Full Text Available Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disability, and most of this is on disabled children. There are several difficulties associated with conducting research on disability related issues in Saudi Arabia. Here, we review the current situation of disability, disability research, and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia from the published literature.
Maher S. Al-Jadid
This article reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, consumption, trade, control, prevention, and treatment of tobacco smoking in Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of current smoking in Saudi Arabia ranges from 2.4-52.3% (median = 17.5%. Among school students, the prevalence of current smoking ranges from 12-29.8% (median = 16.5%, among university students from 2.4-37% (median = 13.5%, and among adults from 11.6-52.3% (median = 22.6%. In elderly people, the prevalence of current smoking is 25%. The prevalence of smoking in males ranges from 13-38% (median = 26.5%, while in females it ranges from 1-16% (median = 9%. To conclude, smoking is prevalent in the Saudi population at different age groups. The prevalence of current smoking is much higher in males than in females at different ages. More research is needed in the area of prevention and treatment of smoking.
Medhat M. Bassiony
We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed.
Ibrahim S. Alkhalife
Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto
Full Text Available People have different cultural characteristics that affect the way they do business. Using compelling ways to categorize major cultural differences, this paper helps the reader understand how different concepts of time, the relevance of status and power in shaping organizational structure, communication methods, and ways to conduct meetings and social gatherings, all influence how interactions with a specific culture in Saudi Arabia can be made effective.
Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and inciden...
Al-jadid, Maher S.
This paper describes the history of brucellosis and the current public health picture in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Health protection is made more difficult by several factors: (a) the local custom of drinking raw and warm milk of sheep, goats, and camels, (b) the animal reservoir of infection in the country complicated by importation of live animals both for sacrifice during Haj periods and to increase commercial flocks, and (c) by uncontrolled movements of humans and stock across political borders. PMID:2814586
Kiel, F W; Khan, M Y
Hypertension is increasing in prevalence in KSA affecting more than one fourth of the adult Saudi population. We recommend aggressive management of hypertension as well as screening of adults for hypertension early to prevent its damaging consequences if left untreated. Public health awareness of simple measures, such as low salt diet, exercise, and avoiding obesity, to maintain normal arterial blood pressure need to be implemented by health care providers.
Mansour M. Al-Nozha
Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.
To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared thies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and cardiac diseases in 6 (5.8%). Six patients (5.8%) had moyamoya syndrome, which was associated with another disease in all of them. Inherited metabolic disorders (3.8%) included 3 children with Leigh syndrome and a 29-months-old girl with mitochondrial encephalomypathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Systemic vascular disease was a risk factor in 3 children (2.9%) including 2 who had hypernatrmic dehydration; and post-traumatic arterial dissection was causative in 3 cases (2.9%). Several patients had multiple risk factors, whereas no risk factor could be identified in 11 (10.6%). Due to high prevalence and importance of multiple risk factors, a comprehensive investigation, including hematologic, neuroimaging and metabolic studies should be considered in every child with stroke. (author)
A total of 637 passive radon dosemeters (CR-39 nuclear track detectors in a closed chamber) were used in a survey in 400 houses in Saudi Arabia. The radon concentration was found to vary from 5 to 36 Bq.m-3 (0.13 to 0.98 pCi.l-1) with a mean of 16 Bq.m-3 (0.43 pCi.l-1). The unoccupied houses showed a concentration of 29+-7 Bq.m-3 (0.78+-0.19 pCi.l-1) double that of the occupied houses, 14+-1 Bq.m-3 (0.39+-0.02 pCi.l-1), in the same area. The radon daughter concentration measured with a Working Level monitor in 17 unoccupied houses was found to vary from 1.35x10-3 to 24x10-3 WL with an average of 6.9+-1.4x10-3 WL. The average exhalation rate measured in 37 houses by 95 passive detectors in cans sealed to the walls ranged from 0.013 to 0.044 Bq.m-2.h-1(0.35 to 1.2 pCi.m-2.h-1) with an average of 0.021+-0.003 Bq.m-2.h-1(0.56+-0.09 pCi.m-2.h-1). This survey is the first in Saudi Arabia (a hot climate) and can usefully be compared with similar surveys in countries with cold climates. (author)
Saudi Methanol Co., a joint venture between Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (Sabic) and a consortium of Japanese companies, has signed a $150-million loan agreement with the Export Import Bank of Japan to finance its expansion program. The loan will fund construction of an 850,000-m.t./year chemical-grade methanol plant at Sabic`s Al-Jubail complex. The new plant is scheduled to come onstream in mid-1997. It and the company`s two existing plants will produce 1.4 million m.t./year.
Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.
On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...
Full Text Available It is not only oil in which Saudi Arabia is rich, but it is also among the four richest rock art regions of the world. Hundreds and thousands of petroglyphs, painted rock art, and ancient Arabian inscriptions sites are located all over the country, representing various cultural phases, from the Neolithic until the recent past. One can see the naturalistic, schematic, abstract, mythical, and mystical images representing ancient ideology, thoughts about the metaphysical world, religious entity, economy, environment, human activities, and variety of animal types, according to particular climatic and environmental conditions. The rock art of Saudi Arabia is the mirror of its rich cultural heritage of so-called Bedouin or desert dwellers that surprises the world with its 4000 archaeological and more than 1500 rock art sites.
Full Text Available Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was pointed the need of more ecological studies to know the reasons of the change in the flora and to study how much the ecological stress may affect the speciation.
Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.
The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…
Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author)
The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)
Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.
The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…
Al-Jarf, Reima Sado
Discusses current trends in scientific research and the publication of research results in Saudi Arabia. Areas discussed include fields of research; marketing of scholarly publications; publication of books, scholarly journals, conference papers, monographs, and research reports; local and foreign publishers serving researchers; leading Saudi…
Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors.
Mahmoud I. El-Desouki
European-American norms are still used in the orthodontic treatment of Saudi patients, despite the different ethnic backgrounds of Saudis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the cephalometric features of a Saudi population and to establish cephalometric norms for Saudis living in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Seventy lateral cephalometric radiographs of Saudis (32 females and 38 males; aged 18-28 years) with acceptable profiles and Class I dental relationships were traced and analyzed. The mean value, standard deviation, and range of 16 angular and linear variables were calculated. The resulting norms for Saudis were compared with European-American norms using an independent t-test. Male and female groups were also compared using the t-test. Saudis tend to have an increased ANB angle because of retrognathic mandibles and bimaxillary protrusion as compared with European-Americans. Males tend to have more prognathic mandibles than females as indicated by the statistically significant increase in facial angle (P < .05) and SNB angle (P < .05). Although the anterior lower face height was similar in males and females, males tend to have a steeper mandibular plane angle when related to the anterior cranial base than females (P < .05). Saudis have distinct cephalometric features, which should be used as a reference in treating Saudi orthodontic patients. PMID:16448278
Hassan, Ali H
... Saudi ASMA Environmental Solutions (SAES) - Climate Action Programme Home News Editor's Picks Climate Leader Papers Climate Case Studies Interviews Events Forum ...Sustainable Cities Publication Products & Service Providers About Us Products and Service Providers / Saudi ASMA Environmental Solutions (SAES) Saudi ASMA Environmental Solutions (...TRANSPORT, Technology & Consultancy, WASTE & RECYCLING, Waste Management, WATER, Summary Downloads Contact Details Saudi ASMA Environmental Solutions LLC (SAES) is a Saudi company ... We cover the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Middle East and North Africa regions. SAES is a joint venture company between ...
This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail
Full Text Available This study explores the attitudes of Saudi EFL teachers toward explicit instruction of readingstrategies. The study also compares actual practices of Saudi teachers with their beliefs and attitudes towardreading strategy instruction. In this study, quantitative data were collected using an attitude questionnaire,while qualitative data were collected using observation and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative dataobtained were analyzed by using means, standard deviations, and the Pearson product-moment correlationcoefficient. Qualitative data from a semi-structured interview were also analyzed to explore teachers'knowledge about reading strategy instruction. The results of this study show that Saudi teachers believestrongly in the importance of cognitive reading strategies and that they have insufficient knowledge of theimportance of metacognitive reading strategies. The study ends with recommendations for training Saudi EFLteachers in some of the most effective metacognitive reading strategies to help students plan, monitor, evaluate,and regulate their learning.
Hashem Ahmed Alsamadani
This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.
Our results indicate that postmenopausal Saudi women suffer from osteoporosis and osteopenia higher than those from other parts of the country. Necessary steps are needed so as to avoid osteoporosis and its complications which could end up in epidemic proportions.
Temporal and spatial characteristics of Saudi Arabian dust storms, with focus on associated air parcel trajectories, are investigated using station and gridded weather observations and remotely-sensed aerosol optical depth (AOD). For 13 focal stations, an extensive pool of 84-h backward trajectories is developed for dust storm days, and the trajectories are grouped into 3-5 representative clusters based on the K-means technique and Silhouette Coefficients. Saudi Arabian dust storms are most prominent during February-June, with a mid-winter peak along the southern coast of the Red Sea, spring peak across northern Saudi Arabia around the An Nafud Desert, and early summer peak in eastern Saudi Arabia around the Ad Dahna Desert. Based on backward trajectories, the primary local dust source is the Rub Al Khali Desert and the primary remote sources are the Saharan Desert, for western Saudi Arabia, and Iraqi Deserts, for northern and eastern Saudi Arabia. During February-April, the Mediterranean storm track is active, with passing cyclones and associated cold fronts carrying Saharan dust to Saudi Arabian stations along the northern coast of the Red Sea. Across Saudi Arabia, the highest AOD is achieved during dust storms that originate from the Rub Al Khali and Iraqi Deserts. Most stations are dominated by local dust sources (primarily Rub Al Khali), are characterized by three dominant trajectory paths, and achieve AOD values exceeding 1. In contrast, for stations receiving predominantly remote dust (particularly Saharan), 3-5 trajectory paths emerge and AOD values only reach approximately 0.6 as dust is lost during transport.
Notaro, Michael; Alkolibi, Fahad; Fadda, Eyad; Bakhrjy, Fawzieh
This study explores the attitudes of Saudi EFL teachers toward explicit instruction of readingstrategies. The study also compares actual practices of Saudi teachers with their beliefs and attitudes towardreading strategy instruction. In this study, quantitative data were collected using an attitude questionnaire,while qualitative data were collected using observation and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative dataobtained were analyzed by using means, standard de...
Hashem Ahmed Alsamadani
Chevron Chemical (Houston), encouraged by a new Saudi royal decree that establishes extremely low feedstock prices, is in final negotiations to build a novel aromatics plant in Saudi Arabia. Chevron says it plans to close the deal and announce details the first week of March. The unit will be based on Chevron's Aromax reforming process, which uses a zeolite catalyst to convert light naphtha into benzene and toluene. No existing plant is using the technology, but Chevron is building a $250-million, 150-million gal/year Aromax unit at its refinery site in Pascagoula, MS, and Idemitsu has licensed the process for a plant in Chiba, Japan. The Saudi decree, issued late last year, pegs domestic feedstocks - propane, butane, and naphthas - at 30% below the lowest price of the prior quarter in major non-domestic markets. That clarifies and guarantees the Saudi feedstock price, which has always been nebulous, and thus allows project feasibility to be more clearly assessed. The decree is designed to encourage further private petrochemical investment in the country. In particular, the Saudi government hopes guaranteed low prices for butane will encourage more methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects. Arabian American Chemical, a 50/50 joint venture between Mobile and Arabian Chemical Investments, said in October of last year that its 830,000-m.t./year MTBE project at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, would go ahead if feedstock questions could be resolved. The decree apparently resolves those questions
Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…
After September 11, 2001, complaints were voiced around the world, including by the U.S. government, that Saudi Arabian schools demonize the West and the "other." Senior Saudi government spokesmen also acknowledged this as a problem, and have repeatedly pledged that reform is underway or completed. This report was written in response to concerns…
Shea, Nina; Al-Ahmed, Ali
Peak expiratory flow rate values in this study were lower than those reported from Riyadh, other Arab countries, Europe and North America. However, they are close to those reported from Yanbu (Saudi Arabia. Normal values of peak expiratory flow rate for Saudi children should be developed.
SCUD attacks were one of many challenges this pediatric nurse practitioner (NP) and Air Force Reserve flight nurse faced daily during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Providing nursing care to sick and injured patients on board a C141 transport plane en route from Saudi Arabia to Germany was her primary responsibility. Additionally, many hours were spent filling sandbags, attending in-service classes, and practicing putting on a gas mask and protective suit. Although the war has been over for almost 3 years, the effects are long lasting. The author was able to use her wartime experience positively to gain insight into survival in today's violent society. As violence increases, NPs must reshape their focus and educate their clients about survival. PMID:8297671
Glendon, M P
Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department o...
Ma, Abolfotouh; Aa, Alabdrabalnabi; Rb, Albacker; Ua, Al-jughaiman; Sn, Hassan
Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and Decembe...
Abdullah, Layla S.; Alghanmi, Najla M.
Full Text Available To describe the epidemiological data of leukemia cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among male and female Saudis, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR stratified by leukemia subtype, region, and year of diagnosis.Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi leukemia cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The study was carried out in 2013 to investigate the pattern of leukemia in the Saudi population. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression model were used. Results: A total of 3852 leukemia cases were registered in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR among Saudi males at 5.2 per 100,000 males, followed by both the Eastern region and Northern region at 4.9 per 100,000 males. Furthermore, the region of Najran recorded the highest overall ASIR among Saudi females at 4.5 per 100,000 females. However, Jazan had the lowest average ASIRs of leukemia in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs of leukemia in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and the Northern region had the highest overall ASIRs of leukemia among Saudi males, and Najran had the highest overall ASIRs of leukemia among Saudi females; while Jazan had the lowest rates among the Saudi population.
Ibrahim G. Alghamdi
Full Text Available This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25%, 16% and 7% respectively. Following 1983, the Saudi real exchange rate rose above the equilibrium exchange rate thus starting an era of undervaluation of the Saudi currency that lasted until the year 2009.The downward slide began in 1983 when the riyal fell below its equilibrium exchange rate by 1% with the declining trend deteriorating further to 10% in 1984, 19% percent in 1985, 27% in 1986 and so on until it hit an all-time low of 84 percent below estimated equilibrium in 2006. Thereafter, the decline started receding gradually with the misalignment below exchange rate equilibrium improving to about 80 percent in 2009.
Emad Omar Elhendawy
Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.
F. R. Pazheri
Full Text Available Background: Smoking has been found to be associated with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Since smoking is an important public health problem, because it may be an essential risk factor for carotid artery plaques. Therefore the researchers tried to explore the powerful of this association, the researchers investigated smokers as unique suspected risk factor for carotid plaques beside the age. Methods: In observational cross-sectional study, 31 smokers with mean age of 56, were studied by B- mode ultrasound. Carotid arteries for all participants were examined by using 7MHrz linear transducer. Both saggital and transverse views were applied to evaluate the right and left common carotid arteries. Results: The frequency of carotid plaque was 35.5%. 54.5 % of these occurred in population group that smoke > 20 cigarettes per day. All plaques were presented in population of age above 53 years old. There was association between smoking frequency and age with the increases of plaque size. Conclusion and recommendations: The study suggested that there is a significant association between carotid plaques and smoking in Saudi smokers. In addition it showed that carotid plaque may present at age of 54 years old in smokers. The researchers recommended that further studies were needed. Moreover intensive health promotion against smoking in the KSA. represents an essential issue.
Mahmoud S. Babiker
Diagnostic X-ray radiography patients exposures have been studied during 1412 (H) (1992) in the Riyadh area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Dose imparted as well as doses to the thyroid, breast, lung, bone marrow, ovary and testis have been calculated for many types of radiographic examinations, Collective doses have been calculated. The dose imparted corresponds to an annual absorbed dose to the Saudi population, in the Riyadh area, of about 280 ?Gy, and a genetically significant dose of 108.8 ?Gy per person per year due to diagnostic radiology.
Ayad, M.; Melibary, Abdulrahman; Malabary, Tajuddin
Bacteria isolated from three Saudi crude oils were tested for possible use in enhanced recovery projects in the Safaniya field. The bacterial strain that exhibited the lowest interfacial tension while creating the least permeability damage and the highest oil recovery was isolated from Khafji crude from the Marjan field. Although the use of microorganisms for EOR purposes has been studied and tested for many years, the specific mechanisms involved are not fully understood. MEOR systems must be custom designed for specific reservoir conditions, crude oils and microbial-nutrient systems. This paper reviews the various research going on with the various bacterial strains to be used in MEOR in Saudi Arabia.
Almalik, M.S.; Desouky, S.E.D.M. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
A report was made on the oil field development technology by Saudi Aramco. Concerning the status quo of the water flooding technique, status of utilization in horizontal wells and 3-dimensional seismic explorations, application of sequence stratigraphy and geostatistics to the construction of an oil reservoir model, etc., on the subject of typical productive oil fields in Saudi Arabia, the explanation was made under the following titles; namely, the outline of Saudi Aramco (history, computer environments/software in use, etc., of Saudi Aramco); oil fields in Saudi Arabia; 3-dimensional oil reservoir model of the Berri oil field (a reservoir geological model based on sequence stratigraphy; construction of 3-dimensional reservoir numerical model, etc.), reservoir management of the Berri oil field; 3-dimensional stratamodel of the Safaniya oil field; development of the land Abqaiq oil field, water flooding technique in the Ghawar oil field; reservoir model of the Ghawar oil field (reservoir model, etc., to which geostatistics is applied); and other technologies by Saudi Aramco. 22 figs., 2 tabs.
Fujii, Y. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)
Oil exploration in Saudi Arabia began in September 1933, and test drilling in 1934. Annual commercial production averaging 100,000 bbl/day started in 1938 from Damman oil field. Abquaiq and Quatif fields tacked on 200,000 and 5,000 bbl/day in 1941 and 1945, respectively. Production increased to more than 246,000 bbl/day in 1947, reached 300,000 by 1948 and jumped to 500,000 in 1949. Safaniya, the world's largest offshore reservoir, and Ghawar, the world's largest onshore oil field, were discovered in 1951 and 1954 consecutively. Among other notable fields, Khursaniyah, Khurais, and Manifa were discovered, the first in 1956, and the rest in 1957 successively. Berri, a reservoir which underlies both land and water, was divested in 1964. The Kingdom reached its 9.9 million bbl/day production peak in 1980, and has shrunk to its prevalent 4.34 million bbl/day Opec quota level. The proven oil reserves have risen by 85 billion bbl to 255 billion in January following a six year study. With additional development and exploration, the remaining reserves could be as high as 313 billion bbl of oil. During most of its geologic history, the producing area protracted between the Arabian shield and Tethyan seaway. The principal reservoir beds are composed of four members of the productive Arab Formation that expound quadruple major cycles of porous calcarenitic limestones and dolomites alternating with impervious evaporitic cap rocks favorably located on the foreland shelf. The area is characterized by structural traps with maximum oil-filled closure of about 1,300 feet. Crude oil export output appears certain to rise again this year to meet world demand.
Billo, S.M. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))
Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientifiawareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)
Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…
Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih
To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author)d preventive measures implemented (Author).
Full Text Available Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431 with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5% pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and 248 (57.5% extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA (86.3% and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA 59 (13.7%. The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years. The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9% compared to SA patients (55.1%. Females had higher proportion (59.5% of EPTB than males (55.6%. The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%. In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.
Samples of dates from three regions of Saudi Arabia were measured for the radioactivity of both natural and artificial origins. The results were compared with gross ..beta.. and /sup 187/Cs activity of coffee beans produced in different countries. No significant activity in date samples was detected.
Nasser Al-Mohawes; Pao-Shan Weng
Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire.
Alaa Sultan; Alandonisi, Munzir M.; Mandili, Faisal A.; Qutbuddeen, Hamed S.; Al-ghamdi, Yahya A.; Gari, Abdulatif A.
This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness. Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/17/2010.
Saudi Arabia's oil policy is based on support for the Imperial rule, and a strategy of minimal risk takes first priority. This country with vast oil resources is characterized by a lower level of needed oil revenue because of its little population, by low producing cost, and by dependence on the American majors. Differing from other OPEC countries, Saudi have maintained moderate policy toward western developed countries: avoiding a sudden rise of oil prices, making best use of its vast oil resources, and consideration for the Third World, especially for Islamic countries. Through detailed analyses on seven periods, from 1973 until now, Saudi was proved to have a well-balanced sense on its oil policy and to have a fundamental attitude to avoid risk throughly. A stable price of oil with long-term competitiveness should be set in the future. Saudi's future oil policy is likely to be the control of OPEC contries'oil production to avoid a sudden rise of oil prices, and the oil production as much as its quota. (3 figs, 26 refs)
A new average annual thunder day map for Saudi Arabia is presented. Based on this map, the distribution of thunderstorms over Saudi Arabia is analysed in terms of the factors related to the lightning performance of transmission lines such as thunderstorm days per year (Td/yr). Lightning activity continues for the present to be represented by thunderstorm frequency, which is routinely recorded at meteorological observation sites. Thunderstorm occurrence at a particular location is usually expressed as the number of days in a calendar year when thunder was heard, averaged over several years. This paper examines thunderstorm days in different areas of Saudi Arabia and specifically those areas where lightning strikes are more frequent; for this purpose, the software ArcGIS is used to produce contour maps which demonstrate areas of concern in Saudi Arabia in the period 1985-2003. Establishing the annual and seasonal Td/yr for Saudi Arabia enables transmission and distribution line engineers to calculate and better design a lightning protection system. Maps of thunder days/year (Td/yr) were constructed on the basis of the database records available on lightning incidence in Saudi Arabia at the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) (http://www.pme.gov.sa/). Annual thunderstorms are most frequent over the southwestern parts of the country, and generally decrease towards the west and east. Due to its low latitude and less temporal change, the west coast of the Red Sea recorded the lowest Td/yr. A secondary maximum Td/yr is apparent in the southeast to central part of the country. Thunderstorm frequency does not, in general, appear to vary in any consistent way with rainfall. There appears to be no evidence of any widespread temporal trend in thunderstorm frequency. The southern region in general, and especially the cities of Abha, Taif and Al-Baha, has shown greater numbers of thunderstorm days all year round. Similarly, this variation did show higher frequency throughout the year. The development of lightning incidence and the counting of Td/yr, as well as the establishment of annual and seasonal lightning maps of Saudi Arabia, are initiating a new era of producing and archiving thunderstorm maps and data records which serve the PME, the utilities, industry and the public.
Shwehdi, M. H.
The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female decant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the quality and quantity of biomedical studies published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA between 2010 and 2011. Methods: This study was conducted on January 2013 at the Internal Medicine Department, Taif University, Taif, KSA. An online search was conducted on PubMed to collect the articles published from KSA using the country name (Saudi Arabia as a keyword. The search was limited to the studies published in the period of 2 years from January 2010 to December 2011. The year 2012 was not included to give at least one year for citation. The total number of studies during the stated period was compared with those published from other countries in the same period, and adjusted per population size. Impact factor and number of citations were used to assess the quality of the studies. Results: A total of 1905 published articles/studies were from KSA in the said period. Australia had the maximum number of studies (100% published per million population (1258.571+. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia had 72.71 articles per million population, and was ranked 16th among the other countries. Most of the articles (65.3% were published from Riyadh followed by Jeddah (13.3%, and most of them were from the fields of Community Medicine (15.5%, Pathology (13.7%, Medicine (13.2%, and Surgery (13.1%. King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh had the highest impact factor with a mean of 2.74 ± 3.45. Conclusion: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is lagging behind in biomedical research. While King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre appears to be doing better than other institutions in biomedical research, there is an urgent need for greater investment in biomedical research in the kingdom. NOTICE FOR CORRECTION OF DATE OF STUDY IN: SAUDI MED J 2014; VOL. 35 (5: 511.
Background and Objective : There is limited information on overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to establish the national prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods : The 2005 Saudi reference data set was used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) for children aged 5 to 18 years. Using the 2007 WHO reference, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined as the pr...
El Mouzan Mohammad; Foster Peter; Al Herbish Abdullah; Al Salloum Abdullah; Al Omer Ahmad; Qurachi Mansour; Kecojevic Tatjana
This paper demonstrates the possibility of achieving a higher Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) for Room Air Conditioners (RACs) that complies with the Saudi energy efficiency standards and satisfies the energy conservation requirements for the Saudi Building Code (SBC). This study considers several design options for improving the performance and efficiency of the RAC in comparison with a baseline RAC unit manufactured by Al-Zamil Company of Saudi Arabia. These design options include the number ...
Al-shaalan, Abdullah M.
Saudi Araabias keelati igasugused protestimeeleavaldused, samas on 11. märtsiks välja kuulutatud "raevupäev". Veebruaris tegid 10 islamistliku intelligentsi esindajat katse luua opositsioonijõud, mõni päev hiljem nad vangistati
Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-
Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has a bank-centric and diverse financial system compared with other countries in the region. This paper uses basic DEA models i.e. CCR and BCR to evaluate the relative efficiency of Saudi Banks using annual data from 2003 through 2008. The results show that, on a relative scale, Saudi banks were efficient in the management of their financial resources. In addition, the results would provide crucial information about Saudi banks’ financial conditions and management performance for the benefit of bank regulators, managers and bank stock investors.
Khalid Abdullah Alkhathlan
Full Text Available This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by considering segregation, women's mobility, videoconferencing courses, and the roles of professors. I attempt to explain how the current education system fails to prepare its students for the global economy: by limiting women's access to the labor market, and by not preparing men for the realities of the global market and therefore creating the need for migrant workers. In conclusion, conserving culture is significant, but for economic change to occur, the extent of cultural conservatism and its effect on the education system need to be re-evaluated.
The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)
Renal transplantation has evolved as the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. Different oral problems arise in these patients, either as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or pharmacokinetics. To determine the prevalence of intra-oral lesions in a group of medically stable Saudi renal transplant patients (RTP) and to identify possible risk factors, in comparison with age and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCS), we studied 58 RTP and 52 HC...
Al-Mohaya Maha; Darwazeh Azmi; Bin-Salih Salih; Al-Khudair Waleed
This paper reports on updating two important Saudi Arabian crude oils-Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) and Arabian Light-which is part of a continuing series on world export crudes. Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) was reassayed in early 1990; Arabian Light in May 1990. These assays, therefore, replace those that appeared previously. However, as is frequently the case with crudes from major, single reservoirs, there is little, if any, change in their characteristics
This paper reports on updating two important Saudi Arabian crude oils-Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) and Arabian Light-which is part of a continuing series on world export crudes. Arabian Heavy (Safaniya) was reassayed in early 1990; Arabian Light in May 1990. These assays, therefore, replace those that appeared previously. However, as is frequently the case with crudes from major, single reservoirs, there is little, if any, change in their characteristics.
Full Text Available Twenty two haplotypes were generated from a pool of 60 unrelated Saudi ? thalassemia major patients using previously described restriction sites in the ? globin gene. Linkage disequilibrium analysis of the polymorphic sites was also conducted, a few identified haplotypes were novel while the remainder was previously reported, haplotype1222212 was the most frequent haplotype in the study group and a strong linkage disequilibrium between two polymorphic restriction sites in these ? thalassemia patients was uncovered.
Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo has a devastating psychosocial effect. The cultural traditions of Saudi society are quite different compared with the western world. Hence, a quality of life study using a different questionnaire suitable to the cultural traditions of the society is necessary to measure qualify of life in vitiligo patients. Objective : This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL in Saudi vitiligo patients and their family. Materials and Methods : A prospective cross-sectional study at National Center for Vitiligo and Psoriasis, Saudi Arabia. A validated Arabic questionnaire of 41 questions was developed and utilized specifically for this study. Arabic language instrument was distributed to 260 vitiligo patients. Scores were compared in relation to demographic, clinical, and social variables in 4 dimensions of scale (relationship with colleagues, family relationship, social relationship, and self respect. Results : Overall score QOL was 17.1. Mean score for males was 11.1, whereas that for females was 23.9 (P < 0.05. Females scored significantly higher in all the 4 dimensions. Patients with exposed disease lesions scored significantly higher than those with unexposed lesions 5 vs 3.4 (P < 0.05. Conclusion : The overall score of QOL in vitiligo is relatively high, indicating a negative impact of the disease on QOL. QOL in women is significantly more affected than in men.
The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered. PMID:25134311
Al-Natour, Sahar H
This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…
Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah
This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…
Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram
Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma
This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…
This dissertation explores the social responsibility of MNCs operating in Saudi Arabia (SA) and their social impact on Saudi society through survey research using both primary and secondary data. To furnish the reader with a better understanding of this subject, to develop the hypothesis to be tested, and to define NMCs and social responsibility, this author reviewed literature related to MNCs and social responsibility with specific reference to developing countries, particularly SA; described briefly the Saudi environment in which MNCs operate; and determined the number and type of MNCs and their activities in SA as reported in Saudi government records. The author examined the social responsibility of MNCs toward Saudi society by comparing the perception of MNCs' non-Saudi managers with Saudis (managers, government officials, and elite) regarding some specific issues (e.g., MNCs' concerns for profit versus public good); regarding some suggested programs (e.g., training); and through looking at the actual programs undertaken by MNCs (e.g., medical care). The study helped to understand better the nature of MNCs. It indicated that MNCs seem to be attracted to SA, that their number is greater than government records indicate, and that a large number of MNCs have Saudi nationality.
Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi…
Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara
Saudi Arabia has a central role in the world oil market. After analyzing the country's political and economic situation with all its possible outgrowths, this article indicates the various development prospects relevant to Saudi oil production and its future impacts on the market.
Granata, V.; Palermo, M. (AGIP SpA, Rome (Italy))
This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a) the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b) Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c) the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and d) the solutions to overcome Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems. To collect data for this purpose, senior faculty members were ...
Mohamed Ali Al-Khairy
A 2-year study investigated the attitudes of 63 Saudi medical residents and their 74 Western clinical teachers concerning the teacher-student relationship. Conflicts in perceptions in the first year were found to be largely resolved in the second year, possibly because of the study itself. (MSE)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs in Saudi Arabia (SA and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%, trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%, gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%, syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%, human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%, genital warts (1382, 3.5%, genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%, and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%. The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.
Madani Tariq A
The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.
Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud
Background: High fertility levels are of major concern to planners and policy makers in most countries in the developing world. In Saudi Arabia, the rate of population growth is the third highest of the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Objectives: This study aimed at identifying determinants of birth spacing and attitudes toward family planning among Saudi women. Methods: A cross sectional survey of all women who have been married before, aged 15-49 years attending Al Hada armed forces hospital (primary health care and antenatal care clinics), was conducted between 1st February 2005 and 31st January 2006. Data was collected on socio-demographic, biological characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, and utilization of family planning services, pregnancy intervals and medical history Results: For the 786 women included in the study, the mean duration of interbirth interval was 2.38±1.24 years. The multivariate Cox regression revealed that a woman's education, work status, husband's work status, a woman's history of chronic diseases, and husband's encouragement of interbirth spacing were the only significant predictors of longer interbirth intervals. Shorter interbirth intervals were independently predicted by lower family income, and presence of female offspring only or equal number of male and female offspring as opposed to presence of more males. The great majority of participating women (98%) had a positive opinion of the effect of birth spacing on the family. Conclusion: This study showed that certain factors were significant predictors of interbirth spacing for the Saudi women. This should lead to the encouragement of longer intervals between births. However, further studies are needed to ascertain a cause-effect association. PMID:23012155
Abdel-Fattah, Moataz; Hifnawy, Tamer; El Said, Tarek I.; Moharam, Maha M.; Mahmoud, Mahmoud A.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has numerous large monogenetic volcanic fields, known locally as "harrats." The largest of these, Harrat Rahat (Figure 1), produced a basaltic fissure eruption in 1256 C.E. with lava flows traveling within 20 kilometers of the city Al-Madinah, which currently has a population of 1.5 million plus an additional 3 million pilgrims annually. With more than 950 visible vents and periodic seismic swarms, an understanding of the risk of future eruptions in this volcanic field is vital.
Lindsay, Jan Marie; Rashad Moufti, Mohammed
This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements in each shield material were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained from the ICP-MS were used in MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer ...
Okla, Al-horayess; Omar, Al-dayel; Jameel, Hefne; Turki, Al-ajyan; Ali, Bagazi
Ant allergy is a rare clinical problem that ranges from local to systemic reaction and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Different types of ants including the imported fire ants, the black (samsum ants, and others, are considered health hazard in many parts of the world. We report a 32-year-old Saudi female from Hafr-Al-Batin in the Northern region of Saudi Arabia, with history of recurrent anaphylaxis following black (samsum ant stings and we review the related literature. This is the first report of black (samsum ant allergy in Saudi Arabia.
The Saudi health sector has witnessed significant progress in recent decades with some local hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this has not been accompanied by advancement of the electronic-health e-health field, whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals to achieve certain objectives such as enhancing the quality of healthcare, and reducing the time and cost for healthcare delivery. In this paper we investigate the advancement of e-health in the world and in Saudi Arabia. A new model for e-health diffusion in Saudi Arabia is also proposed.
Majid M. Altuwaijri
Ant allergy is a rare clinical problem that ranges from local to systemic reaction and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Different types of ants including the imported fire ants, the black (samsum) ants, and others, are considered health hazard in many parts of the world. We report a 32-year-old Saudi female from Hafr-Al-Batin in the Northern region of Saudi Arabia, with history of recurrent anaphylaxis following black (samsum) ant stings and we review the related literature. This is the first report of black (samsum) ant allergy in Saudi Arabia. PMID:17106560
Al-Shahwan, Mohammed; Al-Khenaizan, Sultan; Al-Khalifa, Mohammed
To examine the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. A large sample of children was selected from the general population by multistage random probability sampling for the assessment of physical growth. A random subsample of children-newborns to 18 years old-was taken from this larger sample for this study. Liver size below the costal margin and liver span along the midclavicular line were determined by physicians. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and medians and standard deviations were calculated. Between 2004 and 2005, 18 112 healthy children up to 18 years of age were examined. All were term and appropriate for gestational age. There were 9 130 boys and 8 982 girls, yielding a nearly 1:1 male to female ratio. The maximum palpable liver size below the costal margin was 2.4 cm. The median and + 2 SD liver span at birth were 4 and 6.9 cm, respectively. There was no difference in the liver span between boys and girls of up to 60 months of age. Thereafter, a difference could be seen increasing with age, with girls having smaller liver spans than boys. This manuscript reports the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. The data should help physicians in the interpretation of liver size determined by physical examination of children and adolescents. (author)
Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)
Full Text Available This article, which opens a new line of research, is intended to make a first assessment of the consequences of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia, in particular during the first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added that while documentary evidence and partial studies on this period exist, it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period is scarce. This article also is concerned with describing the evolution of certain striking aspects of the close relation between the pilgrimage to Mecca and Indonesian migrants looking for work. We need to consider the methods of hiring labor, the networks involved in recruiting it, the organization of travel, as well as the increasing indebtedness of the migrants through intermediaries who, more and more professionally, arrange these attempts to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767
To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kawasaki disease in this study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 3.1+/-2.4 years. Most patients were younger than 5 years (83.3%). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Diagnosis was made 8.1+/-3.3 days after start of fever with a range from 4-15 days. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with 2 requiring another dose of IVIG. Echocardiography was performed 10.1+/-3.9 days from onset of fever with a range of 4-20 days. The duration of hospital stay was 7.9+/-5.8 days with a range from 3-25 days. Three patients had coronary artery abnormalities and still have coronary artery dilatation at last follow-up appointment. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease as delayed diagnosis may lead to coronary lesions. A national awareness program on Kawasaki disease is recommended (Author).
The prevalence of the abnormal polymorphism in the Saudi population of 35.5% is similar to that in Caucasians. Patients with the CYP2C9 polymorphism required 40% less warfarin and had more serious bleeds.
Jalal N. Saour
Saudi Araabia esitatud Lähis-Ida rahuplaan on ajanud Iisraeli juhtkonna tülli: peaminister Ariel Sharon on selle vastu, president Moshe Katsar on aga valmis saudidega kohtuma. Kaart: Iisraeli muutuvad piirid
Laane, Marek, 1969-
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing as a diagnostic tool for cardiopulmonary diseases was extremely underutilized in Saudi hospitals and medical centers. Much greater efforts are needed to raise the awareness among physicians on the usefulness of CPET.
Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa
Healthcare establishments in Saudi Arabia produce healthcare risk waste. Much care is given by the responsible authorities for the management of that type of waste. A program is being established to formulate standards for healthcare waste management
M. A. Al-Zahrani
Full Text Available This is a study performed to identify the risk factors for gallstones in Saudis, taking the patient population of King Khalid University Hospital as a sample. Only Saudis with symptomatic gallstones were studied, the parameters being age, sex, weight, body mass index, fertility, age at menarche and age at marriage. The results showed that sex, weight, body mass index and fertility all appeared to be important factors in the development of gallstones and that the condition affects more Saudi females and at a younger age than reported in the literature, probably due to overweight and factors related to reproductivity. We conclude that gallstones are common in Saudi women and affect them at a younger age than western women, weight and fertility appear to be important risk factors.
Obesity and overweight constitute an important health problem affecting a high proportion of Saudi population. Addressing associated factors, and enhancing public health education is an important aim to focus on for weight control.
Nadira A. Al-Baghli
Hydroxyurea seems to be effective in decreasing the frequency of vasooclusive crises in patient with sickle cell disease from Eastern Saudi Arabia. In this preliminary analysis no major side effects were observed. Long term side effects need to be monitored.
Ali H. Al-Jam'a
The HLA-B50 serologic family is very frequent in people of Arabic origin. In Saudi Arabia, HLA-B50 is the most frequent HLA-B allele. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HLA-B50 alleles in healthy Saudi individuals. A total of 162 healthy Saudi individuals were selected based on low-resolution HLA typing. DNA samples were typed by sequence-based typing method for exons 2, 3 and 4 of the HLA-B locus (Genome Diagnostics B.V.). The HLA-B*50 alleles were analysed using SBT engine software. HLA-B*50:01:01 was found in 161 of 162 individuals (99.4%), while HLA-B*50:09 was found in one individual (0.6%). HLA-B*50:01:01 is the most common HLA-B50 allele in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24256064
Jawdat, D; Al-Hamad, B; Al-Jumah, M; Hajeer, A
Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.
Abeer Abdullah Al Saud
The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.
Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due...
Alangari Abdullah; Al-Harbi Abdullah; Al-Ghonaium Abdulaziz; Santisteban Ines; Hershfield Michael
Background: To compare the current uro-oncologic practice pattern in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care practice and to identify obstacles in our health care system that prevent offering such a treatment. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 247 practicing urologists in Saudi Arabia using a designed questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 19 questions focusing on management of bladder and renal cancers. Results: Of the 247 contacted urologists, 86 completed the ...
Al-Othman Khalid; Al-Hathal Naif
Background and Objectives : Since cervical cancer is reportedly the seventh most frequent cancer in women in Saudi Arabia and the eighth most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 and 44 years, we wanted to determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile women attending the reproductive medicine unit of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Methods : This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study. A Pap smear was done for 241 of 4...
Al-Jaroudi Dania; Hussain Tasnim
Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), PCR and direct sequencing to identify muta...
Rashed Mohamed S; Alsmadi Osama; Al-Mubarak Bashair R; Trabzuni Danyah; Al-Sayed Moeen; Imtiaz Faiqa; Meyer Brian F
Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universities is the adaptation of this element in the traditional university culture. Finding the right design of blended learning is another challenge that is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the time issue is considered a crucial challenge facing blended learning faculty. Practical recommendations that would facilitate transition to a blended learning university environment are presented. It is hoped that this study will help to provide insight for the faculties and the decision-makers throughout higher education in Saudi Arabia. Although this investigation is specifically related to the implementation of blended learning in the universities of Saudi Arabia, we are confident that the assumptions and recommendations contained herein will be of great value to other populations facing similar challenges.
Abstract Background Previous studies have established specific cephalometric norms for children with different ethnic backgrounds, showing different facial features for each group. Up till now, there is a paucity of information about the cephalometric features of Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia, who have distinct social and climatic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to establish cephalometric norms for children living in the western...
Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF2Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a 137Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 ?R h-1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 ?R h-1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)
Full Text Available During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1 along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2 were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the control goats (herd 2. About >80% of the former goats had ELISA percent optical densities (O.D.% ?100 while >86% of the control goats were weakly positive with ELISA O.D.’s (% T. gondii as the cause of abortion in herd 1.
Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field. PMID:24953076
Objectives: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage and the use of infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out during the Third International Conference at the King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, held on March 2012 in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Saudi or expatriate dentists working in Saudi Arabia were included in the study. The questionnaires were designed to meet the obje...
Al-samadani, Khalid H.; Al-dharrab, Ayman A.
In recent years some engineering schools in the Middle East have proposed reducing the amount of basic science courses in their curricula. A conference on engineering education in the Arabian Gulf countries held in Kuwait in 1980 suggested that the number of courses in physics and chemistry should be reduced from the present level (Jamjoom 1980). The arguments often put forward can be summarised as follows. First, engineering students are at present overburdened with too many basic science courses which puts a strain on the average student. This in turn leads to a high drop-out as is witnessed in many engineering colleges in this region. This drop-out, as high as 20% in some Saudi universities, is a cause of great concern among the university authorities. Secondly, it is argued that the number of credit hours allocated to departmental requirements is not sufficient to give a student enough breadth and depth of knowledge in his specialisation in particular engineering branches. Universities in Saudi Arabia follow the American credit-hour system in which courses are given certain credit hours, ranging from two to four, depending on the number of lectures per week as well as laboratory and tutorial requirements. Engineering students have to complete about 150 credit hours to graduate, which they normally do in four to five years. Out of these credit hours, about two-thirds are allocated to core courses (including physics) common to all branches of engineering. The remaining one-third are reserved for departmental specialisation. Since there is no possibility of increasing the overall credit hours necessary for graduation, it is suggested that the extra credit hours demanded for increasing the number of departmental courses should be obtained by correspondingly curtailing those for the basic sciences. When carefully scrutinised the arguments do not appear to be well founded. The reasons for high drop-out can be traced to more deep-rooted factors.
This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia. Second, the policymakers in Saudi Arabia should be more concerned with increasing productivity through adopting new technologies that increase economic prosperity. Therefore, the policymakers should continue diversifying economic resources and reduce their reliance on oil.
Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs. In this report we describe pharmacy education in 3 Middle East countries: Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia. All 3 countries offer bachelor of pharmacy (BPharm) degrees. In addition, 2 universities in Jordan and 1 in Saudi Arabia offer PharmD degree programs. The teaching methods in all 3 countries combine traditional didactic lecturing and problem-based learning. Faculties of pharmacy in all 3 countries are well staffed and offer competitive remuneration. All 3 countries have a policy of providing scholarships to local students for postgraduate training abroad. The majority of students in Jordan and Kuwait are female, while the ratio of male to female students in Saudi Arabia is even. Students’ attitudes towards learning are generally positive in all 3 countries. In Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, most pharmacy graduates work in the public sector, while in Jordan, the majority work in the private sector. PMID:17136159
Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.
Full Text Available Saudi government has made significant efforts and heavily invested in its e-learning innovation in order to offer students alternative opportunity to complete their higher education. However despite all the efforts being made, Saudi Arabia is still in the early stage of its e-learning development and faces many challenges especially for female’s students from their ability to take the benefit of such technology. Therefore, understanding the ability of Saudi women to access and use e-learning is more important than just make it available for them. In other words, the use of e-learning involves not just technical availability but the capability to benefit. In this regards, this paper will review the literature of e-learning accessibility for Saudi women by considering several different aspects including: general information about Saudi Arabia (e.g. country, society, education system, women’s education, higher education and e-learning, challenges of e-learning and women’s capacity to access e-learning freely.
Yahya Al Alhareth
The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA, PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. Conclusions Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.
Rashed Mohamed S
Full Text Available The country of origin or where a given product was designed or assembled has been found to be influential inseveral consumer studies. With the differentiation between the country of assembly and the country of design,the aim of this study was to examine the effect of country of origin (COO factors on the purchasing decisionsmade by purchasing Saudi managers in Saudi Arabia. The study identifes COO for two types of products,machine tools and component parts. Using convenience sampling method, a pilot-tested questionnaire surveywas sent out by email to 531 industrial managers responsible of the machine tools purchasing and componentsparts in Saudi Arabia with a response rate was 62 %, the author presents findings on purchasing managers’perceptions of industrial products sourced from a total of 18 countries. The findings of this study revealed thatCOO is a significant and major factor in Saudi managers’ purchase decisions with respect to industrial products.This study provides Saudi perspectives and insights on the ongoing debate regarding the role of country of originin our increasingly globalized world. The study is timely in view of the continued pace of globalization, withmost multinationals outsourcing their production in one or more countries. The results should be of interest to avariety of organizations involved in industrial products, including designers, manufacturers, buyers and otherstakeholders.
Abbas N. Albarq
In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168
Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B
Full Text Available This paper studies the technical efficiency of Saudi banking sector using stochastic frontier model. A sample of 12 banks over the period 2000 - 2011 is selected to investigate their technical efficiencies in mobilizing deposits, allocating investments and generating income. The banks are categorized as Saudi-owned banks, Saudi - foreign owned banks and Islamic banks. The findings show some consistent pattern of these bank types; and there exist significant disparities among the banks in terms of technical efficiency. The banque Saudi Fransi stands out as a benchmark for the industry, and it is a Saudi -foreign owned bank type. The Saudi owned bank type has shown fluctuating performance during the period; and the Islamic bank type is not significantly different from Saudi-owned bank type.
Bukhari M. S. Sillah
The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record micro- seismicty that is caused by local faults. Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plate, which is known as a relatively stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that was caused by local faults. Most of these events are not felt. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition and SAISAN software for analyses. The velocity model that I have used in this study is IASPEI model. Currently I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia.
Bin Fayez, A.
Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)
Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1-5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804
Darwish, Magdy A; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A
Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. PMID:25114804
Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-Saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.
Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)
Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R, a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. Results: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%, psychoticism (14.8%, anxiety (14.3%, and somatization (14.2%. The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8% and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%. Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level.
Al Gelban Khalid
Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that there has been a continual decline in the average reading ability of college-aged students with approximately one third of a four-year college students considered “at risk” for low academic attainment. The current study assesses English reading comprehension of senior Saudi students majoring in English and Translation in fall 2012 at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The study, moreover, investigates the potential impacts of students’ age and GPAs on their reading comprehension. One hundred three students participated in the study in which quantitative method was used. Two reading passages with different length and topics were given to the students followed by 10 multiple questions for each passage. Major findings of the study indicate that 1 participants of the study showed an overall low reading comprehension X= 9.8, 2 GPA was found a statistically significant factor that impacted students’ reading comprehension, 3 students’ age, on the other hand, had no significant effect, 4 reading courses at the mentioned department seemed to generally focus on reading strategies whereas they should have adequately considered comprehension instruction since reading and decoding words without comprehension becomes meaningless.
Waleed B. Al Abiky
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. RESULTS: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. CONCLUSION: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. PMID:19584586
Al Gelban, Khalid S.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore Saudi cancer patients' views regarding cancer information disclosure and whether differences existed between regions or gender.Methods: In this cross-sectional questionnaire-based prospective survey, we interviewed 332 Saudi cancer patients who received oncological care at King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia from July 2002 to July 2009 to explore their attitudes regarding disclosure of cancer information. Results: The vast majority of Saudi cancer patients wanted to know the diagnosis of cancer (98% and only 2% wanted the information to remain undisclosed. Seventy percent of the women wanted family members to know compared to only 39% of themen (P<0.001. Only 10% of the patients wanted their friends to know. In this study,99% and 98%, respectively, wanted to know about the benefits of therapy and about their diagnosis of cancer. Of both genders, 98% also wanted to know the side effects of therapy and the prognosis. The attitudes of Saudi men and women with cancer were almost identical apart from sharing information with their family members. 99% ofeastern region cancer patients wanted the diagnosis of cancer disclosed compared to74% of those from other regions (P=0.04. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that most Saudi cancer patients wanted disclosure of cancer information. Significantly more women than men wanted to share information with their family. More Eastern region patients wanted to know about their diagnosis of cancer compared to patients from other regions.
Ali M. Al-Amri
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children.Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. Subjects and Methods: We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. Results: A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and 1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Conclusion: Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing coun--tries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every popula--tion should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children.
Al Salloum Abdullah
Full Text Available Renal transplantation has evolved as the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. Different oral problems arise in these patients, either as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or pharmacokinetics. To determine the prevalence of intra-oral lesions in a group of medically stable Saudi renal transplant patients (RTP and to identify possible risk factors, in comparison with age and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCS, we studied 58 RTP and 52 HCS. All subjects had a thorough oral examination and oral lesions were diagnosed according to the clinically accepted criteria. Gingival overgrowth (GO, erythematous candidiasis (EC and hairy leukoplakia (HL were diagnosed in RTP with prevalence of 74.1%, 15.5%, and 8.6%, respectively. The severity of the gingival overgrowth significantly correlated with the use of cyclosporine and nifedipine combination therapy, serum cyclosporine, and serum creatinine level. In conclusions, the finding of our study strongly propose that RTP should undergo routine and regular comprehensive oral examination, and any suspicious lesion must be investigate and treated.
Full Text Available Privacy is one of the most fundamental rights that must be preserved for individuals because it is integral to their integrity, self-respect, and safety. However, it is also a vague concept with a number of controversial issues that need to be addressed from ethical, jurisdictional, and sociological perspectives. The perceptions of both organizations and individuals have undergone noticeable changes since the introduction of communication and processing technologies. Furthermore, with the dominance of the Internet and social networks in business and personal lives, information privacy appears to be a myth as massive volumes of personal information and data are stored in the Cloud and back end systems of organizations. Such systems have created serious legal, ethical, and technological challenges related to information collection, processing, and dissemination. This paper presents the findings of the first phase of a countrywide research project that aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of information privacy practices in the public, health, banking, and private sectors. The results presented in this paper are based on a survey and structured interviews with key stakeholders in multiple organizations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to measure organizational compliance and personal perceptions of information privacy.
Laith A. Alsulaiman
Full Text Available This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements in each shield material were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS. The results obtained from the ICP-MS were used in MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer Code System  to calculate the attenuation coefficient. The theoretical (MCNP4B and the experimental calculations were found to be in a good agreement. In the casw of the largest thickness used, 28cm, the gamma ray intensity passing through the white sand shield was approximately half of the intensity obtained through the red sand shield. The average linear attenuation coefficients were found to be 0.17cm-1 and 0.15cm-1 for white and red sand shields respectively. The study shows that white sand is better for attenuating gamma ray compared to the red sand.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia
Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal...
Hm, Al-kadri; Madkhali A; Mt, Al-kadi; Bakhsh H; Nn, Alruwaili; Hm, Tamim
Full Text Available Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due to a change in the codon from CCT>CTT. Expression of PNP (146L cDNA in E coli indicated that the mutation greatly reduced, but did not completely eliminate PNP activity.
Full Text Available Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagnosed by detecting the virus DNA by the Poly chain reaction technique (PCR. The patient?s renal function stabilized after the calcineurin inhibitors were discontinued.
Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus) is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagnosed by detecting the virus DNA by the polychain reaction techniques (PCR). The patient's renal function stabilized after the calcineurin inhibitors were discontinued. (author)
Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75-60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69-24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09-13.18%), ceramide (2.18-13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53-12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions. PMID:24600311
Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Williams, Joseph B; Champagne, Alex M; Shobrak, Mohammad
Full Text Available Background and Objective : There is limited information on overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to establish the national prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods : The 2005 Saudi reference data set was used to calculate the body mass index (BMI for children aged 5 to 18 years. Using the 2007 WHO reference, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined as the proportion of children with a BMI standard deviation score more than +1, +2 and +3, respectively. The 2000 CDC reference was also used for comparison. Results : There were 19 317 healthy children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age, 50.8% of whom were boys. The overall prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity in all age groups was 23.1%, 9.3% and 2%, respectively. A significantly lower prevalence of overweight (23.8 vs 20.4; P < .001 and obesity (9.5 vs 5.7; P < .001 was found when the CDC reference was used. Conclusions : This report establishes baseline national prevalence rates for overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Saudi children and adolescents, indicating intermediate levels between developing and industrialized countries. Measures should be implemented to prevent further increases in the numbers of overweight school-age children and adolescents and the associated health hazards.
El Mouzan Mohammad
Vitamin D deficiency among healthy young Saudi women of 25-35 years was 30% and 55% in women of > or =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is common in young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are require to augment and encouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake of fortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health.
Haifa A. Al-Turki
Since the prevalence of obesity is high in Saudis and since obesity and hypertension occur together and cause serious complications, it is strongly suggested that measures are adopted to decrease prevalence of obesity and its underlying complications. Awareness programs are required at the level of the general public for successful implication of preventive programs.
M. A. El-Hazmi
This study has shown a high prevalence of overweight and obesity positively correlated with the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among Saudi adult male soldiers. There is a need for concerted efforts aimed at achieving ideal body-weight together with a reduction in the co-existent risk factors for cardiovascular disease.
Dhafer A. Al-Qahtani
Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)
Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
Our experience has shown pediatric living-related liver transplantation to be a success whilst alleviating the need for sending Saudi patients overseas for treatment and providing a solution to organ shortages for pediatric patients. In general, this endeavor has broadened the spectrum of our experience in surgery, anesthetics, intensive care and pediatrics.
Afef F. Bassas
This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…
Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette
Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes
This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…
Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif
With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion
Mitochondrial disorders constitute a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. However, demanding and highly specialized investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis. These are better performed at supraregional centers where facilities for clinical, biochemical and molecular work-up are available.
Mustafa A. Salih
Hb H disease is not infrequently encountered in the Dammam region. This condition should be kept in mind while evaluating patients for anemia. The genetic studies to determine the exact alpha-thalassemia determinants producing Hb H disease in eastern Saudi Arabia are needed.
M. I. Qadri
This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…
Jamjoom, Mounira I.
Risk factors for developing PPH among Saudi women are comparable to other reported studies with a greater influence of parity, presence of APH, multiple gestation, CTG abnormalities and prolonged third stage of labor. There is a need for patient education on family planning and antenatal care, physician education on active management of the third stage, and correct estimation of blood loss.
Hanan M. Al-Kadri
For the suppression of the use of tobacco by adolescents in Saudi Arabia differential intervention strategies and policies in males and females are needed, such as reducing youth access to cigarettes-in addition to intensive school and community anti-tobacco programs.
Abdelshakour M. Abdalla
The Ponseti technique is a safe and effective conservative treatment of clubfoot that decreases the number of surgical interventions needed for the correction of the deformation in our Saudi patients. It is an easy method to understand and to apply by most orthopedic surgeons.
Ayman H. Jawadi
Reviews the current state of bibliographic cooperation in Saudi Arabia, discusses prospects for further cooperation, and highlights difficulties. Concludes with recommendations that King Fahd National Library develop a national cooperative cataloging program and prepare rules and procedures for participating libraries to contribute in various…
Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)
AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)
The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection. PMID:24206838
Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.
Sickle cell hemoglobin C (HbSC is a disease confined to people of West African ancestry and it has not been reported in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. We are reporting 2 patients with HbSC disease from the western province of KSA (Madinah; one patient presented with severe form of the disease which include transient hypertension.
Zakaria M. Al-Hawsawi
Rheological models describe the flow behavior of medium and heavy crude in Saudi Arabia's 746-mi Al-Jubail-Yanbu pipe line. The author explains how the crude's flow properties determine a computer model to be used for economic pipe line design.
Al-Fariss, T.; Ozbelge, H.O.; Desouky, S.M. (Chemical Engineering Dept., King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))
Of the 1,797 babies admitted to a hospital in Saudi Arabia over a 3-year period, 8% were documented as having NNS. Identified several gram-positive bacteria, several gram-negative bacteria, and candida albicans as etiological agents in the cases of NNS. Determined the antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria. (BC)
Elbashier, Ali M.; And Others
This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy
Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…
Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin
Full Text Available Background: Studies in 1980s and 1990s indicated that vitamin D levels in the ethnic Saudi Arabian population were low but no studies since that time have evaluated vitamin D levels among healthy young or middle-aged Saudi men. Thus, we assessed the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD among healthy Saudi Arabian men living in the Eastern Province. Subjects and Methods : One hundred males aged 25-35 years (the age range of peak bone mass and 100 males aged 50 years or older were randomly selected and evaluated clinically, including measurement of serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH and serum 25OHD levels. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum level of 25OHD of ?20 ng/mL and insufficiency as a serum level between> 20 ng/mL and < 30 ng/mL and normal ?30 ng/mL. Results: The mean (SD age of subjects in the younger age group was 28.2 (4.5 years. Twenty-eight (28% had low 25OHD levels; 10 (10% subjects were vitamin D deficient with a mean level of 16.6 (3.4 ng/mL and 18 (18% were vitamin D insufficient with a mean level of 25.4 (2.7 ng/mL. In the older age group, the mean age was 59.4 (15.6 years and 37 (37% had low 25OHD; 12 (12% subjects were deficient with a mean 25OHD level of 16.7 (3.4 ng/mL and 25 (25% were insufficient with a mean 25OHD level of 25.3 (3.3 ng/mL. Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Saudi men is between 28% to 37%. Vitamin D deficiency among young and middle age Saudi Arabian males could lead to serious health consequences if the issue is not urgently addressed.
Full Text Available This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS and Organizational Learning (OL, might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1 the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2 the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research is practical, according to its purpose, and descriptive according to its data collection method. Three groups of employees at Saudi banks were reviewed. Of the 335 questionnaires that were distributed, 285 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 85%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards LS and OL. Also, this study reveals that the aspects of LS have a significantly direct effect on OL.Accordingly, the study provides a set of recommendations that included the need for Transactional Leadership Styles (TALS in general, and Transformational Leadership Style (TFLS in particular, in order to achieve the best response to the needs and wishes of the workers at Saudi banks to increase their contribution to the achievement of OL on the one hand, and raise the level of their performance and enhance competitive advantage of these organizations on the other hand.
Wageeh A. Nafei
This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...
Al-maghrabi, T.; Dennis, C.
Objectives: To characterize congenital heart defects in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and compare with studies from other regions of Saudi Arabia and with international figures. Methods: We conducted a prospective study including all patients attending the DS clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between October 2007 and October 2011. All patients underwent full his...
Bondagji, Nabeel S.; El-harouni, Ashraf A.; Al-aama, Jumana Y.
This study discusses the way in which Saudi academic women perceive their role as academic researchers at Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. My aim is to illustrate and explain the role of women academics who live in a conservative religious culture in Saudi Arabia, and how they fulfil their research obligations. Moreover, I aim to clarify and understand the challenges they face throughout their academic journeys. I have used the method of narra...
Alsudis, Mona Saleh A.
The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers’ perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit and non-credit Foundation English courses as a part of their program, which are not being very effective. These courses do not promote the studen...
Hussain Ahmed Liton
There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin B6 status of adult Saudis in Al-Qassim region-Saudi Arabia. A sample of 239 (127 males and 112 females healthy Saudi adults was recruited. Vitamin B6 status was evaluated by dietary intake and biochemical measurements. Results of dietary intake measurements showed that means of vitamin B6 intake and intake of vitamin B6 to protein ratio for males and females were 1.97±0.58 mg/day, 0.021±0.003 and 1.89±0.61 mg/day, 0.020±0.04, respectively. Results of biochemical measurements showed that means of plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP concentration and average urinary 4-Pyridoxic Acid (4-PA excretion for males and females were 29.6±9.6 nmol L-1 and 7.0±2.4 ?mol day-1 and 31.7±10.4 nmol L-1 and 6.8±2.5 ?mol day-1, respectively. The study also investigated and discussed other health indicators that are related to vitamin B6 status including Body Mass Index (BMI, plasma albumin concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Results of dietary intakes and biochemical measurements indicated an adequate status of vitamin B6. There were no significant differences between males and females in any of the previous measurements. This study indicated an adequate status of vitamin B6 among healthy adult Saudis in Al-Qassim region, however due to the numerous functions and the importance of the vitamin, the study suggested a further evaluation in various groups of the Saudi population in other regions of the country.
Khalid S. Al-Numair
The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyrks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)
Londoni Timesi allikate väitel on Saudi Araabia nõustunud andma oma põhjapoolses õhuruumis Iisraeli käsutusse kitsa õhukoridori, mis võimaldab Iisraeli sõjalennukitel jõuda lühemat teed pidi pommitama Iraani tuumarajatisi. Kaart
During recent years, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has witnessed a tremendous development at an astounding rate. The standard of living rises and mechanization has been apparent in all aspects of people's life. As industrialization and modernization progress, a number of changes in physical activity and eating habits are likely to occur. Indeed, physical inactivity and sedentary living with associated low level of physical fitness are increasingly becoming prevalent in the Saudi society. These lifestyle changes undoubtedly carry unfavorable consequences on health outcomes of the Saudi population. This paper reviews the status of physical activity among Saudi children and adolescents and discusses its implications to cardiovascular health and fitness. From the available evidences, it appears that most Saudi children and adolescents do not meet the minimal weekly requirement of moderate to vigorous physical activity necessary for effectively functioning cardiorespiratory system. Furthermore, active Saudi boys tend to have favorable levels of serum triglycerides and high density lipoproteins-cholesterol compared with inactive boys. Sixteen percent of Saudi schoolboys are considered obese (fat content is above 25% of body mass. Body fat percent of Saudi boys seems to have increased over the past decade. Body fatness correlated significantly with several coronary artery disease risk factors. Based on the available evidences, promotion of physical activity among Saudi children and adolescents appears warranted and national policy encouraging active living is also needed.
Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa
Full Text Available As we know investment in the Saudi stock market (TASI is gaining popularity particularly since 2001 (Report of Aljazira Capital – 2010, it is important to know the impact of different macro-economic variables on the returns of the Saudi stock market. In this regard along with an extensive literature review we also referred specific recent few important studies which considered the Saudi stock return as a dependent variable and other economic factors as the independent variables [Kalyanaraman and Al-Tuwajri (2014, Arouri and Rault (2010 and Onour (2008]. This paper examines the three important factors influencing the returns in the Saudi Stock Exchange (TASI based on the macroeconomic variables of Saudi Economy. The dependent variable taken here is the Saudi index that is TADAWUL All Stock Index (TASI and the three independent variables considered for our study here are the Oil WTI, Saudi Exports and the PE Ratio. Correlation analysis revealed that Saudi Exports and the PE Ratio were found to be highly correlated with TASI at 1% level of significance whereas Oil WTI and TASI are significantly correlated at 5% level. Step-wise regression analysis of the data revealed that the multiple regression models is significant at 1% level and the variable PE Ratio was the most important determinant of TASI followed by Oil WTI and Saudi Exports. Further the three independent variables explain about 93% of variation in the TASI Last Price.
Durga Prasad Samontaray
Introduction In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results Approximately half of all subjects (53.3%) reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001). After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01), a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001), and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001) were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively), whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%). Conclusion Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals’ places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. PMID:25152628
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Al-Assiri, Mohammed H; Al-Omani, Manar; Al Johar, Alwaleed; Al Hakbani, Abdulaziz; Alaskar, Ahmed S
This research project provides a comprehensive overview and current perspective of e-commerce usage and adoption factors in Saudi Arabia and seeks to explain why ecommerce use is still in a relatively immature state when compared to other regions. This study examines Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure readiness for online shopping and explores Saudi consumers’ behaviour and attitudes with regard to shopping online. An online survey was conducted to elicit general perceptions of Saudi consumers...
Full Text Available The Saudi Ministry of Health data indicates that almost 32% of viral hepatitis cases were caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV. It has been widely reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with and may trigger or exacerbate many skin manifestations in 20-40% of patients visiting dermatologists. The most commonly encountered dermatological manifestations of HCV infection globally include mixed cryoglobulinemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous and/or oral lichen planus, urticaria, pruritus, thrombocytopenic purpura, and psoriasis. The current article indicates that HCV infection is increasing in Saudi Arabia and approximately 12% of the reported dermatological manifestations are caused by HCV infection. We recommend the urgent need for large-scale, case-control studies to understand the impact of HCV infection in patients with skin disease.NOTICE OF CORRECTION IN THE AUTHOR'S AFFILIATION IN SEPTEMBER 2014 VOL. 35, ISSUE 6, 2014. P. 1162.
Mona R. Halawani
Previous studies have reported different levels of perception of attractiveness among different ethnicities and among varying education-level groups on facial profile rating.To study the perception of facial profile attractiveness among Saudi dentists and lay-individuals. Digital facial profile images with altered degree of prognathism and retrognathism were presented to a sample of 60 Saudi dentists and 60 lay-persons with equal gender distribution. High reliability of repeated assessment of profile images was detected (ICC=0.982). Significant difference in perception of facial profile was found between genders (P<0.05) and among the groups with different education backgrounds (P<0.001). General agreement was established in both sample groups on average facial profile to be the most attractive and on the most retrognathic profile to be the least attractive. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Pigmentary demarcation lines (PDL are physiological abrupt transition lines between hyperpigmented skin and lighter areas. Recent evidence suggests that they involve the face. Aims: To survey facial PDL in Saudi females referred to general dermatology clinics for various complaints and determine any associated risks. Methods: Screening for facial lines was done in general dermatology clinics over a year. Whenever a patient was found to have facial PDL, a detailed questionnaire and examination were undertaken. Results: Out of 1033 patients screened, 144 patients (14% were found to have at least one of the facial PDLs. The median age of onset was 16 years. The most common line was F with 76 patients (53%. Family history was positive in 51 patients (35%. Conclusion: Facial PDL is a common and chronic pigmentary problem in Saudi women. It should be recognized and differentiated from other similar diseases like melasma. A significant proportion of patients have a milder presentation.
The records of 500 consecutive Saudi Arabian patients referred for orthodontic treatment were examined clinically and cephalometrically for Class III malocclusion. A control group was drawn at random from the same sample. The incidence of Class III was 9.4 per cent, with mandibular prognathism being the commonest presentation of the malocclusion. The upper and lower incisors exhibited a marked degree of dentoalveolar compensation, on dental bases having mean values of SNA--78.77 degrees and SNB--81.17 degrees. The maxillary length was reduced, as were the saddle and maxillary-mandibular plane angles. The gonial angle (ArGoMe), anterior and posterior facial heights, and mandibular lengths (ArGo, ArPo) were all significantly larger than the control group. The cephalometric values of the control group showed the increased tendency to bimaxillary protrusion in the Saudi Arabian sample. PMID:2765469
Toms, A P
The Saudi Ministry of Health data indicates that almost 32% of viral hepatitis cases were caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). It has been widely reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with and may trigger or exacerbate many skin manifestations in 20-40% of patients visiting dermatologists. The most commonly encountered dermatological manifestations of HCV infection globally include mixed cryoglobulinemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous and/or oral lichen planus, urticaria, pruritus, thrombocytopenic purpura, and psoriasis. The current article indicates that HCV infection is increasing in Saudi Arabia and approximately 12% of the reported dermatological manifestations are caused by HCV infection. We recommend the urgent need for large-scale, case-control studies to understand the impact of HCV infection in patients with skin disease. PMID:24888650
Halawani, Mona R
Full Text Available There is a distinct lack of online atlases to visualize and explore cancer incidence in Middle Eastern countries despite the clear benefit that such tools can deliver. This paper describes the development and implementation of a cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia, which is a web-based client-server application with built-in analysis functions for analyzing patterns of cancer incidence. Built using ESRI’s ArcGIS Server API and ASP.NET, the atlas contains 45,532 incidences of cancer for the period from 1998 to 2004, which were provided by the Saudi Arabian National Cancer Registry. This tool is aimed at health care practitioners and researchers, who can use this tool for exploring cancer distribution and investigating trends, and as a decision support tool for service allocation. The tool allows users to map cancer incidence and undertake analyses at four spatial scales from city to national level.
This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)
The first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia is to establish a nuclear research facility. Selection of a research reactor type for such a case is not an easy task. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors are selected for this study. These are: the University of Michigan Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor (GTRR), and University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor (UWNR). The IFDA computer code, which based on the fuzzy set theory is applied here. The results show that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best
Full Text Available The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and English classes in particular. It is believed that if the teacher of English has undergone a pre-service teacher training it is better for the learners of Saudi Arabia. In the other case, those who have not attended pre-service teacher training, they should go for in-service professional development programs in order to equip them further for innovative teaching and educational output.
Intakhab Alam Khan
Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.
Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen
Dracunculiasis is a disabling, and economically crippling parasitic infestation transmitted by drinking contaminated water. Although the disease has been eradicated from most parts of the world, it is still endemic in some tropical African countries. Here we report a 65-year-old female from the southern region of Saudi Arabia with radiological evidence of heavy load of guinea worms. This case could represent the local reemergence of the disease.
Fayaz A. Hakim
Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowled...
Alexeyenko, A. V.; Bartko, K. M.; Adebiyi, I. A.; Faraj, O. A.; Campo, C.
Full Text Available Background: Little attention has been paid to the problem of male os-teopororsis in Saudi Arabia. In this prospective study we assessed the prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabs. Subjects and Methods: We studied Saudi Arabian males > 50 years of age attending outpatient clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, between 1 May 2005 and 30 January 2006. We determined body mass index (BMI and tests were done to rule out secondary os-teoporosis. All subjects had a bone mineral density (BMD measurement of the hip area and the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorpti-ometry (DEXA. A T-score of -2.5 SD that of young, healthy adults was taken as osteoporotic and scores between -1 to -2.5 SD were taken as osteopenic. Results: One hundred fifteen patients (mean age, 61.8±0.75 years; range, 50 to 76 years had a mean BMI of 24.7±0.35 (range, 18.5 to 31. Based on hip scans, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 24.3%. Sixty-four percent were osteopenic. Based on scans of the lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 37.4% and 33.9% were osteopenic. Spinal osteoporosis was more common than hip osteoporosis. Conclusions: Our study indicates that the prevalence of osteoporosis among Saudi Arabian males is higher than among Western males. More studies are needed to determine the national prevalence of male osteo-porosis. It is recommended that serious measures to be undertaken to prevent male osteoporosis to stop any future epidemic of catastrophic osteoporosis-related fractures.
The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.
Al-wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-younes, Abla; Al-omran, Ola A.
Objectives: To present the incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and associated anomalies and to compare the findings with published literature. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted during the period January 2011 to December 2011. We reviewed the medical charts of all cases with ARMs admitted at Al-Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1998-2010. The inci...
Almaramhy, Hamdi H.
Medical education has been and continues to be a priority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since the establishment of the first medical school more than 30 years ago. As the kingdom moves into the new millennium through its 100th birthday, several issues pertaining to medical education are noted. These include selection and admission criteria to medical schools, suitability concerns, and the need for reform of the current undergraduate curriculum as well as allocation and utilization of availab...
Al-sulaiman, Abdulsalam A.
Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional ...
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O
Full Text Available Ali H Hassan11Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the current pattern of third molar impaction in a sample of Saudi patients.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine orthopantomograms (OPG of patients ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (536 males and 503 females were evaluated to determine the frequency of impacted third molars, their levels of eruption, and their angulations.Results: Four hundred twenty-two (40.5% of the 1039 OPG showed at least one impacted third molar, with no significant difference between males (222; 52.6% and females (200; 47.4% (P = 0.284. The most common number of impacted third molars per OPG was one (72.5%. Impacted third molars were 1.64 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla. The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was the mesial (33.4%, while the most common angulation in the maxilla, was the vertical (49.6%. Level B impaction was the most common in both maxilla (48.2% and mandible (67.7%. There was no significant difference in the frequency of impaction between the right and left sides in both jaws.Conclusion: The pattern of third molar impaction in the western region of Saudi Arabia is characterized by a high prevalence of impaction that is greater in the mandibles and with no sex predilection.Keywords: third molar, impaction, prevalence, Saudi
Ali H Hassan
Background/Aim: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a clinicopathologic entity characterized by esophageal symptoms in association with a dense eosinophilic infiltrate currently defined as >15 eosinophils per high power field in the appropriate clinical context. This is the first pediatric study in Saudi Arabia to give the experience with EE and examine its symptom, histology and endoscopy results. Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review of all patients diagnosed with ...
Hasosah Mohammed; Sukkar Ghassan; Alsahafi Ashraf; Thabit Adel; Fakeeh Mohammed; Al-Zahrani Daifulah; Satti Mohamed
Full Text Available A considerable number of studies have investigated the relationship between perceptions of organizational justice and employees’ work attitude. This study investigates the effect of distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice on supervisor support, organization support, supervisor trust and organization trust in Saudi companies. A questionnaire was used to assess the different relationships. Different results were found confirming or rejecting the different hypotheses.
Following an announcement last week by Saudi Basic Industries Corp. that its Ar Razi joint venture plans to build an 850,000 m.t./year methanol plant at Al Jubail (CW December 7, p. 20) comes word that Sabic`s other domestic methanol production subsidiary, Ibn Sina, plans to add 1 million m.t./year of capacity. The new project will likely exceed $300 million.
Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inade...
A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na) is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration w...
Al-zarah, Abdullah I.
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Albaha University, Al Baha city, Saudi Arabia; 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al Baha, 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHSTrust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods: Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results: In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32, followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07, and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69 than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men. Conclusion: A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, incidence rate, age standardized incidence rate, Saudi Cancer Registry
The North-South-Railway, a 2400 km railway system is built in Saudi Arbia. It connects the phosphate and bauxite mines in the north with the plant in Raz Al Zour, and the port in Jubail. In parallel, it provides high speed passenger traffic between Riyadh and the Jordanian border. The Saudi Arabian Railway Company is the Employer and the joint venture of Thales and the Saudi Binladen Group - the Contractor. The network will be equipped with ERTMS L2, and no conventional light signals will be installed as fallback. (orig.)
Fischer, Frank [Thales Deutschland (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Transportation Systems; Gumprecht, Mikko [Institut fuer Bahntechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)
Full Text Available Presently many dairy products are being used in Saudi Arabia. Monitoring and isolation of bacterial activity is of highly significance to sustainable health problems and issues. The objective of the study was to isolate bacteriocin-producing Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB from some traditional Saudi food. A total of 50 samples from dairy products, commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, were screened for presence of natural LAB. The Cell-free Supernatants (CFS of two LAB isolates exhibited antibacterial activities (inhibition zones >10 mm against food-borne pathogens (Lactococcus monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC13076. The growth inhibitory substances of CFS were sensitive to proteases (Protenase K and Pepsin indicating the proteinaceous nature of inhibitors (bacteriocins produced by the two LAB isolates. Their bacteriocins retained activity after thermal treatments (63°C for 30 min, 100°C for 10 min or 121°C for 15 min or at pH ranging from 4.0 to less than 6.5. The two LAB isolates were phenotypically identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (camel’s milk and Lactobacillus paracasei (goat’s milk. The isolated LAB (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei can be used as food preservatives and probiotics since they inhibited well-known food-borne pathogens such as L. monocytogenes and survived acidic conditions (pH 2.5 similar to those of the stomach.
Full Text Available Objectives: Medical students, the future doctors, were presumed to be knowledgeable about physical activity and would have future influence on their patients. This study aims to describe the pattern of physical activity, predictors of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity among a sample of Egyptian and Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out on 319 Egyptian and 297 Saudi medical students. The long form of the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ was used to measure physical activity. Data was analyzed according to the guidelines for data processing and analysis of the IPAQ. Perceived barriers to and potential benefits of physical activity were reported. Results: Physical inactivity was significantly higher among Saudi than Egyptian medical students (41.1% versus 15.4%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of physical inactivity were non-membership in sports clubs (OR =4.6 and use of private cars for transportation (OR=3.9. The most frequent barriers to physical activity are time limitation due to busy study schedule and lack of accessible and suitable sporting places. More than 70% of students perceived that physical activity promotes and maintains health. Conclusions: Because time and access are key barriers to medical student exercise, we believe that provision of free playgrounds in the college to practice sports during free times will promote physical activity in students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 35-44
Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing, anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD. Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.
Mohammed A. Alsaif
Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility of achieving a higher Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER for Room Air Conditioners (RACs that complies with the Saudi energy efficiency standards and satisfies the energy conservation requirements for the Saudi Building Code (SBC. This study considers several design options for improving the performance and efficiency of the RAC in comparison with a baseline RAC unit manufactured by Al-Zamil Company of Saudi Arabia. These design options include the number of condenser and evaporator rows, fins density, frontal area, compressor types, and refrigerant types. The experimental data obtained is through testing the units in Calorimeter according to standard ASHRAE-16. Also, the uncertainty in measurements and its propagation are included in this study. This paper reports the results of a set of measurements carried out on a modified RAC and compares them with the tested baseline RAC unit at similar load conditions. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of increasing the number of condenser rows in comparison with other design options considered for achieving higher EER for RACs.
Abdullah M. Al-Shaalan
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the prevalence of epidemiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, population-based survey of COPD was conducted between June 2010 and December 2011 across the country of Saudi Arabia. A total of 56,000 randomly selected telephone numbers were called, which identified 10,001 eligible subjects; of whom 9,779 agreed to participate. A screening questionnaire included 6 questions related to cigarette consumption and water-pipe use was administered to each participant. Subjects with positive screening results were invited to provide input for a detailed COPD questionnaire. Results: The adjusted proportion of subjects who reported a current, or past smoking history was 27.9%. Gender-speci?c smoking rates adjusted by age were 38.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.5-39.9% in men, and 7.4% (95% CI: 6.5-8.3% in women. The epidemiological definition of symptomatic COPD was met by a total of 249 subjects. The age and gender-adjusted prevalence of COPD was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.1-2.7%. Overall, COPD was more frequently documented (p<0.0001 in men (3.5% [95% CI: 3-4%] than in women (1% [95% CI: 0.7-1.3%]. Conclusion: The prevalence of epidemiologically defined COPD in the general population of Saudi Arabia is 2.4%, which is lower than that reported in industrialized countries.
Siraj O. Wali
Riyadh city and central part of Saudi Arabia are located in the Arabian Plat which is known as a relativity stable platform. However, we have been able to determine some events that were caused by local faults. In addition, we have been able to record some regional Earthquakes that cussed by tectonic movements. Most of these local events are not felt. The Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics Research at King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology installed nine earthquake portable stations in central part of Saudi Arabia around Riyadh city to record local and micro- seismicty events. We are using digital recorders (RefTek 72A) for data acquisition, and SAISAN, HYPOINVERSE software for analyses. Currently, I am using different types of velocity models, and I am developing a map that shows some micro-earthquake events for that region. In addition, it includes some regional events. The objective of this study is to define the active faults in central part of Saudi Arabia, and this study will not only yield additional information regarding the tectonic setting, but also revised hazard assessments for the region.
Bin Fayez, A. A.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the popularity of the telecom companies in Saudi Arabia by considering their profiles on Twitter. Telecommunication plays a vital role in making the communication possible among individuals at geographically distinct locations. With the arrival and penetration of smartphones as a standard, the job of service providers has not remained limited to provide better messaging and voice quality but has been extended to provide competitive value added service and social connectivity to grab and maintain the customer’s pool. This research study, take into consideration three leading telecom operators namely Saudi Telecom Company (STC, Mobily and Zain. The popularity of the telecom companies is evaluated by considering their following on Twitter by confirming the location details and then by executing multi-purpose queries on the verified data to yield interesting results about the popularity of the telecom operators. This study, thus identifies the most popular service provider based on the Twitter following in different regions and cities and based on the provincial data a leading telecom operator in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is also identified.
This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)
Full Text Available The world is witnessing a significant change in the global economic dimension in recent years; this change is reflected in the transformation from traditional commerce to electronic commerce. Confirms this shifts the indicators and statistical estimates the growth of individuals online shoppers in the whole world. Through follow-up of these indicators is clear to the observer different shopping patterns from one country to another and from one society to another. The aim of this study is to identify the consumption patterns used in electronic shopping by the Saudis. To achieve this aim, the on-line questionnaire was used and the respondents were 472 participants. The results showed the lake of use and adoption on-line shopping although the high number of Internet users and increase the experience to use the computers and the Internet by Saudis. Also the results showed that the top five factors that encourage the Saudis to electronic shopping are as follows: Save time, cheaper, easy and faster shopping and delivery services.
Faisal Fahhad Alsharif
Introduction Data on obesity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) are nonexistent, making it impossible to determine whether the efforts of the Saudi Ministry of Health are having an effect on obesity trends. To determine obesity prevalence and associated factors in the KSA, we conducted a national survey on chronic diseases and their risk factors. Methods We interviewed 10,735 Saudis aged 15 years or older (51.1% women) through a multistage survey. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health-related habits and behaviors, diet, physical activity, chronic diseases, access to and use of health care, and anthropometric measurements were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews. We first compared sociodemographic factors and body mass index between men and women. Next, we conducted a sex-specific analysis for obesity and its associated factors using backward elimination multivariate logistic regression models. We used SAS 9.3 for the statistical analyses and to account for the complex sampling design. Results Of the 10,735 participants evaluated, 28.7% were obese (body mass index ?30 kg/m2). Prevalence of obesity was higher among women (33.5% vs 24.1%). Among men, obesity was associated with marital status, diet, physical activity, diagnoses of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension. Among women, obesity was associated with marital status, education, history of chronic conditions, and hypertension. Conclusion Obesity remains strongly associated with diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertension in the KSA, although the epidemic’s characteristics differ between men and women. PMID:25299980
El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Robinson, Margaret; Daoud, Farah; Jaber, Sara; Mikhitarian, Sarah; Al Saeedi, Mohammed; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.
Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the Eastern province, followed by the southwestern provinces. The reported prevalence for sickle-cell trait ranges from 2% to 27%, and up to 2.6% will have SCD in some areas. Clinical and hematological variability exists in SCD in Saudi Arabia with two major phenotypes: a mild phenotype and a severe phenotype. Further studies on the prevalence, molecular and clinical epidemiology of SCD may help predict disease severity and risk stratification of patients to determine whether to receive early intensive care or continued symptomatic care.
Background/Aim: ?-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from mutations of the protease inhibitor (PI). The AAT gene is mapped on chromosome 14 and has been associated with chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective: To determine the frequency of AAT mutations on S and Z carrier alleles in healthy Saudi individuals from Qassim Province in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A total of 158 healthy, unrelated participants from Qassim Province were recruited. They were genotyped for the two AAT-deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, using polymerase chain reaction, with primers designed throughout to mediate site-directed mutagenesis. Results: Of the 158 subjects, 11.39% were carriers for the S mutation (i.e., had the MS genotype), whereas 2.53% were carriers for the Z mutation (i.e., had the MZ genotype). The SZ genotype was present in 3.8% of subjects, while the homozygous genotype SS was present in 1.9% of subjects. No subjects showed the ZZ mutant genotype. Accordingly, frequency of the mutant S and Z alleles of AAT gene was 9.49% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained showed a high prevalence of the AAT deficiency allele in the Saudi population. This probably warrants adoption of a screening program for at-risk individuals, so that they might initiate adequate prophylactic measures. PMID:21727732
Aljarallah, Badr; Ali, Ahmed; Dowaidar, Moataz; Settin, Ahmad
Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation ofled investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)
This study addressed the status quo of instructional software produced by national Saudi Arabian software companies as well as the utilization of commercially produced software at selected 1-12 private schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Descriptive data from a survey of general managers of four major software producers are reported, as well as from…
Al-Saleh, Bader A.; Al-Debassi, Saleh M.
Studied perinatal and neonatal morbidity and mortality of diabetic mothers and their offspring in Qatif, Saudi Arabia. Suggests diabetes mellitus in pregnancy may be a common problem in Saudi Arabia, as poor maternal diabetic control results in high perinatal morbidity and mortality. Results suggest that health education and improved coverage of…
Al-Dabbous, Ibrahim A. Al-; And Others
Full Text Available [No Abstract Available] Erratum: In manuscript “Growth status of Saudi patients with cleft lip and palate” Saudi Medical Journal 2002; Vol. 23 (7: 823-827, the names of the author should have appeared as follows: AlBarakati SF, Alkofide EA.
Sahar F. Barakati
This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi…
Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei
...STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...
This appendix is a companion document to "Saudi Arabia's Curriculum of Intolerance with Excerpts from Saudi Ministry of Education Textbooks for Islamic Studies." The appendix includes selected excerpts in Arabic with English translations for currently-used textbooks in grades 1, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12. These excerpts support the report…
Center for Religious Freedom, 2006
The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…
The present study suggests that intragenic dystrophin gene deletions occur with the same frequency in Saudi patients compared with other ethnic groups. The PCR-based deletion analysis provides a reasonable first step in the diagnostic care of Saudi patients who may be afflicted with DMD and BMD.
This study explored Saudi elementary school science teachers' beliefs about the process of teaching and learning science. This involved the exploration of their views about the new Saudi science curriculum, which emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving. Comprehensive interviews were held in 8 schools with 4 male and 6 female--2 of whom…
Alghamdi, Amani K. Hamdan; Al-Salouli, Misfer Saud
The present study demonstrates that there are gender-specific and age-dependent gender-specific differences in leptin concentrations in healthy Saudi individuals. However, this study indicates that there may be unknown variables that may also influence leptin levels in Saudi women and men.
Rowyda N. Al-Harithy
...Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi...by reason of imports from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi...subsidized by the Governments of India and Turkey. Unless the Department...Commission's views are due within five business days thereafter, or by August...the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, part...
...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia...materially injured by reason of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia...allegedly subsidized by the Governments of India and Turkey...f) of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (19 CFR...
This report provides information concerning one teacher's experience in teaching college courses for Arkansas State University in the area of computer information systems to Saudi Arabian men employed by the Saudi Arabian Customs Automation Department. The students had spent approximately 2 years in Arkansas taking courses, and then went back to…
Rebhun, Herbert F.
Objective was to analyze the results of exercise tolerance test ETT of Saudi women and assess their exercise capacity. A hospital based retrospective cohort analysis was carried out on all Saudi women referred to the Cardiology Department for ETT from February 2005 to June 2007. They underwent symptom limited treadmill test according to the standard Bruce protocol with exercise electrocardiogram monitoring. One hundred and seventy-six women were included in the study. Fifty-one 31.9% patients did not achieve target heart rate. The mean age +/- SD was 48.3+-9.3 years. There was no association of age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, positive family history of ischemic heart disease IHD and hyperlipidemia to achieve target heart rate p>0.05. Exercise time was influenced by diabetes mellitus p=0.054 and hyperlipidemia p=0.044. The mean exercise time +/- SD was 5.15+/-2.63 minutes and the mean exercise capacity +/-SD was 6.29+/-2.52 metabolic equivalent. Sensitivity was 36.4%, 95% CI 29.3-44.6, specificity 92.3%, 95% CI 80.5-96.8, positive predictive value 26.7%, 95% CI 21.3-31.4, negative predictive value 95.4%, 95% CI 90.9-98.3, likelihood ratio for positive result was 4.7, 95%CI 3.1-6.2 and likelihood ratio for negative result was 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.81. Exercise capacity of Saudi women is less compared to similar studies in women from other regions. Exercise tolerance test can be used to rule out presence of IHD in Saudi women, but value of a positive test is less likely to predict the presence of IHD. (author)
No previous study has provided a detailed description of regional variations of growth within the various regions of Saudi Arabia. Thus, we sought to demonstrate differences in growth of children and adolescents in different regions. The 2005 Saudi reference was based on a cross-sectional representative sample of the Saudi population of healthy children and adolescents from birth to 18 years of age. Body measurements of the length, stature, weight, head circumference and calculation of the BMI were performed according to standard recommendations. Percentile construction and smoothing were performed using the LMS (lambda, mu and sigma) methodology, followed by transformation of all individual measurements into standard deviation scores. Factors such as weight for age, height for age, weight for height, and head circumference for children from birth to 3 years, stature for age, head circumference and body mass index for children between 2-18 years of age were assessed. Subsequently, variations in growth between the three main regions in the north, southwest, and center of Saudi Arabia were calculated, with the Bonferroni: method used to assess the significance of differences between regions. There were significant differences in growth between regions that varied according to age, gender, growth parameter and region. The highest variation was found between children and adolescents of the southwestern region and those of the other two regions The regression lines for all growth parameters in children <3 years of age were significantly different from one region to another reaching - 0.65 standard deviation scores for the southwestern regions ( P =.001). However, the difference between the northern and central regions were not significant for the head circumference and for weight for length. For older children and adolescents a significant difference was found in all parameters except between the northern and central regions in BMI in girls and head circumference in boys. Finally, the difference in head circumference of girls between southwestern and northern regions was not significant. Such variation affected all growth parameters for both boys and girls. Regional variations in growth need to be taken into consideration when assessing the growth of Saudi children and adolescents. (author)
Full Text Available Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided.Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ?24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1 <16 years, group 2 (G2 ?16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3 ?19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery.Results: The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81, and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51.Conclusion: The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed.Keywords: adolescent pregnancy, maternal mortality, maternal morbidity, neonatal mortality, neonatal morbidity
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate intake of macronutrients and its relation to Body Mass Index (BMI as well as intake of selected micronutrients in urban and rural healthy adults in Riyadh region-Saudi Arabia. 170 health adults were recruited, 85 of which were urbans and 85 were rurals. Three consecutive days food records were collected and dietary intakes were analyzed by the food processor and other food composition tables. Results showed high intake of macronutrients and prevalence of overweight and obesity in both groups with no significant differences. Subjects of both groups also had high intake of saturated fat. Results also showed inadequate intake of vitamin D, calcium and folate. Few of the participants of both groups had inadequate intake of vitamin C. Intakes of vitamin B1, vitamin B3, iron, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and vitamin B2 was adequate. No significant differences between the two groups were observed except for vitamin D, calcium and vitamin B2 that their mean intakes were significantly higher in urban group compared to rural group. Mean intake of vitamin B3 was higher in rural group compared to urban group. These findings suggested that overweight and obesity among adult Saudis are due to high intake of macronutrients combined with inadequate intake of some micronutrients, which are results of non-balanced diet and inappropriate consumption patterns. The study also suggests that there is a need of increasing the nutritional education and awareness among adult Saudi males.
Abdullah H. Al-Assaf
Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondentsâ€™ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.
Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects. These forecasts become possible when the movement and the development of the mid-latitude disturbances are known very well. To further increase our understanding of the inter-annual variability of thunderstorms in semi-arid areas such as Saudi Arabia, it is necessary to consider the relationship between this variability and the large-scale atmospheric parameters in addition to the geographical features. Moreover, better insight into the monthly variations of the synoptic situations in Saudi Arabia is considered to be important for understanding the broad mechanisms responsible for thunderstorm occurrences in this geographical area. This information is highly important for aviation and other sectors in Saudi Arabia - both public and private. This paper aims to investigate the favourable synoptic environments for heavy thunderstorm initiation and development in Saudi Arabia. The importance of the monthly synoptic analysis of all days (1998-2003), heavy thunderstorm days, and dry days was intended to be demonstrated. Therefore, the monthly mean charts and deviations from the mean (anomalies) of specific meteorological parameters for heavy thunderstorm days and dry days for the months of January-December for the period 1998-2003, was illustrated to examine the synoptic conditions leading to heavy thunderstorm events in Saudi Arabia.
Ghulam, Ayman S.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
A laboratory-based susceptibility study was carried out on snails Bulinus truncatus collected from highland Abha, Asser, Saudi Arabia to Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium to investigate the potential role of Saudi B. truncatus in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium and to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that, compared to Egyptian snails, survival of snails at day 25 post-exposure was significantly higher in Saudi B. truncatus ones. The infection rate was higher in Saudi snails as compared to Egyptian ones. The incubation period was shorter in Saudi snails but the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian than in the Saudi snails. The production of S. haematobium cercariae per snail was higher in Egyptian snails than in Saudi ones. These results suggest that Saudi B. truncatus can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of tissue soluble proteins was done to determine the effects of the parasite on both the Egyptian and Saudi snails. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the occasional presence or absence of certain bands in infected snails in comparison with non-infected one. PMID:19329256
Mostafa, Osama M S; Bin Dajem, Saad M; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.Keywords: cancer epidemiology, ovarian cancer, Saudi Cancer Registry, incidence rate
Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a lack of nutritional knowledge among physicians. As there is no published data in nutritional knowledge among physicians in Saudi Arabia, hence the purpose of this current study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nutrition knowledge questionnaire consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions, was mailed to 105 primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was pre- tested in a pilot study. Non-respondents received a second questionnaire and a phone call. Of the 105 primary care physicians, 59 replies were received (56.2%. The mean mark for correctly answered questions was 51.7%. Approximately 75 % of the physicians described their knowledge of nutrition as `Poor`. The results indicate that physicians are generally aware of information which has been publicized in the medical press: nutrient which helps prevent thrombosis (omega-3 fat; the preventive action of fruit and vegetables against cancer; which nutrients are antioxidants; the nutrient associated with the prevention of neural tube defects (folate. By contrast they have a poor knowledge of other important topics in nutrition: the major type of fat in olive oil; hydrogenated fats; source of vitamin B12; Substance raises the blood HDL-cholesterol level (Alcohol; the association between excess protein intake and calcium loss; the type of dietary fiber helpful in lowering the blood cholesterol level (soluble fiber and Nutrient is protective against hypertension. These results support other data that physicians need more education in nutrition. Nutrition should be an essential part in continuing medical education.
Khalid S. Al-Numair
Full Text Available Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand (Saudi Aramco. 2010.During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.The Multidisciplinary task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both companies and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011. All targets set for the SHALE-1 well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for future utilization as an observation well.
Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = - 0.59o). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.
Alharbi, O.A., E-mail: email@example.com [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Phillips, M.R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Williams, A.T., E-mail: email@example.com [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Gheith, A.M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Bantan, R.A., E-mail: email@example.com [Marine Geology Department, Faculty of Marine Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rasul, N.M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Saudi Geological Survey, Centre for Marine Geology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)
AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence. PMID:23613632
Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M; Almadi, Majid A; Alhammad, Alwaleed; Al Faleh, Faleh Z
Full Text Available AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1 Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2 Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3 Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%. There were 26 (2.2% students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1% and 9 males (1.5%. Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%. The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479, Madinah 1.8% (8/436, and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252. The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.
Abdulrahman M Aljebreen
Few studies have been conducted in the Saudi population on oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and extent of oral lesions in a study among dental patients at a college of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Over a 3-year period, 2552 dental outpatients were interviewed and investigated clinically for the presence of oral mucosal conditions. A thorough oral clinical examination was performed, including a radiographic examination. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically when necessary. Of 383 (15.0%) patients found to have oral mucosal lesions, females constituted 57.7% (n=221) and males 42.3% (n=162). The age range of the patients was between 15 to 73 years with a mean age of 38.2 years. The most commonly affected age group was 31 to 40 years, which comprised 21.4% (n=82) of all affected individuals. The least affected age group were individuals older than 61 years. The most common lesion was Fordyce granules (3.8%; n=98), followed by leukoedema (3.4%; n=86) and traumatic lesions (ulcer, erosion) in 1.9% (n=48). Tongue abnormalities were present in 4.0% (n=101) of all oral conditions observed, ranging from 1.4% (n=36) for fissured tongue to 0.1% (n=2) for bifid tongue. Other findings detected were torous platinus (1.3%; n=34), mandibular tori (0.1%; n=2) aphthous ulcer (0.4%; n=10), herpes simplex (0.3%; n=7), frictional hyperkeratosis (0.9%; n=23), melanosis (0.6%; n=14), lichen planus (0.3%; n=9) and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=1; n=9) and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=13). The findings of this study provide information on the types and prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients. This provides baseline data for future studies about the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population. (author)
Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC) or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE); 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ‘heard of cancer warning signal’ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8%) felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6%) insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information. PMID:22175041
Ravichandran, Kandasamy; Al-Hamdan, Nasser A.; Mohamed, Gamal
Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400 and females (1506 aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use, physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire, and dietary habits (intake frequency per week. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk, but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR and frequency of breakfast (aOR for? Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority.
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M
Full Text Available Abeer A Alharbi,1 Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Postpartum depression (PPD is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods: Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby's sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results: Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%. Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8% had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5% females were anemic during pregnancy (P?0.05. These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03. Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95, but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary. Keywords: postpartum depression, hemoglobin level, anemia, EPDS
Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2010. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic category were divided into melanocytic and non-melanocytic subcategories. Non-neoplastic category was divided into the following subcategories: dermatitis, infection, vascular, vesiculobullous, connective tissue disease, drugs, panniculitis, non-infectious granuloma, degenerative, metabolic, and pigmentary. Results: Three hundred and sixty skin biopsies were reviewed. Out of these, 207 (57.5% were non-neoplastic skin diseases, while 153 (42.5% were neoplastic. Both non-neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.3:1 and neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.2: 1 categories were more common in females than in males. Among the non-neoplastic category, the most common diagnosed subcategory was vesiculobullous disease (n=46, 22.2%, followed by dermatitis (n=30, 14.5%. The neoplastic category was divided into melanocytic (n=31, 20.3% and non-melanocytic neoplasms (n=122, 79.7%. Both neoplastic and non-neoplastic categories were most common in the age group of 46 years and older. Conclusion: Vesiculobullous diseases, dermatitis, and infections are the 3 most common non-neoplastic skin diseases and the most common neoplastic are benign non-melanocytic neoplasms. The prevalence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin diseases in general increases with age.
Layla S. Abdullah
The Palaeozoic petroleum system of the central and Northern Provinces of Saudi Arabia contains one of the most prolific oil-prone source rocks of Silurian age worldwide, the Qusaiba shale of the Qalibah Formation. This source rock is responsible for charging the large, gentle structures of the Central Province with billions of barrels of light, sweet, crude oil. Organic geochemical methods such as biomarkers, organic petrography, and characterization of the source rock facies have been used to determine the most likely candidate source rock for the Paleozoic oils of Saudi Arabia. By using detailed extract and oil characterizations, the basal hot shales of the Quasiba Member of the Silurian Qalibah Formation have been correlated to the oils reservoired in the Permian sands of the Central Province of Saudi Arabia. The Qusaiba shales consist of light to dark gray, clastic, marine shales and can be divided into two main zones: a low gamma-ray response and a high gamma-ray response, both having their own organic geochemical signatures. The low gamma ray zone has almost no source potential and comprises most of the Qalibah shale sequence. The hot gamma-ray zone is located at the base of the Qusaiba Member of the Qalibah Formation and consists of abundant amorphous matter, marine algae, acritarchs, and abundant chitinozoans and graptolites. Carbon isotopes and sterane biomarkers resulted in an excellent correlation between the basal Quasaiba shales and the oils. No other potential source rocks correlated as well, nor did these other potential sources contain the source rock quality, or vertical and lateral regional persistence as the Silurian basal Qusaiba shales. 51 refs., 25 figs., 3 tabs.
Cole, G.A.; Abu-Ali, M.A.; Aoudeh, S.M.; Carrigan, W.J.; Chen, H.H.; Colling, E.L.; Gwathney, W.J.; Al-Hajii, A.A.; Halpern, H.I.; Jones, P.J.; Al-Sharidi, S.H.; Tobey, M.H. (Saudi Arabian Oil Company, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV1 (R0a was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%, similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%. In addition, a small Indian influence (3% was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85% have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.
Bosley Thomas M
Saudi health authorities have acknowledged the role of health informatics professionals in improving the quality of medical services in Saudi Arabia. Different academic programs have been launched by different universities and medical colleges to produce qualified Saudi health informatics professionals. To date, there are no studies that have explained the role of health informaticians and their contribution towards the development of the Saudi health information infrastructure. In this study, the authors clarify health informatics practices and the different skills and job activities accomplished by health informaticians. With the growth in the number of Health Informatics programs within the country, there is a need to identify the current and future of HI professionals and to specify and clearly define the type of job titles describing health informatics roles. The Saudi HI educational programs need to work on linking their program objectives with a Saudi Health Informatics Career Framework (SHICF) and labor market needs. Ignoring such an important issue may result in unemployed Saudi HI graduates or HI graduates working in related fields other than HI. PMID:25000031
Alkraiji, Abdullah I; Househ, Mowafa
Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take care of Saudi patients who are from the dominant culture. In this scenario, a lack of knowledge of Saudi culture among nurses can lead to cultural conflicts and misunderstanding of some of the behaviours and practices of the indigenous Saudi people. Culture is a complex notion; however, being aware of cultural differences and having cultural knowledge can help people to interact safely. Educating expatriate nurses about the cultural heritage of the Saudi people, which is mainly influenced by Islamic teachings, is important to increase cultural harmony.
Almutairi AF, McCarthy A
The Ablah sedimentary succession represents a molasse basin in the Neo-Proterozoic Shield of Saudi Arabia. A rhyolite flow interbedded in the succession has been dated by the Pb/Pb method at 641± 1 Ma, indicating that the basin is a local expression of Panafrican tectonism in the south of the shield. Consequently, the Panafrican phase that has previously been described in the north can now be extrapolated to the south of the shield. This age determination also enables post-Panafrican events, which differ between the south and the north, to be analysed over the entire shield. (authors)
Fungi in the house-dust of houses in the less populated and densely populated areas of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were screened. The screened area included drawing rooms, living rooms, kitchens, bedrooms and bathrooms. A total of 74 fungal species were isolated. The highest number of fungal colonies were found in the living rooms followed by bedrooms. The number of fungal colonies isolated were higher in densely populated areas compared with less populated areas. Aspergillus was the predominant genus represented by highest number of species followed by Penicillium. PMID:10424107
Bahkali, A H; Parvez, S
Full Text Available Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Bader Al-Shafie,2 Abdallah S Al-Omran,1 Mohammed Q Azam11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacy, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi ArabiaBackground and purpose: Osteoporosis is common in the Saudi Arabian population, and its successful treatment requires full compliance. Patients who require antiresorptive therapy, such as oral bisphosphonates, may suffer from other diseases requiring medications, which increases the medication burden and ends up in drug noncompliance on the part of patients, making them vulnerable to osteoporosis-related fractures. We decided to undertake this study to analyze the concomitant medications that osteoporotic patients are receiving at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar.Methods: Osteoporotic patients receiving antiresorptive therapy (ART at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, were identified through the database of the QuadraMed Patient Care system and cross-checked with the radiology database of the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and pharmacy drug-dispensing system between January 2009 and December 2009. Concomitant medication is defined as the use of other drugs for $30 days with oral bisphosphonates, calcium, and vitamin D. Medication burdens are defined as mild (?1 concomitant medication, moderate (?2 and ?4 medications, and severe (?5 medications. The demographic data, such as age, sex, and diagnosis, were collected from the medical records. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS.Results: During the study period, 516 patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis, and 473 were on ART while the rest were using anabolic Teriperatide. Sixty-eight (14.4% of the patients, with an average age of 50.15 ± 2.4 years, were on one medication besides ART, vitamin D, and elemental calcium; 129 (27.3% of the patients, with an average age of 51.6 ± 9.7 years, were taking 3.32 medications, and 276 (58.3% of the patients, with a mean age of 62.1 ± 10.7 years, were on 8.02 concomitant medications. The most common concomitant medications in use were cardiac, endocrine, systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, in that order. This study suggests that the majority of Saudi women who are osteoporotic and undergoing oral bisphosphonate therapy have a concomitant medication burden of $5 other medications. For full compliance with the therapy, the patients' medication burden should be considered prior to selecting the treatment route.Keywords: osteoporosis, concomitant medications, polypharmacy, compliance
This paper reviews the program for drilling and completing the primary well configurations for 4-1/2 in. (114.3 mm) and 7 in. (177.8 mm) Khuff gas completions in Saudi Arabia. The drilling programs associated with these configurations and the typical drilling problems and geological considerations relevant to casing point selections are outlined, as well as types, weights and grades of casings typically run. In addition, drilling fluids, cementing programs and wellhead equipment will be reviewed. Finally, completion procedures are discussed and drilling performance to date is reviewed showing improvement since initial wells were drilled.
INAA was used in the qualitative and quantitative analyses of 48 geological samples from Saudi Arabia. The samples were irradiated in a neutron flux of 2.4x1012 nxcm-2 s-1. Gamma spectra from the high resolution Ge(Li) detector were analyzed using the BRUTAL code. 20 trace elements were identified qualitatively and quantitatively: Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr. The investigation on the concentrations of these elements showed that the high grade area is a differentiated rock that crystallyzied in a late stage of the Umm Al-Birak microgranite area. (author)
Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers w...
Al-Naami Mohammed; Arafah Maria; Al-Ibrahim Fatimah
Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography. The study strongly highlights the importance of prothrombotic disorders and the severe phenotype of SCD as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. (author)
This study investigates the problems of EFL/ESL university students’ unwillingness to speak and take part in class discussions. Saudi students find it inappropriate to speak in class because of their fear to be seen as verbally challenging their teachers' views openly and publicly. Even when they do, they speak a little. This leads to frustration on the side of the teacher, in addition to the absence of any clear feedback from the students: whether they have/have not understood the lect...
This study investigated whether hypnotherapy provides a significant therapeutic effect in Saudi Arabian patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Patients (n=26) were consecutively recruited at a psychiatry outpatient clinic after diagnosis by a gastroenterologist and a medical evaluation for irritable bowel syndrome. Each patient had 12 sessions of hypnotherapy over a period of 12 weeks (1 session per week). Patients completed a scale measuring symptom severity before and 3 months after the trial. Hypnotherapy significantly enhanced a feeling of better quality of life more in male than in female patients, and bowel habit dissatisfaction was reduced more in female than in male patients. PMID:17684852
Al Sughayir, M A
Full Text Available This is the first report from Saudi Arabia studying the normal reference intervals in adult Saudi subjects and evaluating serum cystatin C as a prospective marker for the assessment of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Three hundred healthy adult Saudi subjects including 156 males (52% and 144 females (48%, with a mean age of 31.21 ± 9.82 years were prospectively studied to establish normal reference ranges for cystatin C. A total of 68.34% of the study patients were in the age-group of 21-40 years. The mean serum cystatin C in the 300 healthy subjects was 0.751 ± 0.11 mg/L (0.50 - 1.09, increasing gradually with age: it was 0.738 ± 0.11 mg/L (0.51 - 1.09 in the age-group 21 - 30 years and 0.807 ± 0.12 (0.51 - 1.09 among subjects who were > 50 years of age. The mean serum cystatin C in females (0.778 ± 0.118 mg/L was significantly hig-her than in males (0.726 ± 0.095 mg/L (p < 0.0001. The serum cystatin C level was within the defined reference range of 0.53 - 0.95 mg/L in 95% of the subjects with a mean value of 0.74 ± 0.097 mg/L, and was falling within the 95% confidence interval of 0.73865 - 0.7637 mg/L, and with 98.84% area under the curve (AUC. All the other renal function markers (urea, serum crea-tinine, calculated GFR, BMI among the studied subjects were within the normal reference ranges for adult Saudi population. The serum cystatin C level had a significant correlation with the body mass index (BMI (r = 0.155; p = 0.007 and a correlation with serum creatinine as well (r = 0.009; p = 0.873. It showed a negative correlation with calculated GFR as per Cockroft-Gault equation (r = - 0.101; p = 0.083.
Al Wakeel Jamal
A passive solar test facility has been designed for Dammam, Saudi Arabia. It will be located on the campus of King Faisal University, adjacent to the Persian Gulf. This maritime desert climate is terribly sevre, and one for which it is a formidable challenge to design a year around thermally efficient building. This facility incorporates seven different passive strategies: proper orientation, operable shading for windows, flow-through ventilation, externally insulated thermal mass, wind tower with direct evaporative cooling, indirect evaporative cooling through a double shell, and solar water heating. Construction should begin in June of 1983. Upon completion, the building will be monitored for at least two years.
Background In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ?24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1) <16 years, group 2 (G2) ?16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3) ?19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery. Results The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81), and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51). Conclusion The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed. PMID:24729733
Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Madkhali, Azza; Al-Kadi, Mohammed T; Bakhsh, Hanadi; Alruwaili, Nourah N; Tamim, Hani M
Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.
Full Text Available Academic research represents the backbone of human activity in the way that it improves our quality of life through expanding frontiers of academic knowledge and making further research possible throughout the world. Academic research aims to provide solutions for many current problems. The importance of academic research has grown at universities and research centres in Saudi Arabia, fuelled by dramatic increases in governmental and private funding for research. This study focuses on the academic publication processes in Saudi Arabia, the barriers that affect researchers’ ability to carry out and publish research and the potential advantages and disadvantages offered by the Internet in the area of academic publishing. The data collection and analysis presented in this study addresses the extent to which such benefit could be realised in practice. This research reviews the limitations of research publishing in Saudi Arabia by focusing on the nature of academic journals, in terms of their numbers and purpose, the barriers that academic staff faced when they wished to publish their research work in local or international academic journals, and the attitudes of academics towards electronic publishing and publishing in general. This research uses questionnaire tool. The data are tabulated and analysed in a systematic method to show findings in accordance with required objectives. The most prominent findings from this study are the lack of academic staff encouragement to conduct and publish research, lack of financial support to the research publishing sector, lack of a research publishing infrastructure and a lack of private sector support for funding research and publishing. An interesting finding is that unlike many other countries, there is no culture of volunteering for work that does not provide direct financial benefit. This could be an important factor affecting the adoption of an online open publishing approach in which reviewers and editors are not paid directly for the work. This research ultimately aims at proposing and implementing suitable processes and policies to solve these problems and to identifying means of overcoming the research publishing barriers in Saudi Arabia.
Jumaan Abdulqader Alzahrani
The number and quality of organs offered for liver transplantation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia over the past 6 years has been deteriorating with a negative impact on the liver transplant programs. Adopting new strategies is required to support the donor program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is proposed that establishment of donor promotion offices in major hospitals can change the dismal picture of organ donation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia even at the current consent rate by better utilization of the available donors.
Mohammed I. Al-Sebayel
To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students.A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionnaires were then statistically analyzed. This Pilot study of 500 students was performed in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital using high schools from the city of Jeddah between April and June 2009. The results were used to build up a base for designing a community educational program. Analysis of the data from 337 questionnaires from high school and college students showed that the level of knowledge of young females on breast cancer is limited. However, it also indicated that the students are very enthusiastic to learn about cancer breast, and its prevention. The limited knowledge level of breast cancer in the younger generation might be an obstacle to screening programs and early diagnosis. Awareness programs should be developed including lectures, seminars workshops, and on hands training (Author).
BK human polyomavirus (BKV) causes an asymptomatic primary infection in children, but later, establishes latency mainly in the urinary tract. Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well-understood. We present here a 12-year-old Saudi boy, who had renal transplant in Egypt. Seven months later, he was admitted to our Pediatric Nephrology Unit as a case of renal impairment. He developed BKV infection, diagnosed and successfully managed in our hospital. This case demonstrates the expanding clinical importance of BKV in a post renal transplant patient. This virus can be detected in transitional cells in the urine (decoy cells) using cytology. Testing for BKV deoxyribonucleic acid in urine and blood is an early detection assay, and can be used as a screening test in the early stages. The early reduction of immunosuppression can improve the prognosis. No specific antiviral treatment has been established yet. This is the first report of detecting BK virus in a Saudi post-transplant child in urine and blood specimens by using polymerase chain reaction. (author)
Full Text Available Given the significant investment in e-government programs internationally and the pertinent need fore-government readiness to allow such programs to germinate, the purpose of this study is to assessOrganizational E-Government Readiness (OEGR in Saudi Arabia. Based on interviews held with leadinge-Government officials in Saudi Arabia, the study contributes a conceptual framework to evaluate OEGR factorsin order to advance public sector transformation to E-Government. The study reveals that key factors pertainingto strategy, integration with national E-Government programs, access, portal, process, technology and peopleissues should be critically assessed in evaluating OEGR. The OEGR framework provided in this study issignificant as it can be used by a range of stakeholders including information technology managers and policymakers in improving OEGR within the public sector and thus, in increasing the quality of public service delivery.Academic research examining the main internal organization factors leading to e-Government readiness is stillsparse. The research extends the literature on e-readiness by adopting an organizational level perspective in ane-Government context.
Ibrahim A. Alghamdi
In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planningergy planning
This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available brands of domestic bottled water in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor, and trace elements) is determined and compared with the chemical content labeled on the bottles and with drinking water standards of Saudi Arabian, World Health Organization, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The obtained results indicated that except for fluoride and bromate, the concentrations of dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, nitrate, and trace elements of most bottled waters on sale were within the permissible limits set by standards used. On the other hand, the comparison between determined and reported label values recorded a substantial variation in some parameter values. Results indicated that more than 18 % of the sampled bottled waters exceeded the allowable limits for drinking water. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters were sodium chloride-sulfate type; however, the hydrochemical modeling indicated that all water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite. PMID:23232848
Al-Omran, Abdulrasoul M; El-Maghraby, Salem E; Aly, Anwar A; Al-Wabel, Mohammed I; Al-Asmari, Zafer A; Nadeem, Mahmoud E
Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.
Ashraf E.M. Khater
The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15-20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines' uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine's efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students' reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P Saudi school students aged 15-20 years old have poor knowledge, misconception and negative attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students' practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406
Eldalo, Ahmed S; Yousif, Mirghani A; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad
Full Text Available A study was conducted during 2006 and 2007 in Eastern Saudi Arabia to provide the needed information about the vegetation of sand dunes and sabkhas in the region and to provide insight into the factors controlling community distribution. Eastern Saudi Arabia with arid climatic conditions has sparsely distributed sand dune and sabkha vegetation cover. The vegetation comprises of perennial herbs, dwarf shrubs and few tree species. Seven major plant communities were recognized according to their dominant and co-dominant species: Panicum turgidum-Stipa capensis, Panicum turgidum-Pennisetum divisum, Panicum turgidum-Zygophyllum coccineum, Lasiurus scindicus-Stipagrostis plumose, Aeluropus lagopoides-Halopeplis perfoliata, Tamafix arabica-Aeluropus lagopoides and Zygophyllum coccineum-Cyperus conglomeratus. The seven communities represented different combinations of species. Soil organic carbon, soil salinity and soil water holding capacity appear to have a substantial influence on determining vegetation composition and abundance. In general, there are 45 species in the study area differing in their relative abundance, frequency and richness.
Mohammed A. Al-Fredan
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Ser [...] um prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4'ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P
O.Z., Al-Abdin; D.M., Rabah; G., Badr; A., Kotb; A., Aprikian.
The atmospheric turbidity has been calculated and averaged for 29 places around the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using a nine years solar radiation data covering the period from 1971 to 1980. The turbidity values were found to range from 0.1 to 0.4, and the overall average of the turbidity was 0.281±0.056. The minimum value was in Sirr-Lasan (0.168±0.028) and the maximum value was 0.474±0.090 in Riyadh. The low value of the turbidity indicates that the sky of Sirr-Lasan (2100 meter above sea level) may be the clearest sky in the country if the turbidity is taken to be the main factor in preliminary site selection for astronomical observatory. Correlations between the turbidity and geographical coordinates have been investigated and have shown a weak relation between them. Also, seasonal variations studies have shown no significant distribution, which means that each station has its own trend. The low values of the turbidity indicate that the Saudi Arabian sky has relatively small disturbance in the atmosphere.
Al-Mostafa, Z. A.
Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)
Full Text Available Strangles is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect the respiratory system of the horse. The disease is characterized by fever, nasal discharges and enlargement of the associated lymph nodes. Strptococcus equi the causative agent of strangles, is a Gram positive bacteria. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of strangles among horses residing on horse farms in main regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To achieve this goal, field visits were made to horse farms in Al-Ahsa, Dammam, Jubail, Riyadh, Jeddah and Tayf. A total of 75 farms that contain 926 horses were visited. Farm owners and managers were questioned regarding the presence of signs similar to strangles. In the meantime, horses were clinically evaluated. This survey indicated no horses were strangles confirmed. Finally, 35 horses admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at King Faisal University were examined. These horses were admitted for signs of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination as well as bacterial culture indicated they were strangles free. Strangles seems not to be a threat to horses in Saudi Arabia.
Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby’s sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%). Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8%) had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5%) females were anemic during pregnancy (P?0.05). These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03). Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95), but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary. PMID:24570584
Alharbi, Abeer A; Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad
A nationwide aerobiologic study is in progress in Saudi Arabia using Burkard 7-day volumetric spore traps to determine the major airborne allergens and their seasonal patterns. Eights months readings have been completed at Al-Khobar, an important coastal city on the Arabian Gulf. Pollen levels showed a double season. An autumnal peak reached its maximum in October rising sharply from the low summer values before falling during the short winter then rising again in springtime. Both local and imported flora were represented with chenopodiaceae, grasses and Ambrosia as the most common botanical groups, identification of the most significant individual species is still in progress. Fungal spores also show distinctive seasonal patterns. In descending rank order from the most common genera were Cladosporium, Ustilago, Alternaria, with Chaetomium and Ulocladium as consistent but minor components. Basiodiospores and Ascospores represented less than 10% of the total spore population, indicative of the dry nature of the climate. Desert dust added an important irritant to the Saudi atmosphere but a major contaminating factor to the aerobiological material being analysed. PMID:2789674
al-Nahdi, M; al-Frayh, R; Hasnain, S M
Full Text Available Due climatic variability and anthropogenic changes, floods have been raised lately in several regions worldwide. The resulting impact from floods is often harmful. This can be applied to Saudi Arabia, the country which is known by dry climatic conditions, and it became lately a typical region for such natural hazard. Hence, floods are observed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. Jeddah, a coastal Saudi city on the Red Sea to the west, has witnessed severe event in November 2009, when flooded water and sediments (torrents invaded the urban areas and resulted decease of many people and destroyed the infrastructure and civilized zones. The lack of mitigation implements exacerbated the problem. This study implies an assessment of flood hazard risk in Jeddah region. It aims to identify the zones subjected to flood and then inducing the influencing factors at different levels of effect. For this purpose space techniques were utilized, with a focus on IKONOS satellite images, which are characterized by high resolution in identifying terrain features. In addition Geographic Information System (GIS was also used to support space techniques. Thus, damaged areas and the mechanism of flooding process were recognized. This helps avoiding further urban expansion in areas under flood risk and will aid decision maker to put new strategies for hazard management.
Mashael Al Saud
Full Text Available Pegmatite is the main source of feldspar for ceramics industry. Usage of pegmatite in ceramic industry causes some problems due to the presence of mica and iron oxides. These materials reduce tile strength, hardness and density of the final product leading to low quality ceramic products. Southern Saudi pegmatite separation treatment was carried out in two phases in order to improve the ceramic quality of the feldspar obtained from this pegmatite. The first phase consists of gravitational separation to remove the heavy impurities and in the second phase magnetic separation was carried out to further minimize iron content. Porcelain ceramic batches were prepared by wet-mixing, drying, pressing (semi-dry press and fired at temperatures from 1000 to 1350 °C. The porcelain ceramic bodies were prepared and examined by DTA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and tested for bulk density, linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength. These results indicated that, after treatment (gravity and magnetic separation, the pegmatite can be considered as a good source of potash feldspar. The present study provides a positive indication for using of Southern Saudi pegmatite after treatment in ceramic industries.
Hassan M.H. Al-Marzouki
Puberty is the gradual transition period between childhood and adulthood. Many factors may contribute to the onset of puberty. The objective of the study was to determine the age of onset of secondary pubertal characteristics among Saudi Arabian girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a cluster sample design. Seven hundred and twenty-five schoolgirls between the ages of 6 and 16 years from diverse socioeconomic levels were included. During physical examinations, the height and weight of the girls were recorded, and the stages of breast and pubic hair development were determined according to Tanner stages; axillary hair development was determined according to modified stages. The median age at Tanner stage 2 for breast and pubic hair development was 10 years. The median age at stage 2 in modified scales for axillary hair development was 12 years. In conclusion, the median age of the onset of breast development at Tanner stage 2 for Saudi girls in Riyadh is lower than what has been reported in some countries in Europe, South Africa, Turkey and India but similar to girls in Hong Kong, China and white girls in the USA, which may support secular trends of an earlier onset of puberty. PMID:23640021
Felimban, Naila; Jawdat, Dunia; Al-Twaijri, Yasmin; Al-Mutair, Angham; Tamimi, Waleed; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamim, Hani; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim
Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.
Full Text Available An analysis has been carried out on the chorological units of Saudi Arabia. Three chorological units have been identified within the country, based on the richness of endemism. They are: Saharo-Sindian regional zone, Somalia-Masai regional centre of endemism and the Afro-montane archipelago-like regional centre of endemism. The Saharo-Sindian regional zone is divided into three subzones; of which, Nubo-Sindian local centre of endemism and the Arabian regional subzone are present in the Kingdom. The boundary line of the Nubo-Sindian local centre of endemism within Saudi Arabia has been extended towards the eastern region to cover most of the regions in the western Najd. The Somalia-Masai region contains the highest percentage (25.66% of species. The highest number of uni-regional endemics per unit area is found in the Afromontane archipelago-like regional centre of endemism while the lowest of that is in the Arabian regional subzone.
Ahmed H. Alfarhan
Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory. PMID:24699922
Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, Saudi Cancer Registry, corpus uteri cancer, age standardized incidence rate
The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...
Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful
Full Text Available This study aims to explore whether Saudi listed companies are using performance measures to evaluate their internal audit function and, if they are, what performance measures they use to evaluate internal audit function and the identity of the important measures from the perspective of internal auditors. A questionnaire was designed and distributed to internal auditors in Saudi listed companies. The results show that Saudi listed companies are using both quantitative and quantitative performance measures to assess the internal audit function performance. Also, we find that internal auditors rank quantitative measures as important while qualitative measures are ranked as unimportant. The current study contributes to the existing literature by identifying key performance measures for the internal audit function in an emerging market, and provides valuable information about how to measure internal auditing performance. Also, this study is considered as the first one in Saudi market that identify such variable.
Qasim Mohammad Zureigat
During the November 12-14, 1981 mission of the space shuttle Columbia, the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) recorded radiances in 10 channels along a 100m wide groundtrack across the western Saudi Arabian shield.-from Authors
Rowan, L. C.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Abbott, E.
Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market. (author)
Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market
The present study provides age-specific reference values for heart rate (HR of Saudi children and adolescents based on a large study sample. The use of these standards should aid the identification of children with abnormal HR.
Mansour M. Al-Qurashi
Cardiac diseases, as a group, constitute a significant risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. Early diagnosis of these diseases is important to prevent further recurrences of stroke, and because some of them are potentially curable.
Mustafa A. Salih
Perhaps this is the first case of bertiellosis studeri record in Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia. The patient was resistant to Niclosamide but successfully treated with Commiphora molmol extract. PMID:20503589
Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M; Saleh, Nagla Mostafa K; Morsy, Tosson A
...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...
This study represents the first time that molecular tracing techniques have been used to identify patterns of tuberculosis TB infection in Saudi Arabia. The 2 strains were isolated from a socio-economically advantaged family who share a number of common facilities including a car and a driver. There are several factors that may play vital roles in on-going transmission of TB in Saudi Arabia including a high number of expatriates, the Hajj pilgrimage, and the social habits of Saudi citizens. Our sibling case series is believed to be a frequent pattern of disease transmission in this country. Control measures such as health education, active case finding, and prompt and supervised medical treatment are needed. More studies using molecular techniques are recommended to find the incidence of cross infection in Saudi Arabia. In addition, molecular techniques have to be established in all reference laboratories to help the detection of ongoing active transmission, molecular epidemiology and detect sources of infection. (author)
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion improved the glycemic control in diabetic Saudi children with decreased frequency of hypoglycemic episodes and DKA events. Long follow-up studies are needed to confirm these results.
Bassam S. Bin-Abbas
Twenty two haplotypes were generated from a pool of 60 unrelated Saudi ? thalassemia major patients using previously described restriction sites in the ? globin gene. Linkage disequilibrium analysis of the polymorphic sites was also conducted...
Jameela Shinwari; Tahani Alshehri; Tahir, Asma I.; Abdullah Al Jefri; Abdulkareem AlMomen; Dana Bakheet; Mohammad AlAnazi; Arjumand Warsy; Nada Al Tassan
The majority of students were willing to donate organs, and more dissemination of information can increase the awareness of the public, including students, to the importance of organ donation and transplantation in Saudi Arabia.
Saad A. Al-Ghanim
A considerable proportion of Saudi preschool children is obese and even a greater proportion is physically inactive. Obesity and physical inactivity represent major risks for a number of non-communicable diseases, and an early intervention is most appropriate.
Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa
The study shows that acetabular dysplasia is very rare in adult Saudi hip joints, which are less dysplastic than many other populations. This could be a contributing factor for the very uncommon prevalence of hip osteoarthritis in this population.
Full Text Available The first record of M. argenteus from the Arabian Gulf coasts of Saudi Arabia is confirmed, based on a sample measuring 158 mm in SL. Morphometric and meristic data are provided for this specimen.
Jawad, L. A.
As a group, congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies constitute a significant risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. Recognition of these diseases is important since some are treatable and because other family members may be at risk.
Mustafa A. Salih
Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, thanks to the foresight and generosity of the Al Saud ruling family, has always devoted great efforts to the development of education. Investments in higher education, in particular, have increased exponentially in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to introduce some facts and figures about the new developments of the Saudi higher education system and to explain how past, present and future policies on education in Saudi Arabia embody the idea of education as a matter of public concern and interest. The paper suggests that a Saudi Arabian knowledge society is in the making, at its own pace, and the country is preparing to play a very important role in the international competition for excellence in education.
In a population of mostly Saudi patients, primary and secondary drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is relatively low but has increased lately. Previous history of antituberculosis chemotherapy and young age are risk factors identified.
Abdulrahman A. Alrajhi
Full Text Available The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999 for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and the number of driver license are Granger-causes each other in Saudi Arabia. With these findings, we affirm that there is a strong relationship and effect between road traffic accidents and its population, GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and the number of driver license. The findings suggest that the coefficients are negative signed and statistically significant in all VECMs, implying that there is bi-directional causality between the variables of interest in the long run.
Mohammed Moosa Ageli
This paper presents recent petroleum exploration and development in Saudi Arabia. At present Saudi Arabia yielding crude oil of 8 million BPD is the biggest oil yield and export country in the world. The estimated amount of oil deposits of nearly 2.6 hundred billion bbl accounts for nearly 25% of that over the world. Oil exploration was started by American enterprise in 1933, and a promising oil deposit was first confirmed in carbonate rocks in Jurassic Arabian stratum in 1938. The survey area of oil exploration gradually expanded up to all of eastern provinces and Arabian Bay. Ghawar oil field largest in the world and Safaniya oil field largest in the world as marine oil field were found in 1948 and 1951, respectively. Oil exploration in Central Arabia started in 1988 after nearly 50 years from oil exploration in eastern provinces, and low-sulfur/super-light oil was found in Paleozoic sand rock stratum. Up to this day light oil was confirmed at 15 sites in these areas, and further oil exploration is now in promotion. 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Murata, N. [Arabian Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) has a growing potential in Saudi Arabia, due to widespread use of the internet and the maturity of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of E-Commerce websites in Saudi Arabia, using a proposed evaluation instrument. To achieve this aim, six E-Commerce websites were selected for evaluation and then categorized into three categories: domestic, regional and international. Each category consisted of two...
Alotaibi, Mutlaq B.
Study of the enclosed (sheltered) and open (unsheltered) spaces in two tradiational and three-contemporary settlements in Saudi Arabia - comparative analysis of micro climatic conditions - solar exposure - analysis of the differences in the design approaches of the old and new ''modern'' developments - recommendations for the appropriate approach to the design of enclosed and open spaces in the arid regions of Saudi Arabia.
Talib, K.; Al-Zamil, A.A.
Current malaria treatments are based on the use of artemisinin based combinations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the combination of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine/artesunate is the first line of treatment of uncomplicated malaria, while lumefantrine/artemether (Coartem®) is used as a second option. The treatment of severe malaria rests on the use of quinine or artesunate. In Saudi Arabia, most cases of malaria are imported, mainly from emigrant workers from the Indian subcontinent...
Alexis Nzila; Ibrahim Al-Zahrani
Objectives: To assess the relationship between current pre-admission criteria and medical student’s grade point average (GPA) at the end of year 6 in 3 medical schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted this observational analytical study at 3 government medical schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and February 2012. High school grades, achievement test (Tahsili test) scores, aptitude...
Aly, Syed M.; Yasir Alnemary; Albishri, Jamal A.
Nazri Omar,1,2 Charbel T Bou Chacra,1 Khalid F Tabbara1,3,4 1The Eye Center and The Eye Foundation for Research in Ophthalmology, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia; 3Department of Ophthalmology, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4The Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and...
Ct, Bou Chacra
In the view of this high prevalence, we believe that all donors considered for liver transplantation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia should be tested for hepatitis B core antibody. Furthermore, an algorithmic approach should be developed to minimize the risk of transmitting hepatitis B virus from donors to liver recipients, at the same time not to affect the existing small pool of available donor organs in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Mohammed I. Al-Sebayel
We found a high prevalence for HBV and HCV in a group of Saudi infertile population. The HIV prevalence was found to be 0%. Due to the risks of cross sectional and vertical transmission of these infections, and despite the low incidence of HIV infection and the cost implications, it is important to screen all Saudi infertile couples for these infections prior to embarking on fertility treatments.
Aisha A. Mansoor
This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influe...
Rayed AlGhamdi; Jeremy Nguyen; Ann Nguyen; Steve Drew
Abstract Background Human origins and migration models proposing the Horn of Africa as a prehistoric exit route to Asia have stimulated molecular genetic studies in the region using uniparental loci. However, from a Y-chromosome perspective, Saudi Arabia, the largest country of the region, has not yet been surveyed. To address this gap, a sample of 157 Saudi males was analyzed at high resolution using 67 Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotypic diversity for its m...
Cabrera Vicente M; Larruga Jose M; González Ana M; Hellani Ali; Abu-Amero Khaled K; Underhill Peter A
Atypical squamous cells of undeterminate significance, LSIL, HSIL, invasive cervical carcinoma and sexually related infectious diseases are less frequently encountered in Saudi women and occur at older age compared to the Western countries. Fewer women are screened for this disease in this region and health education is very important to encourage more Saudi female to have this important screening test particularly in this region of KSA.
Howaida A. Elhakeem
This study investigates the type and frequency of language learning strategies used by Saudi EFL students. The subjects were 701 male and female Saudi EFL students enrolled in an intensive English language program at the University of Ha’il. The Oxford Strategies Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) was used with some modifications. The study seeks to extend our knowledge by examining the relationship between the use of language learning strategies (LLS) and gender and proficiency level. T...
The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country
Background and Objective: Hysterectomy is a common surgical procedure among women with a lifett time prevalence of 10%. The indications and complications of this procedure have not been previously reported from a teaching institution in Saudi Arabia. We examined the indications for hysterectomy and the surgical morbidity for women undergoing hysterectomy at a university hospital in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the records of women who underwent hyst...
Sait Khalid; Alkhattabi Maysoon; Boker Abdulaziz; Alhashemi Jamal
Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud b...
Alkhayal A; Aldhukair S; Alselaim N; Aldekhayel S; Alhabdan S; Altaweel W; Me, Magzoub; Zamakhshary M
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the level of evidence (LOE of Saudi clinical orthopedic research. Methods: In July 2012, a list of Saudi orthopedic surgeons (N=93 affiliated with all major universities and hospitals in Saudi Arabia were obtained. PubMed and Embase searches were performed for all eligible studies over the last 2 decades (August 1991 to May 2012. The Oxford LOE scale was utilized to determine the LOE of these studies (Level V studies were excluded. The LOE trends were compared between the last 2 decades. In addition, the LOE of Saudi orthopedic studies was compared with North American studies. Results: Of 251 articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria for the LOE evaluation. Most of the published studies are Level IV (86%. The average level of evidence was 3.75. There was no statistically significant difference when we compared the LOE trend between the last 2 decades. North American studies contained higher proportions of high-level studies when compared to Saudi studies (p Conclusion: Most of the published studies are low LOE. Academic staff, institutions, and training programs are required to develop research strategies to improve orthopedic research quality in Saudi Arabia.
This paper provides an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of electric system expansion in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental concerns are important to consider because they represent costs to society that are not typically reflected in the price that consumers pay for electricity. In past analyses of electric expansion options in Saudi Arabia, the tendency has been to stress the direct financial costs of expanding electricity generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure without characterizing the environment impacts of building and operating the expanded electricity system in monetary terms. Emerging national and global environmental concerns, however, suggest that an expansion of the methods traditionally used for electricity resource planning and selection to include environmental considerations would greatly benefit the Kingdom. The criteria by which resource plans are evaluated can readily be broadened to address environmental and other concerns. As part of an illustrative Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) effort undertaken by a team of Saudi utility planners and international consultants, an expanded IRP framework was used to assess the environmental costs and benefits of various approaches to meeting electricity demand projections in Saudi Arabia. The results show that making use of renewable energy and energy efficiency resources to provide energy services to the electricity consumers of Saudi Arabia can provide significant s of Saudi Arabia can provide significant environmental benefits for the Kingdom
Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection
Shell Oil Co.'s Pecten Arabian Ltd. affiliate and Saudi Basic Industries Corp. have agreed to build a $3 billion petrochemical complex at Jubail, Saudi Arabia; the final documents will be signed in late Sept. 1980. The partners will invest about $400 million each in the joint venture, with Saudi public investment funds and commercial banks providing the balance of the funding. Shell will have the right to purchase Saudi crude oil on a long-term basis, as well as some chemical raw materials; the volume of crude made available will be determined by a formula that the Saudis are now developing. One plan under discussion would offer firms options to buy 500 bbl/day of Saudi crude for each $1 million of their investment. The feed for the new plant will be methane and ethane from associated gas now being flared. Product exports are scheduled to begin in late 1985. Product capacities will include (in thousands of metric tons/yr): ethane, 656; chlorine, 333; caustic soda, 377; ethylene dichloride, 454; ethyl benzene, 327; styrene, 295; and crude industrial ethanol, 281. Ships, terminals, and other infrastructure facilities are included in the agreement.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.
Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M
...Climate Change, First International Conference on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Your Meeting Bulletin at the First International Conference ...on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia IISD RS @ First International Conference on the Clean Development Mechanism (...CDM), 19-21 September 2006, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia // IISD RS Linkages Home JOIN THE IISD-RS INITIATIVE IISD's Summary HTML PDF 24 ...September Following on from the First International Conference on the CDM in Saudi Arabia, an EU-OPEC Roundtable on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage ...
This article seeks to examine the impact of technology importation on occupational health and safety in both Saudi Arabian and U.S. oil refining industries. Technologies imported to the Saudi oil industry take two forms: hardware (sophisticated equipment to run oil facilities) and software (policies and regulations pertaining to workers' health and safety, and employment rights installed by Aramco's founding multinational companies). This study utilizes qualitative, historically oriented, cross-national case studies to compare and assess workers' health, safety, and rights in Saudi Aramco with its U.S. counterpart, Motiva Enterprises. Two facilities were chosen to conduct field research: the Saudi Aramco oil refinery at Jeddah and Motiva's refinery at Port Arthur, Texas. The Jeddah refinery is fully owned by Saudi Aramco, thus, representing Aramco's health and safety policies and regulations. The Port Arthur refinery serves as a reference case study for U.S. oil refining facilities. The aspects of occupational health and safety in Saudi Aramco--ExxonMobil's joint ventures SAMREF and LUBREF--also are discussed to examine workers' health policies in both companies. The American oil industry made a significant contribution in establishing the Saudi oil industry, with the cooperation of the Saudi government. Despite having outstanding employment benefits schemes in Saudi Aramco, the presence of an organized work force better serves employee participation in Motiva than in Aramco. Safety systems such as Process Safety Management (PSM)--applied in Motiva--partially exist in Aramco to operate hardware technologies safely. Motiva training systems are better through PACE's Triangle of Prevention (TOP). Both companies follow the same pattern of handling occupational injuries and diseases; however, Saudi government agencies (GOSI) are responsible for compensating and treating injured workers. Saudi workers expressed conditional support for the worker committee program proposed by the Ministry of Labor. American and Saudi workers are concerned about the quality and sufficiency of health and safety training, employment promotion, work pressure, and job uncertainty due to continuous downsizing. This article recommends that Saudi social actors increase safety and health awareness in the work environment by providing intensive occupational safety training to the employees (as demanded by Saudi and American workers), improve labor-management relations through establishing strong cooperative contacts with regional and international trade unions, and establish uniform and standard occupational health and safety regulations for Saudi Aramco and its subsidiaries in order to provide an equal level of protection for Saudi workers. PMID:16943139
Idreis, Hany M; Siqueira, Carlos E; Levenstein, Charles C
Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care
Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had raised cerebrospinal fluid lactate but no ragged red fibres on muscle histochemistry. Biochemical assay of muscle homogenate showed reduction in respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Mutation screening of mtDNA at nucleotides 3243 (tRNA) and 8344 (tRNA) was negative. Mitochondrial disorders constitute a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. However, demanding and highly specialized investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis. These are better performed at supraregional centers where facilities for clinical biochemical and molecular work-up are available. (author)
This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison for a period of 12 years. Two main energy sources are diesel for tractors and electricity for pumps in the sector. It is found that the overall exergy efficiencies in this sector are slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies, e.g. 74.19-69.20% for exergy efficiency and 74.94-74.60% for energy efficiency from 1990 to 2001. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in sectoral analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures
Radioactive waste generated in Saudi Arabia has its origin in the use of various radionuclides in medical, industrial and research applications. Minimization of radwaste generation is an important aspect of good radwaste management. Towards this end surveillance of all establishments nation wide employing radionuclides was conducted. Data on the distribution of these establishments in the different cities and on the technical training of the employed radiation workers were gathered. Radiation monitoring of the radioisotope work areas for evidence of contaminations was carried out. Unnecessary generation of radwaste, if any, at whatever level of the respective application of isotopes was determined. Radwaste that will give trivial radiological risks is determined and is considered exemptible radwaste and hence the net radwaste destined for treatment will thus be minimized further
From November 1995 to March 1996 a total of 9 broadband temporary stations were deployed across Saudi Arabian shield. These stations consisted of STS-2 seismometers recorded continuously at 40 sps on RefTek dataloggers. All installations were at bedrock sites. Using data sections selected randomly during the deployment, noise studies showed that most stations were exceptionally quiet with noise level near the USGS low noise model for frequencies higher than 0.1 Hz. At lower frequencies, the horizontal components showed increased noise levels, possibly due to instrumental characteristics. High-frequency (greater than 1 Hz) noise varied as much as 10 db between day and night for some stations (RAYN, TAIF) while more isolated stations (HALM) were constant. Seasonal noise levels also varied, with April to June being the quietest months. Slight changes in peak microseism frequency also occurred seasonally.
The medical records of deceased patients were reviewed to describe the pattern of cancer deaths in a newly established Saudi tertiary care hospital. During eleven months, 87 patients died of cancer. The majority (80 patients, 92%) died of incurable cancer; among which 53% did not receive any systemic anti-cancer therapy (SAT) and 43% received SAT with palliative intent. Younger age (14 days and 14% died in intensive care unit or emergency room. The results demonstrate that palliative care is a realistic treatment for the majority of patients in our setting and that a significant proportion of these patients receive aggressive care at the end-of-life. There is a need to establish an integrative palliative care program to improve the quality-of-life of dying cancer patients in our region and to minimize the aggressiveness of end-of-life care. PMID:22378940
Al-Zahrani, Abdullah S; El-Kashif, Amr T; Haggag, Rasha M; Alsirafy, Samy A
Full Text Available Methanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of 11 medicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Saudi Arabia, were investigated for in vitro activity against four pathogenic fungi. The extracts at concentration of 0.5 mL plate-1 showed varying degrees of total inhibition of fungal growth. Extracts from Salvadora persica and Vigna fragrans showed the highest activity, followed by Peganum harmala and Withania somnifera, while Polycarpaea corymbosa demonstrated the least activity, when compared to 25 ?g mL-1 Clotrimazole control antibiotic. The fungal strains tested differed significantly in their susceptibility to plant extracts, with complete inhibition in Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. The plants which exhibited a marked antifungal activity were shown to be rich in alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and glycosides. These results support the traditional use of these plants in the treatment of some fungal infections.
Abdulmoniem M.A. Saadabi
Full Text Available We attempted, through systematic review to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of Crohn’s disease (CD with special attention to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. We selected articles that contained population-based, epidemiological, and clinical character studies of CD. We collected data concerned with the prevalence, demographic features, and the possible etiology of CD that might explain its emergence in KSA. The prevalence of CD in Western countries ranged between 11-43/100,000 with flawless evidence of CD prevalence emerging in previously low incidence areas like Asia. Prevalence in KSA has markedly increased over the last 3 decades. Combined ileal and colonic involvement was the most frequently affected site. Diet, smoking, drugs, and westernization of life are assumed to contribute to the pathogenesis. There is convincing evidence of CD emerging in Asia, including KSA. Westernization of lifestyle and smoking is probably the major contributing factors. Genetic studies are warranted.
Ibrahim A. Al-Mofleh
Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.
Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.
Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.
Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.
Full Text Available Recent developments in the field of internetcommunication in the last decade worldwide have crossed allthe physical boundaries laid down by human being and this erawitnessed a major development in the field of InformationTechnology and made a large number of computer users in theworld. Every common man is influenced by this new world ofcommunication named as cyber world. But there are alwaystwo aspects associated with every technology; the destructiveside is threats associated with this internet communication incyberspace. A rapid growth of computer crimes and formationof laws in different countries addresses the severity of problem.This paper discusses the stand of Saudi Arabian governmentagainst cyber crime and its IT act. It analyzes the cybercrimein the Kingdom and the associated legislation to combat thesame.
Naasir Kamaal Khan
Full Text Available This paper analyses the efficiency and performance of post merger using CRAMEL–type variable of selected private banks in India & Saudi Arabia which are initiated by the market forces. The results suggest that the mergers did not seem to enhance the productive efficiency of the banks as they do not indicate any significant difference. The financial performance suggests that the banks are becoming more focused on their retail activities (intermediation and the main reasons for their merger is to scale up their operations. However, it is found that the loan to total Assets and the profitability are the two main parameters which are to be considered since they are very much affected by mergers. Also, the profitability of the firm is significantly affected after merger giving a negative impact on Earnings.
The Sun influnce on climate has been discussed globaly by many authors and at different latitudes. In this article we will discuss this connection for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which spans a large area, i.e. 16-32 North and 36-50 East. We started our invistigation in this paper by looking into the temperature at the Western coast of the Kingdom, namely Yenbo and Jeddah. In order to find the correlation between temperature and solar variations we employed one of the most relevant solar quentity, i.e. the solar cycle length. From our invistigations we found an increase in the temperature averages reaching up to 1.0 degree Celsius in certain cities since 1970. It is also found that the temperature increase is strongly correlated with the solar Cycle length, reaching up to 0.8 in some sites.
Almleaky, Y. M.; Sharaf, M. A.; Basurah, H. M.; Malawi, A. A.; Al-Mostafa, Z. A.
Full Text Available Many countries now struggle to provide cost-effective, quality healthcare services to their citizens. Saudi Arabia has experienced high costs along with concerns about quality of care in its public facilities. To address these issues the country is currently restructuring their healthcare system to privatize public hos--pitals and introduce insurance coverage for both foreign workers and citizens. The changes provide an interesting and insightful case for the challenges in radically changing a country?s healthcare system. The situation also demonstrates a unique case in the Middle East for greater reliance of the private sector to address rapidly escalating healthcare costs and deteriorating quality. The complexity of changing a healthcare system is discussed with the many challenges associated with the change.
Saudi Methanol Co. (AR-RAZI), a 50-50 joint venture of Sabic and a consortium of Japanese companies led by Mitsubishi Gas Chemical (MGC), says it will invest more than $200 million in a new 850,000-m.5./year chemical-grade methanol plant at Al Jubail. The plant, Ar-Razi`s fourth methanol unit, is scheduled for completion in May 1999. The jv will bring its third methanol plant onstream in July. This unit, also 850,000 m.t./year, will raise Ar-Razi`s total capacity to 2.25 million m.t./year. Its complex at Al Jubail is already the largest single producer of chemical-grade methanol in the world. When the fourth unit comes onstream in 1999 the jv will have 3.1 million m.t./year of methanol capacity.
Quality problems in the service organisation are the result of the mismatch between prior expectation and perceived quality of the service. Each organisation will attempt to determine the requirements of its customers and translate these requirements into product and delivery process specifications. This paper examines a particular electric company (SCECO-East), a typical service provider in Saudi Arabia, in which service quality is a distinguishing feature of primary importance. It describes a detailed survey and analysis in the light of the model put forward by Parasuraman et al. It utilises SERVQUAL for measuring customers' perceptions of service quality. The study revealed that SCECO-East scored high in tangibles dimension but low in features of responsiveness and reliability. In addition, while the performance of SCECO-East was acceptable to all customer categories, service quality was perceived differently by various types of customers, with reinforcement and commercial customers awarding SCECO-East even lower ratings than other customers did. (Author)
Jannadi, O.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Saggaf, H. [SCECO-East (Saudi Arabia)
Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis. PMID:4014781
Sørensen, H; Gravesen, S; Lind, P; Schwartz, B; Ashoor, A A; Maglad, S
Expansive soils prevail in several parts of Saudi Arabia. Tabuk city, in the northwest, is underlain by a shale formation of Ordovician to Devonian age. Arid climate accelerates the development of expansive clays through desiccation and weathering of the shale. The expansion of the city limits extends to potential areas of swelling and urbanization increases the clay moisture content which leads to soil volume change. This causes significant damage to low-rise buildings and pavements. In this paper, the subsurface conditions and geotechnical properties of the expansive soils in Tabuk are presented. The clay type was identified and its degree of expansion was determined. The swelling parameters were measured utilizing the standard oedometer test and modeled by multiple linear regression. The effect of geological and environmental conditions on the swelling behavior of expansive soils in Tabuk were considered. The modeled swelling values are in good agreement with the measured values.
Sabtan, Abdullah A.
Full Text Available Objectives: To present the incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations (ARMs and associated anomalies and to compare the findings with published literature. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted during the period January 2011 to December 2011. We reviewed the medical charts of all cases with ARMs admitted at Al-Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1998-2010. The incidence and spectrum of ARMs, associated regional anomalies, and those with a positive family history of ARMs were identified. The 95% confidence interval and Chi square trend test were used to quantify the significance of variation in annual incidence. Results: One hundred eighty-eight cases of ARMs were detected from 189,145 live births with an incidence of approximately 1/1000 live births with a male-to-female ratio of 1.9:1. The incidence showed yearly stability (p=0.3509. The most common ARMs was perineal fistula (32.9%. There was a statistically significant gender difference (p=0.000. The most common in boys was rectourethral fistula (47.2% and in girls was vestibular fistula (46.2%. Isolated non-familial ARMs was found in 106 (56.3%, isolated familial 9 (4.7%, and associated ARMs in 73 (38.8% cases. In terms of associated anomalies, genitourinary (34%, and cardiovascular (19.2% systems reported a high incidence. Conclusion: The incidence of ARMs in Madinah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is higher than the reported data. Isolated ARMs was more common than the associated category, and the familial one was rarely reported.
Hamdi H. Almaramhy
Radiation and microphysical data are employed to deduce the bulk radiative and microphysical characteristics of the aerosol layer over the Saudi Arabian Peninsula and the adjacent Arabian Sea. Observed particle size distributions, total mass loadings, and vertical distributions of the dust are presented for five analysis periods. There is a large daily variability of the dust mass loading over the desert. The broadband radiative characteristics of the dust are inferred by comparing calculations for a dust free atmosphere with in situ broadband radiative measurements. The dust had no detectable effect on the longwave radiative fluxes, while it approximately doubled the clear sky shortwave absorption. The total shortwave absorption by the dust is dependent on the underlying surface albedo. The solar absorptance of the dust is expressed in terms of the dust mass loading and is incorporated into a broadband shortwave radiative transfer model to assess the surface and tropospheric energy budgets. For the desert cases the dust is largely responsible for a net 24 hour radiative energy convergence between, 530 and 800 mbar. A 24-hour radiative energy convergence is also found over the ocean; however, the layer depth is shallower than the desert case, being limited to the top of the dust layer. The thermodynamic structure of the heat low is presented. Calculations of temperature advection from the Saudi Arabian Peninsula to the Arabian Sea, suggest that horizontal advection aids in offsetting a net 24 hour tropospheric energy convergence over the desert. This warm air advection, along with the transport of dust over the Arabian Sea, may assist in maintaining the low level inversion and shallow moist layer observed over the western and central Arabian Sea.
Ackerman, Steven A.; Cox, Stephen K.
Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.
Suaad S. Alwakeel
Background Data on the clinical presentation of rosacea among darker-skinned ethnic groups is scarce. This article presents the clinical spectrum of rosacea in Saudi female patients with differences highlighted according to skin types. Methods Female patients diagnosed with rosacea at the dermatology clinic in King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between February 2010 and May 2011 were studied prospectively. Data collected included demographics, duration of the disease, personal history of any atopic disorder, aggravating factors, cutaneous and ocular symptoms, the presence of migraine, Helicobacter pylori infection, skin phototypes, and the clinical types and severity of rosacea. Results Fifty patients consented to join the study: 20 (40%) were patients with skin type 4, 9 (18%) had skin type 5, and 21 (42%) had skin type 6. The cheeks, glabella, and chin were involved in 26 (52%) patients. Extrafacial lesions affecting chest, back, and ears were identified in 7 patients (14%). Severe erythematotelangiectatic rosacea was diagnosed in 21 patients (42%): skin type 4 comprised 50%, higher than the incidences for skin type 5 (22%) and skin type 6 (42.9%). The severe papulopustular subtype of rosacea was noted in 7 patients (14.0%), affecting 20% with skin type 4 and 14% with skin type 6. Severity of the erythematotelangiectatic or papulopustular subtypes of rosacea was not significantly associated with skin type (P=0.5691 and P=0.7740, respectively). Conclusion This study addresses the growing interest in skin diseases in dark-skinned individuals. Rosacea is one of the skin disorders that had always been described for fair-skinned populations, but our results indicate that darker-skinned individuals also can be affected by rosacea and the clinical presentation is similar to that seen in patients with fair skin.
Al Balbeesi, Amal Omar; Halawani, Mona R.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Quantifying the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is important to allow for rational planning and allocation of resources. Therefore, we designed this study to determine the prevalence of diabetes among Saudi nationals. Design and Setting : A cross-sectional study among patients attending a primary care clinic in June 2009. Patients and Methods : Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires to determine the presence of diabetes by questioning for history of the disease, and charts were reviewed to document any diabetic therapies that the patients may have undergone in the past or were undergoing at that time. Results : Of 6024 subjects, diabetes mellitus was present in 1792 (30% patients. The mean (SD age of the patients was 55.3 (13.2 years. The prevalence of diabetes was 34.1% in males and 27.6% in females (P<.0001. The mean (SD age for onset of diabetes in males and females was 57.5 (13.1 and 53.4 (13.1 years, respectively (P<.0001. Females <50 years old had a higher prevalence than males in the corresponding age range-34.1% and 25.1%, respectively (P<.0001. The prevalence of diabetes decreased in patients older than 70 years. The prevalence of body mass index of ?25 was 72.5%. Among patients with diabetes, the prevalence of body mass index of ?25 was 85.7% (P<.0001. There was a higher prevalence of obesity (body mass index, ?25 in females (87.7% as compared to males (83.1% (P=.008. Conclusion : The prevalence of diabetes is high among the Saudi population and represents a major clinical and public health problem. A national prevention program to prevent diabetes and address the modifiable risk factors at the community level, targeting high-risk groups, should be implemented soon.
Innovations and advanced techniques in pipecoating and field joints for offshore pipelines are features of the 147-mile offshore oil and gas pipeline system installed for Aramco in the Marjan Field offshore Saudi Arabia. The project involved a network of oil and gas lines including 77 miles of 30-in. pipe, 62 miles of 36-in. pipe, and 8 miles of 16-in. pipe. Project is scheduled for completion by the end of 1984. Corrosion coating for all of the pipe, applied by Bredero Price Saudi Arabia Ltd., is 5/32-in. coal tar enamel over a synthetic primer, plus a reinforcing glass fiber wrap and an asbestos felt overwrap. Hevicote /SUP r/ concrete-weight coating was applied at a density of 190 lb per cu ft; thickness varies from 1- to 6.375-in. Pipecoating improvements pioneered in Europe for demanding North Sea projects were further developed by Bredero Price at its Jubail pipecoating facility for use on the Persian Gulf project. These included: Waterslotting. This is considered the most efficient method to control concrete cracking and subsequent spalling and to reduce stress on the concrete coating. Welded wire mesh. The 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm welded wire cross-sectional area is 36% greater than standard wire netting, increasing the amount of reinforcing steel in the concrete coating. New joint fill method. The Marjan project is the first offshore pipeline to use Joint Systems Corp's new IMAD automatic joint fill machine to coat the field joints on the pipe after welding and inspection.
Full Text Available Background Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Method A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7% believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3% of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93% reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4% of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights.
Salwa B. El-Sobkey
This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3%. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7%. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1% of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8% of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7% of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9% reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238
Almutairi, Khalid M
Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)
This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…
Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie
Sheblaq NR,Traifi S,Al Sakiani M,Gasmelseed A,Abolfotouh MA,Jazieh AR. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdul Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.
Teachers in Saudi Arabia are attempting to advance their teaching in mathematics to address specific reforms by the Ministry of Education. Saudi teachers must improve their students' thinking through engagement in problem solving. This qualitative study investigated how teachers use knowledge of student mathematical learning and how they…
Alsaeed, Maha Saad
Documentation supporting the proposed construction of a passively cooled house at King Faisal University in Saudi Arabia is presented. The documents include: computer printouts for comparisons of design; landscapes analysis; field station study for Al Batin, Saudi Arabia; data acquisition systems; and performance evaluation. (BCS)
Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. PMID:24511244
Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A
This paper provides an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of electric system expansion in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental concerns are important to consider because they represent costs to society that are not typically reflected in the price that consumers pay for electricity. In past analyses of electric expansion options in Saudi Arabia, the tendency has been to stress the direct financial costs of expanding electricity generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure without characterizing the environment impacts of building and operating the expanded electricity system in monetary terms. Emerging national and global environmental concerns, however, suggest that an expansion of the methods traditionally used for electricity resource planning and selection to include environmental considerations would greatly benefit the Kingdom. The criteria by which resource plans are evaluated can readily be broadened to address environmental and other concerns. As part of an illustrative Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) effort undertaken by a team of Saudi utility planners and international consultants, an expanded IRP framework was used to assess the environmental costs and benefits of various approaches to meeting electricity demand projections in Saudi Arabia. The results show that making use of renewable energy and energy efficiency resources to provide energy services to the electricity consumers of Saudi Arabia can provide significant environmental benefits for the Kingdom.
Alnatheer, Othman [Saudi Arabian National Coordinator UN Sustainable Energy Project, Energy Research Institute-KACST, PO Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia)] e-mail: email@example.com
Full Text Available The study examines writing challenges Emirati and Saudi students face at U.S. universities. Based on a sample of 219, a mixed methods approach was used to analyze responses from the participants. The results of the questionnaire reveal that Less than 31% Emirati and Saudi students feel “comfortable” in completing written assignments. The interviews results indicate that Emirati and Saudi students have different opinions regarding writing difficulties. An Emirati student, stated: “I am worried a lot because writing is not easy. Writing is very difficult for us.” However, a Saudi student expressed the easiness of her writing assignments. Emirati students stated that grammar, word choice and sentence construction are “somewhat easy”; however, Saudi students indicated that grammar, word choice and sentence construction are “Somewhat difficult.” An Emirati student, stated: “Most Arabs students are told that we do not have vocabulary or grammar. For me, grammar is okay but my difficulty is how to choose the appropriate word for a sentence. A female Emirati student expressed her worry for grammatical mistakes, which she tries to correct: “When I write my reports, I have to reread my report again because I am sure I will have some grammatical mistakes because English is not my first language. The study implies that the students need more coursework in academic writing to prepare them for their academic writing in their disciplines. U.S. universities need to increase the visiting hours of writing centers and design more workshops that teach the students about writing in various genres.
Ghadah Al Murshidi
Dental informatics is an emerging field that has the potential to transform the dental profession. This study aims to summarize the current applications of dental informatics in Saudi Arabia and to identify the challenges facing expansion of dental informatics in the Saudi context. Search for published articles and specialized forum entries was conducted, as well as interviews with dental professionals familiar with the topic. Results indicated that digital radiography/analysis and administrative management of dental practice are the commonest applications used. Applications in Saudi dental education included: web-based learning systems, computer-based assessments and virtual technology for clinical skills' teaching. Patients' education software, electronic dental/oral health records and the potential of dental research output from electronic databases are yet to be achieved in Saudi Arabia. Challenges facing Saudi dental informatics include: lack of IT infrastructure/support, social acceptability and financial cost. Several initiatives are taken towards the research in dental informatics. Still, more investments are needed to fully achieve the potential of various application of informatics in dental education, practice and research. PMID:25000042
Al-Nasser, Lubna; Al-Ehaideb, Ali; Househ, Mowafa
Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.
Baghdadi, Ziad D. [Dept. of Preventive Dentistry, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
Full Text Available This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabiahas witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been able to catch up with the pace of digitaldevelopment in the rest of the world. The research paper attempts to identify the problems in implementinge-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research paper on the basis of analysis of data throughhierarchical multiple regression modeling and multiple response analysis of the data has identified statisticallysignificant problems in implementation of e-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and outlined key policyoptions that this country as well as other GCC nations can consider in formulation of policies to stimulate,support and maximize the effect e-commerce has on their economies.
Hodgkin's disease (HD) is a relatively rare lymphoma that affects younger as well as older persons. It is reported in the Western as well as Asian studies that HD is a rare disease in developing world. It is commoner in males in most of the countries and shows a bimodal pattern of age. The commonest subtype is nodular sclerosis in the west and mixed cellularity in the eastern and developing countries. The present study compares eight years' data of HD as regard age, sex, site of anatomical presentation and subtypes according to WHO classification among Pakistani and Saudi patients. This retrospective comparative study included 211 cases of HD from various institutions of Lahore, Pakistan and 78 cases retrieved from the data of King Abdul Aziz Hospital and Oncology Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The analysis of both data of HD showed lack of bimodal age pattern and was common among younger age. Male was the dominating sex. Cervical group of lymph nodes was the commonest presenting site. Mixed cellularity HD (MCHD) was the commonest subtype among Pakistani patients whereas Nodular Sclerotic HD (NSHD) was more common among Saudis. A comparison of the pattern of Pakistani and Saudi data of HD showed lack of bimodality in both. The male sex predominated. Morphologically the MCHD and NSHD were the commonest subtypes in Pakistani and Saudi patients respectively. (author)
Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.
Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of companies have websites only to present products.Accordingly, new research has been conducted to explore the attraction of customers in Saudi Arabia to buyfrom businesses online. This will assist the Small and Medium Enterprises (SME sector, which represents 90%of companies in Saudi Arabia, to increase communication channels with its customers electronically. Aquantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 381 consumer participants from Saudi Arabia whowere interested to buy online to see what factors would attract them to online shopping. Several factors emergedas attracting factors which were divided into organizational, technical, and cultural factors.
Adel Aboud Bahaddad
Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influence Saudi retailers in deciding whether or not to adopt online channels. As part of a larger research project using mixed methods, this paper focuses on a quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of retailers in Saudi Arabia. The design of the questionnaire instrument was based on the findings of a qualitative analysis reported in a previous paper. The main findings of the current study include a list of key factors that affect retailers’ e-commerce adoption, such as lack of online payment options and lack of clear legislation on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia, and quantitative indications of the relative strengths of the various relationships.
Full Text Available This paper examines if there exists a long run relationship among five macroeconomic variables, consumer price index, industrial output, money supply, exchange rate, oil prices along with the global stock prices proxy Standard and Poor 500 index and Saudi all share stock index. Time series analysis is applied using monthly data from January 1994 to June 2013. Application of Johansen cointegration test finds the existence of a long run relationship among the chosen variables. All macroeconomic variables are found to impact stock prices. Standard and Poor 500 index does not affect Saudi stock prices. Vector error correction model shows the presence of long run causality from the explanatory variables to the stock prices. Short run causality test finds a two-way causality between stock prices and oil prices. Impulse response function shows that industrial production shocks pushes up stock prices while consumer price index shocks pulls it down. Variance decompositions show that historical stock prices are the major driver of Saudi stock prices. This implies that Saudi stock market follows weak form of market efficiency. The results of this paper have important implications for the investors in Saudi stock market.
Full Text Available Study of stock market volatility has been the focus of financial economics. Modelling stock market volatility has great contributions to make in the areas of portfolio management, asset allocation, risk management, etc. We estimate the conditional volatility of Saudi stock market by applying AR (1-GARCH (1, 1 model to the daily stock returns data spanning from August 1, 2004 to October 31, 2013. We show that a linear symmetric GARCH (1, 1 model is adequate to estimate the volatility of the stock market of the country. We find that Saudi stock market returns are characterised by volatility clustering and follow a non-normal distribution. Saudi stock market returns show a time varying volatility, show persistence and are predictable. Past volatility impacts the current period volatility and past returns play a role in determining the current period return. Saudi stock market is nervous in its reactions to market fluctuations. This finding of the study offer important input into the decisions relating to asset allocation and risk management strategies of investors and treasury managers in Saudi stock market.
Objective The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002). The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (PEducational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents’ progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers.
Al-Ahaideb, Abdulaziz; Alrabai, Hamza M; Alrehaili, Osama A; Aljurayyan, Abdulaziz N; Alsaif, Ranyah M; Algarni, Nizar; Al-Khawashki, Hazem M; Algarni, Abdulrahman D
Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the examination of the UAE-Saudi territorial negotiations from 1970-1971. This study discusses Britain’s mediation role in the Abu Dhabi-Saudi negotiations. Of particular note is Britain’s role, which focused on managing the dispute instead of settling the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border disputes. This serves as an example of Britain’s wish to avoid damaging its economic interests and political relations with either the UAE or Saudi Arabia. In line with this, the paper will examine King Faisal’s proposal of 1970, Shaikh Zayid’s position towards it and Saudi Arabia’s and Abu Dhabi’s negotiation strategies and tactics in settling the disputed areas. The paper offers a full explication of the major factors that hindered the dispute’s resolution before Britain officially withdrew from the Gulf.
Noura S. Al Mazrouei
Since 2007 there have been periodic small earthquake swarms recorded at seismic stations located around Harrat Lunayyir in northwest Saudi Arabia. In response to a longer-lived and larger seismic swarm, in early May 2009 the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) installed a network of broadband seismometers surrounding the Harrat, with real-time data transmitted by VSAT back to its Earthquake and Volcano Center in Jeddah. The new network captured data from the swarm, which culminated with a M5.4 earthquake on 19 May that caused very minor structural damage in the town of Al Ays, 40 km to the southeast. Because of the strength of ground-shaking and resulting structural damage, the Saudi government evacuated more than 30,000 people from a 40 km radius surrounding Harrat Lunayyir, including the town of Al Ays. At the request of the SGS and the U.S. Consulate in Jeddah, the Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (a partnership program of the USGS and USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) sent two advisers to work with the SGS to determine if the unrest was volcanic in origin and to assess hazards associated with the unrest. The SGS-USGS team collected geologic, geodetic and seismic data that confirmed the volcanic nature of the activity. 1) A 3-km-long NW-trending surface rupture appeared in the central part of the Harrat before 19 May, during a time when maximum earthquake magnitudes exceeded M4. 2) The length of this rupture extended to 8 km with the M5.4 earthquake on 19 May. 3) The rupture opened 0.5 m and had an absolute motion of 0.9 m to N35W with a 63 degree plunge to the NE- a tensional offset consistent with that expected from an M5.4 earthquake in a rift-shoulder setting. 4) InSAR data showed about a meter of extension and uplift (as of July 2009) with the majority of deformation associated with the 19 May M5.4 earthquake. The InSAR-derived deformation field is best modeled by intrusion of a narrow (~2 m wide), 8-km-long dike to shallow crustal levels. 5) Finally seismic data showed features similar to other volcanic swarms, including high rates of occurrence of small events, shallow event locations that clustered beneath the lava field and were coincident with the area of maximum deformation, RSAM values that peaked during periods of increased InSAR inflation, and a mixture of event types- high frequency, low frequency, possible very low frequency, and tremor. Based on our analysis of similar active volcanic systems worldwide and associated earthquakes in rift settings, we determined that for the three month period following 19 May 2009 there was a moderate probability that the activity could culminate in an eruption, and a very low probability of additional large earthquakes of M6 or greater. Subsequent to this hazard assessment and once the stability of structures in Al Ays was adequately addressed, the evacuees were allowed to return to their homes and daily lives.
Zahran, H. M.; McCausland, W. A.; Pallister, J. S.; Lu, Z.; El-Hadidy, S.; Aburukba, A.; Schawali, J.; Kadi, K.; Youssef, A.; Ewert, J. W.; White, R. A.; Lundgren, P.; Mufti, M.; Stewart, I. C.
Background/Aims: Pneumatic dilatation (PD) is one of the effective treatments of achalasia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pneumatic dilation and patient satisfaction in Saudi achalasia patients. Patients and Methods: We have retrospectively recruited patients with confirmed achalasia, who underwent at least one dilatation session from January 1990 to January 2010 at a single tertiary center. Symptoms, including weight loss, dysphagia, retrosternal pain, and regurgitation, were assessed with the use of the Eckardt score (which ranges from 0 to 12, with higher scores indicating more pronounced symptoms). All patients were called and asked about their Eckardt score in addition to their satisfaction score post the dilatation procedure. The primary outcome was therapeutic success (Eckardt score ? 3) and patient satisfaction at the time of their calls. The secondary outcomes included the need for retreatment and the rate of complications. Results: A total of 29 patients were included, with a mean age of 40.30 (95% CI: 36.1-44.6) and 55.2% of them were males. The mean of the pre-dilatation Eckardt score was 8.3 (95% CI: 7.2-9.4), which dropped to 2.59 (95% CI: 1.7-3.5) after PD (P < 0.01) with a clinical remission of 76.7% after the first dilatation and a total failure in two patients (7%) after the third dilatation. The mean number of dilatations was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1-1.5) where 50.7% required one dilatation, 19.2% required two dilatations, and 30.1% required three dilatations. The mean of the symptoms-free period was 53.4 months (SD 52.7, range 1-180) with symptoms recurring in 35% of patients within 2 years. The mean of post-PD patient satisfaction was 7.45 (95% CI: 6.2-8.7). Perforation, which was treated conservatively, occurred in one patient (3.5%), whereas bleeding occurred in two patients (7%). Age or gender was not found to be a predictor of Eckardt score improvement on multivariate linear regression analysis. Conclusion: PD is an efficacious procedure in Saudi achalasia patients with a very good overall patient satisfaction with 53.4 months of symptoms-free period after a successful dilatation. PMID:24496157
Aljebreen, Abdulrahman M.; Samarkandi, Sara; Al-Harbi, Tahani; Al-Radhi, Haifa; Almadi, Majid A
Full Text Available Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inadequate information in this area, only the past investment period was considered to determine the effect of past decision on new decision of investment. The government policies, which directed to low grade varieties probably, led to inefficiency as the domestic consumption of dates is very high and growing high quality will lead to higher revenue to farmers with almost the same cost of production. To deal with investment in date palm production locally, Saudi Arabia needs to estimate a very high discount rate to observe any value related or based on the discount rate. The Durbin Watson parameter is significant for both the varieties (Khalas and Ruzaiz at 95% confidence interval (LSD0.05. The past investment appeared very significant for its effect on planting new date trees due to the fact that farmers who planted new trees in the past is continuously carrying with date industry and investing in future. Overall, the investment in tree plantation like date palm is not an easy decision by the farmers, because it needs couple of years spending without revenue. The farmers in the date growing areas were hesitant in providing information about the date variety, number of trees per hectare, tree age, fertilizers, pesticides, land ownership, intercropping, cost of production, total yield, quantity sold and price received. The study suggested further investigations on growing high quality date palms, date production and marketing aspects to harvest maximum profit by the farmers as well as support by the government for facilitating proper market and subsidies to date growers.
Full Text Available Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR, Impulse Response Function (IFR and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available The study investigates the extent of performance benchmarking of the major business functions undertaken bythe business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on five major functions namely; marketing,human resources, finance, operations, and quality. Each of these functions includes four sub functions. The scopeof the study extends to private firms (manufacturing and service as well as public and government organizationsin Saudi Arabia. The study includes four sizes of organizations. The finding of the study shows that the practiceof benchmarking in Saudi Arabian organizations’ is not in advance level. The sequence of the application ofbenchmarking is found to be as follows; marketing, operations, quality, finance and human resources,respectively. The study further shows that the practice of performance benchmarking in private firms better thanpublic organizations. However, the study concludes that there is no significant difference between companiesbased on their sizes.
Nasser Akeil Kadasah
Full Text Available This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four stages. The outcomes of the studypoint to distrust in the online retailing environment in Saudi Arabia as a key inhibitory factor for growth. As such,a five-part model is proposed to promote trust in the online shopping environment in the KSA.
The national programme for sea water desalination in Saudi Arabia is assigned to the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), a government entity loosely affiliated with the Ministry of Agriculture. In addition to water production, SWCC generates considerable electric power in its dual purpose power/water plants, selling excess power to the national grid. SWCC also builds and maintains certain major fresh water pipelines that connect its plants to important municipal water systems. SWCC's pride is the Research, Development and Training Center (RDTC) located in Al-Jubail. The goals at RDTC include improving plant efficiency and minimizing scale formation and corrosion problems. It also trains Saudi engineers and technicians in the operation and management of SWCC plants. As a result, Saudi nationals now represent 65% of the workforce and are heavily involved with all aspects of plant specification and tender analysis
Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and d the solutions to overcome Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems. To collect data for this purpose, senior faculty members were interviewed and a 32-item structured Likert-scale questionnaire was developed that was administered to 75 English-major students (sophomores, juniors & seniors studying at foreign languages department, Taif University. Data generated through the questionnaire were subjected to descriptive analyses and mean and standard deviation were recorded using SPSS. The findings of this study reveal that Saudi English-major undergraduates are very weak in writing skills and commit lots of errors in their academic writings and are usually engaged in sentence-level or at the maximum at paragraph-level academic writing and they do not consider it important at this level to write different kinds of essays. It has been strongly recommended that the language courses should be increased to strengthen all the language skills in general and writing in particular, motivate the students to use English with the teachers as well as with each, introduce modern and novel teaching techniques, equip the classrooms with necessary audio-visual aids, diagnose students’ writing problems in the beginning of their studies at university, tailor the course contents according to their needs, introduce group/pair work, peer correction, use dictionaries frequently etc.
Mohamed Ali Al-Khairy
Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4 ± 1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8 ± 0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0 ± 1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1 ± 1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68 g for Saudis and 128 g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. PMID:24926920
Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Batang, Zenon; Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Jahdali, Ramzi; Al-Jebreen, Dalal; Aziz, Mohammed A M; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz
Full Text Available The extreme temperature trends are analyzed for a meteorological data collection station in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia over approximately last four decades stretching between years 1970 and 2006. The long-term change in temperature has been assessed by Mann-Kendell rank statistics and linear trend analysis. The study also includes the estimation of hot and cold days and nights frequencies and finally the temperature anomalies on yearly basis. The ratio between the seasonal mean temperatures (Tmmean of the daily mean of hottest (July and coldest (January months was 1.032. Similarly the ratios between the seasonal mean temperature of daily maximum (Tmmax of hottest and coldest months was 1.033 while for seasonal mean temperature of daily minimum (Tmmin was 1.030. Significant increase was observed in hot days per year and relatively smaller decrease in hot nights. Significant increase in summer time temperatures was confirmed by both linear regression analysis and M-K rank statistics. The monthly and annual mean maximum temperatures have increased more than the mean and mean minimum temperatures.
Luai M. Al-Hadhrami
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bad dietary habits, such as eating high-fat/high-energy food, can contribute to obesity in adolescents, which tends to persist into adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the level and sources of knowledge about foods and healthy diets among male and female adolescents. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of male (n=1240 and female (n=1331 adolescents from third grade, intermediate and all three grades of secondary school students in the Al-Khobar Area, eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Approximately 51% of the male and 65% of the female students recognized unsaturated fats as healthy foods. However, 10% of the males and 8% of females reported saturated fats as healthy food items. About 49% of the males and 66% of the females correctly defined cholesterol. Dietary knowledge of both male and female students on the dangers of unhealthy foods and the benefits of fiber-rich diets was found to be unsatisfactory. The main sources of knowledge about health and disease reported by the male and female respondents were television (58% and 61%, respectively, magazines (31% and 39% and daily newspaper (33% and 34%. Primary health care centers (PHCCs staff were the least source of knowledge (17% and 16%. CONCLUSIONS : Knowledge of healthy diets among school students was inadequate. It is recommended that health education and information about healthy eating habits and lifestyle be included in school curricula.
Four outbreaks of gas bubble disease were encountered among farmed fish in Saudi Arabia. Two of them occurred among subadult (52.5 g) saltwater tilapia (Oreochromis spilurus), the first affecting about 50 per cent of the stock and resulting in about 30 per cent mortality, and the second affecting about 25 per cent of the population with about 5 per cent mortality. Another outbreak occurred among adult (270 g) brackish water (0.5 per cent salinity) tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), affecting about 40 per cent of the population with about 25 per cent mortality. The fourth outbreak occurred among three-month-old (15 g) grouper (Epinephelus fuscogutiatus) and resulted in 10 per cent mortality. In all cases the total water gas pressure ranged between 111.2 and 113.4 per cent saturation and nitrogen was supersaturated while oxygen was undersaturated. The outbreaks were alleviated by reducing the gas pressure by splashing the source water or by switching to a source of water with lower gas pressure. However, in O niloticus the conditions of gas supersaturation resulted in a heavy infection by monogenetic trematodes which was treated with formalin at 40 mg/litre for seven hours on five successive days. PMID:9234554
Saeed, M O; al-Thobaiti, S A
The epidemiological pattern of diarrhoeal diseases, causative agents and risk factors of their occurrence in two referral hospitals of Saudi Arabia is presented in this study. Stool specimens from 1726 admitted diarrhoeal cases were examined for parasites, yeast, enteropathogenic bacteria and rotavirus using the ELISA test. 41.3% of cases were due to rotavirus (RVGE) while 53.1% of cases showed no causative pathogens. Mean age of all cases was 20.2 months and RVGE cases showed a steady rise from the neonatal period onward, reaching a peak between 6-14 months. Males accounted for higher percentage of all diarrhoeal cases. Mothers of diarrhoea cases were mostly housewives with low educational level. Bottle fed children showed higher proportion (53.1%) of diarrhoea than other types of feeding suggesting the faeco-oral route of infection and the effect of poor sanitation. A pattern of higher RVGE cases was seen in warmer months in Al-taif and in cooler months in Jeddah. Findings demonstrated the interaction between host, pathogen and environmental factors in the epidemiology of infectious diarrhoeas in developing countries and the areas of possible prevention. PMID:7499777
Milaat, W A; Elassouli, S M
Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)
To examine the pattern of thyroid cancer, assess the magnitude of the problem, and evolve a management plan for such malignancies. This is a retrospective cohort study of all thyroid cases operated at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1998 and December 2007. Clinical presentations, management regimens, and recurrence were reviewed. Five hundred and sixteen patients were operated for different thyroid lesions. Ninety-two (17.8%) were malignant (20 males and 72 females). Mean age for males was 41.35 +/- 15.52 years compared to 36.59 +/- 13.28 years for females. Papillary carcinoma constituted 50%, while follicular carcinoma formed only 4.3% of malignant cases. Lymphoma ranked third with only 1.1% of all malignant thyroid lesions. No cases of medullary carcinoma were found. Of 92 patients, 75 reported for follow-up. The recurrence rate for follow-up patients was 29 (31.5%). High resolution neck ultrasonography and image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology should be considered as routine investigative tools in patients with suspicious thyroid swelling. Total thyroidectomy and removal of all lymph nodes in the central compartment of the neck seem to be the ideal management plan, until such trials emerge. Residual thyroid tissues, following surgery, should be ablated using radioiodine I131 isotope (Author).
This thesis addresses the long-range generation planning problem in Saudi Arabia up to the year 2000. The first part presents various models for electric energy consumption in the residential and industrial sectors. These models can be used by the decision makers for the purposes of policy analysis, evaluation, and forecasting. Forecasts of energy in each sector are obtained from two different models for each sector. These models are based on two forecasting techniques: (1) Hybrid econometric/time series model. The idea of adaptive smoothing was utilized to produce forecasts under several scenarios. (2) Box-Jenkins time series technique. Box-Jenkins models and forecasts are developed for the monthly number of electric consumers and the monthly energy consumption per consumer. The results obtained indicate that high energy consumption is expected during the coming two decades which necessitate serious energy assessment and optimization. Optimization of a mix of energy sources was considered using the group multiattribute utility (MAU) function. The results of MAU for three classes of decision makers (managerial, technical, and consumers) are developed through personal interactions. The computer package WASP was also used to develop a tentative optimum plan. According to this plan, four heavy-water nuclear power plants (800 MW) and four light-water nuclear power plants (1200 MW) have to be introduced by the year 2000 in addition to sixteen oil-fired power plants (400 MW) and nine gas turbines (100 MW)
Full Text Available This article describes the tremendous efforts made in the field of measles immunization in Saudi Arabia in the past 20 years, from the control phase to the elimination phase. Mandatory measles vaccination with one-dose Schwartz vaccine was introduced in 1982 by a royal decree, a step aimed at increasing vaccine coverage. In 1991, a two-dose schedule was implemented using Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine , with a first dose at 6 months to protect children younger than 9 months and a second dose of MMR at 12 months of age to protect those who did not respond to the first dose. A marked reduction in the epidemic peak and a shift of infection to older age were noticed. But the same data showed that 50% of measles cases in the 1- to 4-year age group occurred in vaccinated children. In 1998, with the start of elimination phase, an MMR campaign was launched in two phases, targeting school children in 1998 (secondary schools and in 2000 (primary and intermediate schools. Evaluation of the MMR campaign and surveillance data was reflected in the measles immunization policy by shifting the age of measles immunization to 12 months and to preschool using the two-dose MMR schedule.
Full Text Available Businesses today consider mergers and acquisitions a new strategy for their company’s growth. Companies aim to grow through sales’ increase, assets purchase, profits’ accumulation and market share gains. The better way for achieving these targets is by getting into either a Merger or an Acquisition. As a matter of fact, growth through mergers and acquisitions has been a critical part of the success of many companies operating in the new economy. Mergers and Acquisitions are an important factor in building up market capitalization. Based on three detailed and in depth structured interviews with major Saudi Arabian banks it has been found that, Mergers motivated by economies of scale should be approached cautiously. Companies should also approach vertical mergers cautiously because it is often difficult to gain synergy through a vertical merger and firms should also seek out mergers which allow the firm to acquire specialized knowledge. It has also been found that the firms should look for mergers that increase market power and avoid unrelated or conglomerate mergers.
Basmah Al Qudaiby (Basmah, A. Q.,
In recent time the concern has been expressed by various individuals and government agencies not only about learning from the past experiences and achievements of the man as builder of his own environment but also about preservation and restoration of historic/traditional architecture from which there is a lot to learn. The traditional architecture with its climatic and cultural/communal solution also poses questions of how they could be utilized or transplanted in the new urban context. This paper is a brief review of a more detailed field and theoretical survey carried out by the author in his efforts to understand the role of climate in formation of the traditional environment in Saudi Arabia. The examples are only representative of the main aspects of the climatic response in traditional architecture in the four dominant climatic regions 1. Hot Dry, 2. Hot Humid, 3. Composite, 4. Upland. The nearby areas in the Eastern province as well as the far away places in the southern provinces are described from author's personal experiences. Most of the climatic design elements are discussed with illustrations. The presentation of the paper will be accompanied with colour slides (from which some of the diagrams are prepared) not included in the publication of this paper.
Precambrian accretionary orogens largely contributed to continental growth, owing to their high production rates of juvenile crust compared to Phanerozoic accretionary orogens. The Pan-African orogeny is responsible for the evolution and growth of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Qazaz metamorphic complex in Saudi Arabia is one of the metamorphic complexes that were exhumed due to the activity of the largest Proterozoic shear zone system on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. The Qazaz complex is an example of an unusual new type of core-complex associated with crustal scale strike-slip faulting. Petrography and thermodynamic modelling were used to study the metamorphic evolution of the complex. The core of the complex records peak metamorphic conditions of 560 - 640 oC and 7-8 kbar. The bounding strike-slip shear zones operated at a temperature range of 400-600 oC while the pressure range varied from 5 to 0.5 kbar over a very short distance within the shear zone. The complex shows exhumation of about 25 km due to the activity of the Najd Fault System.
Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees
Manufactured phosphate fertilizers and their agricultural applications are considerable sources of environmental pollution. In this study, composite samples of phosphate fertilizer (PF) of different physical forms (granular, G, and water soluble powder, L) were collected. The activity concentration of 238U in Bq kg(-1) was measured using gamma ray spectrometers, and the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and selenium in mg kg(-1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES). The main aims of this study were to evaluate PF quality according to its physical form, determine manufacturers (local, L, or imported, I), and estimate the hazardous impacts of long-term phosphate fertilization. There was significant variation in the concentration of uranium and other elements in PF samples. In order to have globally normalized data, it is highly recommended to express the concentration of trace elements as per phosphorus mass instead of fertilizer mass. The annual addition of these elements to soil due to phosphate fertilization was calculated. The possible accumulation of added uranium and other trace elements due to fertilization in the subsurface soil layer and/or shallow underground water should be studied in the soil environment of Saudi Arabia. PMID:22134079
Khater, Ashraf E M
For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.
Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.
Full Text Available This extended abstract describes well-preserved palynomorph assemblages recovered from Devonian strata in five shallow boreholes in the northern part of Saudi Arabia. These fully cored holes overlap stratigraphically to form a 1,640 ft composite section spanning the upper Tawil, Jauf and lower Jubah formations. Only the Jauf and lower Jubah, represented by 188 samples taken over a 1,300 ft stratigraphic interval, are addressed here as the sandy Tawil lithologies are unsuitable for palynological analysis. The 900 feet of alternating of siliciclastic and carbonate units, that together comprise the five members of the Jauf Formation, were sampled comprehensively. However, the Jubah Formation, like the Tawil Formation, is mostly sandstone and is productive palynologically at only two levels separated by a 300 ft barren interval. The age of the sampled succession is assessed using index species from the established Euramerican Devonian palynozonations of Richardson & McGregor (1986 and Streel et alii (1987, and is shown to span the late Early and Middle Devonian.
Food poisoning is becoming a very important health problem both internationally and in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Salmonella species (spp is the most important pathogen, but due to the extensive effort carried by the health authorities to prevent or eradicate communicable diseases, new pathogens are now emerging such as Escherichia coli (E. coli and Norwalk like viruses. This review paper highlights the magnitude and determinants of food poisoning internationally and in KSA, and proposes some recommendations on its prevention. Clearly, there is a steady increase in the food poisoning accidents in KSA, especially during the summer months and Hajj season. These accidents are seen in other countries such as England, United States of America and Japan. Meat and chicken are the main items incriminated in these accidents. Knowledge on food safety in the food preparation process and the risk factors that can lead to food poisoning is low. Training and proper health education messages are needed to raise the awareness of food handlers as well as the public in general.
Yagob Y. Al-Mazrou
Full Text Available Abstract Learning and teaching are quite interrelated. Teaching can't take place unless the students learn. Teaching is a bi-polar activity. Learning barriers or causes of learning difficulties are quite natural phenomenon in an educational setting. But, when it comes to exert a very adverse effect it becomes crucial. Thus, it is unavoidable to ignore those factors which adversely affect the entire learning process. It is found that the following barriers are some of those that are very influential: social, cultural, parental, attitudinal, motivational, psychological, personal and pedagogical factors that include teacher, action research, teaching strategies, teaching resource, administration etc. The present paper is going to focus on the following: motivation of the students, motivation of the teachers, dedication and commitment, teacher's role, teachers’ preparedness, teaching strategies, training and professional development etc. The case of Saudi Arabia is very important for many reasons. The government is spending a lot of money on education. But, the achievement of learning is not up to the mark. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of such factors on academic achievement. Keywords: Barriers, socio cultural factors, psychological factors, pedagogical factors, the teacher , motivation.
intakhab alam khan
During 2008 and 2009, an intensive field program has been conducted in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia, which is adjacent to the Red Sea and is bounded by the Yemen border to the south and the region around Jeddah to the north. The period of study focused on analysis of observations for the months of June-August. This period coincides with a climatological peak in precipitation over the region. This region is mountainous with terrain ranging from sea level to a maximum height of about 2800 m. During the field program, convection was observed almost daily during mid-afternoon was focused along the mountain peaks. This peak in convection coincided with the sea breeze reaching the top of the tallest terrain features. The intensity of convection was modulated by the strength of the sea breeze (predominate wind direction, amount of moisture in the boundary layer, etc.) and strength of a persistent mid-level inversion. The main objective of this study focuses on characterizing the spatial and temporal features of convection and related it to the atmospheric conditions that were observed during the months of June-August. The study examines precipitation and atmospheric conditions using a network of C-Band radars (Abha, Baha, Jeddah, Jizan, and Taif) and surface and upper data collected from the site located in Abha. The presentation will provide an overview of the field program and give a summary of the precipitation and atmospheric characteristics for the two years used in the study.
Kucera, Paul; Chapman, Michael
Skin cancer is a common malignant neoplasm in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and it is the most common malignant neoplasm in Al-Baha area. This study was performed to determine the pattern of skin cancers seen at King Fahad Hospital, Al-Baha, KSA. Histologically diagnosed skin cancers, seen between 1990 and 2003, were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, race and site of distribution. Of a total of 193 patients, there were 79 (41%) cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 56 (29%) cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 34 (18%) cases of Kaposis sarcoma. Malignant melanomas represent 4.1% of the cases. The male to female ratio for all cancer was 1.6:1. The peak age distribution was in the 70-80-year group. The most common site involved in BCC was the head and neck (90%) and in Kaposis sarcoma were the lower limbs (59%). Acral distribution of malignant melanoma was seen in 62% cases. The most common skin cancers seen are BCC and SCC followed by Kaposis sarcoma. The site of distribution of BCC and SCC in our study is similar to studies in Caucasians. The site of distribution of BCC in sun exposed area supports the role of the ultraviolet light in the pathogenesis of such tumor. In contrast to the western countries, melanoma is a rare skin neoplasm in KSA. (author)
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)
The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.
Abdou, Adel A.
The objective of this review is to provide a brief background on clinical practice guidelines CPGs and tools to assess and locally adapt CPGs. Over the last 2 decades, CPGs have become an increasingly popular tool for synthesis of clinical information, so as to change clinical practice and improve quality of health care. Such a quantitative growth in the number of guidelines available in different specialties is a source of concern since there is evidence that recommendations produced by different groups can be conflicting, invalid, unreliable, and even harmful. Various critical appraisal instruments were designed and tested to assess whether developers have minimized the biases inherent in creating guidelines and addressed the requirements for effective implementation. We recommend using the AGREE instrument which was developed by the Appraisal of Guideline Research and Evaluation AGREE collaboration. It is the most well-developed guideline appraisal instrument available, and it has been shown to have good reliability and validity. There is a growing recognition that it is not possible for national guidelines to be produced on every clinical problem of concern. The cost is huge and few practices have the resources or skills to develop their own valid evidence-based guidelines. Several developed countries encourage local adaptation of international good quality guidelines to avoid duplication of work and cost involved in guidelines development. Therefore wherever possible, Saudi guidelines should be based on existing good quality guidelines. The methodology for local adaptation of CPGs to meet the local needs and resources are explained in this review.
Lubna A. Al-Ansary
Full Text Available This qualitative study employed informal conversational interviews and semi-structured individual interviews to capture the Saudi students’ opinions about the feedback they receive, and about their perceptions on what constitutes helpful feedback. Sociocultural theory was used as the framework of this study. The findings suggest that the Saudi students do not think highly of the feedback, and that the feedback they desire is markedly different from what they receive. The students mentioned several impediments to feedback. From a sociocultural perspective, the feedback practices do not adhere to the best practices of the theory, resulting in major hindrances to the students’ learning/writing development.
Rami F. Mustafa
Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations.
Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M.; Al-Ansari, A.M.; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A.A.
This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.
Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor
Full Text Available Hair and nails samples were collected from different adults women from Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia and analyzed for arsenic (As, lead (Pb and microbial flora. The hair and nails contain higher concentrations of Pb 4.47+0.41;10.48+0.53 followed by As 0.036+0.001; 0.087+0.005, respectively. Ten genera of microorganisms were isolated from the tested samples but hair contains higher bacteria and fungi than nails. The results provide evidence of high accumulation of lead and arsenic, which might be important in dealing with metal pollution in Saudi Arabia.
A. R. Hashem
Full Text Available Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, C. riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L. (Acanthaceae. The occurrence of modified facial setae is documented and discussed for the first time in eight other species of Pseudomegachile, and a key to the genera and subgenera of Megachilini currently confirmed for Saudi Arabia is provided.
Our results show that the most frequent blood group in Saudis is O-positive. Blood group A is observed at a lower frequency relative to values from Western populations, whereas a significant increase in blood group B combined with a slight increase in blood group AB was recorded. Knowledge of the frequencies of the different blood groups in Saudi Arabia is very important for Blood Banks and transfusion service policies. Knowledge of blood group phenotype distribution is also important for clinical studies (for example disease association, as well as for population studies.
L. A. Bashwari
Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281
Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M; Al-Ansari, A M; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A A
A shallow and short-lived subsynoptic cyclone is discussed as one of typical events causing natural disasters over Saudi Arabia on 5 January 2002 using the Japan Meteorological Agency global analysis dataset. The main cause for its formation was vorticity stretching. On the same day widespread rainfall over Saudi Arabia with enhanced precipitation over the mountainous Jeddah region was also observed using the Global Precipitation Climatology Project dataset. Owing to eastward-moving wintertime synoptic-scale Mediterranean disturbances, this rainfall was associated with frontal activity, modified by the local orography.
Chakraborty, A.; Mujumdar, M.; Behera, S. K.; Ohba, R.; Yamagata, T.
The first data on plasma homocysteine concentrations in Saudi healthy males and females are reported. Age and sex differences were confirmed and a significant inverse relationship between plasma homocysteine concentrations and that of serum folate and plasma vitamin B12 was observed. Various independent variables including age, sex, serum folate, waist-to-hip ratio and plasma vitamin B12 contributed to the changes in plasma homocysteine. Plasma homocysteine concentrations should be evaluated in patients at risk for cardiovascular and other related diseases in the Saudi population.
Salleh M. Ardawi
Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the impact of multi-media on the critical thinking and writing of Saudi secondary school students. The study compared the critical thinking in two writing samples (essays from adolescents who attended two Saudi secondary schools for boys and girls. The results demonstrated a gender-specific effect of using computers to compose essays. The boys produced significantly more words, sentences and paragraphs by using computers than those who did not use computer to write and received higher ratings on a structured rubric. Girls scored identical grades in both conditions (handwritten and computer and performed consistently at par with the boys using computers.
Fayza S. Al-Hammadi
Full Text Available This article examines the capability of Saudi law to tackle a widespread type of cybercrime: identity theft. It begins with an overview of the meaning of the term ‘identity theft’. Then, an overview of acts related to identity theft, including obtaining identity-related information, transferring identity-related information and possessing identity-related information, are provided. The article then examines the extent to which legal measures enacted in Saudi Arabia can tackle the problem of identity theft that occurs in cyberspace.
INTRODUCTION: Increased life expectancy due to recent medical advances has increased the need to understand more fully the quality of life (QoL) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and factors predicting disease adaptation .The objectives of this study were to assess the impairment of health related quality of life (HRQoL) domains in a sample of Saudi Arabian adolescents with SCD. METHODS: A non-probability sample composed of Saudi adolescents with SCD (n=180) aged 14-18 years and comp...
Mostafa Abdel-Monhem Amr; Tarek Tawfik Amin; Omar Ahmed Al-Omair
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results: A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%] was higher than in women (162 cases [38%], and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52% than for women (23%. In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ?60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths, followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths. The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%, followed by Medinah (36% and Najran (33%. MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20% and high temperature (15°C–35°C. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome, case fatality rate, descriptive epidemiology, temperature, humidity
Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)
Iran-Saudi relationship has constantly been frictional after Islamic revolution of Iran. In general, Saudi heavy support of Iraqi government during Iran-Iraq war and Iran’s holding political demonstration so-called the Liberation from Infidels gave rise to frigidity of mutual relations of the two countries. Meanwhile, one of the means that Saudi Arabia, as ally of Iraq, applied to put Iran under pressure was oil and reduction of its price in order to decrease Iran’s foreign exchange reven...
Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni; Reza Ekhtiari Amiri; Ku Hasnita Binti Ku Samsu
Purpose This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%]) was higher than in women (162 cases [38%]), and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52%) than for women (23%). In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ?60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths), followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths) and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths). The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%), followed by Medinah (36%) and Najran (33%). MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20%) and high temperature (15°C–35°C). Conclusion MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia.
Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Almalki, Shaia S; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A
Full Text Available Abstract Background During Ramadan fast, approximately one billion Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and another meal before sunrise. Many studies reported good health-related outcomes of fasting including weight loss. The objective of this study is to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a group of families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross-section study using a pre-designed questionnaire to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a representative cohort of Saudis living in Jeddah. It was piloted on 173 nutrition students and administered by them to their families. Results A total of 173 Saudi families were interviewed. One out of 5 indicated that their expenditure increases during Ramadan. Approximately two thirds of the respondents (59.5% reported weight gain after Ramadan. When asked about their perspective explanations for that: 40% attributed that to types of foods being rich in fat and carbohydrates particularly date in (Sunset meal 97.7% and rice in (Dawn meal 80.9%. One third (31.2% indicated that it was due to relative lack of physical exercise in Ramadan and 14.5% referred that to increase in food consumption. Two thirds (65.2% of those with increased expenditure reported weight gain. Conclusion Surprisingly weight gain and not weight loss was reported after Ramadan by Saudis which indicates timely needed life-style and dietary modification programs for a population which reports one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes.
Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms in endogenous, exogenous and nosocomial infections was emphasized.
Rajaa M. Milyani
The presence of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater is considered a global problem. Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine-bearing minerals are fluorite, apatite and micas. Anthropogenic sources of fluoride include agricultural fertilizers and combustion of coal. In the present research, a survey of wells ( n = 1,060) was undertaken in all the 13 regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to assess the contained fluoride (F) levels. The results indicated variation in fluoride levels from 0.10 to 5.4 mg/L as F throughout the kingdom. The average fluoride levels in milligrams per liter as F were as follows in descending order: 1.80 (Hadwood Shamalyah), 1.37 (Hail), 1.33 (Eastern Province), 1.16 (Al Jouf), 1.11 (Qassim), 1.01 (Riyadh), 0.90 (Madina Al Munnawara), 0.81 (Tabouk), 0.74 (Makkah Al- Mukaramma), 0.73 (Jizan), 0.66 (Asir), 0.64 (Najran), and 0.60 (Al Baha). The results indicated that fluoride levels exceeded the USEPA maximum contaminant limits for drinking water (4 mg/L) in several wells ( n = 7) in different regions of the kingdom and that 13.96 % of the wells exceeded the World Health Organization recommended levels (1.5 mg/L). The results were also compared with the secondary USEPA contaminant standards of 2.0 mg/L for fluorides.
Alabdulaaly, Abdulrahman I.; Al-Zarah, Abdullah I.; Khan, Mujahid A.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. Results: The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 ± 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%, kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%, caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%, hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB in eight patients (11.1%, and other material in seven patients (9.7%. Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%, 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Conclusion: Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine.
Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution.
As an aspect of the changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact; however, floods and torrents have been recently existed in Jeddah, the coastal Saudi city along the Red Sea. Distributed over 28 surface water basins, totaling an area of more than 2500km2, floods cover more than 15% of the area. This is well pronounced in 2009 and 2011, and it was attributed mainly to the torrential rainfall peaks the area witnesses lately. In addition, there is a chaotic urban distribution from the coastal zone to the adjacent mountain chains to the east, where torrential water runs towards the coast. A detailed assessment has been obtained using advanced space tools (e.g. high-resolution satellite images), and the application was carried out on several aspects of these images and at different dates. This was accomplished in combination the applications of geo-spatial systems to induce the mechanism of water flow regime and to identify the major reasons behind the high risk magnitude. Consequently, the geomorphologic and hydrologic parameters for flood occurrence were recognized. In the light of this catastrophic status; however, mitigation measures are rare enough to protect the area under risk. Recently, and after the 2009 and the recurrent 2011 disasters, which were resulted from floods, some mitigation measures have been undertaken and others were proposed. However, there is still uncertainty for an integrated flood control system. This can be viewed from the unsuitability of the selected sites and erroneous applications for flood controls. Besides, there is a lack to: 1) a giant channeling system for the risk area, 2) check dams, 3) ponds for water collection, 4) sediments-fixing controls, 5) traced watercourses. This is in addition to absence of proper legislation to prevent chaotic urban activities along valleys' pathways.
Al Saud, M.
We have investigated the Ash Shutbah circular structure in central Saudi Arabia (21°37'N 45°39'E) using satellite imagery, field mapping, thin-section petrography, and X-ray diffraction of collected samples. The approximately 2.1 km sized structure located in flat-lying Jurassic Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone has been nearly peneplained by erosional processes. Satellite and structural data show a central area consisting of Dhruma Formation sandstones with steep bedding and tight folds plunging radially outward. Open folding occurs in displaced, younger Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation blocks surrounding the central area, but is absent outside the circular structure. An approximately 60 cm thick, unique folded and disrupted orthoquartzitic sandstone marker bed occurring in the central area of the structure is found 140 m deeper in undisturbed escarpment outcrops located a few hundred meters west of the structure. With exception of a possible concave shatter cone found in the orthoquartzite of the central area, other diagnostic shock features are lacking. Some quartz-rich sandstones from the central area show pervasive fracturing of quartz grains with common concussion fractures. This deformation was followed by an event of quartz dissolution and calcite precipitation consistent with local sea- or groundwater heating. The combination of central stratigraphic uplift of 140 m, concussion features in discolored sandstone, outward-dipping concentric folds in the central area, deformation restricted to the rocks of the ring structure, a complex circular structure of 2.1 km diameter that appears broadly consistent with what one would expect from an impact structure in sedimentary targets, and a possible shatter cone all point to an impact origin of the Ash Shutbah structure. In fact, the Ash Shutbah structure appears to be a textbook example of an eroded, complex impact crater located in flat-lying sedimentary rocks, where the undisturbed stratigraphic section can be studied in escarpment outcrops in the vicinity of the structure.
Gnos, Edwin; Hofmann, Beda A.; Schmieder, Martin; Al-Wagdani, Khalid; Mahjoub, Ayman; Al-Solami, Abdulaziz A.; Habibullah, Siddiq N.; Matter, Albert; Alwmark, Carl
Is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia getting value for money invested in health? Quality care is being provided throughout health facilities in the Kingdom, however there is minimal control of utilization in all health sectors, consequently leading to abuse and over utilization, particularly in the public sector. Managed care programs have proven effective in reducing unnecessary inpatient and ancillary service utilization by reducing use of expensive procedures and unnecessary, highly specialized services, and shifting to less expensive care options. Health maintenance organizations are the best example of a managed health care model; tracking good performance and cost savings averaging between 20-40% compared to more traditional health plans. Key features of health maintenance organizations include serving a defined population voluntarily enrolled in the health plan; assumption of contractual responsibility and financial risk by plan to provide a range of services, and payment of a fixed periodic payment by the enrollee, independent of the actual use of services. The key characteristic that distinguishes health maintenance organizations from other delivery systems is prepayment for the care that is provided. Preferred Provider Organizations offer discounts for services received from a selected set of physicians and hospitals. Services received by enrollees are not fully reimbursed from this selected list of providers. Preferred Provider Organizations use health maintenance organizations administrative processes for controlling costs but do not include some of the intrinsic cost and quality controls of health maintenance organizations. Review of several studies indicate that patients enrolled in prepaid group practices (managed care organizations were hospitalized 15-40% less often than those enrolled in fee-for-service health plans.
M. H. Mufti
Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chlo