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Sample records for sulayyil sulayel saudi

  1. Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia

    This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

  2. Hyperlipidaemia in Saudi Arabia

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)

  3. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  4. Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review

    Shammas, Pierre [Arab Press Services (APS) Group, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2000-07-01

    A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

  5. Puitsillad Saudi Araabiasse

    2006-01-01

    Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto

  6. Puitsillad Saudi Araabiasse

    2006-01-01

    Projektbroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mkipuro, O NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, vrv. foto

  7. Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence

    Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

  8. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    2001-01-01

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Stroke in Saudi children

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and cardiac diseases in 6 (5.8%). Six patients (5.8%) had moyamoya syndrome, which was associated with another disease in all of them. Inherited metabolic disorders (3.8%) included 3 children with Leigh syndrome and a 29-months-old girl with mitochondrial encephalomypathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Systemic vascular disease was a risk factor in 3 children (2.9%) including 2 who had hypernatrmic dehydration; and post-traumatic arterial dissection was causative in 3 cases (2.9%). Several patients had multiple risk factors, whereas no risk factor could be identified in 11 (10.6%). Due to high prevalence and importance of multiple risk factors, a comprehensive investigation, including hematologic, neuroimaging and metabolic studies should be considered in every child with stroke. (author)

  10. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  11. Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Zafar, Hamayun; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Resul...

  12. The Local & the Global in Saudi Salafism

    Al-Rasheed, M.

    2008-01-01

    Jihadi ideologues in Saudi Arabia are advocates of global jihad aiming to establish an Islamic world order. At the same time they remain closely tied to local Saudi identities. Rejecting the national Saudi state and emphasizing tribal affiliation, Saudi Jihadis construct a discourse in which the Arabian peninsula is crucial. Yet when action is concerned, as in the pursuit of jihad, the tension between the local and the global creates contradictions that remain unresolved.

  13. Development of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Saleh, Mahmoud Abdullah

    1986-01-01

    The history of higher education in Saudi Arabia is outlined, especially as it relates to Islamic religion and educational philosophy, and its rapid growth is chronicled. These aspects are examined: Saudi students studying abroad, foreign students in Saudi Arabia, women's education, the Ministry of Higher Education's role, and financing. (MSE)

  14. Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys

    The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

  15. First dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia.

    Kear, Benjamin P; Rich, Thomas H; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A; Matari, Adel H; Al-Massari, Abdu M; Nasser, Abdulaziz H; Attia, Yousry; Halawani, Mohammed A

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (~ 75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titanosaur caudal vertebrae, and some isolated theropod marginal teeth that share unique character states and metric parameters (analyzed using multivariate statistical methods) with derived abelisaurids - this is the first justifiable example of a non-avian carnivorous dinosaur clade from Arabia. The recognition of titanosaurians and abelisaurids from Saudi Arabia extends the palaeogeographical range of these groups along the entire northern Gondwanan margin during the latest Cretaceous. Moreover, given the extreme paucity of coeval occurrences elsewhere, the Saudi Arabian fossils provide a tantalizing glimpse into dinosaurian assemblage diversity within the region. PMID:24386326

  16. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  17. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Kheyami Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.

  18. DIVIDEND POLICY IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Dialdin Osman; Elsaudi Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    We examine dividend policy in a unique environment in Saudi Arabia, where (1) firms distribute almost 100% of their profits in dividends, (2) firms are highly levered mainly through bank loans, and (3) there are no income or capital gains taxes. Some common factors that affect dividend policy of both financial and non-financial firms, we found some factors that affect only non-financial firms. In particular, the common factors are profitability, size, and business risk. Government ownership, ...

  19. First Dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A.; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A.; Matari, Adel H.; Al-Massari, Abdu M.; Nasser, Abdulaziz H.; Attia, Yousry; Halawani, Mohammed A.

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (similar to 75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titan...

  20. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author)

  1. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  2. Saudi Arabia plans future strategy

    The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

  3. Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements

    Hamdan, Amani

    2005-01-01

    The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

  4. Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia

    Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

    2005-01-01

    The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors

  5. Central Saudi Arabia, Persian Gulf

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of Central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf (28.0N, 47.0E) dramatically illustrates the stark beauty of the deserts. Riyadh, the capital city, lies in the foreground, with the Persian Gulf in the middle and Iran in the background. The coastal oil terminals of Al Hufuf and Ad Dammam are also visible. Black smudges of soot from the oil fires set during the Gulf War can be seen on the sands to the north and south of Kuwait City.

  6. Campylobacter enteritis in Saudi Arabia.

    R. Zaman

    1992-01-01

    A 12-month survey on the incidence of campylobacter infection in 1217 patients with diarrhoea was carried out in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Campylobacters were isolated from 55 (4.5%) patients, second in prevalence to salmonellas (6.2%). Shigellas were isolated from 4.2% of patients. Campylobacter isolation rates were high in children of all ages, as well as in young adults (36.5% of all isolates were from adults aged 20-39 years). Isolation rates peaked in September and November. Analysis of the ...

  7. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  8. Nutritional Management of Aminoacidopathies in Saudi Arabia

    Aljammaz, S. A. I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic disorders are common in Saudi Arabia. Adherence to a special diet is essential to prevent developmental disability in phenylketonuria (PKU). Our aim was to identify the risk factors for non-compliance with treatment of aminoacidopathies and poor outcome in PKU patients at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A qualitative study assessed nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practices through interviews (n=5) and focus groups (2) with...

  9. Index funds and diversification in Saudi Arabia

    Hicham Benjelloun; Abdulkader M.A. Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how best to diversify in Saudi Arabia's stock market. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis proceeds as follows: first, repeated sampling with replacement from a sample of 62 actual companies' monthly stock returns from January 2001 to June 2006 is used to simulate the performance of various portfolio sizes; second, a modified Statman diversification model is used to evaluate the performance of index funds in Saudi Arabia and thus ass...

  10. Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits

    In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs

  11. Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners

    Manssour Habbash

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made.Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory 

  12. High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)

  13. Saudi decree encourages MTBE, Chevron aromatics plant

    Chevron Chemical (Houston), encouraged by a new Saudi royal decree that establishes extremely low feedstock prices, is in final negotiations to build a novel aromatics plant in Saudi Arabia. Chevron says it plans to close the deal and announce details the first week of March. The unit will be based on Chevron's Aromax reforming process, which uses a zeolite catalyst to convert light naphtha into benzene and toluene. No existing plant is using the technology, but Chevron is building a $250-million, 150-million gal/year Aromax unit at its refinery site in Pascagoula, MS, and Idemitsu has licensed the process for a plant in Chiba, Japan. The Saudi decree, issued late last year, pegs domestic feedstocks - propane, butane, and naphthas - at 30% below the lowest price of the prior quarter in major non-domestic markets. That clarifies and guarantees the Saudi feedstock price, which has always been nebulous, and thus allows project feasibility to be more clearly assessed. The decree is designed to encourage further private petrochemical investment in the country. In particular, the Saudi government hopes guaranteed low prices for butane will encourage more methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects. Arabian American Chemical, a 50/50 joint venture between Mobile and Arabian Chemical Investments, said in October of last year that its 830,000-m.t./year MTBE project at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, would go ahead if feedstock questions could be resolved. The decree apparently resolves those questions

  14. Portfolios in Saudi medical colleges

    Fida, Nadia M.; Shamim, Muhammad S.

    2016-01-01

    Over recent decades, the use of portfolios in medical education has evolved, and is being applied in undergraduate and postgraduate programs worldwide. Portfolios, as a learning process and method of documenting and assessing learning, is supported as a valuable tool by adult learning theories that stress the need for learners to be self-directed and to engage in experiential learning. Thoughtfully implemented, a portfolio provides learning experiences unequaled by any single learning tool. The credibility (validity) and dependability (reliability) of assessment through portfolios have been questioned owing to its subjective nature; however, methods to safeguard these features have been described in the literature. This paper discusses some of this literature, with particular attention to the role of portfolios in relation to self-reflective learning, provides an overview of current use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education in Saudi Arabia, and proposes research-based guidelines for its implementation and other similar contexts. PMID:26905344

  15. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to learn from this unique phenomenon of migration medicine. PMID:12615370

  16. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

    Abolfotouh MA; Alabdrabalnabi AA; Albacker RB; Al-Jughaiman UA; Hassan SN

    2013-01-01

    Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department o...

  17. Blended learning in Saudi universities: challenges and perspectives

    Alebaikan, Reem; Salah TROUDI

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universitie...

  18. Veiled Delusions: Gender, Education, and Employment in Saudi Arabia.

    Somers, Patricia; Caram, Chris A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the oppression endured by Saudi Arabian women, and discusses the state of education, higher education, and employment for them. States that it will be difficult for Saudi women to achieve their aspirations brought about by higher education due to the growing number of unemployed Saudi males and the heavy rule of the monarchist…

  19. Pediatric pulmonary services in Saudi Arabia

    Abdullah A Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the available pediatric pulmonary services, in terms of workforce, resources, and distribution across Saudi Arabia. This would help in proper utilization of resources and direct future planning. Methods: A cross-sectional survey among pediatric pulmonologists registered in the Saudi Thoracic Society. Results: Among 43 practicing pediatric pulmonologist in Saudi Arabia, 29 have responded to the survey (response rate of 67.4%. The majority of practicing pediatric pulmonologists were young graduates with less than 5 years′ experience (44.8% and were North American training programs graduates (69%. The majority of the respondents (51% were located in Riyadh, 27% in Jeddah, 14% in the Eastern region and 3% in Madinah and Al-Majma′a. Most of the respondents had access to basic diagnostic tools required in the subspecialty, a majority of them (85% lack dedicated pediatric pulmonary function laboratories. Nearly, 80% of the hospitals performed less than 50 flexible bronchoscopies/year. Conclusion: Pediatric pulmonology is a growing subspecialty in Saudi Arabia with well-trained and experienced physicians. Our study represents an overview of the available pediatric pulmonology services in Saudi Arabia, which would help in future planning and better utilization of the available resources.

  20. Exploring COBIT Processes for ITG in Saudi

    Ahmad A. Abu-Musa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT has become one of the most important guidelines for information technology governance (ITG, which provides organizations with a useful tool to start evaluating their own ITG systems. COBIT introduces an ITG framework and supporting toolset that allows IT managers to bridge the gap between control requirements, technical issues and business risks. The objective of this study is to investigate the formality, auditing, responsibility and accountability of implementing COBIT processes for ITG in Saudi organizations. An empirical survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted to achieve these objectives. Five hundred questionnaires were distributed to a sample of Saudi organizations in a selected number of Saudi cities. One hundred and twenty seven valid questionnaires – representing a 25.4 percent response rate –were collected and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. While the results of the study reveal that the majority of respondents reported that implementing ITG COBIT processes and domains is the responsibility of IT departments in Saudi organizations, most of the respondents reported that the COBIT processes and domains are neither audited nor formally conducted in their organizations. From a practical standpoint, managers and practitioners alike stand to gain from the findings of this study. The study provides useful information for senior management, IT managers, accountants, auditors, and academics to understand the implementation phase and the impact ofCOBIT on ITG in Saudi organizations.

  1. Sustainable Energy Development in Saudi Arabia

    Mounir Belloumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 19712012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.

  2. Colour vision screening among Saudi Arabian children

    O. Matthew Oriowo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the prevalence of congenital red-green colour vision defects among Saudi Arabian male and female children.Methods: The study involved 1638 elementary and high school participants (838 males, and 800 females, who were randomly selected and screened for red-green colour vision defects using the Ishihara (pseudo-isochromatic plates test. Inclusion criteria were Snellen VA 20/20 or better and absence of known ocular pathologies.Among the females, 0.75% of the 800 participants showed CVD, with 0.25% and 0.5% demonstratingprotan and deutan defects, respectively.Conclusion: The results show that the prevalence of red-green colour deficiency among the female children from central Saudi Arabia is not significantly different from that of female populations inwestern countries.  The current prevalence among the males is higher than previously reported for central Saudi Arabia, but less than for Caucasian populations. 

  3. Food habits during pregnancy among Saudi women.

    al-Kanhal, M A; Bani, I A

    1995-01-01

    The food habits during pregnancy were studied in Saudi women. The general plan of the study was to interview pregnant women about food cravings and avoidances during pregnancy. A systematic random sample of 321 pregnant women was chosen from three different primary health care centers in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. An interview questionnaire was used to collect data related to dietary habits during pregnancy and puerperium. The percentages of women with dietary cravings, pica and aversions were 38%, 8.8% and 66.4%, respectively. Saudi women craved for milk, salty and sour foods, sweets and dates. The avoidances included spicy foods and beverages. The study showed no relations between the literacy level and the food habits during pregnancy. PMID:8830001

  4. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  5. Carotid Plaques in Saudi Smokers

    Mahmoud S. Babiker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking has been found to be associated with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Since smoking is an important public health problem, because it may be an essential risk factor for carotid artery plaques. Therefore the researchers tried to explore the powerful of this association, the researchers investigated smokers as unique suspected risk factor for carotid plaques beside the age. Methods: In observational cross-sectional study, 31 smokers with mean age of 56, were studied by B- mode ultrasound. Carotid arteries for all participants were examined by using 7MHrz linear transducer. Both saggital and transverse views were applied to evaluate the right and left common carotid arteries. Results: The frequency of carotid plaque was 35.5%. 54.5 % of these occurred in population group that smoke > 20 cigarettes per day. All plaques were presented in population of age above 53 years old. There was association between smoking frequency and age with the increases of plaque size. Conclusion and recommendations: The study suggested that there is a significant association between carotid plaques and smoking in Saudi smokers. In addition it showed that carotid plaque may present at age of 54 years old in smokers. The researchers recommended that further studies were needed. Moreover intensive health promotion against smoking in the KSA. represents an essential issue.

  6. NMR used for Saudi crude asphaltenes

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with proton (/sup 1/H) and carbon 13 (/sup 13/C) has been used to determine the structural characteristics of asphaltenes from four commercial Saudi Arabian crude oils. These characteristics are important to refiners that have deep conversion processes to determine yields from the residual fractions of the Saudi crudes, and to determine the operating parameters of the process units. The spectra obtained give some structural similarities among the crude oils, as well as some differences. Values of various structural parameters have been tabulated from the spectra

  7. Assessment of Reading Comprehension of Saudi Students Majoring in English at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

    Waleed B. Al Abiky

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there has been a continual decline in the average reading ability of college-aged students with approximately one third of a four-year college students considered “at risk” for low academic attainment. The current study assesses English reading comprehension of senior Saudi students majoring in English and Translation in fall 2012 at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The study, moreover, investigates the potential impacts of students’ age and GPAs on their readin...

  8. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Darwish, Magdy A.; Ghadeer Al-Saif; Suha Albahrani; Sabra, Amr A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period....

  9. Saudi experience with classic homocystinuria

    Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)

  10. The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Abdulrahim A. Rouzi; Nora Sahly; Dana Sawan; Souzan Kafy; Faten Alzaban

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for th...

  11. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  12. Exploring CLT Practices in Saudi International Schools

    Abdel-Salam, Ahmed Saad

    2014-01-01

    This is a research study conducted on 17 teachers who teach English in Saudi international schools. It mainly aims at exploring teaching practices in these schools in terms of the principles of communicative language teaching (CLT). It also investigates the appropriateness of CLT in this context from the point of view of teachers. Two research…

  13. The Education of Women in Saudi Arabia.

    Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril

    1991-01-01

    Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)

  14. Implementation of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia

    Most of the Saudi desalination plants are of the multistage flash (MSF) type. These plants are often constructed as a dual purpose installation, producing power and water. MSF plants are considered to be energy intensive, where the energy cost is a major controlling parameter in the overall cost of desalination. Oil price fluctuations affect the cost of desalted water significantly. On the other hand, nuclear power offers price stability in the long term. Nuclear powered desalination provides long term availability of indigenous fuel, as well as long term fuel price stability. It has a minimum environmental impact if compared with other conventional desalination processes. The operational expenses of nuclear desalination are far lower than those of conventional plants. implementation of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia is essential where large water requirements exist. The CANDU PHWR is the appropriate type of nuclear reactor for Saudi Arabia. A hybrid reverse osmosis/MSF CANDU PHWR is the candidate system for applying dual purpose nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  15. Archiving Saudi heritage using the holographic medium

    Althagafi, A.; Richardson, M.

    2015-03-01

    This paper focuses on the use of the Yuri Nikolaevich DENISYUK holographic recording process to document, archive and display Saudi heritage. The goal of this research is to develop a technique of archiving heritage by using a high-tech holographic process to capture a three-dimensional presentation of ancient jewelry artifacts of the Saudi Heritage in particular. This study concentrates on five particular items of handmade authentic ancient metal jewelry from different parts of Saudi Arabia. When conducting this research experiments were conducted using both red-green sensitive plates sensitive to 633 nm and 532 nm respectively. Material thickness ranged between 1.5 and 3 millimeters were used, consequently in the dark room, varied chemicals for developing the holograms were employed. Red and green laser devices were also used with exposure times between 8 to 18 seconds of laser light dispersion through diffused surfaces in reflection holography. The outcome in each case was varied. The holograms captured the jewelry pieces with all the engravings and minute details, thus archiving the Saudi Heritage of that time. What makes holograms a revolutionary method for presenting valuable and/or ancient artifacts is the fact that they offer a more practical and convenient solution to travel around the world than displaying the originals items. Thus, museum visitors can enjoy and appreciate the precious artifacts otherwise unseen and lost without holography.

  16. Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author).

  17. The German-Saudi HYSOLAR program

    The paper gives a very condensed overview on the manifold activities in the German-Saudi bilateral RD and D program HYSOLAR. Concentrating on Phase II of the program - which ended in 1995 - recent results in the fields of solar hydrogen production, hydrogen utilization, fundamental research, system studies and concentrating photovoltaics are shortly reviewed. (author)

  18. A SURVIVABILITY MODEL FOR SAUDI ICT STARTUPS

    Sara Almakenzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation and entrepreneurship are critical elements in the transition to the knowledge-based economy and future competition. Unfortunately, innovation tends to be absent in Arab states for many reasons. To promote innovation in Saudi Arabia, for instance, it is necessary to support inventors’ ideas to turn inventions into start-up companies, which are companies in their early stage. At the same time, it seems that there is a need for more academic research to study the success factors of Saudi information and communication technology (ICT start-up companies. ICT start-ups are important to the economy because they are needed for the progress of all industries. Therefore, this study will identify the factors that lead to successful ICT start-up projects. Then, it will develop a model for the best practices in the interplay among the defined factors that will increase the opportunity to initiate successful start-ups. This research involves a factor analysis study based on a quantitative method to measure the interdependences among the success factors for ICT start-ups. The identified factors are verified using a sample of Saudi start-up companies. The study will contribute to enhancing the technological content to diversify the Saudi economy in order to prepare for the post-oil era. The study result is a survivability model for Saudi-incubated ICT startups. The resulting model has two phases, as follows: (1 the incubation period, which includes the relationships among three factors leading to constant and successful updates and upgrades of the ICT startup business model; and (2 the postincubation period, which include relationships among the three factors that help to deal with the changing nature of the market and the emergence of competing products. This solution can be applied within startups with similar conditions.

  19. Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia

    The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

  20. Sensory processing dysfunction among Saudi children with and without autism

    Al-Heizan, Mohammed O.; Alabdulwahab, Sami S.; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Natho, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] There is a dearth of studies that have examined the occurrence of sensory processing dysfunction and its components in Saudi Arabian children with autism. Therefore, this study investigated the manifestation of sensory processing dysfunction in autism and compared the functional components of sensory processing between Saudi Arabian children with and without autism. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 46 Saudi Arabian children with autism and 30 children without autism pa...

  1. HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Sebai, Zohair A.; Milaat, Waleed A.; Al-Zulaibani, Abdulmohsen A.

    2001-01-01

    Health services in Saudi Arabia have developed enormously over the last two decades, as evidenced by the availability of health facilities throughout all parts of the vast Kingdom. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) provides over 60% of these services while the rest are shared among other government agencies and the private sector. A series of development plans in Saudi Arabia have established the infra-structure for the expansion of curative services all over the country. Rapid development i...

  2. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Hani A.

    2015-01-01

    This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and q...

  3. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' percep...

  4. Providing culturally congruent care for Saudi patients and their families.

    Mutair, Abbas Saleh Al; Plummer, Virginia; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Clerehan, Rosemary

    2014-02-01

    This article aims to increase an awareness of caring for Saudi families by non-Saudi nurses to improve their understanding of culturally competent care from a Saudi perspective. Healthcare providers have a duty of a care to deliver holistic and culturally specific health care to their patients. As a consequence of 'duty of care' obligations, healthcare providers must facilitate culturally congruent care for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds. For the Saudi family considerable cultural clashes may arise when Saudi patients are hospitalized and receive care from healthcare professionals who do not understand Islamic principles and Saudi cultural beliefs and values. The healthcare workforce in Saudi Arabia is a unique multicultural workforce that is mix of Saudi and significant other nationalities. Saudi nurses for example represent only 36.3% of the workforce in the different health sectors. Whilst the different ethnic and cultural background expatriate nurses represent 63.7% (Ministry of Health, 2010). This article also could increase the awareness of healthcare professionals caring for Arab and Muslims patients in another context in the world. PMID:24787260

  5. Saudi Araabia ei kavatse lubada tnavail htegi meeleavaldust / Heiki Suurkask

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Saudi Araabias keelati igasugused protestimeeleavaldused, samas on 11. mrtsiks vlja kuulutatud "raevupev". Veebruaris tegid 10 islamistliku intelligentsi esindajat katse luua opositsioonijud, mni pev hiljem nad vangistati

  6. The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia

    The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: → How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? → How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? → What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? → What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

  7. Saudi oncology society and Saudi urology association combined clinical management guidelines for prostate cancer

    Abusamra, Ashraf; Murshid, Esam; Kushi, Hussain; Alkhateeb, Sultan; Al-Mansour, Mubarak; Saadeddin, Ahmad; Rabah, Danny; Bazarbashi, Shouki; Alotaibi, Mohammed; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Alghamdi, Khalid; Alsharm, Abdullah; Ahmad, Imran

    2016-01-01

    This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor node metastasis staging system 7th edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence level, they are based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors) who were selected by the Saudi oncology society and Saudi urological association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology, and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health care policy makers in the management of patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the prostate to.

  8. Gender-segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms the Saudi Labor Market

    Roula Baki

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by considering segregation, women's mobility, videoconferencing courses, and the roles of professors. I attempt to explain how the current education system fails to prepare its students for the global economy: by limiting women's access to the labor market, and by not preparing men for the realities of the global market and therefore creating the need for migrant workers. In conclusion, conserving culture is significant, but for economic change to occur, the extent of cultural conservatism and its effect on the education system need to be re-evaluated.

  9. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  10. An overview of nursing in Saudi Arabia

    Mansour Saleh AlYami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Achieving and maintaining a stable nursing workforce is an important issue for the well-being of the rapidly growing population of Saudi Arabia. However, high turnover of expatriate staff and low recruitment of Saudi nationals have led to a serious staff shortage in the professions, particularly of well-qualified and experienced nurses. Nursing leaders need to work to improve the image of nurses and facilitate the recruitment of women into the nursing profession. Reduced working hours and part-time contracts with increased salaries and benefits could attract more young women to the profession, as might the provision of facilities such as private transportation and on-site childcare. Furthermore, establishing a national association for nurses would advance the nursing profession and help to ensure that all nurses undertake fully comprehensive training before entering the workforce.

  11. Health beliefs and behaviors of Saudi women.

    Ide, B A; Sanli, T

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes perceptions of familiarity with symptoms and beliefs about illnesses based on interviews with 50 Saudi women. The sample was young, with 82% under the age of 40, and not well educated by Western standards, with one-third being illiterate and 80% having no more than a primary school education. More than half lived in households of six or more. Although there was greater awareness of germs as causative factors in illness than previous studies in Saudi Arabia had demonstrated, beliefs in multiple causes, including religious beliefs about disease causation, persisted. There was an apparent lack of understanding of specific causes of various illnesses or of the rationale for preventive measures. This lack of understanding may be related to the low education levels and/or deeply ingrained cultural beliefs. PMID:1475998

  12. [Multi-parity in Saudi Arabia].

    Krger, N; Krger, I; Carsten, P M

    1990-01-01

    The relation between birthweight and parity of the mother was examined in Saudi patients from Tabuk and Najran. 4,664 newborns were taken into consideration from 1985-1988. 30.7% (1,430) of these newborns were born to mothers with more than 5 deliveries. A positive correlation between the increasing number of the parity and the birthweight can be demonstrated in our patients from parity 9. From parity 9 to parity 11 there is an increasing birth-weight of the male newborns, whereas the weight of the female newborns shows different tendencies. The average age of a Saudi primipara is 20.5 years and increases by 1.05-1.99 years until parity 11. From parity 11 to parity 13 it increases by 0.7 years. PMID:2402965

  13. Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP

    Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low student performances on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. There is a growing demand for national assessment standards for all key subject areas to monitor students’ learning progress. This study acknowledges extant research on this important topic and offers a strategy of national assessment to guide educational reform.

  14. Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia

    The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)

  15. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island

  16. Saudi Aramco describes crisis oil flow hike

    On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco)

  17. ERP Implementation Success Factors in Saudi Arabia

    Malik F. Saleh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature on successful implementation of ERP reveals that there are many case studies undertaken by researches, but very few have empirically examined the success factors of ERP implementation. While most of those empirical studies were undertaken in Western countries, very few had examined the implementations in Middle Eastern countries and none in Saudi Arabia. Factors and challenges of ERP implementation in developing countries differ from those of Western countries. Hence a gap in the literature that examines Middle Eastern countries exists. This study is motivated to fill such gap by going beyond case study and boundaries of Western counties to empirically examine the determinants of successful ERP implementation in Saudi Arabia. The main purpose of this study is to examine the influence of some critical factors on successful implementation of ERP.

  18. Breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia: a review

    Al Juaid, Daifellah A M; Colin W. Binns; Giglia, Roslyn C

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is viewed as the optimal method of infant feeding that provides many benefits to both the infant and the mother. The monitoring and reporting of breastfeeding indicators are essential for any country to plan and implement effective promotion programs for sustainable breastfeeding. The aim of this review is to examine the available studies and data on breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia, and determine the potential factors that affect breastfeeding practices and duration in ...

  19. University Statement on Saudi Education Program

    Hincker, Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    The university encountered a situation last week associated with a professional development program offered under contract to a group of 60 faculty members from King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia. The faculty members are participating in a six week program modeled after our popular Faculty Development Institute. In addition to hands-on training in the latest instructional technology, the faculty members are improving their English language skills in special classes. The program is a re...

  20. A SURVIVABILITY MODEL FOR SAUDI ICT STARTUPS

    Sara Almakenzi; Arif Bramantoro; Waleed Rashideh

    2015-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship are critical elements in the transition to the knowledge-based economy and future competition. Unfortunately, innovation tends to be absent in Arab states for many reasons. To promote innovation in Saudi Arabia, for instance, it is necessary to support inventors’ ideas to turn inventions into start-up companies, which are companies in their early stage. At the same time, it seems that there is a need for more academic research to study the success f...

  1. Aedes Mosquito Species in Western Saudi Arabia

    Alikhan, Masroor; Ghamdi, Khalid Al; Mahyoub, Jazem Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito species populations in the western region of Saudi Arabia, especially in and around Jeddah, are increasing, therefore increasing susceptibility of humans to the dengue virus. An extensive survey was carried out for one year, and four species were identified with the help of different pictorial keys available. The identification was based on morphological characteristics of adult female Aedes mosquitoes.

  2. Dietary Practices in Saudi Cerebral Palsy Children

    Al-Hammad, Nouf S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the dietary practices of Saudi cerebral palsy (CP) children. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following information from parents of CP children: demographics, main source of dietary information, frequency of main meals, foods/drinks used for main meals and in-between-meals. Results: Parents of 157 CP children participated. Parents were divided into three, while children were divided into two age groups. The main sources of dietary inf...

  3. Quality of life in Saudi vitiligo patients

    Luluah Al-Mubarak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo has a devastating psychosocial effect. The cultural traditions of Saudi society are quite different compared with the western world. Hence, a quality of life study using a different questionnaire suitable to the cultural traditions of the society is necessary to measure qualify of life in vitiligo patients. Objective : This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL in Saudi vitiligo patients and their family. Materials and Methods : A prospective cross-sectional study at National Center for Vitiligo and Psoriasis, Saudi Arabia. A validated Arabic questionnaire of 41 questions was developed and utilized specifically for this study. Arabic language instrument was distributed to 260 vitiligo patients. Scores were compared in relation to demographic, clinical, and social variables in 4 dimensions of scale (relationship with colleagues, family relationship, social relationship, and self respect. Results : Overall score QOL was 17.1. Mean score for males was 11.1, whereas that for females was 23.9 (P < 0.05. Females scored significantly higher in all the 4 dimensions. Patients with exposed disease lesions scored significantly higher than those with unexposed lesions 5 vs 3.4 (P < 0.05. Conclusion : The overall score of QOL in vitiligo is relatively high, indicating a negative impact of the disease on QOL. QOL in women is significantly more affected than in men.

  4. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.

    Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2014-01-01

    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered. PMID:25134311

  5. Saudi English-Major Undergraduates' Academic Writing Problems: A Taif University Perspective

    Al-Khairy, Mohamed Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a) the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b) Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c) the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and…

  6. The New Saudi Educational Renaissance: In between the "Capacity to Aspire" and the "Capacity to Remember"

    Pavan, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia investments in higher education have increased exponentially in recent years, and the New Saudi Educational Renaissance is attracting the attention of international academia. The purpose of this study is to draw on Saudi sources, with the aim of allowing Saudi voices to introduce their strategies for the design of a…

  7. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  8. Kas Saudi Araabia naftatulu leiab tee Rootsi pangandusturule? / Romet Enok

    Enok, Romet

    2008-01-01

    Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma

  9. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    2010-09-07

    ... sales strategies. Commercial Setting Saudi Arabia is the largest IT market in the Arabian Gulf... the government vision to enhance the country's IT standing and install a digital infrastructure, the... International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International...

  10. Video Games Promote Saudi Children's English Vocabulary Retention

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Video Games and their role on promoting Saudi Kids' English vocabulary retention. The study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English vocabulary test due to using Video Games…

  11. Learning English: Experiences and Needs of Saudi Engineering Students

    Unruh, Susan; Obeidat, Fayiz

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, Saudi engineering students talk openly of their experiences learning English in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and as university students in the United States (US). These students reported that they learned only the basics of vocabulary and grammar in KSA. Consequently, they came to the US with few English skills. In…

  12. Kas Saudi Araabia naftatulu leiab tee Rootsi pangandusturule? / Romet Enok

    Enok, Romet

    2008-01-01

    Autor vaatleb, kes viks enim olla huvitatud Phjala pangandusturu mberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on vimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB krvale Nordeat ostma

  13. Blended Learning in Saudi Universities: Challenges and Perspectives

    Alebaikan, Reem; Troudi, Salah

    2010-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended…

  14. The importance of silicon photovoltaic manufacturing in Saudi Arabia

    In this paper, the potential of silicon development for photovoltaics will be discussed in conjunction with the availability of raw material and photovoltaic demand in Saudi Arabia. Recent studies suggest that silicon raw material for photovoltaic production should be considered for further investigation towards solar cells manufacturing in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  15. Environmental education in Saudi general environment system - an engineering perspective

    The Saudi Cabinet of Ministers approved the Saudi General Environment System (SGES) in 2001. This approval is considered a step forward towards preserving the environment in Saudi Arabia. One of the targets of this system is to make environmental planning as an un-replaceable part of every comprehensive development planning in all industrial, agricultural, and architectural sectors. Achieving such a target requires a specialized labor force. Therefore, College of Engineering should act positively and actively in disseminating environmental awareness among engineers since they play a major rule in development projects. A degree in environmental engineering is a must at present, which is not available yet at any university in Saudi Arabia. Details of a B. Sc degree in environmental engineering offered by two universities in USA, are discussed. The syllabus of a degree in environment engineering adapted for the Saudi environment and culture is outlined

  16. 76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...

    2011-12-15

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh... (MAS) units are organizing an Executive-Led Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi... generation. The trade mission will target products, technologies and services in the clean energy...

  17. The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia

    Gawi, Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi

  18. Motivation for domestic tourism : a case study of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Bogari, Naima Bakor

    2002-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia there is a growing amount of leisure time and a high percentage of disposable income is being spent on various forms of tourism; such trends have increased the number of Saudis travelling to tourist destinations, internationally or domestically. Spending the annual holiday away from Saudi is normal for most Saudi families and it is estimated that the total expenditure on domestic tourism in Saudi Arabia is only 16.7% of total tourism expenditure. International e...

  19. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  20. Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia

    Abdulkarim K Alhowaish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380 than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our understanding of economic costs of diabetes and its related complications.

  1. Non-verbal communication barriers when dealing with Saudi sellers

    Yosra Missaoui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a major impact on how customers perceive sellers and their organizations. Especially, the non-verbal communication such as body language, appearance, facial expressions, gestures, proximity, posture, eye contact that can influence positively or negatively the first impression of customers and their experiences in stores. Salespeople in many countries, especially the developing ones, are just telling about their companies’ products because they are unaware of the real role of sellers and the importance of non-verbal communication. In Saudi Arabia, the seller profession has been exclusively for foreign labor until 2006. It is very recently that Saudi workforce enters to the retailing sector as sellers. The non-verbal communication of those sellers has never been evaluated from consumer’s point of view. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the non-verbal communication barriers that customers are facing when dealing with Saudi sellers. After discussing the non-verbal communication skills that sellers must have in the light of the previous academic research and the depth interviews with seven focus groups of Saudi customers, this study found that the Saudi customers were not totally satisfied with the current non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers. Therefore, it is strongly recommended to develop the non-verbal communication skills of Saudi sellers by intensive trainings, to distinguish more the appearance of their sellers, especially the female ones, to focus on the time of intervention as well as the proximity to customers.

  2. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  3. Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends

    The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)

  4. Domestic water conservation potential in Saudi Arabia

    Abdulrazzak, Mohammed J.; Khan, Muhammad Z. A.

    1990-03-01

    Domestic water conservation in arid climates can result in efficient utilization of existing water supplies. The impacts of conservation measures such as the installation of water-saving devices, water metering and pricing schemes, water rationing and public awareness programs, strict plumbing codes, penalties for wasting water, programs designed to reduce leakage from public water lines and within the home, water-efficient landscaping, economic and ethical incentives are addressed in detail. Cost savings in arid climates, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia, in relation to some conservation techniques, are presented. Water conservation technology and tentative demonstration and implementation of water conservation programs are discussed.

  5. Gamma Ray Shielding from Saudi White Sand

    Al-horayess OKLA; Al-Dayel OMAR; Hefne JAMEEL; Al-Ajyan TURKI; Bagazi ALI

    2010-01-01

    This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements in each shield material were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained from the ICP-MS were used in MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer ...

  6. Outcome of stroke in Saudi children

    Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating persistent neurologic or cognitive deficits. Primary prevention for recurrences is feasible through informed genetic counseling. (author)

  7. Bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi women

    Osteoporosis is reported to be common among postmenopausal Saudi women. The reported incidence varies between 50-60%. Different machines were used to reach these conclusions. At present it is believed that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate method to diagnose osteoporosis. This study was conducted to measure bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur of Saudi postmenopausal women attending orthopedic clinic with unrelated complaints. This study comprises of 256 patients attending orthopedic clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2002 and June 2003. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Women with secondary osteoporosis were excluded from study. Patient's orthopedic complaints were also recorded in the database. Bone mineral density measurements were carried out using Hologic total body DEXA machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS package. The data of 256 patients was available for analysis. The average age of patients screened was 57.62 years (49-76) SD+-6.71. The BMI was 21.3-42.9 Kg/m (SD+-5.34). The BMD of lumbar spine was 0.785 gm/cm2 (0.527-1.023) SD +-0.142 and that of the hip region was 0.764 gm/cm2 (0.500-1.069) SD +-0.149. As per the WHO classification 59 women (23%) were classified as normal with the T score of -0.82, 78 (30.5%) as osteopenic with T score -2.5 and 119 (46.7%) as osteoporosis with T score -3.58. When the BMD of the hip was analyzed 62 (24.2%) were normal T score -1.0, 81 (31.6%) as osteopenic, T score -2.5 and 113 (44.1%0 as osteoporotic, with a T score of -3.1. on the basis of analysis of lumbar spine 190 (74.2%) had increased risk of fracture as compared to the analysis of hip 59% were at increased risk of fracture. Our results indicate that postmenopausal Saudi women suffer from osteoporosis and osteopenia higher than those from other parts of the country. Necessary steps are needed so as to avoid osteoporosis and its complications which could end up in epidemic proportions. (author)

  8. Kawasaki disease in Western Saudi Arabia

    To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kawasaki disease in this study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 3.1+/-2.4 years. Most patients were younger than 5 years (83.3%). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Diagnosis was made 8.1+/-3.3 days after start of fever with a range from 4-15 days. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with 2 requiring another dose of IVIG. Echocardiography was performed 10.1+/-3.9 days from onset of fever with a range of 4-20 days. The duration of hospital stay was 7.9+/-5.8 days with a range from 3-25 days. Three patients had coronary artery abnormalities and still have coronary artery dilatation at last follow-up appointment. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease as delayed diagnosis may lead to coronary lesions. A national awareness program on Kawasaki disease is recommended (Author).

  9. Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

  10. Stress among dentists in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)

  11. The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia

    Alzahrani Khalid

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

  12. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

  13. Saudi rahuplaan ajas Iisraeli juhid tlli / Marek Laane

    Laane, Marek, 1969-

    2002-01-01

    Saudi Araabia esitatud Lhis-Ida rahuplaan on ajanud Iisraeli juhtkonna tlli: peaminister Ariel Sharon on selle vastu, president Moshe Katsar on aga valmis saudidega kohtuma. Kaart: Iisraeli muutuvad piirid

  14. Urban Unrest and Non-Religious Radicalization in Saudi Arabia

    Menoret, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    The expressions of dissent in contemporary Saudi Arabia, whether through violent action or ideological and theological constructions, are well documented today. The very contexts within which violence appears and develops are less well known. If it is essential to read and analyse the Islamic discourses and to observe and interpret the history of Islamic activism in Saudi Arabia, such an elitist focus may overlook more discrete events that might explain the way ordinary people refer to state ...

  15. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Esam I. Azhar; Kao, Moujahid A.; Radadi, Raja M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of J...

  16. Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students

    Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen; Suneetha Epuru; Bushra Fatima Syeda; Wedad Flyyh Mtlk Al Rashedi

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 1826 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported informa...

  17. Teaching English for Specific Purposes: Attitudes among Saudi Engineering Students

    Majed Ali Alqahtani

    2015-01-01

    Attitude is considered as one of the most crucial factors for learning a second or foreign language for a specific purpose. It plays a major role in arousing student’s interest and motivation towards learning. The main purpose for conducting this research is to identify the attitude among engineering students in Saudi Arabia towards learning English for a specific purpose. This research used qualitative and quantitative methods. Surveys were conducted from students of a Saudi Engineering univ...

  18. Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients

    Bahammam MA

    2015-01-01

    Maha A BahammamDepartment of Periodontology, King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: This study aimed to examine diabetic patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, regarding their general diabetic and oral health-related awareness and practices, their awareness of the association of diabetes with periodontal disease, and their sources of diabetes-related information.Methods: Diabetic patients (n=454) who were receiving care at the diabete...

  19. Perception of Canadian training programs by Saudi resident trainees.

    Assiri Abdullah; Al-Jarallah Abdullah; Al-Amari O; Turnbull J

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine how Saudi medical trainees in Canada perceive their training programs with regards to educational, ethnic and socio-cultural issues, and if different factors such as the chosen field of training, place or level of training make any difference to this perception. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All Saudi residents in training programs in Canada in the 1996/1997 academic year were surveyed using a written anonymous self-administered questionnaire, evaluat...

  20. Drowning in children: Aseer Central Hospital experience, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Al-Fifi, Suliman H.; Medhat A Shabana; Mohammed Zayed; Al-Binali, Ali M.; Al-Shehri, Mohammed A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To study the reasons, magnitude and outcome of drowning following submersion in water of children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients (0-13) years old who drowned and were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia, between January 1st 1999 and December 31st 2009. Results: A total of 19 cases were admitted following...

  1. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Sara M. Al-Hilali; Eman Al-Kahtani; Babar Zaman; Rajiv Khandekar; Abdullah Al-Shahri; Edward, Deepak P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awarene...

  2. ATTITUDES OF SAUDI MEDIA TOWARDS WORLD HEALTH EVENTS

    Al-Zahrani, Mohammed A; Al-Hudaithy, Abdulaziz M.; Ziady, Hany H.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction: Mass media are very important in health education programmes. Health promoters rely on them to play a crucial role in their campaign. Aim: The aim of the study was to study the patterns of contribution of the Saudi daily newspapers on two international health occasion during the year 1416H (World AIDS Day 1995 and World Health Day 1996). Material and Methods: The study was retrospective, carried out by reviewing eight daily Saudi newspapers including all issues covering three mo...

  3. Saudi Arabia: Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

    International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

    2014-01-01

    KEY ISSUES Context. Saudi Arabia’s economy has grown very strongly in recent years, benefitting from high oil prices and output, strong private sector activity, and government spending. It has played a systemic and stabilizing role in the global oil market. The economy has not been affected by the recent global financial market volatility. The Saudi population is young, growing, and increasingly well educated. Outlook and risks. The near term economic outlook is positive. Oil production is ...

  4. Insomnia in chronic renal patients on dialysis in Saudi Arabia

    Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Khogeer, Haithm A; Al-Qadhi, Waleed A; Baharoon, Salim; Tamim, Hani; Al-Hejaili, Fayez F; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed M; Al-Sayyari, Abdullah A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that insomnia is a common sleep disorder among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Saudi patients with ESRD who are on maintenance dialysis.Methods: This was an observational cross-sectional study carried out over a period of five months in two hemodialysis centers in Saudi Arabia. To assess the prevalence of insomnia, we used the ICSD-2 definition. We also examined the association between insomn...

  5. Counter-Terrorism in Saudi Arabia: Narratives, Practices and Challenges

    AlMaawi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Since 9/11, both in the Middle East and worldwide, the academic, political and religious focus on extreme radicalisation has intensified. The attacks carried out in Riyadh, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, by Al-Qaeda in 2003, motivated a succession of bombings within and outside of the Kingdom. These events have led to a plethora of general and specific studies to understand the phenomenon of extremism. This thesis investigates radicalisation in Saudi Arabia since 2001, focus...

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING CHILD DEVELOPMENT IN MADINAH, SAUDI ARABIA

    Bella, Hassan; Al-Ansari, Salih S.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction: This paper addresses an important pre-requisite for promoting child health; namely the promotion of sound child development. Objectives: The study aimed at identifying factors affecting child development in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Design: A cross-sectional study with a multi-stage stratified random sample of children. Setting: Well-baby clinics of the primary health care centers in urban and rural areas of the Madinah region, North-western Saudi Arabia. Participants: A sample of ...

  7. The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population

    Mokhtar HA; Abuljadayel LW; Al-Ali RM; Yousef M

    2015-01-01

    Hadeel A Mokhtar, Layla W Abuljadayel, Reem M Al-Ali, Mohammed Yousef Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi popu...

  8. Nutritional Status among a Sample of Saudi College Students

    Jafar M. El-Qudah; Hasan Al-Omran; Bassam Abu-Alsoud; Tasnim O. I. Al-Shek Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional habits and health behaviors have been a major concern for public health, especially among vulnerable groups such as teenage and college students. This study aims to assess nutritional status of a sample of Saudi college students and their dietary behaviors. A multi-stage sample was obtained from a private college in the north-western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Descriptive statistics was used to assess the frequency of some nutritional habits and their correlation...

  9. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand f...

  10. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 20092010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

  11. Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia

    Samarkandi Abdulhamid

    2006-01-01

    Background: With the evolution of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia, there has been an increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico- Legal malpractice claims over the period 1420H-1424H (1999-2003) was perfo...

  12. WATER IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    KKhodran H. Al-Zahrani and M. B. Baig

    2011-01-01

    Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources affecting the Saudi development plans. The acute shortage of fresh water resources poses a major challenge in Saudi Arabia. Demand for fresh water is on the rise as sufficient water is no longer available to meet daily needs. Some 95% of water comes from aquifers. Desalination plants and waste water reclamation projects provide about 4% and 1% water respectively. About 30% of the water for household consumption comes from desalinating p...

  13. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    Alsaif, Mohammed A; Latifa K. Khan; Adel A.H. Alhamdan; Saada M. Alorf; Abdulaziz M. Al-Othman; Rabab J. Makki

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing),...

  14. Screening criteria for enhanced recovery of Saudi crude oils

    Sayyouh, M.H.; Al-Blehed (Petroleum Engineering Dept., King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))

    1990-01-01

    This investigation studies and analyzes the screening guides that can be used to select the applicable enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method under Saudi oil field conditions. Based on the analysis of data obtained from 186 Saudi formations, the crude oils are produced from low to intermediate permeability formations in the range of 1-1500 millidarcies. The original reservoirs' pressure and temperature range from 2000 to 5500 psi and from 140 to 240{degrees}F, respectively. The porosity of the formations varies from 10 to 30% and the formations thickness ranges from 10 to 300 feet. The reservoirs of Saudi Arabia are characterized by high formation water salinity, which can be as high as 30% by weight. Saudi oil formations are characterized by connate water in the range of 10-50%. Thus residual oil saturation is expected to be high. The viscosity of most Saudi crude oils ranges from 0.10 to 10 centipoise. The API gravity ranges from 15 to 45. The basic parameters studied include formation permeability, porosity, and thickness; reservoir pressure and temperature; crude oil viscosity and API gravity, formation connate water saturation and its salinity, and formation type and heterogeneity. Based on the screening analysis the most suitable technical methods applicable to Saudi oil fields are the miscible processes using gases.

  15. Individualized medicine enabled by genomics in Saudi Arabia.

    Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Assidi, Mourad; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Dallol, Ashraf; Pushparaj, Peter; Ahmed, Farid; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25951871

  16. Mobile Computing Trends in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study

    Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Blended learning in Saudi universities: challenges and perspectives

    Reem Alebaikan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universities is the adaptation of this element in the traditional university culture. Finding the right design of blended learning is another challenge that is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the time issue is considered a crucial challenge facing blended learning faculty. Practical recommendations that would facilitate transition to a blended learning university environment are presented. It is hoped that this study will help to provide insight for the faculties and the decision-makers throughout higher education in Saudi Arabia. Although this investigation is specifically related to the implementation of blended learning in the universities of Saudi Arabia, we are confident that the assumptions and recommendations contained herein will be of great value to other populations facing similar challenges.

  18. Applications of horizontal drilling technology in Saudi oil fields

    The technology of drilling and production of horizontal wells is probably one of the most significant breakthrough in the oil and gas industry of the eighties. The continuous improvement of hardware equipment made horizontal drilling cost-effective technique for developing reserves, improving productivity and recovery in oil and gas reservoir. This paper is devoted to Saudi experience in horizontal drilling. The last years have been an exciting period for those who believed in horizontal drilling applicability in Saudi Arabia. At the end of the year 1997 more than 150 horizontal wells have been drilled in Saudi oil fields. There are four major horizontal well applications identified in Saudi Arabia oil fields; 1) Control of coning in relatively thin remaining all column area, 2) Improving sweep efficiency of water flooding program. 3) Improving productivity rate in thin/tight reservoirs and 4) Saving in total development costs in conjunction with previous three applications. This paper presents the major areas of application of horizontal well and more specifically the objectives of applying horizontal drilling in different Saudi oil fields and the world horizontal drilling activities along with the Saudi experience will be convered. This paper surveys different field examples to show the application trends of horizontal well technology in both offshore and onshore oil fields. The main objective of this survey is to demonstrate the performance improvement of these oil fields after the application of horizontal well technology. (author)

  19. Hypertension in Renal Transplantation: Saudi Arabian Experience

    Souqiyyeh Muhammad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence, etiologic factors and therapy of hypertension in actively followed up transplant population in Saudi Arabia; we retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. These subjects were transplanted between January 1979 and November 1998. The patients were grouped according to the measurement of blood pressure; group 1 (considered normo-tensive: blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg, group2: blood pressure between 140-159/90-99, group 3: blood pressure 160-179/100-109 group 4: equal to or above 180/110. There were 1115 patients′ records included in the study. The mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 ± 50.1 months. According to the level of measured blood pressure, there were 641 (57.5% patients in the normotensive group (group 1, 404 (36.3% patients in the mildly hypertensive group (group 2 64 (5.7% patients in the moderately severe hypertension group (group 3 and only six (0.5% patients in the severe hypertension group (group 4. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in this study was almost 85%. We found no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension in terms of gender, year of transplantation, duration of transplantation, type of donor, number of previous transplants, diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, etiology of kidney disease, diagnosis of diabetes after transplantation, diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents, or mean dose of prednisolone and cyclosporine. There was a statistically significant association between increased level of blood pressure and old age (above 50 years, original disease associated with hypertension, history of hypertension on dialysis, acute rejection (once or more, presence of protienuria (more than 0.3 mg/day, abnormality of ECG, or serum creatinine above 300 µmol/L. We conclude that hypertension is highly prevalent in the renal transplant population in Saudi Arabia. Risk factors for the development of hypertension or its complication should be more aggressively approached in order to protect the patients and their grafts alike.

  20. The Saudi electricity sector: pressing issues and challenges

    With 266 billion barrels of proved oil reserves (16% of world total), Saudi Arabia holds the world's largest (conventional) crude oil reserves, was the largest exporter of total petroleum liquids in 2013, and the second largest petroleum liquids producer behind the United States. The Kingdom has the lion share of the global oil production spare capacity, which proved to be crucial for the oil market stability on many occasions in the past, allowing Saudi Arabia to replace missing barrels from any other oil producer in the world. In the same manner, Saudi Arabia's decision last November not to step-in and reverse the oil price decline thus, abandoning its historical role as a 'swing producer,' revived the old debate on the use of oil as a 'political weapon' on the international energy scene. In addition to its well-known predominant role in the oil markets and in the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), several other features make the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a major player in the world economy and global geopolitics. - Although the Kingdom does not export nor import natural gas, Saudi Arabia is embodied with the 5. natural gas proved reserves (8.2 trillion cubic meters (tcm), 4.4% of world natural gas proved reserves), behind Russia, Iran, Qatar and United States. With a production of 103 billion cubic meters (bcm), Saudi Arabia is also a gas producer solely for its domestic demand. - Because the Kingdom relies heavily on hydrocarbons for its present and future prosperity, the country is very active in climate change negotiations, as mitigation measures resulting from such negotiations will impact global oil demand. In the international talks on climate change, Saudi Arabia has often been calling for the need to address the vulnerabilities of the economies dependent on a single resource. - The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is member of G20 Group, putting up-front oil producers' interests in a forum which accounts for 85% of the global GDP and two thirds of world population. - Saudi Arabia is the host of the Muslim holy places Mecca and Medina, attracting some two million pilgrims annually from all over the world, putting the Kingdom as one of the most prominent countries in the Islamic world. However, the Kingdom's role on the global energy scene is endangered by several domestic aspects, mainly linked to its fast-growing population, creating significant economic challenges in providing sufficient employment for its young population. Furthermore, the domestic energy demand is growing at an unsustainable high rate. Some observers see the country becoming a net energy importer if the present path of domestic energy consumption (mainly oil and natural gas) continues in the future. Relying heavily on hydrocarbons as feedstock for the electricity sector, Saudi Arabia is by far the largest user of crude oil for power generation in the world. Oil accounts for two thirds of the input into electricity generation, with natural gas providing most of the remaining portion. The Saudi authorities have realized that there is an urgent need to review the domestic energy policy. With a particular focus on the electricity sector, the policy is based on an ambitious diversification program of the energy mix towards renewable and nuclear energy. However, should the recent slip of oil prices reflect a new level for a long period of time, Saudi authorities, like other oil producing countries, may revise their global energy investment policy. The passing of King Abdallah on January 23 also raises questions about the energy policy path, which could be either confirmed or amended by the new Saudi leadership. This paper reviews the electricity demand patterns and structure in Saudi Arabia. It examines the recent Saudi power sector developments and draws possible avenues to address the numerous related challenges ahead

  1. Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia

    Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

  2. Female employment and family commitment in Saudi Arabia : a case study of Riyadh City

    Al-Khateeb, S. A. H.

    1987-01-01

    This study argues that ideological rather than material constraints are the major obstacles that limit full female participation in the Saudi Arabian labour force and hinder Saudi working women from combining their double roles as mothers and paid workers. As a developing country, Saudi Arabia is facing multiple problems. One of these challenges is the great shortage of human resources. In 1984/85, 59.8 per cent of the labour force in Saudi society was foreign. Female ...

  3. Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis

    Alghamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-Ghaith, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastes...

  4. A Narrative Inquiry into Academic Experiences of Female Saudi Graduate Students at a Comprehensive Doctoral University

    Sandekian, Robyn E.; Weddington, Michael; Birnbaum, Matthew; Keen, J. Katée

    2015-01-01

    Saudi student enrollment in U.S. colleges and universities has nearly tripled since 2009-2010, in large part due to the King Abdullah Scholarship Program. The representation of Saudi females is also increasing due to the loosening of Saudi Arabia's long-standing restrictions on women's travel and acceptable fields of study and careers. This…

  5. EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities

    Liton, Hussain Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers' perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit…

  6. Capacity building in radiopharmaceuticals: Saudi Arabia experience

    Full text: Undoubtedly, easy availability of radiopharmaceuticals is a key element in application of radioisotopes in health care. And, creating self-sufficiency within the country and the geographical region in manufacturing these time-limited products further enhances this prospect. For obvious reasons, on demand availability and timely distribution of products bodes well for a regional programme. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, one such programme began in early 1980s with the installation of the CS-30 (26.4 MeV) cyclotron, with an intention not only to make available the cyclotron products for medical imaging, but also to establish a contemporary research programme in radiotracer development as exemplified by simultaneous installation of a Tomogram (PET scanner) at the time when PET scanning was in its infancy. The first beam on target in 1982 produced the first batch of 67Ga citrate radiopharmaceutical, followed by an addition of various other cyclotron based products over the years. Presently, the Cyclotron Facility routinely produces six cyclotron isotopes (201Tl, 67Ga, 81mKr, 123I, 18F and 13N) which are subsequently formulated into nine different radiopharmaceuticals. Weekly, approximately 25 batches of radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured supporting 35 nuclear medicine facilities within the country and the geographical region. A key motivating and driving force for our Centre has been the goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. Consequently, we introduced in Year 2000 the 131I based products for diagnosis as well as for therapy, including on-request manufacturing of 131I labeled mIBG. Good Manufacturing Practice is the cornerstone of any radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program. KFSH and RC is a perfect example of how this operational and guiding principle has been applied and evolved over the years, culminating into an effective quality management system for manufacturing radiopharmaceutical products consistently conforming to specifications. The programme building has been 'work in progress' from the onset and continues to be so, particularly in establishment and implementation of strict operational philosophy of GMP and ISO quality management system. We also realized that people are the most important component of any viable program. For efficient functioning, the staff must be well qualified and appropriately trained to achieve the mission of the organization. This has been achieved through staff selection based upon educational background, followed by extensive on-the-job training, as well as didactic education. Consequently, our facility has had a good mix of young and experienced staff. Furthermore, we have availed of the various IAEA's programmes in specific training and fellowships for in depth exposure to other centres. With embarkation upon new programs, continuing education remains a central theme in ultimate success of the entire program. The experience gained over two decades of continuous operation breeds confidence in the staff to achieve the goal of making Saudi Arabia self-sufficient in all its radiopharmaceuticals needs. Continuing with our commitment to make available to the peoples of the country the most contemporary imaging modality, PET scanner was installed at KFSH and RC in 1995. Along with the routine PET work, we have established a team of scientists to perform research work in developing new radiotracers. KFSH and RC's cyclotron facility has continually focused on an overwhelming goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. To this end, the year 2005 is the beginning of establishing just one such facility through expansion of the program that entails: a new building; a state-of-the-art cyclotron (30 MeV; plus a small cyclotron dedicated for PET isotopes production); advanced clean rooms; more importantly, the establishment of the Tc-99m Generators and Cold Kits manufacturing programs. Presentation will entail past, present and future of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia encompassing programme building and striving for self sufficiency. (author)

  7. Gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its role in public health.

    Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B

    2010-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168

  8. Isotopic composition of Riyadh rainfall, Saudi Arabia

    Michelsen, Nils; Reshid, Mustefa; Siebert, Christian; Schulz, Stephan; Rausch, Randolf; Knller, Kay; Weise, Stephan; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Schth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Arid countries like Saudi Arabia often depend on fossil groundwater. Hence, thorough studies of the available resources are crucial. In the course of such investigations, analyses of ?18O and ?D are frequently applied to constrain the provenance of the waters and to reconstruct the (paleo)climatic conditions during their recharge. Yet, to be able to evaluate the isotopic signature of the groundwater, one also has to know the isotopic composition of current precipitation. Although a few rain water analyses are available for Central Saudi Arabia in the literature - mostly in unpublished consultant reports - a Local Meteoric Water Line has never been established. To complement the available data, 28 rain events occurring in Riyadh between 2009 and 2013 were studied for their stable isotope composition. Samples were collected as integral samples, i.e., they represent the entire precipitation event. Moreover, one event was sampled several times, aiming at an evaluation of intra-storm variability. During selected storms, a grab sample was taken for 3H analysis. The event samples showed ?18O and ?D values scattering between -6.5 and +9.5 and between -30 and +50 V-SMOW, respectively. In the course of the event that was sequentially sampled, a proceeding isotopic depletion was observed with respect to both isotopes. The relatively large ranges of ?-values for 18O and D of approximately 7 and 38 V-SMOW highlight the general need for integral sampling. The obtained grab samples are characterized by moderate 3H concentrations of a few Tritium Units. Further results will be presented and discussed in view of associated weather data (e.g. rain amount and temperature) and the probable moisture sources derived from back-trajectories, which were calculated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler & Rolph, 2003). References Draxler, R.R. & Rolph, G.D. (2013): HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model, access via NOAA ARL READY Website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, College Park, MD.

  9. Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Towards Online Shopping in Saudi Arabia

    Hani A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.

  10. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  11. Factors that influence women's nutrition knowledge in Saudi Arabia.

    Mansour, A A; Hassan, S A

    1994-01-01

    We studied knowledge of nutritional needs during pregnancy and lactation in 150 pregnant Saudi women at three primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used an interview schedule to collect data regarding the women's knowledge and to determine the effects of certain independent variables on the knowledge scores. Green et al.'s (1980) PRECEDE model provided the theoretical framework for the study. Descriptive statistics, t test, and chi-square methods were used to analyze the data. The majority of the women had poor nutrition knowledge scores, with no significant differences among the three centers. A positive relationship was found between knowledge score and educational level. Negative relationships were found between knowledge score and number of pregnancies, number of deliveries, and number of living children. The findings have several implications for efforts to improve the health status of women in Saudi Arabia. PMID:8002417

  12. 25-Hydoxyvitamin D. levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women

    Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)

  13. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

  14. Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia

    A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

  15. Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

  16. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia

  17. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in two unrelated Saudi patients

    Alangari Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due to a change in the codon from CCT>CTT. Expression of PNP (146L cDNA in E coli indicated that the mutation greatly reduced, but did not completely eliminate PNP activity.

  18. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Al-Faris, Nora A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-de...

  19. Sensory processing dysfunction among Saudi children with and without autism.

    Al-Heizan, Mohammed O; AlAbdulwahab, Sami S; Kachanathu, Shaji John; Natho, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] There is a dearth of studies that have examined the occurrence of sensory processing dysfunction and its components in Saudi Arabian children with autism. Therefore, this study investigated the manifestation of sensory processing dysfunction in autism and compared the functional components of sensory processing between Saudi Arabian children with and without autism. [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 46 Saudi Arabian children with autism and 30 children without autism participated in this study. The sensory processing functions of both groups were assessed with the Short Sensory Profile. [Results] The overall findings indicated that 84.8% of children with autism demonstrated definite sensory processing dysfunction. The most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the under-responsive/seeks sensation (89.13%), auditory filtering (73.90%), and tactile sensitivity (60.87%) domains. Most of the children without autism (66.66%) demonstrated typical sensory function; the most prevalent sensory processing dysfunctions involved the tactile sensitivity (33.3%), under-responsive/seeks sensation (23.33%), and movement sensitivity (20%) domains. [Conclusion] Saudi Arabian children with and without autism have clinically significant sensory dysfunctions. However, the prevalence of those sensory dysfunctions in children with autism is significantly higher than in the children without autism. PMID:26157208

  20. Do Saudi EFL Teachers Promote Creativity in Their Classrooms?

    Al-Qahtani, Abdulaziz Ali

    2016-01-01

    Despite the efforts made by the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia, there is still much to be done in order to nourish creativity in schools. According to a number of studies, there is an urgent need to reconsider the role of creativity in the current educational programmes because there is an increasing gap between the reality of the…

  1. Investigating Difficulties of Learning Computer Programming in Saudi Arabia

    Alakeel, Ali M.

    2015-01-01

    Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…

  2. Perspectives of petroleum and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia

    With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion

  3. Saudi Arabian Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about ADHD

    Abed, Mohaned; Pearson, Susan; Clarke, Paula; Chambers, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It affects 3-7% of school-aged children, interfering with their academic performance and social interactions. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of teachers in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The…

  4. Islam's Point of View on Women's Education in Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Hariri, Rafeda

    1987-01-01

    Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)

  5. Libraries of Two Women's Colleges in Saudi Arabia.

    King, Elizabeth J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the current status of higher education for women in Saudi Arabia and discusses the special problems of access to library materials encountered by women in this society, focusing on the collections, services, and administration of two women's colleges' libraries. A proposed national educational development plan is briefly described. (CLB)

  6. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents

    El Mouzan Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective : There is limited information on overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to establish the national prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods : The 2005 Saudi reference data set was used to calculate the body mass index (BMI for children aged 5 to 18 years. Using the 2007 WHO reference, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined as the proportion of children with a BMI standard deviation score more than +1, +2 and +3, respectively. The 2000 CDC reference was also used for comparison. Results : There were 19 317 healthy children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age, 50.8% of whom were boys. The overall prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity in all age groups was 23.1%, 9.3% and 2%, respectively. A significantly lower prevalence of overweight (23.8 vs 20.4; P < .001 and obesity (9.5 vs 5.7; P < .001 was found when the CDC reference was used. Conclusions : This report establishes baseline national prevalence rates for overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Saudi children and adolescents, indicating intermediate levels between developing and industrialized countries. Measures should be implemented to prevent further increases in the numbers of overweight school-age children and adolescents and the associated health hazards.

  7. Saudi Arabian Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs about ADHD

    Abed, Mohaned; Pearson, Susan; Clarke, Paula; Chambers, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric childhood disorders. It affects 3-7% of school-aged children, interfering with their academic performance and social interactions. This study explored the knowledge and beliefs of teachers in Saudi Arabia about children with ADHD. The

  8. Spread of English and Westernization in Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Abed, Fawwaz; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A questionnaire was distributed to Saudi Arabian undergraduates in order to investigate their attitudes toward Westernization, national identity, and religious commitment. Results revealed that learning English did not "Westernize" students nor weaken national identity. Implications and recommendations for establishing a rigid language policy in…

  9. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  10. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  11. On Selected Morphemes in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Morris, Carla; Schneider, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Following a year of study of Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL), we are documenting our findings to provide a grammatical sketch of the language. This paper represents one part of that endeavor and focuses on a description of selected morphemes, both manual and non-manual, that have appeared in the course of data collection. While some of the…

  12. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  13. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  14. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western

  15. Organization Justice, Support and Trust: Evidence from Saudi Companies

    Mourad Mansour

    2014-01-01

    A considerable number of studies have investigated the relationship between perceptions of organizational justice and employees’ work attitude. This study investigates the effect of distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice on supervisor support, organization support, supervisor trust and organization trust in Saudi companies. A questionnaire was used to assess the different relationships. Different results were found confirming or rejecting the different hypotheses.

  16. Large eruption complex odontome in a Saudi patient.

    Ahmed, Khalid A

    2015-02-01

    Odontomas are odontogenic tumors formed of various dental tissues. They are classified into: central odontomas that are common, eruption odontomas that are rare with only 23 cases reported to date, and peripheral odontomas that are also rare. We present a case of a large complex eruption odontome in a 24-year-old Saudi male.  PMID:25719590

  17. The Use of the Mother Tongue in Saudi EFL Classrooms

    Alshammari, Marzook M.

    2011-01-01

    The issue of including or excluding the learner's mother tongue in the EFL classroom has been the subject of ongoing discussion and controversy for a long time. This paper attempts to investigate the use of native Arabic in English classes at two Saudi technical colleges. The main objectives were to examine the purpose of L1 use and the attitudes…

  18. Exploring Pedagogical Leadership in Early Years Education in Saudi Arabia

    Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…

  19. Senior-loken syndrome in a Saudi child

    Senior-loken syndrome is a rare syndrome of retinopathy and nephronophthisis. The clinical features of this syndrome include renal involvement, ocular involvement, retinitis pigmentosa and other systemic involvement. We describe an 11- year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed to have this syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this syndrome from Arabian Peninsula. (author)

  20. Exploring the Mismatch between Skills and Jobs for Women in Saudi Arabia in Technical and Vocational Areas: The Views of Saudi Arabian Private Sector Business Managers.

    Calvert, John R.; Al-Shetaiwi, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Gives an overview of women in both general and technical-vocational education and employment in Saudi Arabia. Reports on a survey of 220 private business managers: 83% indicated that Saudi women had limited participation in technical jobs; 63% suggested that vocational-technical education did not promote women's participation. (Contains 51…

  1. Preconception care in Saudi women with diabetes mellitus

    Madanat, Amal Y.; Sheshah, Eman A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rate of preexisting diabetes mellitus (DM) in Saudi Arabia is one of the highest in the world. The role of preconception care (PCC) is well-established as a means of improving pregnancy outcomes in DM. Objectives: To assess the rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge, and the rate of unplanned pregnancies in Saudi women with DM. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 355 Saudi women aged 18–49 years with self-reported DM. The study questionnaire contained variables about the provision of preconception counseling, knowledge of PCC facts, and the number of unplanned pregnancies after developing DM. The level of PCC knowledge was evaluated using a modified Likert scale. Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20 was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, and percentages were calculated; t-test was used for statistical significance. Results: About one-third of the participants had received preconception counseling after being diagnosed with DM. Counseling on PCC for older and married participants was significantly less. Of the 355 participants, 42.8% had little or no PCC knowledge. All pregnancies that occurred after developing DM were unplanned. Conclusions: The rate of preconception counseling, the level of PCC knowledge in the studied Saudi women with DM is suboptimal, and none of the pregnancies that occurred after developing DM was planned. The study highlights the need for PCC programs that target all Saudi women of child-bearing age with DM, and their families starting at the age of puberty and at diagnosis of type 2DM, to optimize women's health and improve pregnancy outcomes.

  2. From barriers to bridges: An investigation on Saudi student mobility (2006-2009)

    Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

    2011-08-01

    Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.

  3. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study

    There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

  4. Saudi Parents’ Attitudes towards Using English as a Medium of Instruction in Private Primary Schools

    Zahra Al-Qahtani; Abdul Wahed Al Zumor

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate Saudi parents’ attitudes towards using English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in private primary schools.The study also attempted to find the reasons why Saudi parents prefer EMI private schools for their children. Additionally, it examined the effects of using EMI on children’s Arabic language and culture, and their educational achievement in the next levels. The sample was 68 Saudi parents who have their children in a private primary school. The study used...

  5. Prevalence of Overweight, Obesity, and Abdominal Obesity among Urban Saudi Adolescents: Gender and Regional Variations

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nada A; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Alsulaiman, Nouf A.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nutrition transition with associated lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases has rapidly reached many developing countries, including Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity among Saudi adolescents. This school-based multicentre cross-sectional study was conducted during 2009-2010 in three major cities in Saudi Arabia: Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants included 2,908 students of...

  6. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...

  7. Pharmacist, the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: A questionnaire-based study

    Bin Saleh, Ghada; Rezk, Naser L; Laika, Laila; Ali, Anna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Saudi Arabia there is an estimated need of more than 100,000 pharmacy graduates to cover all present sectors. The shortage of pharmacists has affected many of these sectors especially the pharmaceutical industry. The contribution of Saudi pharmacists to local pharmaceuticals industry would be extremely beneficial and important for shaping the future of the drug industry within the Kingdom. It is not clear whether future Saudi pharmacists are willing to contribute to local pharm...

  8. An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Iftekhar Ahmad; Anand Mohan Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)has witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA) in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been abl...

  9. Success Factors Contributing to eGovernment Adoption in Saudi Arabia: G2C approach

    Abunadi, Ibrahim; Sanzogni, Louis; Sandhu, Kuldeep; Woods, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is predetermined to implement eGovernment and provide world-class government services to citizens by 2010. However, this initiative will be meaningless if the people did not adopt these electronic services. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine success factors that will facilitate the adoption of eGovernment in Saudi Arabia. The results of the literature review have been deployed into surveys with Saudi eGovernment users. The discussion of the analysis from results...

  10. Ki67 expression in breast cancer. Correlation with prognostic markers and clinicopathological parameters in Saudi patients

    Mohamed A. Elkablawy; Albasri, Abdulkader M.; Rabab A. Mohammed; Akbar S. Hussainy; Magdy M. Nouh; Ahmed S. Alhujaily

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate Ki67 immunoexpression pattern in Saudi breast cancer (BC) patients and investigate any possible predictive or prognostic value for Ki67. Methods: This is a retrospective study designed to quantitatively assess the Ki67 proliferative index (PI) in retrieved paraffin blocks of 115 Saudi BC patients diagnosed between January 2005 and March 2015 at the Department of Pathology, King Fahd Hospital, Al Madinah Al Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Ki67 PI was correla...

  11. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Abahussain, Nada A.; Al-Sobayel, Hana I.; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three ci...

  12. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in...

  13. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    Nora A. ALFaris; Al-Tamimi, Jozaa Z.; Al-Jobair, Moneera O.; Naseem M. Al-Shwaiyat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors.Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them.Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi girl...

  14. Trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh

    ALFaris, Nora A.; Jozaa Z. Al-Tamimi; Moneera O. Al-Jobair; Al-Shwaiyat, Naseem M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saudi Arabia has passed through lifestyle changes toward unhealthy dietary patterns such as high fast food consumption. Adolescents and young adults, particularly girls, are the main groups exposed to and affected by these adverse eating behaviors. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of fast food consumption among adolescent and young adult Saudi girls living in Riyadh, and to compare between them. Design: In a cross-sectional survey, 127 adolescent Saudi gi...

  15. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-01-01

    Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egypt...

  16. EGovernment Stage Model: Evaluating the Rate of Web Development Progress of Government Websites in Saudi Arabia

    Osama Alfarraj; Steve Drew; Rayed Abdullah AlGhamdi

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the issue of eGovernment implementation in Saudi Arabia by discussing the current situation of ministry websites. It evaluates the rate of web development progress of vital government websites in Saudi Arabia using the eGovernment stage model. In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranked 58th in the world and 4th in the Gulf region in eGovernment readiness according to United Nations reports. In particular, Saudi Arabia has ranked 75th worldwide for its online service index and its ...

  17. Ajaleht vidab: Saudi Araabia on andnud Iisraelile vimaluse rnnata Iraani / Kaivo Kopli

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Londoni Timesi allikate vitel on Saudi Araabia nustunud andma oma phjapoolses huruumis Iisraeli ksutusse kitsa hukoridori, mis vimaldab Iisraeli sjalennukitel juda lhemat teed pidi pommitama Iraani tuumarajatisi. Kaart

  18. E-Commerce Adoption Factors and Their Implications for E-Commerce Business Strategy in Saudi Arabia

    Alsharif, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    This research project provides a comprehensive overview and current perspective of e-commerce usage and adoption factors in Saudi Arabia and seeks to explain why ecommerce use is still in a relatively immature state when compared to other regions. This study examines Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure readiness for online shopping and explores Saudi consumers’ behaviour and attitudes with regard to shopping online. An online survey was conducted to elicit general perceptions of Saudi consumers, as...

  19. A learning skills course for the 1st year medical students: an experience at a Saudi medical school

    Siddiqui IA; Bin Abdulrahman KA; Alsultan MA

    2015-01-01

    Imran A Siddiqui,1 Khalid A Bin Abdulrahman,2 Mohammed A Alsultan3 1Department of Medical Education and Postgraduate Studies, Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3College of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Every year nearly 1,500 students enter into medical program after passing high school and national...

  20. Pigmentary demarcation lines on the face in Saudi women

    Al-Samary Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmentary demarcation lines (PDL are physiological abrupt transition lines between hyperpigmented skin and lighter areas. Recent evidence suggests that they involve the face. Aims: To survey facial PDL in Saudi females referred to general dermatology clinics for various complaints and determine any associated risks. Methods: Screening for facial lines was done in general dermatology clinics over a year. Whenever a patient was found to have facial PDL, a detailed questionnaire and examination were undertaken. Results: Out of 1033 patients screened, 144 patients (14% were found to have at least one of the facial PDLs. The median age of onset was 16 years. The most common line was F with 76 patients (53%. Family history was positive in 51 patients (35%. Conclusion: Facial PDL is a common and chronic pigmentary problem in Saudi women. It should be recognized and differentiated from other similar diseases like melasma. A significant proportion of patients have a milder presentation.

  1. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. PMID:26861386

  2. OIL PRICES AND THE KUWAITI AND THE SAUDI STOCK MARKETS

    Samih Antoine Azar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of oil price shocks on the stock markets of the two biggest and most liquid GCC equity markets, those of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. It is expected that the two stock markets react similarly to oil price shocks. Actually the results show heterogeneity in responses. While there is prima facie evidence that both stock markets are influenced positively and linearly by oil price shocks, this evidence disappears when additional variables are added to the regressions. With the larger specification oil price shocks do not impact, neither linearly or non-linearly, Kuwaiti stock markets. By contrast Saudi markets react non-linearly to both oil price shocks and shocks in the US S&P 500. The only common feature for both equity markets is the positive relation with the shocks in the US S&P 500.

  3. Tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia: the journey across time.

    Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright

    2015-03-01

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest Arab country with a moderate annual burden of tuberculosis. However, tuberculosis (TB) is among several infectious diseases that have not been brought under control, despite the government's considerable efforts. This is clearly evidenced by the ongoing transmission of several imported and indigenous clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, the country faces the threat from rising proportions of extrapulmonary TB, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections, and drug resistance. Furthermore, the country falls behind the global targets set by World Health Organization for the success rate of TB treatment. The country needs more population-based research studies, centralized and easily accessible clinical data registries, and centralized research and diagnostic facilities. This review focused on the trends of mycobacterial infections and on future proposals to improve TB control measures in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25771458

  4. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia

    This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  5. Perception of facial profile attractiveness by a Saudi sample

    Previous studies have reported different levels of perception of attractiveness among different ethnicities and among varying education-level groups on facial profile rating.To study the perception of facial profile attractiveness among Saudi dentists and lay-individuals. Digital facial profile images with altered degree of prognathism and retrognathism were presented to a sample of 60 Saudi dentists and 60 lay-persons with equal gender distribution. High reliability of repeated assessment of profile images was detected (ICC=0.982). Significant difference in perception of facial profile was found between genders (P<0.05) and among the groups with different education backgrounds (P<0.001). General agreement was established in both sample groups on average facial profile to be the most attractive and on the most retrognathic profile to be the least attractive. (author)

  6. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of four Saudi Arabian cities

    An indoor radon survey of a total of 269 dwellings, with one dosimeter per house, distributed in four Saudi Arabian cities was carried out. The objective of this survey was to carry out indoor radon measurements of two cities in the Eastern Province, Khafji and Hafr Al-Batin and to compare this with two cities in the Western Province, Al-Madina and Taif. The survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia. The results of the survey in these cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentration were 7,137 and 30 Bq m-3, respectively. The lowest average radon concentration (20 Bq m-3) was found in Hafr Al-Batin, while the highest average concentration was found in Khafji (40 Bq m-3)

  7. Pattern of third molar impaction in a Saudi population

    Ali H Hassan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali H Hassan11Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the current pattern of third molar impaction in a sample of Saudi patients.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine orthopantomograms (OPG of patients ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (536 males and 503 females were evaluated to determine the frequency of impacted third molars, their levels of eruption, and their angulations.Results: Four hundred twenty-two (40.5% of the 1039 OPG showed at least one impacted third molar, with no significant difference between males (222; 52.6% and females (200; 47.4% (P = 0.284. The most common number of impacted third molars per OPG was one (72.5%. Impacted third molars were 1.64 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla. The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was the mesial (33.4%, while the most common angulation in the maxilla, was the vertical (49.6%. Level B impaction was the most common in both maxilla (48.2% and mandible (67.7%. There was no significant difference in the frequency of impaction between the right and left sides in both jaws.Conclusion: The pattern of third molar impaction in the western region of Saudi Arabia is characterized by a high prevalence of impaction that is greater in the mandibles and with no sex predilection.Keywords: third molar, impaction, prevalence, Saudi

  8. Malaria screening of blood donors in Saudi Arabia.

    Saeed Awad; Al Rasheed Abdul; Al Nasser I; Al Onaizi M; Al Kahtani S; Dubois L

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion-associated malaria is a potentially serious complication that continues to pose risks in blood bank settings. There is a need for effective malaria screening of blood donations to improve on the current exclusion policies of potentially infected carriers on the basis of clinical and travel history. We evaluated the potential usefulness of ELISA screening for malaria antibody and P. falciparum antigen among Saudi blood donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1756 dono...

  9. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking die...

  10. Periodontal health awareness among gynecologists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Rahman, Ghousia; Asa’ad, Farah; Baseer, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge of periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes among the gynecologists practicing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 200 randomly chosen gynecologists from Riyadh was carried out by using a structured, self-administered, closed-ended questionnaire. Knowledge of periodontal disease and possible ways of prevention; knowledge of periodontal disease and pregnancy outcomes; and oral self-care attitudes among gynecologist...

  11. Anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia among adults in Saudi Arabia

    Abdalla A Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Background: dyslipidemia and obesity are key independent modifiable risk factors for many non communicable chronic diseases. Patterns of association between these factors may help prevention and control. This study aims to assess the association between lipids profile and obesity among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identify anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia.Methods: data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using WHO STEPwise approach that included 4 990 Sa...

  12. Perceptions of Saudi dental students on cultural competency

    Huda A. Al-Shehri; Sara M. Al-Taweel; Chris S. Ivanoff

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To probe dental students’ perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. Methods: A cross-sectional survey (n=460) was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05). ...

  13. Managerial efficiency under risk for broiler producers in Saudi Arabia

    Sherif, Sherin A.; Al-Kahtani, Safer H.

    1999-01-01

    Managerial efficiency for broiler producers in Saudi Arabia is generally difficult to achieve. High investment costs coupled with relatively high average production costs and the consequent incompetent market prices, have resulted in projects either working at less than full capacity or being shut down completely. The aim here is to determine the most efficient production alternatives (actions) available to managers under business risk considerations. The ordinary stochastic dominance approac...

  14. Visual and neurologic sequelae of methanol poisoning in Saudi Arabia

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Elkhamary, Sahar M.; Asghar, Nasira; Bosley, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To present the visual sequelae of methanol poisoning and to emphasize the characteristics of methanol exposure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective case series was carried out on 50 sequential patients with methanol poisoning seen at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital and King Saud University Hospitals in Riyadh, KSA between 2008 and 2014. All patients were examined by a neuro-ophthalmologist at least one month after methanol intoxication. Results: A...

  15. Evaluation of Saudi pegmatite and its use in porcelain industry

    Hassan M.H. Al-Marzouki; Christopher Jeffery; Gamal A. Khater

    2012-01-01

    Pegmatite is the main source of feldspar for ceramics industry. Usage of pegmatite in ceramic industry causes some problems due to the presence of mica and iron oxides. These materials reduce tile strength, hardness and density of the final product leading to low quality ceramic products. Southern Saudi pegmatite separation treatment was carried out in two phases in order to improve the ceramic quality of the feldspar obtained from this pegmatite. The first phase consists of gravitational sep...

  16. Osteoporosis among male Saudi Arabs: a pilot study

    Little attention has been paid to the problem of male osteoporosis in Saudi Arabia. In this prospective study we assessed the prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabs. We studied Saudi Arabian males > 50 years of age attending outpatient clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, between 1st May 2005 and 30th January 2006. We determined body mass index (BMI) and tests were done to rule out secondary osteoporosis. All subjects had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of the hip area and the lumbar spine using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A T-score of<=-2.5 SD that of young, healthy adults was taken as osteoporotic and scores between -1 to -2.5SD were taken as osteopenic. One hundred fifteen patients (mean age 61.8+-0.75 years; range 50 to 76 years) had a mean BMI of 24.7+-0.35 (range 18.5 to 31). Based on hip scans, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 24.3%. Sixty four percent were osteopenic. Based on scans of lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 37.4% and 33.9% were osteopenic. Spinal osteoporosis was more common than hip osteoporosis. Our study indicates that the prevalence of osteopoprosis among Saudi Arabain males is higher than among Western males. More studies are needed to determine the national prevalence of male osteoporosis. It is recommended that serious measures to be undertaken to prevent male osteoporosis to stop any future epidemic of catastrophic osteoporosis-related fractures. (author)

  17. BREASTFEEDING PRACTICE IN DAMMAM AREA OF SAUDI ARABIA

    Qadri, Mohammad H.; Al-Harfi, Ridah A.; Al-Gamdi, Mohammad A.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the breastfeeding status for children under 24 months and assess the causes of breastfeeding failure among those mothers who do not breastfeed their babies. Methodology: This study was conducted on a sampled population of 1185 children under 24 months of age, using breastfeeding indicators recommended by World Health Organization, for assessing breastfeeding practices within a recall period of 24 hours, in the Dammam area of Saudi ...

  18. First shale gas experience in Saudi Arabia - lessons learned

    ALEXEYENKO A.V; BARTKO K. M.; ADEBIYI I. A.; FARAJ O. A.; Campo, C.

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowled...

  19. E-Commerce Adoption Factors in Saudi Arabia

    Sulaiman A. Al-Hudhaif; Abdullah Alkubeyyer

    2011-01-01

    Some sectors in Saudi Arabia are slow in adopting eCommerce technologies for running their businesstransactions, and that is due to an internal set of factors (related to organizations) or an external set of factors(related to infrastructure and governmental support). We have noticed that most of the studies in this subjectcovered either internal factors or external factors, but not both. Moreover, most of the papers that studiedeCommerce adoption factors in developing economies center on the...

  20. Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19 years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three c...

  1. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    Intakhab Alam Khan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and E...

  2. The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population

    Mokhtar HA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadeel A Mokhtar, Layla W Abuljadayel, Reem M Al-Ali, Mohammed Yousef Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy: smile picture (P-value =0.003, diastema picture (P-value =0.000 and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004. As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009. Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. Keywords: diastema, gummy, reverse

  3. Stratigraphic palynology of Devonian boreholes from northern Saudi Arabia

    Breuer Pierre; Al-Ghazi Abdullah; Filatoff John; Higgs Ken T.; Steemans Philippe; Wellman Charles H.

    2005-01-01

    This extended abstract describes well-preserved palynomorph assemblages recovered from Devonian strata in five shallow boreholes in the northern part of Saudi Arabia (Fig. 1). These fully cored holes overlap stratigraphically to form a 1,640 ft composite section spanning the upper Tawil, Jauf and lower Jubah formations (Fig. 2). Only the Jauf and lower Jubah, represented by 188 samples taken over a 1,300 ft stratigraphic interval, are addressed here as the sandy Tawil lithologies are unsuitab...

  4. PERCEPTION OF BODY WEIGHT AMONG SAUDI SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Abalkhail, Baha; Shawky, Sherine; Ghabrah, Tawfik

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to explore the perception of body weight among students in schools in Jeddah City and identify the main determinants of self-perceived obesity, weight management goals and practices. Material and Methods: Data were collected from a sample of Saudi school children of 42 boys’ and 42 girls’ schools in Jeddah city during the month of April 2000. Personal interviews were conducted to collect data on socio-demographic factors, food choices, perception ...

  5. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    Al-Wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-Younes, Abla; Al-Omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  6. RISK FACTORS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN BAHRAH, SAUDI ARABIA

    Al-Mazam, Abdulaziz; Mohamed, Ashry G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Asthma is a common health problem whose prevalence in Saudi Arabia has risen over the last few decades. Brick factories in the city of Bahrah have exacerbated the problem, and increasing numbers of asthma cases are attending local primary health care centers. Objective: Determine the risk factors of asthma in Bahrah. Materials and Methods: The study was comprised of 110 cases of bronchial asthma resident in Bahrah who were diagnosed by the treating physicians and 110 healthy contr...

  7. Leadership Role of School Superintendents in Saudi Arabia

    Mohamed A. Almannie

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the practice of school superintendents in Saudi Arabia in five roles as seen by education supervisors within school district offices. The purpose of the study is to examine the leadership of school superintendents in these five roles: work environment, rules and regulations, implementation of technology, accountability, and professional development of the education supervisors in school districts. The study sample consists of 276 education supervisors working in 30 school ...

  8. The Econometrics of Investment in Date Production in Saudi Arabia

    Abdulaziz Alshuaibi

    2011-01-01

    Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inade...

  9. Cataract Surgery Audit at a Private Hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Tariq Alasbali; Nancy Maher Lofty; Saeed Al-Gehaban; Alkuraya, Hisham S.; Abdulrahman M Alsharif; Rajiv Khandekar

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess the visual outcomes following cataract surgeries at a Private Eye Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a cohort study of cataract surgeries performed from January to June 2014. Preoperative data were collected on patient demographics presenting and best corrected distance visual acuity (BCVA) and ocular comorbidity. Data were also collected on the type of surgery, type of intraocular lens (IOLs) implanted, and complications. BCVA and refractive status a...

  10. Sleep medicine services in Saudi Arabia: The 2013 national survey

    BaHammam, Ahmed S; Mashni Alsaeed; Mohammed AlAhmari; Ibrahim AlBalawi; Sharif, Munir M

    2014-01-01

    Background : We conducted this national survey to quantitatively assess sleep medicine services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and to identify obstacles that specialists and hospitals face, precluding the establishment of this service. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was designed to collect the following: General information regarding each hospital, information regarding sleep medicine facilities (SFs), the number of beds, the number of sleep studies perform...

  11. Survey of h-index for neurosurgeons in Saudi Arabia

    Abdulhakim B. Jamjoom

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To calculate the h-index for neurosurgeons in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to assess its association with a number of features relating to neurosurgical practice in KSA. Methods: The h-index for 84 neurosurgeons that worked in KSA during 1990-2013 was evaluated using Google Scholar during the period September to October 2014. The correlation between the h-index and a number of neurosurgeon and neurosurgical center characteristics was determined and examined statistically...

  12. Improving Students' English Speaking Proficiency in Saudi Public Schools

    Heba Awadh Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    In English as a foreign language (EFL) contexts, the absence of authentic language learning situations outside the classroom presents a significant challenge to improving students' English communication skills. Specific obstacles in the learning environment can also result in students limited use of English inside the classroom. These issues ultimately affect students English speaking capacity. Focusing on the Saudi EFL context, this paper attempted to identify the causes of ...

  13. Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia

    This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

  14. Senior-Loken Syndrome in a Saudi Child

    AlFadhel Majid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Senior-Loken syndrome is a rare syndrome of retinopathy and nephrono-phthisis. The clinical features of this syndrome include renal involvement, ocular involve-ment, retinitis pigmentosa and other systemic involvement. We describe an 11-year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed to have this syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this syndrome from the Arabian Peninsula.

  15. Developing a comprehensive safety performance evaluation framework for Saudi schools

    Turki Alolah; Rodney Anthony Stewart; Kriengsak Panuwatwanich; Sherif Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to empirically develop a safety performance (SP) framework for evaluating the various leading and lagging indicators of SP in Saudi public schools. Design/methodology/approach – A comprehensive review of the safety and performance evaluation literature enabled the formulation of the constructs, factors and items that underpinned a conceptual SP evaluation framework. The research method involved a conceptual framework review and refinement process with 18...

  16. School Teachers’ Knowledge about Autism in Saudi Arabia

    HAIMOUR, ABDULHADE I.; Yahia F. Obaidat

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out what school teachers know about Autism. In addition, this study attemptedto find out if there any significant differences in school teachers’ knowledge about Autism depending on teachers’(gender, position, education level, teaching experience, and contact with students with Autism) variables. A total of391 general and special education teachers from various segregated and inclusive schools within the Jeddah in SaudiArabia completed study instrument (A...

  17. Popularity Analysis for Saudi Telecom Companies Based on Twitter Data

    Esam Alwagait

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the popularity of the telecom companies in Saudi Arabia by considering their profiles on Twitter. Telecommunication plays a vital role in making the communication possible among individuals at geographically distinct locations. With the arrival and penetration of smartphones as a standard, the job of service providers has not remained limited to provide better messaging and voice quality but has been extended to provide competitive value added service and social connectivity to grab and maintain the customers pool. This research study, take into consideration three leading telecom operators namely Saudi Telecom Company (STC, Mobily and Zain. The popularity of the telecom companies is evaluated by considering their following on Twitter by confirming the location details and then by executing multi-purpose queries on the verified data to yield interesting results about the popularity of the telecom operators. This study, thus identifies the most popular service provider based on the Twitter following in different regions and cities and based on the provincial data a leading telecom operator in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is also identified.

  18. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

    Nora A. Al-Faris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  19. Prevalence of α-1-Antitrypsin gene mutations in Saudi Arabia

    Badr Aljarallah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: α-1 antitrypsin (AAT deficiency results from mutations of the protease inhibitor (PI. The AAT gene is mapped on chromosome 14 and has been associated with chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Objective: To determine the frequency of AAT mutations on S and Z carrier alleles in healthy Saudi individuals from Qassim Province in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods : A total of 158 healthy, unrelated participants from Qassim Province were recruited. They were genotyped for the two AAT-deficiency alleles, PIFNx01S and PIFNx01Z, using polymerase chain reaction, with primers designed throughout to mediate site-directed mutagenesis. Results: Of the 158 subjects, 11.39% were carriers for the S mutation (i.e., had the MS genotype, whereas 2.53% were carriers for the Z mutation (i.e., had the MZ genotype. The SZ genotype was present in 3.8% of subjects, while the homozygous genotype SS was present in 1.9% of subjects. No subjects showed the ZZ mutant genotype. Accordingly, frequency of the mutant S and Z alleles of AAT gene was 9.49% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained showed a high prevalence of the AAT deficiency allele in the Saudi population. This probably warrants adoption of a screening program for at-risk individuals, so that they might initiate adequate prophylactic measures.

  20. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    Mohammed A. Alsaif

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing, anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD. Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  1. Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia

    Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  2. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  3. A refined approach: Saudi Arabia moves beyond crude

    Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington

  4. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Some Traditional Saudi Food

    M.M. Al-Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently many dairy products are being used in Saudi Arabia. Monitoring and isolation of bacterial activity is of highly significance to sustainable health problems and issues. The objective of the study was to isolate bacteriocin-producing Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB from some traditional Saudi food. A total of 50 samples from dairy products, commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, were screened for presence of natural LAB. The Cell-free Supernatants (CFS of two LAB isolates exhibited antibacterial activities (inhibition zones >10 mm against food-borne pathogens (Lactococcus monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC13076. The growth inhibitory substances of CFS were sensitive to proteases (Protenase K and Pepsin indicating the proteinaceous nature of inhibitors (bacteriocins produced by the two LAB isolates. Their bacteriocins retained activity after thermal treatments (63°C for 30 min, 100°C for 10 min or 121°C for 15 min or at pH ranging from 4.0 to less than 6.5. The two LAB isolates were phenotypically identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (camel’s milk and Lactobacillus paracasei (goat’s milk. The isolated LAB (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei can be used as food preservatives and probiotics since they inhibited well-known food-borne pathogens such as L. monocytogenes and survived acidic conditions (pH 2.5 similar to those of the stomach.

  5. Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia

    Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

  6. Physical inactivity among Egyptian and Saudi medical students

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medical students, the future doctors, were presumed to be knowledgeable about physical activity and would have future influence on their patients. This study aims to describe the pattern of physical activity, predictors of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity among a sample of Egyptian and Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out on 319 Egyptian and 297 Saudi medical students. The long form of the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ was used to measure physical activity. Data was analyzed according to the guidelines for data processing and analysis of the IPAQ. Perceived barriers to and potential benefits of physical activity were reported. Results: Physical inactivity was significantly higher among Saudi than Egyptian medical students (41.1% versus 15.4%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of physical inactivity were non-membership in sports clubs (OR =4.6 and use of private cars for transportation (OR=3.9. The most frequent barriers to physical activity are time limitation due to busy study schedule and lack of accessible and suitable sporting places. More than 70% of students perceived that physical activity promotes and maintains health. Conclusions: Because time and access are key barriers to medical student exercise, we believe that provision of free playgrounds in the college to practice sports during free times will promote physical activity in students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 35-44

  7. The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population.

    Mokhtar, Hadeel A; Abuljadayel, Layla W; Al-Ali, Reem M; Yousef, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop(®) software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the "gummy" smile picture (P-value =0.003), diastema picture (P-value =0.000) and the "Reverse" smile picture (P-value =0.004). As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009). Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. "Dental background" participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the "nondental" group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. PMID:25653558

  8. ADELOYE-ODEKU DISEASE IN ASSER REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA

    Mubarak Ali AlGahtany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeloye-Odeku disease, also known as congenital inclusion dermoid cyst (CIDC of the anterior fontanelle was first described by Adeloye A and Odeku EL, as a solitary congenital subgaleal inclusion dermoid cyst of the anterior fontanelle. This rare lesion was initially thought to be confined to Africans . The universal distribution of this cyst has subsequently been shown in accumulated literature of other ethnic distribution ,Caucasian, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, Turkish and others. This is the first published report that we know of Adeloye-Odeku disease in Arab-Saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Four patients with Adeloye-Odeku disease, two boys and two girls, Saudi patients with ages ranging from 3months to 9 years are presented. Successful surgical excision of the cyst was achieved in each of the three patients who consented for surgery with no recurrence. The oldest patient did not go for surgery due to parental refusal but the lesion proved to be stable on follow up.

  9. Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour

    This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)

  10. Emirati, Omani and Saudi students Academic Literacy Socialization

    Ghadah Al Murshidi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the academic literacy socialization of students at U.S. universities from the Gulf RegionOman, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (UAE. International students were contacted and asked if they would participate in the project. Fifty three students responded to the survey and interview, 77% of the respondents were male and 23% were female. The results of the study found that the Gulf Coast students studying in the U.S. shared similar experiences in how they socialized academically, however, noticeable differences appeared between linguistic abilities and grammar challenges. When the students were asked if their linguistic abilities prevented them from participating in classroom discussion, the Saudi participants were the only group that said Never. Likewise, when the researchers inquired about grammar challenges, an interesting dissimilarity revealed itself. The Saudi sample indicated it was very easy while the UAE participants specified that it was somewhat difficult and each group had the same percentage of respondents. Although differences between the students were observed, similarities were also revealed. For instance, all the students did not mind working academically with the opposite sex. The results of this study help in the understanding on how to help students from the Gulf Coast academically assimilate into the American educational system.

  11. Leadership Styles and Organizational Learning An Empirical Study on Saudi Banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Wageeh A. Nafei; Khanfar, Nile M.; Belal A. Kaifi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS) and Organizational Learning (OL), might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1) the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2) the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorat...

  12. Hepatitis virus genotyping by Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA Enzyme immunoassay among Saudi patients in the Western Province, Saudi Arabia

    The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalent HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive Saudi patients in the Western Province and to study the relationship between types/subtypes, clinical status and liver histology. Serum samples were collected from 140 consecutive patients attending the Hematology Clinic with varying grades of liver diseases, high almandine transferees (ALT) for > 6 months, positive HCV, qualitative PCR and who had liver biopsy. HCV genotyping was determined on patients who had tested positive by both HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of the 140 patients, 97 (69.2%) had genotype 4, 18 (12.8%) had genotype 1a, and 16 (11.4%) had genotype 1b. Genotype 2b and 5 were found in two patients (1.4%) each, while 5 patients (3.6%) had mixed infections with genotype 4 and 5. Of the 97 patients infected with genotype 4, 84 (86.6%) had chronic active hepatitis (CAH), two (2.1%) had CAH with active cirrhosis, 9(9.3%) had cirrhosis and two (2.1%) had normal liver histology (NLH). The most prevalent HCV genotype in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia was genotype 4 (69.2%). Genotype 1b was encountered in 16 (11.4%) patients. For the first time, genotype 5 was identified in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Genotype 1b and 4 were associated with different histological grades of liver disease. (author)

  13. Exercise capacity of Saudi with symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular disease in a military hospital in Western Saudi Arabia

    Objective was to analyze the results of exercise tolerance test ETT of Saudi women and assess their exercise capacity. A hospital based retrospective cohort analysis was carried out on all Saudi women referred to the Cardiology Department for ETT from February 2005 to June 2007. They underwent symptom limited treadmill test according to the standard Bruce protocol with exercise electrocardiogram monitoring. One hundred and seventy-six women were included in the study. Fifty-one 31.9% patients did not achieve target heart rate. The mean age +/- SD was 48.3+-9.3 years. There was no association of age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, positive family history of ischemic heart disease IHD and hyperlipidemia to achieve target heart rate p>0.05. Exercise time was influenced by diabetes mellitus p=0.054 and hyperlipidemia p=0.044. The mean exercise time +/- SD was 5.15+/-2.63 minutes and the mean exercise capacity +/-SD was 6.29+/-2.52 metabolic equivalent. Sensitivity was 36.4%, 95% CI 29.3-44.6, specificity 92.3%, 95% CI 80.5-96.8, positive predictive value 26.7%, 95% CI 21.3-31.4, negative predictive value 95.4%, 95% CI 90.9-98.3, likelihood ratio for positive result was 4.7, 95%CI 3.1-6.2 and likelihood ratio for negative result was 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.81. Exercise capacity of Saudi women is less compared to similar studies in women from other regions. Exercise tolerance test can be used to rule out presence of IHD in Saudi women, but value of a positive test is less likely to predict the presence of IHD. (author)

  14. Mind Maps to Modify Lack of Attention among Saudi Kindergarten Children

    Daghistan, Bulquees Ismail Abdul Majid

    2016-01-01

    This research study aims at investigating the impact of Mind Maps on modifying the lack of attention in Arabic language class among Saudi Kindergarten children. To achieve the goals of this study the researcher used an experimental design with a random sample from AlRae'd Kindergarten's children in Riyadh -Saudi Arabia for the academic year…

  15. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Informatics Masters Program at KSAU-HS University, Saudi Arabia

    Majid, Altuwaijri

    2007-01-01

    The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…

  16. Developing EFL Teaching and Learning Practices in Saudi Colleges: A Review

    Liton, Hussain Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Ministry of education is highly concerned with the pursuit of excellence in effective EFL teaching-learning in the arena of education but it experiences tardy progress especially in college level. This is a common scenario in almost every stage of learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores the new…

  17. 78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...

    2013-07-10

    ... took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand..., Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country tubular...

  18. Evaluating EFL Intermediate Teachers' Performance in the Light of Quality Standards in Saudi Arabia

    Al-Thumali, Amani Dakheel Allah

    2011-01-01

    The present research aimed at four points: First, Identifying the most appropriate standards of EFL Saudi teachers' performance in the light of quality standards. Second, designing an objective and comprehensive evaluation rubric based on quality standards to evaluate EFL Saudi intermediate teachers' performance. Third, determining to what extent

  19. Feedback on the Feedback: Sociocultural Interpretation of Saudi ESL Learners' Opinions about Writing Feedback

    Mustafa, Rami F.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study employed informal conversational interviews and semi-structured individual interviews to capture the Saudi students' opinions about the feedback they receive, and about their perceptions on what constitutes helpful feedback. Sociocultural theory was used as the framework of this study. The findings suggest that the Saudi

  20. Barriers for setting up a pulmonary rehabilitation program in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Mohammed E Alsubaiei

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There is a worrisome lack of knowledge regarding content and benefits of PR programs among Saudi health care providers treating COPD patients. These findings imply that improving awareness and increasing education of the health care providers regarding PR will be required before PR can be more widely implemented as an integral treatment modality for patients with COPD in Saudi Arabia.

  1. Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian women: case-control study1234

    Yousef, Fatimah M; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Kang, Paul T; Hakim, Iman A.; Going, Scott; Yousef, Jehad M.; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Kumosani, Taha A.; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    Background: The role of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention is equivocal. Saudi Arabian women may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because of a darker skin type and a greater likelihood of reduced ultraviolet B radiation exposure. Data regarding the vitamin D status of Saudi Arabian women and its relation to breast cancer risk are lacking.

  2. Saudi Mode of Greeting Rituals: Their Implications for Teaching and Learning English.

    Hassanain, Khalid S. A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the sociolinguistic aspects of Saudi greeting rituals, discussing the phraseology and nonverbal signals employed by greeter and greetee in various situations. Also explores the communication problems that Saudis and Americans have when communicating in each other's language and culture. (MDM)

  3. 78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...

    2013-08-22

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 10, 2013 (78 FR... COMMISSION Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan... reason of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey,...

  4. 75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    2010-09-16

    ... International Trade Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline.... Applications received after that date will be considered only if space and scheduling constraints permit... . Natalia Susak, 202-482-4423, Natalia.Susak@trade.gov . U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts:...

  5. 78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    2013-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi... Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait City, Kuwait, from September 28-October 1, 2013. The mission will focus on the cyber security, critical...

  6. Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Al-Aqeel SA; Al-Sabhan JF; Sultan NY

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria deri...

  7. Saudi Arabia- The Saudi Aramco announces falls of almost all price differentials of its crude oils in April

    Europe and Asia except, all the differentials of prices have readjusted in fall in the month of april. For United States, the fall of differentials have been varied between $0.05/b and $0.15/b according to the qualities. For Europe, similar falls have been decided for crude and middle oils and are following the strong increases of february, provoked by the cold spell of the two first months of the year. In an other point of view, the production and the benefits of the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (Sabic) reach record levels of 22 Mt and $1.67 milliards in 1995. The Saudi Petrochemical Company (Sadaf), joint venture between Sabic and Pecten Saudi Arabia, affiliate of American Shell Oil, will begin next july the production, in experimental phase of its new unit of 700 000 t/year of MTBE/ETBE (methyl or ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). It will be the first worldwide factory of this capacity to produce MTBE/ETBE. The National Plastic Company (Ibn Hayyan) has created a new affiliate Ibn Hayyan Plastic Products Company to build a new factory in its complex of Joubail, which will produce 40 000 t/year of plastic products. Finally, the construction at Joubail of the 50 000 t/year of caustic soda factory, the Arabian Industrial Development Company (Nama) will be achieved in january 1997 and the production start is planned two months later. (N.C.)

  8. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

    Abolfotouh MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions

  9. Analysis of the Impact of Reforms on Insurance Industry of Saudi Arabia

    Dr. Zaid Ahmad Ansari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to find out the impact of reforms on insurance industry of Saudi Arabia. The study finds out the impact of reforms vis--vis premium growth, regulation of insurance industry and entry of new companies in the industry. The study is based on secondary data collected mainly from the annual reports of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA from 2005 through 2009. The study made a comparative study of the performance of insurance industry in pre and post reforms era. Further it analyzes the impact of reforms on standardization of insurance industry through regulatory framework and participation of new companies from Saudi Arabia and other foreign multinational companies in the industry. Since reform in 2004 Saudi Insurance is growing fast registering remarkably high growth rate in premium. Besides premium large numbers of indigenous companies have entered the insurance market. The government has established sound regulatorysystem to develop the insurance industry of Saudi Arabia to international standard.

  10. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  11. Establishing a National Medical Device Registry in Saudi Arabia: Lessons Learned and Future Work.

    Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa; Almohandis, Essam; Alshagathrh, Fahd

    2015-01-01

    Medical device evaluation presents several unique challenges due to the great diversity and complexity of medical devices and their rapid technological evolution. There has been a variety of work conducted on the development of disease based registries and health surveillance systems in Saudi Arabia. However, the progress of medical device registry systems and post-market medical device surveillance systems remains in its infancy in Saudi Arabia and within the region. In 2007, a royal decree assigned the responsibility for regulating medical devices to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA). Soon afterwards, the SFDA established the Medical Devices National Registry (MDNR) to house medical device information relating to manufacturers, agents, suppliers and end-users. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the Medical Device National Registry (MDNR) in Saudi Arabia and describe the current experience and future work of establishing a comprehensive medical device registry and post-market surveillance system in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26152943

  12. The Role and Responsibility of the National Regulator of Radiation Sources and Materials in Saudi Arabia

    There are neither nuclear power reactors nor are there research reactors in Saudi Arabia. However, the country imports a lot of radioactive sources that are used in different fields such as medicine, hydrology, industry and research. Usage of radioactive material is governed by national and the IAEA regulations for the safe usage and transport of radioactive materials. KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology) is an independent scientific organization established in 1977. It is the national competent authority that sets the rules of transporting, using and disposing of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia.. This paper discusses the role of KACST and other authorities in the country regarding the 1) licensing and evaluation of the importing and exporting applications of radioactive sources and/or devices in Saudi Arabia, 2) The regulatory framework of radiation protection in Saudi Arabia, 3) the management of radioactive wastes in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  13. Patients Satisfaction with Primary Health Care Centers Services, Majmaah, Kingdom of Saudi of Saudi Arabia

    Mohamed, Elsadig Yousif; Sami, Waqas; Alotaibi, Abdullah; Alfarag, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Ahmed; Alanzi, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Background PHC Patient satisfaction represents a key marker for the quality of health care delivery and this internationally accepted factor needs to be studied repeatedly for smooth functioning of the health care systems. The objectives of the current study were to determine the level of patients satisfaction with the primary health care services provided in Majmaah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; to identify the reasons behind satisfaction or dissatisfaction and to determine the effect of the social factors on the level of satisfaction. Methodology The study was a cross-sectional facility- based. The sample comprised 370 patients selected by stratified and systematic sampling at the health centers level and the patients level respectively. The data were collected by a pre-tested questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software. Results Patients level of satisfaction was 82%. The reasons behind satisfaction were cleanliness of the facilities and technical competencies of the staff (33.1% and 24.2%). The study showed that the most stated reason behind dissatisfaction was the unsuitable buildings (29%). Significant association was found between the level of patients satisfaction about PHC centers services and the respondents level of education. Conclusion The level of satisfaction with the services provided by PHC centers in Majmaah is high. The gender, marital status and income have no effect on the level of satisfaction with the services provided by PHC centers. However, the lower educated are more satisfied than the higher educated. Cleanliness, competence of the staff along with respect and good handling are the drivers behind the high level of satisfaction. PMID:26309435

  14. Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

  15. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = − 0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: ► New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. ► Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. ► Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. ► Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  16. First shale gas experience in Saudi Arabia - lessons learned

    ALEXEYENKO A.V

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand (Saudi Aramco. 2010.During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.The Multidisciplinary task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both companies and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011. All targets set for the SHALE-1 well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for future utilization as an observation well.

  17. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    Alharbi, O.A., E-mail: omar.alharbi@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Phillips, M.R., E-mail: m.phillips@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Williams, A.T., E-mail: allan.williams@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Gheith, A.M., E-mail: amingheith@mans.edu.eg [Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Bantan, R.A., E-mail: rbantan@kau.edu.sa [Marine Geology Department, Faculty of Marine Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rasul, N.M., E-mail: rasul.nm@sgs.org.sa [Saudi Geological Survey, Centre for Marine Geology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = - 0.59o). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  18. Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia

    Al-Khouzaie Thamer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital′s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.

  19. Risk factors associated with postpartum depression in the Saudi population

    Alharbi AA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abeer A Alharbi,1 Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Postpartum depression (PPD is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods: Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby's sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results: Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%. Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8% had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5% females were anemic during pregnancy (P≤0.05. These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03. Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95, but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary. Keywords: postpartum depression, hemoglobin level, anemia, EPDS

  20. The Saudi guidelines for the diagnosis and management of COPD

    Javed H Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome the issue of underutilization of spirometry for diagnosing COPD, handheld spirometry is recommended to screen individuals at risk for COPD. A unique feature about this guideline is the simplified practical approach to classify COPD into three classes based on the symptoms as per COPD Assessment Test (CAT and the risk of exacerbations and hospitalization. Those patients with low risk of exacerbation (<2 in the past year can be classified as either Class I when they have less symptoms (CAT < 10 or Class II when they have more symptoms (CAT ≥ 10. High-risk COPD patients, as manifested with ≥2 exacerbation or hospitalization in the past year irrespective of the baseline symptoms, are classified as Class III. Class I and II patients require bronchodilators for symptom relief, while Class III patients are recommended to use medications that reduce the risks of exacerbations. The guideline recommends screening for co-morbidities and suggests a comprehensive management approach including pulmonary rehabilitation for those with a CAT score ≥10. The article also discusses the diagnosis and management of acute exacerbations in COPD.

  1. Prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients

    Few studies have been conducted in the Saudi population on oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and extent of oral lesions in a study among dental patients at a college of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Over a 3-year period, 2552 dental outpatients were interviewed and investigated clinically for the presence of oral mucosal conditions. A thorough oral clinical examination was performed, including a radiographic examination. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically when necessary. Of 383 (15.0%) patients found to have oral mucosal lesions, females constituted 57.7% (n=221) and males 42.3% (n=162). The age range of the patients was between 15 to 73 years with a mean age of 38.2 years. The most commonly affected age group was 31 to 40 years, which comprised 21.4% (n=82) of all affected individuals. The least affected age group were individuals older than 61 years. The most common lesion was Fordyce granules (3.8%; n=98), followed by leukoedema (3.4%; n=86) and traumatic lesions (ulcer, erosion) in 1.9% (n=48). Tongue abnormalities were present in 4.0% (n=101) of all oral conditions observed, ranging from 1.4% (n=36) for fissured tongue to 0.1% (n=2) for bifid tongue. Other findings detected were torous platinus (1.3%; n=34), mandibular tori (0.1%; n=2) aphthous ulcer (0.4%; n=10), herpes simplex (0.3%; n=7), frictional hyperkeratosis (0.9%; n=23), melanosis (0.6%; n=14), lichen planus (0.3%; n=9) and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=13). The findings of this study provide information on the types and prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients. This provides baseline data for future studies about the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population. (author)

  2. Public health education in Saudi Arabia: Needs and challenges.

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdulrahman; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, public health (PH) has come to the frontlines in Saudi Arabia. The recent outbreak of a novel corona virus (MERS-CoV) highlighted the importance of PH services and the need for a competent PH workforce. The urgency and panic induced by infectious disease outbreaks explain the heightened interest. Decision makers' interest in public health was observed through a series of decisions, including creating a position for Deputy Minister for Public Health, changing the name of "Directorate of Primary Healthcare Centers" to "Directorate of Public Health" in all health regions and initiating a special scholarship program to prepare health administration professionals in collaboration with US-based universities. A distinguished group of PH leaders in Saudi Arabia was gathered in a structured workshop that was organized by the Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, college of medicine to discuss the current status and future needs of PH education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The workshop highlighted the need for PH education development and outlined the challenges ahead. The main challenges laid out by participants in the workshop were the development of an appropriate PH curriculum, appropriate training spots for practical placement, the development of research priorities for PH to satisfy the needs of PH programs and agencies, attracting the most qualified academic staff, the enrolment of highly motivated students and finally, the establishment of a quality assurance program to ensure the quality of PH education programs. The development of a framework for graduate competencies in PH was perceived to be a top priority. Moreover, setting a PH workforce surveillance system, building partnership between PH academic institutions and PH services providers, implementing national campaigns to explain what PH is about and illuminating the role of PH workers were also of utmost importance. PMID:26984034

  3. Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Abdulrahman M Aljebreen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1 Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2 Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3 Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%. There were 26 (2.2% students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1% and 9 males (1.5%. Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%. The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479, Madinah 1.8% (8/436, and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252. The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.

  4. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    Sara M. Al-Hilali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%. Of these, 278 (69.3% were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively. Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007. Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%, lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%, lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4% and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%. Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study.

  5. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior among Saudis toward cancer preventive practice

    Kandasamy Ravichandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine self-reported knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices on cancer among Saudis. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from Saudis aged 15 years or more, who attended one of the randomly selected 20 Primary Health Centers (PHC or the four major private hospitals located in the Riyadh region, either as patients or their escorts. The association between the variables was evaluated by the Chi square test. Results: The study population consisted of 618 males and 719 females. Among the female respondents 23.1% reported that they practiced breast self-examination (BSE; 14.2 and 8.1%, respectively, had clinical breast examination (CBE and mammography. However, 10.0 and 16.1% of the females, aged 40 years and older, reported having had mammograms and CBE, respectively. The BSE performers were more educated, knew someone with cancer, and had heard of the cancer warning signal. Both educational level and ′heard of cancer warning signal′ were significantly related to CBE. Cancer information was received from television / radio by 65.1% and from the physician by 29.4%. Even though 69.4% believed that cancer could be detected early, a vast majority (95.8% felt early detection of cancer was extremely desirable and 55.1% said their participation was definite in any screening program. A majority of the respondents (92.6% insisted on the need for physician recommendation to participate and 78.1% expected that any such program should be conducted in the existing hospitals / clinics. Conclusion: Culturally sensitive health education messages should be tailored to fulfill the knowledge gap among all population strata. Saudis will benefit from partnerships between public health educators and media to speed up the dissemination of cancer information.

  6. A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    Almutairi AF, McCarthy A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take care of Saudi patients who are from the dominant culture. In this scenario, a lack of knowledge of Saudi culture among nurses can lead to cultural conflicts and misunderstanding of some of the behaviours and practices of the indigenous Saudi people. Culture is a complex notion; however, being aware of cultural differences and having cultural knowledge can help people to interact safely. Educating expatriate nurses about the cultural heritage of the Saudi people, which is mainly influenced by Islamic teachings, is important to increase cultural harmony.

  7. Factorial's composition of Lake Abha, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    The study analyzes the vegetation along Lake Abha in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 plant species were recorded. The annuals decrease and the biennials and perennials increase along the moisture gradient form the terraces to the free-water zone. Six vegetation clusters were identified. The most important are clusters which were identified by the presence of the following species: Phragmites australis, Juncus punctorius, Typha domingensis, Cyperus rotundus, Datura innoxia, Cynodon dactylon, Cornulaca monacantha and Potamogeton nododsus. Each of these communities has been analyzed by classification and ordination techniques and its habitat described and discussed. (author)

  8. Pentalogy of Cantrell: first case reported in Saudi Arabia.

    Bagabir, Hala Abubaker; Azhar, Ahmad Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell (PC) is a rare congenital anomaly involving defects in the anterior diaphragm, supraumbilical abdominal wall, diaphragmatic pericardium, and lower sternum, and other congenital intracardiac abnormalities. Here, we report the case of a newborn infant who was born at 32 weeks of gestation and had all 5 features of PC, in addition to absent kidneys and a deformed left hand. Medical intervention would not be able to save the patient, so we allowed her to die in peace. We discuss here the etiology, prenatal diagnosis, and severity of and the mortality associated with this condition. To our knowledge, this was the first reported case of PC in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24658559

  9. Hematologic risk factors for stroke in Saudi children

    Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography. The study strongly highlights the importance of prothrombotic disorders and the severe phenotype of SCD as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. (author)

  10. Luminescence dating of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.; Shoemaker, C.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Wynn, J.

    2004-01-01

    Luminescence dating has been used to find the age of meteorite impact craters at Wabar (Al Hadida) in Saudi Arabia. The luminescence characteristics of the shocked material were determined. Using a variety of luminescence dating techniques applied to impactite formed by the meteorite, and to the underlying sand, the age is found to be 290 38 years. A comparison is made with two possible historically recorded ages. An impact as young as this has implications for the assessment of hazards from the impact on Earth of small meteorites.

  11. Periodontal health and diabetes awareness among Saudi diabetes patients

    Bahammam MA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Maha A BahammamDepartment of Periodontology, King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: This study aimed to examine diabetic patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, regarding their general diabetic and oral health-related awareness and practices, their awareness of the association of diabetes with periodontal disease, and their sources of diabetes-related information.Methods: Diabetic patients (n=454 who were receiving care at the diabetes clinic in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, from October 2013 to May 2014, completed a six-part questionnaire assessing their sociodemographic characteristics, general and oral health awareness and practices, and sources of diabetes-related information. Descriptive statistics were used to report the results.Results: The responses indicated inadequate health-related practices in the surveyed group: 22.2% brushed their teeth twice daily, 73.6% never flossed their teeth, and while 80.2% visited a physician in the past year, only 12.6% visited a dentist during the same year. Of the respondents, 94.8% reported that they had never received advice on oral hygiene tasks in relation to diabetes from a health professional. Awareness about the diabetes and periodontal disease association was limited: 46.7% knew that diabetics have gum problems more often if their blood sugar stays very high, and only 21.8% knew that gum disease makes it harder to control blood sugar in diabetic patients. A significant association (P<0.05 was found between a higher level of education and greater general and oral awareness, as well as a significant association (P<0.05 between longer duration of disease, regular exercise, and regular visits to the physician and awareness about diabetes mellitus. Additionally, a significant association (P<0.05 was found between regular dental visits and both periodontal disease and diabetes awareness. Family and friends were the main source of diabetes-related information, and the Internet was the least likely source.Conclusion: Customized educational programs should be planned for diabetic patients according to community needs.Keywords: periodontal health, diabetes, patients, awareness, Saudi Arabia 

  12. Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia

    M. Usman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.

  13. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia in a Saudi Arabian female

    Gatus, B.; Khan, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    The first recorded case of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia from Saudi Arabia is reported. A 57-year-old female presented with paroxysmal cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. The white cell count was 270 109/l with 80% eosinophils, the serum IgE was grossly elevated and there were flitting pulmonary opacities on X-ray. Following treatment with diethylcarbamazine the patient's symptoms were relieved dramatically, the white cells, eosinophil counts and the serum IgE returned to normal and...

  14. The Ablah succession of Saudi Arabia (dating and geological significance)

    The Ablah sedimentary succession represents a molasse basin in the Neo-Proterozoic Shield of Saudi Arabia. A rhyolite flow interbedded in the succession has been dated by the Pb/Pb method at 641 1 Ma, indicating that the basin is a local expression of Panafrican tectonism in the south of the shield. Consequently, the Panafrican phase that has previously been described in the north can now be extrapolated to the south of the shield. This age determination also enables post-Panafrican events, which differ between the south and the north, to be analysed over the entire shield. (authors)

  15. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Four Saudi Camel Breeds

    S. Basmaeil; A.N. Al-Owaimer; A.M. El-Waziry; Metwally, H.; G.M. Suliman

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass characteristics and meat quality in four Saudi camel breeds. Four young male camel breeds were used (Majaheem, Suffr, Sho’l and Wodoh) 6-9 months old with average weight 133.83±2.83 kg. Animals were group fed of three animals in four replicates for each breed. A balanced energy/protein ration was used to ensure that animals get their nutrient requirements using ad lib twice feeding system. When animals slaughtered, carcass char...

  16. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...

  17. Uranium contents in wheat samples of Saudi Arabia

    Wheat is one of the most grown crops in most of the world countries. Radionuclides may be concentrated in environment in a manner that can pose risk to human health. Accurate knowledge of such radionuclides in human food is of great importance to avoid any risk. In this work, Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Α -spectrometry techniques were applied to determination of uranium in wheat samples. Wheat samples were collected from ten regions through Saudi Arabia. Also bran and white flour samples were investigated. (author)

  18. OIL PRICES AND THE KUWAITI AND THE SAUDI STOCK MARKETS

    Samih Antoine Azar; Loucine Basmajian

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of oil price shocks on the stock markets of the two biggest and most liquid GCC equity markets, those of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. It is expected that the two stock markets react similarly to oil price shocks. Actually the results show heterogeneity in responses. While there is prima facie evidence that both stock markets are influenced positively and linearly by oil price shocks, this evidence disappears when additional variables are added to th...

  19. State of health economic evaluation research in Saudi Arabia: a review

    Al-aqeel SA

    2012-01-01

    Sinaa A Al-AqeelClinical Pharmacy Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, cha...

  20. Saudi regulations for the accreditation of sleep medicine physicians and technologists

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The professional content of sleep medicine has grown significantly over the past few decades, warranting the recognition of sleep medicine as an independent specialty. Because the practice of sleep medicine has expanded in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, a national regulation system to license and ascertain the competence of sleep medicine physicians and technologists has become essential. Recently, the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties formed the National Committee for the Accreditation of Sleep Medicine Practice and developed national accreditation criteria. This paper presents the newly approved Saudi accreditation criteria for sleep medicine physicians and technologists.

  1. Characteristics and fatty acid composition of milk fat from Saudi Aradi goat

    Sbihi, H. M.; Nehdi, I. A.; Tan, C. P.; Al-Resayes, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Goat milk is the second most prevalent edible milk in Saudi Arabia and is one of the most prominently produced milks in the world. Few studies have focused on the physicochemical properties of goat milk fat (GMF). Samples of Saudi Aradi goat milk were obtained during the spring dairy season to determine the physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of the GMF. The physicochemical properties of Saudi Aradi GMF were as follows: iodine value, 23.2 g of I2·100 g−1 of fat; saponif...

  2. First Record of Five Soil Ciliates (Ciliophora, Hypotricha from Saudi Arabia

    Saleh A. Al-Farraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and infraciliature of five soil hypotrichous collected from the farm-land at Zulfi city, Saudi Arabia were investigated using living observation and silver impregnation methods. Gastrostyla steinii was found to have 4-8 macronuclei and thus its congener, G. muscorum which was characterized by eight macronuclei is likely a synonym with G. steinii. Redescriptions on Hemiamphisiella granulifera, Urostyla grandis Ehrenberg, 1830 and Nudiamphisiella interrupta, revealed that Saudi Arabia populations were morphologically identical with previous studies. A Nudiamphisiella species which is quite similar with N. illuvialis was also discussed. The abovementioned species show first show in Saudi Arabia and extend the known distribution areas of these species.

  3. Prevalence of stress and its determinants among residents in Saudi Arabia

    Fahad D Alosaimi; Kazim, Sana N.; Almufleh, Auroabah S.; Aladwani, Bandar S.; Alsubaie, Abdullah S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine perceived stress among residents in Saudi Arabia and its associated risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of all residents registered at the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was conducted between May and October 2012. We assessed the likelihood of stress using the perceived stress scale (PSS). Results: Out of the 4000 residents contacted, 1035 responded and 938 were included. The mean (±standard deviation) PSS score was 22.0±5.1 (m...

  4. Inflammatory bowel disease in the Western Saudi Arabia

    To observe the pattern of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among the people of Western region of Saudi Arabia, and to correlate the findings with published data. This is a retrospective study. All colonic biopsies were reviewed which were received, and processed at the Histopathology Department of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2002 to July 2007. Ethical approval was obtained from the Bioethical and Research Committee. There were 711 colonic biopsies received during this period. One hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). There were 65 males and 57 females. The age ranged between 4-73 years. Most of the UC patients presented in adolescence, and in the adult age. Crohn's disease (CD) was diagnosed in 15 patients, 7 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 1-40 years. Most of the cases were seen in the adult age group. We conclude that IBD is certainly one of the major serious colonic lesions in our society, which should be thoroughly investigated by the combined efforts of clinicians and pathologists. We also conclude that gastrointestinal tuberculosis and infective colitis should always be investigated before suggesting the specific diagnosis of IBD. We recommend a broad based epidemiological study, simultaneously involving clinicians, and pathologists, to document the characteristics of this disease in our society. (author)

  5. Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia

    Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

    2013-12-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

  6. In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.

    Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-04-01

    Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

  7. Novel mutations in two Saudi patients with congenital retinal dystrophy

    Leen Abu Safieh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To report novel mutations in two Saudi children with clinical features of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA and Alström syndrome. Case reports. Case 1 was a child with phenotypic features of LCA including oculodigital sign, bilateral enophthalmos, nystagmus, pale disc, and retinal changes. Direct sequencing of the coding sequence of GUCY2D revealed a missense mutation affecting highly conserved position (c. 743C > T; p.S248 L. Case 2 describes a girl with marked nystagmus, photophobia, and retinal changes in both eyes with short and stubby fingers tapering at the distal phalanges. The electroretinograms were nonrecordable in each eye. She had a hearing aid in the left ear, mid-facial hypoplasia, bilateral enophthalmos, and insulin dependent diabetes. Mutation screening of candidates genes revealed a pathogenic mutation in ALMS1 gene (c. 8441C > A, p.S2814*. Two novel mutations causing phenotypic LCA and Alström syndrome in Saudi patients from consanguineous families expand the genotypic spectrum of congenital retinal dystrophies

  8. Barriers to integrating information technology in Saudi Arabia science education

    Al-Alwani, Abdulkareem Eid Salamah

    This study examined current level of information technology integration in science education in the Yanbu school district in Saudi Arabia, and barriers to use. Sub-domains investigated included: infrastructure and resources, policy and support, science teachers' personal beliefs, and staff development. Survey determined demographic data and level of technology implementation, personal computer use, and current instructional practice. Mean frequency of information technology use was 1--2 times during a semester. Science teachers rated barriers limiting use of technology in teaching with a scale ranging from 0 (does not limit) to 3 (greatly limits). Results found all four factors were significant barriers: infrastructure and resources (M = 2.06; p science teachers' personal beliefs regarding technology (M = 1.15; p science teachers experienced, the less likely they were to be information technology users (r = -0.16, p = .02). There is a need for more computers in school, more teacher training, more time for teachers to learn to use technology, and more readily-available, technical support staff. Further studies are needed to represent all science teachers in Saudi Arabia, assess technology capacity of all schools, and assess in-service staff development strategies.

  9. BK virus infection in a renal transplant Saudi child

    BK human polyomavirus (BKV) causes an asymptomatic primary infection in children, but later, establishes latency mainly in the urinary tract. Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well-understood. We present here a 12-year-old Saudi boy, who had renal transplant in Egypt. Seven months later, he was admitted to our Pediatric Nephrology Unit as a case of renal impairment. He developed BKV infection, diagnosed and successfully managed in our hospital. This case demonstrates the expanding clinical importance of BKV in a post renal transplant patient. This virus can be detected in transitional cells in the urine (decoy cells) using cytology. Testing for BKV deoxyribonucleic acid in urine and blood is an early detection assay, and can be used as a screening test in the early stages. The early reduction of immunosuppression can improve the prognosis. No specific antiviral treatment has been established yet. This is the first report of detecting BK virus in a Saudi post-transplant child in urine and blood specimens by using polymerase chain reaction. (author)

  10. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

  11. Work-related health disorders among Saudi computer users.

    Jomoah, Ibrahim M

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and eye and vision complaints among the computer users of King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Saudi Arabian Airlines (SAUDIA), and Saudi Telecom Company (STC). Stratified random samples of the work stations and operators at each of the studied institutions were selected and the ergonomics of the work stations were assessed and the operators' health complaints were investigated. The average ergonomic score of the studied work station at STC, KAU, and SAUDIA was 81.5%, 73.3%, and 70.3, respectively. Most of the examined operators use computers daily for ≤ 7 hours, yet they had some average incidences of general complaints (e.g., headache, body fatigue, and lack of concentration) and relatively high level of incidences of eye and vision complaints and musculoskeletal complaints. The incidences of the complaints have been found to increase with the (a) decrease in work station ergonomic score, (b) progress of age and duration of employment, (c) smoking, (d) use of computers, (e) lack of work satisfaction, and (f) history of operators' previous ailments. It has been recommended to improve the ergonomics of the work stations, set up training programs, and conduct preplacement and periodical examinations for operators. PMID:25383379

  12. Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia

    Ashraf E.M. Khater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.

  13. Awareness of cardiovascular disease in eastern Saudi Arabia

    Nadira A Al-Baghli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.

  14. Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia

    With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)

  15. Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia

    Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

  16. Consanguinity pattern and heritability of Vitiligo in Arar, Saudi Arabia

    Dhaifallah A Alenizi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors. Aim: To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar. Patients and Methods: This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%, 21 (30.4%, 8 (11.6%, and 18 (26.1%, respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2% cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model. Conclusion: Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo.

  17. The knowledge of breast cancer among young Saudi females

    To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students.A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionnaires were then statistically analyzed. This Pilot study of 500 students was performed in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital using high schools from the city of Jeddah between April and June 2009. The results were used to build up a base for designing a community educational program. Analysis of the data from 337 questionnaires from high school and college students showed that the level of knowledge of young females on breast cancer is limited. However, it also indicated that the students are very enthusiastic to learn about cancer breast, and its prevention. The limited knowledge level of breast cancer in the younger generation might be an obstacle to screening programs and early diagnosis. Awareness programs should be developed including lectures, seminars workshops, and on hands training (Author).

  18. Anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia among adults in Saudi Arabia

    Abdalla A Saeed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: dyslipidemia and obesity are key independent modifiable risk factors for many non communicable chronic diseases. Patterns of association between these factors may help prevention and control. This study aims to assess the association between lipids profile and obesity among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identify anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia.Methods: data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using WHO STEPwise approach that included 4 990 Saudi adults aged 15- 64 years selected by stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling technique. Lipid profiles (cholesterol categories and triglycerides were determined spectrophotometrically by colorimetric biochemical methods. Obesity was determined by calculation of body mass index (BMI=Kg/m2, waist and hip circumferences and ratio and waist to height ratio.Results: the overall prevalence of obesity ranged from 33.8 to 44.4 % and the overall dyslipidemia prevalence ranged from about 25 to 44% depending on type of dyslipidemia and anthropometrics used. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and mean concentration of lipids profile were generally significantly higher in obese than non obese. The indicator waist/height ratio was the significant predictor for all types of dyslipidemia and all levels of serum lipids.Conclusions: the prevalence dyslipidemia and obesity are high and they are positively associated. Waist/height ratio was the most important predictor of dyslipidemia among adults.

  19. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, Saudi Cancer Registry, corpus uteri cancer, age standardized incidence rate

  20. Saudi rahuplaan ajas Iisraeli juhid tülli / Marek Laane

    Laane, Marek, 1969-

    2002-01-01

    Saudi Araabia esitatud Lähis-Ida rahuplaan on ajanud Iisraeli juhtkonna tülli: peaminister Ariel Sharon on selle vastu, president Moshe Katsar on aga valmis saudidega kohtuma. Kaart: Iisraeli muutuvad piirid

  1. 76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended

    2011-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...

  2. The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market

    Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market. (author)

  3. The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market

    Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market

  4. Molecular nature of alpha-globin genes in the Saudi population

    J. Francis Borgio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-thalassemia (?-thal is a disorder caused by the deletion of single or double ?-globin genes, and/or point mutations in the ?-globin genes. There are 2 common types of ?-globin genes; HBA2 and HBA1. Recently, it has been discovered that the HBA2 gene is replaced by a unique HBA12 gene convert in 5.7% of the Saudi population. The ?-globin genes have been emerging as a molecular target for the treatment of ?-thalassemia (?-thal. Hence, it is essential to understand the molecular nature of ?-globin genes to treat the most prevalent hemoglobin disorders, such as sickle cell disease, ?-thal, and ?-thal prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Thirty-two different ?-globin genotypes have been observed in the Saudi population. This review outlines the classification of the ?-globin genes on the basis of their molecular nature and complex combinations of ?-globin genes, and their variants predominant in Saudis.

  5. Self-reported symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in a female university student population in Saudi Arabia.

    Zulqarnain, B J; Khan, N; Khattab, S

    1998-12-01

    The symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD), reported by 705 female university students of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, are analysed. The population is representative of the educated class of Saudi Arabia. The most frequently reported symptoms were jaw feeling tired (34.5%), awareness of uncomfortable bite (31.3%), pain in front of the ear (22.4%) and discomfort upon wide opening (22.4%). The frequency of subjective reactions was, pain interferes with activity (42%), disturbed sleep (40.6%), taking of medication (27.8%) and pain being frustrating or depressing (26.8%). Some interesting relationships were found between the reported symptoms and marital status, residence and college of education. These findings are similar to those reported in a Bedouin community in Egypt, but lower than that in a Saudi Arabian population attending dental clinics, Saudi male dental students and high school students. PMID:9888230

  6. Usefulness of molecular techniques to identify ongoing tuberculosis transmission in Saudi Arabia

    This study represents the first time that molecular tracing techniques have been used to identify patterns of tuberculosis TB infection in Saudi Arabia. The 2 strains were isolated from a socio-economically advantaged family who share a number of common facilities including a car and a driver. There are several factors that may play vital roles in on-going transmission of TB in Saudi Arabia including a high number of expatriates, the Hajj pilgrimage, and the social habits of Saudi citizens. Our sibling case series is believed to be a frequent pattern of disease transmission in this country. Control measures such as health education, active case finding, and prompt and supervised medical treatment are needed. More studies using molecular techniques are recommended to find the incidence of cross infection in Saudi Arabia. In addition, molecular techniques have to be established in all reference laboratories to help the detection of ongoing active transmission, molecular epidemiology and detect sources of infection. (author)

  7. Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula

    Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

    2012-01-01

    The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

  8. The Criminalisation of Identity Theft under the Saudi Anti-Cybercrime Law 2007

    Suhail Almerdas

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the capability of Saudi law to tackle a widespread type of cybercrime: identity theft. It begins with an overview of the meaning of the term ‘identity theft’. Then, an overview of acts related to identity theft, including obtaining identity-related information, transferring identity-related information and possessing identity-related information, are provided. The article then examines the extent to which legal measures enacted in Saudi Arabia can tackle the problem of i...

  9. The utilization of Arabic online drug information among adults in Saudi Arabia

    Abanmy, Norah O.; Al-quait, Nouf A.; Alami, Amani H.; Al-Juhani, Meshaal H.; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa

    2012-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of the world wide web has become increasingly popular. However, the exact figure of such use is unknown. This study aimed to determine the percentage of, and experience with, online Arabic drug information by Arabic-speaking adults in Saudi Arabia. A web based questionnaire was used. The questionnaire language was Arabic. Public were invited to participate in the survey through e-mails, Twitter, WhatsApp and Facebook in March 2012. The survey included 17 items...

  10. Health Beliefs Related to Diabetes Mellitus Prevention among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Al-Mutairi, Reem L.; Bawazir, Amen A.; Ahmed, Anwar E.; Hoda Jradi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is growing rapidly in the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess the constructs of the health belief model (HBM) as they relate to T2DM lifestyle and prevention behaviours among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2013 among 426 non-diabetic secondary school students from randomly selected schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An Arabic version of an adapted E...

  11. First study of pattern of anaphylaxis in a large tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Sheikh, Farrukh; Amin, Rashid; Rehan Khaliq, Agha M.; Al Otaibi, Talal; Al Hashim, Samia; Al Gazlan, Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Background Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that may cause death. The signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis have not been examined in the Saudi population before. Objective The present study examined the signs, symptoms, triggers, and demographic patterns of patients treated for anaphylaxis at a large tertiary care hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods All the patients who were prescribed new prescriptions of adrenaline auto-injectors (AAs) between February 1, 2010 and December 31, ...

  12. A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia

    Rayed AlGhamdi; Steve Drew; Thamer Alhussain

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four...

  13. Stress among medical Saudi students at College of Medicine, King Faisal University

    ABDEL RAHMAN, A.G.; AL HASHIM, B.N.; AL HIJI, N.K.; AL-ABBAD, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background. Sources of student stress can be academic pressures, social or personal issues and medical students have to face the challenge of rigorous curriculum and also have to learn how to deal with emotionally difficult experiences. Aim of Work. Determination of the prevalence of stress and to identify the risk factors of stress among Saudi medical students at Faculty of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A survey study design was conducted among medical stud...

  14. Fortification with vitamin D: Comparative study in the Saudi Arabian and US markets

    Mir Sadat-Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi Arabian population. To evaluate the current status of vitamin D fortification and calcium content of commonly consumed food items by the Saudi population and to compare it to US data. Setting and Design: Cross-sectional market survey at markets of Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and State of Illinois, USA. Methods: A dietary survey was carried out for the content of calcium and vitamin D on the most commonly consumed food products by the Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D. The survey included different brands of fresh milk, yoghurt, powdered milk, cheese, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and orange juice. Vitamin D content in the products studied from the Saudi marketplace was compared with the suggested vitamin D content in the same products according to US Code of Federal Regulations recommendations. Results: The overall calcium content in the processed dairy products is generally higher than the content in fresh dairy products. Vitamin D content in the fresh dairy products varied from 40 IU/L to 400 IU/L. None of the cereals or orange juice in Saudi Arabia contain vitamin D supplement. The vitamin D content in the food items from the Saudi marketplace is mostly lower than recommended by the US Code of Federal Regulations. Conclusion: Most commonly consumed food products by Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D either not fortified or contain an amount less than recommended by guidelines set for US marketplace.

  15. The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Textual Discourse Markers on Saudi EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    Abdulaziz Ali Al-Qahtani

    2015-01-01

    Discourse markers (DMs) instruction is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention in the literature on second language learning. As noted by Al-Yaari, Al Hammadi, Alyami, and Almaflehi (2013), and Algouzi (2014), the use of DMs is insufficient to support the development of the language skills, especially reading, of Saudi English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’. Recurrent reports (e.g., Al Abik, 2014; Al-Mansour & Al-Shorman, 2011) have shown that Saudi EFL learners perfo...

  16. Paget disease of the bone: Does it exist in Saudi Arabia?

    Alshaikh Omalkhaire; AlManea Hadeel; Alzahrani Ali.

    2011-01-01

    Paget disease of the bone is a chronic disease characterized by accelerated bone turnover with abnormal repair leading to expansion, pain and deformities. The disease is common in the West, but little if any information is available on its existence in the Arab world, including Saudi Arabia. We present four cases of Saudi patients with Paget disease with variable presentations. The first case, a 63-year-old woman with a history of papillary thyroid cancer, presented with bone, shoulder and ch...

  17. Distribution of chronotypes in a large sample of young adult Saudis

    BaHammam Ahmed; Almestehi Wael; Albatli Abdurrahman; AlShaya Shaya

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: There are no published data on the chronotypes of young Saudi adults. This study assessed the distribution of chronotypes in college-aged Saudis. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional survey of college students Patients and Methods: A validated abridged version of the original Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQr) was used to assess the chronotype of 759 subjects. Results: Of 540 (71.1%) males and 219 (28.9%) females participa...

  18. Will any future increase in cigarette price reduce smoking in Saudi Arabia?

    Al-Mohrej, Omar A.; AlTraif, Sara I.; Hani M Tamim; Hana Fakhoury

    2014-01-01

    Context: In Saudi Arabia, no studies have been conducted on the correlation between any possible cigarette′s price increase and its effects on cigarette consumption. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia and to predict the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in April and May 2013. Methods: We developed an Arabic questionnaire with information on demo...

  19. DEVELOPING EFL TEACHING AND LEARNING PRACTICES IN SAUDI COLLEGES: A REVIEW

    Hussain Ahmed Liton

    2012-01-01

    Saudi Ministry of education is highly concerned with the pursuit of excellence in effective EFL teaching-learning in the arena of education but it experiences tardy progress especially in college level. This is a common scenario in almost every stage of learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores the new flights and avenues of developing EFL teaching-learning aspect in the intermediate level. The author of this study valorised to investigate the possible...

  20. Growth Behavior of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca L.) In Saudi Arabia

    Nasser S. Al-Khalifah

    2000-01-01

    Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro condition...

  1. The driving factors of continuance online shopping: Gender differences in behaviour among students in Saudi Arabia

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure student gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The 234-respondent sample consists of 61.5% women and 38.5% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male and female groups are equivalent. Th...

  2. The driving factors of continuance online shopping: Gender differences in behaviour the case of Saudi Arabia

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The 465-respondent sample consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male and female groups are equivalent....

  3. The factors driving online shopping in Saudi Arabia: Regional and behavioral differences among women

    Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure regional differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Women in the eastern, western, and central region groups are equivalent. T...

  4. Restless legs syndrome among Saudi end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis

    Siraj O Wali; Alkhouli, Abeer F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in Saudi patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 3 hemodialysis centers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between June 2012 and September 2013. All patients were individually interviewed and data was collected on the following demographic features, medical history, laboratory test, the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group questionnaire, Epworth S...

  5. Risk of obstructive sleep apnea among Saudis with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis

    Wali, Siraj Omar; Alkhouli, Abeer; Howladar, Mohannad; Ahmad, Ibrahim; Alshohaib, Saad; Al-Ghamdi, Saeed; Krayem, Ayman

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients was reported to be 10-fold that in the general population. OSA can worsen the clinical symptoms and cardiovascular complications of ESRD. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of symptoms and risk of OSA among Saudi patients with ESRD. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between June 2012 and September 2013. METHODS: The prevalence o...

  6. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE ROLE OF ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE IN HEALTH CARE PROVISION IN SAUDI ARABIA

    Al-Otaibi, Abdullah Saleh

    2010-01-01

    The health care system in Saudi Arabia has faced a variety of problems affecting its services, especially in the management area, for example in coordination, duplication of services, authority and leadership. These problems have resulted in patients having difficulty accessing services, in long waiting lists, in medical malpractice and in dissatisfaction among patients and employees. At fault appears to be the organisational culture in the Saudi public sector. To understand this culture and ...

  7. A study of corporate social responsibility disclosure practices in Saudi Arabia

    Aldosari, A.; Atkins, Jill

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses changes in corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting practices among Saudi listed companies in the past three years. Using content analysis methodology of annual reports, a sample of 174 annual reports representing 58 Saudi listed companies from different sectors were analysed to investigate the extent of the level of CSR disclosure in the years 2010 to 2012. Our paper focuses on trends of CSR information in the four categories: Environment; Employee; Community and C...

  8. Inclusive education for deaf students in Saudi Arabia: perceptions of schools principals, teachers and parents

    Alothman, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    This study is set in Saudi Arabia within the context of increasing national and international emphasis on inclusive education of deaf students and where policy overtly supports increasingly inclusive schools. This research is important because it is one of the few qualitative Saudi Arabian studies that have been conducted within the interpretive paradigm with a view to understanding the complexity of inclusive education. It specifically explores the factors that have influenced its theory and...

  9. Attracting Customer in Saudi Arabia to Buy from Your Business Online

    Adel Aboud Bahaddad; Luke Houghton; Steve Drew

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of compa...

  10. Amphetamine Versus Non Amphetamine-Related First Episode Psychosis in Saudi Arabian Patients

    Ehab Said EL Desoky; Ashraf M A El-Tantawy; Yasser M. Raya; Abdulhameed Al-Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Amphetamines are illicit psychostimulant drugs that can induce psychotic symptoms. Very few studies have been conducted in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA) on amphetamine abuse and related psychosis. Recently, the pattern of amphetamine abuse in SA showed a significant trend of increased frequency. Objectives: To investigate the extent of amphetamine abuse in a sample of Saudi patients hospitalized for first episode of acute psychosis. Also, to compare in that sample between amphetami...

  11. Writing in a New Environment: Saudi ESL Students Learning Academic Writing

    Saba, Maggie Sami

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study sought to gain a deeper understanding of the obstacles that students from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia face when learning English in a writing course that implements critical thinking and writing process pedagogy. The study took place over five months at the Virginia Tech Language and Culture Institute in spring 2012. While ten participants--six female and four male Saudi Arabian ESL students--participated in this study, these findings focus primarily on one male a...

  12. A descriptive-evaluative study of a Saudi EFL textbook series

    Ahlam Alharbi

    2015-01-01

    This study employs checklists from Williams (1983) and Keban, Muhtar, and Zen (2012) to evaluate the Flying High for Saudi Arabia series, which is currently taught in high schools in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to ensure it can achieve their pedagogical goals. Different results were obtained from each checklist. Keban et al.’s checklist showed the evaluators to be generally satisfied with the series, despite two shortcomings: the review section and vocabulary list/glossaries, and the inadequ...

  13. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extra...

  14. The association between watching television and obesity in children of school-age in Saudi Arabia

    Al-Ghamdi, Sameer H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is little information on the association between watching Television (TV) and obesity in the Arabian Peninsula. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to explore the association between the watching of television and obesity in Saudi children of school-age. Materials and Methods: A case-controlled study was conducted with students between the ages of 9 and 14 years who attended the school health clinic in King Abdulaziz Housing for National Guard (Iskan), Riyadh, Saudi ...

  15. A re-examination of the Salicornias (Amaranthaceae) of Saudi Arabia and their polymorphs

    Al-Turki, Turki A.; K. Swarupanandan; Davy, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    During the period from 1964 to 1999 Saudi Arabian species of Salicornia were wrongly treated under the European species, S. europaea L. Recent explorations proved that there are two separate allopatric species of Salicornia in Saudi Arabia, one inhabiting the inland salt-marshes of the Najd (highlands) and the other inhabiting the Arabian Gulf Coast (lowlands). Morphological, ecological and exploratory studies confirm that they are two distinct species. The two species differ in features of b...

  16. Structure and Performance of the Retail Outlets of Honey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi; Abdu Zulail; Nuru Adgaba

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at analyzing the most important factors affecting the retail marketing of honey in Saudi Arabia. Cross sectional survey was employed using field interview (direct contact) with a random sample of 343 retail outlets represented all its forms and patterns in seven major cities in Saudi Arabia. Measurements like market share, Gini coefficient and Herfindahl Hirschman Index (HHI) were used to estimate the indicators of market structure and its performance. T...

  17. Quality and employability in higher education: the case of Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Ajmi, Khaled M.

    2003-01-01

    Modem higher education is a cooperation of stakeholder s. Its development should be viewed only in terms of curricula quality and graduates employability. Because the Saudi system is relatively new and grows rapidly, while confronted with traditions and difficulties, neither of the above objectives is distinctly accomplished to fully fulfil the ambition of national growth. This thesis critically investigated the approach of Saudi Universities. A combination of quantitative and qualitative ...

  18. Fluoride levels in drinking water in the Central Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Aldosari Abdullah; Akpata Enosakhare; Khan N.; Wyne Amjad; Al-Meheithif A

    2003-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to assess the fluoride levels in drinking water in the Central Province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 817 water samples were collected from 260 locations in Central Saudi Arabia. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer [HACH instrument, model DR 3000] was used in the analyses of water samples for fluoride levels. Results: The results showed that fluoride levels vary between 0.00 and 6.20 ppm. About 75% and 6% of the populat...

  19. Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study

    Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M; Fahmy Alaa-Eldin A; Al-Rethaiaa Abdallah S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives ...

  20. Association of Interleukin-10 Gene Promoter Polymorphisms in Saudi Patients with Vitiligo

    Abdullah Abanmi; Fahad Al Harthi; Abdulrahman Zouman; Aida Kudwah; Mohammed Al Jamal; Misbahul Arfin; Mohammad Tariq

    2007-01-01

    The promoter region of human Interleukin ?10 gene is highly polymorphic and has been associated with numerous autoimmune diseases. Recent studies have linked vitiligo with defective autoimmune system. This study is aimed to explore a possible association between IL-10 gene polymorphism and vitiligo in Saudi population. This case control study consisted of 184 Saudi subjects including 83 vitiligo patients (40 males, 43 females mean age 27.85 12.43 years) and 101 matched controls. Genomic DNA...

  1. E-Commerce Adoption in Saudi Arabia: an Assessment of International, Regional and Domestic Web Presence

    Mutlaq B. Alotaibi

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) has a growing potential in Saudi Arabia, due to widespread use of the internet and the maturity of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of E-Commerce websites in Saudi Arabia, using a proposed evaluation instrument. To achieve this aim, six E-Commerce websites were selected for evaluation and then categorized into three categories: domestic, regional and international. Each category consisted of two...

  2. Saudi high school students attitudes and barriers toward the use of computer technologies in learning English

    Sabti, Ahmed Abdulateef; Chaichan, Rasha Sami

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the attitudes of Saudi Arabian high school students toward the use of computer technologies in learning English. The study also discusses the possible barriers that affect and limit the actual usage of computers. Quantitative approach is applied in this research, which involved 30 Saudi Arabia students of a high school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The respondents comprised 15 males and 15 females with ages between 16years and 18years. Two instruments, namely, Scale of Atti...

  3. Molecular epidemiology and genotyping of TT virus isolated from Saudi blood donors and hepatitis patients

    Al-Mozaini Maha; Al-Ahdal Mohammed; Kessie George; Dela Cruz Damian; Rezeig Mohammed; Al-Shammary Fahad

    2006-01-01

    Background: In Saudi Arabia, the epidemiology and clinical signifi-nance of Torque Teno virus (TTV) infection alone and in patients with hepatitis virus infections have not been determined in a single study. In this paper, we molecularly investigated the rate and genotypes of TTV in-fection among Saudi Arabian blood donors and patients with viral hepa-titis. The effect of TTV coinfection on viral hepatitis was also examined. Subjects and Methods: DNA was extracted from the sera of 200 hea...

  4. Diversity of sources of radwaste in Saudi Arabia and its impact on radwaste management

    Saudi Arabia has introduced during the past three decades many new technologies in all aspects of health services and in various industrial, agricultural and research activities. Radionuclides of different types have been used and will obviously result in radwastes of different nature. This paper assesses the generation of radwaste in Saudi Arabia and the current practices used for protecting man and his bioenvironment against its hazards. The assessment is based on data from 110 establishments using radionuclides in the Kingdom

  5. Prevalence of non-strongyle gastrointestinal parasites of horses in Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia

    AL Anazi, Abdullah D.; Mohamed S. Alyousif

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were...

  6. Determinants of Competitive Advantages of Dates Exporting: An Applied Study on Saudi Arabia

    Gaber Mohamed M. Abdel Gawad; Tarek Tawfik Alkhteeb; Mohammad Tariq Intezar

    2014-01-01

    The study focus on testing the determinants of competitive advantage of dates marketing from Saudi Arabia through multi- regression model based on Porter’s diamond, which is determined the factor that affecting on competitiveness of nations in international marketing, such as factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, and company strategy; structure; and rivalry. Our study selected the most competitive countries for Saudi Arabia in marketing dates in its markets ...

  7. Promoting health education and public awareness about dengue and its mosquito vector in Saudi Arabia

    Aziz, Al Thabiani; Salman A. Al-Shami; Mahyoub, Jazem A; Hatabbi, Mesed; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Md Rawi, Che Salmah

    2014-01-01

    Currently, dengue fever is considered as the main health problem in several parts (Mekkah, Jeddah, Jazan and Najran) of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) with dramatically increase in the number of cases reported every year. This is associated with obvious ineffectiveness in the recent control and management programs for the mosquito vector (Aedes aegypti). Here, we suggested promoting the health education and public awareness among Saudi people to improve the control of dengue mosquito vector. S...

  8. Pharmaceutical research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A scientometric analysis during 2001-2010.

    Alhaider, Ibrahim; Mueen Ahmed, K K; Gupta, B M

    2015-07-01

    Studies on the performance of Saudi Arabia in the pharmaceutical science research using quantitative and qualitative measures. They analyze the productivity and global publication share and rank of the top 15 countries. The author studies Saudi Arabia's publications output, growth and citation quality, international collaborative publication share and most important the collaborating partners, contribution and citation impact of its top 15 organizations and authors, productivity patterns of its top publishing journals and characteristics of its highly cited papers. PMID:26106268

  9. Perception of self-medication among university students in Saudi Arabia

    Mustafa S Saeed; Ali S Alkhoshaiban; Yaser Mohammed Ali Al-Worafi; Chiau Ming Long

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess self-medication practice among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted by distributing a self-administered 18-item questionnaire among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia in the period between October and December 2012. The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique. Data were collected from the questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS ...

  10. Saudi EFL Teachers’ Readiness and Perceptions of Young Learners Teaching at Elementary Schools

    Joza Fahd Al Malihi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate EFL elementary school teachers’ perception of their own readiness to teach young learners at Saudi schools as it has been recently introduced at this level. Further, it inspects their major needs that should be considered when developing teacher-training programs. A questionnaire was distributed targeting elementary EFL teachers. 114 responses from both male and female EFL elementary school teachers from different areas of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia mostly fro...

  11. Gender differences in leisure-time versus non-leisure-time physical activity among Saudi adolescents

    Hana Al-Sobayel; Hazzaa M. Al-Hazzaa; Nanda A Abahussain; Qahwaji, Dina M.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the gender differences and predictors of leisure versus non-leisure time physical activities among Saudi adolescents aged 1419 years. Materials and method. The multistage stratified cluster random sampling technique was used. A sample of 1,388 males and 1,500 females enrolled in secondary schools in three major cities in Saudi Arabia was included. Anthropometric measurements were performed and Body Mass Index was calculated. Physical acti...

  12. Attitudes of Managers towards the Potential Effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia: Factor Analysis

    Nasser Akeil Kadasah

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the attitudes of managers in Saudi Arabia towards the effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia. The study includes 143 firms in three sectors of activities; private manufacturing, private service and public firms. The study reveals that the five most significant benefits are; safer environment, improvement of image of the certified firms with the international environmental organizations, ensure the safety of workers inside the organizations, improvement of firms im...

  13. Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia

    Al Taweel Waleed; Alkhayal Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upp...

  14. The Political, Socio-economic and Sociocultural Impacts of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP) on Saudi Arabia

    Kholoud T. Hilal; Safiyyah R. Scott; Nina Maadad

    2014-01-01

    Since 2006, Saudi Arabian politicians, economists and sociologists have had to consider the implications of their country’s King Abdullah Scholarship Program (KASP). Because Saudi Arabia has certain religious traditions and economic practices that are sensitive, international scholars are examining from different perspectives the outcomes and potential impacts of KASP. While Saudi Arabia has all the necessary tools to compete with the developed nations (such as natural resources and manpower)...

  15. Performance of body mass index in predicting diabetes and hypertension in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

    Almajwal Ali; Al-Baghli Nadira; Batterham Marijka; Williams Peter; Al-Turki Khalid; Al-Ghamdi Aqeel

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives : Body mass index (BMI) is the most widely used measure to define obesity and predict its complications, such as diabetes and hypertension, but its accuracy and usefulness in Saudi subjects is unknown. This study aimed to assess the validity of standard BMI cut-point values in the Saudi population. Subjects and Methods : 197 681 adults participated in a cross-sectional study to detect diabetes and hypertension in the Saudi Eastern province in 2004/2005, with blood ...

  16. Microbial Loads and Physicochemical Characteristics of Fruits from Four Saudi Date Palm Tree Cultivars: Conformity with Applicable Date Standards

    Salah M. Aleid; Bakri H. Hassan; Salah A. Almaiman; Safar H. Al-Kahtani; Sobhy M. Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The conformity of Saudi dates cultivars to date standards has not been studied extensively. In this study, microbial loads and physicochemical characteristics of four Saudi date cultivars (Sukkary, Khalas, Sugai and Anbara) were determined. Anbara cultivar had significantly higher mould and yeast counts than recommended under Saudi technical regulation and standards for packaged whole dates. Moisture content and insect damage for all studied cultivars fell within Codex ...

  17. Historical, cultural, and contemporary influences on the status of women in nursing in Saudi Arabia.

    Miller-Rosser, Kolleen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2006-09-01

    Global nursing shortages have necessitated closer scrutiny of recruitment and retention initiatives of nurses both locally and internationally. For many decades the nursing workforce of Saudi Arabia has relied on international expatriates to be the backbone of the industry. In recent years however, Saudi women have been recruited into nursing preparation courses conducted at degree level. The many twists and turns of providing a local Saudi Arabian nursing workforce has paralleled Saudi's own history and this paper follows that journey. Our research has enabled us to provide some insights into nursing pre and post the enlightenment that accompanied the Prophet Mohammed's influence. We emphasize the influences of women leaders who emerged in Mohammed's time and bring lasting authority to the development of nursing in Saudi Arabia. The cultural issues that bind women in this society are explicated and related to recruitment and retention issues in nursing. Education matters, both past and present, are highlighted emphasizing the gains that nursing as a distinct occupation has made. Finally the paper concludes with a summation of contemporary achievements in Saudi Arabia moving nursing towards the much needed professional status and parity with other careers in health care. PMID:17279862

  18. Captive power generation in Saudi Arabia—Overview and recommendations on policies

    The power sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is undergoing the restructuring process. Moreover, during the last decade the Kingdom has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the load demand, consequently a huge amount of generation is added to the electric utilities to meet the load. Up to now only the electric utility generation was taken in the planning of the electrical sector. The data regarding the captive power generation was not readily available. A survey is conducted regarding the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia based on its utilization pattern, fuel used and amount of excess energy available to the grid. The existing regulatory framework and institutional structure of the Saudi power industry was also reviewed. Based on the information collected in the survey of captive power, key guidelines that may be considered in developing the policy for the captive power generators are presented. Furthermore, these guidelines and later the policies will help promote the investors to come forward in developing the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia. -- Highlights: •Database of captive power generation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. •Historical perspective of electrical power industry in the Kingdom. •Saudi Arabia′s power requirements. •Regulatory framework and key guidelines regarding captive power generation. •It is first of its kind study in the region

  19. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  20. Stroke due to mitochondrial disorders in Saudi children

    Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had raised cerebrospinal fluid lactate but no ragged red fibres on muscle histochemistry. Biochemical assay of muscle homogenate showed reduction in respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Mutation screening of mtDNA at nucleotides 3243 (tRNA) and 8344 (tRNA) was negative. Mitochondrial disorders constitute a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. However, demanding and highly specialized investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis. These are better performed at supraregional centers where facilities for clinical biochemical and molecular work-up are available. (author)

  1. Patients satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Al-Aujan S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 1875 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care

  2. Seroepidemiology of Asymptomatic Dengue Virus Infection in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Kao, Moujahid A.; Radadi, Raja M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of Jeddah and to investigate demographic and environmental factors that may increase exposure to infection. METHODS Sera were collected from 1984 Saudi subjects attending primary health care centers in six districts of Jeddah. These included general patients of various ages seeking routine vaccinations, antenatal care or treatment of different illnesses excluding fever or suspected dengue. A number of blood donors were also tested. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for IgG antibodies to dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, 4. A questionnaire was completed for each patient recording various anthropometric data and factors that may indicate possible risk of exposure to mosquito bites and dengue infection. Patients with missing data and those who reported a history of dengue fever were excluded from analysis, resulting in a sample of 1939 patients to be analyzed. RESULTS The overall prevalence of dengue virus infection as measured by anti-dengue IgG antibodies from asymptomatic residents in Jeddah was 47.8% (927/1939) and 37% (68/184) in blood donors. Infection mostly did not result in recognizable disease, as only 19 of 1956 subjects with complete information (0.1%) reported having dengue fever in the past. Anti dengue seropositivity increased with age and was higher in males than females and in residents of communal housing and multistory buildings than in villas. One of the six districts showed significant increase in exposure rate as compared to the others. Availability of public sewage was associated with lower infection at a nearly significant level. No other clear risk factors were identifiable. Infection was not related to travel abroad. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate a relatively high exposure of Jeddah residents to infection by dengue viruses, which must be considered endemic to this region. Infection largely remained asymptomatic or was only associated with minor illness for which patients did not seek treatment. These results call for continued vigilance for clinical cases of dengue that may arise from this wide exposure. They also call for more extensive control efforts to reduce exposure to and transmission of dengue viruses. PMID:26917954

  3. Vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Maha M. H. K. Mansour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic and a common health problem worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to study its relation to various variables. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric clinic in Jeddah Clinic Hospital-Kandarah, Jeddah, KSA, from October through December 2010, in which 510 healthy children aged 4-15 years were enrolled. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] were measured. Dietary vitamin D intake and duration of daily sunlight exposure were determined. 25(OHD levels <20 ng/mL and <7 ng/mL were defined as relative and severe vitamin D deficiency, respectively. Results: The mean concentration of 25(OHD was 13.07 ± 7.81 ng/mL. Seventy subjects (13.72% had normal 25(OHD level ranging 20-70 ng/mL. Three hundred (58.82% had relative 25(OHD deficiency and 140 (27.45% had severe deficiency (P=0.000. 220 (43.14% subjects were males and 290 (56.86% were females having a statistically significant higher incidence of 25(OHD deficiency (P=0.019. 54.9% were Saudis, 27.45% were Yemenis and 11.76% were Egyptians. Saudis and Yemenis were more subjected to 25(OHD deficiency in comparison to Egyptians and other nationalities (P=0.01. There were significant inverse correlations between 25(OHD levels and bony aches (P=0.000. 56.25% of asymptomatic children had vitamin D deficiency (P=0.000. Duration of sunlight exposure and daily intake of vitamin D had significant effects on serum level of vitamin D (P=0.000. Conclusions: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah was observed in this study. Vitamin D supplementation of food products can prevent vitamin D deficiency in these children.

  4. Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19 years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400 and females (1506 aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use, physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire, and dietary habits (intake frequency per week. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk, but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level = 0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR and frequency of breakfast (aOR for  Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority.

  5. Perinatal stroke in Saudi children: clinical features and risk factors

    To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. During the study period, 23 (22%) of 104 children (aged one months to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57%) patients, and in 6 children (26%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in other 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17%) had low protein C, which was associated low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low proteins S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of additional acquired antenatal and perinatal risk factors support a multifactorial disorder. (author)

  6. Impact of software and hardware technologies on occupational health and safety policies in Saudi Arabian oil refineries.

    Idreis, Hany M; Siqueira, Carlos E; Levenstein, Charles C

    2006-01-01

    This article seeks to examine the impact of technology importation on occupational health and safety in both Saudi Arabian and U.S. oil refining industries. Technologies imported to the Saudi oil industry take two forms: hardware (sophisticated equipment to run oil facilities) and software (policies and regulations pertaining to workers' health and safety, and employment rights installed by Aramco's founding multinational companies). This study utilizes qualitative, historically oriented, cross-national case studies to compare and assess workers' health, safety, and rights in Saudi Aramco with its U.S. counterpart, Motiva Enterprises. Two facilities were chosen to conduct field research: the Saudi Aramco oil refinery at Jeddah and Motiva's refinery at Port Arthur, Texas. The Jeddah refinery is fully owned by Saudi Aramco, thus, representing Aramco's health and safety policies and regulations. The Port Arthur refinery serves as a reference case study for U.S. oil refining facilities. The aspects of occupational health and safety in Saudi Aramco--ExxonMobil's joint ventures SAMREF and LUBREF--also are discussed to examine workers' health policies in both companies. The American oil industry made a significant contribution in establishing the Saudi oil industry, with the cooperation of the Saudi government. Despite having outstanding employment benefits schemes in Saudi Aramco, the presence of an organized work force better serves employee participation in Motiva than in Aramco. Safety systems such as Process Safety Management (PSM)--applied in Motiva--partially exist in Aramco to operate hardware technologies safely. Motiva training systems are better through PACE's Triangle of Prevention (TOP). Both companies follow the same pattern of handling occupational injuries and diseases; however, Saudi government agencies (GOSI) are responsible for compensating and treating injured workers. Saudi workers expressed conditional support for the worker committee program proposed by the Ministry of Labor. American and Saudi workers are concerned about the quality and sufficiency of health and safety training, employment promotion, work pressure, and job uncertainty due to continuous downsizing. This article recommends that Saudi social actors increase safety and health awareness in the work environment by providing intensive occupational safety training to the employees (as demanded by Saudi and American workers), improve labor-management relations through establishing strong cooperative contacts with regional and international trade unions, and establish uniform and standard occupational health and safety regulations for Saudi Aramco and its subsidiaries in order to provide an equal level of protection for Saudi workers. PMID:16943139

  7. Heavy metals in cooler waters in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I; Khan, Mujahid A

    2009-10-01

    Water samples were collected from 400 coolers in Riyadh area. From each cooler, one feed and one cooled water samples were collected. These samples were analyzed for trace metals like Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectrophotometer equipped with ultrasonic nebulizer. Out of 400 coolers, water from 382 (95.50%) were found to meet World Health Organization (WHO), Saudi Arabian Standards Organization (SASO), and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water standards whereas water from 18 coolers (4.50%) were found to have elevated levels of Fe, Pb, and Ni metals. In one cooler, water was allowed to stand for 12 h and a 1 L sample collected every 2 h. All the metals mentioned above with the exception of Pb were found to increase due to standing time. PMID:18696235

  8. Perceptions of Saudi dental students on cultural competency

    Huda A. Al-Shehri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To probe dental students perceptions on their cultural competency and international student exchange programs as a way of improving cultural competency training. Methods: A cross-sectional survey (n=460 was distributed to predoctoral students at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in May 2014 at the male and female university campuses. Descriptive statistics were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (p=0.05. Results: It was found that 79.6% of students think that teaching them regarding cultural diversity is important. Only 41% of students thought their dental education teaches them on the importance of volunteerism and philanthropy. Most students (89.8% think that international student exchanges can enhance their cultural competence. Conclusion: In this study, it was found that students believe that cultural competence is important and participation in international student exchange programs can enhance their training.

  9. CSR, Employee Job Attitude and Behavior: Saudi Bank Experience

    Mohammad Tahlil AZIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the relation- ship between the external CSR practices of the organizations and employees’ job satisfaction, employee engagement and organizational cit- izenship behavior in the context of the Saudi banking industry. A positive relationship between CSR and employee job satisfaction, employee engagement and organizational citizenship be- havior related to the organization is observed. However, the organizational citizenship behavior related to individual is found unrelated to CSR. The theoretical foundation of the study is ground- ed in the spirit of social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979 and social exchange theory (Blau, 1964. The study implies that involvement in ex- ternal CSR may be a determinant for maintaining a motivated and enthusiastic workforce. 

  10. Measuring Students' Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia

    Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.

    2009-11-01

    Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

  11. Portfolios in Saudi medical colleges. Why and how?

    Fida, Nadia M; Shamim, Muhammad S

    2016-03-01

    Over recent decades, the use of portfolios in medical education has evolved, and is being applied in undergraduate and postgraduate programs worldwide. Portfolios, as a learning process and method of documenting and assessing learning, is supported as a valuable tool by adult learning theories that stress the need for learners to be self-directed and to engage in experiential learning. Thoughtfully implemented, a portfolio provides learning experiences unequaled by any single learning tool. The credibility (validity) and dependability (reliability) of assessment through portfolios have been questioned owing to its subjective nature; however, methods to safeguard these features have been described in the literature. This paper discusses some of this literature, with particular attention to the role of portfolios in relation to self-reflective learning, provides an overview of current use of portfolios in undergraduate medical education in Saudi Arabia, and proposes research-based guidelines for its implementation and other similar contexts. PMID:26905344

  12. Taxonomy of Cyber Crimes and Legislation in Saudi Arabia

    Naasir Kamaal Khan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the field of internetcommunication in the last decade worldwide have crossed allthe physical boundaries laid down by human being and this erawitnessed a major development in the field of InformationTechnology and made a large number of computer users in theworld. Every common man is influenced by this new world ofcommunication named as cyber world. But there are alwaystwo aspects associated with every technology; the destructiveside is threats associated with this internet communication incyberspace. A rapid growth of computer crimes and formationof laws in different countries addresses the severity of problem.This paper discusses the stand of Saudi Arabian governmentagainst cyber crime and its IT act. It analyzes the cybercrimein the Kingdom and the associated legislation to combat thesame.

  13. Radiation balance of an alfalfa crop in Saudi Arabia

    Short-wave reflectivity or albedo is an important component of net radiation which represents the major determinant of radiation balance of crop surface. This study was conducted on an irrigated alfalfa crop field at Al-Kharj agricultural area in Saudi Arabia, grown according to normal agricultural practices. Data on radiation balance and crop cover were collected over a number of days from March to October 1986, crop albedo varying from 0–4 in early morning to 0–20 at noon, the overall mean value of the crop albedo being estimated at 0–26. The relation between the individual components of radiation balance was studied, and a significant correlation between incident radiation and net radiation was found. Possible causes responsible for changes in crop albedo were discussed. (author)

  14. Quality issues in continuing medical education in Saudi Arabia

    Al-Shehri Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of continuing medical education (CME in Saudi Arabia is no longer quantity but rather quality. Quality Management (QM of the current huge number of CME activities is essential to ensure its merits and outcomes. Sound evaluation is the cornerstone of any QM process to CME. However, issues related to models of evaluation, CME stakeholders, principles of adult learning and assessment should be consid--ered before deciding on the type of evaluation appropriate for QM of CME. Our aim is to draw attention to the importance of developing a QM process for CME that is valid, reliable, feasible and acceptable to dif--ferent CME stakeholders. The huge volume of CME programs needs QM to ensure its utility for healthcare providers and consumers. Understanding relevant evaluation models and the complexity of evaluating CME is a necessary step towards appropriate action.

  15. Measurement of quality in Saudi Arabian service industry

    Jannadi, O.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Saggaf, H. [SCECO-East (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-10-12

    Quality problems in the service organisation are the result of the mismatch between prior expectation and perceived quality of the service. Each organisation will attempt to determine the requirements of its customers and translate these requirements into product and delivery process specifications. This paper examines a particular electric company (SCECO-East), a typical service provider in Saudi Arabia, in which service quality is a distinguishing feature of primary importance. It describes a detailed survey and analysis in the light of the model put forward by Parasuraman et al. It utilises SERVQUAL for measuring customers' perceptions of service quality. The study revealed that SCECO-East scored high in tangibles dimension but low in features of responsiveness and reliability. In addition, while the performance of SCECO-East was acceptable to all customer categories, service quality was perceived differently by various types of customers, with reinforcement and commercial customers awarding SCECO-East even lower ratings than other customers did. (Author)

  16. Energy and exergy utilization in agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia

    This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison for a period of 12 years. Two main energy sources are diesel for tractors and electricity for pumps in the sector. It is found that the overall exergy efficiencies in this sector are slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies, e.g. 74.19-69.20% for exergy efficiency and 74.94-74.60% for energy efficiency from 1990 to 2001. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in sectoral analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures

  17. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geospatial Information Infrastructure - AN Initial Study

    Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.

  18. The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia

    Walston Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries now struggle to provide cost-effective, quality healthcare services to their citizens. Saudi Arabia has experienced high costs along with concerns about quality of care in its public facilities. To address these issues the country is currently restructuring their healthcare system to privatize public hos--pitals and introduce insurance coverage for both foreign workers and citizens. The changes provide an interesting and insightful case for the challenges in radically changing a country′s healthcare system. The situation also demonstrates a unique case in the Middle East for greater reliance of the private sector to address rapidly escalating healthcare costs and deteriorating quality. The complexity of changing a healthcare system is discussed with the many challenges associated with the change.

  19. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile Saudi women

    Al-Jaroudi Dania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Since cervical cancer is reportedly the seventh most frequent cancer in women in Saudi Arabia and the eighth most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 and 44 years, we wanted to determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile women attending the reproductive medicine unit of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Methods : This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study. A Pap smear was done for 241 of 493 (48.9% subfertile women from January 2008 through February 2009. Results : The Pap smear was normal in 166 of 241 patients (67.9%, abnormal in 71 (29.5%, and unsatisfactory for evaluation in 4 (1.7%. According to the revised Bethesda system, epithelial cell abnormality was found in 7 (2.9%, inflammation in 55 (22.8%, and infection in 9 (3.7% patients. Epithelial cell abnormalities were further classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (n=3, 42.8%, atypical squamous cells of high grade (ASC-H (n=1, 14.3%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL (n=2, 28.5%, and glandular cell abnormalities (AGS (n=1, 14.3%. Conclusion : The high prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology in our subfertile women accentuates the need for screening in patients eligible for in vitro fertilization. In addition, a well-organized screening program for cervical cell abnormalities at the national level should be implemented to allow identification of subfertile women at risk so that potentially life-saving measures can be undertaken early.

  20. Towards evidence-based medical education in Saudi medical schools

    AlFaris Eiad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medical education (BEME is an attitude of mind that entails the creation of a culture in which teachers think critically about what they are doing, look at the best evidence available and on this ba-sis, make decisions about their teaching practice, and subsequently, undertake the necessary revision and change. More medical schools have opened in Saudi Arabia in the last few years than have existed over the last three decades. Currently, the education of health professionals is based on assumption and traditions and rarely on research findings. Medical teaching has evolved from being opinion-based to evidence-based and the art of teaching is rapidly becoming the ′science′ of teach-ing. The need for evidence in our teaching and medical education prac-tices is as important as it is in assessing a new therapy. This approach to education is not only associated with better results in terms of better learning, from the side of the students (the consumers, but also has a wider impact on patient care and the community. Moreover, in this age of accountability, litigations and quality assurance, the need for BEME becomes greater. Some suggestions to implement BEME in Saudi Arabia have been put forward and these are the training of medical education professionals in the use the existing information systems, and dissemi-nating information through the creation of a BEME journal (secondary publication that publishes a critically appraised summary of medical education articles that are both valid and of immediate clinical use.

  1. Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Suaad S. Alwakeel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.

  2. Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia

    Tarek Tawfik Amin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7% at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay

  3. Drowning in children: Aseer Central Hospital experience, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Suliman H Al-Fifi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the reasons, magnitude and outcome of drowning following submersion in water of children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients (0-13 years old who drowned and were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia, between January 1st 1999 and December 31st 2009. Results: A total of 19 cases were admitted following submersion in water. The mean age was 5.2 years ±3.8. Majority of victims (94.1% were from the highland areas. Events most frequently occurred in the summer (46.7%, followed by spring and winter, 33.3% and 20%, respectively. Home events constituted 44.4% of submersion cases. Of these, 55.6% drowned in a washing container, While 53.4% submersed in swimming pools. Twenty-two percent of these accidents occurred in the sea and in wells while 11.1% occurred in a lake. The mean duration of submersion was 4.04 minutes ± 5.35. Cardiac arrest was reported upon arrival at hospital in 42.1% of the victims. There were seven deaths (36.8 % and in one patient (5.2 % there was severe brain injury. In all deceased cases, no adults were watching the children when the accidents occurred. Conclusion: Drowning is a significant risk factor facing our children and can claim lives. The media as well as the authority should play a major role in increasing the public awareness to minimize or prevent such a problem.

  4. Occurrence of radon in groundwater of Saudi Arabia

    Samples were collected from 1025 wells supplying drinking water to the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia and analyzed for radon concentrations. The weighted radon median value for the entire country was found to be 4.62 Bq L−1 with a range of 0.01–67.4 Bq L−1. The percentage of samples with radon concentration equal to or greater than 11.1 Bq L−1 (US EPA proposed MCL) was found to be 19.22%. The range of radon in shallow wells varied between 0.06 and 67.4 Bq L−1 (median value 5.1 Bq L−1) and between 0.06 and 40.9 Bq L−1 (median value 5.34 Bq L−1) for deep wells. However, 50% of the samples had radon concentrations equal to or greater than 4.0 and 2.87 Bq L−1 for the shallow and deep wells, respectively. Correlation of well depth with radon levels revealed that wells drilled in Saq aquifer consisting of predominantly sandstone with significant shale layers in the upper parts, gave higher median radon levels than in Manjur aquifer which consists of predominantly limestone and sandstone. - Highlights: • Concentration of Radon was studied in the groundwater of Saudi Arabia. • Weighted radon average for the entire country was found to be 6.82 Bq L−1 with a range of 0.04–67.44 Bq L−1. • Percent of samples with radon concentration equal to or greater than 11.1 Bq L−1 (US EPA proposed MCL) was found to be 19.22%

  5. Investigating the High Turnover of Saudi Nationals versus Non-Nationals in Private Sector Companies Using Selected Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement

    Mona Naguib Moussa

    2013-01-01

    Saudization became inevitable for domestic political stability; however, private organizations are suffering fromthe high turnover of Saudi nationals and less commitment towards their employers. The researcher set to examinethe reasons for the high turnover through examining employee engagement antecedents of the Saudis nationalsversus non-Saudis. The purpose of this study is to examine selected antecedents and consequences of employeeengagement. The researcher distributed surveys among 104...

  6. Residency Programs and Clinical Leadership Skills Among New Saudi Graduate Nurses.

    Al-Dossary, Reem Nassar; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Maddox, P J

    2016-01-01

    Nurse residency programs have been adopted by health care organizations to assist new graduate nurses with daily challenges such as intense working environments, increasing patient acuity, and complex technologies. Overall, nurse residency programs are proven beneficial in helping nurses transition from the student role to independent practitioners and bedside leaders. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of residency programs on leadership skills of new Saudi graduate nurses who completed a residency program compared to new Saudi graduate nurses who did not participate in residency programs. The study design was cross-sectional involving a convenience sample (n = 98) of new graduate nurses from three hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The Clinical Leadership Survey was used to measure the new graduate nurses' clinical leadership skills based on whether they completed a residency program or not. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine leadership skills in this sample of new Saudi graduate nurses. A significant difference was found between residents and nonresidents in their leadership skills (t = 10.48, P = .000). Specifically, residents were significantly more likely to show higher levels of leadership skills compared to their counterparts. Attending a residency program was associated with a significant increase in clinical leadership skills. The findings of this study indicate that there is a need to implement more residency programs in hospitals of Saudi Arabia. It is imperative that nurse managers and policy makers in Saudi Arabia consider these findings to improve nurses' leadership skills, which will in turn improve patient care. Further research should examine how residency programs influence new graduate nurses' transition from student to practitioner with regard to clinical leadership skills in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27000200

  7. Knowledge and Attitude of Saudi Health Professions’ Students Regarding Patient’s Bill of Rights

    Salwa B. El-Sobkey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Method A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7% believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3% of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93% reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4% of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights.

  8. The Impact of Word Walls on Improving the English Reading Fluency of Saudi Kindergarten's Children

    AlShaiji, Ohoud Abdullatif; AlSaleem, Basma Issa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Word Walls on improving the English reading fluency of Saudi kindergarten's children. The present study attempted to answer whether there was a statistically significant difference (a = 0.05) between the Saudi children's subjects' mean score on the English reading fluency

  9. Participation in Online and Face-to-Face Discussions: Perceptions of Female Saudi Students in the United States

    Alanazy, Manal M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the Saudi government started a new scholarship program that sent many female and male students to some Western countries including the United States of America. When Saudi female students enroll in universities in the United States and register for mixed-gender (face-to-face and online) classes, they have to participate in the classroom.…

  10. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  11. Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

  12. Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?

    Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

  13. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a

  14. Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

    Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

  15. Stock Market Volatility in Saudi Arabia: An Application of Univariate GARCH Model

    Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Study of stock market volatility has been the focus of financial economics. Modelling stock market volatility has great contributions to make in the areas of portfolio management, asset allocation, risk management, etc. We estimate the conditional volatility of Saudi stock market by applying AR (1-GARCH (1, 1 model to the daily stock returns data spanning from August 1, 2004 to October 31, 2013. We show that a linear symmetric GARCH (1, 1 model is adequate to estimate the volatility of the stock market of the country. We find that Saudi stock market returns are characterised by volatility clustering and follow a non-normal distribution. Saudi stock market returns show a time varying volatility, show persistence and are predictable. Past volatility impacts the current period volatility and past returns play a role in determining the current period return. Saudi stock market is nervous in its reactions to market fluctuations. This finding of the study offer important input into the decisions relating to asset allocation and risk management strategies of investors and treasury managers in Saudi stock market.

  16. Saudi Parents’ Attitudes towards Using English as a Medium of Instruction in Private Primary Schools

    Zahra Al-Qahtani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate Saudi parents’ attitudes towards using English as a medium of instruction (EMI in private primary schools.The study also attempted to find the reasons why Saudi parents prefer EMI private schools for their children. Additionally, it examined the effects of using EMI on children’s Arabic language and culture, and their educational achievement in the next levels. The sample was 68 Saudi parents who have their children in a private primary school. The study used a questionnaire for data collection. It used a mixed design since data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative data were analyzed through statistical analysis (SPSS while qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis using the categorization of themes. The results of this study showed that Saudi parents have positive attitudes towards using EMI in international private primary schools. Many Saudi parents prefer to send their children to EMI private primary schools, because they realize the importance of English as an international language, which can provide better opportunities for their children in the future. Also, they prefer to send their children to these schools, where English is used as a medium of instruction, because it is more effective if the child learned the language at an early age. However, some parents expressed a belief that English has negatively affected their children’s Arabic language.Keywords: English medium instruction, Bilingual education, Parents, Attitudes, Private schools

  17. Too costly to matter: Economics of nuclear power for Saudi Arabia

    Saudi Arabia has ambitious plans for nuclear power. Given this context, this paper examines the economics of nuclear power and compares it to two other sources of electricity, natural gas and solar energy. It calculates the costs of electricity generation, water desalination and the opportunity cost associated with forgone oil and gas revenues. A sensitivity analysis is included to account for variations in important parameters within the comparative cost analysis. Our results suggest that for a large range of parameters, the economics of nuclear power are not favorable in comparison with natural gas, even if the currently low domestic natural gas prices in Saudi Arabia were to rise substantially. Further, electricity from solar plants has the potential to be cheaper than nuclear power within the next decade if the rapid decline in solar energy costs in the last decade continue, i.e., before the first planned nuclear power plant would be completed. However, unless the price of oil drops substantially below current values, it would be more economically optimal to export the oil than using it for generating electricity. - Highlights: Future projections show nuclear power is not cost effective for Saudi Arabia. A combination of solar and natural gas could largely meet future electricity demand. There are multiple, non-economic, motivations for Saudi Arabia's nuclear program. Saudi Arabia would economically benefit by not using oil for electricity generation

  18. Linguistic Analysis of Saudi Pidginized Arabic as Produced by Asian Foreign Expatriates

    Hameed Yahya A. Al-Zubeiry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing the system of SPA (Saudi pidginized Arabic as produced by AFEs (Asian foreign expatriates working in Saudi Arabia with specific reference to universal characteristics of reduction and simplification in the system of morpho-syntactic structure of Saudi Arabic. The study is based on data collected through a semi-structured interview technique probing into the features of SPA system. Thirty informants were randomly selected from among expatriates working in Saudi Arabia and belonging to different linguistic backgrounds Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Tagalog, Indonesian, and Malayalam- as representatives of AFEs. The study showed that the AFEs tend to use simplified and reduced system of SA in order to communicate with its native speakers. This was reflected in producing variations of sentence word order that are not compatible with the sentence word order of SA, reduced inflectional verb forms and simplified noun phrase lacking agreement within its structure. The study concluded with the following implications: 1 SPA could be considered as an emerging contact variety among Asian expatriates in Saudi Arabic; 2 it has universal characteristics of reduction and simplification as shown in its structural system; 3 substrate languages play an essential role in the formation of the SPA.Keywords: Pidgin, simplification, reduction, SPA, AFEs, SA.

  19. The education and contribution of women health care professionals in Saudi Arabia: the case of nursing.

    el-Sanabary, N

    1993-12-01

    "Women constitute the key resource for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000," maintains a report by The World Health Organization. Achieving this goal requires massive efforts including (1) the training of women health care professionals; and (2) the nonformal health education of women, the primary health care providers to their families and communities. This paper focuses on the first area, specifically on the education of women nurses in a Third World country, Saudi Arabia, where traditional attitudes persist against intermingling of the genders and the treatment of women by men. It examines the progress and problems encountered in recruiting Saudi women for nursing education and practice; describes the evolution of nursing education programs; and analyzes the obstacles to women's participation in these programs and in the nursing profession. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the problem, increase women's participation, and contribute to that country's health development. The paper is based upon primary and secondary data, including official statistics; personal interviews with Saudi women health professionals and students; the memoirs of a leading Saudi woman nurse and educator, the author's personal observations and experiences with the health care system during four years of residence in Saudi Arabia, and available literature on the subject. PMID:8284700

  20. A Social Media Campaign to Promote Breastfeeding among Saudi Women: A Web-based Survey Study.

    Bahkali, Salwa; Alkharjy, Nora; Alowairdy, Maryam; Househ, Mowafa; Da'ar, Omar; Alsurimi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged breastfeeding can prevent or limit the severity of a variety of diseases and conditions. Although evidence clearly shows that there are health benefits for breastfeeding, adherence to breastfeeding remains a key challenge facing maternal health providers in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impacts of a social media platform (Twitter) to promote breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. Between February 10 and March 25, 2015, a web-based questionnaire was administered to evaluate the impacts of a Twitter based educational campaign on the awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior for women in Saudi Arabia. The overall response rate among mothers with a newborn child was 83% (n=484). The results showed an increase in the knowledge and awareness of breastfeeding practices and adherence among Twitter followers. The initiation rate of breastfeeding had slightly increased among women who never had previously breastfed. More women reported their willingness to continue exclusive breastfeeding and to stop bottle-feeding. Results also show that an integration of professional breastfeeding support, public health education programs through social media could be an effective tool in promoting breastfeeding in Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on designing and implementing a social media based educational outreach program to increase women's awareness, knowledge, and adherence to breastfeeding behavior in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26153006

  1. An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Iftekhar Ahmad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabiahas witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been able to catch up with the pace of digitaldevelopment in the rest of the world. The research paper attempts to identify the problems in implementinge-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research paper on the basis of analysis of data throughhierarchical multiple regression modeling and multiple response analysis of the data has identified statisticallysignificant problems in implementation of e-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and outlined key policyoptions that this country as well as other GCC nations can consider in formulation of policies to stimulate,support and maximize the effect e-commerce has on their economies.

  2. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    Rayed AlGhamdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influence Saudi retailers in deciding whether or not to adopt online channels. As part of a larger research project using mixed methods, this paper focuses on a quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of retailers in Saudi Arabia. The design of the questionnaire instrument was based on the findings of a qualitative analysis reported in a previous paper. The main findings of the current study include a list of key factors that affect retailers’ e-commerce adoption, such as lack of online payment options and lack of clear legislation on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia, and quantitative indications of the relative strengths of the various relationships.

  3. A GPS Network Densification in Saudi Arabia in Support of Geophysical Investigations in the Region

    Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.

    2006-12-01

    Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.

  4. Does Egyptian orange exports really have a market power in Saudi Arabia market?

    Yasser S. A. Mazrou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egyptian orange exports has just a statistically signified market power by SUR and 3-SLS and has a negative sign, which may gain monopolistic profits by the relative mark-up over its marginal cost by about 63.7% without losing any of its market share. The source of Egyptian orange exports market power is due to: 1- product differentiation where Egypt exports navel orange most its export season compared with sweet orange which exported from other competitors. 2- Saudi Arabia Market demand characteristics which reflect on the consumers preference for Egyptian oranges.

  5. Environmental benefits of energy efficiency and renewable energy in Saudi Arabia's electric sector

    This paper provides an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of electric system expansion in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Environmental concerns are important to consider because they represent costs to society that are not typically reflected in the price that consumers pay for electricity. In past analyses of electric expansion options in Saudi Arabia, the tendency has been to stress the direct financial costs of expanding electricity generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure without characterizing the environment impacts of building and operating the expanded electricity system in monetary terms. Emerging national and global environmental concerns, however, suggest that an expansion of the methods traditionally used for electricity resource planning and selection to include environmental considerations would greatly benefit the Kingdom. The criteria by which resource plans are evaluated can readily be broadened to address environmental and other concerns. As part of an illustrative Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) effort undertaken by a team of Saudi utility planners and international consultants, an expanded IRP framework was used to assess the environmental costs and benefits of various approaches to meeting electricity demand projections in Saudi Arabia. The results show that making use of renewable energy and energy efficiency resources to provide energy services to the electricity consumers of Saudi Arabia can provide significant environmental benefits for the Kingdom

  6. The Econometrics of Investment in Date Production in Saudi Arabia

    Abdulaziz Alshuaibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inadequate information in this area, only the past investment period was considered to determine the effect of past decision on new decision of investment. The government policies, which directed to low grade varieties probably, led to inefficiency as the domestic consumption of dates is very high and growing high quality will lead to higher revenue to farmers with almost the same cost of production. To deal with investment in date palm production locally, Saudi Arabia needs to estimate a very high discount rate to observe any value related or based on the discount rate. The Durbin Watson parameter is significant for both the varieties (Khalas and Ruzaiz at 95% confidence interval (LSD0.05. The past investment appeared very significant for its effect on planting new date trees due to the fact that farmers who planted new trees in the past is continuously carrying with date industry and investing in future. Overall, the investment in tree plantation like date palm is not an easy decision by the farmers, because it needs couple of years spending without revenue. The farmers in the date growing areas were hesitant in providing information about the date variety, number of trees per hectare, tree age, fertilizers, pesticides, land ownership, intercropping, cost of production, total yield, quantity sold and price received. The study suggested further investigations on growing high quality date palms, date production and marketing aspects to harvest maximum profit by the farmers as well as support by the government for facilitating proper market and subsidies to date growers.

  7. Nutritional Status among a Sample of Saudi College Students

    Jafar M. El-Qudah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional habits and health behaviors have been a major concern for public health, especially among vulnerable groups such as teenage and college students. This study aims to assess nutritional status of a sample of Saudi college students and their dietary behaviors. A multi-stage sample was obtained from a private college in the north-western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Descriptive statistics was used to assess the frequency of some nutritional habits and their correlation to Body Mass Index (BMI. The results show that overweight and obese subjects represented 22.6 and 11.6% of the students respectively, compared to 13.7% for underweight subjects. Twenty five percent of male and 20.3% of female students were overweight while 16.7% of male and 6.7% of female students were obese. There was a statistical significant difference between males and females in relation to the mean weight and height (p<0.001 and BMI (p<0.05. Approximately 15.7% of the subjects skip their breakfast daily. Both males (50% and females (45.9% used to eat their meals irregularly. More than 58% of the students stated that they consume fast foods, the proportion of females was more (64.9% than the males (51.4% and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. A relatively small percentage (21.2% of students reported not eating burgers and a majority of respondents 61% preferred regular size burgers. However, the tendency to eat large size burgers was more pronounced among males than females (p<0.05. A regular portion size of potato chips was preferred by 61% of the students, among them 24.3% were females and 11.1% were males (p<0.01. There was a wide range of preferences for consumption of different foods among participants. Females showed a higher rate in the consumption of sweets and chocolates on daily basis (28.4 and 29.7%, respectively compared to males (18.1 and 16.6%, respectively (p<0.05. Males were more prone to consume red meat (p<0.05 and fish (p<0.05 than females. It is recommended to further investigate the eating habits of college students in KSA and propose interventions to improve such habits.

  8. Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV in Saudi Arabia

    A.F. Alsayeqh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 % suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011 in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.

  9. Assessment of the environmental and genetic factors influencing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia

    Ibrahim M. Gosadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS is a combination of factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic diseases including diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of death in the adult Saudi population where the increase in cardiovascular-related mortality is augmented by the rise in the prevalence of MS. Metabolic syndrome is a multi-factorial disorder influenced by interactions between genetic and environmental components. This review aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of studied environmental and genetic factors explaining the prevalence of MS in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Additionally, this review aims to illustrate factors related to the population genetics of Saudi Arabia, which might explain a proportion of the prevalence of MS.

  10. The Actuality, Inefficiency, and Needs of EFL Teacher-Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia

    Khalid Salim Al-Seghayer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing an effective English-teacher-preparation program and the provision of providing ongoing support and professional development opportunities are key compounding factors in preparing knowledgeable and competent English teachers linguistically and pedagogically as well as in facilitating their professional growth throughout their mammoth teaching journeys. This paper presents an in-depth discussion of the current training available to Saudi English teachers and reviews the changes that English-teacher-preparation programs have undergone over the years. Then, a pre-service and in-service teacher-preparation program will be proposed in addition to a continuing professional development program for Saudi EFL teachers. Finally, a number of key issues will be highlighted to ensure the effectiveness of the proposed training program.Keywords: Continuing professional development program, Modifying the EFL Teacher-Preparation Program, Pre-service and in-service teachers’ preparation program, Professional development programs, and Training Saudi English Teachers

  11. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions. PMID:25737651

  12. Experience in and future prospects for sea water desalination in Saudi Arabia

    The national programme for sea water desalination in Saudi Arabia is assigned to the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), a government entity loosely affiliated with the Ministry of Agriculture. In addition to water production, SWCC generates considerable electric power in its dual purpose power/water plants, selling excess power to the national grid. SWCC also builds and maintains certain major fresh water pipelines that connect its plants to important municipal water systems. SWCC's pride is the Research, Development and Training Center (RDTC) located in Al-Jubail. The goals at RDTC include improving plant efficiency and minimizing scale formation and corrosion problems. It also trains Saudi engineers and technicians in the operation and management of SWCC plants. As a result, Saudi nationals now represent 65% of the workforce and are heavily involved with all aspects of plant specification and tender analysis

  13. Fish consumption behavior and rates in native and non-native people in Saudi Arabia

    Burger, Joanna

    2014-08-01

    Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    2011-01-01

    Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p intake of French fries and potato chips, cakes and donuts, and candy and chocolate was significantly (p intake of breakfast, vegetables and fruit. Physical activity had a significant (p intake but not with sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia. PMID:22188825

  15. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

    Adel M. Alhababy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jazan province is an arid area, located at the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea coast. Groundwater is the only resource of drinking water in this area; thus, its suitability for drinking and domestic uses is of public and scientific concern. In this study, groundwater samples were collected from 23 sites in Jazan area during fall 2014; measurements and analysis of water quality parameters including pH, total dissolved solids TDS, turbidity, hardness, alkalinity, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, chloride, iron and fluoride were carried out with references to WHO and Gulf Standardization Organization GSO. TDS values exceeded the permissible limit of 600 mg/l in 30.4% of samples, total hardness values exceeded the permissible limits of 300 mg/l in 34.8% of samples, and nitrate concentration exceeded the permissible limit of 50 mg/l in only one sample. However, the concentrations of investigated parameters in the groundwater samples were within the permissible limits of WHO. Our results showed that the water quality of groundwater in Jazan area is acceptable and could be used safely for drinking and domestic purposes. However, a special attention should be paid to the concentration of TDS and nitrate in groundwater in future studies.

  16. Osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)

  17. Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Mitwalli A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

  18. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document

  19. Measles in Saudi Arabia : From control to elimination.

    Khalil Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the tremendous efforts made in the field of measles immunization in Saudi Arabia in the past 20 years, from the control phase to the elimination phase. Mandatory measles vaccination with one-dose Schwartz vaccine was introduced in 1982 by a royal decree, a step aimed at increasing vaccine coverage. In 1991, a two-dose schedule was implemented using Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine , with a first dose at 6 months to protect children younger than 9 months and a second dose of MMR at 12 months of age to protect those who did not respond to the first dose. A marked reduction in the epidemic peak and a shift of infection to older age were noticed. But the same data showed that 50% of measles cases in the 1- to 4-year age group occurred in vaccinated children. In 1998, with the start of elimination phase, an MMR campaign was launched in two phases, targeting school children in 1998 (secondary schools and in 2000 (primary and intermediate schools. Evaluation of the MMR campaign and surveillance data was reflected in the measles immunization policy by shifting the age of measles immunization to 12 months and to preschool using the two-dose MMR schedule.

  20. Drug resistance patterns of acinetobacter baumannii in makkah, saudi arabia

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)

  1. Patterns of Skin Cancer in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Skin cancer is a common malignant neoplasm in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and it is the most common malignant neoplasm in Al-Baha area. This study was performed to determine the pattern of skin cancers seen at King Fahad Hospital, Al-Baha, KSA. Histologically diagnosed skin cancers, seen between 1990 and 2003, were reviewed and analyzed according to age, gender, race and site of distribution. Of a total of 193 patients, there were 79 (41%) cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 56 (29%) cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 34 (18%) cases of Kaposis sarcoma. Malignant melanomas represent 4.1% of the cases. The male to female ratio for all cancer was 1.6:1. The peak age distribution was in the 70-80-year group. The most common site involved in BCC was the head and neck (90%) and in Kaposis sarcoma were the lower limbs (59%). Acral distribution of malignant melanoma was seen in 62% cases. The most common skin cancers seen are BCC and SCC followed by Kaposis sarcoma. The site of distribution of BCC and SCC in our study is similar to studies in Caucasians. The site of distribution of BCC in sun exposed area supports the role of the ultraviolet light in the pathogenesis of such tumor. In contrast to the western countries, melanoma is a rare skin neoplasm in KSA. (author)

  2. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  3. Influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    The influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia survey was carried out for 786 dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm® Electret ion chamber. Radon levels ranged from 1 to 195 Bq m−3, with a mean value of 24.68 Bq m−3, the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation are 21 and 2 respectively. 98.5% of the results were below the action level recommended by WHO of 100 Bq.m−3. The results were found to vary substantially due to types of houses and rooms, ventilation, seasons and building materials. Radon concentrations were higher in houses with no ventilation systems, and central air conditioners, and were relatively lower in well ventilated houses with red bricks and water air conditioners. - Highlights: • Limited information about indoor radon in Riyadh. • Several factors influence Radon level were investigated in 786 dwellings in Riyadh over one year. • Some results are over the action level and are advised to improve their ventilation systems

  4. Environmental impact of some cement manufacturing plants in Saudi Arabia

    This work is concerned with the environmental impact of the cement industry in the west of Saudi Arabia represented in two cement plants and one cement depository. The concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in samples of cement (raw materials and end product) and soil, collected from the cement plant and its surrounding area, were measured using γ-ray spectrometer employing a HPGe detector. In addition, the levels of 19 major and trace elements were also determined in these samples using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of the 238U series isotopes in soil samples show a clear radiological impact of the cement industry upon the environment. Possible contamination with Ca and some other elements in soil samples that are rich with the fine grain size was observed. Cluster analysis of soil samples using convenient attributes shows an obvious evidence of the cement industry impact upon the environment. The hidden effect of the cement industry upon the environment was observed when the convenient measured attributes were used in cluster analysis of soil samples. (author)

  5. Financial Synergy in Mergers and Acquisitions in Saudi Arabia

    Basmah Al Qudaiby (Basmah, A. Q.,

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Businesses today consider mergers and acquisitions a new strategy for their company’s growth. Companies aim to grow through sales’ increase, assets purchase, profits’ accumulation and market share gains. The better way for achieving these targets is by getting into either a Merger or an Acquisition. As a matter of fact, growth through mergers and acquisitions has been a critical part of the success of many companies operating in the new economy. Mergers and Acquisitions are an important factor in building up market capitalization. Based on three detailed and in depth structured interviews with major Saudi Arabian banks it has been found that, Mergers motivated by economies of scale should be approached cautiously. Companies should also approach vertical mergers cautiously because it is often difficult to gain synergy through a vertical merger and firms should also seek out mergers which allow the firm to acquire specialized knowledge. It has also been found that the firms should look for mergers that increase market power and avoid unrelated or conglomerate mergers.

  6. Indoor radon measurements in the Women College, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm-3 whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm-3. This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors

  7. The microbiology of tonsils in khamis civil hospital, saudi arabia.

    Al Ahmary, Mohammed S; Al Mastour, Ali S; Ghnnam, Wagih M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Tonsillitis is a common infection in all age groups, especially under the age of five. Organisms causing this condition vary from place to place. Our aim is to find out the main causative agents of this condition in our hospital. Patients and Methods. Fifty-two consenting patients who needed tonsillectomy in Khamis civil hospital, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between September 2006 and April 2007, were enrolled for the study. Swabs were taken from their inner surfaces and cultured for anaerobes and aerobes according to standard microbiological techniques. Results. Fifty-two patients, consisting of 30 males and 22 females were enrolled. Their mean age was 9.81 6.47. Nearly 65% of patients had positive cultures while 35% were negative. The commonest bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (44.1%); and Group B Streptococcus (35.3 %). Two Gram-negative bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae, (8.82%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.94 %), were also isolated. No anaerobe was isolated. Conclusion. Gram-positive cocci, consisting of Staphylococcus aureus and Group B Streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae), are the major causes of tonsillitis requiring surgery in our hospital. Antibiotic treatment of this condition should be directed largely against these organisms. PMID:23762620

  8. Intestinal Parasites Infection among Immunocompromised Patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males, aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1 and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7% most of them (25.7% were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%, Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%, Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%, Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7% and Hook worm 1 (0.7%. The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p<0.001, followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  9. Systems modeling and analysis for Saudi Arabian electric power requirements

    This thesis addresses the long-range generation planning problem in Saudi Arabia up to the year 2000. The first part presents various models for electric energy consumption in the residential and industrial sectors. These models can be used by the decision makers for the purposes of policy analysis, evaluation, and forecasting. Forecasts of energy in each sector are obtained from two different models for each sector. These models are based on two forecasting techniques: (1) Hybrid econometric/time series model. The idea of adaptive smoothing was utilized to produce forecasts under several scenarios. (2) Box-Jenkins time series technique. Box-Jenkins models and forecasts are developed for the monthly number of electric consumers and the monthly energy consumption per consumer. The results obtained indicate that high energy consumption is expected during the coming two decades which necessitate serious energy assessment and optimization. Optimization of a mix of energy sources was considered using the group multiattribute utility (MAU) function. The results of MAU for three classes of decision makers (managerial, technical, and consumers) are developed through personal interactions. The computer package WASP was also used to develop a tentative optimum plan. According to this plan, four heavy-water nuclear power plants (800 MW) and four light-water nuclear power plants (1200 MW) have to be introduced by the year 2000 in addition to sixteen oil-fired power plants (400 MW) and nine gas turbines (100 MW)

  10. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  11. Intestinal parasites infection among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Megrin, Wafa A I

    2010-04-15

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males), aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal(-1)) and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7%) most of them (25.7%) were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%), Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%), Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%), Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%), Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%), Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%), Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7%) and Hook worm 1 (0.7%). The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p < 0.001), followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients. PMID:20836300

  12. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Four Saudi Camel Breeds

    S. Basmaeil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass characteristics and meat quality in four Saudi camel breeds. Four young male camel breeds were used (Majaheem, Suffr, Sho’l and Wodoh 6-9 months old with average weight 133.83±2.83 kg. Animals were group fed of three animals in four replicates for each breed. A balanced energy/protein ration was used to ensure that animals get their nutrient requirements using ad lib twice feeding system. When animals slaughtered, carcass characteristics were measured to evaluate meat quality. The results obtained from growth trial indicated that the slaughter weight of animals after 204 days was 292.33±6.65, 278.17±11.36, 284.35±21.89 and 270.35±10.69 kg for Majaheem, Wodoh, Suffr and Sho’l, respectively. At slaughter, the hot carcass weight was 176.38, 164.78, 170.21 and 164.9 kg for Majaheem, Wodoh, Suffr and Sho’l, respectively. Dressing percentage was 59.37, 57.88, 58.76 and 60.00% for Majaheem, Wodoh, Suffr and Sho’l, respectively. There were no any significant differences between breeds in most parts of the carcass muscle area especially color of Longissimus dorsi muscle, shear force and chemical analysis of meat.

  13. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 247 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  14. Hydrogeochemical Processes of Alkhobar Aquifer in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia

    Abdullah I. Al-Zarah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration was found to be higher than the recommended limit for drinking purposes. The Saturation Indices (SI indicated that the regional groundwater is under-saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite and aragonite minerals and oversaturated with respect to goethite and hematite minerals. The hardness of groundwater is very high as compared to the established standards. The F contents are within permissible limits for drinking. The nitrate contents are within permissible limits for domestic use. Two water types i.e., Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 dominate the Al-Ahsa whereas Na-Ca-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 water types are dominant in Al-Dammam, Al-Khobar and Al-Qatif areas. Overall, the study provided useful information on some important hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of the eastern region. Further studies are required to determine heavy trace metals concentration for multiple uses.

  15. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  16. Knowledge of healthy diets among adolescents in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Almaie Sameeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bad dietary habits, such as eating high-fat/high-energy food, can contribute to obesity in adolescents, which tends to persist into adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the level and sources of knowledge about foods and healthy diets among male and female adolescents. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of male (n=1240 and female (n=1331 adolescents from third grade, intermediate and all three grades of secondary school students in the Al-Khobar Area, eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Approximately 51% of the male and 65% of the female students recognized unsaturated fats as healthy foods. However, 10% of the males and 8% of females reported saturated fats as healthy food items. About 49% of the males and 66% of the females correctly defined cholesterol. Dietary knowledge of both male and female students on the dangers of unhealthy foods and the benefits of fiber-rich diets was found to be unsatisfactory. The main sources of knowledge about health and disease reported by the male and female respondents were television (58% and 61%, respectively, magazines (31% and 39% and daily newspaper (33% and 34%. Primary health care centers (PHCCs staff were the least source of knowledge (17% and 16%. CONCLUSIONS : Knowledge of healthy diets among school students was inadequate. It is recommended that health education and information about healthy eating habits and lifestyle be included in school curricula.

  17. Gamma Spectroscopic Analysis and Associated Radiation Hazards Parameters of Cement Used in Saudi Arabia

    S. Alashrah; A. El- Taher

    2016-01-01

    This study is concerned with the environmental impact of the cement industry in Saudi Arabia. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in raw materials used in Qassim cement factory in addition to final product from Qassim cement and other factories in Saudi Arabia were measured using gamma-ray spectrometer employing a NaI (Tl) detector. The average activity concentrations for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclides in raw materials were 13.5, 12 and 122.3 Bq kg–1,...

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Abdulrahman Musaiger; Nisreen Zagzoog

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of infor...

  19. The effect of sand storms on acute asthma in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Abdullah A Alangari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Major sand storms are frequent in the Middle East. This study aims to investigate the role of air particulate matter (PM level in acute asthma in children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: An aerosol spectrometer was used to evaluate PM 1000 μg/m 3 , representing major sand storms, plus the following 5 days and other days with PM 10 < 1000 μg/m 3 . Conclusion: Sand storms, even major ones, had no significant impact on acute asthma exacerbations in children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The very high levels of PM, however, deserve further studying especially of their long-term effects.

  20. The Criminalisation of Identity Theft under the Saudi Anti-Cybercrime Law 2007

    Suhail Almerdas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the capability of Saudi law to tackle a widespread type of cybercrime: identity theft. It begins with an overview of the meaning of the term ‘identity theft’. Then, an overview of acts related to identity theft, including obtaining identity-related information, transferring identity-related information and possessing identity-related information, are provided. The article then examines the extent to which legal measures enacted in Saudi Arabia can tackle the problem of identity theft that occurs in cyberspace.

  1. Analysis of Images in Logatie, a Reading Book for First Year Female Students in Saudi Arabia

    Lina Saeed Bashatah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the presentation of images about Saudi culture in children’s curriculum books. It shows the image types in the first year reading book and how they represent and illustrate family members’ roles within the Saudi family. The researcher focused on one theme in a reading book–My Family– because of its importance and her personal interest. Semiotics analysis, which is considering qualitative data analysis, was selected as the appropriate method to...

  2. An Investigation into the Adoption of Electronic Commerce among Saudi Arabian SMEs

    Sabah Abdullah Al-Somali; Roya Gholami; Ben Clegg

    2011-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of e-commerce adoption by SMEs and the world-wide growth of e-commerce, in general there is a paucity of empirical studies that examine the adoption of e-commerce by SMEs in the Middle East. In this paper, the authors provide insights into the salient e-commerce adoption issues by focusing on Saudi Arabian SMEs. This research was designed using a qualitative approach through in-depth case studies selected from firms in Saudi Arabia. The findings contribute toward a b...

  3. New generic and species records for the flora of Saudi Arabia.

    Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M; Al-Ansari, A M; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A A

    2014-11-01

    Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281

  4. PREVALENCE OF DICROCOELIUM DENDRITICUM INFECTION IN SHEEP AT TAIF PROVINCE, WEST SAUDI ARABIA.

    Albogami, Bandar M; Kelany, Abdul Hakeem M; Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2015-08-01

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum is a common zoonotic parasite of sheep in many Regions of Saudi Arabia. In chronic infections, this parasite causes biliary cirrhosis in livers of cattle, sheep, or goats and leads to economic losses. This study compared the prevalence of Dicrocoelium dendriticum in local sheep and imported sheep in Taif Province, West Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in slaughterhouses in Taif Province. A total 2230 local sheep and 21383 imported sheep were studied. The number of injury in imported sheep was observed as 99 representing 0.46% of the number of animals examined, while no record of any injury was observed in local sheep. PMID:26485864

  5. Increased cesarean section rate in Central Saudi Arabia: a change in practice or different maternal characteristics

    Al-Kadri HM; Al-Anazi SA; Tamim HM

    2015-01-01

    Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Sultana A Al-Anazi,1 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, 2College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Cesarean section (CS) rate has shown creepy increase. We aimed in this work to identify factors contributing to increasing rate of CS in central Saudi Arabia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City. Two g...

  6. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  7. The puzzle of self-reported weight gain in a month of fasting (Ramadan among a cohort of Saudi families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia

    Bakhotmah Balkees

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During Ramadan fast, approximately one billion Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and another meal before sunrise. Many studies reported good health-related outcomes of fasting including weight loss. The objective of this study is to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a group of families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross-section study using a pre-designed questionnaire to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a representative cohort of Saudis living in Jeddah. It was piloted on 173 nutrition students and administered by them to their families. Results A total of 173 Saudi families were interviewed. One out of 5 indicated that their expenditure increases during Ramadan. Approximately two thirds of the respondents (59.5% reported weight gain after Ramadan. When asked about their perspective explanations for that: 40% attributed that to types of foods being rich in fat and carbohydrates particularly date in (Sunset meal 97.7% and rice in (Dawn meal 80.9%. One third (31.2% indicated that it was due to relative lack of physical exercise in Ramadan and 14.5% referred that to increase in food consumption. Two thirds (65.2% of those with increased expenditure reported weight gain. Conclusion Surprisingly weight gain and not weight loss was reported after Ramadan by Saudis which indicates timely needed life-style and dietary modification programs for a population which reports one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes.

  8. Iran’s Economic Considerations after the War and its Role in Renewing of Iran-Saudi Diplomatic Relations

    Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni; Reza Ekhtiari Amiri; Ku Hasnita Binti Ku Samsu

    2010-01-01

    Iran-Saudi relationship has constantly been frictional after Islamic revolution of Iran. In general, Saudi heavy support of Iraqi government during Iran-Iraq war and Iran’s holding political demonstration so-called the Liberation from Infidels gave rise to frigidity of mutual relations of the two countries. Meanwhile, one of the means that Saudi Arabia, as ally of Iraq, applied to put Iran under pressure was oil and reduction of its price in order to decrease Iran’s foreign exchange revenues ...

  9. Harmonic analysis of precipitation climatology in Saudi Arabia

    Tarawneh, Qassem

    2016-04-01

    Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.

  10. Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action

    Al-Naami Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution.

  11. Randot stereoacuity norms in a population of Saudi Arabian children.

    Oduntan, Alabi O; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed; Al-Dosari, Hussein

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The onset and development of stereoacuity in children have been investigated by several authors. In addition to the study of those aspects of stereopsis, it is also important to collect normative data, which can be applied in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to establish Randot stereoacuity norms using a Saudi Arabian children population. METHOD: The Randot stereo test was used to measure stereoacuity for 791 male primary school children (aged six to 12 years) with normal vision. A battery of tests was used to establish that each child had normal eyes and vision prior to the stereoacuity measurement. RESULTS: The range of stereoacuities for all the age groups at 40 cm was 70 to 20 seconds of arc, except for the nine-year-old children in whom the range was 50 to 20 seconds of arc. More than one half (57.5 per cent) of the children achieved 29 seconds of arc. The mean stereoacuity for all of the children was 25.32 seconds of arc with a standard deviation of 9.93 seconds of arc. The mean stereoacuity for the children decreased from 29.11 seconds of arc at six years to 23.61 seconds of arc at 11 years. An inter-subject variation in stereoacuity development was observed. CONCLUSION: This paper provides normative data for Randot stereoacuity for children. The range and mean values presented here will be useful as reference data for clinical diagnosis of normalcy or otherwise of stereoacuity in children of similar ages when the Randot stereo test is used. PMID:12482318

  12. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  13. Evaluation of outpatient service quality in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, pempathy dimension contributed most patients’ expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285

  14. Saqqar: A 34 km diameter impact structure in Saudi Arabia

    Kenkmann, Thomas; Afifi, Abdulkader M.; Stewart, Simon A.; Poelchau, Michael H.; Cook, Douglas J.; Neville, Allen S.

    2015-11-01

    Here we present the first proof of an impact origin for the Saqqar circular structure in northwestern Saudi Arabia (Neville et al. ), with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 2935'N, 3842'E. The structure is formed in Cambrian-Devonian siliciclastics and is unconformably overlain by undeformed Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments. The age of impact is not well constrained and lies somewhere between 410 and 70 Ma. The subsurface structure is constrained by 2-D reflection seismic profiles and six drilled wells. First-order structural features are a central uplift that rises approximately 2 km above regional datums, surrounded by a ring syncline. The crater rim is defined by circumferential normal faults. The central uplift and ring syncline correspond to a Bouguer gravity high and an annular ring-like low, respectively. The wells were drilled within the central uplift, the deepest among them exceed 2 km depth. Sandstone core samples from these wells show abundant indicators of a shock metamorphic overprint. Planar deformation features (PDFs) were measured with orientations along (0001), {1013}, and less frequently along {1011} and {1014}. Planar fractures (PFs) predominantly occur along (0001) and {1011}, and are locally associated with feather features (FFs). In addition, some shocked feldspar grains and strongly deformed mica flakes were found. The recorded shock pressure ranges between 5 and 15 GPa. The preserved level of shock and the absence of an allochthonous crater fill suggest that Saqqar was eroded by 1-2 km between the Devonian and Maastrichtian. The documentation of unequivocal shock features proves the formation of the Saqqar structure by a hypervelocity impact event.

  15. Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    Rajaa M. Milyani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms in endogenous, exogenous and nosocomial infections was emphasized.

  16. Hydrochemical characterization of groundwater in wadi Sayyah, Western Saudi Arabia

    Al-Ahmadi, Masoud Eid

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system where it is used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Wadi Sayyah is one of the most important wadis in the western part of Saudi Arabia to the northeast of Jeddah city. A total of 42 groundwater samples are collected from hand dug wells in this area and they are analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The sequence of the abundance of the major ion is in the following order: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl- > SO4 2- > HCO3 - > NO3 -. The dominated hydrochemical facieses of groundwater are: CaCl, and mixed CaMgCl, and the alkaline earths(Ca2+, Mg2+) and strong acids (SO4 2-, Cl-) are dominating over alkalis (Na+, K+) and weak acids (HCO3 -, CO{3/-}). Statistical analysis indicates positive correlation among most of the chemical parameters. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the study area is generally hard to very hard, fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. The rock weathering and evaporation are among the most dominant processes in controlling water quality. The chloro-alkali indices illustrate that 80 % of the water samples have positive indicating exchange of Na+ and K+ from water with Mg2+ and Ca2+ from the rock. The suitability of water for drinking and irrigation is determined using WHO standards for drinking; some indices for irrigation purposes and it indicate that the groundwater in the study area can be used for drinking purposes in most of the locations (31 wells), while it is suitable for irrigation uses.

  17. External gamma radiation survey for oil wellheads in Saudi Arabia

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is known to be associated with oil and gas extraction. As part of a comprehensive NORM management strategy, Saudi Aramco needed to determine the extent of NORM contamination associated with their oil and gas operations. As part of that strategy, this study focused on external gamma survey of oil producing wellheads at various locations. The study aimed to: 1-) Identify wellheads with elevated gamma radiation dose rate; 2-) Specify the exact locations of the high dose rates on the wellheads; 3-) Identify the radioisotopes responsible for the high dose rates; and 4-) Propose worker protection requirements during maintenance. The majority (?92%) of the surveyed wellheads showed no enhanced gamma dose-rate above background level. From the remaining ?8%, only a few wellheads showed dose rates between 1,000-3,700 n Sv/h. The study revealed that NORM contamination tends to accumulate at turns of the pipes, around pipe diameter changes, the joints, the back of valves, and at the base of the wellhead. Also, for a given location, NORM build up on the interior of pipework varies over time and continues to migrate down stream until it reaches the Gas and Oil Separation Plants (GOSP). There NORM is expected to accumulate and reside in the form of sludge. Gamma spectroscopy analysis revealed that 226Ra and its progeny are responsible for the high radiation dose rates detected. It was concluded that NORM will not pose significant radiation hazards to workers as long as the tubing and piping are not opened. (author)

  18. Uncertainty of Mitigation Measures to Floods in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Al Saud, M.

    2011-12-01

    As an aspect of the changing climatic conditions and anthropogenic impact; however, floods and torrents have been recently existed in Jeddah, the coastal Saudi city along the Red Sea. Distributed over 28 surface water basins, totaling an area of more than 2500km2, floods cover more than 15% of the area. This is well pronounced in 2009 and 2011, and it was attributed mainly to the torrential rainfall peaks the area witnesses lately. In addition, there is a chaotic urban distribution from the coastal zone to the adjacent mountain chains to the east, where torrential water runs towards the coast. A detailed assessment has been obtained using advanced space tools (e.g. high-resolution satellite images), and the application was carried out on several aspects of these images and at different dates. This was accomplished in combination the applications of geo-spatial systems to induce the mechanism of water flow regime and to identify the major reasons behind the high risk magnitude. Consequently, the geomorphologic and hydrologic parameters for flood occurrence were recognized. In the light of this catastrophic status; however, mitigation measures are rare enough to protect the area under risk. Recently, and after the 2009 and the recurrent 2011 disasters, which were resulted from floods, some mitigation measures have been undertaken and others were proposed. However, there is still uncertainty for an integrated flood control system. This can be viewed from the unsuitability of the selected sites and erroneous applications for flood controls. Besides, there is a lack to: 1) a giant channeling system for the risk area, 2) check dams, 3) ponds for water collection, 4) sediments-fixing controls, 5) traced watercourses. This is in addition to absence of proper legislation to prevent chaotic urban activities along valleys' pathways.

  19. Pirfenidone treatment in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A Saudi experience

    Esam H Alhamad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent trials involving pirfenidone suggest a beneficial effect in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Objective: To report on the efficacy and safety of pirfenidone in the treatment of patients with IPF, at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study included 58 patients with IPF who were evaluated from March 2012 to March 2013. During the study period, 33 patients received pirfenidone, and the remaining patients (n = 25 served as a control group. Baseline clinical characteristics, physiological parameters and the results of a 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 were compared between the groups. Furthermore, we compared changes in forced vital capacity (FVC, diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLco, six-minute walk distance (6MWD and SF-36 for both groups during follow-up. The last follow-up period ended in January 2014. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline clinical characteristics between the groups. Furthermore, we found no differences in FVC, DLco and SF-36 during follow-up (median, 12 months. However, patients receiving pirfenidone treatment were less likely to experience reductions in 6MWD compared with the control group (13% vs. 52%, respectively; P = 0.001. Although adverse events were more frequently reported by the pirfenidone group compared with the control group (85 vs. 56%, respectively; P = 0.015, these patients did not require discontinuation of treatment. Conclusion: Pirfenidone treatment preserves functional capacity, as reflected by the 6MWD. Adverse events associated with pirfenidone treatment were generally well tolerated by the patients.

  20. Effect of Professional Development on Classroom Practices in Some Selected Saudi Universities

    Alghamdi, AbdulKhaliq Hajjad; Bin Sihes, Ahmad Johari

    2016-01-01

    "Scientific studies found the impact of professional development on effective classroom practices in Higher Education." This paper hypothesizes no statistically significant effect of lecturers' professional development on classroom practices in some selected Saudi Universities not as highlighted in the model. Hierarchical multiple…

  1. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

    Khaled A. ALASMARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.

  2. The Barriers to the Use of ICT in Teaching in Saudi Arabia: A Review of Literature

    Al Mulhim, Ensaf

    2014-01-01

    The paper reports some of the reasons behind the low use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by teachers. The paper has reviewed a number or studies from different parts of the world and paid greater attention to Saudi Arabia. The literature reveals a number of factors that hinder teachers' use of ICT. This paper will focus on lack

  3. Attitudes of Saudi Universities Faculty Members towards Using Learning Management System (JUSUR)

    Hussein, Hisham Barakat

    2011-01-01

    The research aims to identify the Attitudes of faculty members at Saudi Universities towards using E-learning Management System JUSUR, which follows the National Center for E-learning. A descriptive analysis was used as a research methodology. Ninety participants in this research were asked to complete a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, which…

  4. Learning Preferences of Saudi University Students with Native English Speaking Teachers

    Moores-Abdool, Whitney; Yahya, Noorchaya; Unzueta, Caridad H.

    2009-01-01

    Like many countries building up human and technological resources, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has embarked on the goal of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) to its citizens. One goal for the KSA Ministry of Education is increasing acceptance rates at teacher colleges for both genders specializing in English, in addition to…

  5. The petrochemical production capacity of the Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Corporation (SABIC)

    This paper describes the development program of the SABIC (Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Co.) which has provided the building of new petrochemical units while retrofitting old units or developing the capacities of some of them. Statistical data on petrochemical production, sales and exports, contracts and joint ventures are also given. 2 tabs

  6. Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

  7. Self Reported Awareness of Child Maltreatment among School Professionals in Saudi Arabia: Impact of CRC Ratification

    AlBuhairan, Fadia S.; Inam, Sarah S.; AlEissa, Majid A.; Noor, Ismail K.; Almuneef, Maha A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) was ratified by Saudi Arabia 15 years ago; yet addressing the issue of child maltreatment only began in more recent years. School professionals play a significant role in children's lives, as they spend a great deal of time with them and are hence essential to protecting and identifying…

  8. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors

    In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).

  9. Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric

  10. Barriers Encountered in the Transfer of Educational Training to Workplace Practice in Saudi Arabia

    Almannie, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study introduces a critical issue in the practicality of training programs, not only in Saudi Arabia, but also in other developing countries where billions of dollars are spent on training human resources without evaluation of these programs on workplace practice and organization development. This study investigates barriers encountered in…

  11. Guidelines for Irrigation Water Quality and Water Management in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview

    Hussain, G.; A. Alquwaizany; A. Al-Zarah

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive review summarized the total available water supplies, water quality evaluation and the potential management strategies for efficient utilization of the available water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The review discussed different water quality classifications applied elsewhere on the use of different types of surface, drainage waters and groundwater irrespective of the total salinity status and the conditions of use.

  12. Curriculum Change in the Developing Country: The Case of Saudi Arabia.

    Shaker, Paul

    Based on current thought in multicultural education, this paper discusses the need for Americans to help Saudi Arabia integrate western technology into education without subjecting the country to cultural imperialism. The paper is purported to rest on the "reconceptualist" theories of curriculum development. The author cites four particular cases…

  13. Effect of physical activity and sun exposure on vitamin D status of Saudi children and adolescents

    Al-Othman Abdulaziz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence suggests an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the Middle East. In this context, we aimed to determine whether the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is related to degree of physical activity and sun exposure among apparently healthy Saudi children and adolescents, a little studied population. Methods A total of 331 Saudi children aged 617?years (153 boys and 178 girls were included in this cross sectional study. Levels of physical activity and sun exposure were determined using a standard questionnaire. Anthropometry, serum calcium and 25-(OH vitamin D were analyzed. Results All subjects were vitamin D deficient, the majority being moderately deficient (71.6%. Age was the single most significant predictor affecting 25 (OH Vitamin D levels, explaining 21% of the variance perceived (p?=?1.68 x 10-14. Age-matched comparisons revealed that for groups having the same amount of sun exposure, those with moderate or are physically active will have higher levels of vitamin D status, though levels in across groups remained deficient. Conclusion Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi children and adolescents, and is influenced by both sun exposure and physical activity. Promotion of an active outdoor lifestyle among Saudi children in both homes and schools may counteract the vitamin D deficiency epidemic in this vulnerable population. Vitamin D supplementation is suggested in all groups, including those with the highest sun exposure and physical activity.

  14. Recent incidence and descriptive epidemiological survey of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia

    Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Ansari, Abid A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number of women with BC increased steadily from 1990-2010. On the basis of the number of cases, the percentage distribution of BC appears to be increasing. There were 1152 female BC cases in 2008 in comparison with 1308 in 2009, and 1473 in 2010. Breast cancer ranked first among females accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers (5378) in the year 2010. The average age at the diagnosis of BC was 48; weighted average was 49.8, and range 43-52. Conclusion: Among Saudi patients, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of BC, which occurs at an earlier age than in Western countries. Continued vigilance, mammographic screening, and patient education are needed to establish early diagnosis and perform optimal treatment. PMID:26446327

  15. Forming an Institutional Culture with Multinational Administrators and Teachers at Effat College, Saudi Arabia

    Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Treff, Marjorie

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the teaching and learning culture of a newly established women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The academic culture at Effat College in 2002 included administrators and teachers from many nations, which created unique challenges in cross-cultural communication. These challenges, in turn, affected the development and…

  16. Saudi Araabia ei kavatse lubada tänavail ühtegi meeleavaldust / Heiki Suurkask

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Saudi Araabias keelati igasugused protestimeeleavaldused, samas on 11. märtsiks välja kuulutatud "raevupäev". Veebruaris tegid 10 islamistliku intelligentsi esindajat katse luua opositsioonijõud, mõni päev hiljem nad vangistati

  17. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  18. Analysis of Saudi Arabia's behavior within OPEC and the world oil market

    We analyze oil export behavior by Saudi Arabia and the Rest of OPEC since 1973. In the literature there has been a wide range of estimates of their correlation: from positive, to zero, to negative. We find that the correlation has varied over time, from moderately high (0.7) in normal periods, to negative during each of five interruptions; the average correlation has been 0.19. Saudi Arabia's oil market behavior depends upon circumstances, but its primary goal is the stability of OPEC and the world oil market. It will coordinate export reductions with the Rest of OPEC when faced with declining demand, but it will increase exports when faced with interruptions elsewhere in OPEC. Allowing for such differences provides evidence of intelligent, context-dependent consistency. But ignoring context – by wrongly assuming the same Saudi response in Normal periods and Interruptions – can lead to a conclusion of Saudi “inconsistency” because the difference in the responses has been obscured

  19. Beyond the Classroom Walls: Edmodo in Saudi Secondary School EFL Instruction, Attitudes and Challenges

    Al-Kathiri, Fatimah

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the prospects of integrating Edmodo into Saudi EFL female secondary school instruction. It concentrates on students' perceptions and challenges regarding Edmodo use and its effect on their attitudes towards EFL learning. The 42 participants were divided into two groups. The experimental group received traditional teaching…

  20. Kumaravadivelu's Framework as a Basis for Improving English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia: Opportunities and Challenges

    Ahmad, Afnan Masaoud

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the issues with EFL teaching in Saudi Arabia, including the reliance on traditional teaching methodologies and banning use of first languages in classrooms. As a result, these traditional teaching practices produce less proficient learners who have limited knowledge about proper linguistic use. In order to overcome these…