied. The proposer's previous work has shown that the propagation of CRs in a dense SNR surrounding should result in a break in the particle and gamma-ray emission spectra, now frequently observed in such SNRs. The theoretical studies and modeling of the breaks, resulting from interactions of CR with a self-driven wave turbulence, will be carried out for conditions relevant to the observed SNRs. The problem of disentangling electron and proton emissions will be addressed. To this end, a new mechanism of electron injection into the DSA will be examined. This mechanism is based on a macroscopic electric field generated by the current-driven turbulence and penetration of CR into weakly ionized gas upstream. The electric field can accelerate electrons, leading to runaway. This process is well known from laboratory plasma research, so the proposer’s expertise in magnetic confinement studies will be utilized. The escape of accelerated particles into the SNR surroundings are studied separately from this proposal and may also become useful for the purpose of electron/proton differentiation. This will be based, in particular but not exclusively, on the fact that the proton high energy emission pattern is correlated with the ambient dense gas distribution, as opposed to the inverse Compton electron emission. CRs play a fundamental role in our understanding of the structure and evolution of the universe and the mystery of their origin is longstanding and difficult to solve. Very recent revolutionary improvements in SNR observations and CR measurements, including such NASA missions as Fermi and Chandra offer a unique chance for a theoretical breakthrough in validating the SNR hypothesis of the origin of galactic CRs. The proposers will be able to analytically predict CR spectral features, such as breaks and spectral slope variations among different elements. As these features are unique to the DSA, their comparison with the data will help to determine whether the DSA mechanism is indeed responsible for the production of galactic CR in SNRs.

  10. Constraints on the Physics of Type Ia Supernovae from the X-Ray Spectrum of the Tycho Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Badenes, C; Hughes, J P; Hwang, U; Bravo, E; Badenes, Carles; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Hughes, John P.; Hwang, Una; Bravo, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we use high quality X-ray observations from XMM-Newton and Chandra to gain new insights into the explosion that originated Tycho's supernova 433 years ago. We perform a detailed comparison between the ejecta emission from the spatially integrated X-ray spectrum of the supernova remnant and current models for Type Ia supernova explosions. We use a grid of synthetic X-ray spectra based on hydrodynamic models of the evolution of the supernova remnant and self-consistent nonequilibrium ionization calculations for the state of the shocked plasma. We find that the fundamental properties of the X-ray emission in Tycho are well reproduced by a one-dimensional delayed detonation model with a kinetic energy of 1.2e51 erg. All the other paradigms for Type Ia explosions that we have tested fail to provide a good approximation to the observed ejecta emission, including one-dimensional deflagrations, pulsating delayed detonations and sub-Chandrasekhar explosions, as well as deflagration models calculated in t...

  11. Spatial distribution of pulsars and supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the burst of Type I supernovas occurs about 108 years after the birth of the progenitor. This duration results in the main by the delay of the burst after the formation of a white dwarf of about one solar mass in a close binary system. The mass of the main component of this system is about 8 solar masses, and the mass of the secondary about 3 solar masses. These stars complete their evolution as Type I supernovas and are distributed along the galactic plane. Pulsars are formed about 107 years after the birth of their progenitors, and are accompanied by a Type II supernova. Pulsars therefore have an annular distribution in the Galaxy

  12. A Newly Recognized Very Young Supernova Remnant in M83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, William P.; Winkler, P. Frank; Long, Knox S.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Kim, Hwihyun; Soria, Roberto; Kuntz, K. D.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Dopita, Michael A.; Stockdale, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    As part of a spectroscopic survey of supernova remnant candidates in M83 using the Gemini-South telescope and GMOS, we have discovered one object whose spectrum shows very broad lines at Halpha, [O I] 6300, and [O III] 5007, similar to those from other objects classified as `late time supernovae.' Although six historical supernovae have been observed in M83 since 1923, none were seen at the location of this object. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images show a nearly unresolved emission source, while Chandra and ATCA data reveal a bright X-ray source and nonthermal radio source at the position. Objects in other galaxies showing similar spectra are only decades post-supernova, which raises the possibility that the supernova that created this object occurred during the last century but was not observed. Using photometry of nearby stars from the HST data, we suggest the precursor was at least 17 M(sun), and the presence of broad Halpha in the spectrum makes a type II supernova likely. The supernova must predate the 1983 VLA radio detection of the object. We suggest examination of archival images of M83 to search for evidence of the supernova event that gave rise to this object, and thus provide a precise time since the explosion.We acknowledge STScI grants under the umbrella program ID GO-12513 to Johns Hopkins University, STScI, and Middlebury College. PFW acknowledges additional support from the National Science Foundation through grant AST-0908566.

  13. Study of relativistic filaments near the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Oliver; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Hines, Dean C.; Latter, William B.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Rieke, George H.

    2005-06-01

    Two 24 micron Spitzer images with 1 year time difference have revealed a bipolar moving structure emanating from the main shell of the young supernova remnant Cassiopeia A and extending more than 20 arcmin from its kinematical center. Large motions of order 10 to 20 arcsec have been observed for individual filaments in these mid-infrared images, indepen- dently confirmed by three epochs of ground-based near-infrared observations towards the northern lobe of the structure. Assuming the standard distance to the supernova remnant, 3.4 kpc, the observed tangential velocities are at roughly the speed of light. Motions with this speed have never been observed in any supernova remnant. They are presumably associated with central activity in the SNR such as a relativistic jet. If so, they may have a profound impact on our understanding of the astrophysics in supernovae. For example, they may help identify Cas A as a local site of a gamma ray burst. Although photometric measurements between 2.2 and 24 micron indicate an underlying thermal continuum towards the relativistic filaments, their emission mechanism and true extent is still unknown. We propose a detailed study of these enigmatic objects with Spitzer: I) We wish to extend our map to search for moving features out to the full speed-of-light radius, reached by light leaving the SNR at the time of the explosion 325 years ago. These maps will constrain possibilities for the origin and maintenance of the features. II) IRS spec- troscopy of a bright knot will provide information on the emission mechanism of the features by examining the continuum behavior and searching for any emission lines to a high level of sensitivity. III) We propose to observe the well-studied relativistic jet source SS433 and the Crab-Nebula, the second youngest unambiguous type II supernova remnant in our Galaxy, to test whether relativistic filaments are also detected there.

  14. Infrared Echoes near the Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, O; Birkmann, S M; Le Floc'h, E; Gordon, K D; Egami, E; Bieging, J H; Hughes, J P; Young, E T; Hinz, J L; Quanz, S P; Hines, D C

    2005-01-01

    Two images of Cassiopeia A obtained at 24 micrometer with the Spitzer Space Telescope over a one year time interval show moving structures outside the shell of the supernova remnant to a distance of more than 20 arcmin. Individual features exhibit apparent motions of 10 to 20 arcsec per year, independently confirmed by near-infrared observations. The observed tangential velocities are at roughly the speed of light. It is likely that the moving structures are infrared echoes, in which interstellar dust is heated by the explosion and by flares from the compact object near the center of the remnant.

  15. Infrared Supernova Remnants in the Spitzer GLIMPSE Field

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ho-gyu

    2005-01-01

    We have searched for infrared emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) included in the Spitzer Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) field. At the positions of 100 known SNRs, we made 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 um band images covering the radio continuum emitting area of each remnant. In-depth examinations of four band images based on the radio continuum images of SNRs result in the identification of sixteen infrared SNRs in the GLIMPSE field. Eight S...

  16. Escape of cosmic-ray electrons from supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo; Kawanaka, Norita; Ioka, Kunihito

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the escape of cosmic ray (CR) electrons from a supernova remnant (SNR) to interstellar space. We show that CR electrons escape in order, from high energies to low energies, like CR nuclei. However, the escape starts later than the beginning of the Sedov phase at an SNR age of 103 to 7 × 103 yr, and the maximum energy of runaway CR electrons is below the knee at about 0.3-50 TeV because, unlike CR nuclei, CR electrons lose their energy as a result of synchrotron radiation. The highest-energy CR electrons might have already been detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) and MAGIC as a cut-off in the CR electron spectrum, and it will be probed by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02), the Calorimeteric Electron Telescope (CALET), the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) experiments. We also calculate the spatial distribution of runaway CR electrons and their radiation spectra around SNRs. Contrary to common belief, maximum-energy photons of synchrotron radiation around 1 keV are emitted by runaway CR electrons, which have been caught up by the shock. Inverse Compton scattering by runaway CR electrons can dominate the gamma-ray emission from runaway CR nuclei via pion decay. Both are detectable by CTA and LHAASO and they can give clues to the origin of CRs and the amplification of magnetic fluctuations around the SNR. We also discuss middle-aged and/or old SNRs as unidentified very-high-energy gamma-ray sources.

  17. Geneva University: Particle Acceleration in supernova remnants and its implications for the origin of galactic cosmic rays

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2012-01-01

    GENEVA UNIVERSITY École de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél.: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 28 March 2012 SEMINAIRE DE PHYSIQUE CORPUSCULAIRE 11h15 - Science III, Auditoire 1S081 Particle Acceleration in supernova remnants and its implications for the origin of galactic cosmic rays Prof. Pasquale BLASI INAF, Arcetri Observatory, Firenze The process of cosmic ray energization in supernova remnant shocks is described by the theory of non linear diffusive shock acceleration (NLDSA). Such theory is able to describe the acceleration itself, the dynamical reaction of accelerated particles on the shock, and the crucial phenomenon of the magnetic field amplification, the very key to generate high energy cosmic rays. I will illustrate the basic aspects of this theoretical framework, as well as its successes and problems. I will then discuss the observations, in X-rays an...

  18. Evidence For Particle Acceleration to the Knee of the Cosmic Ray Spectrum in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Eriksen, Kristoffer A; Badenes, Carles; Fesen, Robert; Ghavamian, Parviz; Moffett, David; Plucinsky, Paul P; Rakowski, Cara E; Reynoso, Estela M; Slane, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been assumed to be the source of cosmic rays (CRs) up to the "knee" of the CR spectrum at 10^15 eV, accelerating particles to relativistic energies in their blast waves by the process of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Since cosmic ray nuclei do not radiate efficiently, their presence must be inferred indirectly. Previous theoretical calculations and X-ray observations show that CR acceleration modifies significantly the structure of the SNR and greatly amplifies the interstellar magnetic field. We present new, deep X-ray observations of the remnant of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572, henceforth Tycho), which reveal a previously unknown, strikingly ordered pattern of non-thermal high-emissivity stripes in the projected interior of the remnant, with spacing that corresponds to the gyroradii of 10^14 - 10^15 eV} protons. Spectroscopy of the stripes shows the plasma to be highly turbulent on the (smaller) scale of the Larmor radii of TeV energy electrons. Models of the shock am...

  19. EVIDENCE FOR PARTICLE ACCELERATION TO THE KNEE OF THE COSMIC RAY SPECTRUM IN TYCHO'S SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been assumed to be the source of cosmic rays (CRs) up to the 'knee' of the CR spectrum at 1015 eV, accelerating particles to relativistic energies in their blast waves by the process of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). Since CR nuclei do not radiate efficiently, their presence must be inferred indirectly. Previous theoretical calculations and X-ray observations show that CR acceleration significantly modifies the structure of the SNR and greatly amplifies the interstellar magnetic field. We present new, deep X-ray observations of the remnant of Tycho's supernova (SN 1572, henceforth Tycho), which reveal a previously unknown, strikingly ordered pattern of non-thermal high-emissivity stripes in the projected interior of the remnant, with spacing that corresponds to the gyroradii of 1014-1015 eV protons. Spectroscopy of the stripes shows the plasma to be highly turbulent on the (smaller) scale of the Larmor radii of TeV energy electrons. Models of the shock amplification of magnetic fields produce structure on the scale of the gyroradius of the highest energy CRs present, but they do not predict the highly ordered pattern we observe. We interpret the stripes as evidence for acceleration of particles to near the knee of the CR spectrum in regions of enhanced magnetic turbulence, while the observed highly ordered pattern of these features provides a new challenge to models of DSA.ge to models of DSA.

  20. Planck intermediate results. XXXI. Microwave survey of Galactic supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, M

    2014-01-01

    The all-sky Planck survey in 9 frequency bands was used to search for emission from all 274 known Galactic supernova remnants. Of these, 17 were detected in at least two Planck frequencies. The radio-through-microwave spectral energy distributions were compiled to determine the emission mechanism for microwave emission. In only one case, IC 443, is the high-frequency emission clearly from dust associated with the supernova remnant. In all cases, the low-frequency emission is from synchrotron radiation. A single power law, as predicted for a population of relativistic particles with energy distribution that extends continuously to high energies, is evident for many sources, including the Crab and PKS 1209-51/52. A decrease in flux density relative to the extrapolation of radio emission is evident in several sources. Their spectral energy distributions can be approximated as broken power laws, $S_\

  1. Galactic Propagation of Cosmic Rays from Individual Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Nierstenhoefer, Nils; Schuppan, Florian; Tjus, Julia Becker

    2015-01-01

    It is widely believed that supernova remnants are the best candidate sources for the observed cosmic ray flux up to the knee, i.e. up to ~PeV energies. Indeed, the gamma-ray spectra of some supernova remnants can be well explained by assuming the decay of neutral pions which are created in hadronic interactions. Therefore, fitting the corresponding gamma spectra allows us to derive the spectra of cosmic rays at the source which are locally injected into our Galaxy. Using these spectra as a starting point, we propagate the cosmic rays through the Galaxy using the publicly available GALPROP code. Here, we will present first results on the contribution of those SNRs to the total cosmic ray flux and discuss implications.

  2. Understanding hadronic gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aim to test the plausibility of a theoretical framework in which the gamma-ray emission detected from supernova remnants may be of hadronic origin, i.e., due to the decay of neutral pions produced in nuclear collisions involving relativistic nuclei. In particular, we investigate the effects induced by magnetic field amplification on the expected particle spectra, outlining a phenomenological scenario consistent with both the underlying Physics and the larger and larger amount of observational data provided by the present generation of gamma experiments, which seem to indicate rather steep spectra for the accelerated particles. In addition, in order to study to study how pre-supernova winds might affect the expected emission in this class of sources, the time-dependent gamma-ray luminosity of a remnant with a massive progenitor is worked out. Solid points and limitations of the proposed scenario are finally discussed in a critical way

  3. 35 cm observations of a sample of large supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, W.; Zhang, X.; Fürst, E.

    2003-09-01

    We present radio maps of ten large-diameter supernova remnants observed at 35 cm wavelength with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. The angular resolution is 14farcm5 . The sources are G126.2+1.6, G127.1+0.5, HB3, HB9, S147, IC 443, Cygnus Loop, W63 and HB21. For each object we give an integrated flux density and improved spectra when necessary. We also present a map of G213.0-0.6, which we tentatively identify as a new large supernova remnant with a very low surface brightness, apparently interacting with the H Ii region S284. Based on observations with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (MPIfR), Bonn, Germany.

  4. On the supernova remnants with flat radio spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Onic, D.

    2013-01-01

    A considerable fraction of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) characterize flat spectral indices ($\\alpha4), contribution of secondary electrons left over from the decay of charged pions, as well as the possibility of thermal contamination. In the case of expansion in high density environment, intrinsic thermal bremsstrahlung could theoretically shape the radio spectrum of an SNR and also account for observable curved -- "concave up" radio spectra of some Galactic SNRs. This...

  5. Some Recent Progress on the Studies of Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jian-wen

    2009-01-01

    We briefly reviewed some recent progress on the studies of supernova remnants (SNRs), including the radio SNRs (the structure, polarization, spectrum etc.), observational characteristics of X-ray emission, pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), association properties between SNR and PSR, interaction of SNR and interstellar medium (ISM), cosmos ray and the SNRs in external galaxies, etc.. Correspondingly to the continue improvement of space and spectrum resolution of the on-ground and i...

  6. Analytic Solutions for the Evolution of Radiative Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Bandiera, R.; Petruk, O.

    2004-01-01

    We present the general analytic solution for the evolution of radiative supernova remnants in a uniform interstellar medium, under thin-shell approximation. This approximation is shown to be very accurate approach to this task. For a given set of parameters, our solution closely matches the results of numerical models, showing a transient in which the deceleration parameter reaches a maximum value of 0.33, followed by a slow convergence to the asymptotic value 2/7. Oort (195...

  7. Filamentary structure in Crab-like supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the most reasonable origin for filamentary structure in Crab-like supernova remnants is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability operating on thermal gas accelerated by the pulsar. The nonthermal filaments result from the interaction of the pulse-generated magnetic flux and relativistic particles with the thermal structures. This implies that 3C 58 should contain much as yet undetected gas. 44 references

  8. Radio emission from supernova remnants in the galaxy M33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 21-cm map of M33 with a resolution of 25 x 49 arcsec (RA, Dec) and an rms noise of 0.2 mJy per beam area has been used to search for radio emission at the positions of optically identified supernova remnants (SNR). Five well-established and three probable radio identifications are found. In the surface brightness-diameter diagram, the M33 radio remnants agree well with galactic objects. Using the galactic relation as a reference an average distance to M33 of 830 +- 100 kpc is derived. It is estimated that most of the radio remnants in M33 with flux densities > 1 mJy at 21 cm have been optically identified. (author)

  9. Radio polarization observations of large supernova remnants at 6cm

    CERN Document Server

    Han, J L; Sun, X H; Reich, W; Xiao, L; Reich, P; Xu, J W; Shi, W B; Fuerst, E; Wielebinski, R

    2013-01-01

    We have observed 79 supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Urumqi 25m telescope at 6cm during the Sino-German 6cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. We measured flux densities of SNRs at 6cm, some of which are the first measurements or the data at highest frequencies, so that we can determine or improve spectra of SNRs. Our observations have ruled out the suggested spectral breaks or spectral flattening of a few SNRs, and confirmed the spectral break of S147. Combined our 6cm maps with 11cm and 21cm maps from the Effelsberg 100m telescope, we calculated the spectral index maps of several large SNRs. For many remnants, we obtained for the first time polarization images, which show the intrinsic magnetic field structures at 6 cm. We disapproved three "remnants", OA184, G192.8-1.1 and G16.8-1.1, which show a thermal spectrum and no polarization. We have discovered two large supernova remnant, G178.2-4.2 and G25.1-2.3, from the 6cm survey maps.

  10. Aspherical Supernova Shock Breakout and the Observations of Supernova 2008D

    OpenAIRE

    Couch, Sean M.; Pooley, David; Wheeler, J. Craig; Milosavljevic, Milos

    2010-01-01

    Shock breakout is the earliest, readily-observable emission from a core-collapse supernova explosion. Observing supernova shock breakout may yield information about the nature of the supernova shock prior to exiting the progenitor and, in turn, about the core-collapse supernova mechanism itself. X-ray Outburst 080109, later associated with SN 2008D, is a very well-observed example of shock breakout from a core-collapse supernova. Despite excellent observational coverage and ...

  11. Gamma rays from molecular clouds illuminated by accumulated diffusive protons from supernova remnant W28

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Chen, Yang

    2010-01-01

    W28 is one of the archetype supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds. H.E.S.S. observation found four TeV sources which are coincident with the molecular clouds (MCs) around W28, but Fermi LAT detected no prominent GeV counterparts for two of them. An accumulative diffusion model is established in this Letter and the energetic protons colliding the nearby MCs are considered to be an accumulation of the diffusive protons escaping from the shock front throug...

  12. Model for Synchrotron Emission from Shell Supernova Remnants in Nonuniform Interstellar Medium and Nonuniform Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Petruk, O.

    2002-01-01

    Possibility to model the high energy synchrotron emission (in X- and gamma-rays) from supernova remnants is an important task for modern astronomy and astrophysics, because it may be responsible for the nonthermal X-rays and TeV gamma-rays observed recently from a number of SNRs. This emission allows as to look in the processes of particle acceleration on SNR shocks and generation of cosmic rays. In this paper, a model for the synchrotron emission from shell SNR in nonunifor...

  13. Supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds as seen with H.E.S.S

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, D; Eger, P; Laffon, H; Mehault, J; Ohm, S; Oya, I

    2013-01-01

    About 30 Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) are thought to be physically associated with molecular clouds (MCs). These systems are prime \\g-ray source candidates as the accelerated particles from shock fronts collide with the surrounding high-density medium thus emitting gamma-rays through hadronic interactions. However only a handful of such interacting SNRs are detected at TeV energies. We report the current status of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) observations towards these SNR-MC systems, with a particular emphasis on the latest results.

  14. HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE COMPOSITE SUPERNOVA REMNANT MSH 15-56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MSH 15-56 (G326.3–1.8) is a composite supernova remnant (SNR) that consists of an SNR shell and a displaced pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the radio. We present XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of the remnant that reveal a compact source at the tip of the radio PWN and complex structures that provide evidence for mixing of the supernova (SN) ejecta with PWN material following a reverse shock interaction. The X-ray spectra are well fitted by a non-thermal power-law model whose photon index steepens with distance from the presumed pulsar, and a thermal component with an average temperature of 0.55 keV. The enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur in some regions, and the similar temperature and ionization timescale, suggest that much of the X-ray emission can be attributed to SN ejecta that have either been heated by the reverse shock or swept up by the PWN. We find one region with a lower temperature of 0.3 keV that appears to be in ionization equilibrium. Assuming the Sedov model, we derive a number of SNR properties, including an age of 16,500 yr. Modeling of the ?-ray emission detected by Fermi shows that the emission may originate from the reverse shock-crushed PWN.

  15. High-energy Emission from the Composite Supernova Remnant MSH 15-56

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Castro, Daniel; Plucinsky, Paul; Gelfand, Joseph; Dickel, John R.

    2013-01-01

    MSH 1556 (G326.3-1.8) is a composite supernova remnant (SNR) that consists of an SNR shell and a displaced pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the radio. We present XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of the remnant that reveal a compact source at the tip of the radio PWN and complex structures that provide evidence for mixing of the supernova (SN) ejecta with PWN material following a reverse shock interaction. The X-ray spectra are well fitted by a non-thermal power-law model whose photon index steepens with distance from the presumed pulsar, and a thermal component with an average temperature of 0.55 keV. The enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur in some regions, and the similar temperature and ionization timescale, suggest that much of the X-ray emission can be attributed to SN ejecta that have either been heated by the reverse shock or swept up by the PWN. We find one region with a lower temperature of 0.3 keV that appears to be in ionization equilibrium.Assuming the Sedov model, we derive a number of SNR properties, including an age of 16,500 yr. Modeling of the gamma-ray emission detected by Fermi shows that the emission may originate from the reverse shock-crushed PWN.

  16. Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets and Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizunno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-01-01

    We performed numerical simulations of particle acceleration, magnetic field generation, and emission from shocks in order to understand the observed emission from relativistic jets and supernova remnants. The investigation involves the study of collisionless shocks, where the Weibel instability is responsible for particle acceleration as well as magnetic field generation. A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code has been used to investigate the shock processes in electron-positron plasmas. The evolution of theWeibe1 instability and its associated magnetic field generation and particle acceleration are studied with two different jet velocities (0 = 2,5 - slow, fast) corresponding to either outflows in supernova remnants or relativistic jets, such as those found in AGNs and microquasars. Slow jets have intrinsically different structures in both the generated magnetic fields and the accelerated particle spectrum. In particular, the jet head has a very weak magnetic field and the ambient electrons are strongly accelerated and dragged by the jet particles. The simulation results exhibit jitter radiation from inhomogeneous magnetic fields, generated by the Weibel instability, which has different spectral properties than standard synchrotron emission in a homogeneous magnetic field.

  17. Spitzer Observations of Supernova Remnant IC 443

    CERN Document Server

    Noriega-Crespo, A; Gordon, K; Marleau, F R; Rieke, G H; Rho, J; Latter, W B

    2008-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations of IC 443 obtained with MIPS and IRS as part of our GTO program on the astrophysics of ejecta from evolved stars. We find that the overall morphology at mid/far IR wavelengths resembles even more closely a loop or a shell than the ground based optical and/or near IR images.The dust temperature map, based on the 70/160micron ratio, shows a range from 18 to 30 K degrees. The IRS spectra confirm the findings from previous near+mid IR spectroscopic observations of a collisionally excited gas, atomic and molecular, rich in fine structure atomic and pure H2 rotational emission lines, respectively. The spectroscopic shock indicator, [Ne II] 12.8micron, suggests shock velocities ranging from 60-90 km/s, consistent with the values derived from other indicators.

  18. A Newly Recognized Very Young Supernova Remnant in M83

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, William P; Long, Knox S; Whitmore, Bradley C; Kim, Hwihyun; Soria, Roberto; Kuntz, K D; Plucinsky, Paul P; Dopita, Michael A; Stockdale, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    As part of a spectroscopic survey of supernova remnant candidates in M83 using the Gemini-South telescope and GMOS, we have discovered one object whose spectrum shows very broad lines at H$\\alpha$, [O~I] 6300,6363, and [O~III] 4959,5007, similar to those from other objects classified as `late time supernovae.' Although six historical supernovae have been observed in M83 since 1923, none were seen at the location of this object. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images show a nearly unresolved emission source, while Chandra and ATCA data reveal a bright X-ray source and nonthermal radio source at the position. Objects in other galaxies showing similar spectra are only decades post-supernova, which raises the possibility that the supernova that created this object occurred during the last century but was missed. Using photometry of nearby stars from the HST data, we suggest the precursor was at least 17 $\\rm M_{sun}$, and the presence of broad H$\\alpha$ in the spectrum makes a type II supernova likely....

  19. $\\gamma$-Rays and Neutrinos from Very Young Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Protheroe, R J; Luo, Q

    1998-01-01

    We consider the result of acceleration of heavy ions in the slot gap potential of a very young pulsar with a hot polar cap. Photodisintegration of the heavy ions in the radiation field of the polar cap and pulsar surface gives rise to a flux of energetic neutrons. Some fraction of these neutrons interact with target nuclei in the supernova shell to produce a prompt neutrino and gamma-ray signal. Neutrons that do not interact promptly travel far from the pulsar where they decay into protons which await the arrival of target nuclei in the supernova shell, and then produce a delayed neutrino and gamma-ray signal. The TeV neutrino and 100 MeV and TeV gamma-ray signals should be observable from very young supernova remnants in our galaxy for a range of pulsar parameters.

  20. An Optical Study of the Two Youngest Balmer-dominated Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, Luke; Hughes, John Patrick; Eriksen, Kristoffer; McCully, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are particularly useful in understanding the properties of high-speed shocks in the interstellar medium. Thanks to their well-known distances (unlike for their Galactic brethren) I can convert angular proper motion measurements of their shock waves, as traced by H? emission, into accurate shock speeds in physical units. Furthermore in some high-speed shocks the H? emission displays a two-component nature consisting of broad and narrow components. The broad line arises from charge exchange of electron from neutral hydrogen that passes through the shock with a post-shock ion. The narrow component comes from collisional excitations of the electrons bound to neutral hydrogen as it passes through the shock. The shock velocity, in conjunction with the H? broad-line width and the broad-to-narrow flux ratio, can be used to test Balmer shock models (Vanadelsberg et al. (2008); see Heng (2010) for a thorough review), assess the level of temperature between post-shock electrons and ions, and search for evidence of efficient cosmic ray acceleration.In this thesis I study two young supernova remnants (SNRs) in the LMC, 0509-67.5 and 0519-69.0, where I measure the shock velocity directly from proper motion measurements using narrow-band H? imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope. I then use optical longslit spectroscopic data obtained from the FORS2 spectrograph (Very Large Telescope) and the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (Southern African Large Telescope). Example results for SNR 0509-67.5 include: a global shock speed of 6,500 km sec-1, an age of 230-390 years, a neutral hydrogen density of 0.84?(?H?/0.2)-1cm-3, and a degree of equilibration (Te,sh/Tion,sh) of less than ~0.03 in the NE of the remnant without the need to invoke CR precursors or efficient cosmic ray acceleration.

  1. Spitzer IRS Observations of the XA Region in the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Sankrit, R; Bautista, M; Gaetz, T J; Williams, B J; Blair, W P; Borkowski, K J; Long, K S

    2014-01-01

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 micron wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km/s shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is mat...

  2. SUPERNOVA EJECTA IN THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of ?1900, and most likely located near the Galactic center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities ?>18,000 km s–1 have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs; Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe K? emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including 56Ni) with velocities >18,000 km s–1 were ejected by this SN. However, in the inner west rim, we find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity products of O-burning were also ejected. G1.9+0.3 appears similar to energetic Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. The pronounced asymmetry in the ejectaronounced asymmetry in the ejecta distribution and abundance inhomogeneities are best explained by a strongly asymmetric SN explosion, similar to those produced in some recent three-dimensional delayed-detonation Type Ia models.

  3. SUPERNOVA EJECTA IN THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-8202 (United States); Hwang, Una [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Green, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, 19 J.J. Thomson Ave., Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Petre, Robert [NASA/GSFC, Code 660, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca, E-mail: kborkow@unity.ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), with an estimated supernova (SN) explosion date of {approx}1900, and most likely located near the Galactic center. Only the outermost ejecta layers with free-expansion velocities {approx}>18,000 km s{sup -1} have been shocked so far in this dynamically young, likely Type Ia SNR. A long (980 ks) Chandra observation in 2011 allowed spatially resolved spectroscopy of heavy-element ejecta. We denoised Chandra data with the spatio-spectral method of Krishnamurthy et al., and used a wavelet-based technique to spatially localize thermal emission produced by intermediate-mass elements (IMEs; Si and S) and iron. The spatial distribution of both IMEs and Fe is extremely asymmetric, with the strongest ejecta emission in the northern rim. Fe K{alpha} emission is particularly prominent there, and fits with thermal models indicate strongly oversolar Fe abundances. In a localized, outlying region in the northern rim, IMEs are less abundant than Fe, indicating that undiluted Fe-group elements (including {sup 56}Ni) with velocities >18,000 km s{sup -1} were ejected by this SN. However, in the inner west rim, we find Si- and S-rich ejecta without any traces of Fe, so high-velocity products of O-burning were also ejected. G1.9+0.3 appears similar to energetic Type Ia SNe such as SN 2010jn where iron-group elements at such high free-expansion velocities have been recently detected. The pronounced asymmetry in the ejecta distribution and abundance inhomogeneities are best explained by a strongly asymmetric SN explosion, similar to those produced in some recent three-dimensional delayed-detonation Type Ia models.

  4. 3D simulations of the non-thermal broad-band emission from young supernova remnants including efficient particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar

    2014-01-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. In this paper, we explore how the non-thermal emission from young remnants can be used to probe the production of energetic particles at the shock (both protons and electrons). Our model couples hydrodynamic simulations of a supernova remnant with a kinetic treatment of particle acceleration. We include two important back-reaction loops upstream of the shock: energetic particles can (i) modify the flow structure and (ii) amplify the magnetic field. As the latter process is not fully understood, we use different limit cases that encompass a wide range of possibilities. We follow the history of the shock dynamics and of the particle transport downstream of the shock, which allows us to compute the non-thermal emission from the remnant at any given age. We do this in 3D, in order to generate projected maps that can be compared with observations. We observe that completely different recipes for the magnetic field can lead to sim...

  5. Cosmic Ray Acceleration by Supernova Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Berezhko, E. G.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the results of recent measurements of nonthermal emission from individual supernova remnants (SNRs) and their correspondence to the nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in SNRs. It is shown that the theory fits these data in a satisfactory way and provides the strong evidences for the efficient CR production in SNRs accompanied by significant magnetic field amplification. Magnetic field amplification leads to considerable increase of CR maximum...

  6. X-ray Emission from the Galactic Supernova Remnant G272.2-3.2

    CERN Document Server

    McEntaffer, Randall L; Brantseg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present analysis of Chandra X-ray Observatory data detailing a galactic supernova remnant, G272.2-3.2. A clear shell of emission has been resolved for the first time as a series of filaments and knots around the entire rim of the remnant. Spectral analysis of these features show that they are consistent with shock heating of interstellar material in a clumpy medium. Spatially separated from this shell we see a central diffuse region dominated by harder, hotter emission. Spatial spectroscopy shows a clear enhancement of metals consistent with a Type Ia explosion, namely S, Si, and Fe. We find no clear evidence for a compact object or pulsar wind nebula and argue for a Type Ia origin. Consideration of the ionization timescales suggest an age of 8700 years for G272.2-3.2.

  7. Role of ejecta clumping and back-reaction of accelerated cosmic rays in the evolution of supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, S; Miceli, M; Petruk, O; Pumo, M L

    2011-01-01

    The thermal structure of the post-shock region of a young supernova remnant (SNR) is heavily affected by two main physical effects, the back-reaction of accelerated cosmic rays (CRs) and the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities developing at the contact discontinuity between the ejecta and the shocked interstellar medium (ISM). Here, we investigate the role played by both physical mechanisms in the evolution of SNRs through detailed 3D MHD modeling. Our model describes the expansion of the remnant through a magnetized ISM, including consistently the initial ejecta clumping and the effects on shock dynamics due to back-reaction of accelerated CRs. We discuss the role of the initial ejecta clumpiness in developing strong instabilities at the contact discontinuity which may extend upstream to the main shock and beyond.

  8. Radio polarization observations of large supernova remnants at ?6 cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Reich, W.; Xiao, L.; Reich, P.; Xu, J. W.; Shi, W. B.; Fürst, E.; Wielebinski, R.

    2014-01-01

    We have observed 79 supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Urumqi 25 m telescope at ?6 cm during the Sino-German ?6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. We measured flux densities of SNRs at ?6 cm, some of which are the first ever measured or the measurements at the highest frequency, so that we can determine or improve spectra of SNRs. Our observations have ruled out spectral breaks or spectral flattening that were suggested for a few SNRs, and confirmed the spectral break of S147. By combining our ?6 cm maps with ?11 cm and ?21 cm maps from the Effelsberg 100 m telescope, we calculated the spectral index maps of several large SNRs. For many remnants we obtained for the first time polarization images, which show the intrinsic magnetic field structures at ?6 cm. We disapproved three objects as being SNRs, OA184, G192.8-1.1 and G16.8-1.1, which show a thermal spectrum and no polarization. We have discovered two large supernova remnants, G178.2-4.2 and G25.1-2.3., in the survey maps.

  9. The dynamic evolution of the Kepler supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z.-M.

    1986-07-01

    Two supernovae exploding events were observed visually from the same position, the north of Tian-Jian in Wei-Suei (the north of 42 Theta Ophiuchi), in 1604 and 1664, respectively, and were recorded in the ancient astronomical literatures of China and Korea. However, in recent years only one supernova remnant (SNR) has been identified in this position using advanced optical, radio and X-ray techniques. Some observed information for the Kepler SNR, including its nonspherically symmetric emission property with brighter north but darker south, have been shown. It is conjectured that a supernova outburst in 1664 was excited by the 1604 supernova explosion at a distance of about 0.5 parsecs. The present SNR is formed from the summation of these two explosions. The dynamical evolution of the Kepler SNR is studied by means of a time-dependent, hydrodynamic code in the present paper. The density, velocity, temperature, and X-ray emission distribution of the SNR are shown, being the results of dynamic evolution for 380 years following the explosion of the supernova in 1604. Compared with present radio and X-ray observations, these numerical results may reasonably explain the observational features.

  10. Variation of cosmic ray injection across supernova shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Völk, H J; Ksenofontov, L T

    2003-01-01

    The injection rate of suprathermal protons into the diffusive shock acceleration process should vary strongly over the surface of supernova remnant shocks. These variations and the absolute value of the injection rate are investigated. In the simplest case, like for SN 1006, the shock can be approximated as being spherical in a uniform large-scale magnetic field. The injection rate depends strongly on the shock obliquity and diminishes as the angle between the ambient field and the shock normal increases. Therefore efficient particle injection, which leads to conversion of a significant fraction of the kinetic energy at a shock surface element, arises only in relatively small regions near the "poles", reducing the overall CR production. The sizes of these regions depend strongly on the random background field and the Alfven wave turbulence generated due to CR streaming instability. For the cases of SN 1006 and Tycho's SNR they correspond to about 20, and for Cas A to between 10 and 20 percent of the entire sh...

  11. Search for surviving companions in type Ia supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Taam, Ronald E

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the progenitor systems of type~Ia supernovae is still unclear. One way to distinguish between the single-degenerate scenario and double-degenerate scenario for their progenitors is to search for the surviving companions. Using a technique that couples the results from multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with calculations of the structure and evolution of main-sequence- and helium-rich surviving companions, the color and magnitude of main-sequence- and helium-rich surviving companions are predicted as functions of time. The surviving companion candidates in Galactic type~Ia supernova remnants and nearby extragalactic type~Ia supernova remnants are discussed. We find that the maximum detectable distance of main-sequence surviving companions (helium-rich surviving companions) is $0.6-4$~Mpc ($0.4-16$~Mpc), if the apparent magnitude limit is 27 in the absence of extinction, suggesting that the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds and the Andromeda Galaxy are excellent environments in which to s...

  12. A method for computing synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from hydrodynamic simulations of supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Obergaulinger, M; Aloy, M A; Iyudin, A

    2014-01-01

    The observational signature of supernova remnants (SNRs) is very complex, in terms of both their geometrical shape and their spectral properties, dominated by non-thermal synchrotron and inverse-Compton scattering. We propose a post-processing method to analyse the broad-band emission of SNRs based on three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations. From the hydrodynamical data, we estimate the distribution of non-thermal electrons accelerated at the shock wave and follow the subsequent evolution as they lose or gain energy by adiabatic expansion or compression and emit energy by radiation. As a first test case, we use a simulation of a bipolar supernova expanding into a cloudy medium. We find that our method qualitatively reproduces the main observational features of typical SNRs and produces fluxes of the right order of magnitude, allowing for further use in more extended sets of models.

  13. Nonuniform Expansion of the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Green, David; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert

    2014-08-01

    G1.9+0.3 is the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), about 100 yr old from global expansion measurements, and most likely the result of an asymmetric Type Ia supernova explosion. We smoothed a Chandra image from a 1 Ms observation in 2011 and fit the resulting model to unsmoothed images from 2007 and 2009, allowing for expansion and image shifts. The measured expansion rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, increasing inward by about 60% along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis, from 0.52% +- 0.03% per yr to 0.84% +- 0.06% per yr. This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120 - 190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9 +0.3, and implying a significant (deceleration parameter m expansion ages between the reverse shock and the blast wave requires abrupt density gradients in either the ejecta or the ambient medium, to suddenly decelerate the reverse shock or the blast wave. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest (factor of several) density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as found at a wind termination shock, implying a strong presupernova wind from the progenitor system. Alternatively, the reverse shock might have encountered a larger (factor of 10 or more) density discontinuity within the SN ejecta, such as found in pulsating delayed-detonation Type Ia SN models. Through 1D hydrodynamical simulations, we demonstrate that the blast wave is much more decelerated than the reverse shock in these models for remnants at ages similar to G1.9+0.3. The presence of strong density gradients in the outer ejecta of Type Ia SNe has significant implications for the interpretation of their early-time spectra and for understanding how white dwarfs explode.

  14. The Magellan/IMACS Catalog of Optical Supernova Remnant Candidates in M83

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, William P; Long, K S

    2012-01-01

    We present a new optical imaging survey of supernova remnants in M83, using data obtained with the Magellan I 6.5m telescope and IMACS instrument under conditions of excellent seeing. Using the criterion of strong [S II] emission relative to Halpha, we confirm all but three of the 71 SNR candidates listed in our previous survey, and expand the SNR candidate list to 225 objects, more than tripling the earlier sample. Comparing the optical survey with a new deep X-ray survey of M83 with Chandra, we find 61 of these SNR candidates to have X-ray counterparts. We also identify an additional list of 46 [O III] -selected nebulae for follow-up as potential ejecta-dominated remnants, seven of which have associated X-ray emission that makes them strong candidates. Some of the other [O III]-bright objects could also be normal ISM-dominated supernova remnants with shocks fast enough to doubly ionize oxygen, but with Halpha and [S II] emission faint enough to have been missed. A few of these objects may also be H II regio...

  15. Spitzer Observations of the Type Ia Supernova Remnant N103B: Kepler's Older Cousin?

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brian J; Reynolds, Stephen P; Ghavamian, Parviz; Raymond, John C; Long, Knox S; Blair, William P; Winkler, P Frank; Sankrit, Ravi; Hendrick, Sean P

    2014-01-01

    We report results from Spitzer observations of SNR 0509-68.7, also known as N103B, a young Type Ia supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud that shows interaction with a dense medium in its western hemisphere. Our images show that N103B has strong IR emission from warm dust in the post-shock environment. The post-shock gas density we derive, 45 cm$^{-3}$, is much higher than in other Type Ia remnants in the LMC, though a lack of spatial resolution may bias measurements towards regions of higher than average density. This density is similar to that in Kepler's SNR, a Type Ia interacting with a circumstellar medium. Optical images show H$\\alpha$ emission along the entire periphery of the western portion of the shock, with [O III] and [S II] lines emitted from a few dense clumps of material where the shock has become radiative. The dust is silicate in nature, though standard silicate dust models fail to reproduce the "18 $\\mu$m" silicate feature that peaks instead at 17.3 $\\mu$m. We propose that the dense...

  16. High-Energy Emission from the Composite Supernova Remnant MSH 15-56

    CERN Document Server

    Temim, Tea; Castro, Daniel; Plucinsky, Paul; Gelfand, Joseph; Dickel, John R

    2013-01-01

    MSH 15-56 (G326.3-1.8) is a composite supernova remnant (SNR) that consists of an SNR shell and a displaced pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the radio. We present XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of the remnant that reveal a compact source at the tip of the radio PWN and complex structures that provide evidence for mixing of the supernova (SN) ejecta with PWN material following a reverse shock interaction. The X-ray spectra are well fitted by a non-thermal power-law model whose photon index steepens with distance from the presumed pulsar, and a thermal component with an average temperature of 0.55 keV. The enhanced abundances of silicon and sulfur in some regions, and the similar temperature and ionization timescale, suggest that much of the X-ray emission can be attributed to SN ejecta that have either been heated by the reverse shock or swept up by the PWN. We find one region with a lower temperature of 0.3 keV that appears to be in ionization equilibrium. Assuming the Sedov model, we derive a number of...

  17. Nonthermal and thermal emission from the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhko, E G

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) is employed to investigate the properties of SNR RX J1713.7-3946. Observations of the non-thermal radio and X-ray emission spectra as well as the H.E.S.S. measurements of the very high energy gamma-ray emission are used to constrain the astronomical and CR acceleration parameters of the system. It is argued that RX J1713.7-3946 is a core collapse supernova (SN) of type II/Ib with a massive progenitor, has an age of ~1600 yr and is at a distance of ~1 kpc. It is in addition assumed that the CR injection/acceleration takes place uniformly across the shock surface for this kind of core collapse SNR. The theory gives a consistent description for all the existing observational data, including the non-detection of thermal X-rays and the spatial correlation of the X-ray and gamma-ray emission in the remnant. Specifically it is shown that an efficient production of nuclear CRs, leading to strong shock modification and a large down...

  18. High-resolution radio observations of five supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five supernova remnants have been mapped with high resolution using the Fleurs synthesis radio telescope. Four of the sources (G33.6 + 0.1, G309.2 - 0.6., G315.4 - 0.3 and G320.4 - 1.2) possess shell structures, albeit with considerable distortion; the fifth source, G308.7 + 0.0, has a centrally concentrated brightness distribution reminiscent of the Crab nebula but considerably more elongated. In the general direction of G320.4 - 1.2 there is considerable optical emission but only the brightest features seem to be associated with the radio source; currently available sky survey photographs show no associated optical nebulosity in the direction of the other four remnants. (author)

  19. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON PROCESSING IN THE BLAST WAVE OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT N132D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 14-36 ?m mapping observations of the supernova remnant N132D in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study focuses on the processing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that we previously identified in the southern blast wave. The mid-infrared spectra show strong continuum emission from shock-heated dust and a unique, nearly featureless plateau in the 15-20 ?m region, which we attribute to PAH molecules. The typical PAH emission bands observed in the surrounding interstellar medium ahead of the blast wave disappear, which indicates shock processing of PAH molecules. The PAH plateau appears most strongly at the outer edge of the blast wave and coincides with diffuse X-ray emission that precedes the brightest X-ray and optical filaments. This suggests that PAH molecules in the surrounding medium are swept up and processed in the hot gas of the blast wave shock, where they survive the harsh conditions long enough to be detected. We also observe a broad emission feature at 20 ?m appearing with the PAH plateau. We speculate that this feature is either due to FeO dust grains or connected to the processing of PAHs in the supernova blast wave shock.

  20. RADIO EMISSION FROM YOUNG SUPERNOVAE AND SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN Arp 299

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have made sensitive milliarcsecond-resolution radio images of the nearby merger galaxy Arp 299 at four epochs spread over 18 months between 2003 and 2005. The combined data revealed a total of 30 point sources in the two primary merger nuclei. Twenty-five of these are found in the northeastern nucleus (component 'A' = IC 694) over a region ?100 pc in diameter, while five are in the southwestern nucleus (component 'B1' = NGC 3690) within a region ?30 pc in size. These objects are interpreted as young supernovae and supernova remnants; the ratio of the source counts in nuclei A and B1 is approximately equal to the ratio of their predicted supernova rates. An approximate luminosity function has been derived for nucleus A, and indicates that it might contain as many as 500-1000 compact radio sources more powerful than Cassiopeia A; the integrated flux density of these sources would be about 20% of the total flux density seen at lower resolution. A new supernova occurred in nucleus B1 in the first half of 2005, having a peak radio power at least 2000 times the present power of Cas A. This supernova is located within 0.4 pc (projected distance) of an apparently older supernova remnant, making it very likely that this indicates the presence of a massive super star cluster within nucleus B1. Comparison of the typical radio flux densities of our compact radio sources to the observed X-ray luminosities of nuclei A and B1 indicates that it is possible that one radio sourcat it is possible that one radio source in each nucleus actually could be associated with an active galactic nucleus rather than being a supernova remnant.

  1. A New Model For Vela Jr. Supernova Remnant

    OpenAIRE

    Telezhinsky, Igor

    2008-01-01

    We consider Vela Jr. as being the old Supernova Remnant (SNR) at the beginning of the transition from adiabatic to radiative stage of evolution. According to our model, Vela Jr. is situated outside Vela SNR at the distance of 600 pc and its age is 17500 yr. We model the high energy fluxes from Vela Jr. and its broadband spectrum. We find our results compatible with experimental data in radio waves, X- and gamma-rays. Our hydrodynamical model of Vela Jr. explains the observed...

  2. Analytic Solutions for the Evolution of Radiative Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Bandiera, R

    2004-01-01

    We present the general analytic solution for the evolution of radiative supernova remnants in a uniform interstellar medium, under thin-shell approximation. This approximation is shown to be very accurate approach to this task. For a given set of parameters, our solution closely matches the results of numerical models, showing a transient in which the deceleration parameter reaches a maximum value of 0.33, followed by a slow convergence to the asymptotic value 2/7. Oort (1951) and McKee and Ostriker (1977) analytic solutions are discussed, as special cases of the general solution we have found.

  3. Hadronic gamma-ray images of Sedov supernova remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Beshley, V.; Petruk, O.

    2011-01-01

    A number of modern experiments in high-energy astrophysics produce images of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the TeV and GeV gamma-rays. Either relativistic electrons (due to the inverse-Compton scattering) or protons (due to the pion decays) may be responsible for this emission. In particular, the broad-band spectra of SNRs may be explained in both leptonic and hadronic scenarios. Another kind of observational data, namely, images of SNRs, is an important part of experimental ...

  4. Radio observations of three supernova remnants in M33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discrete sources in the southern spiral arm of M33 have been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope at 49 and 21 cm and the Very Large Array at 6 cm. The three optically confirmed supernova remnants were detected with the WSRT and were found to have non-thermal spectral indices. Two of these SNR were detected with the VLA with a resolution of approximately 1.5 arcsec (5 pc). If it is assumed that these M33 SNR are similar to galactic SNR, the surface-brightness-diameter relationship proposed by Caswell and Lerche indicates a distance of 860 +- 200 kpc for M33. (author)

  5. Radio polarization observations of large supernova remnants at 6cm

    OpenAIRE

    Han, J. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Reich, W.; Xiao, L.; Reich, P.; Xu, J. W.; Shi, W. B.; Fuerst, E.; Wielebinski, R.

    2013-01-01

    We have observed 79 supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Urumqi 25m telescope at 6cm during the Sino-German 6cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. We measured flux densities of SNRs at 6cm, some of which are the first ever measured or the measurements at the highest frequency, so that we can determine or improve spectra of SNRs. Our observations have ruled out spectral breaks or spectral flattening that were suggested for a few SNRs, and confirmed the spectral break of...

  6. Shape of cooling filaments in old supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of density perturbations through thermal instabilities can account for filamentary features in old supernova remnants. Here, the cross sectional shape of a forming filament is calculated. As expected, the cross section of the filament flattens as it cools, and a feature degenerates into a thin sheet. The shape, however, is unstable to asymmetric warping disturbances. This probably leads to a number of parallel striations as the filament splits up, consistent with observations in the Cygnus Loop. The ratio of depth to width is typically 10:1, and so the feature may appear to be tubelike or a sheet, depending upon perspective

  7. The many sides of RCW 86: a Type Ia supernova remnant evolving in its progenitor's wind bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersen, Sjors; Chiotellis, Alexandros; Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a detailed investigation of the Galactic supernova remnant RCW 86 using the XMM-Newton X-ray telescope. RCW 86 is the probable remnant of SN 185 A.D., a supernova that likely exploded inside a wind-blown cavity. We use the XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer to derive precise temperatures and ionization ages of the plasma, which are an indication of the interaction history of the remnant with the presumed cavity. We find that the spectra are well fitted by two non-equilibrium ionization models, which enables us to constrain the properties of the ejecta and interstellar matter plasma. Furthermore, we performed a principal component analysis on EPIC MOS and pn data to find regions with particular spectral properties. We present evidence that the shocked ejecta, emitting Fe K and Si line emission, are confined to a shell of approximately 2 pc width with an oblate spheroidal morphology. Using detailed hydrodynamical simulations, we show that general dynamical and emission properties at different portions of the remnant can be well reproduced by a Type Ia supernova that exploded in a non-spherically symmetric wind-blown cavity. We also show that this cavity can be created using general wind properties for a single degenerate system. Our data and simulations provide further evidence that RCW 86 is indeed the remnant of SN 185, and is the likely result of a Type Ia explosion of single degenerate origin.

  8. Nonthermal X-Ray Emission from the Shell-Type Supernova Remnant G347.3-0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Patrick O.; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Dame, T. M.; Hughes, John P.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Green, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Recent Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA) observations of G347.3-0.5, a supernova remnant (SNR) discovered in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, reveal nonthermal emission from a region along the northwestern shell. Here we report on new pointed ASCA observations of G347.3-0.5 that confirm this result for all the bright shell regions and also reveal similar emission, although with slightly different spectral properties, from the remainder of the SNR. Curiously, no thermal X-ray emission is detected anywhere in the remnant. We derive limits on the amount of thermal emitting material present in G347.3-0.5 and present new radio continuum, CO, and infrared results that indicate that the remnant is distant and of moderate age. We show that our observations are broadly consistent with a scenario that has most of the supernova remnant shock wave still within the stellar wind bubble of its progenitor star, while part of it appears to be interacting with denser material. A point source at the center of the remnant has spectral properties similar to those expected for a neutron star and may represent the compact relic of the supernova progenitor.

  9. MEASURING DUST PRODUCTION IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA REMNANT 1E 0102.2-7219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present mid-infrared spectral mapping observations of the core-collapse supernova remnant 1E 0102.2-7219 in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The remnant shows emission from fine structure transitions of neon and oxygen as well as continuum emission from dust. Comparison of the mid-IR dust emission with observations at X-ray, radio, and optical wavelengths shows that the dust is associated with the supernova ejecta and is thus newly formed in the remnant. The spectrum of the newly formed dust is well reproduced by a model that includes 3 x 10-3 M sun of amorphous carbon dust at 70 K and 2 x 10-5 M sun of Mg2SiO4 (forsterite) at 145 K. Our observations place a lower limit on the amount of dust in the remnant since we are not sensitive to the cold dust in the unshocked ejecta. We compare our results to observations of other core-collapse supernovae and remnants, particularly Cas A where very similar spectral mapping observations have been carried out. We observe a factor of ?10 less dust in E 0102 than seen in Cas A, although the amounts of amorphous carbon and forsterite are comparable. Finally, we present evidence suggesting that the grain size distribution of the newly formed dust in E 0102 has been altered by the hot plasma behind the reverse shock.

  10. The Masses of M31 Supernova Remnant Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin

    2014-10-01

    We propose to expand our previous successful archival program to constrain the progenitor masses of supernova remnants {SNRs} in M31. Our previous program has resulted in 2 papers that each significantly improve our knowledge of the mass distribution of stars that produce supernovae. However, a new and significantly improved SNR catalog has been released this year, which is more comprehensive and reliable that anything available at the time of our previous program. The amount of high-quality HST imaging has also increased. This new catalog provides 106 SNRs with HST coverage, 67 of which were not measured by our previous archival program. Furthermore, our technique for measuring uncertainties in our mass estimates has become more reliable. This expanded and updated program will increase the number of measurements SNRs by a factor of 2, while also producing a much cleaner, more homogeneous sample.

  11. Supernova Shock Breakout from a Red Supergiant

    CERN Document Server

    Schawinski, Kevin; Wolf, Christian; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Sullivan, Mark; Steenbrugge, Katrien C; Bell, Tony; Roeser, Hermann-Josef; Walker, Emma; Astier, Pierre; Balam, Dave; Balland, Christophe; Basa, Stephane; Carlberg, Ray; Conley, Alex; Fouchez, Dominque; Guy, Julien; Hardin, Delphine; Hook, Isobel; Howell, Andy; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathy; Pritchet, Chris; Regnault, Nicolas; Yi, Sukyoung K

    2008-01-01

    Massive stars undergo a violent death when the supply of nuclear fuel in their cores is exhausted, resulting in a catastrophic `core-collapse' supernova. Such events are usually detected long after the star has exploded. Here we report the first detection of the radiative precursor from a supernova shock before it has reached the surface of a star followed by the initial expansion of the star at the beginning of the explosion. Theoretical models of the ultraviolet light curve show that the progenitor was a red supergiant, as expected for this type of supernova. These observations provide a promising and novel way to probe the physics of core-collapse supernovae and the internal structures of their progenitors.

  12. A Chandra X-Ray Survey of Ejecta in the Cassiopeia A Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Una; Laming, J. Martin

    2011-01-01

    We present a survey of the X-ray emitting ejecta in the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant based on an extensive analysis of over 6000 spectral regions extracted on 2.5-10" angular scales using the Chandra 1 Ms observation. We interpret these results in the context of hydrodynamical models for the evolution of the remnant. The distributions of fitted temperature and ionization age are highly peaked and suggest that the ejecta were subjected to multiple secondary shocks. Based on the fitted emission measure and element abundances, and an estimate of the emitting volume, we derive masses for the X-ray emitting ejecta as well as showing the distribution of the mass of various elements over the remnant. The total shocked Fe mass appears to be roughly 0.14 Solar Mass, which accounts for nearly all of the mass expected in Fe ejecta. We find two populations of Fe ejecta, that associated with normal Si-burning and that associated with alpha-rich freeze-out, with a mass ratio of approximately 2:1. Surprisingly, essentially all of this Fe (both components) is well outside the central regions of the SNR, presumably having been ejected by hydrodynamic instabilities during the explosion. We discuss this, and its implications for the neutron star kick.

  13. High-resolution Studies of Charge Exchange in Supernova Remnants with Magellan, XMM-Newton, and Micro-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Sarah N.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Castro, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Charge exchange, the semi-resonant transfer of an electron from a neutral atom to an excited state in an energetic ion, can occur in plasmas where energetic ions are incident on a cold, at least partially neutral gas. Supernova remnants, especially in the immediate shock region, provide conditions conducive to charge exchange. The emission from post charge-exchange ions as the captured electron cascades down to the ground state, can shed light on the physical conditions of the shock and the immediate post-shock material, providing an important tool to understanding supernova explosions and their aftermath.I present a study of charge exchange in the galactic supernova remnant G296.1-0.5 in two bands: the optical and the X-ray. The optical study, performed using both imaging and spectroscopy from the IMACS instrument on the Magellan Baade Telescope at Las Companas Observatory, seeks to identify `Balmer-dominated shocks' in the remnant, which occur when charge exchange occurs between hot, post-shock protons and colder neutral hydrogen in the environment. The X-ray study probes line ratios in dispersed spectral data obtained with XMM-Newton RGS from an X-ray lobe in the NW of the remnant to hunt for signatures of charge exchange. The dispersed data are degraded by the extended nature of the source, blending many of the lines.We are working towards the future of spectroscopic studies in the X-ray for such extended sources with Micro-X: a sounding rocket-borne, high energy resolution X-ray telescope, utilizing an array of microcalorimeters to achieve high energy resolution for extended sources. I describe the design and commissioning of the payload and the steps toward launch, which is anticipated in the summer of 2015.

  14. Effect of stellar structure on supernova remnant evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations have been done of 1E51 erg explosions in 15M/sub sun/ stars. A steep external density gradient to the pre-supernova model of Weaver et al was appended with the results: (1) the outer shock wave decelerates throughout the pre-Sedov phase, (2) the expanding stellar envelope and the shocked interstellar material are Rayleigh-Taylor stable until the Sedov phase, and (3) steep internal density gradients are R-T unstable during the early expansion and may be the source of high velocity knots seen in Cas A

  15. HFPK 334: An unusual Supernova Remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, E J; McEntaffer, R L; Brantseg, T; Heitritter, K; Roper, Q; Haberl, F; Urosevi?, D

    2014-01-01

    We present new Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) radio-continuum and XMM-Newton/Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observations of the unusual supernova remnant HFPK 334 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The remnant follows a shell type morphology in the radio-continuum and has a size of $\\sim$20~pc at the SMC distance. The X-ray morphology is similar, however, we detect a prominent point source close to the center of the SNR exhibiting a spectrum with a best fit powerlaw with a photon index of $\\Gamma = 2.7 \\pm 0.5$. This central point source is most likely a background object and cannot be directly associated with the remnant. The high temperature, nonequilibrium conditions in the diffuse region suggest that this gas has been recently shocked and point toward a younger SNR with an age of $\\lesssim 1800$ years. With an average radio spectral index of $\\alpha=-0.59\\pm0.09$ we find that an equipartition magnetic field for the remnant is $\\sim$90~$\\mu$G, a value typical of younger SNRs in low-density env...

  16. HFPK 334: An Unusual Supernova Remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E. J.; Filipovi?, M. D.; McEntaffer, R. L.; Brantseg, T.; Heitritter, K.; Roper, Q.; Haberl, F.; Uroševi?, D.

    2014-11-01

    We present new Australia Telescope Compact Array radio-continuum and XMM-Newton/Chandra X-ray Observatory observations of the unusual supernova remnant (SNR) HFPK 334 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). The remnant follows a shell-type morphology in the radio continuum and has a size of ~20 pc at the SMC distance. The X-ray morphology is similar; however, we detect a prominent point source close to the center of the SNR exhibiting a spectrum with a best-fit power law with a photon index of ? = 2.7 ± 0.5. This central point source is most likely a background object and cannot be directly associated with the remnant. The high temperature, nonequilibrium conditions in the diffuse region suggest that this gas has been recently shocked and points toward a younger SNR with an age of environments. Also, we report the detection of scattered radio polarization across the remnant at 20 cm, with a peak fractional polarization level of 25% ± 5%.

  17. High-velocity iron absorption lines in supernova remnant 1006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer spectrum of the Schweizer-Middleeditch star projected near the center of supernova remnant SNR 1006 shows an sdOB Star continuum, with very strong, broad absorption lines. Strong Fe+ resonance absorption lines are present. Their centers show zero radial velocity, while their profiles are broadened by approx.5-6 x 103 km s-1. Redshifted Si/sup +,+2,+3/ lines at #betta#/sub r/approx.5 x 103 km s-1 have also been tentatively identified. We argue that the absorptions must occur in the ejecta of the supernova. The strength and symmetric width of the Fe+ lines suggests that the bulk of ejecta is iron, in agreement with the current theory for the origin of Type I supernovae. The previous failure to detect strong Fe emission lines in the X-ray spectrum of this and other young Type I SNRs suggests that the ejecta may not have had time to interact significantly with the ambient medium. The presence of redshifted absorption lines due to supernova ejecta in its spectrum indicates that this star is located behind the SNR and is not physically associated with it

  18. Spherization of remnants of an asymmetrical supernova explosion in the homogeneous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spherization of the shock wave is considered, which propagates in the uniform interstellar medium in the presence of the initial asymmetry of the shape and velocity. The calculations have been made in the approximation of 1.5-dimensional hydrodynamics. Three different models have been considered with the preference given to the 'snow-plough'' model. The characteristic time of the spherization is found for different values of the density of the medium and the parameters of the explosion. It is obtained that when the initial asymmetry is large, by the moment of the spherization in the shape of the shock, the large difference of the surface density on the pole and equator remains. This may explain the observed features of the supernova remnant Cas A

  19. X-ray observations of supernova remnants from the Einstein Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Einstein observatory spacecraft carries an advanced grazingincidence x-ray telescope which is ideal for studying both the spatial and spectral characteristics of supernova remnants. The author reviews some of the important spectral results to data, discusses the x-ray emission process in supernova remnants, and briefly describes the observatory

  20. Instabilities and Clumping in Type Ia Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chih-yueh; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2000-01-01

    We present two-dimensional high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations in spherical polar coordinates of a Type Ia supernova interacting with a constant density interstellar medium. The ejecta are assumed to be freely expanding with an exponential density profile. The interaction gives rise to a double-shocked structure susceptible to hydrodynamic instabilities. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability initially grows, but the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability takes over, producing vortex ...

  1. Expansion of the supernova remnant 3C 10 (Tycho) and its implications for models of young remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remnant of Tycho Brahe's supernova (3C 10) was observed with the Westerbork telescope at 21 cm in 1971 and 1979, and these measurements have been used to determine the radial expansion rate. The average value obtained is 0.256 +- 0.026 arcsec yr-1. Although this seems to be higher than that found optically, the individual radio and optical data points agree well within the errors. The apparent discrepancy is primarily the result of a low expansion speed at the position of the most prominent nebulosity, and this is attributed to deceleration caused by the higher density of material. While the expansion speed only marginally exceeds that predicted by the Sedov solution, the confirmation lent by the optical data suggests a possible real effect. Two plausible explanations are considered: the remnant is not yet fully in the adiabatic phase; or the dynamics are being modified by the evaporation of neutral material behind the shock front. Whether either of these is the correct explanation, it is clear that swept-up material now dominates the dynamics of 3C 10. No significant change in flux density was detected at a level which favours models where particle acceleration/field amplification are occurring over that of simple adiabatic expansion. (author)

  2. Neutrino mediated shocks in supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A straightforward approach is employed to study the effects of neutrino transport on the shock fronts which are expected to form in the gravitational collapse of a stellar core, by directly integrating the shock structure equations. For this, a model fluid in plane-parallel geometry is used. Since attention is presently focused on the effects of neutrino transport on the shock structure, the equation of state for the fluid considered here is a simplified one: the fluid is taken as free nucleons (behaving as an ideal gas) in ?-equilibrium with completely degenerate leptons. The effects of the presence of nuclei are also qualitatively examined. At the densities and temperatures considered (rho approx. 1012 g cm-3; T approx. 2 MeV) the neutrino mean free paths are short compared to the other length scales of the problem (provided that the shock width is not microscopic); thus, an effective neutrino viscosity can be used to simulate their momentum transport. In addition to such momentum transport, the effects of the reaction ep ? ?n(?n ? ep) on the structure of such shocks have been incorporated. These two mechanisms are found sufficient to mediate shocks of certain strengths. (The corresponding preshock velocities are v0=5.4 x 109 cm s-1 if Y/sub e0/=0.5 and v0approx. =3.6 x 109 cm s-1 if Y/sub e/o=0.3 for rho=1012 g cm-3 and T=2 MeV). Also the regime of t and T=2 MeV). Also the regime of the physical conditions for the existence of neutrino mediated shocks in the (v0, rho)-plane is delineated. The direct integration of the shock structure equations also provides the width of the shock. It is also argued that as the shock propagates to lower densities (rhoapprox.109 g cm-3) it may yield neutrinos of energies 5--15 MeV. Such neutrinos, since the overlying material is transparent to them, will carry information about, and thus provide means for probing, the physical conditions of the collapse

  3. 3D simulations of supernova remnants evolution including non-linear particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrand, Gilles; Ballet, Jean; Teyssier, Romain; Fraschetti, Federico

    2009-01-01

    If a sizeable fraction of the energy of supernova remnant shocks is channeled into energetic particles (commonly identified with Galactic cosmic rays), then the morphological evolution of the remnants must be distinctly modified. Evidence of such modifications has been recently obtained with the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray satellites. To investigate these effects, we coupled a semi-analytical kinetic model of shock acceleration with a 3D hydrodynamic code (by means of an effective adiabatic index). This enables us to study the time-dependent compression of the region between the forward and reverse shocks due to the back reaction of accelerated particles, concomitantly with the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability at the contact discontinuity. Density profiles depend critically on the injection level eta of particles: for eta up to about 10^-4 modifications are weak and progressive, for eta of the order of 10^-3 modifications are strong and immediate. Nevertheless, the extension of the...

  4. Properties of Optically Selected Supernova Remnant Candidates in M33

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jong Hwan

    2014-01-01

    We present a sample of supernova remnant (SNR) candidates in M33 based on optical narrow band images in the Local Group Survey. We identify emission line objects that have enhanced [SII]:H{\\alpha} (> 0.4) and circular shapes using continuum-subtracted H{\\alpha}and [SII] images and produce a list of 199 SNR candidates, of which 79 are previously unknown. We classify them considering two types of criteria: their progenitor type (Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) SNRs) and their morphological type. Of the total sample, 170 are likely remnants of CC SNe and 29 are likely remnants of Type Ia SNe. We obtain a cumulative size distribution of the SNR candidates, showing that it follows a power law with an index,{\\alpha}= 2.38{\\pm}0.05 (17 < D < 50 pc). This indicates that most of the M33 SNR candidates found in this study are in the Sedov-Taylor phase, consistent with previous findings. The [SII]:H{\\alpha} distribution of the SNR candidates shows two peaks at [SII]:H{\\alpha} ~0.55 and ~0.8. Interestingly X-ray and...

  5. THE MIPSGAL VIEW OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS IN THE GALACTIC PLANE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the detection of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) in the mid-infrared (at 24 and 70 ?m), in the coordinate ranges 100 0 and 2850 0, |b| 0, using MIPS aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. We search for infrared counterparts to SNRs in Green's catalog and identify 39 out of 121, i.e., a detection rate of about 32%. Such a relatively low detection fraction is mainly due to confusion with nearby foreground/background sources and diffuse emission. The SNRs in our sample show a linear trend in [F8/F24] versus [F70/F24]. We compare their infrared fluxes with their corresponding radio flux at 1.4 GHz and find that most remnants have a ratio of 70 ?m to 1.4 GHz which is similar to those found in previous studies of SNRs (with the exception of a few that have ratios closer to those of H II regions). Furthermore, we retrieve a slope close to unity when correlating infrared (24 and 70 ?m) with 1.4 GHz emission. Our survey is more successful in detecting remnants with bright X-ray emission, which we find is well correlated with the 24 ?m morphology. Moreover, by comparing the power emitted in the X-ray, infrared, and radio, we conclude that the energy released in the infrared is comparable to the cooling in the X-ray range.

  6. The Extraordinary Supernova Remnant in NGC 4449 Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.; Fesen, Robert A.; Milisavljevic, Dan; Winkler, P. Frank

    2015-01-01

    NGC 4449, a Magellanic-type irregular galaxy at a distance of about 4 Mpc, contains the most luminous known supernova remnant (SNR) in both X-ray and optical bands. Its optical spectrum is characterized by broad lines from O, Ne, S, Ar, and Ca, and its size and expansion velocity (6000 km/s) suggest that the unobserved SN exploded about 65 years ago. The remnant¹s extraordinary brightness can be attributed to the interaction of supernova ejecta with unusually dense and extensive circumstellar material. We will present new Chandra imaging, together with UV/Optical spectra of the SNR from HST/STIS and the MMT. The X-ray luminosity of the SNR is less than when it was detected with Einstein in 1980, but the luminosity and X-ray spectral shape have remained relatively constant over the last 10 years. In the FUV, the HST spectra show for the first time broad line emission from C IV 1550 Å, as well as Si IV + O IV at 1400 Å and O III] at 1660 Å. The new NUV and optical spectra are fairly similar to earlier HST/FOS spectra and to ground-based spectra we have obtained over the last decade. Here we describe these new observations, and our attempts to understand the nature of the progenitor of the SNR.We acknowledge support for this effort from NASA through grant GO-12462 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc, under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and through Chandra Award Number GO9-0075, issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, under NASA contract NAS8-03060.

  7. Discovery of a pre-existing molecular filament associated with supernova remnant G127.1+0.5

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xin; Fang, Min; Su, Yang

    2014-01-01

    We performed millimeter observations in CO lines toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G127.1+0.5. We found a molecular filament at 4--13 km s$^{-1}$ consisting of two distinct parts: a straight part coming out of the remnant region and a curved part in the remnant region. The curved part is coincides well with the bright SNR shell detected in 1420 MHz radio continuum and mid-infrared observations in the northeastern region. In addition, redshifted line wing broadening is found only in the curved part of the molecular filament, which indicates a physical interaction. These provide strong evidences, for the first time, to confirm the association between an SNR and a pre-existing long molecular filament. Multi-band observations in the northeastern remnant shell could be explained by the interaction between the remnant shock and the dense molecular filament. RADEX radiative transfer modeling of the quiet and shocked components yield physical conditions consistent with the passage of a non-dissociative J-type shock....

  8. Inverse Compton Emission from Galactic Supernova Remnants: Effect of the Interstellar Radiation Field

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Troy A.; Moskalenko, Igor V.; Strong, Andrew W.

    2006-01-01

    The evidence for particle acceleration in supernova shells comes from electrons whose synchrotron emission is observed in radio and X-rays. Recent observations by the HESS instrument reveal that supernova remnants also emit TeV gamma-rays; long awaited experimental evidence that supernova remnants can accelerate cosmic rays up to the ``knee'' energies. Still, uncertainty exists whether these gamma-rays are produced by electrons via inverse Compton scattering or by protons vi...

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Image, Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The colorful streamers that float across the sky in this photo taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were created by the universe's biggest firecracker, the titanic supernova explosion of a massive star. The light from the exploding star reached Earth 320 years ago, nearly a century before the United States celebrated its birth with a bang. The dead star's shredded remains are called Cassiopeia A, or 'Cas A' for short. Cas A is the youngest known supernova remnant in our Milky Way Galaxy and resides 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia, so the star actually blew up 10,000 years before the light reached Earth in the late 1600s. This HST image of Cas A shows for the first time that the debris is arranged into thousands of small, cooling knots of gas. This material eventually will be recycled into building new generations of stars and planets. Our own Sun and planets are constructed from the debris of supernovae that exploded billions of years ago. This photo shows the upper rim of the super nova remnant's expanding shell. Near the top of the image are dozens of tiny clumps of matter. Each small clump, originally just a small fragment of the star, is tens of times larger than the diameter of our solar system. The colors highlight parts of the debris where chemical elements are glowing. The dark blue fragments, for example, are richest in oxygen; the red material is rich in sulfur. The images were taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 in January 2000 and January 2002. Image Credit: NASA and HST team (Stoics/AURA). Acknowledgment: R. Fesen (Darmouth) and J. Morse ( Univ. of Colorado).

  10. Cosmic Ray Acceleration by Supernova Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhko, E G

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the results of recent measurements of nonthermal emission from individual supernova remnants (SNRs) and their correspondence to the nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in SNRs. It is shown that the theory fits these data in a satisfactory way and provides the strong evidences for the efficient CR production in SNRs accompanied by significant magnetic field amplification. Magnetic field amplification leads to considerable increase of CR maximum energy so that the spectrum of CRs accelerated in SNRs is consistent with the requirements for the formation of Galactic CR spectrum up to the energy ~10^17 eV.

  11. Preferential acceleration in collisionless supernova shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preferential acceleration and resulting cosmic ray abundance enhancements of heavy elements (relative to protons) are calculated in the collisionless supernova shock acceleration model described by Eichler in earlier work. Rapidly increasing enhancements up to several tens times solar ratios are obtained as a function of atomic weight over charge at the time of acceleration. For material typical of hot phase interstellar medium, good agreement is obtained with the observed abundance enhancements

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO REMNANT OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES FROM DAY 7000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600+150-200 km s–1 between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400+100-200 km s–1 after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive evidence for a physical slowing of the shock at any given latitude in the expanding remnant, and that a change of radio morphology alone appears to dominate the evolution. This is supported by our ring-only fits which show a constant expansion of 3890 ± 50 km s–1 without deceleration between days 4000 and 9000. We suggest that once the emission latitude no longer decreases, the expansion velocity obtained from the torus model should return to the same value as that measured with the ring model

  13. EVOLUTION OF THE RADIO REMNANT OF SUPERNOVA 1987A: MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES FROM DAY 7000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, C.-Y. [Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Zanardo, G.; Potter, T. M.; Staveley-Smith, L. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M. [Australian Research Council, Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia); Manchester, R. N.; Tzioumis, A. K., E-mail: ncy@bohr.physics.hku.hk [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, Marsfield, NSW 1710 (Australia)

    2013-11-10

    We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600{sup +150}{sub -}200 km s{sup –1} between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400{sup +100}{sub -200} km s{sup –1} after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive evidence for a physical slowing of the shock at any given latitude in the expanding remnant, and that a change of radio morphology alone appears to dominate the evolution. This is supported by our ring-only fits which show a constant expansion of 3890 ± 50 km s{sup –1} without deceleration between days 4000 and 9000. We suggest that once the emission latitude no longer decreases, the expansion velocity obtained from the torus model should return to the same value as that measured with the ring model.

  14. The visibility of shell-type supernova remnants in gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the origin of the cosmic radiation (CR) is a continuing one. The idea that the shocks from supernova remnants (SNR) expanding into the interstellar medium (ISM) accelerate CR is still a popular one but a number of authors have drawn attention to the fact that the experimental evidence for the presence of gamma rays from the expected interaction of CR with gas in the remnant is poor. Indeed, it is claimed that many SNR are not 'seen' in GeV or TeV gamma rays, whereas 'they should have been'. We have looked at this problem and we conclude that the idea of CR production in SNR cannot be faulted in this way, if the evacuation of ambient gas by the stellar wind of the progenitor star and, frequently, by associated earlier close-by SN, is taken into account; such phenomena are expected for the important type II SN which result from very massive stars and which provide the SNR which are thought to accelerate CR. Other SNR have, apparently, been seen and the interaction of SNR-accelerated particles with adjacent molecular clouds has been deemed responsible. However, we worry about this interpretation because of the slow progress of the SNR shock through such clouds, although electron-effects may, indeed, contribute. This paper is devoted mainly to the visibility of nearby (within about1 kpc) SNR in gamma rays although many of the arguments also relate to remote SNR. For the nearby SNR another problem enters the scene: the large angular spread of the remnant. Ithe large angular spread of the remnant. It is especially important for the old SNR, where cosmic rays have already diffused to a large distance from the SNR centre. We have also examined the effect of the 'anomalous diffusion' of CR propagation in the non-homogeneous interstellar medium on the visibility of SNR for gamma rays of different energies

  15. Swift Observations of Supernovae during and after Shock Breakout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immler, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, space-based observatories have allowed detailed studies of energetic supernova explosions in previously unexplored time domains and wavelength regimes. NASA's Swift observatory is playing an important role in probing the early emission of SNe during and after shock breakout due to its fast response, flexible scheduling capabilities, and large wavelength band coverage, ranging from the optical, W, and X-ray to the Gamma-ray bands. By studying the outgoing SN shocks with material in its surroundings, the explosion physics and nature of progenitor stars can be studied. Furthermore, monitoring the X-ray emission of SNe with space-based X-ray observatories is being used to map the density structure in SN environments out to large radii from the sites of the explosions (>E20 cm), the transition of a SN into an old supernova remnant can be studied, and the mass-loss rates of the progenitor stars are being probed over significant timescales (>E4 years) in the stellar wind history. In combination, these observations give unprecedented insights into the nature of energetic explosions and their environments. During this talk, I will present highlights from recent observations, among them the first observation of a SN DURING the actual explosion with Swift, and I will discuss the "naked eye" burst at a redshift of -1, which was the most distant object humans could ever see with their own eyes.

  16. Fermi-LAT Discovery of GeV Gamma-ray Emission from the Young Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.

    2011-08-19

    We report on the first detection of GeV high-energy gamma-ray emission from a young supernova remnant with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. These observations reveal a source with no discernible spatial extension detected at a significance level of 12.2{sigma} above 500 MeV at a location that is consistent with the position of the remnant of the supernova explosion that occurred around 1680 in the Cassiopeia constellation - Cassiopeia A. The gamma-ray flux and spectral shape of the source are consistent with a scenario in which the gamma-ray emission originates from relativistic particles accelerated in the shell of this remnant. The total content of cosmic rays (electrons and protons) accelerated in Cas A can be estimated as W{sub CR} {approx_equal} (1-4) x 10{sup 49} erg thanks to the well-known density in the remnant assuming that the observed gamma-ray originates in the SNR shell(s). The magnetic field in the radio-emitting plasma can be robustly constrained as B {ge} 0.1 mG, providing new evidence of the magnetic field amplification at the forward shock and the strong field in the shocked ejecta.

  17. A multi-wavelength look at the young plerionic supernova remnant 0540-69.3

    CERN Document Server

    Brantseg, Thomas; Bozzetto, Luke M; Filipovic, Miroslav; Grieves, Nolan

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the plerionic supernova remnant 0540-69.3 in the LMC in X-ray, radio, optical, and infrared. We find that the shell of 0540-69.3 is characterized in the X-ray by thermal nonequilibrium plasma with depleted Mg and Si abundances and a temperature of kT ~ 0.7 keV. This thermal emission is superimposed with synchrotron emission in several regions. Based on X-ray spectra and on morphological considerations in all surveyed wavebands, we conclude that the shell is expanding into a clumpy and highly inhomogeneous medium. In one region of the shell we find an overabundance of Ne, suggesting the presence of ejecta near the edge of the remnant. We also see evidence for reheating of material via a reverse shock originating from the interaction of the supernova blast wave with a particularly dense cloud in the surrounding medium. Finally, we perform the first detailed study of the "halo" region extending 1.2-2.2 pc from the central pulsar. We detect the presence of thermal and nonthermal spectral com...

  18. Radioactive Scandium in the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Green, David A; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of thermal X-ray emission from the youngest Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3, from a 237-ks Chandra observation. We detect strong K-shell lines of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. In addition, we detect a 4.1 keV line with 99.971% confidence which we attribute to 44Sc, produced by electron capture from 44Ti. Combining the data with our earlier Chandra observation allows us to detect the line in two regions independently. For a remnant age of 100 yr, our measured total line strength indicates synthesis of $(1 - 7) \\times 10^{-5}$ solar masses of 44Ti, in the range predicted for both Type Ia and core-collapse (CC) supernovae, but somewhat smaller than the $2 \\times 10^{-4}$ solar masses reported for Cas A. The line spectrum indicates supersolar abundances. The Fe emission has a width of about 26,000 km/s, consistent with an age of about 100 yr and with the inferred mean shock velocity of 14,000 km/s deduced assuming a distance of 8.5 kpc. Most thermal emission comes from regions of lower ...

  19. Observation of Supernova Remnant IC443 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A

    2010-01-01

    We report observation of the supernova remnant IC443 (G189.1+3.0) with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the energy band between 200MeV and 50GeV. IC443 is a shell-type supernova remnant with mixed morphology located off the outer Galactic plane where high-energy emission has been detected in the X-ray, GeV and TeV gamma-ray bands. Past observations suggest IC443 has been interacting with surrounding interstellar matter. Proximity between dense shocked molecular clouds and GeV-TeV gamma-ray emission regions detected by EGRET, MAGIC and VERITAS suggests an interpretation that cosmic-ray (CR) particles are accelerated by the SNR. With the high gamma-ray statistics and broad energy coverage provided by the LAT, we accurately characterize the gamma-ray emission produced by the CRs accelerated at IC443. The emission region is extended in the energy band with theta_68 = 0.27 deg +/- 0.01 deg (stat) +/- 0.03 deg (sys) for an assumed 2-dimensional Gaussian profile and overlaps almost c...

  20. Fermi LAT Observations of the Supernova Remnant W28 (G6.4-0.1)

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A

    2010-01-01

    We present detailed analysis of the two gamma-ray sources,1FGL J1801.3-2322c and 1FGL J1800.5-2359c,that have been found toward the supernova remnant(SNR) W28 with the Large Area Telescope(LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.1FGL J1801.3-2322c is found to be an extended source within the boundary of SNR W28,and to extensively overlap with the TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1801-233,which is associated with a dense molecular cloud interacting with the supernova remnant.The gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 0.2--100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of ~1GeV,and photon indices of 2.09$\\pm$0.08(stat)$\\pm$0.28(sys) below the break and 2.74$\\pm$0.06(stat)$\\pm$0.09(sys) above the break.Given the clear association between HESS J1801-233 and the shocked molecular cloud and a smoothly connected spectrum in the GeV--TeV band,we consider the origin of the gamma-ray emission in both GeV and TeV ranges to be the interaction between particles accelerated in the SNR and the m...

  1. An Investigation into PAH Destruction in Nearby Supernova Remnants, North Polar Spur and Cygnus Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Sarah M.; Witt, Adolf N.

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in conducting this research was to look at the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)/large dust grain emission intensity ratio in nearby supernova remnants to find evidence for selective PAH destruction by hot gas and high velocity shock waves within these regions, as predicted by the models of Arendt et al. (2010) and Micelotta et al. (2010a,b). Two supernova remnants were studied- the North Polar Spur (NPS) and the Cygnus Loop. The data for PAHs were obtained from the WISE W3 12 micron all-sky map processed by Meisner & Finkbeiner (2014), and the data for the larger grains come from the IRAS 100 micron all-sky map processed by Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis (1998). After obtaining a control PAH/large grain intensity ratio of ~2.8 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr) from two high latitude clouds, MBM 30 and MBM 32, we found that the intensity ratios across the NPS and Cygnus Loop were not far off- ~2.7 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr) and ~3.1 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr), respectively- showing no evidence of selective large-scale PAH destruction in supernova remnants. The individual intensities for both PAHs and large grains do decrease inside the Cygnus Loop, however, suggesting a decrease in abundances of both grain types, which could mean total dust grain destruction with the normal ratios coming from foreground and background dust located in the line of sight of the remnant. In addition, temperature and E(B-V) measurements taken from calibrated IRAS images show that while the dust column density increases in the Eastern Veil of the Cygnus Loop, the dust temperature reaches a local maximum, indicating the heating of large grains by interaction with the hot gas in the remnant. The PAH/large grain ratio in the Eastern Veil does decrease and could be indicative of currently ongoing active grain destruction there, with the PAHs being destroyed on a more rapid timescale than the large grains.We are grateful for financial support from the NSF REU Program grant to the Department of Physics & Astronomy at the University of Toledo.

  2. Study of the extended radio emission of two supernova remnants and four planetary nebulae associated with MIPSGAL bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingallinera, A.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Leto, P.; Agliozzo, C.; Buemi, C.

    2014-12-01

    We present radio observations, made using the Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope, of two supernova remnants and four planetary nebulae. These objects are part of a larger sample of radio sources, discussed in a previous paper, a counterpart of the MIPSGAL 24-?m compact bubbles. For the two supernova remnants, we have combined the interferometric observations with single-dish data to obtain both a high resolution and a good sensitivity to extended structures. We discuss in detail the entire combination procedure adopted and the reliability of the resulting maps. For one supernova remnant, we pose a more stringent upper limit for the flux density of its undetected pulsar, and we also show prominent spectral index spatial variations, probably resulting either from inhomogeneities in the magnetic field and in its ejecta or from an interaction between the supernova shock and molecular clouds. We eventually use the 5-GHz maps of the four planetary nebulae to estimate their distances and their ionized masses.

  3. NONTHERMAL RADIATION FROM SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: EFFECTS OF MAGNETIC FIELD AMPLIFICATION AND PARTICLE ESCAPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore nonlinear effects of wave-particle interactions on the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) process in Type Ia-like supernova remnant (SNR) blast waves by implementing phenomenological models for magnetic field amplification (MFA), Alfvénic drift, and particle escape in time-dependent numerical simulations of nonlinear DSA. For typical SNR parameters, the cosmic-ray (CR) protons can be accelerated to PeV energies only if the region of amplified field ahead of the shock is extensive enough to contain the diffusion lengths of the particles of interest. Even with the help of Alfvénic drift, it remains somewhat challenging to construct a nonlinear DSA model for SNRs in which of the order of 10% of the supernova explosion energy is converted into CR energy and the magnetic field is amplified by a factor of 10 or so in the shock precursor, while, at the same time, the energy spectrum of PeV protons is steeper than E –2. To explore the influence of these physical effects on observed SNR emission, we also compute the resulting radio-to-gamma-ray spectra. Nonthermal emission spectra, especially in X-ray and gamma-ray bands, depend on the time-dependent evolution of the CR injection process, MFA, and particle escape, as well as the shock dynamic evolution. This result comes from the fact that the high-energy end of the CR spectrum is composed of particles that are injected in the very early stages of the blast wave evolution. Thus, it is crucial to better understand the plasma wave-particle interactions associated with collisionless shocks in detailed modeling of nonthermal radiation from SNRs

  4. Evolution of the Radio Remnant of Supernova 1987A: Morphological Changes from Day 7000

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, C -Y; Potter, T M; Staveley-Smith, L; Gaensler, B M; Manchester, R N; Tzioumis, A K

    2013-01-01

    We present radio imaging observations of supernova remnant 1987A at 9 GHz, taken with the Australia Telescope Compact Array over 21 years from 1992 to 2013. By employing a Fourier modeling technique to fit the visibility data, we show that the remnant structure has evolved significantly since day 7000 (mid-2006): the emission latitude has gradually decreased, such that the overall geometry has become more similar to a ring structure. Around the same time, we find a decreasing trend in the east-west asymmetry of the surface emissivity. These results could reflect the increasing interaction of the forward shock with material around the circumstellar ring, and the relative weakening of the interaction with the lower-density material at higher latitudes. The morphological evolution caused an apparent break in the remnant expansion measured with a torus model, from a velocity of 4600+150-200 km/s between day 4000 and 7000 to 2400+100-200 km/s after day 7000. However, we emphasize that there is no conclusive eviden...

  5. Hard X-Ray Emission and 44Ti Line Features of the Tycho Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Zhuo

    2014-07-01

    A deep hard X-ray survey of the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) satellite has detected for the first time non-thermal emission up to 90 keV in the Tycho supernova (SN) remnant. Its 3-100 keV spectrum is fitted with a thermal bremsstrahlung of kT ~ 0.81 ± 0.45 keV plus a power-law model of ? ~ 3.01 ± 0.16. Based on diffusive shock acceleration theory, this non-thermal emission, together with radio measurements, implies that the Tycho remnant may not accelerate protons up to >PeV but to hundreds TeV. Only heavier nuclei may be accelerated to the cosmic ray spectral "knee." In addition, using INTEGRAL, we search for soft gamma-ray lines at 67.9 and 78.4 keV that come from the decay of radioactive 44Ti in the Tycho remnant. A bump feature in the 60-90 keV energy band, potentially associated with the 44Ti line emission, is found with a marginal significance level of ~2.6?. The corresponding 3? upper limit on the 44Ti line flux amounts to 1.5 × 10-5 photon cm-2 s-1. Implications on the progenitor of the Tycho SN, considered to be a Type Ia SN prototype, are discussed.

  6. Hard X-ray emission and $^{44}$Ti line features of Tycho Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A deep hard X-ray survey of the INTEGRAL satellite first detected the non-thermal emission up to 90 keV in the Tycho supernova (SN) remnant. Its 3 -- 100 keV spectrum is fitted with a thermal bremsstrahlung of $kT\\sim 0.81\\pm 0.45$ keV plus a power-law model of $\\Gamma \\sim 3.01\\pm 0.16$. Based on the diffusive shock acceleration theory, this non-thermal emission, together with radio measurements, implies that Tycho remnant may not accelerate protons up to $>$PeV but hundreds TeV. Only heavier nuclei may be accelerated to the cosmic ray spectral "knee". In addition, we search for soft gamma-ray lines at 67.9 and 78.4 keV coming from the decay of radioactive $^{44}$Ti in Tycho remnant by INTEGRAL. A bump feature in the 60-90 keV energy band, potentially associated with the $^{44}$Ti line emission, is found with a marginal significance level of $\\sim$ 2.6 $\\sigma$. The corresponding 3 $\\sigma$ upper limit on the $^{44}$Ti line flux amounts to 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{-5}$ ph cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. Implications on the pro...

  7. Fermi LAT Observation of Supernova Remnant HB9

    OpenAIRE

    Araya, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    A 5.5-year Fermi LAT gamma-ray observation shows significant extended emission at the position of the supernova remnant HB9 (G160.9+2.6). The significance of the detection above the background for photon energies above 0.2 GeV is 16$\\sigma$. The gamma-ray flux above 0.2 GeV is (2.23E-8) photons/cm$^2$ s, and the corresponding luminosity above 1 GeV is 1.4E33 erg/s (for a source distance of 1 kpc). The spectrum of the source is best described by a curved power-law (log-parabo...

  8. Supernova Remnants in the Most Fertile Galaxy: NGC 6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, P. Frank; Long, Knox S.; Blair, William P.

    2014-08-01

    As the host to more recorded supernovae (nine in the past century) than any other galaxy, ngal is a unique venue for studying young (and old) supernova remnants (SNRs). Using deep emission-line images of ngal we obtained from WIYN, we have identified 148 new emission nebulae through their high S II:H? ratios, indicating that they are strong SNR candidates. This is over 5 times as many as have previously been identified; yet of the 175 total objects, only 6 have been spectroscopically confirmed. We propose multislit spectroscopy from GMOS-N to study the majority of those with no spectra to date. Some 26 are essentially unresolved in our images (diameters ? 1 arcsec=27 pc at ngal) and hence probably are relatively young. Several are also coincident with soft X-ray sources (a further indicator of youthful vigor) and have strong O III emission. Some may be rare, ejecta- dominated core-collapse SNRs akin to Cas A, where ``fresh" nucleosynthesis products can be seen. Only spectroscopy, to look for broad emission lines from fast-moving ejecta, can confirm this. We will include spectra of two of the nine recorded SNe in ngal-the first late-time spectrum of SN 2004et, and the first of SN 1980K with high signal-to-noise-adding to the extremely small number of spectra for SNRs only a few decades old. Finally we will use the H II:H? ratio in a large number of ISM-dominated SNRs to map the N abundance and its gradient across the disk of ngal, and we will use archival HST images to identify the stellar environments that produced the SNe whose remnants we see today.

  9. Gamma-ray emission from young supernova remnants: hadronic or leptonic?

    CERN Document Server

    Gabici, S

    2015-01-01

    The debate on the nature of the gamma-ray emission from young supernova remnants is still open. Ascribing such emission to hadronic rather than leptonic processes would provide an evidence for the acceleration of protons and nuclei, and this fact would fit with the very popular (but not proven) paradigm that supernova remnants are the sources of Galactic cosmic rays. Here, we discuss this issue with a particular focus on the best studied gamma-ray-bright supernova remnant: RX~J1713.7-3946.

  10. Optical Imaging and Spectroscopic Observation of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G85.9-0.6

    CERN Document Server

    Gok, F; Aktekin, E; Guver, T; Ercan, N; 10.1007/s10509-009-0150-3

    2009-01-01

    Optical CCD imaging with H$\\alpha$ and [SII] filters and spectroscopic observations of the galactic supernova remnant G85.9-0.6 have been performed for the first time. The CCD image data are taken with the 1.5m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT150) at TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG) and spectral data are taken with the Bok 2.3 m telescope on Kitt Peak, AZ. The images are taken with narrow-band interference filters H$\\alpha$, [SII] and their continuum. [SII]/H$\\alpha$ ratio image is performed. The ratio obtained from [SII]/H$\\alpha$ is found to be $\\sim$0.42, indicating that the remnant interacts with HII regions. G85.9-0.6 shows diffuse-shell morphology. [SII]$\\lambda\\lambda 6716/6731$ average flux ratio is calculated from the spectra, and the electron density $N_{e}$ is obtained to be 395 $cm^{-3}$. From [OIII]/H$\\beta$ ratio, shock velocity has been estimated, pre-shock density of $n_{c}=14$ $cm^{-3}$, explosion energy of $E=9.2\\times10^{50}$ ergs, interstellar extinction of $E(B-V)=0.28$, and neutral hydro...

  11. Supernova Remnant 1987A: Opening the Future by Reaching the Past

    CERN Document Server

    Park, S; Burrows, D N; McCray, R; Park, Sangwook; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Burrows, David N.; Cray, Richard Mc

    2005-01-01

    We report an up-turn in the soft X-ray light curve of supernova remnant (SNR) 1987A in late 2003 (~6200 days after the explosion), as observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Since early 2004, the rapid increase of the 0.5-2 keV band X-ray light curve can no longer be described by the exponential density distribution model with which we successfully fitted the data between 1990 and 2003. Around day ~6200, we also find that the fractional contribution to the observed soft X-ray flux from the decelerated shock begins to exceed that of the fast shock and that the X-ray brightening becomes "global" rather than "spotty". We interpret these results as evidence that the blast wave has reached the main body of the dense circumstellar material all around the inner ring. This interpretation is supported by other recent observations, including a deceleration of the radial expansion of the X-ray remnant, a significant up-turn in the mid-IR intensities, and the prevalence of the optical hot spots around the entire inn...

  12. Two Radio Supernova Remnants Discovered in the Outer Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Tyler; Reich, Wolfgang; Kothes, Roland; West, Jennifer; 10.1051/0004-6361/201220362

    2013-01-01

    We report on the discovery of two supernova remnants (SNRs) designated G152.4-2.1 and G190.9-2.2, using Canadian Galactic Plane Survey data. The aims of this paper are, first, to present evidence that favours the classification of both sources as SNRs, and, second, to describe basic parameters (integrated flux density, spectrum, and polarization) as well as properties (morphology, line-of-sight velocity, distance and physical size) to facilitate and motivate future observations. Spectral and polarization parameters are derived from multiwavelength data from existing radio surveys carried out at wavelengths between 6 and 92cm. In particular for the source G152.4-2.1 we also use new observations at 11cm done with the Effelsberg 100m telescope. The interstellar medium around the discovered sources is analyzed using 1-arcminute line data from neutral hydrogen (HI) and 45-arcsecond 12CO(J=1-0). G152.4-2.1 is a barrel shaped SNR with two opposed radio-bright polarized flanks on the North and South. The remnant, whi...

  13. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT S147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around supernova remnant (SNR) S147 (G180.0–1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2-10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5? confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 ± 0.6) × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 × 1034 (d/1.3 kpc)2 erg s–1 in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with the prominent H? filaments of SNR S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral ? mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions in the filaments. The reacceleration of the pre-existing cosmic rays and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the energy density required of high-energy protons.

  14. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT S147

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuta, J.; Uchiyama, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Tajima, H.; Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Lande, J. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Hanabata, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Lemoine-Goumard, M. [Universite Bordeaux 1, CNRS/IN2p3, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, 33175 Gradignan (France); Takahashi, T., E-mail: katsuta@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: uchiyama@slac.stanford.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2012-06-20

    We present an analysis of gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region around supernova remnant (SNR) S147 (G180.0-1.7). A spatially extended gamma-ray source detected in an energy range of 0.2-10 GeV is found to coincide with SNR S147. We confirm its spatial extension at >5{sigma} confidence level. The gamma-ray flux is (3.8 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, corresponding to a luminosity of 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} (d/1.3 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in this energy range. The gamma-ray emission exhibits a possible spatial correlation with the prominent H{alpha} filaments of SNR S147. There is no indication that the gamma-ray emission comes from the associated pulsar PSR J0538+2817. The gamma-ray spectrum integrated over the remnant is likely dominated by the decay of neutral {pi} mesons produced through the proton-proton collisions in the filaments. The reacceleration of the pre-existing cosmic rays and subsequent adiabatic compression in the filaments is sufficient to provide the energy density required of high-energy protons.

  15. Rejuvenating the shells of supernova remnants by pulsar winds

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Swaluw, E; Gallant, Y A; Swaluw, Eric van der; Achterberg, Abraham; Gallant, Yves A.

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the rejuvenation mechanism as proposed by Shull, Fesen, & Saken (1989). These authors suggest that an active pulsar can catch up with, and rejuvenate the shell of the associated supernova remnant. The morphology of the SNRs G5.4-1.2 and CTB80 seem to confirm this rejuvenation mechanism. The spindown energy is deposited by the pulsar as a relativistic pulsar wind, and has a sufficient power to explain the observed radio emission observed in these remnants. Shull et al. (1989) did {\\it not} explain the observed lengthscales of the rejuvenated parts of the SNR shell. therefore one needs to consider the diffusive transport of the injected electrons by the pulsar wind. We propose to apply a diffusion mechanism as introduced by Jokipii (1987), which makes a distinction between diffusion along the magnetic field lines and perpendicular to the magnetic field lines, parameterised by the gyro factor $\\eta$. We show that one has to assume a high value for the gyro factor, $\\eta\\simeq 10^3-10^4$, i.e. d...

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF AMBIENT MOLECULAR CLOUDS ASSOCIATED WITH GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Joon [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Bon-Chul [School of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Snell, Ronald L.; Yun, Min S.; Heyer, Mark H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Burton, Michael G., E-mail: leejjoon@kasi.re.kr [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2012-04-10

    The Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 is one of the most studied core-collapse SNRs for its interaction with molecular clouds. However, the ambient molecular clouds with which IC 443 is interacting have not been thoroughly studied and remain poorly understood. Using the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory 14 m telescope, we obtained fully sampled maps of the {approx}1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region toward IC 443 in the {sup 12}CO J = 1-0 and HCO{sup +} J = 1-0 lines. In addition to the previously known molecular clouds in the velocity range v{sub LSR} = -6 to -1 km s{sup -1} (-3 km s{sup -1} clouds), our observations reveal two new ambient molecular cloud components: small ({approx}1') bright clouds in v{sub LSR} = -8 to -3 km s{sup -1} (SCs) and diffuse clouds in v{sub LSR} = +3 to +10 km s{sup -1} (+5 km s{sup -1} clouds). Our data also reveal the detailed kinematics of the shocked molecular gas in IC 443; however, the focus of this paper is the physical relationship between the shocked clumps and the ambient cloud components. We find strong evidence that the SCs are associated with the shocked clumps. This is supported by the positional coincidence of the SCs with shocked clumps and other tracers of shocks. Furthermore, the kinematic features of some shocked clumps suggest that these are the ablated material from the SCs upon the impact of the SNR shock. The SCs are interpreted as dense cores of parental molecular clouds that survived the destruction by the pre-supernova evolution of the progenitor star or its nearby stars. We propose that the expanding SNR shock is now impacting some of the remaining cores and the gas is being ablated and accelerated, producing the shocked molecular gas. The morphology of the +5 km s{sup -1} clouds suggests an association with IC 443. On the other hand, the -3 km s{sup -1} clouds show no evidence for interaction.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Dust Destruction in Supernova Reverse Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Silvia, D W; Shull, J M

    2010-01-01

    We investigate through hydrodynamic simulations the destruction of newly-formed dust grains by sputtering in the reverse shocks of supernova remnants. Using an idealized setup of a planar shock impacting a dense, spherical clump, we implant a population of Lagrangian particles into the clump to represent a distribution of dust grains in size and composition. We then post-process the simulation output to calculate the grain sputtering for a variety of species and size distributions. We explore the parameter space appropriate for this problem by altering the over-density of the ejecta clumps and the speed of the reverse shocks. Since radiative cooling could lower the temperature of the medium in which the dust is embedded and potentially protect the dust by slowing or halting grain sputtering, we study the effects of different cooling methods over the time scale of the simulations. In general, our results indicate that grains with radii less than 0.1 microns are sputtered to much smaller radii and often destroy...

  18. Model for Synchrotron Emission from Shell Supernova Remnants in Nonuniform Interstellar Medium and Nonuniform Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Petruk, O

    2002-01-01

    Possibility to model the high energy synchrotron emission (in X- and gamma-rays) from supernova remnants is an important task for modern astronomy and astrophysics, because it may be responsible for the nonthermal X-rays and TeV gamma-rays observed recently from a number of SNRs. This emission allows as to look in the processes of particle acceleration on SNR shocks and generation of cosmic rays. In this paper, a model for the synchrotron emission from shell SNR in nonuniform interstellar medium and nonuniform magnetic field is presented. This model is a generalization of the model of Reynolds and Chevalier developed for a spherical SNR in the uniform medium and uniform magnetic field. The model will be used for studies on the thermal and nonthermal X-ray images and spectra from nonspherical SNRs in different interstellar magnetic field configurations.

  19. Integral Field Spectroscopy of a Peculiar Supernova Remnant MF16 in NGC6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolmasov, P.; Fabrika, S.; Sholukhova, O.; Afanasiev, V.

    We present a study of a peculiar Supernova Remnant MF16, associated with the Ultraluminous X-ray Source (ULX) NGC6946 ULX-1. Observations were taken with the Multi-Pupil Fiber Spectrograph (MPFS) on 6-m telescope in January 2005. The nebula is found to be highly asymmetric, one of the parts being much denser and colder. Two-component structure of the emission lines and radial velocity gradient in some of them argue for a non-spherical shell, expanding with a velocity of about 100 km s-1. Neither shock models nor X-ray emission can adequately explain the actual emission line spectrum of MF16, so we suggest an additional ultraviolet source with a luminosity of about 1040 erg s -1. We confirm coincidence of the ULX with the central star and identify radio emission observed by VLA with the densest part of the nebula.

  20. Integral Field Spectroscopy of a peculiar Supernova Remnant MF16 in NGC6946

    CERN Document Server

    Abolmasov, P; Sholukhova, O; Afanasiev, V

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of a peculiar Supernova Remnant MF16, associated with the Ultraluminous X-ray Source (ULX) NGC6946 ULX-1. Observations were taken with the MultiPupil Fiber Spectrograph (MPFS) with 6-m telescope on January 2005. The nebula is found to be highly asymmetric, one of the parts being much denser and colder. The two-component structure of the emission lines and radial velocity gradient argue for a non-spherical nebula, expanding with a velocity of about 100 km/s. Neither shock models nor the X-ray emission can adequately explain the actual emission line spectrum of MF16, so we suggest an additional ultraviolet source with a luminosity of about 10E40 erg/s. We confirm coincidence of the ULX with the central star, and identify radio emission observed by VLA with the most dense part of the nebula.

  1. Supernova Remnants in the Large Magellanic Clouds IX: Multiwavelength Analysis of the Physical Structure of N49

    CERN Document Server

    Bilikova, J; Chu, Y -H; Gruendl, R A; Lundgren, B F

    2007-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images of H-alpha, [S II] and [O III] emission, we study the morphology of the remnant and calculate the rms electron densities in different regions. We detect an offset of [O III] and H-alpha emission of about 0.5 arcsec, and discuss possible scenarios that could give rise to such high values. The kinematics of the remnant is analyzed by matching individual filaments to the echelle spectra obtained at CTIO. We detect narrow H-alpha emission component which we identify as the diffuse post-shock recombination radiation, and discrete broad emission features that correspond to the shocked gas in filaments. The overall expansion of the remnant is about 250 km/s. The dense clouds are shocked up to line-of-sight velocities of 250 km/s and the less dense gas up to 300 km/s. A few cloudlets have even higher radial velocities, reaching up to 350 km/s. We confirm the prese...

  2. DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR HADRONIC COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 is an intermediate-age remnant well known for its radio, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray energy emissions. In this Letter, we study the gamma-ray emission above 100 MeV from IC 443 as obtained by the AGILE satellite. A distinct pattern of diffuse emission in the energy range 100 MeV-3 GeV is detected across the SNR with its prominent maximum (source 'A') localized in the northeastern shell with a flux F=(47±10)x10-8 photons cm-2s-1 above 100 MeV. This location is the site of the strongest shock interaction between the SNR blast wave and the dense circumstellar medium. Source 'A' is not coincident with the TeV source located 0.4 deg. away and associated with a dense molecular cloud complex in the SNR central region. From our observations, and from the lack of detectable diffuse TeV emission from its northeastern rim, we demonstrate that electrons cannot be the main emitters of gamma rays in the range 0.1-10 GeV at the site of the strongest SNR shock. The intensity, spectral characteristics, and location of the most prominent gamma-ray emission together with the absence of cospatial detectable TeV emission are consistent only with a hadronic model of cosmic-ray acceleration in the SNR. A high-density molecular cloud (cloud 'E') provides a remarkable 'target' for nucleonic interactions of accelerated hadrons; our results show enhanced gamma-ray production near the molecular cloud/shocked shell interactionmolecular cloud/shocked shell interaction site. IC 443 provides the first unambiguous evidence of cosmic-ray acceleration by SNRs.

  3. A POSSIBLE SUPERNOVA REMNANT HIGH ABOVE THE GALACTIC DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the analysis of three Suzaku observations of a bright arc in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey 1/4 keV maps at l ? 247 deg., b ? -64 deg. In particular, we have tested the hypothesis that the arc is the edge of a bubble blown by an extraplanar supernova. One pointing direction is near the brightest part of the arc, one is toward the interior of the hypothesized bubble, and one is toward the bubble exterior. We fit spectral models generated from one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of extraplanar supernova remnants (SNRs) to the spectra. The spectra and the size of the arc (radius ? 5 deg.) are reasonably well explained by a model in which the arc is the bright edge of a ?100,000 yr old SNR located ?1-2 kpc above the disk. The agreement between the model and the observations can be improved if the metallicity of the X-ray-emitting gas is ?1/3 solar, which is plausible, as the dust which sequesters some metals is unlikely to have been destroyed in the lifetime of the SNR. The width of the arc is larger than that predicted by our SNR model; this discrepancy is also seen with the Vela SNR, and may be due to the one-dimensional nature of our simulations. If the arc is indeed the edge of an extraplanar SNR, this work supports the idea that extraplanar supernovae contribute to the heating of the ?million degree gas in the halo.

  4. Development of an x-ray imaging proportional counter and an analysis of Tycho's supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A soft X-ray imaging proportional counter was developed for use in X-ray astronomy. The detector, a drift multiwire proportional counter, determines the position of the site of X-ray absorption in the detector in two orthogonal directions using the center-of-gravity centroid determination technique. Spatial resolutions of 0.2 millimeters full width at half maximum and 0.5 millimeters full width at half maximum have been obtained at X-ray energies of 0.94 and 0.28 kiloelectron volts, respectively. Energy resolutions of 65 percent full width at half maximum and 110 percent full width at half maximum have been obtained at these energies. The detector and processing electronics were integrated into a rocket-borne X-ray telescope payload capable of providing angular resolutions of 1.0 arcminutes full width at half maximum and 1.3 arcminutes full width at half maximum at X-ray energies of 0.94 and 0.28 kiloelectron volts, respectively. X-ray imaging observations of Tycho's supernova remnant were obtained with the Einstein Observatory imaging proportional counter. The remnant appears as an incomplete shell of radius 3.5 parsecs in the adiabatic phase of evolution. The X-ray and radio shells are spatially coincident, although uncorrelated in intensity. The luminosity at a distance of 3 kiloparsecs is (5.3 +- 1.3) x 1036 ergs per second. The current shock velocity is 3400 +- 140 kilometers per second. An initial blast energy is found of 2.5 x 1051 ergs an is found of 2.5 x 1051 ergs and an average ambient density is found in the vicinity of Tycho of approximately 3 atoms per cubic centimeter. The mass swept up by the expanding shock wave is estimated at about 20 solar masses. A range of 0.3 to 3 solar masses has been placed on the supernova ejected mass

  5. The unequivocal evidence of hadron acceleration in Tycho's Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Morlino, G

    2011-01-01

    We apply the non-linear diffusive shock acceleration theory in order to describe the properties of SN 1572 (G120.1+1.4, hereafter simply Tycho). By analyzing its multi-wavelength spectrum, we show how Tycho's forward shock is accelerating protons up to ~500 TeV, channelling into cosmic rays more than 10% of its kinetic energy. Our model allows us to take into account self-consistently the dynamical reaction of the accelerated particles, the generation of magnetic fields in the shock proximity and the dynamical reaction of the magnetic field as well. We find that the streaming instability induced by cosmic rays is consistent with all the observational evidences indicating a very efficient magnetic field amplification (up to ~300 uG, in particular the radio and X-ray morphology of the remnant. In such a strong magnetic field, the velocity of the scattering centers in the upstream may be enhanced and make accelerated particles feel an effective compression factor lower than 4, in turn leading to an energy spectr...

  6. INFRARED SPECTRAL MAPPING OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS. I. N63A AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulet, Adeline [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801-3080 (United States); Williams, Rosa M., E-mail: adel-col@orange.fr [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Columbus State University, 701 Front Ave., Columbus, GA 31901 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of the supernova remnant (SNR) N63A and its native H II region N63 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We measure nebular fine-structure lines, H{sub 2} lines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lines contribute half of the flux in the Spitzer 24 {mu}m image of N63A shocked lobes, but only {<=}10% elsewhere. The mid-IR flux is largely due to thermal continuum emission from dust in and around N63A plasma. Electron densities are low everywhere; the differences in mid-IR line ratios separate N63A plasma and its high-excitation surroundings from N63A low-excitation optical lobes. We compare the observed line fluxes and ratios within N63A's shocked lobes and plasma with the predictions from models for moderate and fast shocks to constrain pre-shock densities and shock velocities. N63A's photoionized lobe contains a warm photodissociation region in pressure equilibrium with optically ionized gas. We apply a physical dust model to our spectra supplemented by MIPS photometry. We derive the intensity of radiation heating the dust, the mass fraction due to PAHs, and the masses of dust within our sampled regions and of cooler grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. N63A's shocked lobes and plasma contain {approx}0.07 M{sub Sun} of hot grains, comparable to amounts in other SNRs. Within N63A there is {approx}0.7 M{sub Sun} of warm grains exposed to {>=}100 times the intensity of the local interstellar radiation field. Within the regions, 92% of the total dust mass resides in cool grains emitting {<=}27% of their mid-IR luminosity.

  7. Infrared Spectral Mapping of Supernova Remnants. I. N63A and Its Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulet, Adeline; Williams, Rosa M.

    2012-12-01

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of the supernova remnant (SNR) N63A and its native H II region N63 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We measure nebular fine-structure lines, H2 lines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lines contribute half of the flux in the Spitzer 24 ?m image of N63A shocked lobes, but only Electron densities are low everywhere; the differences in mid-IR line ratios separate N63A plasma and its high-excitation surroundings from N63A low-excitation optical lobes. We compare the observed line fluxes and ratios within N63A's shocked lobes and plasma with the predictions from models for moderate and fast shocks to constrain pre-shock densities and shock velocities. N63A's photoionized lobe contains a warm photodissociation region in pressure equilibrium with optically ionized gas. We apply a physical dust model to our spectra supplemented by MIPS photometry. We derive the intensity of radiation heating the dust, the mass fraction due to PAHs, and the masses of dust within our sampled regions and of cooler grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. N63A's shocked lobes and plasma contain ~0.07 M ? of hot grains, comparable to amounts in other SNRs. Within N63A there is ~0.7 M ? of warm grains exposed to >=100 times the intensity of the local interstellar radiation field. Within the regions, 92% of the total dust mass resides in cool grains emitting <=27% of their mid-IR luminosity. In loving memory of Sylvie Caulet-Maugendre: "I used to believe in forever, but forever is too good to be true." A. A. Milne, Winnie-the-Pooh.

  8. INFRARED SPECTRAL MAPPING OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS. I. N63A AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope spectra of the supernova remnant (SNR) N63A and its native H II region N63 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We measure nebular fine-structure lines, H2 lines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lines contribute half of the flux in the Spitzer 24 ?m image of N63A shocked lobes, but only ?10% elsewhere. The mid-IR flux is largely due to thermal continuum emission from dust in and around N63A plasma. Electron densities are low everywhere; the differences in mid-IR line ratios separate N63A plasma and its high-excitation surroundings from N63A low-excitation optical lobes. We compare the observed line fluxes and ratios within N63A's shocked lobes and plasma with the predictions from models for moderate and fast shocks to constrain pre-shock densities and shock velocities. N63A's photoionized lobe contains a warm photodissociation region in pressure equilibrium with optically ionized gas. We apply a physical dust model to our spectra supplemented by MIPS photometry. We derive the intensity of radiation heating the dust, the mass fraction due to PAHs, and the masses of dust within our sampled regions and of cooler grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. N63A's shocked lobes and plasma contain ?0.07 M? of hot grains, comparable to amounts in other SNRs. Within N63A there is ?0.7 M? of warm grains exposed to ?100 times the intensity of the local interstellar radiation field. Withinellar radiation field. Within the regions, 92% of the total dust mass resides in cool grains emitting ?27% of their mid-IR luminosity.

  9. X-ray ejecta kinematics of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8

    CERN Document Server

    Bhalerao, Jayant; Dewey, Daniel; Hughes, John P; Mori, Koji; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    We report on the results from the analysis of our 114 ks Chandra HETGS observation of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. To probe the 3D structure of the clumpy X-ray emitting ejecta material in this remnant, we measured Doppler shifts in emission lines from metal-rich ejecta knots projected at different radial distances from the expansion center. We estimate radial velocities of ejecta knots in the range of -2300 <~ v_r <~ 1400 km s^-1. The distribution of ejecta knots in velocity vs. projected-radius space suggests an expanding ejecta shell with a projected angular thickness of ~90" (corresponding to ~3 pc at d = 6 kpc). Based on this geometrical distribution of the ejecta knots, we estimate the location of the reverse shock approximately at the distance of ~4 pc from the center of the supernova remnant, putting it in close proximity to the outer boundary of the radio pulsar wind nebula. Based on our observed remnant dynamics and the standard explosion energy of 10^51 erg, we est...

  10. The Fermi Bubbles as a Scaled-up Version of Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Fujita, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we treat the Fermi bubbles as a scaled-up version of supernova remnants (SNRs). The bubbles are created through activities of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) or starbursts at the Galactic center (GC). Cosmic-rays (CRs) are accelerated at the forward shocks of the bubbles like SNRs, which means that we cannot decide whether the bubbles were created by the SMBH or starbursts from the radiation from the CRs. We follow the evolution of CR distribution by solving a diffusion-advection equation, considering the reduction of the diffusion coefficient by CR streaming. In this model, gamma-rays are created through hadronic interaction between CR protons and the gas in the Galactic halo. In the GeV band, we can well reproduce the observed flat distribution of gamma-ray surface brightness, because some amount of gas is left behind the shock. The edge of the bubbles is fairly sharp owing to the high gas density behind the shock and the reduction of the diffusion coefficient there. The latter also contr...

  11. Proper Motions of H-alpha filaments in the Supernova Remnant RCW 86

    CERN Document Server

    Helder, E A; Bamba, A; Bleeker, J A M; Burrows, D N; Ghavamian, P; Yamazaki, R

    2013-01-01

    We present a proper motion study of the eastern shock-region of the supernova remnant RCW 86 (MSH 14-63, G315.4-2.3), based on optical observations carried out with VLT/FORS2 in 2007 and 2010. For both the northeastern and southeastern regions, we measure an average proper motion of H-alpha filaments of 0.10 +/- 0.02 arcsec/yr, corresponding to 1200 +/- 200 km/s at 2.5kpc. There is substantial variation in the derived proper motions, indicating shock velocities ranging from just below 700 km/s to above 2200 km/s. The optical proper motion is lower than the previously measured X-ray proper motion of northeastern region. The new measurements are consistent with the previously measured proton temperature of 2.3 +/- 0.3 keV, assuming no cosmic-ray acceleration. However, within the uncertainties, moderately efficient (< 27 per cent) shock acceleration is still possible. The combination of optical proper motion and proton temperature rule out the possibility that RCW 86 has a distance less than 1.5kpc. The simil...

  12. Nonthermal radiation of young supernova remnants: the case of Cas A

    CERN Document Server

    Zirakashvili, V N; Yang, R; Ona-Wilhelmi, E; Tuffs, R J

    2013-01-01

    The processes responsible for the broad-band radiation of the young supernova remnant Cas A are explored using a new code which is designed for a detailed treatment of the diffusive shock acceleration of particles in nonlinear regime. The model is based on spherically symmetric hydrodynamic equations complemented with transport equations for relativistic particles. Electrons, protons and the oxygen ions accelerated by forward and reverse shocks are included in the numerical calculations. We show that the available multi-wavelength observations in the radio, X-ray and gamma-ray bands can be best explained by invoking particle acceleration by both forward and reversed shocks. Although the TeV gamma-ray observations can be interpreted by interactions of both accelerated electrons and protons/ions, the measurements by Fermi LAT at energies below 1 GeV give a tentative preference to the hadronic origin of gamma-rays. Then, the acceleration efficiency in this source, despite the previous claims, should be very high...

  13. Spectra of Cosmic Ray Protons and Helium Produced in Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Ptuskin, V S; Seo, E S

    2012-01-01

    Data obtained in the ATIC-2 (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter), CREAM (Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass)) and PAMELA (Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics) experiments suggest that elemental interstellar spectra of cosmic rays below the knee at a few times $10^{6}$ GeV are not simple power laws, but they experience hardening at magnetic rigidity above about 240 GV. Another essential feature is the difference between proton and Helium energy spectra, so that the He/p ratio increases by more than 50% in the energy range from $10^{2}$ to $10^{4}$ GV. We consider the concavity of particle spectrum resulting from the nonlinear nature of diffusive shock acceleration in supernova remnants (SNR) as a possible reason for the observed spectrum hardening. Helium-to-proton ratio increasing with energy can be interpreted as a consequence of cosmic ray acceleration by forward and reverse shocks in SNRs. The contribution of particles accelerated by reverse shocks makes the concavity of t...

  14. Determination of acceleration mechanism characteristics directly and nonparametrically from observations: Application to supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosian, Vahé; Chen, Qingrong

    2014-05-01

    We have developed an inversion method for determination of the characteristics of the acceleration mechanism directly and nonparametrically from observations, in contrast to the usual forward fitting of parametric model variables to observations. In two recent papers [V. Petrosian and Q. Chen, Astrophys. J. 712, L131 (2010); Q. Chen and V. Petrosian, Astrophys. J. 777, 33 (2013)], we demonstrated the efficacy of this inversion method by its application to acceleration of electrons in solar flares based on stochastic acceleration by turbulence. Here we explore its application for determining the characteristics of shock acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) based on the electron spectra deduced from the observed nonthermal radiation from SNRs and the spectrum of the cosmic ray electrons observed near the Earth. These spectra are related by the process of escape of the electrons from SNRs and energy loss during their transport in the Galaxy. Thus, these observations allow us to determine spectral characteristics of the momentum and pitch angle diffusion coefficients, which play crucial roles in both direct acceleration by turbulence and in high Mach number shocks. Assuming that the average electron spectrum deduced from a few well-known SNRs is representative of those in the solar neighborhood, we find interesting discrepancies between our deduced forms for these coefficients and those expected from well-known wave-particle interactions. This may indicate that the standard assumptions made in the treatment of shock acceleration need revision. In particular, the escape of particles from SNRs may be more complex than generally assumed.

  15. SPECTRA OF COSMIC-RAY PROTONS AND HELIUM PRODUCED IN SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptuskin, Vladimir; Zirakashvili, Vladimir [Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Science (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190 (Russian Federation); Seo, Eun-Suk [Department of Physics and Institute of Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-01-20

    Data obtained in the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC-2), Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM), and Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) experiments suggest that the elemental interstellar spectra of cosmic rays below the knee at a few times 10{sup 6} GeV are not simple power laws, but that they experience hardening at a magnetic rigidity of about 240 GV. Another essential feature is the difference between proton and helium energy spectra, such that the He/p ratio increases by more than 50% in the energy range from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} GV. We consider the concavity of the particle spectrum resulting from the nonlinear nature of diffusive shock acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) as a possible reason for the observed spectrum hardening. The increase of the helium-to-proton ratio with energy can be interpreted as a consequence of cosmic-ray acceleration by forward and reverse shocks in SNRs. The contribution of particles accelerated by reverse shocks makes the concavity of the produced overall cosmic-ray spectrum more pronounced. The spectra of protons and helium nuclei accelerated in SNRs and released into the interstellar medium are calculated. The derived steady-state interstellar spectra are in reasonably good agreement with observations.

  16. Comparing supernova remnants around strongly magnetized and canonical pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Rea, N.; Torres, D. F.; Papitto, A.

    2014-11-01

    The origin of the strong magnetic fields measured in magnetars is one of the main uncertainties in the neutron star field. On the other hand, the recent discovery of a large number of such strongly magnetized neutron stars is calling for more investigation on their formation. The first proposed model for the formation of such strong magnetic fields in magnetars was through alpha-dynamo effects on the rapidly rotating core of a massive star. Other scenarios involve highly magnetic massive progenitors that conserve their strong magnetic moment into the core after the explosion, or a common envelope phase of a massive binary system. In this work, we do a complete re-analysis of the archival X-ray emission of the supernova remnants (SNRs) surrounding magnetars, and compare our results with all other bright X-ray emitting SNRs, which are associated with compact central objects (which are proposed to have magnetar-like B-fields buried in the crust by strong accretion soon after their formation), high-B pulsars and normal pulsars. We find that emission lines in SNRs hosting highly magnetic neutron stars do not differ significantly in elements or ionization state from those observed in other SNRs, neither averaging on the whole remnants, nor studying different parts of their total spatial extent. Furthermore, we find no significant evidence that the total X-ray luminosities of SNRs hosting magnetars, are on average larger than that of typical young X-ray SNRs. Although biased by a small number of objects, we found that for a similar age, there is the same percentage of magnetars showing a detectable SNR than for the normal pulsar population.

  17. Numerical code for fitting radial emission profile of a shell supernova remnant: Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opsenica Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present IDL (Interactive Data Language codes for fitting a theoretical emission profile of a shell supernova remnant (SNR to the mean profile of an SNR obtained from radio observations. Two considered theoretical models are: 1 a shell with constant emissivity and 2 a synchrotron shell with radially aligned magnetic field. The codes were applied to several observed supernova remnants. Good results are obtained in five considered cases, which justify the use of our code for remnants that are bright (so that observational errors are not large and spherically symmetric enough.

  18. $^{44}Ti Its Effective Decay Rate in Young Supernova Remnants, and its Abundance in Cas A

    CERN Document Server

    Mochizuki, Y; Janka, H T; Hillebrandt, W; Diehl, R

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes such as 44Ti offer probably the most direct probe into nucleosynthesis environments in the interior of exploding stars, when the associated gamma-ray activities in the explosion remnant are detected and translated back to the isotopic abundances at the time of the explosion. In this paper, we assert that the procedure may not necessarily be straightforward, at least in the case of 44Ti, an orbital-electron capture decay isotope. Using the analytic model of McKee and Truelove (1995) for young supernova remnants, and assuming the existence of overdense 56Fe-dominated clumps that contain also 44Ti, we show that a high degree of ionization may be caused by the reverse shock so that the electron-capture rate of 44Ti could be significantly reduced from its laboratory value. When applied to Cas A, this increases under certain conditions the current 44Ti-activity by a factor 1.5 - 2.5, which yields a better compatibility between the COMPTEL observation of the 1.16 MeV line activity associated wit...

  19. The visibility of shell-type supernova remnants in gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, A D

    2003-01-01

    The idea that the shocks from supernova remnants (SNR) expanding into the interstellar medium (ISM) accelerate CR is still popular one but a number of authors have drawn attention to the fact that the experimental evidence for the presence of gamma rays from the expected interaction of CR with gas in the remnant is poor. Indeed, it is claimed that many SNR are not `seen' in GeV or TeV gamma rays, whereas `they should have been'. We have looked at this problem and we conclude that the idea of CR production in SNR cannot be faulted in this way, if the evacuation of ambient gas by the stellar wind of the progenitor star and, frequently, by associated earlier close-by SN, is taken into account; such phenomena are expected for the important Type II SN which result from very massive stars. Other SNR have, apparently, been seen and the interaction of SNR-accelerated particles with adjacent molecular clouds has been deemed responsible. However, we worry about this interpretation because of the slow progress of the SN...

  20. Nonthermal emission properties of the northwestern rim of supernova remnant RX J0852-4622

    CERN Document Server

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Uchiyama, Yasunobu

    2013-01-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852-4622 (Vela Jr., G266.6-1.2) is one of the most important SNRs for investigating the acceleration of multi-TeV particles and the origin of Galactic cosmic rays because of its strong synchrotron X-ray and TeV gamma-ray emission, which show a shell-like morphology similar to each other. Using the XMM-Newton archival data consisting of multiple pointing observations of the northwestern rim of the remnant, we investigate the spatial properties of the nonthermal X-ray emission as a function of distance from an outer shock wave. All X-ray spectra are well reproduced by an absorbed power-law model above 2 keV. It is found that the spectra show gradual softening from a photon index 2.56 in the rim region to 2.96 in the interior region. We show that this radial profile can be interpreted as a gradual decrease of the cutoff energy of the electron spectrum due to synchrotron cooling. By using a simple spectral evolution model that includes continuous synchrotron losses, the spectral s...

  1. G33.6 + 0.1 - A shell type supernova remnant with unusual structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velusamy, T.; Becker, R. H.; Seward, F. D.

    1991-01-01

    The morphology of Supernova Remnant G33.6 + 0.1 (Kes 79) has been studied in the X-rays with Einstein and in the radio wavelengths using the VLA. Multifrequency high resolution observations of the VLA at 327, 1500, and 5000 MHz are used to study the radio spectrum and polarization. The radio emission shows well formed outer shell structure and very bright central emission. Although the overall distribution of spectral index (about -0.6 to -0.75) is consistent with that of shell type remnants, the bright filamentary emission along the 'inner ring' has relatively flatter spectrum (alpha about -0.4). Both radio and X-rays show strong central emission; existence of a plerion near the center cannot be ruled out. The X-ray image does not show the characteristic limb brightening for shell type SNRs. The X-ray and radio morphology may be understood in terms of very thick shell and the bright central emission as due to reverse shock.

  2. Secondary Cosmic Ray Nuclei from Supernova Remnants and Constraints to the Propagation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Tomassetti, N

    2012-01-01

    The secondary-to-primary B/C ratio is widely used to study the cosmic ray (CR) propagation processes in the Galaxy. It is usually assumed that secondary nuclei such as Li-Be-B are entirely generated by collisions of heavier CR nuclei with the interstellar medium (ISM). We study the CR propagation under a scenario where secondary nuclei can also be produced or accelerated from galactic sources. We consider the processes of hadronic interactions inside supernova remnants (SNRs) and re-acceleration of background CRs in strong shocks. Thus, we investigate their impact in the propagation parameter determination within present and future data. The spectra of Li-Be-B nuclei emitted from SNRs are harder than those due to CR collisions with the ISM. The secondary-to-primary ratios flatten significantly at \\simTeV/n energies, both from spallation and re-acceleration in the sources. The two mechanisms are complementary to each other and depend on the properties of the local ISM around the expanding remnants. The seconda...

  3. XMM-Newton Observations of Two Candidate Supernova Remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Kargaltsev, O; Pavlov, G G; Misanovic, Z

    2011-01-01

    Candidate supernova remnants G23.5+0.1 and G25.5+0.0 were observed by XMM-Newton in the course of a snap-shot survey of plerionic and composite SNRs in the Galactic plane. In the field of G23.5+0.1, we detected an extended source, ~3' in diameter, which we tentatively interpret as a pulsar-wind nebula (PWN) of the middle-aged radio pulsar B1830-08. Our analysis suggests an association between PSR B1830-08 and the surrounding diffuse radio emission. If the radio emission is due to the SNR, then the pulsar must be significantly younger than its characteristic age. Alternatively, the radio emission may come from a relic PWN. In the field of G25.5+0.0, which contains the extended TeV source HESS J1837-069, we detected the recently discovered young high-energy pulsar J1838-0655 embedded in a PWN with extent of 1.3'. We also detected another PWN candidate (AX J1837.3-0652) with an extent of 2' and unabsorbed luminosity L_(2-10 keV) ~ 4 x 10^33 erg/s at d=7 kpc. The third X-ray source, located within the extent of t...

  4. Comparing supernova remnants around strongly magnetized and canonical pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, J; Torres, D F; Papitto, A

    2014-01-01

    The origin of the strong magnetic fields measured in magnetars is one of the main uncertainties in the neutron star field. On the other hand, the recent discovery of a large number of such strongly magnetized neutron stars, is calling for more investigation on their formation. The first proposed model for the formation of such strong magnetic fields in magnetars was through alpha-dynamo effects on the rapidly rotating core of a massive star. Other scenarios involve highly magnetic massive progenitors that conserve their strong magnetic moment into the core after the explosion, or a common envelope phase of a massive binary system. In this work, we do a complete re-analysis of the archival X-ray emission of the Supernova Remnants (SNR) surrounding magnetars, and compare our results with all other bright X-ray emitting SNRs, which are associated with Compact Central Objects (CCOs; which are proposed to have magnetar-like B-fields buried in the crust by strong accretion soon after their formation), high-B pulsar...

  5. Updated radio $\\Sigma-D$ relation for Galactic supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovi?, M Z; Vukoti?, B; Uroševi?, D

    2014-01-01

    We present updated empirical radio surface-brightness-to-diameter ($\\Sigma-D$) relation for supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy. Our original calibration sample of Galactic SNRs with independently determined distances (Pavlovi\\'c et al. 2013, hereafter Paper I) is reconsidered and updated with data which became available in the past two years. The orthogonal fitting procedure and probability-density-function-based (PDF) method are applied to the calibration sample in the $\\log \\Sigma - \\log D$ plane. Orthogonal regression keeps $\\Sigma-D$ and $D-\\Sigma$ relations invariant. Our previous Monte Carlo simulations verified that the slopes of the empirical $\\Sigma-D$ relation should be determined by using orthogonal regression. Updated calibration sample contains 65 shell SNRs. 6 new Galactic SNRs are added to the sample from Paper I, one is omitted and distances are changed for 10 SNRs. The slope derived here is slightly steeper ($\\beta \\approx 5.2$) than $\\Sigma-D$ slope in Paper I ($\\beta \\approx 4.8$). The...

  6. Interstellar and Ejecta Dust in the Cas A Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Arendt, Richard G; Kober, Gladys; Rho, Jeonghee; Hwang, Una

    2014-01-01

    Infrared continuum observations provide a means of investigating the physical composition of the dust in the ejecta and swept up medium of the Cas A supernova remnant. Using low resolution Spitzer IRS spectra (5-35 $\\mu$m), and broad-band Herschel PACS imaging (70, 100, and 160 $\\mu$m), we identify characteristic dust spectra, associated with ejecta layers that underwent distinct nuclear burning histories. The most luminous spectrum exhibits strong emission features at $\\sim9$ and 21 $\\mu$m and is closely associated with ejecta knots with strong Ar emission lines. The dust features can be reproduced by magnesium silicate grains with relatively low Mg to Si ratios. Another dust spectrum is associated with ejecta having strong Ne emission lines. It has no indication of any silicate features, and is best fit by Al$_2$O$_3$ dust. A third characteristic dust spectrum shows features that are best matched by magnesium silicates with a relatively high Mg to Si ratio. This dust is primarily associated with the X-ray e...

  7. Escape of cosmic-ray electrons from supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Ohira, Yutaka; Kawanaka, Norita; Ioka, Kunihito

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the escape of cosmic ray (CR) electrons from a supernova remnant (SNR) to the interstellar space. We show that CR electrons escape in order from high to low energy with a similar spectrum to CR nuclei, while the escape starts later than the beginning of the Sedov phase at an SNR age of 1-7 10^3 yrs and the maximum energy of runaway CR electrons is below the knee about 0.3-50 TeV because unlike CR nuclei, CR electrons lose their energy due to synchrotron radiation. Highest energy CR electrons will be directly probed by AMS-02, CALET, CTA and LHAASO experiments, or have been already detected by H.E.S.S. as the spectral cutoff. Furthermore, we also calculate the spatial distribution of runaway CR electrons and their radiation spectra around SNRs. Contrary to common belief, maximum-energy photons of synchrotron radiation around 1 keV are emitted by runaway CR electrons inside the SNR. Inverse Compton scattering by runaway CR electrons can dominate the gamma-ray emission from runaway CR nuclei via p...

  8. Discovery of New Interacting Supernova Remnants in the Inner Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, John W

    2009-01-01

    OH(1720 MHz) masers are excellent signposts of interaction between supernova remnants(SNRs) and molecular clouds. Using the GBT and VLA we have surveyed 75 SNRs and six candidates for maser emission. Four new interacting SNRs are detected with OH masers: G5.4-1.2, G5.7-0.0, G8.7-0.1 and G9.7-0.0. The newly detected interacting SNRs G5.7-0.0 and G8.7-0.1 have TeV gamma-ray counterparts which may indicate a local cosmic ray enhancement. It has been noted that maser-emitting SNRs are preferentially distributed in the Molecular Ring and Nuclear Disk. We use the present and existing surveys to demonstrate that masers are strongly confined to within 50 degrees Galactic longitude at a rate of 15 percent of the total SNR population. All new detections are within 10 degrees Galactic longitude emphasizing this trend. Additionally, a substantial number of SNR masers have peak fluxes at or below the detection threshold of existing surveys. This calls into question whether maser surveys of Galactic SNRs can be considered ...

  9. Galactic supernova remnants: dependence of radio brightness on galactic height and its implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation of radio brightness across individual shell supernova remnants has been investigated; on the average, the brightness decreases with increasing distance from the galactic plane (z), with a scale height of 110 pc. Part of the brightness gradient results from a dependence of diameter (D) on the density of the interstellar medium, but much of the gradient represents a z-dependence intrinsic to the radio emission process. It is concluded that the relation ? varies as D-3 exp (-| z |/175) describes the typical evolution of the mean brightness (?) of supernova remnants at different z. The applicability of this relation extends to the faintest observable remnants and entails considerable revision of the diameters, distances and ages for some remnants; in particular, a long-standing anomaly concerning the faint (but young) remnant of AD 1006 is now explained. Estimates of the galactic distribution of supernovae are also affected by the z-dependence of ?; corrected values of 200 pc are derived for the scale height of supernovae producing shell remnants, and 80 years for the mean interval between such supernovae. (author)

  10. The composite form of the supernova remnant 3C 400.2: two interacting supernova remnants or a single supernova remnant with a blow-out?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ambrocio-Cruz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available 3C 400.2 es un remanente de supernova galáctico que presenta una morfología que asemeja dos cascarones de diámetros diferentes que se traslapan. Estudiamos la cinemática de ambos cascarones para saber si esta morfología especial es debida al resultado de dos explosiones de supernova diferentes, o bien, a la explosión de una única supernova en un medio que tenga un gradiente de densidad abrupto. Los datos cinemáticos concuerdan mejor con la segunda hipótesis.

  11. SUPERNOVA REMNANT KES 17: AN EFFICIENT COSMIC RAY ACCELERATOR INSIDE A MOLECULAR CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supernova remnant Kes 17 (SNR G304.6+0.1) is one of a few but growing number of remnants detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we analyze recent radio, X-ray, and ?-ray observations of this object, determining that efficient cosmic ray acceleration is required to explain its broadband non-thermal spectrum. These observations also suggest that Kes 17 is expanding inside a molecular cloud, though our determination of its age depends on whether thermal conduction or clump evaporation is primarily responsible for its center-filled thermal X-ray morphology. Evidence for efficient cosmic ray acceleration in Kes 17 supports recent theoretical work concluding that the strong magnetic field, turbulence, and clumpy nature of molecular clouds enhance cosmic ray production in supernova remnants. While additional observations are needed to confirm this interpretation, further study of Kes 17 is important for understanding how cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova remnants

  12. Supernova Remnant Kes 17: Efficient Cosmic Ray Accelerator inside a Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, Joseph D; Slane, Patrick O; Temim, Tea; Hughes, John P; Rakowski, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Supernova remnant Kes 17 (SNR G304.6+0.1) is one of a few but growing number of remnants detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we analyze recent radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations of this object, determining that efficient cosmic ray acceleration is required to explain its broadband non-thermal spectrum. These observations also suggest that Kes 17 is expanding inside a molecular cloud, though our determination of its age depends on whether thermal conduction or clump evaporation is primarily responsible for its center-filled thermal X-ray morphology. Evidence for efficient cosmic ray acceleration in Kes 17 supports recent theoretical work that the strong magnetic field, turbulence, and clumpy nature of molecular clouds enhances cosmic ray production in supernova remnants. While additional observations are needed to confirm this interpretation, further study of Kes 17 is important for understanding how cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova remnants.

  13. SUPERNOVA REMNANT KES 17: AN EFFICIENT COSMIC RAY ACCELERATOR INSIDE A MOLECULAR CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, Joseph D. [NYU Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 903, New York, NY 10276 (United States); Castro, Daniel [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue 37-241, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Slane, Patrick O. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Temim, Tea [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy Rutgers University 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rakowski, Cara, E-mail: jg168@cosmo.nyu.edu, E-mail: cara.rakowski@gmail.com [United States Patent and Trademark Office, 600 Dulany Street, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    2013-11-10

    The supernova remnant Kes 17 (SNR G304.6+0.1) is one of a few but growing number of remnants detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, we analyze recent radio, X-ray, and ?-ray observations of this object, determining that efficient cosmic ray acceleration is required to explain its broadband non-thermal spectrum. These observations also suggest that Kes 17 is expanding inside a molecular cloud, though our determination of its age depends on whether thermal conduction or clump evaporation is primarily responsible for its center-filled thermal X-ray morphology. Evidence for efficient cosmic ray acceleration in Kes 17 supports recent theoretical work concluding that the strong magnetic field, turbulence, and clumpy nature of molecular clouds enhance cosmic ray production in supernova remnants. While additional observations are needed to confirm this interpretation, further study of Kes 17 is important for understanding how cosmic rays are accelerated in supernova remnants.

  14. Dust and Molecule Formation and Processing in Supernovae and their Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, J.; Andersen, M.; Tappe, A.; Gomez, H.; Smith, M.; Bernard, J. P.; Onaka, T.; Cami, J.

    2015-03-01

    Supernovae (SNe) produce, fragment and destroy dust, molecules and nucleosynthetic elements, and reshape and modify the ISM. I will review recent infrared observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) and SNe which show that SNe are important sites of dust and molecule formation and are major dust creators in the Universe. Detection of carbon monoxide (CO) fundamental band from the young SNR Cas A indicates that astrochemical processes in SNRs interacting with molecular clouds provide astrophysical laboratories to study evolution of the ISM returning material from dense clouds into the more diffuse medium and galactic halo. Two dozen SNRs are known to be interacting with molecular clouds using H2 and millimeter observations. Recent Spitzer, Herschel and SOFIA observations along with ground-based observations have greatly advanced our understanding shock processing and astrochemistry of dust, H2, high J CO, and other neutral and ionized molecules and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Ionized molecules and warm layer of molecules that are excited by UV radiation, X-rays, or cosmic rays will be described. Finally I will discuss how astrochemical processes of dust and molecules in SNRs impact the large scale structures in the ISM.

  15. Theory of cosmic ray production in the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhko, E G

    2006-01-01

    A nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) is employed to investigate the properties of SNR RX J1713.7-3946. Observations of the nonthermal radio and X-ray emission spectra as well as the H.E.S.S. measurements of the very high energy gamma-ray emission are used to constrain the astronomical and the particle acceleration parameters of the system. Under the assumptions that RX J1713.7-3946 was a core collapse supernova (SN) of type II/Ib with a massive progenitor, has an age of \\approx 1600 yr and is at a distance of \\approx 1 kpc, the theory gives indeed a consistent description for all the existing observational data. Specifically it is shown that an efficient production of nuclear CRs, leading to strong shock modification, and a large downstream magnetic field strength B_d ~ 100 mkG can reproduce in detail the observed synchrotron emission from radio to X-ray frequencies together with the gamma-ray spectral characteristics as observed by the H.E.S.S. telescopes. S...

  16. Evolution of supernova remnants in different galactic environments, and its effects on supernova statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By examining the interaction between supernova (SJ) ejecta and the various environments in which the explosive event might occur, we conclude that only a small fraction of the many SNs produce observable supernova remnants (SNRs). This fraction, which is found to depend weakly upon the lower mass limit of the Sn progenitors, and more strongly on the specific characteristics of the associated interstellar medium, decreases from approximately 15% near the galactic center to 10% at R/sub gal/ approx.10 kpc and drops nearly to zero for R/sub gal/>15 kpc. Generally, whether a SNR is detectable is determined by the density of the ambient interstellar medium in which it is embedded. We find that SNRs are only detectable above some critical density (napprox.0.1 cm-3). The presence of large, low-density superbubble cavities around stellar associations due to the combined effects of stellar winds and supernova shells strongly suggests that a large portion of the detectable SNRs must have runaway stars as their progenitors. These results explain the differences between the substantially larger SN rates in the Galaxy derived both from pulsar statistics and from observations of SN events in external galaxies, when compared to the substantially smaller SN rates derived from galactic SNR statistics. These results also explain the very large number of SNRs observed toward the galactic center in comparison to few SNRs found in the anticenter directionnticenter direction

  17. X-ray emission from supernova remnants near gamma-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The imaging proportional counter of the Einstein Observatory has been used to search for X-ray emission from eight radio supernova remnants which are near three of the Cos-B unidentified ?-ray sources; 2CG 311--01, CG 327--0, and CG 333+0. We observe emission from three of the remnants and upper limits on the remainder which are consistent with the luminosity expected from a simple blast-wave-heated plasma model of the process. Thus none of the remnants are superluminous as might be expected if they follow the pattern of the Crab Nebula. One of the remnants, RCW 103, may be Vela-like in that Tuohy and Garmire have recently reported a weak point source approximately centrally located which may be associated with a rotating neutron star remnant of the supernova explosion and which therefore may be associated with CG 333+0

  18. A New X-Ray View of the Supernova Remnant G272.2-3.2 and Its Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntaffer, R. L.; Grieves, N.; DeRoo, C.; Brantseg, T.

    2013-09-01

    We present an analysis of Chandra X-Ray Observatory data detailing a Galactic supernova remnant, G272.2-3.2. A clear shell of emission is resolved as a series of filaments and knots around the entire rim of the remnant. Spectral analysis of these features show that they are consistent with shock heating of interstellar material in a clumpy medium. We contrast these X-ray images with 22 ?m Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data to verify this interaction. Spatially separated from the shell we see a central diffuse region dominated by harder, hotter emission. Spatial spectroscopy shows a clear enhancement of metals consistent with a Type Ia explosion, namely S, Si, and Fe. We find no clear evidence for a compact object or pulsar wind nebula and argue for a Type Ia origin. Consideration of the ionization timescales suggest an age of 11,000 yr for G272.2-3.2.

  19. SUPERNOVA REMNANTS AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM OF M83: IMAGING AND PHOTOMETRY WITH THE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 ON THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Wide Field Camera 3 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope within a single field in the southern grand design star-forming galaxy M83. Based on their size, morphology, and photometry in continuum-subtracted H?, [S II], H?, [O III], and [O II] filters, we have identified 60 supernova remnant (SNR) candidates, as well as a handful of young ejecta-dominated candidates. A catalog of these remnants, their sizes and, where possible, their H? fluxes are given. Radiative ages and pre-shock densities are derived from those SNRs that have good photometry. The ages lie in the range 2.62 rad/yr) 0/cm-3 min = 16+7-5 Msun. Finally, we give evidensub>sun. Finally, we give evidence for the likely detection of the remnant of the historical supernova, SN1968L.

  20. Gamma-Ray Emission from Supernova Remnant Interaction with Molecular Clumps

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Xiaping

    2014-01-01

    Observations of the middle-aged supernova remnants IC 443, W28 and W51C indicate that the brightnesses at GeV and TeV energies are correlated with each other and with regions of molecular clump interaction, but not with the radio synchrotron brightness. We suggest that the radio emission is primarily associated with a radiative shell in the interclump medium of a molecular cloud, while the gamma-ray emission is primarily associated with the interaction of the radiative shell with molecular clumps. The shell interaction produces a high pressure region, so that the gamma-ray luminosity can be approximately reproduced even if shock acceleration of particles is not efficient, provided that energetic particles are trapped in the cooling region. In this model, the spectral shape \\ga 2 GeV is determined by the spectrum of cosmic ray protons. Models in which diffusive shock acceleration determines the spectrum tend to underproduce TeV emission because of the limiting particle energy that is attained.

  1. Nonuniform Expansion of the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Borkowski, K J; Green, D A; Hwang, U; Petre, R; Krishnamurthy, K; Willett, R

    2014-01-01

    We report measurements of X-ray expansion of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant (SNR), G1.9+0.3, using Chandra observations in 2007, 2009, and 2011. The measured rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, decreasing radially by about 60% along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis from 0."84% +/- 0."06% per yr to 0."52% +/- 0."03% per yr. This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120-190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9+0.3, and implying a significant deceleration of the blast wave. The spatially-integrated dominantly synchrotron X-ray flux increases at 1.9% +/- 0.4% per yr. We identify the outer and inner rims with the blast wave and reverse shock, respectively. Sudden large density gradients in either ejecta or ambient medium are required to produce the sudden deceleration of the reverse shock or the blast wave implied by the large spread in expansion ages. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as found at a win...

  2. An Extreme Pulsar Tail Protruding from the Frying Pan Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, C -Y; Gaensler, B M; Camilo, F; Chatterjee, S; Bouchard, A

    2011-01-01

    The Frying Pan (G315.9-0.0) is a radio supernova remnant with a peculiar linear feature extending 10' radially outward from the rim of the shell. We present radio imaging and polarization observations with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope and the Australia Telescope Compact Array, confirming the linear structure as a bow-shock pulsar wind nebula powered by the young pulsar J1437-5959. Extending over 20pc, this is the longest pulsar tail observed. We found a stand-off distance of 0.002pc, smallest among any bow-shock systems, suggesting a large pulsar velocity over 1000km/s and a high Mach number ~200. The magnetic field geometry inferred from radio polarimetry shows a good alignment with the tail orientation, which could be a result of high flow speed. There are also hints that the postshock wind has a low magnetization and is dominated by electrons and positrons in energy. This study shows that pulsar wind nebulae can offer a powerful probe of the pulsar environment, particularly for the case of ...

  3. Dense Gas Towards the RXJ1713.7-3946 Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Maxted, Nigel I; Dawson, Bruce R; Burton, Michael G; Fukui, Yasuo; Lazendic, Jasmina; Kawamura, Akiko; Horachi, Hirotaka; Sano, Hidetoshi; Walsh, Andrew J; Yoshiike, Satoshi; Fukuda, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a Mopra 7mm-wavelength survey that targeted the dense gas-tracing CS(1-0) transition towards the young gamma-ray-bright supernova remnant, RXJ1713.7-3946 (SNR G347.3-0.5). In a hadronic gamma-ray emission scenario, where cosmic ray protons interact with gas to produce the observed gamma-ray emission, the mass of potential cosmic ray target material is an important factor. We summarise newly-discovered dense gas components, towards Cores G and L, and Clumps N1, N2, N3 and T1, which have masses of 1-10^4 solar masses. We argue that these components are not likely to contribute significantly to gamma-ray emission in a hadronic gamma-ray emission scenario. This would be the case if RXJ1713.7-3946 were at either the currently favoured distance of ~1kpc or an alternate distance (as suggested in some previous studies) of ~6kpc. This survey also targeted the shock-tracing SiO molecule. Although no SiO emission corresponding to the RXJ1713.7-3946 shock was observed, vibrationally-excited SiO(1-...

  4. On the escape and propagation of high-energy protons near young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuyuan; Zhang, Li; Wang, Jiancheng

    2015-04-01

    The escape and propagation of high-energy protons near young supernova remnants (SNRs) are investigated in the frame of non-linear diffusive shock acceleration (NLDSA) model by using two methods. In the first method, the particle diffusion is assumed to be different inside and outside the absorbing boundary of the particles accelerated in the SNR shock, and the proton spectra at a given distance of the outer region and corresponding ?0 decay ?-ray spectra can be calculated if a molecular cloud is assumed to be at the distance. In the second method, the total spectrum of high-energy protons escaping from an absorbing boundary during the SNR evolution time is treated as injection rate of the protons and the proton spectrum is calculated in the accumulative diffusion model. Our results show that (1) the spectrum of high-energy protons escaping from a young SNR does not have a power-law form and the protons concentrate on high-energy region and (2) the escaping proton spectra and corresponding ?0 decay ?-ray spectra predicted in both methods are different, indicating that the second method overestimates the propagation effect. We may conclude that the first method is a more realistic description of the escape and propagation of high-energy protons near SNRs.

  5. Dust Formation in the young core-collapse supernova remnant E0102

    CERN Document Server

    Rho, J; Tappe, A; Hwang, U; Slavin, J D; Kozasa, T; Dunne, L

    2009-01-01

    We present Spitzer IRS and IRAC observations of the young supernova remnant E0102 (SNR 1E0102.2-7219) in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The infrared spectra show strong ejecta lines of Ne and O, with the [Ne II] line at 12.8 microns having a large velocity dispersion of 2,000-4,500 km/s indicative of fast-moving ejecta. Unlike the young Galactic SNR Cas A, E0102 lacks emission from Ar and Fe. Diagnostics of the observed [Ne III] line pairs imply that [Ne III] emitting ejecta have a low temperature of 650 K, while [Ne V] line pairs imply that the infrared [Ne V] emitting ejecta have a high density of ~10^4/cm3. We have calculated radiative shock models for various velocity ranges including the effects of photoionization. The shock model indicates that the [Ne V] lines come mainly from the cooling zone, which is hot and dense, whereas [Ne II] and [Ne III] come mainly from the photoinization zone, which has a low temperature of 400-1000 K. We estimate an infrared emitting Ne ejecta mass of 0.04 Msun from the infrar...

  6. THE FERMI BUBBLES AS A SCALED-UP VERSION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo, E-mail: fujita@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    In this study, we treat Fermi bubbles as a scaled-up version of supernova remnants (SNRs). The bubbles are created through activities of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) or starbursts at the Galactic center (GC). Cosmic-rays (CRs) are accelerated at the forward shocks of the bubbles like SNRs, which means that we cannot decide whether the bubbles were created by the SMBH or starbursts from the radiation from the CRs. We follow the evolution of CR distribution by solving a diffusion-advection equation, considering the reduction of the diffusion coefficient by CR streaming. In this model, gamma rays are created through hadronic interaction between CR protons and the gas in the Galactic halo. In the GeV band, we can well reproduce the observed flat distribution of gamma-ray surface brightness because some amount of gas is left behind the shock. The edge of the bubbles is fairly sharp owing to the high gas density behind the shock and the reduction of the diffusion coefficient there. The latter also contributes the hard gamma-ray spectrum of the bubbles. We find that the CR acceleration at the shock began when the bubbles were small, and the time scale of the energy injection at the GC was much smaller than the age of the bubbles. We predict that if CRs are accelerated to the TeV regime, the apparent bubble size should be larger in the TeV band, which could be used to discriminate our hadronic model from other leptonic models. We also present neutrino fluxes.

  7. THE FERMI BUBBLES AS A SCALED-UP VERSION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we treat Fermi bubbles as a scaled-up version of supernova remnants (SNRs). The bubbles are created through activities of the super-massive black hole (SMBH) or starbursts at the Galactic center (GC). Cosmic-rays (CRs) are accelerated at the forward shocks of the bubbles like SNRs, which means that we cannot decide whether the bubbles were created by the SMBH or starbursts from the radiation from the CRs. We follow the evolution of CR distribution by solving a diffusion-advection equation, considering the reduction of the diffusion coefficient by CR streaming. In this model, gamma rays are created through hadronic interaction between CR protons and the gas in the Galactic halo. In the GeV band, we can well reproduce the observed flat distribution of gamma-ray surface brightness because some amount of gas is left behind the shock. The edge of the bubbles is fairly sharp owing to the high gas density behind the shock and the reduction of the diffusion coefficient there. The latter also contributes the hard gamma-ray spectrum of the bubbles. We find that the CR acceleration at the shock began when the bubbles were small, and the time scale of the energy injection at the GC was much smaller than the age of the bubbles. We predict that if CRs are accelerated to the TeV regime, the apparent bubble size should be larger in the TeV band, which could be used to discriminate our hadronic model from other leptonic models. We also present neutrino fluxes

  8. Infrared spectroscopy of young supernova remnants heavily interacting with the interstellar medium. I. Ionizes species in RCW 103

    CERN Document Server

    Oliva, E; Drapatz, S; Lutz, D; Sturm, E

    1999-01-01

    ISO spectral observations of the supernova remnant RCW103 are presented. This object is the prototype of relatively young remnants with fast shocks interacting with dense interstellar medium. The spectrum is dominated by prominent lines of [NeII], [SiII], [FeII] and other low excitation species which provide, for the first time, a simple and reliable estimate of the gas abundances of refractory (Si, Fe, Ni) and non-refractory (Ne, P, S, Cl, Ar) species. Apart from nickel, all the derived abundances are close to solar, confirming that the shock has destroyed all dust grains. Like the optical nickel lines, [NiII] 6.64micron yields Ni abundances a factor ~10 solar which we propose results from a large underestimation of the computed Ni+ collision strengths. The observed intensities and velocity widths of ionic lines are compatible with emission from the post-shock region alone with only a very small (if any) contribution from the photoionized precursor. This result does not agree with shock models which predict ...

  9. Detonation shock dynamics of Type Ia supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, Scott D.; Sharpe, Gary J.; Falle, Sam A. E. G.

    2013-06-01

    The wavefront propagation of curved detonation waves in carbon-oxygen cores and helium shells of Type Ia supernova (SNIa) progenitors is determined via a detonation shock dynamics approach. A level set implementation is used to track the front, which is evolved according to intrinsic quasi-steady, quasi-one-dimensional detonation speed-curvature relationships. The effects of curvature are analysed for a number of SNIa models from the literature by comparing the results to those obtained by wavefront propagation at the local planar detonation speed. The differences can be very profound in the low-density regions where detonation models are exploited to produce intermediate-mass elements. In detonable low-density regions, the speed tends to be much lower than the planar wave analysis predicts, while the subsonic driving zone controlling the dynamics is many orders of magnitude shorter. However, the lower shock temperatures ensure that the complete reaction lengths are orders of magnitude longer when curvature effects are properly accounted. Furthermore, the material cannot be detonated in sufficiently low-density regions due to a curvature-induced extinction limit. The implications for and need to reassess the nucleosynthesis and intermediate-mass element production of SNIa detonation models is discussed.

  10. Nonthermal emission of supernova remnant SN 1006 revisited: theoretical model and the H.E.S.S. results

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhko, E G; Voelk, H J

    2012-01-01

    The properties of the Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) SN 1006 are theoretically re-analyzed in the light of the recent H.E.S.S. results. Nonlinear kinetic theory is used to determine the momentum spectrum of cosmic rays (CRs) in space and time in the supernova remnant SN 1006. The physical parameters of the model - proton injection rate, electron-to-proton ratio and downstream magnetic field strength - are determined through a fit of the result to the observed spatially-integrated synchrotron emission properties. The only remaining unknown astronomical parameter, the circumstellar gas number density, is determined by a normalization of the amplitude of the gamma-ray flux to the observed amplitude. The bipolar morphology of both nonthermal X-ray and gamma-ray emissions is explained by the preferential injection of suprathermal nuclei and subsequent magnetic field amplification in the quasi-parallel regions of the outer supernova shock. The above parameters provide an improved fit to all existing nonthermal em...

  11. Search for cosmic ray origins by the study of supernova remnants associated with molecular clouds with HESS and test of HESS II sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H.E.S.S. telescope (High energy Stereoscopic System), located in Namibia, is currently the most efficient for the observation of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. It is composed of 4 large diameter telescopes working in stereoscopic mode and allows an unequaled survey of the galactic plane at these extreme wavelengths. The H.E.S.S. experiment showed the presence of high energy particles up to 100 TeV within supernova remnant. This astrophysical objects are believed to be the main particle accelerator within the Galaxy. However, the particle nature remains unclear. This thesis presents a new observational approach in order to show hadronic particles acceleration through diffusive shock within supernova remnant. A search of supernova remnant associated with molecular cloud have been led within the HESS source catalog and the H.E.S.S. observations. An analysis of the new VHE gamma-ray source in Monoceros and its interpretation are presented. As well, the analysis and interpretation of new observations of the unidentified source HESS J1745-303 are presented. The multi-wavelength analysis of the new source HESS J1714-385, coincident with the supernova remnant CTB37A is presented. A contribution to the H.E.S.S. phase II building is also presented. This second phase consists in the building of a fifth telescope at the center of the existing system. The series tests of the new camera sampling system are reported. (author)

  12. RX-J0852?4622: THE NEAREST HISTORICAL SUPERNOVA REMNANT – AGAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Aschenbach

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available RX-J0852?4622, a supernova remnant, is demonstrated to be closer than 500 pc, based on the measurements of the angular radius, the angular expansion rate and the TeV g-ray flux. This is a new method of limiting the distance to any supernova remnant with hadronic induced TeV g-ray flux. The progenitor star of RX-J0852?4622 probably exploded in its blue supergiant wind, like SN 1987A, preceeded by a red supergiant phase. A cool dense shell, expected around the outskirts of the red wind, my have been identified. The distance (200 pc and age (680 yr of the supernova remnant, originally proposed, are supported.

  13. Four extended gamma-ray supernova remnants newly identified by Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John W.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Identifying gamma-ray emission from supernova remnants is crucial to determine the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. Despite the excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, it has proven difficult to clearly identify these sources as they are buried in the bright diffuse Galactic background and may be confused with other gamma-ray sources, such as pulsars. Here we report the detection of extended emission from four supernova remnants - CTB 109, PKS 1209-51/52, CTB 37A, RCW 86 - using 5 years of observations with Fermi and the new Pass 8 event reconstruction developed by the LAT collaboration. The improvements with Pass 8 promise to rapidly grow the population of gamma-ray supernova remnants identified through their spatial extension.

  14. Multi-frequency study of supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Confirmation of the supernova remnant status of DEM L205

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Filipovic?, M. D.; Points, S. D.; Chu, Y. -h; Sasaki, M.; Pietsch, W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Dickel, J.; Smith, R. C.; Sturm, R.; Crawford, E. J.; Horta, A. Y.

    2012-01-01

    We present new X-ray and radio data of the LMC SNR candidate DEM L205, obtained by XMM-Newton and ATCA, along with archival optical and infrared observations. We use data at various wavelengths to study this object and its complex neighbourhood, in particular in the context of the star formation activity, past and present, around the source. We analyse the X-ray spectrum to derive some remnant's properties, such as age and explosion energy. Supernova remnant features are det...

  15. Monochromatic photography of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant. Plotting of isophotes of partial nebula radiation in the [OIII] and [NII]+H? lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    System of the isophotes of the 9' size in the west part of the Cyg Loop supernova remnant using monochromatic photographs in the [O3] and [N2]+Hsub(?) lines is obtained. A relative displacement of the regions of emission in these lines is discovered and explained by temperature reduction due to radiative losses behind the shock wave of the supernova explosion. The morphology difference between the [O3] and [N2]+Hsub(?) lxnes is explained. Anomalously large intensity ratios Isub([O3])/Isub(Hsub(?)) are supposed to be due to spatial separation of the corresponding emission regions

  16. Modelling of X-ray emission supernova remnants observed by the European satellite XMM-Newton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the X-ray emission of supernova remnants (SNRs) observed by the European satellite XMM-Newton. In SNRs, the matter heated to millions of degrees shines brightly in X-rays. This emission depends on the hydrodynamical evolution of the SNR, on the chemical composition of the ejected matter and on the ambient medium. Moreover, the blast-wave is considered to be the prime site of the production and the acceleration of cosmic-rays in our Galaxy. XMM-Newton is one of the first to allow the investigation of these different aspects thanks to its spatially-resolved spectroscopy and its very good sensitivity. l first studied Kepler's SNR (SN 1604) whose X-ray emission is dominated by the ejecta. Its observation has allowed to obtain information on the nucleosynthesis products, on their spatial distribution and on the temperature structure in the shocked ejecta. This gives strong constraints on the physics of the explosion and on the progenitor's type. l have shown also that the X-ray emission at the shock is likely to be non-thermal. Then, l studied the SNR G347.3-0.5 whose X-ray emission is entirely due to the synchrotron radiation of relativistic (TeV) electrons accelerated at the shock. From five pointing, l made a full mapping of the X-ray emission characteristics (brightness, absorption and spectral index) at small scale. Combined to radio observations, these results have indicated a clear interaction between the SNR and molecular clouds located at 1 kpc and not at 6 kpc as previously estimated. Lastly, in the framework of a self-similar hydrodynamical model coupled with non-linear particle acceleration, l have obtained the synchrotron emission profile in SNRs, including the adiabatic and radiative losses of the accelerated electrons. (author)

  17. Thermal X-ray emission of the remnants of ashperical Supernova explosions

    CERN Document Server

    Petruk, O

    2001-01-01

    Evolution of adiabatic remnants of an aspherical supernova explosion in uniform medium are considered. Thermal X-ray emission of such remnants are investigated. It is shown that integral thermal X-ray characteristics (X-ray luminosity and spectrum) of the objects do not allow us to reveal the assymetry in the explosion because these characteristics are close to their Sedov counterparts. Surface distribution of X-ray emission is sensitive to anisotropy of the explosion and nonuniformity of the interstellar medium.

  18. Thermal X-ray emission of the remnants of ashperical Supernova explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Petruk, O.

    2001-01-01

    Evolution of adiabatic remnants of an aspherical supernova explosion in uniform medium are considered. Thermal X-ray emission of such remnants are investigated. It is shown that integral thermal X-ray characteristics (X-ray luminosity and spectrum) of the objects do not allow us to reveal the assymetry in the explosion because these characteristics are close to their Sedov counterparts. Surface distribution of X-ray emission is sensitive to anisotropy of the explosion and no...

  19. The Relation Between the Surface Brightness and the Diameter for Galactic Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Guseinov, Oktay H.; Ankay, Askin; Sezer, Aytap; Tagieva, Sevinc O.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we have constructed a relation between the surface brightness ($\\Sigma$) and diameter (D) of Galactic C- and S-type supernova remnants (SNRs). In order to calibrate the $\\Sigma$-D dependence, we have carefully examined some intrinsic (e.g. explosion energy) and extrinsic (e.g. density of the ambient medium) properties of the remnants and, taking into account also the distance values given in the literature, we have adopted distances for some of the SNRs which h...

  20. \\emph{Fermi}-LAT Detection of the Young SuperNova Remnant Tycho

    CERN Document Server

    Giordano, F; Ballet, J; Bechtol, K; Funk, S; Lande, J; Mazziotta, M N; Rain`o, S; Tanaka, T; Tibolla, O; Uchiyama, Y

    2011-01-01

    After almost three years of data taking in sky survey mode, the \\emph{Fermi}-LAT has detected $\\gamma$-ray emission toward the Tycho's Supernova Remnant (SNR). The Tycho SNR is among the youngest remnants in the Galaxy, originating from a Type Ia Supernova in AD 1572. The $\\gamma$-ray integral flux from 400 MeV up to 100 GeV has been measured to be (3.5$\\pm1.1_{stat}\\pm0.7_{syst}$)$\\times10^{-9}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with a photon index of 2.3$\\pm0.2_{stat}\\pm0.1_{syst}$.

  1. Updated Radio Sigma-D Relation for Galactic Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, M. Z.; Dobardzic, A.; Vukotic, B.; Urosevic, D.

    2014-12-01

    We present the updated empirical radio surface-brightness-to-diameter (Sigma - D) relation for supernova remnants (SNRs) in our Galaxy. Our original calibration sample of Galactic SNRs with independently determined distances (Pavlovic et al. 2013, hereafter Paper I) is reconsidered and updated with data which became available in the past two years. The orthogonal fitting procedure and probability-density-function-based (PDF) method are applied to the calibration sample in the log Sigma - log D plane. Non-standard orthogonal regression keeps the Sigma-D and D-Sigma relations invariant within estimated uncertainties. Our previous Monte Carlo simulations verified that the slopes of the empirical Sigma-D relation should be determined by using the orthogonal regression, because of its good performances for data sets with severe scatter. The updated calibration sample contains 65 shell SNRs. 6 new Galactic SNRs are added to the sample from Paper I, one is omitted and distances are changed for 10 SNRs. The slope derived is here slightly steeper (? ? 5.2) than the Sigma-D slope in Paper I (? ? 4.8). The PDF method relies on data points density maps which can provide more reliable calibrations that preserve more information contained in the calibration sample. We estimate distances to five new faint Galactic SNRs discovered for the first time by Canadian Galactic Plane Survey, and obtained distances of 2.3, 4.0, 1.3, 2.9 and 4.7 kiloparsecs for G108.5+11.0, G128.5+2.6, G149.5+3.2, G150.8+3.8 and G160.1-1.1, respectively. The updated empirical relation is used to estimate distances of 160 shell Galactic SNRs and new results change their distance scales up to 15 per cent, compared to the results from Paper I. The PDF calculation can provide even few times higher or lower values in comparison with the orthogonal fit, as it uses a totally different approach. However, on average, this difference is 32, 24 and 18 per cent for mode, median and mean distances.

  2. Giant X-ray source in Cygnus (Cygnus superbubble) as a remnant of a peculiar supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytic solution of equations for the evolution of supernova remnants in the radiative phase is found. It shows that the X-ray source Cygnus Superbubble might be formed by an explosion with the energy release 1052-1053 erg. The analysis of the light curve of SN 1961 shows that this supernova in the result of an explosion with energy about 2x1052 erg in a supermassive star with the mass of order 103M * where M* is the solar mass. An evolutionary sequence for the formation of giant shell sources is suggested: presupernova - an object of the type R136a, supernova - an explosion of the type SN 1961 and the supernova remnant - a source of the type Cygnus Superbubble

  3. Giant X-ray source in Cygnus is a peculiar supernova remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analytic solution for the evolution of supernova remnants on the radiative phase is obtained. It is shown that the X-ray source Cygnus Superbubble might be formed by an explosion with the energy release of 105-1053 ergs. The analysis of the light curve of SN 1961 v shows that this supernova is the result of an explosion with an energy of about 2x1052 ergs of a supermassive star with the mass of about 103 solar masses. An evolutionary sequence for the formation of giant shell sources is suggested: presupernova - an object of the type R 136a, supernova - an explosion of the type SN 1961v, supernova remnant - aource of the type Cygnus Superbubble

  4. A dynamical study of the young oxygen-rich supernova remnant in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A velocity map of the young oxygen-rich supernova remnant (1E0102.2-7219) in the Small Magellanic Cloud, obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope is presented. The velocity structure is complex, and implies a high degree of asymmetry during the Type II supernova explosion. The data can be modelled geometrically in terms of a severely distorted ring of oxygen-rich ejecta. This result, together with the evidence for expanding rings in similar remnants, suggests nonspherical ejection to be an intrinsic characteristic of Type II supernovae. The authors have also obtained two-dimensional spectroscopy of the diffuse halo of emission which partially surrounds 1E0102.2-7219. The halo exhibits the high excitation line of HeII 4686, and is either a fossil HII region created by a UV flash accompanying the supernova, or alternately, is being excited by intense UV radiation from the remnant itself. It is the first clear association of a high excitation region with a supernova remnant. (Auth.)

  5. TeV Neutrinos from SuperNova Remnants embedded in Giant Molecular Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzo Cavasinnipisa U And Infn, Pisa; Dario Grassosns And Infn, Pisa; Luca Maccionesissa, Trieste

    2014-01-01

    The recent detection of $\\gamma$-rays with energy up to 10 TeV from dense regions surrounding some Supernova Remnants (SNR) provides strong, though still not conclusive, evidence that the nucleonic component of galactic Cosmic Rays is accelerated in the supernova outflows. Neutrino telescopes could further support the validity of such scenario by detecting neutrinos coming from the same regions. We re-evaluate the TeV range neutrino-photon flux ratio to be expected from pion...

  6. DEM L241, A SUPERNOVA REMNANT CONTAINING A HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Chandra observation of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant DEM L241 reveals an interior unresolved source which is probably an accretion-powered binary. The optical counterpart is an O5III(f) star making this a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period likely to be of the order of tens of days. Emission from the remnant interior is thermal and spectral information is used to derive density and mass of the hot material. Elongation of the remnant is unusual and possible causes of this are discussed. The precursor star probably had mass >25 M ?

  7. DEM L241, A SUPERNOVA REMNANT CONTAINING A HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, F. D. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Charles, P. A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Foster, D. L. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Dickel, J. R.; Romero, P. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 1919 Lomas Boulevard NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Edwards, Z. I.; Perry, M.; Williams, R. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Columbus State University, Coca Cola Space Science Center, 701 Front Avenue, Columbus, GA 31901 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    A Chandra observation of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant DEM L241 reveals an interior unresolved source which is probably an accretion-powered binary. The optical counterpart is an O5III(f) star making this a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period likely to be of the order of tens of days. Emission from the remnant interior is thermal and spectral information is used to derive density and mass of the hot material. Elongation of the remnant is unusual and possible causes of this are discussed. The precursor star probably had mass >25 M {sub Sun}.

  8. THE MAGELLAN/IMACS CATALOG OF OPTICAL SUPERNOVA REMNANT CANDIDATES IN M83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a new optical imaging survey of supernova remnants (SNRs) in M83, using data obtained with the Magellan I 6.5 m telescope and IMACS instrument under conditions of excellent seeing. Using the criterion of strong [S II] emission relative to H?, we confirm all but three of the 71 SNR candidates listed in our previous survey, and expand the SNR candidate list to 225 objects, more than tripling the earlier sample. Comparing the optical survey with a new deep X-ray survey of M83 with Chandra, we find that 61 of these SNR candidates have X-ray counterparts. We also identify an additional list of 46 [O III]-selected nebulae for follow-up as potential ejecta-dominated remnants, seven of which have associated X-ray emission that makes them strong candidates. Some of the other [O III]-bright objects could also be normal interstellar medium (ISM) dominated SNRs with shocks fast enough to doubly ionize oxygen, but with H? and [S II] emission faint enough to have been missed. A few of these objects may also be H II regions with abnormally high [O III] emission compared with the majority of M83 H II regions, compact nebulae excited by young Wolf-Rayet stars, or even background active galactic nuclei. The SNR H? luminosity function in M83 is shifted by a factor of ?4.5 times higher than for M33 SNRs, indicative of a higher mean ISM density in M83. We describe the search technique used to identify the SNR candidates and provide basic information and finder charts for tc information and finder charts for the objects.

  9. THE MAGELLAN/IMACS CATALOG OF OPTICAL SUPERNOVA REMNANT CANDIDATES IN M83

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, William P. [Henry A. Rowland Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Winkler, P. Frank [Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT 05753 (United States); Long, Knox S., E-mail: wpb@pha.jhu.edu, E-mail: winkler@middlebury.edu, E-mail: long@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    We present a new optical imaging survey of supernova remnants (SNRs) in M83, using data obtained with the Magellan I 6.5 m telescope and IMACS instrument under conditions of excellent seeing. Using the criterion of strong [S II] emission relative to H{alpha}, we confirm all but three of the 71 SNR candidates listed in our previous survey, and expand the SNR candidate list to 225 objects, more than tripling the earlier sample. Comparing the optical survey with a new deep X-ray survey of M83 with Chandra, we find that 61 of these SNR candidates have X-ray counterparts. We also identify an additional list of 46 [O III]-selected nebulae for follow-up as potential ejecta-dominated remnants, seven of which have associated X-ray emission that makes them strong candidates. Some of the other [O III]-bright objects could also be normal interstellar medium (ISM) dominated SNRs with shocks fast enough to doubly ionize oxygen, but with H{alpha} and [S II] emission faint enough to have been missed. A few of these objects may also be H II regions with abnormally high [O III] emission compared with the majority of M83 H II regions, compact nebulae excited by young Wolf-Rayet stars, or even background active galactic nuclei. The SNR H{alpha} luminosity function in M83 is shifted by a factor of {approx}4.5 times higher than for M33 SNRs, indicative of a higher mean ISM density in M83. We describe the search technique used to identify the SNR candidates and provide basic information and finder charts for the objects.

  10. Dust processing in Supernova Remnants: Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, M; Reach, W T; Hewitt, J W; Bernard, J P

    2011-01-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS SED and IRS observations of 14 Galactic Supernova Remnants previously identified in the GLIMPSE survey. We find evidence for SNR/molecular cloud interaction through detection of [OI] emission, ionic lines, and emission from molecular hydrogen. Through black-body fitting of the MIPS SEDs we find the large grains to be warm, 29-66 K. The dust emission is modeled using the DUSTEM code and a three component dust model composed of populations of big grains, very small grains, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We find the dust to be moderately heated, typically by 30-100 times the interstellar radiation field. The source of the radiation is likely hydrogen recombination, where the excitation of hydrogen occurred in the shock front. The ratio of very small grains to big grains is found for most of the molecular interacting SNRs to be higher than that found in the plane of the Milky Way, typically by a factor of 2--3. We suggest that dust shattering is responsible for the relative over-abu...

  11. On the size distribution of supernova remnants in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Badenes, Carles; Draine, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The physical sizes of supernova remnants (SNRs) in a number of nearby galaxies follow an approximately linear cumulative distribution, contrary to what is expected for decelerating shock fronts. This has been attributed to selection effects, or to a majority of SNRs propagating in "free expansion", at constant velocity, into a tenuous ambient medium. We compile a list of 77 known SNRs in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), and argue that they are a largely complete record of the SNe that have exploded over the last ~20kyr, with most now in the adiabatic, Sedov phase of their expansions. The roughly linear cumulative size distribution (uniform in a differential distribution) can result from the combination of a deceleration during this phase, a transition to a radiation-loss-dominated phase at a radius that depends on the local gas density, and a distribution of ambient densities varying roughly as rho^{-1}. This explanation is supported by the observed -1 power-law distributions of three independent tracers of densi...

  12. Artificial broadening of the high-energy end of electron spectrum in supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Petruk, O

    2006-01-01

    The observed spectrum of a supernova remnant (SNR) is a superposition of many ``local'' spectra emitted by regions of SNRs that are under different physical conditions. The question remains as to whether the broadening of the high-energy end of the observed nonthermal spectrum of SNRs, like in G347.3-0.5 and SN 1006, can be an artifact of observations or it is a consequence of the microphysics involved in the acceleration process. In this note we study the influence of parameters variations (inside the volume and over the surface of SNR) on the shape of the high-energy end of the synchrotron (and also inverse Compton) spectrum. We consider three possibilities for these parameter variations: i) gradients downstream of the shock with constant maximum energy of the accelerated electrons and the potential variation in time of the injection efficiency, ii) then we add the possibility of the maximum energy depending on time, and finally iii) the possible obliquity dependences of maximum energy and injection efficie...

  13. Some properties of synchrotron radio and inverse-Compton gamma-ray images of supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Petruk, O; Bocchino, F; Orlando, S

    2009-01-01

    The synchrotron radio maps of supernova remnants (SNRs) in uniform interstellar medium and interstellar magnetic field (ISMF) are analyzed, allowing different `sensitivity' of injection efficiency to the shock obliquity. The very-high energy gamma-ray maps due to inverse Compton process are also synthesized. The properties of images in these different wavelength bands are compared, with particular emphasis on the location of the bright limbs in bilateral SNRs. Recent H.E.S.S. observations of SN 1006 show that the radio and IC gamma-ray limbs coincide, and we found that this may happen if: i) injection is isotropic but the variation of the maximum energy of electrons is rather quick to compensate for differences in magnetic field; ii) obliquity dependence of injection (either quasi-parallel or quasi-perpendicular) and the electron maximum energy is strong enough to dominate magnetic field variation. In the latter case, the obliquity dependence of the injection and the maximum energy should not be opposite. We ...

  14. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Katagiri, H; Ballet, J; Giordano, F; Grenier, I A; Porter, T A; Roth, M; Tibolla, O; Uchiyama, Y; Yamazaki, R

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope(LAT) onboard the \\textit{Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope} in the region of the supernova remnant(SNR) Cygnus Loop(G74.0$-$8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2--100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2--3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is $\\sim$ $1 \\times 10^{33}$erg s$^{-1}$ between 1--100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0$^\\circ$.7 $\\pm$ 0$^\\circ$.1 and 1$^\\circ$.6 $\\pm$ 0$^\\circ$.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, \\halpha filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasona...

  15. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0-8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is ? 1 x 1033 erg s-1 between 1-100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0o.7 ± 0o.1 and 1o.6 ± 0o.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, H? filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  16. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE CYGNUS LOOP SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0–8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is ?1 × 1033 erg s–1 between 1 and 100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0.07 ± 0.01 and 1.06 ± 0.01. Given the association among X-ray rims, H? filaments, and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  17. Optical Discovery of an Apparent Galactic Supernova Remnant G159.6+7.3

    CERN Document Server

    Fesen, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Deep Halpha images of portions of a faint 3 x 4 degree Halpha shell centered at l = 159.6 deg, b = 7.3 deg seen on the Virginia Tech Spectral Line Survey images revealed the presence of several thin emission filaments along its eastern limb. Low-dispersion optical spectra of two of these filaments covering the wavelength range of 4500 - 7500 Angstroms show narrow Halpha line emissions with velocities around -170 +/- 30 km/s. Both the morphology and spectra of these filaments are consistent with a Balmer dominated shock interpretation and we propose these optical filaments indicate that the large Halpha emission shell is a previously unrecognized supernova remnant. ROSAT All Sky Survey images indicate the possible presence of extremely faint, diffuse emission from the shell's central region. The shell's location more than seven degrees off the Galactic plane in a region of relatively low interstellar density may account for the lack of any reported associated nonthermal radio emissions. The rare discovery of a...

  18. High velocity HI is not associated with TeV supernova remnant W51C

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, W W

    2013-01-01

    The recently-detected TeV gamma-ray source HESS J1923+141 coincides with Supernova Remnant (SNR) W51C and the star forming region W51B of the W51 complex. We construct HI absorption spectra to SNR W51C, HII regions G49.2-0.35 and G49.1-0.38 in W51B, and a nearby compact extragalactic source. Our study detects high-velocity (HV) HI clouds (above 83 km/s) which coincide with W51B, but finds that the clouds are behind W51B. Both W51C and G49.2-0.35 have have similar highest-velocity absorption features at ~70 km/s. The HII region G49.1-0.38 is behind the SNR because its HI absorption spectrum has a feature at 83 km/s. These new results argue against previous claims that the SNR has shocked the HV HI clouds. Therefore the TeV emission from the complex should not be associated with the HV HI clouds. W51C has a distance of about 4.3 kpc, smaller than the tangent point distance of 5.5 kpc in that direction, but still in the Sagittarius spiral arm.

  19. Supernova Remnant Kesteven 27: Interaction with A Neighbor HI Cloud Viewed by Fermi

    CERN Document Server

    Xing, Yi; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Yang

    2014-01-01

    We report on the likely detection of {\\gamma}-ray emission from the young supernova remnant (SNR) Kesteven 27 (Kes 27). We analyze 5.7 yr Fermi Large Area Telescope data of the SNR region and find a point source at a position consistent with the radio brightness peak of Kes 27, which is located in the eastern region of the SNR and caused by the interaction with a nearby HI cloud. The source's emission has a power-law spectrum with a photon index of 2.5$\\pm$0.1 and a >0.2 GeV luminosity of 5.8$\\times$10$^{34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ at a distance of 4.3 kpc. Comparing the properties of the source with that of other SNRs that are known to be interacting with nearby high-density clouds, we discuss the origin of the source's emission. The spectral energy distribution of the source can be described by a hadronic model that considers the interaction of protons, escaping from the shock front, with a high-density cloud.

  20. Neutral pion emission from accelerated protons in the supernova remnant W44

    CERN Document Server

    Giuliani, A; Tavani, M; Fukui, Y; Yoshiike, S; Torii, K; Dubner, G; Castelletti, G; Barbiellini, G; Bulgarelli, A; Caraveo, P; Costa, E; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A; Contessi, T; Del Monte, E; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Gianotti, F; Lazzarotto, F; Lucarelli, F; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mereghetti, S; Pacciani, L; Pellizzoni, A; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Pittori, C; Pucella, G; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Vercellone, S; Verrecchia, F; Vittorini, V; Colafrancesco, S; Giommi, P; Bignami, G

    2011-01-01

    We present the AGILE gamma-ray observations in the energy range 50 MeV - 10 GeV of the supernova remnant (SNR) W44, one of the most interesting systems for studying cosmic-ray production. W44 is an intermediate-age SNR (20, 000 years) and its ejecta expand in a dense medium as shown by a prominent radio shell, nearby molecular clouds, and bright [SII] emitting regions. We extend our gamma-ray analysis to energies substantially lower than previous measurements which could not conclusively establish the nature of the radiation. We find that gamma-ray emission matches remarkably well both the position and shape of the inner SNR shocked plasma. Furthermore, the gamma-ray spectrum shows a prominent peak near 1 GeV with a clear decrement at energies below a few hundreds of MeV as expected from neutral pion decay. Here we demonstrate that: (1) hadron-dominated models are consistent with all W44 multiwavelength constraints derived from radio, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations; (2) ad hoc lepton-dominated mod...

  1. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, H.; /Ibaraki U., Mito; Tibaldo, L.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII; Ballet, J.; /Paris U., VI-VII; Giordano, F.; /Bari U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Grenier, I.A.; /Paris U., VI-VII; Porter, T.A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Roth, M.; /Washington U., Seattle; Tibolla, O.; /Wurzburg U.; Uchiyama, Y.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Yamazaki, R.; /Sagamihara, Aoyama Gakuin U.

    2011-11-08

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0-8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is {approx} 1 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} between 1-100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0{sup o}.7 {+-} 0{sup o}.1 and 1{sup o}.6 {+-} 0{sup o}.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, H{alpha} filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  2. The Interaction of Supernova Remnant G357.7+0.3 with the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, J P; 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17340.x

    2010-01-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) G357.7+0.3 appears to have caused considerable shredding of the local interstellar medium (ISM), leading to the formation of multiple cloud fragments having bright rims and cometary structures. We investigate five of these regions using mid-infrared (MIR) imaging and photometry deriving from the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), as well as photometry deriving from the 2MASS near-infrared all sky survey, the Mid-Course Science Experiment (MSX), and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPSGAL) survey of the Galactic plane. It is noted that two of the rims show evidence for emission by shock excited H2 transitions, whilst the centres of the clouds also show evidence for dark extinction cores, observed in silhouette against the bright emission rims. Levels of extinction for these cores are determined to be of order AV ~ 17-26 mag, whilst densities n(HI) are of order ~ 10^4 cm^(-3), and masses in the region of ~40-100 Msun. It is shown that the wavelength dependence of extinction...

  3. Kinematics of the Galactic Supernova Remnant G206.9+2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrocio-Cruz, P.; Rosado, M.; Le Coarer, E.; Bernal, A.; Gutiérrez, L.

    2014-10-01

    We studied the kinematics of the galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G206.9+2.3 (PKS 0646+06) in the [SII] &?; 6717 and 6731 Å lines, as one of the initial steps of a long-term project to determine kinematical distances to galactic SNRs with optical counterparts. We obtained the kinematic distance to this nebula by first showing that the filaments detected were in fact the optical counterpart of the radio SNR. The distance estimated here is slightly greater than that of the Monoceros Loop. We estimate that G206.9+2.3 is located about 2.2 kpc from the Sun, in a zone where several background and foreground nebulae at different velocities are seen in projection. We measured a shock velocity of 86 km s^{-1} and a linear diameter of 18 pc. Finally, we calculated the energy deposited in the interstellar medium by the SN explosion as 1.7×10^{49} ergs and concluded that the SNR is in the radiative phase of evolution with an age of 6.4×10^{4} years.

  4. FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF DUST IN TYPE IIb SUPERNOVAE WITH APPLICATION TO THE CASSIOPEIA A SUPERNOVA REMNANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount and size of dust formed in the ejecta of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and injected into the interstellar medium (ISM) depend on the type of CCSNe through the varying thicknesses of their outer envelopes. Recently Cas A was identified as a Type IIb SN (SN IIb) that is characterized by a small-mass hydrogen envelope. In order to clarify how the amount of dust formed in the ejecta and supplied into the ISM depends on the type of CCSNe, we investigate the formation of dust grains in the ejecta of an SN IIb and their evolution in the shocked gas in the SN remnant (SNR) by considering two sets of density structures (uniform and power-law profiles) for the circumstellar medium (CSM). Based on these calculations, we also simulate the time evolution of thermal emission from the shock-heated dust in the SNR and compare the results with the observations of Cas A SNR. We find that the total mass of dust formed in the ejecta of an SN IIb is as large as 0.167 Msun but the average radius of dust is smaller than 0.01 ?m and is significantly different from those in SNe II-P with massive hydrogen envelopes; in the explosion with the small-mass hydrogen envelope, the expanding He core undergoes little deceleration, so that the gas density in the He core is too low for large-sized grains to form. In addition, the low-mass hydrogen envelope of the SN IIb leads to the early arrival of the reverse shock at the dust-forming region. If the CSM is more or less spheriregion. If the CSM is more or less spherical, then the newly formed small grains would be completely destroyed in the relatively dense shocked gas for the CSM hydrogen density of nH>0.1 cm-3 without being injected into the ISM. However, the actual CSM is likely to be non-spherical, so a portion of the dust grains could be ejected into the ISM without being shocked. We demonstrate that the temporal evolution of the spectral energy distribution (SED) by thermal emission from dust is sensitive to the ambient gas density and structure that affects the passage of the reverse shock into the ejecta. Thus, the SED evolution reflects the evolution of dust through erosion by sputtering and stochastic heating. For Cas A, we consider the CSM produced by the steady mass loss of M-dot?8x10-5 Msun yr-1 during the supergiant phase. Then we find that the observed infrared SED of Cas A is reasonably reproduced by thermal emission from the newly formed dust of 0.08 Msun, which consists of the 0.008 Msun shock-heated warm dust and 0.072 Msun unshocked cold dust.

  5. Evolution Of Post-Impact Remnant Helium Stars In Type Ia Supernova Remnants Within The Single-Degenerate Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Kuo-Chuan; Taam, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    The progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are still under debate. Based on recent hydrodynamics simulations, non-degenerate companions in the single-degenerate scenario (SDS) should survive the supernova impact. One way to distinguish between the SDS and the double-degenerate scenario is to search for the post-impact remnant stars (PIRSs) in SN Ia remnants. Using a technique that combines multi-dimensional hydrodynamics simulations with one-dimensional stellar evolution simulations, we have examined the post-impact evolution of helium-rich binary companions in the SDS. It is found that these helium-rich PIRSs (He PIRSs) dramatically expand and evolve to a luminous phase ($L\\sim 10^4 L_\\odot$) about 10 years after a supernova explosion. Subsequently, they contract and evolve to become hot blue-subdwarf-like (sdO-like) stars by releasing gravitational energy, persisting as sdO-like stars for several million years before evolving to the helium red-giant phase. We therefore predict that an sdO-like st...

  6. Chemical abundances in the interstellar medium of galaxies from spectrophotometry of supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the recent past supernova remnants (SNR) have been identified in external galaxies as far as 5 Mpc. The authors present the first spectrophotometric data for four SNR. The emission line intensity ratio trends for SNR in different galaxies are shown, and, by comparison with theoretical models, they are interpreted in terms of variations in the chemical composition. (Auth.)

  7. High-resolution radial velocity mapping of optical filaments in evolved supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on observations of the kinematical structure of optical filaments in evolved supernova remnants, using an imaging Fabry--Perot interferometer. The radial velocity characteristics as seen in [OIII] ?5007 emission in one area in the Cygnus Loop are described, where four kinematically different components contributing to the emission can be recognized

  8. Acceleration of cosmic rays and gamma-ray emission from supernova remnant/molecular cloud associations

    CERN Document Server

    Gabici, S; Morlino, G; Nava, L

    2015-01-01

    The gamma-ray observations of molecular clouds associated with supernova remnants are considered one of the most promising ways to search for a solution of the problem of cosmic ray origin. Here we briefly review the status of the field, with particular emphasis on the theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the problem.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: LHA 120-N49 supernova remnant maps (Melnik+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, I. A. C.; Copetti, M. V. F.

    2013-04-01

    The fits files are bi-dimensional maps of electron density, radial velocity, and velocity dispersion of the Supernova remnant N49. The maps were constructed from long-slit spectrophotometric data collected from twelve locations equally spaced in declination. (2 data files).

  10. Cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants: non-linear theory revised

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapidly growing amount of evidences, mostly coming from the recent gamma-ray observations of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs), is seriously challenging our understanding of how particles are accelerated at fast shocks. The cosmic-ray (CR) spectra required to account for the observed phenomenology are in fact as steep as E?2.2–E?2.4, i.e., steeper than the test-particle prediction of first-order Fermi acceleration, and significantly steeper than what expected in a more refined non-linear theory of diffusive shock acceleration. By accounting for the dynamical back-reaction of the non-thermal particles, such a theory in fact predicts that the more efficient the particle acceleration, the flatter the CR spectrum. In this work we put forward a self-consistent scenario in which the account for the magnetic field amplification induced by CR streaming produces the conditions for reversing such a trend, allowing — at the same time — for rather steep spectra and CR acceleration efficiencies (about 20%) consistent with the hypothesis that SNRs are the sources of Galactic CRs. In particular, we quantitatively work out the details of instantaneous and cumulative CR spectra during the evolution of a typical SNR, also stressing the implications of the observed levels of magnetization on both the expected maximum energy and the predicted CR acceleration efficiency. The latter naturally turns out to saturate around 10-30%, almost independently of the fraction of particles injected into the acceleration process as long as this fraction is larger than about 10?4

  11. Infrared and X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Kes 75 Supernova Remnant Shell: Characterizing the Dust and Gas Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Temim, Tea; Arendt, Richard G; Dwek, Eli

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Chandra observations and Spitzer Space Telescope infrared (IR) spectroscopy of the shell in the composite supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3). The remnant is composed of a central pulsar wind nebula and a bright partial shell in the south that is visible at radio, IR, and X-ray wavelengths. The X-ray emission can be modeled by either a single thermal component with a temperature of ~ 1.5 keV, or with two thermal components with temperatures of 1.5 and 0.2 keV. Previous studies suggest that the hot component may originate from reverse-shocked SN ejecta. However, our new analysis shows no definitive evidence for enhanced abundances of Si, S, Ar, Mg, and Fe, as expected from supernova (SN) ejecta, or for the IR spectral signatures characteristic of confirmed SN condensed dust, thus favoring a circumstellar or interstellar origin for the X-ray and IR emission. The X-ray and IR emission in the shell are spatially correlated, suggesting that the dust particles are collisionally heated by the ...

  12. A Newly Discovered Supernova Remnant and MSH 11-62 and 3C58

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    2000-01-01

    CTA 1 is a center-filled supernova remnant (SNR) whose morphology and spectrum indicate the presence of a central pulsar, a synchrotron nebula, and a thermal component associated with the expansion of the blast wave into the interstellar medium. The centrally bright emission surrounds the position of a faint point source of X-rays observed with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). Here we report on Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA) observations that confirm the nonthermal nature of the diffuse emission from the central regions of the remnant. We also present evidence for weak thermal emission that appears to increase in strength toward the outer boundary of the SNR. Thus, CTA 1 appears to be an X-ray composite remnant. Both the aftermath of the explosive supernova event and the energetic compact core are observable.

  13. sup 4 sup 4 Ti decay gamma-ray emission from young galactic supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Iyudin, A F

    1999-01-01

    The discovery by COMPTEL of the sup 4 sup 4 Ti line emission at 1.16 MeV from the youngest known Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) Cas A has opened a new window for the investigation of SNR properties. This discovery also shows a way that could help to uncover missing young remnants of Galactic SNe that might have occurred some hundred years ago. Contrary to the situation at other wavelengths, in the gamma-ray band the Galaxy is almost transparent, so that otherwise obscured supernova remnants may be detectable up to A sub v approx 10 sup 3 in gamma-ray line emission. This is one of the direct ways to complement historical observations of Galactic SNe. Here we present preliminary results of the 6 year sup 4 sup 4 Ti line emission survey performed by COMPTEL on-board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO).

  14. X-ray emission from young supernova remnants: nonionization equilibrium abundances and emissivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray line emission from hot, low-density plasma in young supernova remnants is strongly enhanced by departures from ionization equilibrium. We have calculated the X-ray emission from a Sedov blast wave, a nonequilibrium evolutionary treatment of the ionization structure, and have fitted the resulting spectrum to HEAO 2 SSS data for Tycho's remnant. These models yield dramatically different elemental abundances for heavy elements (Ne, Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe), compared with two-temperature component equilibrium models of Becker et al. Nonequilibrium broad-band X-ray emissivities result in lower mass determinations for the supernova ejecta. Areas of further improvement of remnant X-ray modeling are suggested

  15. Observation of soft X-ray emission from the supernova remnant HB9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, I. R.; Clark, D. H.; Garmire, G. P.

    1979-01-01

    The number of known X-ray emitting supernova remnants in our galaxy has significantly grown as a result of the soft X-ray survey by the HEAO-1 spacecraft. The HEAO-1 A-2 experiment has observed soft X-ray emission from the old supernova remnant HB9 which lies close to the previously identified X-ray source, Capella. Spectral data and the low optical obscuration in the direction of the remnant suggest that HB9 is a good candidate for detecting Fe XIV coronal forbidden-line emission. Mapping of the coronal line emission in association with the imaging X-ray data expected from HEAO-2 would allow the temperature profile of the emitting shell to be determined in a manner similar to that used by Tuohy, Nousek, and Garmire (1979) for the Cygnus Loop, which is in a similar evolutionary phase to HB9.

  16. Identification campaign of supernova remnant candidates in the Milky Way. II. X-ray studies of G38.7-1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, R H H; Hui, C Y; Seo, K A; Trepl, L; Kong, A K H

    2014-01-01

    We report on XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the Galactic supernova remnant candidate G38.7-1.4, together with complementary radio, infrared, and gamma-ray data. An approximately elliptical X-ray structure is found to be well correlated with radio shell as seen by the Very Large Array. The X-ray spectrum of G38.7-1.4 can be well-described by an absorbed collisional ionization equilibrium plasma model, which suggests the plasma is shock heated. Based on the morphology and the spectral behaviour, we suggest that G38.7-1.4 is indeed a supernova remnant belongs to a mix-morphology category.

  17. Raising the Dead: Clues to Type Ia Supernova Physics from the Remnant 0509-67.5

    CERN Document Server

    Warren, J S

    2004-01-01

    We present Chandra X-ray observations of the young supernova remnant (SNR) 0509-67.5 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), believed to be the product of a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia). The remnant is very round in shape, with a distinct clumpy shell-like structure. Our Chandra data reveal the remnant to be rich in silicon, sulfur, and iron. The yields of our fits to the global spectrum confirm that 0509-67.5 is the remnant of an SN Ia and show a clear preference for delayed detonation explosion models for SNe Ia. We study the spectrum of the single brightest isolated knot in the remnant and find that it is enhanced in iron by a factor of roughly two relative to the global remnant abundances. This feature, along with similar knots seen in Tycho's SNR, argues for the presence of modest small-scale composition inhomogeneities in SNe Ia. The presence of both Si and Fe, with abundance ratios that vary from knot to knot, indicates that these came from the transition region between the Si- and Fe-rich zones in the explo...

  18. How Do The Properties of Light Help Us To Study Supernovae and Their Remnants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This resource describes special properties of light that can help us to understand objects that are millions and billions of light years away. Students explore some of these properties and how they can use them to understand our universe. They will understand that superheated material created by the supernova explosion gives off X-rays and gamma-rays. They will find the answers to questions such as what electromagnetic (EM) radiation is and what units are used to characterize it. They also learn that it pays to make multiple observations of astronomical objects, since they emit light of different energies, that supernovae remnants can give off visible light, ultraviolet light, radio waves and X-rays, and that each observation of a supernovae remnant can give us different information about it. The site also includes a student exercise and links to more information.

  19. Discrete sources of gamma radiation, supernova remnants and pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt to identify detected by present discrete gamma radiation sources (Esub(?) approximately equal to 108 eV) with known residuals of supernova flares is undertaken. An analysis of gamma source catalogue shows that most part (70%) of detected discrete gamma radiation sources may be identified with known residuals of sUpernova flares. Supernova residuals being identified have a low spectral index ? < or approximately 0.3. Such objects, probably, contain a pulsar with a relatively large magnetic field. It is possible that supernovae 185g and 393g are related to gamma sources. There are not less than 150 similar gamma sources in Galaxy which contribute significantly into diffuse gamma radiation of a galactic disc

  20. The complex relations between Supernova Remnants and Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Dubner, G.

    2002-01-01

    Se espera que la mayor a de las supernovas (SN) produzca una estrella de neutrones (EN) observable como pulsar en ondas de radio. Las observaciones, sin embargo, muestran escasas coincidencias entre restos de supernovas (RSN) y EN. Se presenta una puesta al d a de resultados de observaciones multiespectrales llevadas a cabo para investigar este aspecto. El trabajo se focaliza en la comprensi on actual de las nebulosas de viento de pulsares, as como en las diferentes formas ...

  1. Kinematics of the galactic supernova remnant G206.9+2.3

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P., Ambrocio-Cruz; M., Rosado; E., Le Coarer; A., Bernal; L., Gutiérrez.

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio cinemático del remanente de supernova galáctico G206.9+2.3 (PKS 0646+06) en las líneas [SII]?6717 y 6731 Å. Este es uno de los primeros pasos de un proyecto a largo plazo de determinación de distancias cinemáticas a RSN galácticos con contraparte óptica. Se obtuvo la distancia [...] cinemática a esta nebulosa, mostrando primero que los filamentos detectados son realmente la contraparte óptica del RSN en radio. La distancia estimada en este trabajo es ligeramente mayor que la distancia de Monoceros. Se estimó que G206.9+2.3 está localizada a 2.2 kpc del Sol, en una región del cielo donde se observan varias nebulosas superpuestas a diferentes velocidades. Se midió una velocidad de choque de 86 kms-1 y un diámetro lineal de 18 pe. Finalmente se calculó que la energía depositada al medio interestelar por la explosión de supernova es de 1.7 x 10(49) ergs por lo que se concluyó que G206.9+2.3 está en la fase radiativa de su evolución, con una edad de 6.4 x 10(4) años. Abstract in english We studied the kinematics of the galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G206.9+2.3 (PKS 0646+06) in the [SII]?6717 and 6731 Å lines, as one of the initial steps of a long-term project to determine kinematical distances to galactic SNRs with optical counterparts. We obtained the kinematic distance to this [...] nebula by first showing that the filaments detected were in fact the optical counterpart of the radio SNR. The distance estimated here is slightly greater than that of the Monoceros Loop. We estimate that G206.9+2.3 is located about 2.2 kpc from the Sun, in a zone where several background and foreground nebulae at different velocities are seen in projection. We measured a shock velocity of 86 kms-1 and a linear diameter of 18 pc. Finally, we calculated the energy deposited in the interstellar medium by the SN explosion as 1.7 x 10(49) ergs and concluded that the SNR is in the radiative phase of evolution with an age of 6.4 x 10(4) years.

  2. Scaling laws for evaporative supernovae remnants in the Mc KEE and Ostriker theory of the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of the Interstellar Medium proposed by Mc Kee and Ostriker is dominated by the unusual properties of Evaporative Supernovae Remnants (ESNR). We present here the basic features of this model, with emphasis upon: (i) the evolution of supernovae remnants in an inhomogeneous evaporative medium, (ii) the collective effects of such ESNRs upon the structure of the interstellar medium. Following Mc Kee and Ostriker, we will derive the time dependent evolution of evaporative supernovae remnants, then determine the conditions for percolation and finally identify the mean physical properties of the medium with the mean properties inside ESNRs at percolation

  3. Large-area [Fe II] Line Mapping of the Supernova Remnant IC443 with the IRSF/SIRIUS

    CERN Document Server

    Kokusho, Takuma; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of near-infrared (near-IR) [Fe II] line mapping of the supernova remnant IC443 with the IRSF/SIRIUS, using the two narrow-band filters tuned for the [Fe II] 1.257 micron and [Fe II] 1.644 micron lines. Covering a large area of 30' x 35', our observations reveal that [Fe II] filamentary structures exist all over the remnant, not only in an ionic shock shell, but also in a molecular shock shell and a central region inside the shells. With the two [Fe II] lines, we performed corrections for dust extinction to derive the intrinsic line intensities. We also obtained the intensities of thermal emission from the warm dust associated with IC443, using the far- and mid-IR images taken with AKARI and Spitzer, respectively. As a result, we find that the [Fe II] line emission relative to the dust emission notably enhances in the inner central region. We discuss causes of the enhanced [Fe II] line emission, estimating the Fe+ and dust masses.

  4. 3D Simulations of the Thermal X-ray Emission from Young Supernova Remnants Including Efficient Particle Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar

    2012-01-01

    Supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. The detection of non-thermal emission from SNRs demonstrates the presence of energetic particles, but direct signatures of protons and other ions remain elusive. If these particles receive a sizeable fraction of the explosion energy, the morphological and spectral evolution of the SNR must be modified. To assess this, we run 3D hydrodynamic simulations of a remnant coupled with a non-linear acceleration model. We obtain the time-dependent evolution of the shocked structure, impacted by the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities at the contact discontinuity and by the back-reaction of particles at the forward shock. We then compute the progressive temperature equilibration and non-equilibrium ionization state of the plasma, and its thermal emission in each cell. This allows us to produce the first realistic synthetic maps of the projected X-ray emission from the SNR. Plasma conditions (temperature, ionization age) ...

  5. Radio-continuum study of Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant J0509-6731

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetto, L. M.; Filipovi?, M. D.; Uroševi?, D.; Kothes, R.; Crawford, E. J.

    2014-06-01

    We present a detailed study of Australia Telescope Compact Array observations (? = 20, 13, 6 and 3 cm) of supernova remnant (SNR) J0509-6731 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The remnant has a ring morphology with brightened regions towards the south-western limb. We also find a second brightened inner ring which is only seen in the radio continuum. The SNR is almost circular, with a diameter ranging from 7 to 8 pc, and a steep radio spectral index between 36 and 3 cm of ? = -0.73 ± 0.02, which is characteristic of younger SNRs. We also report detection of radially orientated polarization across the remnant at 6 cm, with a mean fractional polarization level of P ? (26 ± 13) per cent. We find the magnetic field (˜168 ?G) and ?-D (? = 1.1 × 10-19 W m-2 Hz-1 sr-1, D = 7.35 pc) to be consistent with other young remnants.

  6. ROLE OF EJECTA CLUMPING AND BACK-REACTION OF ACCELERATED COSMIC RAYS IN THE EVOLUTION OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, S.; Bocchino, F.; Miceli, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo ' G. S. Vaiana' , Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo (Italy); Petruk, O. [Institute for Applied Problems in Mechanics and Mathematics, Naukova Street, 3-b Lviv 79060 (Ukraine); Pumo, M. L., E-mail: orlando@astropa.inaf.it [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova (Italy)

    2012-04-20

    We investigate the role played by initial clumping of ejecta and by efficient acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs) in determining the density structure of the post-shock region of a Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) through detailed three-dimensional MHD modeling. Our model describes the expansion of an SNR through a magnetized interstellar medium, including the initial clumping of ejecta and the effects on shock dynamics due to back-reaction of accelerated CRs. The model predictions are compared to the observations of SN 1006. We found that the back-reaction of accelerated CRs alone cannot reproduce the observed separation between the forward shock and the contact discontinuity unless the energy losses through CR acceleration and escape are very large and independent of the obliquity angle. On the contrary, the clumping of ejecta can naturally reproduce the observed small separation and the occurrence of protrusions observed in SN 1006, even without the need of accelerated CRs. We conclude that forward shock-contact discontinuity separation is a probe of the ejecta structure at the time of explosion rather than a probe of the efficiency of CR acceleration in young SNRs.

  7. Extended supernova shock breakout signals from inflated stellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Takashi J.; Sanyal, Debashis; Langer, Norbert

    2015-03-01

    Stars close to the Eddington luminosity can have large low-density inflated envelopes. We show that the rise times of shock breakout signals from supernovae can be extended significantly if supernova progenitors have an inflated stellar envelope. If the shock breakout occurs in inflated envelopes, the shock breakout signals diffuse in them, and their rise time can be significantly extended. Then, the rise times of the shock breakout signals are dominated by the diffusion time in the inflated envelope rather than the light-crossing time of the progenitors. We show that our inflated Wolf-Rayet star models whose radii are on the order of the solar radius can have shock breakout signals that are longer than ~100 s. The existence of inflated envelopes in Wolf-Rayet supernova progenitors may be related to the mysterious long shock breakout signal observed in Type Ib SN 2008D. Extended shock breakout signals may provide evidence for the existence of inflated stellar envelopes and can be used to constrain the physical properties of these enigmatic structures.

  8. Extended supernova shock breakout signals from inflated stellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Takashi J; Langer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Stars close to the Eddington luminosity can have large low-density inflated envelopes. We show that the rise times of shock breakout signals from supernovae can be extended significantly if supernova progenitors have an inflated stellar envelope. If the shock breakout occurs in such inflated envelopes, the shock breakout signals diffuse in them, and their rise time can be significantly extended. Then, the rise times of the shock breakout signals are dominated by the diffusion time in the inflated envelope rather than the light-crossing time of the progenitors. We show that our inflated Wolf-Rayet star models whose radii are of the order of the solar radius can have shock breakout signals which are longer than ~100 sec. The existence of inflated envelopes in Wolf-Rayet supernova progenitors may be related to the mysterious long shock breakout signal observed in Type Ib SN 2008D. Extended shock breakout signals may provide evidence for the existence of inflated stellar envelopes and can be used to constrain the...

  9. On the transition of the adiabatic supernova remnant to the radiative stage in a nonuniform interstellar medium

    CERN Document Server

    Petruk, O

    2006-01-01

    Methods for estimation of different reference times which appear in the description of transition of a strong adiabatic shock into the radiative era are reviewed. The need for consideration of an additional transition subphase in between the end of the adiabatic era and the beginning of the radiative ''pressure-driven snowplow'' stage for a shock running in the uniform or nonuniform medium is emphasized. This could be of importance in particular for studying the interaction of supernova remnants (SNRs) with molecular clouds and therefore for understanding the processes of the cosmic ray production in such systems. The duration of this subphase - about 70% of SNR age at its beginning - is almost independent of the density gradient for media with increasing density and is longer for higher supernova explosion energy and for smaller density in the place of explosion. It is shown as well that if the density of the ambient medium decreases then the cooling processes could differ from the commonly accepted scenario...

  10. Four new X-ray-selected supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Maggi, P; Kavanagh, P J; Points, S D; Dickel, J; Bozzetto, L M; Sasaki, M; Chu, Y -H; Gruendl, R A; Filipovic, M D; Pietsch, W

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We present a detailed multi-wavelength study of four new supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The objects were identified as SNR candidates in X-ray observations performed during the survey of the LMC with XMM-Newton. Methods: Data obained with XMM-Newton are used to investigate the morphological and spectral features of the remnants in X-rays. We measure the plasma conditions, look for supernova (SN) ejecta emission, and constrain some of the SNR properties (e.g. age and ambient density). We supplement the X-ray data with optical, infrared, and radio-continuum archival observations, which allow us to understand the conditions resulting in the current appearance of the remnants. Based on the spatially-resolved star formation history (SFH) of the LMC together with the X-ray spectra, we attempt to type the supernovae that created the remnants. Results: We confirm all four objects as SNRs, to which we assign the names MCSNR J0508-6830, MCSNR J0511-6759, MCSNR J0514-6840, and MCSNR...

  11. Investigation of the Progenitors of the Type Ia Supernovae Associated With the LMC Supernova Remnants 0505-67.9 and 0509-68.7

    CERN Document Server

    Pagnotta, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Although Type Ia supernovae have been heavily scrutinized due to their use in making cosmological distance estimates, we are still unable to definitively identify the progenitors for the entire population. While answers have been presented for certain specific systems, a complete solution remains elusive. We present observations of two supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud, SNR 0505-67.9 and SNR 0509-68.7, for which we have identified the center of the remnant and the 99.73% containment central region in which any companion star left over after the supernova must be located. Both remnants have a number of potential ex-companion stars near their centers; all possible single and double degenerate progenitor models remain viable for these two supernovae. Future observations may be able to identify the true ex-companions for both remnants.

  12. Investigation of the Progenitors of the Type Ia Supernovae Associated with the LMC Supernova Remnants 0505-67.9 and 0509-68.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnotta, Ashley; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2015-01-01

    Although Type Ia supernovae have been heavily scrutinized due to their use in making cosmological distance estimates, we are still unable to definitively identify the progenitors for the entire population. While answers have been presented for certain specific systems, a complete solution remains elusive. We present observations of two supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud, SNR 0505-67.9 and SNR 0509-68.7, for which we have identified the center of the remnant and the 99.73% containment central region in which any companion star left over after the supernova must be located. Both remnants have a number of potential ex-companion stars near their centers; all possible single and double degenerate progenitor models remain viable for these two supernovae. Future observations may be able to identify the true ex-companions for both remnants.

  13. The complex relations between Supernova Remnants and Neutron Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se espera que la mayor a de las supernovas (SN produzca una estrella de neutrones (EN observable como pulsar en ondas de radio. Las observaciones, sin embargo, muestran escasas coincidencias entre restos de supernovas (RSN y EN. Se presenta una puesta al d a de resultados de observaciones multiespectrales llevadas a cabo para investigar este aspecto. El trabajo se focaliza en la comprensi on actual de las nebulosas de viento de pulsares, as como en las diferentes formas en que puede manifestarse una estrella de neutrones, tales como pulsares an omalos en rayos X, estrellas de neutrones radio-quietas y repetidores en rayos blandos.

  14. The Youngest Known X-ray Binary: Circinus X-1 and its Natal Supernova Remnant

    CERN Document Server

    Heinz, S; Fender, R P; Jonker, P G; Brandt, W N; Calvelo-Santos, D E; Tzioumis, A K; Nowak, M A; Schulz, N S; Wijnands, R; van der Klis, M

    2013-01-01

    Because supernova remnants are short lived, studies of neutron star X-ray binaries within supernova remnants probe the earliest stages in the life of accreting neutron stars. However, such objects are exceedingly rare: none were known to exist in our Galaxy. We report the discovery of the natal supernova remnant of the accreting neutron star Circinus X-1, which places an upper limit of t < 4, 600 years on its age, making it the youngest known X-ray binary and a unique tool to study accretion, neutron star evolution, and core collapse supernovae. This discovery is based on a deep 2009 Chandra X-ray observation and new radio observations of Circinus X-1. Circinus X-1 produces type I X-ray bursts on the surface of the neutron star, indicating that the magnetic field of the neutron star is small. Thus, the young age implies either that neutron stars can be born with low magnetic fields or that they can rapidly become de-magnetized by accretion. Circinus X-1 is a microquasar, creating relativistic jets which we...

  15. Swift/BAT detection of hard X-rays from Tycho's Supernova Remnant: Evidence for Titanium-44

    CERN Document Server

    Troja, E; La Parola, V; Hartmann, D; Baumgartner, W; Markwardt, C; Barthelmy, S; Cusumano, G; Gehrels, N

    2014-01-01

    We report Swift/BAT survey observations of the Tycho's supernova remnant, performed over a period of 104 months since the mission's launch. The remnant is detected with high significance (>10 sigma) below 50 keV. We detect significant hard X-ray emission in the 60-85 keV band, above the continuum level predicted by a simple synchrotron model. The location of the observed excess is consistent with line emission from radioactive Titanium-44, so far reported only for Type II supernova explosions. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of the galactic supernova rate, and nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernova.

  16. FERMI LAT DISCOVERY OF EXTENDED GAMMA-RAY EMISSION IN THE DIRECTION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT W51C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of bright gamma-ray emission coincident with supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is reported using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. W51C is a middle-aged remnant (?104 yr) with intense radio synchrotron emission in its shell and known to be interacting with a molecular cloud. The gamma-ray emission is spatially extended, broadly consistent with the radio and X-ray extent of SNR W51C. The energy spectrum in the 0.2-50 GeV band exhibits steepening toward high energies. The luminosity is greater than 1 x 1036 erg s-1 given the distance constraint of D > 5.5 kpc, which makes this object one of the most luminous gamma-ray sources in our Galaxy. The observed gamma-rays can be explained reasonably by a combination of efficient acceleration of nuclear cosmic rays at supernova shocks and shock-cloud interactions. The decay of neutral ? mesons produced in hadronic collisions provides a plausible explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of the accelerated protons amounts to n-barHWp?5 x 1051 (D/6 kpc)2 erg cm-3. Electron density constraints from the radio and X-ray bands render it difficult to explain the LAT signal as due to inverse Compton scattering. The Fermi LAT source coincident with SNR W51C sheds new light on the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.tic cosmic rays.

  17. Fermi-LAT Discovery of Extended Gamma-Ray Emission in the Direction of Supernova Remnant W51C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Federal City Coll.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Baring, M.G.; /Rice U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bouvier, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /Milan Polytechnic /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard /CSST, Baltimore /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /George Mason U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Ecole Polytechnique; /more authors..

    2012-03-30

    The discovery of bright gamma-ray emission coincident with supernova remnant (SNR) W51C is reported using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. W51C is a middle-aged remnant ({approx}10{sup 4} yr) with intense radio synchrotron emission in its shell and known to be interacting with a molecular cloud. The gamma-ray emission is spatially extended, broadly consistent with the radio and X-ray extent of SNR W51C. The energy spectrum in the 0.2-50 GeV band exhibits steepening toward high energies. The luminosity is greater than 1 x 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} given the distance constraint of D > 5.5 kpc, which makes this object one of the most luminous gamma-ray sources in our Galaxy. The observed gamma-rays can be explained reasonably by a combination of efficient acceleration of nuclear cosmic rays at supernova shocks and shock-cloud interactions. The decay of neutral p mesons produced in hadronic collisions provides a plausible explanation for the gamma-ray emission. The product of the average gas density and the total energy content of the accelerated protons amounts to {bar n}{sub H} W{sub p} {approx_equal} 5 x 10{sup 51} (D/6 kpc){sup 2} erg cm{sup -3}. Electron density constraints from the radio and X-ray bands render it difficult to explain the LAT signal as due to inverse Compton scattering. The Fermi LAT source coincident with SNR W51C sheds new light on the origin of Galactic cosmic rays.

  18. Imagine the Universe: Radioactive Decay in Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site explains how supernovae can be detected and studied by measuring the decay of radioactive elements in the material ejected from them. It is part of the Goddard Space Flight Center's "Imagine the Universe" website, created by GSFC's Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics. It includes text, remotely sensed imagery, and links to other topics related to high energy astrophysics.

  19. ON THE RADIO POLARIZATION SIGNATURE OF EFFICIENT AND INEFFICIENT PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA REMNANT SN 1006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio polarization observations provide essential information on the degree of order and orientation of magnetic fields, which themselves play a key role in the particle acceleration processes that take place in supernova remnants (SNRs). Here we present a radio polarization study of SN 1006, based on combined Very Large Array and Australia Telescope Compact Array observations at 20 cm that resulted in sensitive images with an angular resolution of 10 arcsec. The fractional polarization in the two bright radio and X-ray lobes of the SNR is measured to be 0.17, while in the southeastern sector, where the radio and non-thermal X-ray emission are much weaker, the polarization fraction reaches a value of 0.6 ± 0.2, close to the theoretical limit of 0.7. We interpret this result as evidence of a disordered, turbulent magnetic field in the lobes, where particle acceleration is believed to be efficient, and a highly ordered field in the southeast, where the acceleration efficiency has been shown to be very low. Utilizing the frequency coverage of our observations, an average rotation measure of ?12 rad m–2 is determined from the combined data set, which is then used to obtain the intrinsic direction of the magnetic field vectors. While the orientation of magnetic field vectors across the SNR shell appear to be radial, a large fraction of the magnetic vectors lie parallel to the Galactic plane. Along the highly polarized southeastern rim, the field is aligned utheastern rim, the field is aligned tangent to the shock, and therefore also nearly parallel to the Galactic plane. These results strongly suggest that the ambient field surrounding SN 1006 is aligned with this direction (i.e., from northeast to southwest) and that the bright lobes are due to a polar cap geometry. Our study establishes that the most efficient particle acceleration and generation of magnetic turbulence in SN 1006 is attained for shocks in which the magnetic field direction and shock normal are quasi-parallel, while inefficient acceleration and little to no generation of magnetic turbulence are obtained for the quasi-perpendicular case.

  20. A joint spectro-imaging analysis of the XMM-Newton and HESS observations of the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, F; Decourchelle, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Ortega, M; Giacani, E; Dubner, G; Cassam-Chenai, G

    2009-01-01

    The supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7-3946 (also known as G347.3-0.5) is part of the class of remnants dominated by synchrotron emission in X-rays. It is also one of the few shell-type SNRs observed at TeV energies allowing to investigate particle acceleration at SNRs shock. Our goal is to compare spatial and spectral properties of the remnant in X- and gamma-rays to understand the nature of the TeV emission. This requires to study the remnant at the same spatial scale at both energies. To complement the non-thermal spectrum of the remnant, we attempt to provide a reliable estimate for the radio flux density. In radio, we revisited ATCA data and used HI and mid-infrared observations to disentangle the thermal from the non-thermal emission. In X-rays, we produced a new mosaic of the remnant and degraded the spatial resolution of the X-ray data to the resolution of the HESS instrument to perform spatially resolved spectroscopy at the same spatial scale in X- and gamma-rays. Radial profiles were obtained to inv...

  1. Spatially resolved X-ray line spectroscopy of Tycho's supernova remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelg, Eric V.; Hwang, Una

    1996-01-01

    Narrow band X-ray images of Tycho's supernova remnant, acquired with the solid-state spectrometer onboard the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA), are presented. The remnant is mapped in several prominent emission lines and in the 1.4 keV to 1.7 keV and 4 keV to 6 keV continua. A spatial resolution of approximately 0.5 min was obtained. No significant correlation was found for Tycho between the X-ray 4 keV to 6 keV continuum and the radio morphology.

  2. Radioactive Scandium in the Youngest Galactic Supernova Remnant G1.9+0.3

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Green, David A.; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Krishnamurthy, Kalyani; Willett, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of thermal X-ray emission from the youngest Galactic supernova remnant G1.9+0.3, from a 237-ks Chandra observation. We detect strong K-shell lines of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe. In addition, we detect a 4.1 keV line with 99.971% confidence which we attribute to 44Sc, produced by electron capture from 44Ti. Combining the data with our earlier Chandra observation allows us to detect the line in two regions independently. For a remnant age of 100 yr, our meas...

  3. SEARCH FOR GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443 WITH THE MAGIC TELESCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Garc\\u00EDa L\\u00F3pez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available TeV observations of Supernova remnants (SNRs and, in particular, of SNRs which appear to be physically related to EGRET sources are a prime target for the MAGIC telescope. MAGIC's spatial resolution and sensi- tivity can probe the main mechanism responsible for producing high energy photons in the SNR neighbourhood. Based on a recent systematical analysis of the molecular environment of the vicinity of all SNR-EGRET source pairs, the IC 443 remnant was chosen for observations with MAGIC. We brie y describe the observational strategy which provided the detection of a new very-high energy gamma-ray source: MAGIC 0616+225.

  4. The Fast and the Furious: Energetic Phenomena in Isolated Neutron Stars, Pulsar Wind Nebulae and Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, J.-U.

    2013-07-01

    Online Presentations of 'The Fast and the Furious: Energetic Phenomena in Isolated Neutron Stars, Pulsar Wind Nebulae and Supernova Remnants', a workshop organized by the XMM-Newton Science Operations Centre of the European Space Agency (ESA)

  5. Non-thermal emission in astrophysical environments: From pulsars to supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomiashvili, David

    The study of electromagnetic radiation from distant astrophysical objects provides essential data in understanding physics of these sources. In particular, non-thermal radiation provides great insight into the properties of local environments, particle populations, and emission mechanisms, knowledge which otherwise would remain untapped. Throughout the projects conducted for this dissertation, we modeled certain aspects of observed non-thermal emission from three classes of sources: radio pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and supernova remnants. Orbital variation in the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B can be used to probe the details of the magnetospheric structure of pulsar B. Strongly magnetized wind from pulsar A distorts the magnetosphere of pulsar B in a way similar to the solar wind's distortion of the Earth's magnetosphere. Using the two complimentary models of pulsar B's magnetosphere, adapted from the Earth's magnetosphere models by Dungey and Tsyganenko, we determine the precise location of the coherent radio emission generation region in pulsar B's magnetosphere. This analysis is complemented by modeling the observed evolution of the pulse profiles of B due to geodetic precession. The emission region is located at about 3750 stellar radii and has a horseshoe-like shape centered on the polar magnetic field lines. The best fit angular parameters of the emission region indicate that radio emission is generated on the field lines which, according to the theoretical models, originate close to the poles and carry the maximum current. When considered together, not only do the results of the two models converge, they can explain why the modulation of B's radio emission at A's period is observed only within a certain orbital phase region. We discuss the implications of these results for pulsar magnetospheric models and mechanisms of coherent radio emission generation. We also developed a spatially-resolved, analytic model for the high-energy non-thermal emission from pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). Theoretically, synchrotron cooling should cause a gradual change in particle spectrum downstream. This effect is indeed observed in the X-ray spectra of The Crab Nebula , 3C 58, and G21.5.0.9. However, current theoretical models of PWNe that only account for the bulk motion in the pulsar outflow overestimate the steepening of the resulted emission spectrum. This implies that there is an additional mechanism of particle transport which would supply energetic particles to the outer layers of the PWN. Our model solves the lack of high-energy electrons in the outer regions of the nebula by taking the diffusion of particles into account. The resulting multi-wavelength spectra exhibits multiple breaks, which is in agreement with observations. Thin non-thermal X-ray filaments are often seen near shock fronts in young supernova remnants (SNRs), often spatially coincident with the high energy gamma-ray emission. The formation of such discrete features is likely influenced by the combined effects of radiative cooling, advection, and diffusion. Spatially-resolved spectral studies of the filaments may, therefore, provide significant insights into the relative importance of main physical processes involved in young SNRs. Using 1 Ms Chandra observation of Cassiopeia A, we perform advection-diffusion modeling of synchrotron emission of filaments to measure the magnetic field, shock obliquity, the diffusion strength and the plasma turbulence level.

  6. X-RAYS FROM SUPERNOVA SHOCKS IN DENSE MASS LOSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type IIn and related supernovae show evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium that produces most of the supernova luminosity. X-ray emission from shock heated gas is crucial for the energetics of the interaction and can provide diagnostics on the shock interaction. Provided that the shock is at an optical depth ?w ?s in the wind, where c is the speed of light and vs is the shock velocity, a viscous shock is expected that heats the gas to a high temperature. For ?w ?> 1, the shock wave is in the cooling regime; inverse Compton cooling dominates bremsstrahlung at higher densities and shock velocities. Although ?w ?> 1, the optical depth through the emission zone is ?< 1 so that inverse Compton effects do not give rise to significant X-ray emission. The electrons may not reach energy equipartition with the protons at higher shock velocities. As X-rays move out through the cool wind, the higher energy photons are lost to Compton degradation. If bremsstrahlung dominates the cooling and Compton losses are small, the energetic radiation can completely photoionize the preshock gas. However, inverse Compton cooling in the hot region and Compton degradation in the wind reduce the ionizing flux, so that complete photoionization is not obtained and photoabsorption by the wind further reduces the escaping X-ray flux. We conjecture that the combination of these effects led to the low observe effects led to the low observed X-ray flux from the optically luminous SN 2006gy.

  7. X-Rays from Supernova Shocks in Dense Mass Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Chevalier, Roger A

    2012-01-01

    Type IIn and related supernovae show evidence for an interaction with a dense circumstellar medium that produces most of the supernova luminosity. X-ray emission from shock heated gas is crucial for the energetics of the interaction and can provide diagnostics on the shock interaction. Provided that the shock is at an optical depth tau_w\\la c/v_s in the wind, where c is the speed of light and v_s is the shock velocity, a viscous shock is expected that heats the gas to a high temperature. For tau_w\\ga 1, the shock wave is in the cooling regime; inverse Compton cooling dominates bremsstrahlung at higher densities and shock velocities. Although tau_w\\ga 1, the optical depth through the emission zone is \\la 1 so that inverse Compton effects do not give rise to significant X-ray emission. The electrons may not reach energy equipartition with the protons at higher shock velocities. As X-rays move out through the cool wind, the higher energy photons are lost to Compton degradation. If bremsstrahlung dominates the co...

  8. The Progenitor of the New COMPTEL/ROSAT Supernova Remnant in Vela

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, W; Chen, Wan

    1998-01-01

    We propose that (1) the newly discovered supernova remnant (SNR), GRO J0852--4642/RX J0852.0--4622, was probably created by a core-collapse supernova of a massive star, and (2) the same supernova event which produced the $^{44}$Ti detected by COMPTEL from this source is probably also responsible for a large fraction of the observed $^{26}$Al emission in the Vela region detected by the same instrument. We show that the remnant is currently expanding too slowly for its young age to be due to a Type Ia supernova (SNIa). Even for a massive star progenitor, the SNR is required to be $\\sim250$ pc away in a dense environment at the edge of the Gum nebula. The progenitor has a preferred ejecta mass of $\\le10M_\\odot$ and a large kinetic energy of $\\ge 2\\times 10^{51}$ ergs, and therefore, it is probably a Type Ib or Type Ic supernova. The required high ambient density of $n_H > 300$ cm$^{-3}$, however, has yet to be confirmed by observations. An SNIa progenitor at the same distance may still be possible but it would n...

  9. NEUTRAL PION EMISSION FROM ACCELERATED PROTONS IN THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT W44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliani, A.; Caraveo, P.; Chen, A.; Contessi, T. [INAF-IASF Milano, via E. Bassini 15, 20133 Milano (Italy); Cardillo, M.; Tavani, M.; Costa, E.; Monte, E. Del; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M. [INAF/IASF-Roma,via Del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Fukui, Y.; Yoshiike, S.; Torii, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Dubner, G.; Castelletti, G. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Barbiellini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Via Valerio 2, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bulgarelli, A.; Gianotti, F. [INAF/IASF-Bologna, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Cattaneo, P. W. [INFN-Pavia, Via Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); and others

    2011-12-15

    We present the AGILE gamma-ray observations in the energy range 50 MeV-10 GeV of the supernova remnant (SNR) W44, one of the most interesting systems for studying cosmic-ray production. W44 is an intermediate-age SNR ({approx}20, 000 years) and its ejecta expand in a dense medium as shown by a prominent radio shell, nearby molecular clouds, and bright [S II] emitting regions. We extend our gamma-ray analysis to energies substantially lower than previous measurements which could not conclusively establish the nature of the radiation. We find that gamma-ray emission matches remarkably well both the position and shape of the inner SNR shocked plasma. Furthermore, the gamma-ray spectrum shows a prominent peak near 1 GeV with a clear decrement at energies below a few hundreds of MeV as expected from neutral pion decay. Here we demonstrate that (1) hadron-dominated models are consistent with all W44 multiwavelength constraints derived from radio, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations; (2) ad hoc lepton-dominated models fail to explain simultaneously the well-constrained gamma-ray and radio spectra, and require a circumstellar density much larger than the value derived from observations; and (3) the hadron energy spectrum is well described by a power law (with index s = 3.0 {+-} 0.1) and a low-energy cut-off at E{sub c} = 6 {+-} 1 GeV. Direct evidence for pion emission is then established in an SNR for the first time.

  10. A search for supernova-remnant masers toward unidentified EGRET sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supernova remnants expanding into adjacent molecular clouds are believed to be sites of cosmic ray acceleration and sources of energetic gamma-rays. Under certain environmental conditions, such interactions also give rise to unusual OH masers in which the 1720 MHz satellite line dominates over the more common 1665/7 MHz emission. Motivated by the apparent coincidence of a handful of EGRET sources with OH(1720 MHz) maser-producing supernova remnants, we have carried out a search using the Very Large Array for new OH(1720 MHz) masers within the error regions of 11 unidentified EGRET sources at low Galactic latitude. While a previously known maser associated with an HII region was serendipitously detected, initial results indicate that no new masers were found down to a limiting flux of, typically, 50 mJy. We discuss the implications of this result on the nature of the unidentified Galactic EGRET sources

  11. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT TYCHO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After almost three years of data taking in sky-survey mode, the Fermi Large Area Telescope has detected ?-ray emission toward Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR). The Tycho SNR is among the youngest remnants in the Galaxy, originating from a Type Ia Supernova in AD 1572. The ?-ray integral flux from 400 MeV up to 100 GeV has been measured to be (3.5 ± 1.1stat ± 0.7syst)× 10–9 cm–2 s–1 with a photon index of 2.3 ± 0.2stat ± 0.1syst. A simple model consistent with TeV, X-ray, and radio data is sufficient to explain the observed emission as originating from ?0 decays as a result of cosmic-ray acceleration and interaction with the ambient medium.

  12. Neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of galactic radio sources: the supernova remnant W44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H I radio line has been observed in absorption and emission near the source W44 with the RATAN-600 radio telescope at 2'.2 x 20' x 6.3 km/sec resolution. The absorption-line observations show that the nearby H II region NRAO 584 cannot be physically associated with the supernova remnant. The six H I clouds detected in emission and absorption may possibly form part of a patchy envelope around W44; three of them coincide with a molecular cloud in the vicinity. The combined mass of the H I clouds is roughly-equal220 M/sub sun/, and if the envelope is real it would be expanding at roughly-equal10 km/sec. Estimates are obtained for the age of the supernova remnant and the physical parameters of NRAO 584

  13. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTION OF THE YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANT TYCHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Naumann-Godo, M.; Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Bechtol, K.; Funk, S.; Lande, J.; Tanaka, T.; Uchiyama, Y. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Mazziotta, M. N.; Raino, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Tibolla, O., E-mail: francesco.giordano@ba.infn.it, E-mail: Melitta.Naumann-Godo@cea.fr [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik and Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    After almost three years of data taking in sky-survey mode, the Fermi Large Area Telescope has detected {gamma}-ray emission toward Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR). The Tycho SNR is among the youngest remnants in the Galaxy, originating from a Type Ia Supernova in AD 1572. The {gamma}-ray integral flux from 400 MeV up to 100 GeV has been measured to be (3.5 {+-} 1.1{sub stat} {+-} 0.7{sub syst}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with a photon index of 2.3 {+-} 0.2{sub stat} {+-} 0.1{sub syst}. A simple model consistent with TeV, X-ray, and radio data is sufficient to explain the observed emission as originating from {pi}{sup 0} decays as a result of cosmic-ray acceleration and interaction with the ambient medium.

  14. Neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of galactic radio sources: the supernova remnant W28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H I line in the vicinity of the radio source W28 has been observed in absorption and emission with the RATAN-600 radio telescope at a resolution of 2'.4 x 45' x 6.3 km/sec. The absorption line yields a distance of roughly-equal3 kpc to the supernova remnant; the compact H II regions observed there are located at the same distance. In emission, an expanding H I envelope 82 pc in diameter has been detected around W28; its mass is 6.9 x 104 M/sub sun/ and it is expanding at roughly-equal20 km/sec. The supernova remnant is 5.8 x 105 yr old and the energy of the original explosion was 8.4 x 1051 erg. Some conclusions are reached as to the possible genetic relation between the H II zones and the SNR

  15. Role of ejecta clumping and back-reaction of accelerated cosmic rays in the evolution of Type Ia supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, S; Miceli, M; Petruk, O; Pumo, M L

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role played by initial clumping of ejecta and by efficient acceleration of cosmic rays (CRs) in determining the density structure of the post-shock region of a Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) through detailed 3D MHD modeling. Our model describes the expansion of a SNR through a magnetized interstellar medium (ISM), including the initial clumping of ejecta and the effects on shock dynamics due to back-reaction of accelerated CRs. The model predictions are compared to the observations of SN 1006. We found that the back-reaction of accelerated CRs alone cannot reproduce the observed separation between the forward shock (FS) and the contact discontinuity (CD) unless the energy losses through CR acceleration and escape are very large and independent of the obliquity angle. On the contrary, the clumping of ejecta can naturally reproduce the observed small separation and the occurrence of protrusions observed in SN 1006, even without the need of accelerated CRs. We conclude that FS-CD separation i...

  16. The Emerging Picture of Supernova Remnants and GRBs at High Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Laura A.

    2014-08-01

    In the last two years, high-energy studies of supernova remnants (SNRs) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have yielded many new insights regarding the nature of explosions and their environments. In this talk, I will highlight several recent advances in these fields catalyzed by high energy theory and observations, with emphasis on progenitor systems, nucleosynthesis, and particle acceleration. Finally, I will discuss anticipated advances with upcoming facilities, like Astro-H and Advanced LIGO.

  17. Detection of the Characteristic Pion-Decay Signature in Supernova Remnants

    OpenAIRE

    Collaboration, The Fermi-lat; ,; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cosmic rays are particles (mostly protons) accelerated to relativistic speeds. Despite wide agreement that supernova remnants (SNRs) are the sources of galactic cosmic rays, unequivocal evidence for the acceleration of protons in these objects is still lacking. When accelerated protons encounter interstellar material, they produce neutral pions, which in turn decay into gamma rays. This offers a compelling way to detect the acceleration sites of protons. The identification o...

  18. The Lower Limit for Masses of Progenitors of Supernova Remnants and Radio Pulsars

    OpenAIRE

    Tagieva, Sevinc O.; Guseinov, Oktay H.; Ankay, Askin

    2003-01-01

    We examined correlations between young radio pulsars (PSRs), Supernova remnants (SNRs) which have different surface brightness values and young star formation regions (SFRs). Angular correlation of PSRs with SFRs is reliable up to 4 kpc and considerably strong up to 3 kpc from the Sun. On average this correlation is stronger for Galactic anticenter directions compared to Galactic central directions. Angular correlation of SNRs with SFRs is weaker and depends on the surface b...

  19. Multifrequency study of SNR J0533-7202, a new supernova remnant in the LMC

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzetto, L. M.; Filipovic?, M. D.; Crawford, E. J.; Sasaki, M.; Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Uros?evic?, D.; Payne, J. L.; Horta, A. Y.; Stupar, M.; Gruendl, R.; Dickel, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed study of Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of a newly discovered Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) supernova remnant (SNR), SNR J0533-7202. This object follows a horseshoe morphology, with a size 37 pc x 28 pc (1-pc uncertainty in each direction). It exhibits a radio spectrum with the intrinsic synchrotron spectral index of alpha= -0.47+-0.06 between 73 and 6 cm. We report detections of regions showing moderately high fractional polarisat...

  20. On the characteristics of line emissions from binary X-ray sources and supernova remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray spectroscopy of celestial X-ray sources can yield extremely interesting results on the physical conditions and processes that are responsible for the emission from these sources. Iron line emission at about 6.8 keV from many supernova remnants and X-ray binaries has already been observed by several workers. Available data on iron line emission from Tycho, Cas A and Her X-1 are presented and implications are discussed. (auth.)