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Sample records for sulayyil sulayel saudi

  1. Hyperlipidemia in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Moheeb Abdullah; Akram Al-Khadra; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohammed S. Nouh

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. METHODS Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination, and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol > or =5.2 mmol/l), and hypertriglyceridemia (HT...

  2. Obesity in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Moheeb A. Abdullah; Akram H. Al-Khadra; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohmmed S. Nouh

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Obesity and overweight are well known risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and are expected to be increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) particularly among females. Therefore, we designed this study with the objective to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Saudis of both gender, between the ages of 30-70 years in rural as well as in urban communities. This work is part of a major national project called Coronary Artery Disease in Saudis S...

  3. Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation

  4. Phytogeography of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the phyto geography of Saudi Arabia and examines its phytogeographic location within the complex plant geographical regions of the Middle East. It reviews and discuses works have that been published so far by plant geographers and biogeographers on the phytogeographical regions of Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa, and determines the location of Saudi Arabia within it. The delimitation of the frontiers between plant-regions in Saudi Arabia, especially the south western part, which has always created some difficulties for biogeographers as well as phytogeographers who have studied the region. (author)

  5. Hypertension in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Moheeb Abdullah; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Akram Al-Khadra; Mohammed S. Nouh; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of hypertension among Saudis of both gender, between the ages of 30-70 years in rural as well as urban communities. This work is part of a major national study on Coronary Artery Disease in Saudis Study (CADISS). METHODS This is a community-based study conducted by examining subjects in the age group of 30-70 years of selected households during a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history using a validat...

  6. Tabanidae (Diptera) of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Dhafer, H.M.; Dawah, H. A.; Abdullah, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew).

  7. Smoking in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mohammed T.; Bassiony, Medhat M.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, consumption, trade, control, prevention, and treatment of tobacco smoking in Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of current smoking in Saudi Arabia ranges from 2.4-52.3% (median = 17.5%). Among school students, the prevalence of current smoking ranges from 12-29.8% (median = 16.5%), among university students from 2.4-37% (median = 13.5%), and among adults from 11.6-52.3% (median = 22.6%). In elderly people, the prevalence of curre...

  8. Puitsillad Saudi Araabiasse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto

  9. Hypertension in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hazmi Mohsen; Warsy Arjumand

    1999-01-01

    Hypertension is considered a major health problem in several populations of the world. We compared a few isolated and three comprehensive studies covering the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results show that different investigators found different prevalence of hypertension in different areas of the kingdom. There is a need to unify the diagnostic procedures and to determine the factors behind such significant differences.

  10. Obesity among Saudi male adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rukban, Mohammed O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its correlates among Saudi male adolescents in Riyadh. As well as evaluating their knowledge, attitude and practice towards obesity. METHODS A cross-sectional study conducted in intermediate and secondary schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out during a 5-month period, September 2001-January 2002. A sample of 894 Saudi male adolescents (age 12-20 years) was selected through the m...

  11. Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potenand Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

  12. The Saudi Initiative for Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Moamary Mohamed; Al-Hajjaj Mohamed; Idrees Majdy; Zeitouni Mohamed; Alanezi Mohammed; Al-Jahdal Hamdan; Al Dabbagh Maha

    2009-01-01

    The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elabora...

  13. Metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Al-Nozha; Akram Al-Khadra; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Moheeb Abdullah; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohmmed S. Nouh

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a well-established risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). We designed this study to obtain the prevalence of MS and each of its components in Saudi Arabia. This study is part of Coronary Artery Disease in Saudi Study (CADISS). METHODS We conducted this community-based national epidemiological health survey by examining Saudi subjects in the age group of 30-70 years of selected households over a 5-year period between 199...

  14. Communication with Saudis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Heng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available People have different cultural characteristics that affect the way they do business. Using compelling ways to categorize major cultural differences, this paper helps the reader understand how different concepts of time, the relevance of status and power in shaping organizational structure, communication methods, and ways to conduct  meetings and social gatherings, all influence how interactions with a specific culture in Saudi Arabia can be made effective.

  15. Disability in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Maher S. Al-Jadid

    2013-01-01

    Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disabili...

  16. Saudi License Plate Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Basalamah

    2013-01-01

    Automatic license plate recognition systems (LPR)can help reduce the number of traffic violations and make ourstreets safer. In this project we developed an automatic systemthat locates Saudi license plates in a captured image regardlessof the time of day or license plate scale. The proposed systemcan tolerate slight tilting of the license plate. The localizationprocess is fairly complex due to the highly varying nature of thebackground. Good results were obtained using the localizationstage....

  17. Diphyllobothriasis in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim S. Alkhalife; Rafiaa R. Hassan; Ahmed A. Abdel-Hameed; Laila A. Al-Khayal

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphylloboth...

  18. Saudi License Plate Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Basalamah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic license plate recognition systems (LPRcan help reduce the number of traffic violations and make ourstreets safer. In this project we developed an automatic systemthat locates Saudi license plates in a captured image regardlessof the time of day or license plate scale. The proposed systemcan tolerate slight tilting of the license plate. The localizationprocess is fairly complex due to the highly varying nature of thebackground. Good results were obtained using the localizationstage. A second part of the system was developed to segmentand recognize the characters in the located license plate.

  19. Urbanization: Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Riyadh, the national capital of Saudi Arabia, is shown in 1972, 1990 and 2000. Its population grew in these years from about a half million to more than two million. Saudi Arabia experienced urbanization later than many other countries; in the early 1970s its urban-rural ratio was still about 1:3. By 1990 that had reversed to about 3:1. The city grew through in-migration from rural areas, and from decreases in the death rate while birthrates remained high. The 1972 image is a Landsat MSS scene; the 1990 image is a Landsat Thematic Mapper scene; and the 2000 image is an ASTER scene. All three images cover an area of about 27 x 34 km. The image is centered at 24.6 degrees north latitude, 46.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared thies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and cardiac diseases in 6 (5.8%). Six patients (5.8%) had moyamoya syndrome, which was associated with another disease in all of them. Inherited metabolic disorders (3.8%) included 3 children with Leigh syndrome and a 29-months-old girl with mitochondrial encephalomypathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Systemic vascular disease was a risk factor in 3 children (2.9%) including 2 who had hypernatrmic dehydration; and post-traumatic arterial dissection was causative in 3 cases (2.9%). Several patients had multiple risk factors, whereas no risk factor could be identified in 11 (10.6%). Due to high prevalence and importance of multiple risk factors, a comprehensive investigation, including hematologic, neuroimaging and metabolic studies should be considered in every child with stroke. (author)

  1. Saudi Arabia walks a tightrope

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, P.

    2007-01-01

    Saudi diplomacy seems more active than ever. This has to do with three recent major regional developments: the summer 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, the violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah in the occupied Palestinian territories, and the Iraqi quagmire. In each of these, the role of Iran is difficult to overlook and this is troubling Riyadh. Yet Saudi Arabia has difficulty in responding to Iran's assertiveness: it wants to contain Tehran's ambitions, but at the same time it cannot...

  2. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Kheyami Ali; Cunliffe Nigel; Hart C

    2006-01-01

    Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of ...

  3. Gastritis in Saudi Arab children.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad I. El-Mouzan; Asaad M. Abdullah; Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Information on childhood gastritis in developing countries is rare; hence, the objective of this study is to report the pattern of this condition in Saudi Arab children. METHODS Data analysis were carried out in all children <18 years of age who were referred for endoscopy at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 1993 to 2002. Only children with histology-proven gastritis were included. RESULTS One hundred and seventy-five patients ...

  4. Articular chondrocalcinosis in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahman S. Al-Arfaj; Ahmed A. Al-Boukai

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To investigate the prevalence of articular chondrocalcinosis in subjects aged 50 years and above in a radiographic survey through 14 primary care clinics in North Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Over a period of 7 months extending from September 1998 to March 1999, 153 patients attending 14 primary care clinics in North Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, were interviewed, examined and then requested to have radiographs of knees (anteroposterior and lateral), wrists ...

  5. Beliefs of subfertile Saudi women.

    OpenAIRE

    Dania H. Al-Jaroudi

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the beliefs of infertile Saudi women and acquire information on alternative medicine usage by infertility patients. METHODS Between February 2008 and January 2009 a cross-sectional survey was performed in a tertiary hospital. Fifty-one patients attending the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Medicine Department, Women's Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were interviewed at random. They were asked question...

  6. Colorectal cancers in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Mansoor; Ibrahim H. Zahrani; Syed Abdul Aziz

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this retrospective study is to delineate the histopathological profile of colorectal cancers seen at King AbdulAziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to compare our findings with 12 other studies published in the literature from other areas of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Our study group consisted of 39 colorectal cancer patients, who were examined in the department of Histopathology at King AbdulAziz University Hospital, Jeddah, K...

  7. Acoustic analysis of normal Saudi adult voices.

    OpenAIRE

    Malki, Khalid H.; Salman F. Al-Habib; Abulrahman A. Hagr; Mohamed M. Farahat

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the acoustic differences between Saudi adult male and female voices, and to compare the acoustic variables of the Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) obtained from North American adults to a group of Saudi males and females. METHODS A cross-sectional survey of normal adult male and female voices was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between March 2007 and December 2008. Ninety-five Saudi subjects sustained the v...

  8. Family Boraginaceae in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Wafaa K.Taia; Wafaa M. El-Ghanem

    2004-01-01

    Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was point...

  9. Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiradonna, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

  11. Hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Hisham

    2004-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease in HCV prevalence, probably due to increase awareness and improved socioeconomic status. Genotype 4 is the commonest genotype in Saudi patients infected with HCV which unfortunately is least likel...

  12. Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Emad Omar Elhendawy

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued) in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25...

  13. Outcome of stroke in Saudi children.

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Abdel-gader, Abdel-galil M.; Al-jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Al-nasser, Mohammed N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrences of stroke in Saudi children. METHODS We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neurop...

  14. Saudi Arabia and Jordan: friends in adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Saudi–Jordanian relations are a mismatch between broadly identical interests and differing means and capacities to realize them. Saudi Arabia has the potential to advance its interests, but is hamstrung by leadership structure, habit and political culture. Jordan has some advantages in terms of leadership structure, habit and political culture, but has only limited ability to affect its interests. Saudi Arabia’s historic sensitivities concerning its one-time Hashemite rival in Arabia a...

  15. Radon Awareness among Saudi People in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz S. Alaamer

    2012-01-01

    People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people ...

  16. Usage of Social Network Sites amongst Saudis: Why do Saudi University Students Have Multiple Facebook Accounts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study, undertaken as part of a wider study of Facebook usage in Saudi Arabia, uses a self-report survey to understand Facebook usage by Saudi university students. The participants were 372 students (188 male and 184 female at one university in Saudi Arabia. The study sorts to understand gender differences and the reasons why students have more than one Facebook account and what this says about Saudi culture. The study has revealed significant issues that contribute to the current knowledge of social network sites in Saudi Arabia.

  17. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheyami Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.

  18. Adolescent endocrinology in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, M.A.; H. S. Al-Salhi; M. A. Anani; L. Q. Melendrez

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The importance of providing special health care services for adolescents has been recently stressed. In Saudi Arabia, adolescents have no special services. In this study, we describe our first 5 years experience of an adolescent endocrinology clinic in Security Forces Hospital. We believe it is the first clinic with this objective in the Kingdom. METHODS An adolescent endocrinology clinic was run by a team composed of pediatric endocrinologist, diabetic nurse educator, cli...

  19. First Dinosaurs from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Rich, Thomas H.; Vickers-Rich, Patricia; Ali, Mohammed A.; Al-Mufarreh, Yahya A.; Matari, Adel H.; Al-Massari, Abdu M.; Nasser, Abdulaziz H.; Attia, Yousry; Halawani, Mohammed A.

    2013-01-01

    Dinosaur remains from the Arabian subcontinent are exceedingly rare, and those that have been documented manifest indeterminate affinities. Consequently the discovery of a small, but diagnostic, accumulation of elements from Campanian-Maastrichtian (similar to 75 Ma) deposits in northwestern Saudi Arabia is significant because it constitutes the first taxonomically identifiable dinosaur material described from the Arabian Peninsula. The fossils include a series of possible lithostrotian titan...

  20. Rock Art of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed Khan

    2013-01-01

    It is not only oil in which Saudi Arabia is rich, but it is also among the four richest rock art regions of the world. Hundreds and thousands of petroglyphs, painted rock art, and ancient Arabian inscriptions sites are located all over the country, representing various cultural phases, from the Neolithic until the recent past. One can see the naturalistic, schematic, abstract, mythical, and mystical images representing ancient ideology, thoughts about the metaphysical world, religious entity,...

  1. Acute pancreatitis in Saudi patients

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Karawi Mohamed; Mohamed Abdulrahman; Dafala Mustasim; Yasawi Mohamed; Ghadour Zuhail

    2001-01-01

    Background: The epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in Saudi Arabia is greatly different from that in Western Countries. Aim: To evaluate and compare the risk factors and clinical features of acute pancreatitis. Patients and Methods: The course of acute pancreatitis was retrospectively analyzed in 218 patients who had their first attack and were admitted at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital during the period 1.01.85-31.05.97. Results: From these 218, 130 patients were in the age group of 20-...

  2. Lactation amenorrhea in Saudi women.

    OpenAIRE

    Madani, K. A.; Khashoggi, R H; al-Nowaisser, A A; Nasrat, H A; M. H. Khalil

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to investigate some aspects of breast feeding, namely-lactation amenorrhea, the average interval between pregnancies, and the extent of knowledge that an average Saudi woman has about breast feeding. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study in which a pretested questionnaire was used to collect the information. SETTING--The study was conducted in the Taif area between January and April of 1990. Seventy nine primary health care centres participated. PARTICIPANT...

  3. The Saudi Initiative for asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Moamary Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

  4. Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author) into future vaccines. (author)

  5. Saudi Arabia plans future strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)

  6. Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Amani

    2005-01-01

    The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

  7. Career Choices Among Saudi Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faris, Eiad; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 253 final-year students at the four Saudi medical schools found the most frequently-chosen specialties were internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, and obstetrics/gynecology. Over one-fourth were unsure of career choice. Gender differences were found. Most common locations for postgraduate training were Saudi Arabia and Canada, and a…

  8. Sports injuries in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M.

    1985-01-01

    Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site...

  9. Campylobacter enteritis in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, R.

    1992-01-01

    A 12-month survey on the incidence of campylobacter infection in 1217 patients with diarrhoea was carried out in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Campylobacters were isolated from 55 (4.5%) patients, second in prevalence to salmonellas (6.2%). Shigellas were isolated from 4.2% of patients. Campylobacter isolation rates were high in children of all ages, as well as in young adults (36.5% of all isolates were from adults aged 20-39 years). Isolation rates peaked in September and November. Analysis of the ...

  10. Diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Akram Al-Khadra; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Mohammed S. Nouh; Moheeb Abdullah; Omer Attas; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major public health problem worldwide, and it is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). New recommendations for the diagnosis of diabetes have changed the epidemiology of DM. Therefore, we designed this study with the objective to determine the prevalence of DM among Saudis of both sexes, between the ages of 30-70-years in rural as well as urban communities. This work is part of a major national project: Coronary Artery Disease in Saud...

  11. Acute pancreatitis in Saudi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Karawi Mohamed

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in Saudi Arabia is greatly different from that in Western Countries. Aim: To evaluate and compare the risk factors and clinical features of acute pancreatitis. Patients and Methods: The course of acute pancreatitis was retrospectively analyzed in 218 patients who had their first attack and were admitted at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital during the period 1.01.85-31.05.97. Results: From these 218, 130 patients were in the age group of 20-55 yrs. (74+, 56>, 76 were > 55 yrs. Of age (42 +, 34> and only 12 were < 20 yrs. (6 Females, 6 Males. The precipitating cause was biliary disease in 147, post-operative in ten, hyperlipidemia in seven, post-ERCP in five, infection in four and alcohol in four. Four had rare causes and 37 no obvious cause. Severe pancreatitis diagnosed in 70 patients, 51 of them were > 55 yrs. of age and 45 were precipitated by biliary disease. Twenty six developed complications (21 were > 55 yrs. old and four deaths. Twenty two patients of these who had severe form had diabetes mellitus, 37 had fever at presentation and 56 had leukocytosis. Conclusions: The commonest etiology of acute pancreatitis was biliary in 147 patients (67.5% followed by postoperative pancreatitis in 10 patients (4.6%. Alcohol as etiological factor was rare (1.8%. The epidemiology and the risk factors differed markedly in Saudi Arabia, where alcohol is prohibited

  12. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

  13. Reading Strategy Instruction in Saudi Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Ahmed Alsamadani

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes of Saudi EFL teachers toward explicit instruction of readingstrategies. The study also compares actual practices of Saudi teachers with their beliefs and attitudes towardreading strategy instruction. In this study, quantitative data were collected using an attitude questionnaire,while qualitative data were collected using observation and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative dataobtained were analyzed by using means, standard deviations, and the Pearso...

  14. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Pazheri, F. R.

    2014-01-01

    The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installati...

  15. Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Gader Abdel Galil; Osman Abdel Moniem; Al Gahtani Furgah; Farghali Mohamed; Ramadan Ali; Al-Momen Abdel Kareem

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517...

  16. Factors affecting child mortality in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Nasser A. Alhamdan; Abduelelah I. Alkotobi; Osman M. Nour; Mohamed A. Farag

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate levels and trends, gender differentials, effect of modes of living, regional differentials, and the effect of parental educational on infant and child mortality. METHODS A nationwide stratified random sample was used to estimate levels, trends and differentials of infant and child mortality in Saudi Arabia. The study was executed during the period February 2006 to June 2006 and covered all the 20 health regions of Saudi Arabia. The randomly selected sample was ...

  17. Kawasaki disease in Western Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid M. Al-Harbi

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. RESULTS Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kaw...

  18. Saudi Islamists and the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Lacroix, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Arab Spring has had little visible impact on Saudi Arabia, except in the Eastern Province, where relatively large Shia protests were met with deadly repression. However, it would be a mistake to think that the revolutionary events taking place in the Arab world did not spur debate in the remaining segments of Saudi society. Sunni Islamists were at the forefront of the debate, as they saw ‘comrades’ of the same ideological orientation participating in revolutions and sei...

  19. Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

    2010-01-01

    To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following l...

  20. Evaluation of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Al-Bishri

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the quality and quantity of biomedical studies published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) between 2010 and 2011. Methods: This study was conducted on January 2013 at the Internal Medicine Department, Taif University, Taif, KSA. An online search was conducted on PubMed to collect the articles published from KSA using the country name (Saudi Arabia) as a keyword. The search was limited to the studies published in the period of 2 years from January 2010 to December ...

  1. Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Syed E. Ahmed; Salman A. Al-Abbas; Abdallah S. Al-Omran; Mir Sadat-Ali; Badar A. Al-Shafei; Rasha A. Al-Turki

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2...

  2. Vitamin A status in wheezing Saudi children.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherein A. Shalaby; Khaild M. Al-Harbi; Shereen A. El-Tarhouny

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the serum retinol levels of wheezing children, and to investigate the relation as an biochemical indicator of vitamin A status in wheezing children between serum levels of retinol and severity of wheezing. METHODS A prospective cohort study including 400 wheezing Saudi children aged 3-36 months, who were treated in the pediatrics ward of Ohoud Public Hospital in Al-Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2009 and August 2010. Patients were subdivided ac...

  3. Quality of Life in Saudi Vitiligo Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mubarak Luluah; Al-Mohanna Hind; Al-Issa Ahmed; Jabak Monzer; Mulekar Sanjeev

    2011-01-01

    Background : Vitiligo has a devastating psychosocial effect. The cultural traditions of Saudi society are quite different compared with the western world. Hence, a quality of life study using a different questionnaire suitable to the cultural traditions of the society is necessary to measure qualify of life in vitiligo patients. Objective : This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL) in Saudi vitiligo patients and their family. Materials and Methods : A prospective cross-sect...

  4. High prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in healthy Saudi men. We randomly recruited 429 Saudi men from the community. The recruited Saudi men were subjected to an interview to reveal their lifestyle parameters, calcium intake and level of activity. Bone densitometry was assessed at lumbar spine (L-4) and the femoral neck. The dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan was carried out in the Nuclear Medicine at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from September 2002 to December 2004. The World Health Organization definition of low bone mineral density was used. Poor oral calcium intake and low level of daily activity were noted. The overall prevalence of osteopenia for the lumbar spine in the whole group was 35.7% while osteoporosis was present in 21.4% of the subjects. In the femoral neck, osteopenia was noted in 38% and osteoporosis in 11.4%. When either lumbar spine or femoral neck osteoporosis is used for diagnosis, the prevalence of osteoporosis rises to 23.5%. Within the whole group, osteopenia and osteoporosis were more common in individuals above the age of 50 than those below 50 years old. Low bone mineral density occurs with high frequency in Saudi men. Lumbar spine appears to be affected to a higher degree. The reason for the high prevalence of osteoporosis in Saudi men is unclear. Possible underlying causes include nutritional, life style and genetic factors. (author)

  5. Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, William

    2006-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

  6. The Saudi King: Power and Limitation in the Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad M. Alsultan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When reviewing the literature, there is a widely held assumption that in Saudi Arabia, the monarch rules unchecked and is the ultimate foreign policy decision-maker. However, as it argues in this paper, the king is not the sole actor, because, senior members of the royal family are participating in directing the Saudi internal and external policies.

  7. The Saudi King: Power and Limitation in the Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy Making

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad M. Alsultan

    2013-01-01

    When reviewing the literature, there is a widely held assumption that in Saudi Arabia, the monarch rules unchecked and is the ultimate foreign policy decision-maker. However, as it argues in this paper, the king is not the sole actor, because, senior members of the royal family are participating in directing the Saudi internal and external policies.

  8. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Abolfotouh; Aa, Alabdrabalnabi; Rb, Albacker; Ua, Al-jughaiman; Sn, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department o...

  9. 76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ...energy use and loss. Saudi Arabia also relies on desalination plants to produce 70% of its potable water, using as...Arabia hopes to start up its first solar-powered desalination plant in 2013. Renewable Energy: The Saudi Arabian...

  10. Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Omar Elhendawy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25%, 16% and 7% respectively. Following 1983, the Saudi real exchange rate rose above the equilibrium exchange rate thus starting an era of undervaluation of the Saudi currency that lasted until the year 2009.The downward slide began in 1983 when the riyal fell below its equilibrium exchange rate by 1% with the declining trend deteriorating further to 10% in 1984, 19% percent in 1985, 27% in 1986 and so on until it hit an all-time low of 84 percent below estimated equilibrium in 2006. Thereafter, the decline started receding gradually with the misalignment below exchange rate equilibrium improving to about 80 percent in 2009.

  11. Exploring COBIT Processes for ITG in Saudi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Abu-Musa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT has become one of the most important guidelines for information technology governance (ITG, which provides organizations with a useful tool to start evaluating their own ITG systems. COBIT introduces an ITG framework and supporting toolset that allows IT managers to bridge the gap between control requirements, technical issues and business risks. The objective of this study is to investigate the formality, auditing, responsibility and accountability of implementing COBIT processes for ITG in Saudi organizations. An empirical survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted to achieve these objectives. Five hundred questionnaires were distributed to a sample of Saudi organizations in a selected number of Saudi cities. One hundred and twenty seven valid questionnaires – representing a 25.4 percent response rate –were collected and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16. While the results of the study reveal that the majority of respondents reported that implementing ITG COBIT processes and domains is the responsibility of IT departments in Saudi organizations, most of the respondents reported that the COBIT processes and domains are neither audited nor formally conducted in their organizations. From a practical standpoint, managers and practitioners alike stand to gain from the findings of this study. The study provides useful information for senior management, IT managers, accountants, auditors, and academics to understand the implementation phase and the impact ofCOBIT on ITG in Saudi organizations.

  12. Hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hisham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease in HCV prevalence, probably due to increase awareness and improved socioeconomic status. Genotype 4 is the commonest genotype in Saudi patients infected with HCV which unfortunately is least likely to respond to the standard interferon therapy though recent studies using pegylated interferon demonstrated promising results. Liver transplantation for patients with end stage liver disease was started in 1994 but the cases currently done are still less than that required

  13. Solar Power Potential In Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. Pazheri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.

  14. Sustainable Energy Development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Belloumi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 1971–2012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.

  15. Patient exposures in Saudi diagnostic radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, M.; Melibary, Abdulrahman; Malabary, Tajuddin

    1994-07-01

    Diagnostic X-ray radiography patients exposures have been studied during 1412 (H) (1992) in the Riyadh area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Dose imparted as well as doses to the thyroid, breast, lung, bone marrow, ovary and testis have been calculated for many types of radiographic examinations, Collective doses have been calculated. The dose imparted corresponds to an annual absorbed dose to the Saudi population, in the Riyadh area, of about 280 ?Gy, and a genetically significant dose of 108.8 ?Gy per person per year due to diagnostic radiology.

  16. NMR used for Saudi crude asphaltenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with proton (/sup 1/H) and carbon 13 (/sup 13/C) has been used to determine the structural characteristics of asphaltenes from four commercial Saudi Arabian crude oils. These characteristics are important to refiners that have deep conversion processes to determine yields from the residual fractions of the Saudi crudes, and to determine the operating parameters of the process units. The spectra obtained give some structural similarities among the crude oils, as well as some differences. Values of various structural parameters have been tabulated from the spectra

  17. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish, Magdy A.; Al-saif, Ghadeer; Albahrani, Suha; Sabra, Amr A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study perio...

  18. Assessment of Reading Comprehension of Saudi Students Majoring in English at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Waleed B. Al Abiky

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that there has been a continual decline in the average reading ability of college-aged students with approximately one third of a four-year college students considered “at risk” for low academic attainment. The current study assesses English reading comprehension of senior Saudi students majoring in English and Translation in fall 2012 at Qassim University, Saudi Arabia. The study, moreover, investigates the potential impacts of students’ age and GPAs on their ...

  19. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al Gelban Khalid

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical...

  20. Breastfeeding knowledge and attitude among Saudi women in Central Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Yazeed A. Alwelaie; Eyas A. Alsuhaibani; Abrar M. Al-Harthy; Reem H. Radwan; Rawan G. Al-Mohammady; Ahmed M. Almutairi

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To study the knowledge and attitude of Saudi women towards breastfeeding. METHODS A cross-sectional study conducted in 3 major hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the period 7 July--22 July 2009. Eight hundred and forty-eight women in the post-natal and post-cesarean section wards were included in the study along with women attending antenatal clinics. An Arabic questionnaire was generated and completed by women. RESULTS Of the 848 participating women, 61.5% fel...

  1. Saudi experience with classic homocystinuria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientifiawareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)

  2. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  3. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. The Saudi experience.

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Al-Essa; Sakati, N A; S. M. Bakheet; Z. J. Patay; O. Dabbagh; E. Chaves-Carbello; Ozand, P T

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical, biochemical, neuroradiological, and neurophysiological findings of patients with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. METHODS Retrospective study evaluating the data of 10 X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. RESULTS The common presenting symptoms were deterioration in school performance, vision and hearing, behavioral changes, and seizures. Eight patients su...

  4. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  5. Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female decant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

  6. A SURVIVABILITY MODEL FOR SAUDI ICT STARTUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Almakenzi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation and entrepreneurship are critical elements in the transition to the knowledge-based economy and future competition. Unfortunately, innovation tends to be absent in Arab states for many reasons. To promote innovation in Saudi Arabia, for instance, it is necessary to support inventors’ ideas to turn inventions into start-up companies, which are companies in their early stage. At the same time, it seems that there is a need for more academic research to study the success factors of Saudi information and communication technology (ICT start-up companies. ICT start-ups are important to the economy because they are needed for the progress of all industries. Therefore, this study will identify the factors that lead to successful ICT start-up projects. Then, it will develop a model for the best practices in the interplay among the defined factors that will increase the opportunity to initiate successful start-ups. This research involves a factor analysis study based on a quantitative method to measure the interdependences among the success factors for ICT start-ups. The identified factors are verified using a sample of Saudi start-up companies. The study will contribute to enhancing the technological content to diversify the Saudi economy in order to prepare for the post-oil era. The study result is a survivability model for Saudi-incubated ICT startups. The resulting model has two phases, as follows: (1 the incubation period, which includes the relationships among three factors leading to constant and successful updates and upgrades of the ICT startup business model; and (2 the postincubation period, which include relationships among the three factors that help to deal with the changing nature of the market and the emergence of competing products. This solution can be applied within startups with similar conditions.

  7. E-learning Accessibility for Saudi Women: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Al Alhareth

    2014-01-01

    Saudi government has made significant efforts and heavily invested in its e-learning innovation in order to offer students alternative opportunity to complete their higher education. However despite all the efforts being made, Saudi Arabia is still in the early stage of its e-learning development and faces many challenges especially for female’s students from their ability to take the benefit of such technology. Therefore, understanding the ability of Saudi women to access and use e-learnin...

  8. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 in Saudi children.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-mendalawi, Mahmood D.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical, biochemical, and immunological manifestations of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) in a Saudi population. METHODS The medical files of 7 consanguineous Saudi families with 20 affected siblings were retrospectively reviewed. They were followed at the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia for a mean duration of 6 years (January 2000 to December 2009). The age of the a...

  9. The Saudi Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Javed H.; Lababidi, Hani M. S.; Al-moamary, Mohamed S.; Zeitouni, Mohammed O.; Al-jahdali, Hamdan H.; Al-amoudi, Omar S.; Wali, Siraj O.; Idrees, Majdy M.; Al-shimemri, Abdullah A.; Al Ghobain, Mohammed O.; Alorainy, Hassan S.; Al-hajjaj, Mohamed S.

    2014-01-01

    The Saudi Thoracic Society (STS) launched the Saudi Initiative for Chronic Airway Diseases (SICAD) to develop a guideline for the diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This guideline is primarily aimed for internists and general practitioners. Though there is scanty epidemiological data related to COPD, the SICAD panel believes that COPD prevalence is increasing in Saudi Arabia due to increasing prevalence of tobacco smoking among men and women. To overcome...

  10. Prevalence of chronic venous insufficiency in the Saudi adult population.

    OpenAIRE

    Bawakid, Khalid O.; Al-raddadi, Rajaa M.; Sabban, Sameer S.; Alturky, Khalid A.; Mohamed, Mahmoud S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) in the Saudi adult population and to identify the association of CVI with possible risk factors. METHODS Sixteen Primary Health Care (PHC) centers have been randomly selected in various districts of 3 major cities of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including Jeddah, Makkah and Dammam during the year 2001. Every Saudi patient, of both sexes and aged >18 years, visiting the selected PHC centres for any reason, was ...

  11. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perc...

  12. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 in Saudi children.

    OpenAIRE

    Bassam S. Bin-Abbas; Muhammad Faiyaz-Ul-Haque; Abdullah H. Al-Fares; Sulaiman S. Al-Gazlan; Jalaluddin A. Bhuiyan; Saleh Z. Al-Muhsen

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical, biochemical, and immunological manifestations of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS-1) in a Saudi population. METHODS The medical files of 7 consanguineous Saudi families with 20 affected siblings were retrospectively reviewed. They were followed at the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia for a mean duration of 6 years (January 2000 to December 2009). The age of the a...

  13. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Some Traditional Saudi Food

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Al-Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Presently many dairy products are being used in Saudi Arabia. Monitoring and isolation of bacterial activity is of highly significance to sustainable health problems and issues. The objective of the study was to isolate bacteriocin-producing Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from some traditional Saudi food. A total of 50 samples from dairy products, commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, were screened for presence of natural LAB. The Cell-free Supernatants (CFS) of two LAB isolates exhibited anti...

  14. HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Sebai, Zohair A.; Milaat, Waleed A.; Al-zulaibani, Abdulmohsen A.

    2001-01-01

    Health services in Saudi Arabia have developed enormously over the last two decades, as evidenced by the availability of health facilities throughout all parts of the vast Kingdom. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) provides over 60% of these services while the rest are shared among other government agencies and the private sector. A series of development plans in Saudi Arabia have established the infra-structure for the expansion of curative services all over the country. Rapid development i...

  15. Medication burden of Saudi Arabian women receiving antiresorptive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Sadat-Ali M; Al-Shafie B; Al-Omran AS; Azam MQ

    2012-01-01

    Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Bader Al-Shafie,2 Abdallah S Al-Omran,1 Mohammed Q Azam11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacy, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi ArabiaBackground and purpose: Osteoporosis is common in the Saudi Arabian population, and its successful treatment requires full compliance. Patients who require antiresorptive therapy, such as oral bisphosphonates, may suffer from other disease...

  16. Perinatal stroke in Saudi children. Clinical features and risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Abdel-gader, Abdel-galil M.; Al-jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Al-nasser, Mohammed N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. METHODS Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and...

  17. Saudi Araabia ei kavatse lubada tänavail ühtegi meeleavaldust / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Saudi Araabias keelati igasugused protestimeeleavaldused, samas on 11. märtsiks välja kuulutatud "raevupäev". Veebruaris tegid 10 islamistliku intelligentsi esindajat katse luua opositsioonijõud, mõni päev hiljem nad vangistati

  18. Providing culturally congruent care for Saudi patients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutair, Abbas Saleh Al; Plummer, Virginia; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Clerehan, Rosemary

    2014-02-01

    This article aims to increase an awareness of caring for Saudi families by non-Saudi nurses to improve their understanding of culturally competent care from a Saudi perspective. Healthcare providers have a duty of a care to deliver holistic and culturally specific health care to their patients. As a consequence of 'duty of care' obligations, healthcare providers must facilitate culturally congruent care for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds. For the Saudi family considerable cultural clashes may arise when Saudi patients are hospitalized and receive care from healthcare professionals who do not understand Islamic principles and Saudi cultural beliefs and values. The healthcare workforce in Saudi Arabia is a unique multicultural workforce that is mix of Saudi and significant other nationalities. Saudi nurses for example represent only 36.3% of the workforce in the different health sectors. Whilst the different ethnic and cultural background expatriate nurses represent 63.7% (Ministry of Health, 2010). This article also could increase the awareness of healthcare professionals caring for Arab and Muslims patients in another context in the world. PMID:24787260

  19. Saudi Aramco describes crisis oil flow hike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco)

  20. Operators in Yemen draw warning from Saudis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that foreign oil companies with concessions in northern Yemen have been drawn into a border dispute between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. At least six companies received letters from the Saudi government warning them that steps, as yet undefined, will be taken if exploration extends into disputed areas. A second territorial dispute also appears to be brewing in the region. Iran has ejected United Arab Emirates nationals from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf, which is jointly administered by Iran and Sharjah, one of the emirates. The U.A.E. government has reported the situation to the Gulf Cooperation Council, triggering a denial from Iran that anyone has been deported from the island

  1. Saudi Arabia: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco), the only operator in the country, that has accelerated its production expansion program aimed at boosting capacity from the current 8.5 million bpd to 10 million bpd. Initially expected to be completed by 1999, it now appears a sustainable 10 million bpd rate may be attainable by 1996. By this time next year, at least nine major onshore projects will have been started as well as five offshore. Included will be development of Hawtah, the initial oil discovery in the Central province south of Riyadh. The program also means significantly increased drilling. In fact, 1991 completions should easily double those of last year

  2. Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Haseeb A.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Williams, Joseph B.; Champagne, Alex M.; Shobrak, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge...

  3. Consanguinity among the Saudi Arabian population.

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. El-Hazmi; al-Swailem, A R; Warsy, A S; al-Swailem, A M; Sulaimani, R; A. A. Al-Meshari

    1995-01-01

    This study was conducted on 3212 Saudi families to investigate the prevalence of consanguineous marriages. The families were interviewed and the information on the relationship between the husband and wife was obtained. The overall rate of consanguinity shows that 57.7% of the families screened were consanguineous. The most frequent were first cousin marriages (28.4%) followed by distant relative marriages (15.2%) and second cousin marriages (14.6%). The families were grouped according to the...

  4. Vitamin d deficiency in Saudi Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsammak, M Y; Al-Wosaibi, A A; Al-Howeish, A; Alsaeed, J

    2010-05-01

    Vitamin D plays a critical role in bone metabolism and many cellular and immunological processes. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with various chronic diseases especially rickets in children and osteoporosis in adults. Adequate vitamin D intake is of paramount importance to protect against bone metabolic diseases and prevent the occurrence of complications (e. g., fracture and bone pains). This study aimed at the evaluation of vitamin D levels in a cohort of healthy Saudi Arabs. The comprised 139 healthy subjects coming for regular blood donation. Participants had full clinical examination and evaluation of their calcium and vitamin D intake and the degree of exposure to sunlight. Serum 25-OH vitamin D was determined using Liasion chemiluminescent immunoassay and serum parathormone levels were determined using the Architect 2,000 immunochemiluminescent assay. Our results showed increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency between Saudi Arabs (both males and females) in the studied group of subjects. Serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) did not correlate with serum vitamin D level in either male or female groups (pimportance for screening for vitamin D deficiency (irrespective of PTH level). We hypothesize that the reported vitamin D deficiency in the studied group of Saudi Arabs may reflect a possible inadequacy of the current level of vitamin D fortification of food products. We suggest that higher level of fortification of food products with vitamin D may be needed to compensate for the reduced skin vitamin D synthesis due to poor exposure to sunlight and to reverse this state of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabs. PMID:20213587

  5. Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Glomerulonephritis (GN) is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS) is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD) encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in ...

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptibility in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Alrajhi, Abdulrahman A.; Ali M. Al-Barrak

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To present the available susceptibility data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) isolates from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) published in peer-reviewed journals. METHODS In a meta-analysis, studies published between 1966 and 2001 were included. Publication sites include Medline-indexed and non-indexed. Numbers of grown and resistant isolates were tabulated for first-line anti-tuberculosis agents. RESULTS Twelve studies met the pre-set criteria. Data o...

  7. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors in western Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bokhary, Rana Y; Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah A

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the pattern of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in the population of 2 large tertiary centers in the western province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS This retrospective study used cases diagnosed as GIST at the histopathology laboratories of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital between January 2000 and October 2009, and King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Jeddah, KSA, between January 2002 and December 2008. Additionally, cas...

  8. Medical liability litigation in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Saeed Abdulhamid

    2010-01-01

    Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H-1429H (1999-2008) were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together with the trend a...

  9. Human brucellosis in Northern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Samira M. Fallatah; Adekunle J. Oduloju; Saad N. Al-Dusari; Yisa M. Fakunle

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Analysis of the clinical features, laboratory findings, treatment given and complications seen in brucellosis patients at the Northern Area Armed Forces Hospital, Hafr Al-Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS We retrieved and reviewed the record charts of all patients from January 1995 to December 2001 with a clinical diagnosis of brucellosis whose brucella agglutination titre was 1:160 or greater from the Medical Records Department of Northern Area Armed Forces Hospital...

  10. Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Madani Tariq A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Saudi Arabia (SA) and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%), trichomoniasis (...

  11. Oral lesions in Saudi renal transplant patients

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mohaya Maha; Darwazeh Azmi; Bin-Salih Salih; Al-Khudair Waleed

    2009-01-01

    Renal transplantation has evolved as the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. Different oral problems arise in these patients, either as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or pharmacokinetics. To determine the prevalence of intra-oral lesions in a group of medically stable Saudi renal transplant patients (RTP) and to identify possible risk factors, in comparison with age and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCS), we studied 58 RTP and 52 HC...

  12. Temperature Trend on Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdellatif Esawy A. Abdou

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate temperature trend and distribution over 29 years period (1985 to 2013) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, the holiest city for all Muslims. Monthly mean, maximum, and minimum temperature levels and their trends are investigated using Regression analysis and Theil-Sen nonparametric test. Also, trends in deviations from the reference period (1985-2013) are analyzed. The results showed that the number of hot days and nights increase...

  13. Regional Security Issues in Contemporary Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Jonas Nogel; Kababo, Anas Yoseph; Madsen, Signe Røskva; Petersen, Asger Bagge

    2014-01-01

    In this project we seek to analyse what security issues the country of Saudi Arabia is facing in the Middle East and the Gulf. These issues are analysed from the theoretical framework of Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, and their theory on Regional Security Complex. The analysis framework of securitization is divided into five sectors, our analysis being conducted only in the political, military, economic and societal sectors. This has allowed us to deconstruct and get an understand...

  14. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Otaibi Fawzia; El Hazmi Malak

    2010-01-01

    Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431) with a cult...

  15. Quality of Life among Saudi Diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad S. Al-Shehri

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: To assess QOL among Saudi diabetics and to identify the possible risk factors associated with lower QOL. Patients and Methods: This study comprised 400 diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Clinic at theUniversityDiabetesCenterinRiyadh. They were interviewed using the Audit of Diabetes Dependent QOL (ADDQOL). Results: Most diabetic patients (78.7%) had negative (i.e., unfavorable) ADDQOL scores. Diabetic patients' age, education and occupation were not ...

  16. Aedes Mosquito Species in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alikhan, Masroor; Ghamdi, Khalid Al; Mahyoub, Jazem Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The Aedes Meigen (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito species populations in the western region of Saudi Arabia, especially in and around Jeddah, are increasing, therefore increasing susceptibility of humans to the dengue virus. An extensive survey was carried out for one year, and four species were identified with the help of different pictorial keys available. The identification was based on morphological characteristics of adult female Aedes mosquitoes.

  17. Kas Saudi Araabia naftatulu leiab tee Rootsi pangandusturule? / Romet Enok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Enok, Romet

    2008-01-01

    Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma

  18. The dangers of incense burning: COPD in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kassimi FA

    2013-01-01

    Feisal A Al-KassimiDepartment of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaWe read with great interest the article titled "Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: hospital and intensive care unit outcomes in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia"1 and we would like to comment on its methodology.View original paper by Alaithan and colleagues.

  19. Clinical aspects of malaria in the Asir Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, G M; Seidi, O; El-Taher, A; Mohammed, A S

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred and thirty-four cases of confirmed malaria seen in the Asir Central Hospital, Abha, in southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied retrospectively. Two hundred and eighty-two of these (84.4%) were Saudis and the majority (72.2%) were living in the lowlands of Tihama. Transmission was found to occur throughout the year, with peaks following the rainy season and in the summer. In Saudis, falciparum malaria is more common than vivax (97.2% vs. 2.8%), while vivax malaria is more commonly seen in expatriates (46.2%). Poor response of falciparum malaria to chloroquine was more prevalent in expatriates than in Saudis (46.4% vs. 23%). Most of the expatriates gave a history of recent travel to countries known to be endemic with resistant malaria. The possibility of the emergence of chloroquine-resistant malaria in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia was discussed. PMID:17341908

  20. Environmental education in Saudi general environment system - an engineering perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Saudi Cabinet of Ministers approved the Saudi General Environment System (SGES) in 2001. This approval is considered a step forward towards preserving the environment in Saudi Arabia. One of the targets of this system is to make environmental planning as an un-replaceable part of every comprehensive development planning in all industrial, agricultural, and architectural sectors. Achieving such a target requires a specialized labor force. Therefore, College of Engineering should act positively and actively in disseminating environmental awareness among engineers since they play a major rule in development projects. A degree in environmental engineering is a must at present, which is not available yet at any university in Saudi Arabia. Details of a B. Sc degree in environmental engineering offered by two universities in USA, are discussed. The syllabus of a degree in environment engineering adapted for the Saudi environment and culture is outlined

  1. Saudi nurses' perceptions of nursing as an occupational choice: a qualitative interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Gazzaz, Lamya Asaad

    2009-01-01

    Background: Saudi Arabia has always been dependent on non-Saudi nurses. However, the recruitment of these nurses has been challenged by the consequences of the first Gulf War of 1991 and the political unrest in the Middle East ever since. Moreover, the annual supply of Saudi nursing graduates has been insufficient in meeting the demands of the expanding healthcare services. Indeed, Saudi nurses make less than 30% of the total nursing workforce Kingdom wide. The Saudi literature links the shor...

  2. The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huraib S

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

  3. Tuberculosis Trends in Saudis and Non-Saudis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – A 10 Year Retrospective Study (2000–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzeid, Mohammad S.; Zumla, Alimuddin I.; Felemban, Shaza; Alotaibi, Badriah; O’Grady, Justin; Memish, Ziad A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), which has a very large labour force from high TB endemic countries. Understanding the epidemiological and clinical features of the TB problem, and the TB burden in the immigrant workforce, is necessary for improved planning and implementation of TB services and prevention measures. Methods A 10 year retrospective study of all TB cases reported in KSA covering the period 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2009. Data was obtained from TB reporting forms returned to the Ministry of Health. Data were then organised, tabulated and analysed for annual incidence rates by province, nationality, country of origin and gender. Results There was an annual increase in the number of TB cases registered from 3,284 in 2000 to 3,964 in 2009. Non-Saudis had nearly twice the TB incidence rate compared to Saudis (P?=?Tabuk) showed decreasing TB incidence rates. The highest rates were seen in the 65+ age group. In the 15–24 year age group the incidence rate increased from 15.7/100,000 in 2000 to 20.9/100,00 in 2009 (P?=?<0.05). The incidence of TB in Saudi males was higher than Saudi females. Conversely, for non-Saudis the TB incidence rates were significantly higher in females compared to males. Conclusions Despite significant investments in TB control over 15 years, TB remains an important public health problem in the KSA affecting all age groups, and Saudis and non-Saudis alike. Identification of the major risk factors associated with the persistently high TB rates in workers migrating to KSA is required. Further studies are warranted to delineate whether such patients re-activate latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection or acquire new M.tb infection after arrival in KSA. Appropriate interventions are required to reduce TB incidence rates as have been implemented by other countries. PMID:22745765

  4. Gamma Ray Shielding from Saudi White Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Okla, Al-horayess; Omar, Al-dayel; Jameel, Hefne; Turki, Al-ajyan; Ali, Bagazi

    2010-01-01

    This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements in each shield material were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained from the ICP-MS were used in MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer ...

  5. Outcome of stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one ave died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating persistent neurologic or cognitive deficits. Primary prevention for recurrences is feasible through informed genetic counseling. (author)

  6. Pediatric burns in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulatif A. Gari; Yahya A. Al-Ghamdi; Hamed S. Qutbuddeen; Munzir M. Alandonisi; Faisal A. Mandili; Alaa Sultan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Results: The mean age was 5.97, and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common cause was scalding (81.7%). Approximately 92.8% o...

  7. Toxoplasmosis in Goats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    R.S. Aljumaah; Hussein, M. F.; Al-mufarrej, S.I.; A.R. Gar ElNabi

    2011-01-01

    During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1) along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2) were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the contr...

  8. Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. Howevere of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

  9. Stress among dentists in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and lem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)

  10. Liver size in Saudi Children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. A large sample of children was selected from the general population by multistage random probability sampling for the assessment of physical growth. A random subsample of children-newborns to 18 years old-was taken from this larger sample for this study. Liver size below the costal margin and liver span along the midclavicular line were determined by physicians. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and medians and standard deviations were calculated. Between 2004 and 2005, 18 112 healthy children up to 18 years of age were examined. All were term and appropriate for gestational age. There were 9 130 boys and 8 982 girls, yielding a nearly 1:1 male to female ratio. The maximum palpable liver size below the costal margin was 2.4 cm. The median and + 2 SD liver span at birth were 4 and 6.9 cm, respectively. There was no difference in the liver span between boys and girls of up to 60 months of age. Thereafter, a difference could be seen increasing with age, with girls having smaller liver spans than boys. This manuscript reports the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. The data should help physicians in the interpretation of liver size determined by physical examination of children and adolescents. (author)

  11. Indonesians in Saudi Arabia: Worhsip and Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Husson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, which  opens a new  line of research,  is intended  to make a first assessment of the consequences  of Indonesian migration to saudi Arabia,  in particular  during  the  first half of the 2Oth century-a period when the immigration is bound  up with the pilgrimage from which Saudi Arabia draws a large part of its revenues. It must be added  that while documentary  evidence and partial studies on  this period  exist,  it turns out that documentation on the contemporary period  is scarce. This article also  is concerned with describing the evolution  of certain striking  aspects of the close  relation  between  the pilgrimage to Mecca  and Indonesian migrants  looking  for work.  We need to consider  the methods  of hiring  labor,  the networks  involved  in recruiting it, the organization  of travel,  as well as the increasing indebtedness  of the migrants  through  intermediaries  who, more and more professionally, arrange  these attempts  to live abroad, prompted in many cases by the same desire  for wealth.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v4i4.767

  12. Monetary Policy in Saudi Arabia: A Taylor-Rule Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hussein Almounsor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the stance of actual monetary policy in Saudi Arabia relative to a benchmark Taylor-rule calibration of short-term interest rates. In addition, the reaction function of monetary policy in Saudi Arabia is estimated empirically to understand the behavior of interest rates using an augmented Taylor-rule equation. The results indicates that the Saudi monetary authorities do not follow the Taylor-rule in any strict way. The actual stance of monetary policy is found to be tight in the early period of analysis, but found to be loose since 2007, relative to the calibration outcomes. Empirically, it appears that the Federal Funds Rate is the most significant factor affecting the behavior of Saudi interest rate, given the fixed exchange rate with the USD. However, there seems to be a modest accommodation of monetary policy to productivity growth, diversification efforts, and the need for increased financial intermediation over time.

  13. Saudi rahuplaan ajas Iisraeli juhid tülli / Marek Laane

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laane, Marek, 1969-

    2002-01-01

    Saudi Araabia esitatud Lähis-Ida rahuplaan on ajanud Iisraeli juhtkonna tülli: peaminister Ariel Sharon on selle vastu, president Moshe Katsar on aga valmis saudidega kohtuma. Kaart: Iisraeli muutuvad piirid

  14. Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

  15. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Latifa K. Khan; Alhamdan, Adel A.H.; Saada M. Alorf; Abdulaziz M. Al-Othman; Rabab J. Makki

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing),...

  16. Sickle beta 0 thalassemia in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Pembrey, M. E.; Perrine, R. P.; Wood, W. G.; Weatherall, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The sickle cell (beta s) gene occurs at a high frequency in the oasis populations of Eastern Saudi Arabia. However, as compared with the disorder in Africans, sickle cell anemia runs an unusually benign clinical course in this populations; this has been attributed in part to the relatively high levels of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) which characterize Saudi Arabians with this condition [1, 2]. As yet, there is no satisfactory explanation for this remarkable phenomenon. To learn more about the expr...

  17. Sickle cell anemia morbidity in Northern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    George I. Izuora; Saad N. Al-Dusari; Yisa M. Fakunle

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Documentation of the morbidity in sickle cell patients presenting at the Northern Area Armed Forces Hospital, Hafr Al Batin, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the burden of delivering care to these patients. METHODS The record charts of all Saudi patients with Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) admitted between June 1994 through to July 2001 were retrospectively analyzed. Focus was on age of patients, frequency of admissions, duration of hospital stay and requirements for blood transfusio...

  18. The knowledge of breast cancer among young Saudi females.

    OpenAIRE

    Wafa A. Sait; Samia M. Al-Amoudi; Dalal A. Tawtai; Abduljabbar, Hassan S

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students. METHODS A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionna...

  19. Man-threatening viruses isolated from ticks in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed S. Al-Khalifa; Fathy M. Diab; Khalil, Galila M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine tick viruses transmissible to man in Saudi Arabia. METHODS We collected tick samples for identification from different region of Saudi Arabia during March 1992 - December 1992. Ticks collected from domestic animals were washed with buffer containing antibiotics, macerated, triturated in minimal essential media (MEM), centrifuged and the supernatant inoculated intracerebrally in suckling mice. Brains of mice showing disease signs were similarly treated and the ...

  20. CYP2C9 polymorphism studies in the Saudi population.

    OpenAIRE

    Saour, Jalal N.; Shereen, Atia W.; Saour, Basil J.; Mammo, Layla A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of CYP2C9 polymorphism in normal Saudis (controls), in Saudi patients with venous thrombosis, in patients requiring low dose warfarin (study group) for anticoagulation, and to compare our results to those from other populations. METHODS Blood from the control and study groups was collected from November 2001 to November 2008. The DNA was extracted, stored at -70°C and later tested for the CYP2C9 polymorphism using established methods. Clinical ...

  1. Organizational E-Government Readiness: An Investigation in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim A.; Robert Goodwin; Giselle Rampersad

    2014-01-01

    Given the significant investment in e-government programs internationally and the pertinent need fore-government readiness to allow such programs to germinate, the purpose of this study is to assessOrganizational E-Government Readiness (OEGR) in Saudi Arabia. Based on interviews held with leadinge-Government officials in Saudi Arabia, the study contributes a conceptual framework to evaluate OEGR factorsin order to advance public sector transformation to E-Government. The study reveals that ke...

  2. Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described

  3. Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen; Suneetha Epuru; Bushra Fatima Syeda; Wedad Flyyh Mtlk Al Rashedi

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported infor...

  4. Nutritional Status among a Sample of Saudi College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar M. EL-Qudah; Hasan Al-Omran; Bassam Abu-Alsoud; Tasnim O. I. Al-Shek Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional habits and health behaviors have been a major concern for public health, especially among vulnerable groups such as teenage and college students. This study aims to assess nutritional status of a sample of Saudi college students and their dietary behaviors. A multi-stage sample was obtained from a private college in the north-western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Descriptive statistics was used to assess the frequency of some nutritional habits and their correlation...

  5. Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Al Salloum Abdullah; El Mouzan Mohammad; Al Herbish Abdullah; Al Omar Ahmad; Qurashi Mansour

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children.Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. Subjects and Methods: We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saud...

  6. Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rashed Mohamed S; Alsmadi Osama; Al-Mubarak Bashair R; Trabzuni Danyah; Al-Sayed Moeen; Imtiaz Faiqa; Meyer Brian F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases ...

  7. Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jastaniah Wasil

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the E...

  8. Pattern of management of urologic cancer in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Othman Khalid; Al-Hathal Naif

    2010-01-01

    Background: To compare the current uro-oncologic practice pattern in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care practice and to identify obstacles in our health care system that prevent offering such a treatment. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 247 practicing urologists in Saudi Arabia using a designed questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 19 questions focusing on management of bladder and renal cancers. Results: Of the 247 contacted urologists, 86 completed the questionnaire. Sevent...

  9. Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders among Secondary School Saudi Female Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy A. Darwish; Shatha Z. Al-Zuhair

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was conducted to estimate prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal pain disorders among secondary school Saudi female teachers in Al-Khobar area and the psychodemographic and psychosocial factors that may affect them. Material and Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using sample of secondary schools teachers (governmental and private school) in Al-Khobar area, Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Result. P...

  10. Saudi Financial Structure and Economic Growth: A Macroeconometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Moosa Ageli; Shatha Mousa Zaidan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the nexus between financial sector development and economic growth in the Saudi economy over the period 1970-2012 by using four alternative proxies for financial development and several techniques including unit root tests, the co-integration test, the Granger Causality Test, and the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). We used time series econometrics techniques to examine the causal relationship between financial sector development and economic growth in the Saudi e...

  11. Pattern of third molar impaction in a Saudi population

    OpenAIRE

    Ali H. Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Ali H Hassan11Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the current pattern of third molar impaction in a sample of Saudi patients.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine orthopantomograms (OPG) of patients ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (536 males and 503 females) were evaluated to determine the frequency of impacted third molars, their levels of eruption, and their angulations.Results: Four hundred twe...

  12. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi; Ali Al-Zahrani

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR) were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the cit...

  13. Stroke in Saudi children. Epidemiology, clinical features and risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Abdel-gader, Abdel-galil M.; Al-jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Bahakim, Hassan M.; Kurbaan, Khadija M.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Al-nasser, Mohammed N.; Nasir, Ali A.; Khoja, Waleed A.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. METHODS The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 20...

  14. Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Turki Haifa; Al-Turki Rasha; Al-Dardas Hiba; Al-Gazal Manal; Al-Maghrabi Ghada; Al-Enizi Nawal; Ghareeb Basema

    2010-01-01

    Background : Nursing Staff is reported to be under extreme state of stress, leading to burnout syndrome (BS). Most of the studies have been conducted among the nurses working in their home countries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods : King Fahd University Hospital, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, is a tertiary care hospital employing 510 nurses of multinational workforce. Two hundred and fifty Masla...

  15. Saudi Arabian Nurses. are they prone to burnout syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Al-turki, Haifa A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To find out the prevalence of Burnout syndrome (BS) in Saudi nurses. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study involving 60 female Saudi nurses in the workforce of King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, which is a tertiary care center for the eastern province. Between May and August 2009, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) individual-based questionnaire was distributed after modification to include age, marital status, unit working and number of years in service. We used the...

  16. The Impact of Saudi Arabia King Abdullah’s Scholarship Program in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Taylor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the current Saudi educational landscape in the U.S. Information is provided on the King Abdullah Scholarship Program that makes it possible for Saudi students to study abroad, information on the top states and colleges with the largest Saudi student enrollments, and what the future looks like for the Scholarship Program. This paper is the first of two papers dealing with Saudi education in the U.S. The next paper is based on original research and provides the results of surveys administered to Saudi students throughout the U.S. about their experiences on U.S. campuses. Directors of International Programs were also surveyed and the paper contrasts their perceptions with Saudi student perceptions in addressing student needs. The next paper also discusses the impact western education is having on Saudi culture and how Saudi culture is affecting colleges and universities in the U.S.

  17. Ultraviolet solar radiation at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of ultraviolet solar radiation for the period January 1985 to December 1987 at Dhahran (26°32?N, 50°13?E), Saudi Arabia, are analyzed. Dependence of ultraviolet radiation on the atmospheric clearness index is investigated. For a clearness index above 0.65, the ratio of ultraviolet radiation to total horizontal radiation is a constant value of 3.45%. For a clearness index below 0.65, the ratio was found to vary significantly with clearness index but it was also a strong function of the meteorological events (i.e., rainfall, clouds and suspended dust) bringing about the clearness index change. A ratio of ultraviolet to total horizontal radiation as high as 4.6% was reached on a rainy day, while a ratio as low as 2.1% was obtained for a dusty day

  18. Self-medication in Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljadhey, Hisham; Assiri, Ghada A.; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa; Murray, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of self-medication and assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perception of consumers toward self-medication. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted over 4 weeks in May 2011 in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Community pharmacies within 5 areas of the city (North, South, West, East, and Middle) were randomly selected for the study. All consumers were approached to participate in the study, with the exception of those buying cosmetic and medicinal equipments. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: A total of 538 out of 707 consumers attending community pharmacies in Riyadh city, agreed to participate in the study. Most responders were male (73%), 23-33 years old (35%), and college graduates (42%). A total of 285 medications were bought without a prescription. Of these, 149 (49%) medications should be dispensed by prescription only, and 155 (51%) were over the counter medications. The most common prescription medications dispensed without prescriptions were antibiotics (22%) and analgesics/antipyretics (19%). The most common reasons for buying medications without a prescription were that the symptoms were too minor to visit a doctor (54%), time saving (40%), and minor illnesses for which the participants knew the required treatment (40%). Overall, most participants had poor knowledge, and negative perceptions regarding self-medication. More than 68% of participants did not know whether the medicine they bought is a prescription-only or over the counter medication. Conclusion: Irresponsible self-medication is common in Saudi Arabia. Future studies should focus on improving the consumers’ awareness of self-medication and the proper use of medications. PMID:25737176

  19. Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.

  20. Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

  1. Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-ghaith, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the ...

  2. Distribution of ABO blood groups and rhesus factor in Southwest Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed A. Sarhan; Kamel A. Saleh; Saad M. Bin-Dajem

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To document the distribution of the ABO and rhesus (Rh) blood groups in a random sample of Saudi students from the King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to compare our results from that of other studies in the Kingdom and elsewhere. METHODS The subjects included in this study were 944 males from the southwest region of Saudi Arabia including Aseer, Jizan, and Najran regions. The ABO blood groups and Rh factor from 944 Saudi males were determined. The f...

  3. Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

    This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia. Second, the policymakers in Saudi Arabia should be more concerned with increasing productivity through adopting new technologies that increase economic prosperity. Therefore, the policymakers should continue diversifying economic resources and reduce their reliance on oil.

  4. E-learning Accessibility for Saudi Women: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Al Alhareth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Saudi government has made significant efforts and heavily invested in its e-learning innovation in order to offer students alternative opportunity to complete their higher education. However despite all the efforts being made, Saudi Arabia is still in the early stage of its e-learning development and faces many challenges especially for female’s students from their ability to take the benefit of such technology. Therefore, understanding the ability of Saudi women to access and use e-learning is more important than just make it available for them. In other words, the use of e-learning involves not just technical availability but the capability to benefit. In this regards, this paper will review the literature of e-learning accessibility for Saudi women by considering several different aspects including: general information about Saudi Arabia (e.g. country, society, education system, women’s education, higher education and e-learning, challenges of e-learning and women’s capacity to access e-learning freely.

  5. Isotopic composition of Riyadh rainfall, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Nils; Reshid, Mustefa; Siebert, Christian; Schulz, Stephan; Rausch, Randolf; Knöller, Kay; Weise, Stephan; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Schüth, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Arid countries like Saudi Arabia often depend on fossil groundwater. Hence, thorough studies of the available resources are crucial. In the course of such investigations, analyses of ?18O and ?D are frequently applied to constrain the provenance of the waters and to reconstruct the (paleo)climatic conditions during their recharge. Yet, to be able to evaluate the isotopic signature of the groundwater, one also has to know the isotopic composition of current precipitation. Although a few rain water analyses are available for Central Saudi Arabia in the literature - mostly in unpublished consultant reports - a Local Meteoric Water Line has never been established. To complement the available data, 28 rain events occurring in Riyadh between 2009 and 2013 were studied for their stable isotope composition. Samples were collected as integral samples, i.e., they represent the entire precipitation event. Moreover, one event was sampled several times, aiming at an evaluation of intra-storm variability. During selected storms, a grab sample was taken for 3H analysis. The event samples showed ?18O and ?D values scattering between -6.5 and +9.5 and between -30 and +50 ‰ V-SMOW, respectively. In the course of the event that was sequentially sampled, a proceeding isotopic depletion was observed with respect to both isotopes. The relatively large ranges of ?-values for 18O and D of approximately 7 and 38 ‰ V-SMOW highlight the general need for integral sampling. The obtained grab samples are characterized by moderate 3H concentrations of a few Tritium Units. Further results will be presented and discussed in view of associated weather data (e.g. rain amount and temperature) and the probable moisture sources derived from back-trajectories, which were calculated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler & Rolph, 2003). References Draxler, R.R. & Rolph, G.D. (2013): HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model, access via NOAA ARL READY Website (http://www.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php). NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, College Park, MD.

  6. Disparities in Health Care Delivery and Hospital Outcomes between Non-Saudis and Saudi Nationals Presenting with Acute Coronary Syndromes in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFaleh, Hussam F.; Al Shamiri, Mostafa Q.; Ullah, Anhar; AlHabib, Khalid F; Hersi, Ahmad Salah; AlSaif, Shukri; AlNemer, Khalid; Taraben, Amir; Malik, Asif; Abuosa, Ahmed M; LA, Mimish; Kashour, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Background Saudi Arabia has a non-Saudi workers population. We investigated the differences and similarities of expatriate non-Saudi patients (NS) and Saudi nationals (SN) presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with respect to therapies and clinical outcomes. Methods The study evaluated 2031 of the 5055 ACS patients enrolled in the Saudi Project for Assessment of Acute Coronary Syndrome (SPACE) from 2005 to 2007. Propensity score matching and logistic regression analysis were performed to account for major imbalances in age and sex in the two groups. Results The mean patient age was 56.2±9.8, and 83.5% of the study cohort were male. SN were more likely to have risk factors of atherosclerosis. ST-elevation MI (STEMI) was the most common ACS presentation in NS, while non-ST ACS was more common in SN. The median symptom-to-door time was significantly greater in NS patients (Median 175 min (197) vs. 130 min (167), p=0.027). The only difference in pharmacological therapies between the two groups was that NS were more likely to receive fibrinolytic therapy. NS were less likely than SN to undergo percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI; 32.6% vs. 42.8%, p=0.0001) or primary PCI (7.8% vs. 22.8%, p<0.001). Hospital mortality, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure were significantly higher in NS compared to SN. After adjusting for baseline variables and therapies, the odds ratios for hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock in NS were 2.9 (95% CI 1.5–6.2, p=0.004) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.5–4.9, p<0.001), respectively. Conclusion Our findings indicate disparities in hospital care between NS and SN ACS patients. NS patients had worse hospital outcomes, which may reflect unequal health coverage and access-to-care issues. PMID:25881231

  7. Wagner's Law in Saudi Arabia 1970 - 2012: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Moosa Ageli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal in this paper is to explorethe validity of Wagner’s Law in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012 for real oil GDP and Non-oil GDP.Wagner’s Law investigated that fundamental economic growth is validity to the public sector growth. In the previousstudies have been tested the six versions of Wagner’s law to support the existence of long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth.We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques to examine how far Wagner’s Law validity can be applied in Saudi economy. The results obtained from the analyses find that the Wagnerian proposition can explain the growth of government in Saudi Arabia, which holds for both the oil and non-oil income cases. The findings also note that the existence of strong causality for all of Wagner’s law versions in the long run.

  8. Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome in a Saudi Arabian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubaigy, Salah M; Hassan, H M

    2014-03-01

    In the course of applying to become a soldier, a 23-year-old Saudi Arabian man was found to have no fingerprints. Further medical examination has been carried out for the young man and for the rest of family members including two sisters, mother, and brothers except the father who had died sometime previously. Subsequent medical investigations suggested that he and his two brothers displayed most of the features of the Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn (NFJ) syndrome. These features included skin changes with hypo- and hyperpigmentation, hypohidrosis, dystrophy of the nails, diffuse thickening of the palms and feet, a lack of fingerprints (dermatoglyphics), and atrophic changes in the skin of the face; there were also dental anomalies. A typical feature of the Naegeli-Franceschetti-Jadassohn syndrome was found in a Saudi Arabian family. The aim of this study was to present this rare condition affecting a Saudi Arabian family and review the current literature on the subject. PMID:24261749

  9. 25-Hydoxyvitamin D. levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)

  10. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad A. Memish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.

  11. Rabies in Saudi Arabia: a need for epidemiological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Gautret, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007-2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country. PMID:25820096

  12. Cyberbullying among Saudi’s Higher-Education Students: Implications for Educators and Policymakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M Al-Zahrani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate cyberbullying among Saudi’s higher-education students. It also aimedto identify possible factors that may impact cyberbullying. A quantitative approach was implemented using an onlinesurvey questionnaire distributed to 287 students. The descriptive results indicated that students mainly avoidcyberbullying. However, about 27% of the students reported that they have committed cyberbullying at least once ortwice. Furthermore, 57% of the students observed at least one student being cyberbullied. Students encountercyberbullying usually by people whom they do not know and who contacted them over the Internet. In addition,students perceive cyberbullying as a serious issue. Thus, students seem to prefer asking cyberbullies to stop, butavoiding fighting back. Gender was found to impact on how often did students commit cyberbullying. Male studentswere involved in cyberbullying more than female students. In addition, single students more than married studentsencounter cyberbullying by people they know. Finally, students who access the Internet via personal devices observecyberbullying more than those using shared devices. Based on this, implications were analyzed and suggested wereproposed in relation to policy and practice.

  13. Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

  14. Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in develred from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

  15. Oral lesions in Saudi renal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Mohaya Maha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation has evolved as the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. Different oral problems arise in these patients, either as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or pharmacokinetics. To determine the prevalence of intra-oral lesions in a group of medically stable Saudi renal transplant patients (RTP and to identify possible risk factors, in comparison with age and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCS, we studied 58 RTP and 52 HCS. All subjects had a thorough oral examination and oral lesions were diagnosed according to the clinically accepted criteria. Gingival overgrowth (GO, erythematous candidiasis (EC and hairy leukoplakia (HL were diagnosed in RTP with prevalence of 74.1%, 15.5%, and 8.6%, respectively. The severity of the gingival overgrowth significantly correlated with the use of cyclosporine and nifedipine combination therapy, serum cyclosporine, and serum creatinine level. In conclusions, the finding of our study strongly propose that RTP should undergo routine and regular comprehensive oral examination, and any suspicious lesion must be investigate and treated.

  16. A safety decision analysis for Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of a nuclear research facility should be the first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors from USA are selected for the present study. The IFDA computer code, based on the fuzzy set theory is applied. Results reveal that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best. 17 refs

  17. Econometric Testing of the Displacement Effect: the Saudi Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ageli, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have to explore the Displacement Effect in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012) for real oil GDP and Non Oil GDP. We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques to examine how far the Displacement Effect validity can be applied in Saudi economy, by Using time series annual data for the periods during (1970 to 2012), (1970 to 1990) and (1991 to 2012). Three distinct time series techniques have been applied. The results obtained from the analyses find that the ...

  18. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor knowledge, and unfavorable attitude to donation. Educational programs are necessary to increase the level of knowledge and improve the attitude of the Saudi public toward blood donation. Providing mobile blood collection units nearer to individuals' places of work to reduce their time costs of donating is a necessity. Keywords: knowledge, attitude, practice, blood donation, significant predictors, Saudi Arabia

  19. Public awareness of blood donation in Central Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Abolfotouh; Mh, Al-assiri; Al-Omani M; Al Johar A; Al Hakbani A; As, Alaskar

    2014-01-01

    Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Sa...

  20. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile Saudi women

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jaroudi Dania; Hussain Tasnim

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives : Since cervical cancer is reportedly the seventh most frequent cancer in women in Saudi Arabia and the eighth most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 and 44 years, we wanted to determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile women attending the reproductive medicine unit of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Methods : This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study. A Pap smear was done for 241 of 493 (48.9...

  1. Evaluation of medication package inserts in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Aqeel SA

    2012-01-01

    Sinaa A Al-aqeelClinical Pharmacy Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: The aim of this study was to examine if package inserts (PIs) supplied with prescribed and over-the-counter medications in Saudi Arabia contain information relevant for the safe and appropriate use of these medications.Methods: Sixty PIs for prescription-only medications (n = 37) and over-the-counter medications (n = 23) were evaluated against a set of safety criteria compiled from the ...

  2. Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kadri HM; Madkhali A; Al-Kadi MT; Bakhsh H; Alruwaili NN; Tamim HM

    2014-01-01

    Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal...

  3. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in two unrelated Saudi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alangari Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due to a change in the codon from CCT>CTT. Expression of PNP (146L cDNA in E coli indicated that the mutation greatly reduced, but did not completely eliminate PNP activity.

  4. Capacity building in radiopharmaceuticals: Saudi Arabia experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Undoubtedly, easy availability of radiopharmaceuticals is a key element in application of radioisotopes in health care. And, creating self-sufficiency within the country and the geographical region in manufacturing these time-limited products further enhances this prospect. For obvious reasons, on demand availability and timely distribution of products bodes well for a regional programme. At King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, one such programme began in early 1980s with the installation of the CS-30 (26.4 MeV) cyclotron, with an intention not only to make available the cyclotron products for medical imaging, but also to establish a contemporary research programme in radiotracer development as exemplified by simultaneous installation of a Tomogram (PET scanner) at the time when PET scanning was in its infancy. The first beam on target in 1982 produced the first batch of 67Ga citrate radiopharmaceutical, followed by an addition of various other cyclotron based products over the years. Presently, the Cyclotron Facility routinely produces six cyclotron isotopes (201Tl, 67Ga, 81mKr, 123I, 18F and 13N) which are subsequently formulated into nine different radiopharmaceuticals. Weekly, approximately 25 batches of radiopharmaceuticals are manufactured supporting 35 nuclear medicine facilities within the country and the geographical region. A key montry and the geographical region. A key motivating and driving force for our Centre has been the goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. Consequently, we introduced in Year 2000 the 131I based products for diagnosis as well as for therapy, including on-request manufacturing of 131I labeled mIBG. Good Manufacturing Practice is the cornerstone of any radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing program. KFSH and RC is a perfect example of how this operational and guiding principle has been applied and evolved over the years, culminating into an effective quality management system for manufacturing radiopharmaceutical products consistently conforming to specifications. The programme building has been 'work in progress' from the onset and continues to be so, particularly in establishment and implementation of strict operational philosophy of GMP and ISO quality management system. We also realized that people are the most important component of any viable program. For efficient functioning, the staff must be well qualified and appropriately trained to achieve the mission of the organization. This has been achieved through staff selection based upon educational background, followed by extensive on-the-job training, as well as didactic education. Consequently, our facility has had a good mix of young and experienced staff. Furthermore, we have availed of the various IAEA's programmes in specific training and fellowships for in depth exposure to other centres. With embarkation upon new programs, continuing education remains a central theme in ultimate success of the entire program. The experience gained over two decades of continuous operation breeds confidence in the staff to achieve the goal of making Saudi Arabia self-sufficient in all its radiopharmaceuticals needs. Continuing with our commitment to make available to the peoples of the country the most contemporary imaging modality, PET scanner was installed at KFSH and RC in 1995. Along with the routine PET work, we have established a team of scientists to perform research work in developing new radiotracers. KFSH and RC's cyclotron facility has continually focused on an overwhelming goal of becoming a comprehensive radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing facility. To this end, the year 2005 is the beginning of establishing just one such facility through expansion of the program that entails: a new building; a state-of-the-art cyclotron (30 MeV; plus a small cyclotron dedicated for PET isotopes production); advanced clean rooms; more importantly, the establishment of the Tc-99m Generators and Cold Kits manufacturing programs. Presentation will entail past, present

  5. Medical liability litigation in Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Saeed Abdulhamid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H-1429H (1999-2008 were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together with the trend along the studied period. Results: Data analysis showed an escalating trend for the total number of claims over the study period being started with 440 cases on 1420H and ended with 1356 cases by the year 1429H. The annual percentage of the final verdicts of accusation to the total number of claims presented to all committees ranges between 45.5%?60.2% with a mean value of 49.9%. Distribution of final verdicts among different clinical specialities showed that obstetrics takes the lead with a mean percentage of 25.5% along the studied period (1420H-1429H, followed by the practice of general surgery with a mean percentage of 13.8%. The sector of health care service showed a significant variation in relation to the mean number of final verdicts with accusation along the studied period, being the highest in the Ministry of Health sector with a mean number of 216.8 claims, followed by the private sector with a mean number of 197.3 claims. Conclusion: Adherence to the standards of medical practice is by far to the best approach to avoid and reduce the incidence of litigation.

  6. 75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ...by a combination of a large and growing economy and strong demographic fundamentals. Among Saudi Arabia's super-projects are...Billions more are going toward ultra-modern mega-commerce and tourism projects, and the country's strongly-competitive...

  7. Health Care Worker Contact with MERS Patient, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Aron J.; Tokars, Jerome I.; Badreddine, Samar A.; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M.; Gerber, Susan I.; Kuhar, David T.; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U.; Pallansch, Mark A.; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection.

  8. Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-12-19

    Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

  9. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

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    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  10. Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Saudi Arabia's 'Gas Initiative'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy

  11. The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar HA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hadeel A Mokhtar, Layla W Abuljadayel, Reem M Al-Ali, Mohammed Yousef Department of Operative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop® software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the “gummy: smile picture (P-value =0.003, diastema picture (P-value =0.000 and the “Reverse” smile picture (P-value =0.004. As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009. Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. “Dental background” participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the “nondental” group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. Keywords: diastema, gummy, reverse

  12. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mouzan Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective : There is limited information on overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to establish the national prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods : The 2005 Saudi reference data set was used to calculate the body mass index (BMI for children aged 5 to 18 years. Using the 2007 WHO reference, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined as the proportion of children with a BMI standard deviation score more than +1, +2 and +3, respectively. The 2000 CDC reference was also used for comparison. Results : There were 19 317 healthy children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age, 50.8% of whom were boys. The overall prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity in all age groups was 23.1%, 9.3% and 2%, respectively. A significantly lower prevalence of overweight (23.8 vs 20.4; P < .001 and obesity (9.5 vs 5.7; P < .001 was found when the CDC reference was used. Conclusions : This report establishes baseline national prevalence rates for overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Saudi children and adolescents, indicating intermediate levels between developing and industrialized countries. Measures should be implemented to prevent further increases in the numbers of overweight school-age children and adolescents and the associated health hazards.

  13. Senior-loken syndrome in a Saudi child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior-loken syndrome is a rare syndrome of retinopathy and nephronophthisis. The clinical features of this syndrome include renal involvement, ocular involvement, retinitis pigmentosa and other systemic involvement. We describe an 11- year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed to have this syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this syndrome from Arabian Peninsula. (author)

  14. Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

  15. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  16. Saudi Aramco details 1990 surge in oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabian Oil Co. that has jumped its crude oil production 29% to an average 6,257,600 b/d last year. That was Saudi Arabia's response to Iraq's Aug. 2, 1990, invasion of Kuwait and the ensuing Persian Gulf crisis with its United Nations embargo on Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports. It was Saudi Aramco's biggest average crude oil volume since the 6,327,220 b/d gauged in 1982, according to the company's 1990 annual report. By the end of 1990 Saudi Aramco's maximum sustained production capability was 8.5 million b/d of crude. To meet long term demand, it decided to advance the timetable and increase the scope of a crude oil expansion program adopted in 1989. Reserves at the end of the year were 257.9 billion bbl of crude and 180.5 tcf of dissolved, associated, and non-associated natural gas, compared with 257.5 billion bbl and 180.355 tcf at yearend 1989

  17. Large eruption complex odontome in a Saudi patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Khalid A

    2015-02-01

    Odontomas are odontogenic tumors formed of various dental tissues. They are classified into: central odontomas that are common, eruption odontomas that are rare with only 23 cases reported to date, and peripheral odontomas that are also rare. We present a case of a large complex eruption odontome in a 24-year-old Saudi male.  PMID:25719590

  18. Health care worker contact with MERS patient, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Aron J; Tokars, Jerome I; Badreddine, Samar A; Saad, Ziad Bin; Furukawa, Elaine; Al Masri, Malak; Haynes, Lia M; Gerber, Susan I; Kuhar, David T; Miao, Congrong; Trivedi, Suvang U; Pallansch, Mark A; Hajjeh, Rana; Memish, Ziad A

    2014-12-01

    To investigate potential transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to health care workers in a hospital, we serologically tested hospital contacts of the index case-patient in Saudi Arabia, 4 months after his death. None of the 48 contacts showed evidence of MERS-CoV infection. PMID:25418612

  19. Vegetation-Environment Relations in Taif, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ragab I. Abdel-Fattah; Akram A. Ali

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses the plant communities and environmental factors that govern species, abundance and distribution in Taif area, western Saudi Arabia, using TWINSPAN analysis. Twenty three vegetation groups were identified visual, seven groups dominated by Aerva lanata, Pergularia tomentosa, Arnebia hispidissima, Salsola spinescens, Capparis decidua, Aizoon canariense and Blepharis ciliaris in the sand plains, Calotropis procera, Dipterygium gluacum, Bassia muricata, Haloxylon scoparium, Aer...

  20. Female Islamic Studies Teachers in Saudi Arabia: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamjoom, Mounira I.

    2010-01-01

    This study highlights on describing the experiences of Saudi Arabian female Islamic Studies teachers by exploring what is means to be an Islamic Studies teacher teaching in the current unprecedented vibrant and complex tapestry of social, religious and political debates occurring in the larger context of the country. The study draws on…

  1. The contribution of the Saudi woman in economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haga Elimam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to analyze the contribution of Saudi woman in economic development of the country. This report develops an understanding of women contributions towards economic development. The method used to analyze the data was Pearson correlation. Through correlation we can determine the relationship between the variables. The study was a quantitative study. The data for five years was taken. Hypotheses development proceeded by focusing on labor work force participation, literacy rate of adult females and GDP rate within Saudi Arabia. Analysis was done on the results and the findings confirmed that there is a significant relationship between the variables. This study was of exploratory nature, it is recommended that this research be expanded to a statistically valid base within Saudi Arabia and then expand the study to additional countries. The findings showed that there was a high significant relationship between women labor work force participation and GDP. Whereas, there was moderate significant relationship between labor work force and literacy rate. Hence, there is a positive relationship between women contribution and economic development. The research is conducted within the context of Saudi Arabia and has certain limitation with further directions of conducting research in related field to get more accurate results.

  2. Fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in Saudi Arabia, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bcheraoui C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietary risks were the leading risk factors for death worldwide in 2010. However, current national estimates on fruit and vegetable consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are nonexistent. We conducted a large household survey to inform the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH on a major modifiable risk factor: daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years or older. It includes questions on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-recommended daily consumption of fruits and vegetables and different factors. Results: Between April and June 2013, a total of 10,735 participants completed the survey. Overall, 2.6% of Saudis aged 15 years or older met the CDC guidelines for daily consumption of fruits and vegetables. The likelihood of meeting the CDC guidelines increased with age; among women; among persons who graduated from elementary or high school or had a higher education; among residents of Makkah, Al Sharqia, Ha’il, or Jizan; among those who consumed at least two servings of meat or chicken per day; among those who visited a health care facility for a routine medical exam within the last 3 years; and among those who have been diagnosed with hypertension. Conclusion: We have showed that KSA is in dire need of improving the diet of its population. Our findings call for urgent research to understand the reasons for low fruit and vegetable consumption, focusing on price or preference in order to develop and implement culturally and country-relevant solutions to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Keywords: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fruits, vegetables, dietary risks, diet

  3. Leadership Styles and Organizational Learning An Empirical Study on Saudi Banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageeh A. Nafei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS and Organizational Learning (OL, might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1 the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2 the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research is practical, according to its purpose, and descriptive according to its data collection method. Three groups of employees at Saudi banks were reviewed. Of the 335 questionnaires that were distributed, 285 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 85%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards LS and OL. Also, this study reveals that the aspects of LS have a significantly direct effect on OL.Accordingly, the study provides a set of recommendations that included the need for Transactional Leadership Styles (TALS in general, and Transformational Leadership Style (TFLS in particular, in order to achieve the best response to the needs and wishes of the workers at Saudi banks to increase their contribution to the achievement of OL on the one hand, and raise the level of their performance and enhance competitive advantage of these organizations on the other hand.

  4. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of highy of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

  5. A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Almutairi Af, Mccarthy A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take c...

  6. Factors That Affect Consumption Patterns and Market Demands for Honey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Sobhy Ismaiel; Safar Al Kahtani; Nuru Adgaba; Al-ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Abdu Zulail

    2014-01-01

    Despite the significant annual consumption of honey in Saudi Arabia, information gaps remain with regard to the marketing and market structure of honey along the value chain. This study analyzed the major factors that influenced the consumption, expenditure patterns, and demand of honey in Saudi Arabia. This study forecasted the near-future expected market demands for honey in Saudi Arabia by collecting and analyzing the primary data using questionnaires. A total of 331 respondents from repre...

  7. A Note on the Ranking of Saudi Arabian Universities based on highlycited.com

    OpenAIRE

    Alanazi, Eisa

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Thomson Reuters has published its 2014 list of highly cited researchers (HCRs)[1]. Initial studies over the list [2] suggested that some universities (for instance, King Abdulaziz University in Saudi Arabia) may have been manipulating its world ranking by contracting with highly cited researchers. In this work, we analyse the ranking of other Saudi universities based solely on the list. Our analysis suggests that other universities in Saudi Arabia do not follow the...

  8. Emirati and Saudi Students’ Writing Challenges at U.S. Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadah Al Murshidi

    2014-01-01

    The study examines writing challenges Emirati and Saudi students face at U.S. universities. Based on a sample of 219, a mixed methods approach was used to analyze responses from the participants. The results of the questionnaire reveal that Less than 31% Emirati and Saudi students feel “comfortable” in completing written assignments. The interviews results indicate that Emirati and Saudi students have different opinions regarding writing difficulties. An Emirati student, stated: “I am w...

  9. Technology Transfer: A Case Study Analysis of the Saudi Oil and Petrochemical Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Ankari, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent past a number of technologies have been imported into The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This experience has affirmed the conviction that technology can make an invaluable contribution to the growth of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. However, in doing so, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, like other nations, faces some questions of possible obstacles, trials and errors during the course of industrial development and technology transfer, that can be addressed by utilising scienc...

  10. Technology transfer : a case study analysis of the Saudi oil and petrochemical sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ankari, Abdulrahman

    2009-01-01

    In the recent past a number of technologies have been imported into The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This experience has affirmed the conviction that technology can make an invaluable contribution to the growth of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. However, in doing so, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, like other nations, faces some questions of possible obstacles, trials and errors during the course of industrial development and technology transfer, that can be addressed by utilising scienc...

  11. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-maghrabi, T.; Dennis, C.

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...

  12. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in...

  13. Road Traffic Accidents in Saudi Arabia: An ARDL Approach and Multivariate Granger Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Moosa Ageli; Amal Mousa Zaidan

    2013-01-01

    The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA) and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999) for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and t...

  14. An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Iftekhar Ahmad; Anand Mohan Agrawal

    2012-01-01

    This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)has witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA) in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been abl...

  15. Petromin: the slow death of statist oil development in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Hertog, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    The paper recounts the history of Saudi Arabia's first national oil company, Petromin, which was originally supposed to take the place of foreign-owned Aramco. As a result of Petromin's inefficiency and personal rivalries among the Saudi elite, however, Petromin was progressively relegated to the sidelines in favour of a gradually 'Saudiised' Aramco. As a result, the organisation of the Saudi oil sector today is very different from - and more efficient than - that of most other oil exporters ...

  16. Factors influencing Saudi medical students and interns' choice of future specialty: a self-administered questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Alshahrani M; Dhafery B; Al Mulhim M; Alkhadra F; Al Bagshi D; Bukhamsin N

    2014-01-01

    Mohammed Alshahrani, Bander Dhafery, Mohammed Al Mulhim, Faisal Alkhadra, Doaa Albagshi, Noor BukhamsinKing Fahad Hospital of the University, Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: This study explores the most influential factors affecting Saudi medical students and interns' choice of specialty at the University of Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed during the period from June 1 to June 14, 2013. Chi-square...

  17. Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyrks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)

  18. Ajaleht väidab: Saudi Araabia on andnud Iisraelile võimaluse rünnata Iraani / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Londoni Timesi allikate väitel on Saudi Araabia nõustunud andma oma põhjapoolses õhuruumis Iisraeli käsutusse kitsa õhukoridori, mis võimaldab Iisraeli sõjalennukitel jõuda lühemat teed pidi pommitama Iraani tuumarajatisi. Kaart

  19. E-Commerce Adoption Factors and Their Implications for E-Commerce Business Strategy in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alsharif, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    This research project provides a comprehensive overview and current perspective of e-commerce usage and adoption factors in Saudi Arabia and seeks to explain why ecommerce use is still in a relatively immature state when compared to other regions. This study examines Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure readiness for online shopping and explores Saudi consumers’ behaviour and attitudes with regard to shopping online. An online survey was conducted to elicit general perceptions of Saudi consumers...

  20. WATER IN THE KINGDOM OF SAUDI ARABIA: SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KKhodran H. Al-Zahrani and M. B. Baig

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources affecting the Saudi development plans. The acute shortage of fresh water resources poses a major challenge in Saudi Arabia. Demand for fresh water is on the rise as sufficient water is no longer available to meet daily needs. Some 95% of water comes from aquifers. Desalination plants and waste water reclamation projects provide about 4% and 1% water respectively. About 30% of the water for household consumption comes from desalinating plants. The users of desalinated water of the Kingdom represent about 26% of world total. In the light of the present scenario of declining water resources and increasing demand, the Kingdom must consider the most viable option i.e. Water Demand Management (WDM. However, other necessary water conservation measures should not be overlooked. The article also suggests that in order to use water resources efficiently, factors such as economics, social aspects and environmental conditions must receive due consideration

  1. Tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia: the journey across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright

    2015-03-01

    Saudi Arabia is the third-largest Arab country with a moderate annual burden of tuberculosis. However, tuberculosis (TB) is among several infectious diseases that have not been brought under control, despite the government's considerable efforts. This is clearly evidenced by the ongoing transmission of several imported and indigenous clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, the country faces the threat from rising proportions of extrapulmonary TB, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections, and drug resistance. Furthermore, the country falls behind the global targets set by World Health Organization for the success rate of TB treatment. The country needs more population-based research studies, centralized and easily accessible clinical data registries, and centralized research and diagnostic facilities. This review focused on the trends of mycobacterial infections and on future proposals to improve TB control measures in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25771458

  2. Emotional abuse among children: a study in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarousy, W; Al-Jadaani, M

    2013-10-01

    Emotional abuse is the most hidden and underestimated form of child maltreatment. We report an exploratory study in Saudi Arabia of the rate and types of emotional abuse among children and its association with selected variables. A convenience sample of 60 children aged 12-18 years was recruited from 3 malls in Jeddah. A specially designed, self-administered questionnaire was completed in confidence by the children with the consent of parents. Overall 90% of participants reported at least 1 form of rejecting emotional abuse and 61.7% at least 1 form of ignoring or terrorizing types of abuse. Chronic illness among parents was significantly positively correlated with terrorizing emotional abuse. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mothers' relationship with the child and ignoring and terrorizing types of emotional abuse. Further research is needed about the community prevalence, correlates and consequences of child emotional abuse in Saudi Arabia. PMID:24313151

  3. Family Ownership, Corporate Governance and Performance: Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Ghamdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine the performance of companies listed in the Saudi Stock Exchange. For this purpose, we studied and tested a sample of 792 firm-years among from 11 industrial groups for the years 2006 to 2013 and compared Family and Non-family firms. The research addresses the questions 1 Do family owned firms perform better? 2 How does concentration of ownership affect firm performance, comparing family firms to non-family ones? This research attempts to fill a research gap on the relationship or determinants of capital structure in one of the emerging markets, Saudi Arabia. This study will be implemented through a quantitative approach. Secondary data were obtained from published annual statistical data, from the company financial reports and the DataStream database.

  4. Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  5. Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

  6. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intakhab Alam Khan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and English classes in particular. It is believed that if the teacher of English has undergone a pre-service teacher training it is better for the learners of Saudi Arabia. In the other case, those who have not attended pre-service teacher training, they should go for in-service professional development programs in order to equip them further for innovative teaching and educational output.

  7. Perception of facial profile attractiveness by a Saudi sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have reported different levels of perception of attractiveness among different ethnicities and among varying education-level groups on facial profile rating.To study the perception of facial profile attractiveness among Saudi dentists and lay-individuals. Digital facial profile images with altered degree of prognathism and retrognathism were presented to a sample of 60 Saudi dentists and 60 lay-persons with equal gender distribution. High reliability of repeated assessment of profile images was detected (ICC=0.982). Significant difference in perception of facial profile was found between genders (P<0.05) and among the groups with different education backgrounds (P<0.001). General agreement was established in both sample groups on average facial profile to be the most attractive and on the most retrognathic profile to be the least attractive. (author)

  8. Pigmentary demarcation lines on the face in Saudi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Samary Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmentary demarcation lines (PDL are physiological abrupt transition lines between hyperpigmented skin and lighter areas. Recent evidence suggests that they involve the face. Aims: To survey facial PDL in Saudi females referred to general dermatology clinics for various complaints and determine any associated risks. Methods: Screening for facial lines was done in general dermatology clinics over a year. Whenever a patient was found to have facial PDL, a detailed questionnaire and examination were undertaken. Results: Out of 1033 patients screened, 144 patients (14% were found to have at least one of the facial PDLs. The median age of onset was 16 years. The most common line was F with 76 patients (53%. Family history was positive in 51 patients (35%. Conclusion: Facial PDL is a common and chronic pigmentary problem in Saudi women. It should be recognized and differentiated from other similar diseases like melasma. A significant proportion of patients have a milder presentation.

  9. A Web-Based Cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a distinct lack of online atlases to visualize and explore cancer incidence in Middle Eastern countries despite the clear benefit that such tools can deliver. This paper describes the development and implementation of a cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia, which is a web-based client-server application with built-in analysis functions for analyzing patterns of cancer incidence. Built using ESRI’s ArcGIS Server API and ASP.NET, the atlas contains 45,532 incidences of cancer for the period from 1998 to 2004, which were provided by the Saudi Arabian National Cancer Registry. This tool is aimed at health care practitioners and researchers, who can use this tool for exploring cancer distribution and investigating trends, and as a decision support tool for service allocation. The tool allows users to map cancer incidence and undertake analyses at four spatial scales from city to national level.  

  10. Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number of seeds per pod, inflorescences position, flower opening, shape of the upper 2 teeth of calyx, shape of sepals apex, shape of wings, length of hairs on ovary, direction of staminal tube tip, leaflets shape and surface and stem habit form and life spin. A key for the identification of the investigated species based on these morphological features is provided.

  11. A safety decision analysis for Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia is to establish a nuclear research facility. Selection of a research reactor type for such a case is not an easy task. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors are selected for this study. These are: the University of Michigan Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor (GTRR), and University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor (UWNR). The IFDA computer code, which based on the fuzzy set theory is applied here. The results show that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best

  12. Healthcare risk waste in Saudi Arabia. Rate of generation.

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Al-Zahrani; Z. I. Fakhri; M. A. Al-Shanshouri; M. H. Al-Ayed

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the amount of healthcare risk waste generated by health establishments in Saudi Arabia METHODS A healthcare waste management questionnaire was applied in 27 hospitals, and 16 primary health centres and clinics. The total quantity of healthcare risk waste collected in 24 hours in each of these establishments was weighed. Calculations were carried out to get hospitals rate of healthcare risk waste generation and primary healthcare centres risk waste generation. The...

  13. Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

  14. Pediatric living-related liver transplantation in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Afef F. Bassas; May S. Chehab; Mona S. Al-Shahed; Hans G. Djurberg; Haider A. Al-Shurafa; Muaffak T. Jawdat; Hussa F. Al-Hussaini; Mehrun A. Zuleika; Hamoud A. Al-Hebby; Sami H. Wali

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this paper is to report our experience of the first 29 consecutive living-related liver transplants in pediatric recipients and to demonstrate the feasibility of living-related liver transplantation in the Arab World. The first living-related liver transplantation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was performed in November 1998 by Bassas et al following an appropriate period of multi-disciplinary preparation. METHODS This study was carried out at the Armed Forc...

  15. Pharmacy Education in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait

    OpenAIRE

    Al-wazaify, Mayyada; Matowe, Lloyd; Albsoul-younes, Abla; Al-omran, Ola A.

    2006-01-01

    The practice of pharmacy, as well as pharmacy education, varies significantly throughout the world. In Jordan, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia, the profession of pharmacy appears to be on the ascendance. This is demonstrated by an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and the number of pharmacy graduates from pharmacy programs. One of the reasons pharmacy is on the ascendance in these countries is government commitment to fund and support competitive, well-run pharmacy programs.

  16. Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

    2012-01-01

    Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED). Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI) would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific...

  17. Antifungal Activity of Some Saudi Plants Used in Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Saadabi, Abdulmoniem M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Methanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of 11 medicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Saudi Arabia, were investigated for in vitro activity against four pathogenic fungi. The extracts at concentration of 0.5 mL plate-1 showed varying degrees of total inhibition of fungal growth. Extracts from Salvadora persica and Vigna fragrans showed the highest activity, followed by Peganum harmala and Withania somnifera, while Polycarpaea corymbosa demonstrated the least activity, when compared ...

  18. SAUDI MEDICAL EDUCATION: CHALLENGES IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Al-sulaiman, Abdulsalam A.

    2000-01-01

    Medical education has been and continues to be a priority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since the establishment of the first medical school more than 30 years ago. As the kingdom moves into the new millennium through its 100th birthday, several issues pertaining to medical education are noted. These include selection and admission criteria to medical schools, suitability concerns, and the need for reform of the current undergraduate curriculum as well as allocation and utilization of availab...

  19. Communication with the seriously ill: physicians' attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mobeireek, A F; al-Kassimi, F A; al-Majid, S A; al-Shimemry, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study some ethical problems created by accession of a previously nomadic and traditional society to modern invasive medicine, by assessment of physicians' attitudes towards sharing information and decision-making with patients in the setting of a serious illness. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered in 1993. SETTING: Riyadh, Jeddah, and Buraidah, three of the largest cities in Saudi Arabia. SURVEY SAMPLE: Senior and junior physicians from departments of internal m...

  20. Gender differences in smoking behavior among adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelshakour M. Abdalla; Al-Kaabba, Abdulaziz F.; Saeed, Abdalla A.; Badreldin M. Abdulrahman; Hein Raat

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe and assess gender differences in current cigarette smokers' according to certain variables including prevalence, access to tobacco, knowledge and attitude, environmental tobacco smoke, cessation of smoking, tobacco related advertisements, and education on tobacco in school among adolescents in grades 7-12 in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. METHODS A random sample of schools in Tabuk city was obtained using a 2-stage cluster, in April 2005. A total of 16 governmental ...

  1. Diffusion of the Adoption of Online Retailing in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Rayed

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia is a leading producer of oil and natural gas, a member of G-20, has the largest and fastest growth of ICT marketplaces in the Arab region, and is very wealthy, online retailing activities are not progressing at the same speed as its growing ICT marketplace. For this reason, the attitudes of retailers in companies at different stages of e-commerce maturity were investigated to determine what factors are causing this problem. The data collect...

  2. Quality issues in continuing medical education in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shehri Ali; Alhaqwi Ali; Al-Sultan Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The issue of continuing medical education (CME) in Saudi Arabia is no longer quantity but rather quality. Quality Management (QM) of the current huge number of CME activities is essential to ensure its merits and outcomes. Sound evaluation is the cornerstone of any QM process to CME. However, issues related to models of evaluation, CME stakeholders, principles of adult learning and assessment should be consid--ered before deciding on the type of evaluation appropriate for QM of CME. Our aim i...

  3. Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf E.M. Khater; Asma Al-Jaloud; A. El-Taher

    2014-01-01

    The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW) to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were ...

  4. Osteoporosis among male Saudi Arabs: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little attention has been paid to the problem of male osteoporosis in Saudi Arabia. In this prospective study we assessed the prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabs. We studied Saudi Arabian males > 50 years of age attending outpatient clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, between 1st May 2005 and 30th January 2006. We determined body mass index (BMI) and tests were done to rule out secondary osteoporosis. All subjects had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of the hip area and the lumbar spine using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A T-score of<=-2.5 SD that of young, healthy adults was taken as osteoporotic and scores between -1 to -2.5SD were taken as osteopenic. One hundred fifteen patients (mean age 61.8+-0.75 years; range 50 to 76 years) had a mean BMI of 24.7+-0.35 (range 18.5 to 31). Based on hip scans, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 24.3%. Sixty four percent were osteopenic. Based on scans of lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 37.4% and 33.9% were osteopenic. Spinal osteoporosis was more common than hip osteoporosis. Our study indicates that the prevalence of osteopoprosis among Saudi Arabain males is higher than among Western males. More studies are needed to determine the national prevalence of male osteoporosis. It is recommended that serious measures to be undertaken to prevent male osteoporosis to stop any future epidemic of catastrophic osteoporosis-related fractures. (author)-related fractures. (author)

  5. Evaluation of Saudi pegmatite and its use in porcelain industry

    OpenAIRE

    Al-marzouki, Hassan M. H.; Christopher Jeffery; Khater, Gamal A.

    2012-01-01

    Pegmatite is the main source of feldspar for ceramics industry. Usage of pegmatite in ceramic industry causes some problems due to the presence of mica and iron oxides. These materials reduce tile strength, hardness and density of the final product leading to low quality ceramic products. Southern Saudi pegmatite separation treatment was carried out in two phases in order to improve the ceramic quality of the feldspar obtained from this pegmatite. The first phase consists of gravitational sep...

  6. Senior-Loken Syndrome in a Saudi Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlFadhel Majid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Senior-Loken syndrome is a rare syndrome of retinopathy and nephrono-phthisis. The clinical features of this syndrome include renal involvement, ocular involve-ment, retinitis pigmentosa and other systemic involvement. We describe an 11-year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed to have this syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this syndrome from the Arabian Peninsula.

  7. The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Intakhab Alam Khan

    2011-01-01

    The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and E...

  8. Pigmentary demarcation lines on the face in Saudi women

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Samary Abdullah; Al Mohizea Saad; Bin-Saif Ghada; Al-Balbeesi Amal

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pigmentary demarcation lines (PDL) are physiological abrupt transition lines between hyperpigmented skin and lighter areas. Recent evidence suggests that they involve the face. Aims: To survey facial PDL in Saudi females referred to general dermatology clinics for various complaints and determine any associated risks. Methods: Screening for facial lines was done in general dermatology clinics over a year. Whenever a patient was found to have facial PDL, a detailed questionnaire an...

  9. Effects of capacitor switching on Saudi ARAMCO Safaniyah Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 230 kV capacitor switching on Saudi Aramco Safaniyah electric power distribution system are investigated. Both the voltage and current transients are discussed. The study indicates the over voltage level associated with capacitor switching is within the insulation withstand capacity of the transformers connected to a long submarine cable. However, the current transients can lead to mis-operation of the cable differential protection if the switching occurs at, or near to, peak of the sinusoidal voltage waveform. (author)

  10. E-Commerce Adoption Factors in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-hudhaif, Sulaiman A.; Abdullah Alkubeyyer

    2011-01-01

    Some sectors in Saudi Arabia are slow in adopting eCommerce technologies for running their businesstransactions, and that is due to an internal set of factors (related to organizations) or an external set of factors(related to infrastructure and governmental support). We have noticed that most of the studies in this subjectcovered either internal factors or external factors, but not both. Moreover, most of the papers that studiedeCommerce adoption factors in developing economies center on the...

  11. Smoking habits among medical students in Western Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood D. Al-Mendalawi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of tobacco smoking, and understand the attitude, practice, and knowledge among medical students. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2009 to May 2010. An anonymous, self-administered, Global Adult Tobacco Survey based questionnaire was completed by the students attending the main Medical College of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. RESULTS Of the 643 students in the study, 90 students (14%)...

  12. Impact of health education on lifestyles in central Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Farid M. Midhet; Sharaf, Fawzy K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the impact of health education on diet, smoking, and physical activity among patients visiting the primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Al-Qassim province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS We conducted an uncontrolled experimental study from January to October 2009 to evaluate the impact of health education on smoking, diet, and physical activity among attendees of PHCCs in Al-Qassim province, KSA. We trained the PHCC staff in health education skills and ...

  13. Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice toward medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed S. Eldalo; Yousif, Mirghani A.; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad

    2013-01-01

    The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students’ knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15–20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines’ uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students ...

  14. Popularity Analysis for Saudi Telecom Companies Based on Twitter Data

    OpenAIRE

    Esam Alwagait

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the popularity of the telecom companies in Saudi Arabia by considering their profiles on Twitter. Telecommunication plays a vital role in making the communication possible among individuals at geographically distinct locations. With the arrival and penetration of smartphones as a standard, the job of service providers has not remained limited to provide better messaging and voice quality but has been extended to provide competitive value added service a...

  15. Perceived Barriers to Research Publishing in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Jumaan Abdulqader Alzahrani

    2011-01-01

    Academic research represents the backbone of human activity in the way that it improves our quality of life through expanding frontiers of academic knowledge and making further research possible throughout the world. Academic research aims to provide solutions for many current problems. The importance of academic research has grown at universities and research centres in Saudi Arabia, fuelled by dramatic increases in governmental and private funding for research. This study focuses on the ac...

  16. Pattern of third molar impaction in a Saudi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H Hassan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ali H Hassan11Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To evaluate the current pattern of third molar impaction in a sample of Saudi patients.Methods: One thousand thirty-nine orthopantomograms (OPG of patients ranging in age from 19 to 46 years (536 males and 503 females were evaluated to determine the frequency of impacted third molars, their levels of eruption, and their angulations.Results: Four hundred twenty-two (40.5% of the 1039 OPG showed at least one impacted third molar, with no significant difference between males (222; 52.6% and females (200; 47.4% (P = 0.284. The most common number of impacted third molars per OPG was one (72.5%. Impacted third molars were 1.64 times more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla. The most common angulation of impaction in the mandible was the mesial (33.4%, while the most common angulation in the maxilla, was the vertical (49.6%. Level B impaction was the most common in both maxilla (48.2% and mandible (67.7%. There was no significant difference in the frequency of impaction between the right and left sides in both jaws.Conclusion: The pattern of third molar impaction in the western region of Saudi Arabia is characterized by a high prevalence of impaction that is greater in the mandibles and with no sex predilection.Keywords: third molar, impaction, prevalence, Saudi 

  17. Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in thr...

  18. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Binali Ali; Al-Shehri Mohammed; Abdelmoneim Ismail; Shomrani Ali; Al-Fifi Suliman

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive inge...

  19. The Econometrics of Investment in Date Production in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulaziz Alshuaibi

    2011-01-01

    Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inade...

  20. Ménétrier’s disease in a Saudi child

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad A. Alfares; Emad M. Raddaoui; Mohammad I. El-Mouzan; Alangari, Abdullah A

    2013-01-01

    Ménétrier’s disease is a rare form of acquired gastropathy that presents mostly during adulthood, but is extremely rare in children. It is a clinicopathological diagnosis that typically presents with abdominal pain, vomiting, and edema secondary to hypoalbuminemia.  Endoscopy usually shows giant gastric mucosal folds, and gastric biopsy shows foveolar hyperplasia and decreased oxyntic glands. Here, we describe a 5-year-old boy from Saudi Arabia with typical presentation of Ménétrier’...

  1. Senior-Loken Syndrome in a Saudi Child

    OpenAIRE

    AlFadhel Majid; AlAmir Abdulrahman

    2008-01-01

    Senior-Loken syndrome is a rare syndrome of retinopathy and nephrono-phthisis. The clinical features of this syndrome include renal involvement, ocular involve-ment, retinitis pigmentosa and other systemic involvement. We describe an 11-year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed to have this syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this syndrome from the Arabian Peninsula.

  2. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a Saudi community

    OpenAIRE

    Alqurashi Khalid; Aljabri Khalid; Bokhari Samia

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives : Quantifying the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is important to allow for rational planning and allocation of resources. Therefore, we designed this study to determine the prevalence of diabetes among Saudi nationals. Design and Setting : A cross-sectional study among patients attending a primary care clinic in June 2009. Patients and Methods : Patients were interviewed with structured questionnaires to determine the presence of diabetes by questioning for histor...

  3. Physical Activity and Health Beliefs among Saudi Women

    OpenAIRE

    Einas S. Al-Eisa; Al-Sobayel, Hana I

    2012-01-01

    Background. Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits and disease prevention and is often prescribed in managing many health conditions. Understanding the cultural influences is relevant in order to effectively promote PA. The objective of this study was to assess the level of PA among Saudi women, measured by daily step count, and the association between PA and health beliefs. Methods. A total of 161 eligible participants were asked to complete two questionnaires to assess he...

  4. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi NA; Al-Habeeb AA; Koenig HG

    2013-01-01

    Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administ...

  5. NO2 and Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi; Ali Al-Zahrani

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposure has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of specific cancers. This study investigated whether the number and incidence of the most common cancers in Saudi Arabia were associated with urban air pollution exposure, specifically NO2. Overall, high model goodness of fit (GOF) was observed in the Eastern, Riyadh and Makkah regions. The significant coefficients of determination (r2) were higher at the regional level (r2 = 0.32–0.71), weaker at the governorate ...

  6. Tobacco Use among Health Care Workers in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfouz, Ahmed A.; Shatoor, Abdullah S.; Al-ghamdi, Badr R.; Hassanein, Mervat A.; Shamsun Nahar; Aesha Farheen; Gaballah, Inasse I.; Amani Mohamed; Rabie, Faten M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study targeted health care workers (HCWs) in Governmental Hospitals and Primary Health Care Centers in Abha City, southwestern Saudi Arabia. An anonymous self-report questionnaire was used to assess tobacco use and the reasons for smoking. The present study included 736 HCWs. The overall prevalence of tobacco use amounted to 26.3% (14.8% current and 11.5% former users). In a binary logistic regression analysis, males were found significantly more prone to smoke compared to females...

  7. Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Ahmadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

  8. Towards evidence-based medical education in Saudi medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    AlFaris Eiad; Abdulgader Abdelgalil; Alkhenizan Abdullah

    2006-01-01

    Evidence-based medical education (BEME) is an attitude of mind that entails the creation of a culture in which teachers think critically about what they are doing, look at the best evidence available and on this ba-sis, make decisions about their teaching practice, and subsequently, undertake the necessary revision and change. More medical schools have opened in Saudi Arabia in the last few years than have existed over the last three decades. Currently, the education of health professionals i...

  9. Use of Dietary Supplements among Professional Athletes in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Aljaloud, Sulaiman O.; Ibrahim, Salam A.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking die...

  10. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alsaif

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing, anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD. Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  11. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  12. Use of Social Media by Online Newspapers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Hussain,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of social media by online newspapers in Saudi Arabia.The websites of online newspapers in Saudi Arabia were surveyed and the social media tools available on their websites were studied. Total 42 online newspapers’ websites were analysed, out of which 36 Arabic online newspapers have implemented web 2.0 applications. In Arabic 3 newspapers also have English version, in addition 2 more newspapers were in English only. Further, 4 websites were not working. The findings of this study can be utilised to assess the status of assorted web 2.0 tools used in online newspapers. It may enable future research to investigate other aspects, such as use of web 2.0 by online newspapers of a particular country and its states. The paper begins with an introduction to Saudi Arabia’s education and media technology, and further attempts to define and explain to web 2.0 applications which are useful to the online newspapers.

  13. The on-Line Shopping Consumption Patterns of Saudi Shoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Fahhad Alsharif

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The world is witnessing a significant change in the global economic dimension in recent years; this change is reflected in the transformation from traditional commerce to electronic commerce. Confirms this shifts the indicators and statistical estimates the growth of individuals online shoppers in the whole world. Through follow-up of these indicators is clear to the observer different shopping patterns from one country to another and from one society to another. The aim of this study is to identify the consumption patterns used in electronic shopping by the Saudis. To achieve this aim, the on-line questionnaire was used and the respondents were 472 participants. The results showed the lake of use and adoption on-line shopping although the high number of Internet users and increase the experience to use the computers and the Internet by Saudis. Also the results showed that the top five factors that encourage the Saudis to electronic shopping are as follows: Save time, cheaper, easy and faster shopping and delivery services.

  14. The perception of smile attractiveness among Saudi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Hadeel A; Abuljadayel, Layla W; Al-Ali, Reem M; Yousef, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Parameters of dental beauty change across time for varying reasons. Thus, an understanding of the factors that help or harm the attractiveness of a smile is an important step in creating attractive smiles. This study aimed to identify factors that affect smile perception and attractiveness among the Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the Saudi population. Questionnaires were distributed to 130 dentists and final-year dental students, and to 130 laypersons. The questionnaire contained six smile photographs created by Photoshop(®) software. There was a statistically significant difference in scale ratings, based on participant background, for the "gummy" smile picture (P-value =0.003), diastema picture (P-value =0.000) and the "Reverse" smile picture (P-value =0.004). As for sex, males significantly underscored the gummy picture (P-value =0.009). Older people accepted the gummy smile less than did younger people, but diastema was considered as one of the variations that spoiled the attractiveness of the smile. "Dental background" participants significantly identified the ideal smile better than the "nondental" group. The perception of diastema as a sign of beauty among Saudi population in the past has definitely changed, according to the results of our study, where diastema and reverse smile received the lowest score in this survey. PMID:25653558

  15. Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)

  16. Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation ofled investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  17. Isolation of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Some Traditional Saudi Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Al-Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently many dairy products are being used in Saudi Arabia. Monitoring and isolation of bacterial activity is of highly significance to sustainable health problems and issues. The objective of the study was to isolate bacteriocin-producing Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB from some traditional Saudi food. A total of 50 samples from dairy products, commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, were screened for presence of natural LAB. The Cell-free Supernatants (CFS of two LAB isolates exhibited antibacterial activities (inhibition zones >10 mm against food-borne pathogens (Lactococcus monocytogenes ATCC 7644, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC13076. The growth inhibitory substances of CFS were sensitive to proteases (Protenase K and Pepsin indicating the proteinaceous nature of inhibitors (bacteriocins produced by the two LAB isolates. Their bacteriocins retained activity after thermal treatments (63°C for 30 min, 100°C for 10 min or 121°C for 15 min or at pH ranging from 4.0 to less than 6.5. The two LAB isolates were phenotypically identified as Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (camel’s milk and Lactobacillus paracasei (goat’s milk. The isolated LAB (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus paracasei can be used as food preservatives and probiotics since they inhibited well-known food-borne pathogens such as L. monocytogenes and survived acidic conditions (pH 2.5 similar to those of the stomach.

  18. Popularity Analysis for Saudi Telecom Companies Based on Twitter Data

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    Esam Alwagait

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the popularity of the telecom companies in Saudi Arabia by considering their profiles on Twitter. Telecommunication plays a vital role in making the communication possible among individuals at geographically distinct locations. With the arrival and penetration of smartphones as a standard, the job of service providers has not remained limited to provide better messaging and voice quality but has been extended to provide competitive value added service and social connectivity to grab and maintain the customer’s pool. This research study, take into consideration three leading telecom operators namely Saudi Telecom Company (STC, Mobily and Zain. The popularity of the telecom companies is evaluated by considering their following on Twitter by confirming the location details and then by executing multi-purpose queries on the verified data to yield interesting results about the popularity of the telecom operators. This study, thus identifies the most popular service provider based on the Twitter following in different regions and cities and based on the provincial data a leading telecom operator in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is also identified.

  19. Medical Colleges in Saudi Arabia: Can We Predict Graduate Numbers?

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    Alaa Althubaiti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of Physicians is a major problem in many countries. Medical colleges are often encouraged to increase the graduate numbers. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi physicians form only 37.89% of the physician manpower. The remainder of the physicians are expatriates. It was recently estimated that the Kingdom would need 29,128 physicians by the year 2014 in order to maintain the same physicians-to-population ratio, i.e., 2.7 per 100,000. To solve the problem, the higher education institutions invested in medical education and increased their number of college graduates. However, there are many questions about whether this strategy will proof successful in covering the shortage or whether this will lead to problems, for example an excess in the number of physicians. These can only be answered if future graduate numbers are estimated and kept under control. In this study, common data mining techniques were reviewed and applied to the output of Saudi medical colleges over the past years. These techniques can be used to predict graduate numbers. The results show the importance of developing a national student information center to fix the data collection problems described in this paper.

  20. Leadership Styles and Organizational Learning An Empirical Study on Saudi Banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Nafei, Wageeh A.; Khanfar, Nile M.; Kaifi, Belal A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS) and Organizational Learning (OL), might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1) the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2) the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorat...

  1. Exercise capacity of Saudi with symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular disease in a military hospital in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to analyze the results of exercise tolerance test ETT of Saudi women and assess their exercise capacity. A hospital based retrospective cohort analysis was carried out on all Saudi women referred to the Cardiology Department for ETT from February 2005 to June 2007. They underwent symptom limited treadmill test according to the standard Bruce protocol with exercise electrocardiogram monitoring. One hundred and seventy-six women were included in the study. Fifty-one 31.9% patients did not achieve target heart rate. The mean age +/- SD was 48.3+-9.3 years. There was no association of age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, positive family history of ischemic heart disease IHD and hyperlipidemia to achieve target heart rate p>0.05. Exercise time was influenced by diabetes mellitus p=0.054 and hyperlipidemia p=0.044. The mean exercise time +/- SD was 5.15+/-2.63 minutes and the mean exercise capacity +/-SD was 6.29+/-2.52 metabolic equivalent. Sensitivity was 36.4%, 95% CI 29.3-44.6, specificity 92.3%, 95% CI 80.5-96.8, positive predictive value 26.7%, 95% CI 21.3-31.4, negative predictive value 95.4%, 95% CI 90.9-98.3, likelihood ratio for positive result was 4.7, 95%CI 3.1-6.2 and likelihood ratio for negative result was 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.81. Exercise capacity of Saudi women is less compared to similar studies in women from other regions. Exercise tolerance test can be used to rule out presence of IHD in Saudi women, but value of a positive test is less lik, but value of a positive test is less likely to predict the presence of IHD. (author)

  2. Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Informatics Masters Program at KSAU-HS University, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Altuwaijri

    2007-01-01

    The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…

  3. 78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ...Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia...Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...partnerships with local, safety and security firms, and government agencies...Individual transfer to the hotel. Sunday, September 29,...

  4. Health Science Students' Perception about Research Training Programs Offered in Saudi Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to examine the perceptions of students of health sciences on research training programs offered at Saudi universities. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted to capture the perceptions of health science students about research training programs offered at selected Saudi

  5. Saudi Elementary School Science Teachers' Beliefs: Teaching Science in the New Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Amani K. Hamdan; Al-Salouli, Misfer Saud

    2013-01-01

    This study explored Saudi elementary school science teachers' beliefs about the process of teaching and learning science. This involved the exploration of their views about the new Saudi science curriculum, which emphasizes critical thinking and problem solving. Comprehensive interviews were held in 8 schools with 4 male and 6 female--2 of whom…

  6. Analysis of written advertising material distributed through community pharmacies in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Aqeel SA; Al-Sabhan JF; Sultan NY

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria deri...

  7. Saudi Arabia- The Saudi Aramco announces falls of almost all price differentials of its crude oils in April

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe and Asia except, all the differentials of prices have readjusted in fall in the month of april. For United States, the fall of differentials have been varied between $0.05/b and $0.15/b according to the qualities. For Europe, similar falls have been decided for crude and middle oils and are following the strong increases of february, provoked by the cold spell of the two first months of the year. In an other point of view, the production and the benefits of the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (Sabic) reach record levels of 22 Mt and $1.67 milliards in 1995. The Saudi Petrochemical Company (Sadaf), joint venture between Sabic and Pecten Saudi Arabia, affiliate of American Shell Oil, will begin next july the production, in experimental phase of its new unit of 700 000 t/year of MTBE/ETBE (methyl or ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). It will be the first worldwide factory of this capacity to produce MTBE/ETBE. The National Plastic Company (Ibn Hayyan) has created a new affiliate Ibn Hayyan Plastic Products Company to build a new factory in its complex of Joubail, which will produce 40 000 t/year of plastic products. Finally, the construction at Joubail of the 50 000 t/year of caustic soda factory, the Arabian Industrial Development Company (Nama) will be achieved in january 1997 and the production start is planned two months later. (N.C.)

  8. The Role and Responsibility of the National Regulator of Radiation Sources and Materials in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are neither nuclear power reactors nor are there research reactors in Saudi Arabia. However, the country imports a lot of radioactive sources that are used in different fields such as medicine, hydrology, industry and research. Usage of radioactive material is governed by national and the IAEA regulations for the safe usage and transport of radioactive materials. KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology) is an independent scientific organization established in 1977. It is the national competent authority that sets the rules of transporting, using and disposing of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia.. This paper discusses the role of KACST and other authorities in the country regarding the 1) licensing and evaluation of the importing and exporting applications of radioactive sources and/or devices in Saudi Arabia, 2) The regulatory framework of radiation protection in Saudi Arabia, 3) the management of radioactive wastes in Saudi Arabia. (author)

  9. Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-maghrabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

  10. Heavy Thunderstorm Synoptic Climatology and Forcing Mechanisms in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam, Ayman S.

    2010-05-01

    Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects. These forecasts become possible when the movement and the development of the mid-latitude disturbances are known very well. To further increase our understanding of the inter-annual variability of thunderstorms in semi-arid areas such as Saudi Arabia, it is necessary to consider the relationship between this variability and the large-scale atmospheric parameters in addition to the geographical features. Moreover, better insight into the monthly variations of the synoptic situations in Saudi Arabia is considered to be important for understanding the broad mechanisms responsible for thunderstorm occurrences in this geographical area. This information is highly important for aviation and other sectors in Saudi Arabia - both public and private. This paper aims to investigate the favourable synoptic environments for heavy thunderstorm initiation and development in Saudi Arabia. The importance of the monthly synoptic analysis of all days (1998-2003), heavy thunderstorm days, and dry days was intended to be demonstrated. Therefore, the monthly mean charts and deviations from the mean (anomalies) of specific meteorological parameters for heavy thunderstorm days and dry days for the months of January-December for the period 1998-2003, was illustrated to examine the synoptic conditions leading to heavy thunderstorm events in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions

  12. Prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients

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    Al-Mobeeriek Azizah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Few studies have been conducted in the Saudi population on oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and extent of oral lesions in a study among dental patients at a college of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: Over a 3-year period, 2552 dental outpatients were interviewed and investigated clinically for the presence of oral mucosal conditions. A thorough oral clinical examination was performed, including a radiographic examination. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically when necessary. Results: Of 383 (15.0% patients found to have oral mucosal lesions, females constituted 57.7% (n=221 and males 42.3% (n=162. The age range of the patients was between 15 to 73 years with a mean age of 38.2 years. The most commonly affected age group was 31 to 40 years, which comprised 21.4% (n=82 of all affected individuals. The least affected age group were individuals older than 61 years. The most common lesion was Fordyce granules (3.8%; n=98, followed by leukoedema (3.4%; n=86 and traumatic lesions (ulcer, erosion in 1.9% (n=48. Tongue abnormalities were present in 4.0% (n=101 of all oral conditions observed, ranging from 1.4% (n=36 for fissured tongue to 0.1% (n=2 for bifid tongue. Other findings detected were torous platinus (1.3%; n=34, mandibular tori (0.1%; n=2 aphthous ulcer (0.4%; n=10, herpes simplex (0.3%; n=7, frictional hyperkeratosis (0.9%; n=23, melanosis (0.6%; n=14, lichen planus (0.3%; n=9 and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=13. Conclusion: The findings of this study provide information on the types and prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients. This provides baseline data for future studies about the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population.

  13. Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulrahman M Aljebreen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1 Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2 Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3 Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%. There were 26 (2.2% students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1% and 9 males (1.5%. Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%. The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479, Madinah 1.8% (8/436, and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252. The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.

  14. Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Khouzaie Thamer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital?s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.

  15. Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage withinacterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

  16. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alharbi, O.A., E-mail: omar.alharbi@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Phillips, M.R., E-mail: m.phillips@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Williams, A.T., E-mail: allan.williams@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Gheith, A.M., E-mail: amingheith@mans.edu.eg [Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Bantan, R.A., E-mail: rbantan@kau.edu.sa [Marine Geology Department, Faculty of Marine Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rasul, N.M., E-mail: rasul.nm@sgs.org.sa [Saudi Geological Survey, Centre for Marine Geology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = - 0.59o). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  17. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = ? 0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be und plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: ? New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. ? Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. ? Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. ? Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

  18. Prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few studies have been conducted in the Saudi population on oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and extent of oral lesions in a study among dental patients at a college of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Over a 3-year period, 2552 dental outpatients were interviewed and investigated clinically for the presence of oral mucosal conditions. A thorough oral clinical examination was performed, including a radiographic examination. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically when necessary. Of 383 (15.0%) patients found to have oral mucosal lesions, females constituted 57.7% (n=221) and males 42.3% (n=162). The age range of the patients was between 15 to 73 years with a mean age of 38.2 years. The most commonly affected age group was 31 to 40 years, which comprised 21.4% (n=82) of all affected individuals. The least affected age group were individuals older than 61 years. The most common lesion was Fordyce granules (3.8%; n=98), followed by leukoedema (3.4%; n=86) and traumatic lesions (ulcer, erosion) in 1.9% (n=48). Tongue abnormalities were present in 4.0% (n=101) of all oral conditions observed, ranging from 1.4% (n=36) for fissured tongue to 0.1% (n=2) for bifid tongue. Other findings detected were torous platinus (1.3%; n=34), mandibular tori (0.1%; n=2) aphthous ulcer (0.4%; n=10), herpes simplex (0.3%; n=7), frictional hyperkeratosis (0.9%; n=23), melanosis (0.6%; n=14), lichen planus (0.3%; n=9) and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=1; n=9) and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=13). The findings of this study provide information on the types and prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients. This provides baseline data for future studies about the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population. (author)

  19. Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400 and females (1506 aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use, physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire, and dietary habits (intake frequency per week. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk, but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR and frequency of breakfast (aOR for? Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority.

  20. Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

    2012-01-01

    Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

  1. First shale gas experience in Saudi Arabia - lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXEYENKO A.V

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand (Saudi Aramco. 2010.During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.The Multidisciplinary task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both companies and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011. All targets set for the SHALE-1 well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for future utilization as an observation well.

  2. A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almutairi AF, McCarthy A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take care of Saudi patients who are from the dominant culture. In this scenario, a lack of knowledge of Saudi culture among nurses can lead to cultural conflicts and misunderstanding of some of the behaviours and practices of the indigenous Saudi people. Culture is a complex notion; however, being aware of cultural differences and having cultural knowledge can help people to interact safely. Educating expatriate nurses about the cultural heritage of the Saudi people, which is mainly influenced by Islamic teachings, is important to increase cultural harmony.

  3. Scorpion sting syndrome in a general hospital in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Abdulaziz A. Al-Saif

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the incidence of scorpion stings and to draw the attention of clinicians, concerning the dilemma of scorpion sting syndrome and its management in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). METHODS In a retrospective survey, 251 cases were presented with scorpion stings to the Emergency Department of the Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA during a period of 15 years (April 1986 to April 2000). Their ages ranged from 2 months to 101 years (male to female ratio was 2.6:1)...

  4. Hematologic risk factors for stroke in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors mbined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography. The study strongly highlights the importance of prothrombotic disorders and the severe phenotype of SCD as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. (author)

  5. Technological evaluation of nuclear research reactors for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a multi-attribute decision approach is used to select the best nuclear research reactor alternative for the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This approach is based on the fuzzy sets theory. The four alternatives which are analyzed are similar to University of Michigan Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor (GTRR), and University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor (UWNR). The results show that the UWNR reactor is the best alternative, and the FNR is the second best

  6. Floristic Composition of Lake Al-Asfar, Alahsa, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf M. Youssef; Mohamed A Al-Fredan; Fathi, Adel A.

    2009-01-01

    The vegetation communities of the shores of Lake Al-Asfar; a large salt lake in Al-Hofouf, Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia; were studied. The aim of the research was to study the relationship between the distribution of vegetation along salt lake shores in relation to soil and climatic conditions. Four distinct lake shore habitats were examined. A total of 72 stands along the study area of the lake were investigated. It was concluded that soil texture, pH, soil moisture content, mineralization as well...

  7. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Four Saudi Camel Breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Basmaeil, S.; Al-owaimer, A. N.; El-waziry, A. M.; Metwally, H.; Suliman, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass characteristics and meat quality in four Saudi camel breeds. Four young male camel breeds were used (Majaheem, Suffr, Sho’l and Wodoh) 6-9 months old with average weight 133.83±2.83 kg. Animals were group fed of three animals in four replicates for each breed. A balanced energy/protein ration was used to ensure that animals get their nutrient requirements using ad lib twice feeding system. When animals slaughtered, carcass c...

  8. Noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome in a Saudi male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesidioblastosis is focal or diffuse islet hyperplasia leading tohyperinsulinism with subsequent hypoglycemia in the absence of insulinoma,usually described in neonates and infancy. We described the first adult caseof nesidioblastosis in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The diagnosis andtreatment of the condition can be very difficult and challenging. Despite thefact that our patient responded initially to surgical treatment, hishypoglycemic symptoms occasionally recurred and needed adjunctive medicaltreatment. Although initially thought to affect only infants and children,cases of nesidioblastosis can effect adults and pose a diagnostic andtherapeutic challenge to the clinicians. (author)

  9. Perceived Barriers to Research Publishing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumaan Abdulqader Alzahrani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Academic research represents the backbone of human activity in the way that it improves our quality of life through expanding frontiers of academic knowledge and making further research possible throughout the world. Academic research aims to provide solutions for many current problems. The importance of academic research has grown at universities and research centres in Saudi Arabia, fuelled by dramatic increases in governmental and private funding for research. This study focuses on the academic publication processes in Saudi Arabia, the barriers that affect researchers’ ability to carry out and publish research and the potential advantages and disadvantages offered by the Internet in the area of academic publishing. The data collection and analysis presented in this study addresses the extent to which such benefit could be realised in practice. This research reviews the limitations of research publishing in Saudi Arabia by focusing on the nature of academic journals, in terms of their numbers and purpose, the barriers that academic staff faced when they wished to publish their research work in local or international academic journals, and the attitudes of academics towards electronic publishing and publishing in general. This research uses questionnaire tool. The data are tabulated and analysed in a systematic method to show findings in accordance with required objectives. The most prominent findings from this study are the lack of academic staff encouragement to conduct and publish research, lack of financial support to the research publishing sector, lack of a research publishing infrastructure and a lack of private sector support for funding research and publishing. An interesting finding is that unlike many other countries, there is no culture of volunteering for work that does not provide direct financial benefit. This could be an important factor affecting the adoption of an online open publishing approach in which reviewers and editors are not paid directly for the work. This research ultimately aims at proposing and implementing suitable processes and policies to solve these problems and to identifying means of overcoming the research publishing barriers in Saudi Arabia.

  10. Multielement NAA for the characterization of Saudi Arabian rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INAA was used in the qualitative and quantitative analyses of 48 geological samples from Saudi Arabia. The samples were irradiated in a neutron flux of 2.4x1012 nxcm-2 s-1. Gamma spectra from the high resolution Ge(Li) detector were analyzed using the BRUTAL code. 20 trace elements were identified qualitatively and quantitatively: Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr. The investigation on the concentrations of these elements showed that the high grade area is a differentiated rock that crystallyzied in a late stage of the Umm Al-Birak microgranite area. (author)

  11. Factorial's composition of Lake Abha, Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study analyzes the vegetation along Lake Abha in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 plant species were recorded. The annuals decrease and the biennials and perennials increase along the moisture gradient form the terraces to the free-water zone. Six vegetation clusters were identified. The most important are clusters which were identified by the presence of the following species: Phragmites australis, Juncus punctorius, Typha domingensis, Cyperus rotundus, Datura innoxia, Cynodon dactylon, Cornulaca monacantha and Potamogeton nododsus. Each of these communities has been analyzed by classification and ordination techniques and its habitat described and discussed. (author)

  12. Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Usman

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.

  13. Current practice in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-elq, Abdulmohsen H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To gather data on current practices in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Saudi Arabia and to evaluate the degree of compliance with international guidelines. METHODS This paper represents the results of the Saudi Arabia T2DM data collected at the cross-sectional part of Wave 2006 of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS). Data were collected on a case report form from 28 health centers all over the Kingdom of Saudi Ar...

  14. The incidence rate of thyroid cancer among women in saudi arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from saudi cancer registry 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Almalki, Shaia S; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

    2015-06-01

    This study provides a descriptive epidemiological data of thyroid cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR) and the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR) stratified by the region and year of diagnosis. This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all Saudi thyroid cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were applied using descriptive statistics with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. A total of 2,930 cases were recorded in the SCR between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR at 9.43 per 100,000 women, followed by Tabuk at 7.11 and eastern region at 6.5, while Jazan and Jouf had the lowest average ASIRs at 1.97 and at 2.72, respectively. The region of Qassim recorded the greatest changes of ASIR at 5.5 per 100,000 women from 2001 to 2008. There was a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for thyroid cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Riyadh, Tabuk and eastern region were the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. While, Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Finally, the region of Qassim had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of thyroid cancer disease among Saudi women. PMID:24859807

  15. Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia

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    Ashraf E.M. Khater

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.

  16. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)

  17. BK virus infection in a renal transplant Saudi child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BK human polyomavirus (BKV) causes an asymptomatic primary infection in children, but later, establishes latency mainly in the urinary tract. Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well-understood. We present here a 12-year-old Saudi boy, who had renal transplant in Egypt. Seven months later, he was admitted to our Pediatric Nephrology Unit as a case of renal impairment. He developed BKV infection, diagnosed and successfully managed in our hospital. This case demonstrates the expanding clinical importance of BKV in a post renal transplant patient. This virus can be detected in transitional cells in the urine (decoy cells) using cytology. Testing for BKV deoxyribonucleic acid in urine and blood is an early detection assay, and can be used as a screening test in the early stages. The early reduction of immunosuppression can improve the prognosis. No specific antiviral treatment has been established yet. This is the first report of detecting BK virus in a Saudi post-transplant child in urine and blood specimens by using polymerase chain reaction. (author)

  18. Differences in prostate cancer detection between Canadian and Saudi populations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    O.Z., Al-Abdin; D.M., Rabah; G., Badr; A., Kotb; A., Aprikian.

    2013-06-25

    Full Text Available Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Ser [...] um prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4'ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P

  19. Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigato avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)

  20. Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BaHammam Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.

  1. The knowledge of breast cancer among young Saudi females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students.A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionnaires were then statistically analyzed. This Pilot study of 500 students was performed in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital using high schools from the city of Jeddah between April and June 2009. The results were used to build up a base for designing a community educational program. Analysis of the data from 337 questionnaires from high school and college students showed that the level of knowledge of young females on breast cancer is limited. However, it also indicated that the students are very enthusiastic to learn about cancer breast, and its prevention. The limited knowledge level of breast cancer in the younger generation might be an obstacle to screening programs and early diagnosis. Awareness programs should be developed including lectures, seminars workshops, and on hands training (Author).

  2. Religious involvement and health in dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Al Shohaib, Saad; Binzaqr, Salma Awad; Badreg, Alae Magdi; Alsaadi, Rawan Ali; Koenig, Harold G

    2015-04-01

    Patients on hemodialysis experience considerable psychological and physical stress due to the changes brought on by chronic kidney disease. Religion is often turned to in order to cope with illness and may buffer some of these stresses associated with illness. We describe here the religious activities of dialysis patients in Saudi Arabia and determined demographic, psychosocial, and physical health correlates. We administered an in-person questionnaire to 310 dialysis patients (99.4 % Muslim) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, that included the Muslim Religiosity Scale, Structured Clinical Interview for Depression, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, and other established measures of psychosocial and physical health. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified characteristics of patients who were more religiously involved. Religious practices and intrinsic religious beliefs were widespread. Religious involvement was more common among those who were older, better educated, had higher incomes, and were married. Overall psychological functioning was better and social support higher among those who were more religious. The religious also had better physical functioning, better cognitive functioning, and were less likely to smoke, despite having more severe overall illness and being on dialysis for longer than less religious patients. Religious involvement is correlated with better overall psychological functioning, greater social support, better physical and cognitive functioning, better health behavior, and longer duration of dialysis. Whether religion leads to or is a result of better mental and physical health will need to be determined by future longitudinal studies and clinical trials. PMID:25316206

  3. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Eighty (48.5%) of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50%) followed by knee pain (20%). The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5%) respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30%) had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P < 0.05). Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5%) and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high. PMID:25811043

  4. Evaluation of Saudi pegmatite and its use in porcelain industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M.H. Al-Marzouki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegmatite is the main source of feldspar for ceramics industry. Usage of pegmatite in ceramic industry causes some problems due to the presence of mica and iron oxides. These materials reduce tile strength, hardness and density of the final product leading to low quality ceramic products. Southern Saudi pegmatite separation treatment was carried out in two phases in order to improve the ceramic quality of the feldspar obtained from this pegmatite. The first phase consists of gravitational separation to remove the heavy impurities and in the second phase magnetic separation was carried out to further minimize iron content. Porcelain ceramic batches were prepared by wet-mixing, drying, pressing (semi-dry press and fired at temperatures from 1000 to 1350 °C. The porcelain ceramic bodies were prepared and examined by DTA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and tested for bulk density, linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength. These results indicated that, after treatment (gravity and magnetic separation, the pegmatite can be considered as a good source of potash feldspar. The present study provides a positive indication for using of Southern Saudi pegmatite after treatment in ceramic industries.

  5. Hyperlipidemia in rheumatoid arthritis patients in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Suzan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia in patients from Saudi Arabia with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to investigate its relationship with C-reactive protein level and disease activity. Methods: A cross-sectional 3-year study was conducted on RA patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and December 2013. Lipid profiles were determined following 12-hour overnight fasting, and the association of lipid profiles with C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and disease activity was determined. Results: This study involved a total of 180 RA patients (mean age: 40.49±12.19 years). These subjects displayed a high prevalence of elevated total cholesterol (55.1%), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (51.2%). Notably, we detected a significant association between increased total cholesterol and high CRP levels (p=0.002). Moreover, we observed a positive correlation between total cholesterol and disease activity, as measured using the 28-Joint Disease Activity Score index (r=0.23, p=0.036). Conclusions: Hyperlipidemia is common among RA patients and is significantly associated with CRP levels and disease activity. Our findings emphasize the need to raise awareness among healthcare professionals regarding the development of hyperlipidemia when RA is active. PMID:25987110

  6. In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-04-01

    Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

  7. Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planningergy planning

  8. Denied Dignity: Systematic Discrimination and Hostility toward Saudi Shia Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Rights Watch, "the world's leading independent organizations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights", has a revealing report available on their website about the discrimination that has occurred against the Shia religious community in Saudi Arabia. The Report, found in the "Publications" tab of the website, can be read online in English or Arabic (click the yellow "L" near the top of the page), can be downloaded as a PDF, or ordered for purchase. The report includes a summary of the situation at the beginning of the report, plus recommendations to Saudi Arabia from Human Rights Watch to rectify the situation, as well as information about the report's research methodology. Under the "Reports" tab there are hundreds of other reports available online, and they can be browsed by date, country, or issue. Additionally scholars will appreciate that the "Methodology" the Human Rights Watch researchers use to document abuse of human rights throughout the world is available here in a comprehensive document entitled "Our Research Methodology".

  9. The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, Saudi Cancer Registry, corpus uteri cancer, age standardized incidence rate

  10. Usefulness of molecular techniques to identify ongoing tuberculosis transmission in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study represents the first time that molecular tracing techniques have been used to identify patterns of tuberculosis TB infection in Saudi Arabia. The 2 strains were isolated from a socio-economically advantaged family who share a number of common facilities including a car and a driver. There are several factors that may play vital roles in on-going transmission of TB in Saudi Arabia including a high number of expatriates, the Hajj pilgrimage, and the social habits of Saudi citizens. Our sibling case series is believed to be a frequent pattern of disease transmission in this country. Control measures such as health education, active case finding, and prompt and supervised medical treatment are needed. More studies using molecular techniques are recommended to find the incidence of cross infection in Saudi Arabia. In addition, molecular techniques have to be established in all reference laboratories to help the detection of ongoing active transmission, molecular epidemiology and detect sources of infection. (author)

  11. Analysis of Saudi Arabia's behavior within OPEC and the world oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze oil export behavior by Saudi Arabia and the Rest of OPEC since 1973. In the literature there has been a wide range of estimates of their correlation: from positive, to zero, to negative. We find that the correlation has varied over time, from moderately high (0.7) in normal periods, to negative during each of five interruptions; the average correlation has been 0.19. Saudi Arabia's oil market behavior depends upon circumstances, but its primary goal is the stability of OPEC and the world oil market. It will coordinate export reductions with the Rest of OPEC when faced with declining demand, but it will increase exports when faced with interruptions elsewhere in OPEC. Allowing for such differences provides evidence of intelligent, context-dependent consistency. But ignoring context – by wrongly assuming the same Saudi response in Normal periods and Interruptions – can lead to a conclusion of Saudi “inconsistency” because the difference in the responses has been obscured

  12. Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

    2012-01-01

    The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

  13. The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market. (author)

  14. The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market

  15. Assessment of low vitamin D among Saudi Arabians. Did we overshoot the runway?

    OpenAIRE

    Mir Sadat-Ali; Al-elq, Abdulmohsen H.; Al-shaikh, Iman H.; Al-turki, Haifa A.; Al-ali, Amein K.; Al-othman, Abdallah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the performance of 3 commonly used 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) assays among a sample of the Saudi population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out between January 2011 and December 2012 at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia. After  informed consent, blood samples for measurement of 25-OHD level was extracted from 200 adults. The  vitamin D level of each individual were determined using chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA), ...

  16. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rm, Kamel

    2013-01-01

    Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Sau...

  17. Corporate Governance Disclosure in Annual Financial Reports and Company Performance - Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Elbarrad, Sherif S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find the relationship between disclosure in annual reports as outlined in the corporate governance regulations imposed by the Saudi Capital Market Authority and companies’ performance in Saudi Arabia. To achieve that, the corporate governance disclosure regulations are classified into four categories; Ownership structure and shareholders’ rights; board of directors’ information; financial information; operational information. Each category included several...

  18. Effect of octreotide on the prevention of hyperamylasemia after ERCP in Saudi Arabia: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Al Awad Naif

    2000-01-01

    Background and objectives: Acute pancreatitis is a serious complication of ERCP. Octreotide as prophylaxis against ERCP-induced hyperamylasemia has produced conflicting results. A review article has called for additional controlled studies. This work was undertaken to see the effect of octreotide in ERCP-induced enzyme changes in a predominantly Saudi population. Subjects &methods: The setting was a university teaching hospital, Eastern Saudi Arabia. The study was prospective, randomiz...

  19. Prevalence of Metabolic Abnormalities and Association with Obesity among Saudi College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa A. Abolfotouh; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim A.; Mohammed A. Al-Rowaily

    2012-01-01

    Aim. (i) To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic abnormalities among Saudi college students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and (ii) to investigate the association between different indicators of body composition and these abnormalities. Methods. A total of 501 college students participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric assessments, BP measurements, and biochemical assessment were done. Metabolic abnormalities were identified. Results. Applying BMI, 21.9 % and 20.6% of students were...

  20. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extra...

  1. The Determinants of Arab Countries Demand for Saudi Exports: Panel Data Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdullah Aljebrin

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically estimates the critical parameters of export demand function for Saudi Arabia by using annual time series-cross section data (1984-2008) and by applying fixed effects model. The empirical results confirm that there exists a significant relationship among the real value of Saudi Arabia exports to Arab countries and trade partner's real income, relative export price, and trade partner's real exchange rates. The estimation results show that all variables have a significant ...

  2. Feedback on the Feedback: Sociocultural Interpretation of Saudi ESL Learners’ Opinions about Writing Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Rami F. Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study employed informal conversational interviews and semi-structured individual interviews to capture the Saudi students’ opinions about the feedback they receive, and about their perceptions on what constitutes helpful feedback. Sociocultural theory was used as the framework of this study. The findings suggest that the Saudi students do not think highly of the feedback, and that the feedback they desire is markedly different from what they receive. The students mentioned ...

  3. The ability of the pre-admission criteria to predict performance in a Saudi medical school.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rukban, Mohammad O.; Munshi, Fadi M.; Abdulghani, Hamza M; Ibrahim Al-Hoqail

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the ability of preadmission criteria used in most health professional schools in Saudi Arabia to predict the in-program performance. METHODS This retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Fahd Medical City, Faculty of Medicine, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July and September 2008. Four sets were used to examine the predictive power of preadmission variables. The variables are the academic abilities (high school grades), aptitude test, achievem...

  4. Job satisfaction of nurses in Ministry of Health Hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanan A. Al-Ahmadi

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the magnitude and determinants of job satisfaction in nurses working in Ministry of Health hospitals Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS A modified version of the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire is used to survey 500 nurses in 9 Ministry of Health hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Three hundred and sixty six nurses from different nationalities responded to the questionnaire (response rate 73%). Data analysis consisted of descriptive sta...

  5. “Where Are You?” The Communicative Functions of Saudi Students’ Text Messaging

    OpenAIRE

    Al Rousan, Rafat M.; Noor Hashima binti Abdul Aziz; Anne Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of the mobile phone service has greatly contributed to the proliferation of text messaging, particularly among young people. The main objective of this study is to examine the communicative functions of the text messaging of young Saudi university students. Thurlow’s (2003) theoretical framework is used in this study. The study has a straightforward research question: What are the communicative functions of young Saudi students’ text messaging? 750 text messages were co...

  6. Causes of uveitis in a tertiary center in Western Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Bawazeer, Ahmed M.; Shaik HM. Nizamuddin

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the causes of uveitis and compare our results with national and international published studies. Methods: This is a retrospective review of medical records of patients who attend the uveitic clinic of Magrabi Eye & Ear Hospital in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from  January 1999 to December 2011. Results: We encountered 823 eyes of 587 uveitis patients (male: 319 [54%] and female: 268 [46%]). Native Saudi patients constituted 52% of our total population, expa...

  7. Safety of intradermal Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine for neonates in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed H. Al-Salem; Mukul R. Kothari; Hatem M. AlHani; Mohammad M. Oquaish; Suzie S. Khogeer; Mohammed S. Desouky

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in Saudi infants and outline our management for BCG related lymphadenitis. METHODS The records of infants who developed BCG related complications were retrospectively reviewed from March 2008 to March 2011 at the Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia for age, gender, birth weight, presentation, and outcome. All our patients were immunized with the BCG vaccine within 48 hours after birth, and the total...

  8. Factors influencing E-commerce Adoption by Retailers in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi, Rayed; Nguyen, Ann; Nguyen, Jeremy; Drew, Steve

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some findings from a study researching the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing ICT marketplace in the Arab region, e-commerce activities have not progressed at a similar speed. In general, Saudi retailers have not responded actively to the global growth of online retailing. Accordingly new research has been conducted to identify and explore key issues that positively and nega...

  9. Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children.

    OpenAIRE

    Salih, Mustafa A.; Murshid, Waleed R.; Zahraa, Jihad N.; Abdel-gader, Abdel-galil M.; Al-jarallah, Ahmed A.; Kentab, Amal Y.; Alorainy, Ibrahim A.; Hassan, Hamdy H.; Tjan, Giap T.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore the role of and report on congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies as risk factors for stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. METHODS Children with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology (DPN), or were seen as inpatients in the Pediatric Wards at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to...

  10. Knowledge on adherence and safety of the oral contraceptive pill in Saudi women.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-shaikh, Ghadeer K.; Mayet, Ahmed Y.; Alshaikh, Mashael K.; Hamad, Amani F.; Mahmoud, Mansour A.; Aljadhey, Hisham S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess knowledge regarding adherence and safety of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) in Saudi women. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study in an outpatient pharmacy at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from April to September 2011. Participants were healthy women aged greater than or equal to 18 years with an OCP prescription for contraception. We used a validated questionnaire to assess their knowledge regarding adherence ...

  11. Examining the Broken Sales-Cycle in the Saudi Arabia Automotive Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fadye Saud Al Fayad

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the subject of the Saudi Arabian new vehicle market. The topic addressed involved thesales-cycle within the new vehicle purchase process in Saudi Arabia. The specific research problem identified abreak-down in the sales-cycle or, alternatively, a dysfunctional approach to the final step in the sales-cycle whichinvolves the post-purchase stage where the consumer typically makes referrals or recommendations to family,friends and colleagues regarding the product or service in...

  12. E-Commerce Adoption in Saudi Arabia: an Assessment of International, Regional and Domestic Web Presence

    OpenAIRE

    Alotaibi, Mutlaq B.

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) has a growing potential in Saudi Arabia, due to widespread use of the internet and the maturity of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of E-Commerce websites in Saudi Arabia, using a proposed evaluation instrument. To achieve this aim, six E-Commerce websites were selected for evaluation and then categorized into three categories: domestic, regional and international. Each category consisted of two...

  13. Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Dicronychus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dhafer, Hathal M; Platia, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Examination of specimens of Dicronychus Brullé in the King Saud University Museum of Arthropods, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia revealed the presence of two new species, D. latifae n. sp. and D. bushrae n. sp. In addition, the descriptions of D. talhouki Platia and Schimmel and D. brancuccii Platia and Schimmel are augmented after examination of both type material and recently collected specimens from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PMID:25277891

  14. Attitudes of Managers towards the Potential Effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia: Factor Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nasser Akeil Kadasah

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the attitudes of managers in Saudi Arabia towards the effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia. The study includes 143 firms in three sectors of activities; private manufacturing, private service and public firms. The study reveals that the five most significant benefits are; safer environment, improvement of image of the certified firms with the international environmental organizations, ensure the safety of workers inside the organizations, improvement of firms im...

  15. Ethernet TCP/IP based building energy management system in a university campus in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M Jomoah, Sreerama Kumar R, Abdulaziz Uthman M. Al-Abdulaziz, Nabil Yassien Abdel-Shafi, Ramzy R Obaid

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of the Building Energy Management System (BMS) installed in the typical buildings in the main campus of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in Saudi Arabia. As the domestic electricity and hence the oil consumption in Saudi Arabia is increasing at a very alarming rate compared to the other countries in the world, it is of paramount importance to resort to urgent measures in various industrial, commercial and residential sectors in the country to implem...

  16. Impact of health education on knowledge and attitudes of Saudi paramedical students toward HIV/AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mazrou, Yagob Y.; Mohammad S. Abouzeid; Al-Jeffri, Mohammad H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the impact of health education on the knowledge and attitudes of paramedical students in Saudi Arabia toward HIV/AIDS. METHODS We carried out an interventional study on a sample selected from students of health institutes and health colleges in Saudi Arabia during the calendar year 2002-2003. RESULTS The intervention shows a positive effect on students' knowledge regarding means of transmission of HIV and means of protection from HIV/AIDS. Furthermore,...

  17. Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait as Turning Point in Iran-Saudi Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Ekhtiari Amiri; Fakhreddin Soltani

    2011-01-01

    Invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi army had significant impacts on regional and international spheres. The invasion affected relations of the regional countries in particular Iran-Saudi relationship as the most influential countries in the Persian Gulf region. The present article, first, takes into consideration Iran and Saudi Arabia relations in first decade after the Islamic revolution of Iran which finally gave rise to cutting off diplomatic relations in 1988 due to some severe tensions between t...

  18. BOARD OF DIRECTORS, AUDIT COMMITTEE CHARACTERISTICS AND THE PERFORMANCE OF SAUDI ARABIA LISTED COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya Ali Al-Matari; Abdullah Kaid Al-Swidi; Faudziah Hanim Bt Fadzil Hanim Fadzil; Ebrahim Mohammed Al-Matari

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the internal corporate governance mechanism related to the board of directors, the audit committee characteristics and the performance of the Saudi companies listed in the Saudi stock exchange (TADAWL) in 2010, excluding financial companies. The statistical results of the study are not in line with the agency theory that board of directors and audit committee might mitigate agency problems leading to reduced agency cost by aligning the interests of...

  19. A Forecast of Ophthalmology Practice Trends in Saudi Arabia: A Survey of Junior Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Alwadani Fahad; Alrushood Aziz; Altokhy Hisham; Alasbali Tariq

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influence of gender o...

  20. Amphetamine Versus Non Amphetamine-Related First Episode Psychosis in Saudi Arabian Patients

    OpenAIRE

    El, Ehab Said Desoky; El-tantawy, Ashraf M. A.; Raya, Yasser M.; Abdulhameed Al-Yahya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Amphetamines are illicit psychostimulant drugs that can induce psychotic symptoms. Very few studies have been conducted in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA) on amphetamine abuse and related psychosis. Recently, the pattern of amphetamine abuse in SA showed a significant trend of increased frequency. Objectives: To investigate the extent of amphetamine abuse in a sample of Saudi patients hospitalized for first episode of acute psychosis. Also, to compare in that sample between amphetami...

  1. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rayed AlGhamdi; Jeremy Nguyen; Ann Nguyen; Steve Drew

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influe...

  2. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors

    OpenAIRE

    El-Gilany Abdel-Hady; Amr Mostafa; Hammad Sabry

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The s...

  3. Birth anthropometric parameters in high and low altitude areas of Southwest Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. Al-Shehri; Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Mohamed A. Dalak; Luke D. Nwoye

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To study the anthropometric parameters of Southwestern Saudi newborns in Abha (a high altitude area) and Baish (a sea level area of Southwestern Saudi Arabia); to compare these parameters with those of the United States Center for Disease Control 2000 growth charts and to estimate the incidence of low birth weight (LBW) among the study population. METHODS The study sample included all births from Abha Central Hospital (N=4300), and all births from Baish General Hospital (N...

  4. Imported malaria infections diagnosed at the Malaria Referral Laboratory in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim S. Alkhalife

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria infections in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, based on retrospective analysis of laboratory records within the Central Laboratory. METHODS Records of the Malaria Referral Laboratory in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) were reviewed for the past 6 years: 1416-1421 Hejri inclusive (1996-2001 Gregorian). The dates of blood films were converted to Gregorian calendar in addition to the Hejri dates already us...

  5. Dietary habits and exercise practices among the students of a Saudi Teachers' Training College.

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid S. Al-Gelban

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the dietary habits and exercise practices among Saudi male students of a Teacher's Training College. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2005/2006 in Abha, Aseer Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The study sample was drawn using the systematic random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. RESULTS Out of a total sample of 500 students, 456 questionnaires were returned giving ...

  6. Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M; Fahmy Alaa-Eldin A; Al-Rethaiaa Abdallah S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives ...

  7. Determinants of Competitive Advantages of Dates Exporting: An Applied Study on Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Gaber Mohamed M. Abdel Gawad; Tarek Tawfik Alkhteeb; Mohammad Tariq Intezar

    2014-01-01

    The study focus on testing the determinants of competitive advantage of dates marketing from Saudi Arabia through multi- regression model based on Porter’s diamond, which is determined the factor that affecting on competitiveness of nations in international marketing, such as factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, and company strategy; structure; and rivalry. Our study selected the most competitive countries for Saudi Arabia in marketing dates in its markets ...

  8. The Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Afify, Ahmed R; Khalid H. Zawawi

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for con...

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding blood donation among the Saudi population.

    OpenAIRE

    Maqbool Alam; Masalmeh, Din Bel D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding blood donation among the Saudi population. Based on this study, an effective strategy can be made regarding motivation and recruitment of voluntary non-remunerated blood donors in future. METHODS This cross sectional study was carried out at the Armed Forces Hospital, Sharourah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during January 2003. A total of 500 adult males were interviewed. Each individual completed a questionnaire in Arab...

  10. Proximate Composition and Fatty Acids Profiles in Most Common Available Fish Species in Saudi Market

    OpenAIRE

    Manal S. Tawfik

    2009-01-01

    Three highly consumed fish in Saudi market were evaluated for their proximate composition in the muscle and in the head and their fatty acids. The fish species were included Spanish mackerel, (Scomberomorus maculates), Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and Yellow-spotted trevally (Carangoides fulvoguttatus) which respectively known as Kanad, Hammour and Hammam in Saudi market. The moisture, protein, total lipids and ash of the muscle tissue and head of the three fish species were found to ...

  11. The Criminalisation of Identity Theft under the Saudi Anti-Cybercrime Law 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Suhail Almerdas

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the capability of Saudi law to tackle a widespread type of cybercrime: identity theft. It begins with an overview of the meaning of the term ‘identity theft’. Then, an overview of acts related to identity theft, including obtaining identity-related information, transferring identity-related information and possessing identity-related information, are provided. The article then examines the extent to which legal measures enacted in Saudi Arabia can tackle the problem ...

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of celiac disease in type I diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-ashwal, Abdullah A.; Shabib, Souheil M.; Sakati, Nadia A.; Attia, Najya A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the prevalence of celiac disease in young patients in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with type I diabetes mellitus. METHODS Serum gliadin immunoglobulin (Ig) A and reticulin IgA antibody determination was performed in 123 patients with type I diabetes mellitus attending the pediatric diabetic clinic at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between 1995 and 1996. RESULTS Elevated serum gliadin and reticulin IgA an...

  13. Attracting Customer in Saudi Arabia to Buy from Your Business Online

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Aboud Bahaddad; Luke Houghton; Steve Drew

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of compa...

  14. Standard penile size for normal full term newborns in the Saudi population.

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah S. Al-Herbish

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To establish norms for penile size for normal full term Saudi newborns. METHODS The length between the pubic ramus and the tip of the glans was measured in 379 normal full term Saudi newborns. An unmarked spatula was used where its edge was placed against the pubic ramus and the shaft of the penis was stretched to the point of increased resistance. The penile circumference was measured using a non- stretchable plastic tube placed around the midshaft of the uncircumcised pe...

  15. Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae) in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi

    2013-01-01

    Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number of seeds per pod, inflorescences pos...

  16. Serum leptin and its relation to anthropometric measures of obesity in pre-diabetic Saudis

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Katari Mohammad; Mohieldin Mehad; Al-Rubeaan Khalid; Al-Attas Omar S; Al-Daghri Nasser M; Jones Alan F; Kumar Sudhesh

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Little information is available on leptin concentrations in individuals with IGT. This study aims to determine and correlate leptin levels to anthropometric measures of obesity in pre-diabetic, (IFG and IGT), type 2 diabetic and normoglycaemic Saudis. Methods 308 adult Saudis (healthy controls n = 80; pre-diabetes n = 86; Type 2 diabetes n = 142) participated. Anthropometric parameters were measured and fasting blood samples taken. Serum insulin was analysed, using a solid...

  17. Awareness of interventional radiology among final-year medical students and medical interns at a University in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Alshumrani, Ghazi A.

    2013-01-01

     Objectives: To assess the awareness of interventional radiology (IR) among final-year medical students and medical interns at a Saudi University. Analysis of such awareness could help to improve the future of IR in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on anonymous surveys administered over a one month period (1st - 31st  December 2012).  One hundred and nineteen medical students and interns of King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia were included. Forty-two (35.3...

  18. Microbial Loads and Physicochemical Characteristics of Fruits from Four Saudi Date Palm Tree Cultivars: Conformity with Applicable Date Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Salah M. Aleid; Bakri H. Hassan; Salah A. Almaiman; Safar H. Al-Kahtani; Sobhy M. Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The conformity of Saudi dates cultivars to date standards has not been studied extensively. In this study, microbial loads and physicochemical characteristics of four Saudi date cultivars (Sukkary, Khalas, Sugai and Anbara) were determined. Anbara cultivar had significantly higher mould and yeast counts than recommended under Saudi technical regulation and standards for packaged whole dates. Moisture content and insect damage for all studied cultivars fell within Codex ...

  19. Prevalence of symptoms and risk of sleep apnea in middle-aged Saudi women in primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Bahammam, Ahmed S.; Al-rajeh, Mohammed S.; Al-ibrahim, Fatimah S.; Arafah, Maria A.; Sharif, Munir M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess the prevalence of symptoms and risks of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a sample of middle-aged Saudi women in a primary care using a validated questionnaire. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, trained medical students administered the Berlin Questionnaire to a consecutive random sample of Saudi women in the age group 35-60 years, attending the primary health care center in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January and...

  20. A need for One Health approach – lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Ahmed Hassan; Clas Ahlm; Magnus Evander

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000) and Sudan (2007) from a One Health perspective. Methods: Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia’, ‘...

  1. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel RM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

  2. The proportion of expenditure on children to family’s income in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen Al-Banawi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has witnessed enormous socio-economic changes for the last two decades. Due to this, the standard living of most Saudi people has been improved noticeably. Accordingly, that affects on the consumption expenditure of the Saudi family particularly on the children which has been increased substantially. However, no studies with respect to cost of children have yet been undertaken in Saudi Arabia. This study is to estimate the proportion of expenditure on children, to family’s income in Saudi Arabia by estimating the cost of children in Saudi Arabia; using Jeddah as a case study. In the study, the cost of children is taken to be money expenditure that is the amount that parents actually spent on their children. The study involves a sample of (1500 respondents from the city of Jeddah. Also, explores attitudes and opinions towards certain topics related to cost of children and the family. The study highlights that cost of children rise proportionately to family income, children age, and their numbers.

  3. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

  4. Perinatal stroke in Saudi children: clinical features and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. During the study period, 23 (22%) of 104 children (aged one months to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57%) patients, and in 6 children (26%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in other 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17%) had low protein C, whichur children (17%) had low protein C, which was associated low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low proteins S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of additional acquired antenatal and perinatal risk factors support a multifactorial disorder. (author)

  5. Stroke due to mitochondrial disorders in Saudi children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)lex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had raised cerebrospinal fluid lactate but no ragged red fibres on muscle histochemistry. Biochemical assay of muscle homogenate showed reduction in respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Mutation screening of mtDNA at nucleotides 3243 (tRNA) and 8344 (tRNA) was negative. Mitochondrial disorders constitute a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. However, demanding and highly specialized investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis. These are better performed at supraregional centers where facilities for clinical biochemical and molecular work-up are available. (author)

  6. Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Aujan S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care

  7. Market Based Mergers- Study on Indian & Saudi Arabian Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Krishnamurthy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the efficiency and performance of post merger using CRAMEL–type variable of selected private banks in India & Saudi Arabia which are initiated by the market forces. The results suggest that the mergers did not seem to enhance the productive efficiency of the banks as they do not indicate any significant difference. The financial performance suggests that the banks are becoming more focused on their retail activities (intermediation and the main reasons for their merger is to scale up their operations. However, it is found that the loan to total Assets and the profitability are the two main parameters which are to be considered since they are very much affected by mergers. Also, the profitability of the firm is significantly affected after merger giving a negative impact on Earnings.

  8. Quality issues in continuing medical education in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shehri Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of continuing medical education (CME in Saudi Arabia is no longer quantity but rather quality. Quality Management (QM of the current huge number of CME activities is essential to ensure its merits and outcomes. Sound evaluation is the cornerstone of any QM process to CME. However, issues related to models of evaluation, CME stakeholders, principles of adult learning and assessment should be consid--ered before deciding on the type of evaluation appropriate for QM of CME. Our aim is to draw attention to the importance of developing a QM process for CME that is valid, reliable, feasible and acceptable to dif--ferent CME stakeholders. The huge volume of CME programs needs QM to ensure its utility for healthcare providers and consumers. Understanding relevant evaluation models and the complexity of evaluating CME is a necessary step towards appropriate action.

  9. CSR, Employee Job Attitude and Behavior: Saudi Bank Experience

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    Mohammad Tahlil AZIM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the relation- ship between the external CSR practices of the organizations and employees’ job satisfaction, employee engagement and organizational cit- izenship behavior in the context of the Saudi banking industry. A positive relationship between CSR and employee job satisfaction, employee engagement and organizational citizenship be- havior related to the organization is observed. However, the organizational citizenship behavior related to individual is found unrelated to CSR. The theoretical foundation of the study is ground- ed in the spirit of social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979 and social exchange theory (Blau, 1964. The study implies that involvement in ex- ternal CSR may be a determinant for maintaining a motivated and enthusiastic workforce. 

  10. Emergency response plan for accidents in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a brief description of the general emergency plan for accidents involving radioactive materials in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Uses of radioactive materials and radiation sources and their associated potential accident are specified. Most general accident scenarios of various levels have been determined. Protective measures have been specified to reduce individual and collective doses arising during accident situations. Intervention levels for temporary exposure situations, as established in the IAEA's basic safety standards for protection against ionising radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, are adopted as national intervention levels. General procedures for implementation of the response plan, including notification and radiological monitoring instrumentation and equipment, are described and radiation monitoring teams are nominated. Training programs for the different parties which may be called upon to respond are studied and will be started. (author)

  11. Towards an electronic national injury surveillance system in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, F; Hussain, S A; Mandil, A; Alamro, N

    2015-02-01

    Given the need for a uniform, comprehensive, electronic nationwide surveillance system for injuries in Saudi Arabia, a system was designed with the objectives of establishing an epidemiologic profile of injuries in the country; evaluating injury indicators on an ongoing basis; identifying high-risk groups requiring specific interventions; monitoring and evaluating interventions for effectiveness; and producing reports to assist in planning and resource allocation. A special form for this purpose was designed, modified from validated forms used elsewhere for injury surveillance. This initiative of the Ministry of Health is also expected to help validate data collected by other sectors, such as the Ministry of Interior. This paper reviews the milestones of building the system and aims to prompt a debate within the scientific community, especially within the Eastern Mediterranean Region, about the best way to design injury surveillance systems for the Region in order to fine-tune the proposed system before its full-scale implementation. PMID:25876826

  12. Taxonomy of Cyber Crimes and Legislation in Saudi Arabia

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    Naasir Kamaal Khan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in the field of internetcommunication in the last decade worldwide have crossed allthe physical boundaries laid down by human being and this erawitnessed a major development in the field of InformationTechnology and made a large number of computer users in theworld. Every common man is influenced by this new world ofcommunication named as cyber world. But there are alwaystwo aspects associated with every technology; the destructiveside is threats associated with this internet communication incyberspace. A rapid growth of computer crimes and formationof laws in different countries addresses the severity of problem.This paper discusses the stand of Saudi Arabian governmentagainst cyber crime and its IT act. It analyzes the cybercrimein the Kingdom and the associated legislation to combat thesame.

  13. Energy and exergy utilization in agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison for a period of 12 years. Two main energy sources are diesel for tractors and electricity for pumps in the sector. It is found that the overall exergy efficiencies in this sector are slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies, e.g. 74.19-69.20% for exergy efficiency and 74.94-74.60% for energy efficiency from 1990 to 2001. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in sectoral analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures

  14. The State of Ambient Air Quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M. M.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Khwaja, H. A.; Siddique, A.; Nayebare, S. R.; Zeb, J.; Blake, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient air pollution in major cities of Saudi Arabia is a substantial environmental and health concern. A study was undertaken to assess the air quality of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia by the analysis of respirable particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon (BC), trace metals (Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Cd, Sb, and Pb), and water-soluble ions (F-, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, C2O42-, and NH42+). Sulfur and BC mass concentration ranged 0.99 - 7.39 ?g/m3 and 0.70 - 3.09 ?g/m3, respectively, while the PM2.5 mass concentration ranged 23 - 186 ?g/m3. Maximum BC contribution to PM2.5 was 5.6%. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations were well above the 24 h WHO guideline of 20 ?g/m3. Air Quality Index (AQI) indicates that there were 8% days of moderate air quality, 28% days of unhealthy air quality for sensitive groups, 55% days of unhealthy air quality, and 9% days of very unhealthy air quality during the study period. Sulfate SO42- dominated the identifiable components. The major contributors to PM2.5 were soil and crustal material; vehicle emissions (black carbon factor); and fuel oil combustion in industries (sulfur factor), according to the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This study highlights the importance of focusing control strategies not only on reducing PM concentration, but also on the reduction of toxic components of the PM, to most effectively protect human health and the environment.

  15. Prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile Saudi women

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    Al-Jaroudi Dania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Since cervical cancer is reportedly the seventh most frequent cancer in women in Saudi Arabia and the eighth most frequent cancer among women aged between 15 and 44 years, we wanted to determine the prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology among subfertile women attending the reproductive medicine unit of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia. Methods : This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study. A Pap smear was done for 241 of 493 (48.9% subfertile women from January 2008 through February 2009. Results : The Pap smear was normal in 166 of 241 patients (67.9%, abnormal in 71 (29.5%, and unsatisfactory for evaluation in 4 (1.7%. According to the revised Bethesda system, epithelial cell abnormality was found in 7 (2.9%, inflammation in 55 (22.8%, and infection in 9 (3.7% patients. Epithelial cell abnormalities were further classified as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US (n=3, 42.8%, atypical squamous cells of high grade (ASC-H (n=1, 14.3%, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL (n=2, 28.5%, and glandular cell abnormalities (AGS (n=1, 14.3%. Conclusion : The high prevalence of abnormal cervical cytology in our subfertile women accentuates the need for screening in patients eligible for in vitro fertilization. In addition, a well-organized screening program for cervical cell abnormalities at the national level should be implemented to allow identification of subfertile women at risk so that potentially life-saving measures can be undertaken early.

  16. Towards evidence-based medical education in Saudi medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlFaris Eiad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence-based medical education (BEME is an attitude of mind that entails the creation of a culture in which teachers think critically about what they are doing, look at the best evidence available and on this ba-sis, make decisions about their teaching practice, and subsequently, undertake the necessary revision and change. More medical schools have opened in Saudi Arabia in the last few years than have existed over the last three decades. Currently, the education of health professionals is based on assumption and traditions and rarely on research findings. Medical teaching has evolved from being opinion-based to evidence-based and the art of teaching is rapidly becoming the ?science? of teach-ing. The need for evidence in our teaching and medical education prac-tices is as important as it is in assessing a new therapy. This approach to education is not only associated with better results in terms of better learning, from the side of the students (the consumers, but also has a wider impact on patient care and the community. Moreover, in this age of accountability, litigations and quality assurance, the need for BEME becomes greater. Some suggestions to implement BEME in Saudi Arabia have been put forward and these are the training of medical education professionals in the use the existing information systems, and dissemi-nating information through the creation of a BEME journal (secondary publication that publishes a critically appraised summary of medical education articles that are both valid and of immediate clinical use.

  17. Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suaad S. Alwakeel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.

  18. Investigating the High Turnover of Saudi Nationals versus Non-Nationals in Private Sector Companies Using Selected Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Mona Naguib Moussa

    2013-01-01

    Saudization became inevitable for domestic political stability; however, private organizations are suffering fromthe high turnover of Saudi nationals and less commitment towards their employers. The researcher set to examinethe reasons for the high turnover through examining employee engagement antecedents of the Saudi’s nationalsversus non-Saudis’. The purpose of this study is to examine selected antecedents and consequences of employeeengagement. The researcher distributed surveys among...

  19. Knowledge and Attitude of Saudi Health Professions’ Students Regarding Patient’s Bill of Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa B. El-Sobkey

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Patient’s rights are worldwide considerations. Saudi Patient’s Bill of Rights (PBR which was established in 2006 contained 12 items. Lack of knowledge regarding the Saudi PBR limits its implementation in health facilities. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professions’ students at College of Applied Medical Sciences (CAMS Riyadh Saudi Arabia regarding the existence and content of Saudi PBR as well as their attitude toward its ineffectiveness. Method A 3-parts survey was used to collect data from 239 volunteer students participated in the study. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using SPSS. Results Results showed that although the majority of students (96.7% believe in the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights, half (52.3% of them had perceptual knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and only 7.9% of them were knowledgeable about some items (1–4 items of the bill. Privacy and confidentiality of patient was the most common known patient’s rights. Students’ academic level was not correlated to neither their knowledge regarding the bill existence or its content nor to their attitude toward the bill. The majority of the students (93% reported that only one course within their curriculum was patient’s rights-course related. About one quarter (23.4% of the students reported that teaching staff used to mention patient’s rights in their teaching sessions. Conclusion The Saudi health professions students at CAMS have positive attitude toward the ineffectiveness of patient’s rights nevertheless they showed limited knowledge regarding the existence of Saudi PBR and its contents. CAMS curriculums do not support the subject of patient’s rights.

  20. Hysolar - German-Saudi Arabian solar hydrogen research, development and demonstration program. Hysolar - Deutsch-Saudi Arabisches Forschungs-, Entwicklungs- und Demonstrationsprogramm Solarer Wasserstoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Hysolar project is carried out in international cooperation with Saudi Arabia. In a 350 kW pilot plant in Riyadh, hydrogen is produced by water decomposition in an electrolytic process. The electrical power required for this is supplied by a solar generator equipped with solar cells. (Sauter).

  1. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  2. Awareness and attitude of cancer patients about participation in clinical research (CR) in Saudi Arabia. | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheblaq NR,Traifi S,Al Sakiani M,Gasmelseed A,Abolfotouh MA,Jazieh AR. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdul Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.

  3. Prevalence of osteoporosis and factors associated with osteoporosis in women above 40 years in the Northern Part of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Oommen

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Prevalence of osteopenia is higher than osteoporosis in the Saudi women above 40 years in the Northern part of Saudi Arabia. The major cause of low BMD is lack of exercise even though there is a high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 274-278

  4. Linguistic Analysis of Saudi Pidginized Arabic as Produced by Asian Foreign Expatriates

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    Hameed Yahya A. Al-Zubeiry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing the system of SPA (Saudi pidginized Arabic as produced by AFEs (Asian foreign expatriates working in Saudi Arabia with specific reference to universal characteristics of reduction and simplification in the system of morpho-syntactic structure of Saudi Arabic. The study is based on data collected through a semi-structured interview technique probing into the features of SPA system. Thirty informants were randomly selected from among expatriates working in Saudi Arabia and belonging to different linguistic backgrounds – Urdu, Hindi, Bengali, Tagalog, Indonesian, and Malayalam- as representatives of AFEs. The study showed that the AFEs tend to use simplified and reduced system of SA in order to communicate with its native speakers. This was reflected in producing variations of sentence word order that are not compatible with the sentence word order of SA, reduced inflectional verb forms and simplified noun phrase lacking agreement within its structure. The study concluded with the following implications: 1 SPA could be considered as an emerging contact variety among Asian expatriates in Saudi Arabic; 2 it has universal characteristics of reduction and simplification as shown in its structural system; 3 substrate languages play an essential role in the formation of the SPA.Keywords: Pidgin, simplification, reduction, SPA, AFEs, SA.

  5. Stock Market Volatility in Saudi Arabia: An Application of Univariate GARCH Model

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    Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Study of stock market volatility has been the focus of financial economics. Modelling stock market volatility has great contributions to make in the areas of portfolio management, asset allocation, risk management, etc. We estimate the conditional volatility of Saudi stock market by applying AR (1-GARCH (1, 1 model to the daily stock returns data spanning from August 1, 2004 to October 31, 2013. We show that a linear symmetric GARCH (1, 1 model is adequate to estimate the volatility of the stock market of the country. We find that Saudi stock market returns are characterised by volatility clustering and follow a non-normal distribution. Saudi stock market returns show a time varying volatility, show persistence and are predictable. Past volatility impacts the current period volatility and past returns play a role in determining the current period return. Saudi stock market is nervous in its reactions to market fluctuations. This finding of the study offer important input into the decisions relating to asset allocation and risk management strategies of investors and treasury managers in Saudi stock market.

  6. Macroeconomic Forces and Stock Prices: Some Empirical Evidence from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines if there exists a long run relationship among five macroeconomic variables, consumer price index, industrial output, money supply, exchange rate, oil prices along with the global stock prices proxy Standard and Poor 500 index and Saudi all share stock index. Time series analysis is applied using monthly data from January 1994 to June 2013. Application of Johansen cointegration test finds the existence of a long run relationship among the chosen variables. All macroeconomic variables are found to impact stock prices. Standard and Poor 500 index does not affect Saudi stock prices. Vector error correction model shows the presence of long run causality from the explanatory variables to the stock prices. Short run causality test finds a two-way causality between stock prices and oil prices. Impulse response function shows that industrial production shocks pushes up stock prices while consumer price index shocks pulls it down. Variance decompositions show that historical stock prices are the major driver of Saudi stock prices. This implies that Saudi stock market follows weak form of market efficiency. The results of this paper have important implications for the investors in Saudi stock market.

  7. Too costly to matter: Economics of nuclear power for Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudi Arabia has ambitious plans for nuclear power. Given this context, this paper examines the economics of nuclear power and compares it to two other sources of electricity, natural gas and solar energy. It calculates the costs of electricity generation, water desalination and the opportunity cost associated with forgone oil and gas revenues. A sensitivity analysis is included to account for variations in important parameters within the comparative cost analysis. Our results suggest that for a large range of parameters, the economics of nuclear power are not favorable in comparison with natural gas, even if the currently low domestic natural gas prices in Saudi Arabia were to rise substantially. Further, electricity from solar plants has the potential to be cheaper than nuclear power within the next decade if the rapid decline in solar energy costs in the last decade continue, i.e., before the first planned nuclear power plant would be completed. However, unless the price of oil drops substantially below current values, it would be more economically optimal to export the oil than using it for generating electricity. - Highlights: • Future projections show nuclear power is not cost effective for Saudi Arabia. • A combination of solar and natural gas could largely meet future electricity demand. • There are multiple, non-economic, motivations for Saudi Arabia's nuclear program. • Saudi Arabia would economically benefit by not using oil for electricity generation

  8. Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

  9. Dental maturity of Saudi children: Role of ethnicity in age determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghdadi, Ziad D. [Dept. of Preventive Dentistry, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-12-15

    Demirjian's dental maturity scores and curves have been widely used for human age determination. Several authors have reported considerable differences between the true and estimated age based on the Demirjian curves, which have been accounted for by ethnicity. The purpose of the current study was to assess the role of ethnicity-specific dental maturation curves in age estimation of Saudi children. A sample of 452 healthy Saudi children aged 4 to 14 years were aged based on the original French-Canadian Demirjian curves and several modified Demirjian curves specified for certain ethnic groups: Saudi, Kuwaiti, Polish, Dutch, Pakistani, and Belgian. One-way ANOVA and a post hoc Scheffe's test were used to assess the differences between chronological age and dental age estimated by the different curves (P<0.05). The curves designed for Dutch, Polish, Saudi, and Belgian (5th percentile) populations had a significantly lower error in estimating age than the original French-Canadian and Belgian (50th percentile) curves. The optimal curve for males was the Saudi one, with a mean absolute difference between estimated age and chronological age of 8.6 months. For females, the optimal curve was the Polish one, with a mean absolute difference of 7.4 months. It was revealed that accurate age determination was not related to certain ethnicity-specific curves. We conclude that ethnicity might play a role in age determination, but not a principal one.

  10. A comparison of histological appearances of hodgkin disease in pakistani and saudi patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkin's disease (HD) is a relatively rare lymphoma that affects younger as well as older persons. It is reported in the Western as well as Asian studies that HD is a rare disease in developing world. It is commoner in males in most of the countries and shows a bimodal pattern of age. The commonest subtype is nodular sclerosis in the west and mixed cellularity in the eastern and developing countries. The present study compares eight years' data of HD as regard age, sex, site of anatomical presentation and subtypes according to WHO classification among Pakistani and Saudi patients. This retrospective comparative study included 211 cases of HD from various institutions of Lahore, Pakistan and 78 cases retrieved from the data of King Abdul Aziz Hospital and Oncology Centre, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The analysis of both data of HD showed lack of bimodal age pattern and was common among younger age. Male was the dominating sex. Cervical group of lymph nodes was the commonest presenting site. Mixed cellularity HD (MCHD) was the commonest subtype among Pakistani patients whereas Nodular Sclerotic HD (NSHD) was more common among Saudis. A comparison of the pattern of Pakistani and Saudi data of HD showed lack of bimodality in both. The male sex predominated. Morphologically the MCHD and NSHD were the commonest subtypes in Pakistani and Saudi patients respectively. (author)

  11. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-COMMERCE ADOPTION BY RETAILERS IN SAUDI ARABIA: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayed AlGhamdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influence Saudi retailers in deciding whether or not to adopt online channels. As part of a larger research project using mixed methods, this paper focuses on a quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of retailers in Saudi Arabia. The design of the questionnaire instrument was based on the findings of a qualitative analysis reported in a previous paper. The main findings of the current study include a list of key factors that affect retailers’ e-commerce adoption, such as lack of online payment options and lack of clear legislation on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia, and quantitative indications of the relative strengths of the various relationships.

  12. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in male blood donors in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaal, M; Zawawi, T H; al Sobhi, E; Jeje, O; Gilpin, C; Kinsara, A; Osoba, A; Oni, G A

    1998-01-01

    To our knowledge, only a few epidemiological reports on the prevalence of hepatitis E antibodies in Saudi blood donors have been published. Men of several nationalities, donating blood at King Khalid National Guard Hospital (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) were selected (n = 593) for this study examining the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the local male donor population and testing the relationship of the antibody to HEV (anti-HEV) to donor characteristics using Odds Ratio (OR) and Chi-square statistic. The prevalence of anti-HEV in the group examined was 16.9 per cent (100/593). The seroprevalence for Saudi donors was 14.8 per cent compared with 33.3 per cent for non-Saudis of Middle Eastern origin. Donors who were 40 yr and over had significantly higher seroprevalence than those donors who were 30 yr or younger (OR = 2.5, p = 0.006). There was a significant association between anti-HEV and anti-HCV with donors who were positive to anti-HCV having about 5 times the risk of HEV than those who were anti-HCV negative (p = 0.02). These findings demonstrate the high seroprevalence rate of anti-HEV among male blood donors in Saudi Arabia. PMID:9638024

  13. Attracting Customer in Saudi Arabia to Buy from Your Business Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Aboud Bahaddad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of companies have websites only to present products.Accordingly, new research has been conducted to explore the attraction of customers in Saudi Arabia to buyfrom businesses online. This will assist the Small and Medium Enterprises (SME sector, which represents 90%of companies in Saudi Arabia, to increase communication channels with its customers electronically. Aquantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 381 consumer participants from Saudi Arabia whowere interested to buy online to see what factors would attract them to online shopping. Several factors emergedas attracting factors which were divided into organizational, technical, and cultural factors.

  14. Abu Dhabi-Saudi Territorial Negotiations (1970-71: And the End of Britain’s Dominance in the Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noura S. Al Mazrouei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the examination of the UAE-Saudi territorial negotiations from 1970-1971. This study discusses Britain’s mediation role in the Abu Dhabi-Saudi negotiations. Of particular note is Britain’s role, which focused on managing the dispute instead of settling the Abu Dhabi-Saudi border disputes. This serves as an example of Britain’s wish to avoid damaging its economic interests and political relations with either the UAE or Saudi Arabia. In line with this, the paper will examine King Faisal’s proposal of 1970, Shaikh Zayid’s position towards it and Saudi Arabia’s and Abu Dhabi’s negotiation strategies and tactics in settling the disputed areas. The paper offers a full explication of the major factors that hindered the dispute’s resolution before Britain officially withdrew from the Gulf.

  15. Nutritional Status among a Sample of Saudi College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar M. El-Qudah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional habits and health behaviors have been a major concern for public health, especially among vulnerable groups such as teenage and college students. This study aims to assess nutritional status of a sample of Saudi college students and their dietary behaviors. A multi-stage sample was obtained from a private college in the north-western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Descriptive statistics was used to assess the frequency of some nutritional habits and their correlation to Body Mass Index (BMI. The results show that overweight and obese subjects represented 22.6 and 11.6% of the students respectively, compared to 13.7% for underweight subjects. Twenty five percent of male and 20.3% of female students were overweight while 16.7% of male and 6.7% of female students were obese. There was a statistical significant difference between males and females in relation to the mean weight and height (p<0.001 and BMI (p<0.05. Approximately 15.7% of the subjects skip their breakfast daily. Both males (50% and females (45.9% used to eat their meals irregularly. More than 58% of the students stated that they consume fast foods, the proportion of females was more (64.9% than the males (51.4% and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. A relatively small percentage (21.2% of students reported not eating burgers and a majority of respondents 61% preferred regular size burgers. However, the tendency to eat large size burgers was more pronounced among males than females (p<0.05. A regular portion size of potato chips was preferred by 61% of the students, among them 24.3% were females and 11.1% were males (p<0.01. There was a wide range of preferences for consumption of different foods among participants. Females showed a higher rate in the consumption of sweets and chocolates on daily basis (28.4 and 29.7%, respectively compared to males (18.1 and 16.6%, respectively (p<0.05. Males were more prone to consume red meat (p<0.05 and fish (p<0.05 than females. It is recommended to further investigate the eating habits of college students in KSA and propose interventions to improve such habits.

  16. The Econometrics of Investment in Date Production in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alshuaibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Date palm is an important fruit crop in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and bears a lot on the national economy. Therefore, the government is paying special attention to date production through price support of low grade variety and providing subsidies to the most important production variables. The main objective of this study was to optimize the net present value of revenue to build a structural function of planting new date trees to explain and measure the investment decision. Because of inadequate information in this area, only the past investment period was considered to determine the effect of past decision on new decision of investment. The government policies, which directed to low grade varieties probably, led to inefficiency as the domestic consumption of dates is very high and growing high quality will lead to higher revenue to farmers with almost the same cost of production. To deal with investment in date palm production locally, Saudi Arabia needs to estimate a very high discount rate to observe any value related or based on the discount rate. The Durbin Watson parameter is significant for both the varieties (Khalas and Ruzaiz at 95% confidence interval (LSD0.05. The past investment appeared very significant for its effect on planting new date trees due to the fact that farmers who planted new trees in the past is continuously carrying with date industry and investing in future. Overall, the investment in tree plantation like date palm is not an easy decision by the farmers, because it needs couple of years spending without revenue. The farmers in the date growing areas were hesitant in providing information about the date variety, number of trees per hectare, tree age, fertilizers, pesticides, land ownership, intercropping, cost of production, total yield, quantity sold and price received. The study suggested further investigations on growing high quality date palms, date production and marketing aspects to harvest maximum profit by the farmers as well as support by the government for facilitating proper market and subsidies to date growers.

  17. Genetic diversity of Moringa peregrina species in Saudi Arabia with ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaklabi, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions. PMID:25737651

  18. Recurrent appearance of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Alsayeqh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 % suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011 in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.

  19. An Analysis of Benchmarking of Business Functions in Organizations of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Akeil Kadasah

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the extent of performance benchmarking of the major business functions undertaken bythe business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on five major functions namely; marketing,human resources, finance, operations, and quality. Each of these functions includes four sub functions. The scopeof the study extends to private firms (manufacturing and service as well as public and government organizationsin Saudi Arabia. The study includes four sizes of organizations. The finding of the study shows that the practiceof benchmarking in Saudi Arabian organizations’ is not in advance level. The sequence of the application ofbenchmarking is found to be as follows; marketing, operations, quality, finance and human resources,respectively. The study further shows that the practice of performance benchmarking in private firms better thanpublic organizations. However, the study concludes that there is no significant difference between companiesbased on their sizes.

  20. Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, O A; Phillips, M R; Williams, A T; Gheith, A M; Bantan, R A; Rasul, N M

    2012-04-01

    Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ=-0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r=0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t=2.898; df=18; pdesalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. PMID:22353176

  1. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-09-30

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  2. Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitwalli A

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

  3. Intestinal Parasites Infection among Immunocompromised Patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males, aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1 and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7% most of them (25.7% were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%, Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%, Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%, Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7% and Hook worm 1 (0.7%. The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p<0.001, followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

  4. Knowledge of healthy diets among adolescents in eastern Saudi Arabia.

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    Al-Almaie Sameeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Bad dietary habits, such as eating high-fat/high-energy food, can contribute to obesity in adolescents, which tends to persist into adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the level and sources of knowledge about foods and healthy diets among male and female adolescents. METHODS : This was a cross-sectional study of a sample of male (n=1240 and female (n=1331 adolescents from third grade, intermediate and all three grades of secondary school students in the Al-Khobar Area, eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Approximately 51% of the male and 65% of the female students recognized unsaturated fats as healthy foods. However, 10% of the males and 8% of females reported saturated fats as healthy food items. About 49% of the males and 66% of the females correctly defined cholesterol. Dietary knowledge of both male and female students on the dangers of unhealthy foods and the benefits of fiber-rich diets was found to be unsatisfactory. The main sources of knowledge about health and disease reported by the male and female respondents were television (58% and 61%, respectively, magazines (31% and 39% and daily newspaper (33% and 34%. Primary health care centers (PHCCs staff were the least source of knowledge (17% and 16%. CONCLUSIONS : Knowledge of healthy diets among school students was inadequate. It is recommended that health education and information about healthy eating habits and lifestyle be included in school curricula.

  5. Measles in Saudi Arabia : From control to elimination.

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    Khalil Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the tremendous efforts made in the field of measles immunization in Saudi Arabia in the past 20 years, from the control phase to the elimination phase. Mandatory measles vaccination with one-dose Schwartz vaccine was introduced in 1982 by a royal decree, a step aimed at increasing vaccine coverage. In 1991, a two-dose schedule was implemented using Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine , with a first dose at 6 months to protect children younger than 9 months and a second dose of MMR at 12 months of age to protect those who did not respond to the first dose. A marked reduction in the epidemic peak and a shift of infection to older age were noticed. But the same data showed that 50% of measles cases in the 1- to 4-year age group occurred in vaccinated children. In 1998, with the start of elimination phase, an MMR campaign was launched in two phases, targeting school children in 1998 (secondary schools and in 2000 (primary and intermediate schools. Evaluation of the MMR campaign and surveillance data was reflected in the measles immunization policy by shifting the age of measles immunization to 12 months and to preschool using the two-dose MMR schedule.

  6. Indoor radon measurements in the Women College, Dammam, Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Qahtani, Mona [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm{sup -3} whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm{sup -3}. This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors.

  7. Environmental impact of some cement manufacturing plants in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is concerned with the environmental impact of the cement industry in the west of Saudi Arabia represented in two cement plants and one cement depository. The concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in samples of cement (raw materials and end product) and soil, collected from the cement plant and its surrounding area, were measured using ?-ray spectrometer employing a HPGe detector. In addition, the levels of 19 major and trace elements were also determined in these samples using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of the 238U series isotopes in soil samples show a clear radiological impact of the cement industry upon the environment. Possible contamination with Ca and some other elements in soil samples that are rich with the fine grain size was observed. Cluster analysis of soil samples using convenient attributes shows an obvious evidence of the cement industry impact upon the environment. The hidden effect of the cement industry upon the environment was observed when the convenient measured attributes were used in cluster analysis of soil samples. (author)

  8. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.

    2014-09-01

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.

  9. Automated management of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document

  10. Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Four Saudi Camel Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Basmaeil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass characteristics and meat quality in four Saudi camel breeds. Four young male camel breeds were used (Majaheem, Suffr, Sho’l and Wodoh 6-9 months old with average weight 133.83±2.83 kg. Animals were group fed of three animals in four replicates for each breed. A balanced energy/protein ration was used to ensure that animals get their nutrient requirements using ad lib twice feeding system. When animals slaughtered, carcass characteristics were measured to evaluate meat quality. The results obtained from growth trial indicated that the slaughter weight of animals after 204 days was 292.33±6.65, 278.17±11.36, 284.35±21.89 and 270.35±10.69 kg for Majaheem, Wodoh, Suffr and Sho’l, respectively. At slaughter, the hot carcass weight was 176.38, 164.78, 170.21 and 164.9 kg for Majaheem, Wodoh, Suffr and Sho’l, respectively. Dressing percentage was 59.37, 57.88, 58.76 and 60.00% for Majaheem, Wodoh, Suffr and Sho’l, respectively. There were no any significant differences between breeds in most parts of the carcass muscle area especially color of Longissimus dorsi muscle, shear force and chemical analysis of meat.

  11. An Analysis of Learning Barriers: The Saudi Arabian Context

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    intakhab alam khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Learning and teaching are quite interrelated. Teaching can't take place unless the students learn. Teaching is a bi-polar activity. Learning barriers or causes of learning difficulties are quite natural phenomenon in an educational setting. But, when it comes to exert a very adverse effect it becomes crucial. Thus, it is unavoidable to ignore those factors which adversely affect the entire learning process. It is found that the following barriers are some of those that are very influential: social, cultural, parental, attitudinal, motivational, psychological, personal and pedagogical factors that include teacher, action research, teaching strategies, teaching resource, administration etc. The present paper is going to focus on the following: motivation of the students, motivation of the teachers, dedication and commitment, teacher's role, teachers’ preparedness, teaching strategies, training and professional development etc. The case of Saudi Arabia is very important for many reasons. The government is spending a lot of money on education. But, the achievement of learning is not up to the mark. Therefore, it is important to study the effect of such factors on academic achievement. Keywords: Barriers, socio cultural factors, psychological factors, pedagogical factors, the teacher , motivation.

  12. E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives

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    Sadiq Sait

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

  13. Sinkhole detection using electrical resistivity tomography in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karst phenomena exist in different areas in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, causing serious environmental problems that affect urban development and infrastructure (buildings, roads and highways). One of the most important problems are sinkholes, which most of the time consist of unfilled voids. These sinkholes are formed as a result of the chemical leaching of carbonate and evaporite formations by percolating water. Field investigations show that there are many surface expressions of sinkholes in the area; some appear on the ground surface and others are hidden in the subsurface. Geophysical data were collected at the study area using two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) with different electrode spacings to delineate buried sinkholes and associated subsurface cavities. Our findings indicated that the dipole–dipole method using an electrode spacing of 1 m was successful in detecting a known subsurface sinkhole. According to the ERT method the detected sinkhole depth ranges from 2 to 4 m, its height ranges from 2 to 4 m, and its width ranges from 5 to 7 m. Field observation has verified the geophysical data, especially along the profile A-A. Finally, closely spaced ERT profiles were successful in determining the three-dimensional volume of the subsurface sinkhole. (paper)

  14. Systems modeling and analysis for Saudi Arabian electric power requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis addresses the long-range generation planning problem in Saudi Arabia up to the year 2000. The first part presents various models for electric energy consumption in the residential and industrial sectors. These models can be used by the decision makers for the purposes of policy analysis, evaluation, and forecasting. Forecasts of energy in each sector are obtained from two different models for each sector. These models are based on two forecasting techniques: (1) Hybrid econometric/time series model. The idea of adaptive smoothing was utilized to produce forecasts under several scenarios. (2) Box-Jenkins time series technique. Box-Jenkins models and forecasts are developed for the monthly number of electric consumers and the monthly energy consumption per consumer. The results obtained indicate that high energy consumption is expected during the coming two decades which necessitate serious energy assessment and optimization. Optimization of a mix of energy sources was considered using the group multiattribute utility (MAU) function. The results of MAU for three classes of decision makers (managerial, technical, and consumers) are developed through personal interactions. The computer package WASP was also used to develop a tentative optimum plan. According to this plan, four heavy-water nuclear power plants (800 MW) and four light-water nuclear power plants (1200 MW) have to be introduced by the year 2000 in addition to sixteen oil-fired power plants (400 MW to sixteen oil-fired power plants (400 MW) and nine gas turbines (100 MW)

  15. Assessment of Ambient Air Quality in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia.

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    B. H. Alharbi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.

  16. Osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)

  17. Financial Synergy in Mergers and Acquisitions in Saudi Arabia

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    Basmah Al Qudaiby (Basmah, A. Q.,

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Businesses today consider mergers and acquisitions a new strategy for their company’s growth. Companies aim to grow through sales’ increase, assets purchase, profits’ accumulation and market share gains. The better way for achieving these targets is by getting into either a Merger or an Acquisition. As a matter of fact, growth through mergers and acquisitions has been a critical part of the success of many companies operating in the new economy. Mergers and Acquisitions are an important factor in building up market capitalization. Based on three detailed and in depth structured interviews with major Saudi Arabian banks it has been found that, Mergers motivated by economies of scale should be approached cautiously. Companies should also approach vertical mergers cautiously because it is often difficult to gain synergy through a vertical merger and firms should also seek out mergers which allow the firm to acquire specialized knowledge. It has also been found that the firms should look for mergers that increase market power and avoid unrelated or conglomerate mergers.

  18. Drug resistance patterns of acinetobacter baumannii in makkah, saudi arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen againstcommonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)

  19. Occurrence of radon in groundwater of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdula'aly, Abdulrahman I

    2014-12-01

    Samples were collected from 1025 wells supplying drinking water to the 13 regions of Saudi Arabia and analyzed for radon concentrations. The weighted radon median value for the entire country was found to be 4.62 Bq L(-1) with a range of 0.01-67.4 Bq L(-1). The percentage of samples with radon concentration equal to or greater than 11.1 Bq L(-1) (US EPA proposed MCL) was found to be 19.22%. The range of radon in shallow wells varied between 0.06 and 67.4 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.1 Bq L(-1)) and between 0.06 and 40.9 Bq L(-1) (median value 5.34 Bq L(-1)) for deep wells. However, 50% of the samples had radon concentrations equal to or greater than 4.0 and 2.87 Bq L(-1) for the shallow and deep wells, respectively. Correlation of well depth with radon levels revealed that wells drilled in Saq aquifer consisting of predominantly sandstone with significant shale layers in the upper parts, gave higher median radon levels than in Manjur aquifer which consists of predominantly limestone and sandstone. PMID:25244698

  20. Causes of Contractors’ Failure in Industrial Projects in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at identifying and assessing the main causes of contractors’ failure in industrial projects in Saudi Arabia. 24 causes were identified from the literature for assessment by owners, contractors and subcontractors. These causes were classified under five categories, namely managerial causes, financial causes, growth causes, environmental causes and uncontrollable causes. A survey of 36 participants was conducted. Data was collected from 15 owners, 11 contractors and 10 subcontractors. The results indicated that lack of experience in the business field, war, poor project management, poor cost estimation, unavailability of stationed project leader at site, neglect and type of the contract are the most severe causes behind contractor’s failure in construction projects. The rank correlation coefficient indicated that there is a high level of agreement among owners, contractors and subcontractors on the severity of the different failure causes. The research provides a severity of the ranking of the different causes of failure so that mitigation measures could be developed to avoid them or lessen their effects.

  1. Hydrogeochemical Processes of Alkhobar Aquifer in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Zarah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration was found to be higher than the recommended limit for drinking purposes. The Saturation Indices (SI indicated that the regional groundwater is under-saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite and aragonite minerals and oversaturated with respect to goethite and hematite minerals. The hardness of groundwater is very high as compared to the established standards. The F contents are within permissible limits for drinking. The nitrate contents are within permissible limits for domestic use. Two water types i.e., Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 dominate the Al-Ahsa whereas Na-Ca-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 water types are dominant in Al-Dammam, Al-Khobar and Al-Qatif areas. Overall, the study provided useful information on some important hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of the eastern region. Further studies are required to determine heavy trace metals concentration for multiple uses.

  2. Pattern of colorectal cancer at two hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Ahwal Mahmoud; Al-Ghamdi Aisha

    2005-01-01

    Patients and Methods: Data of all patients with CRC treated at two hospitals in the Western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), between 1993 and 2002, were collected and analyzed. Results: Out of the 121 patients evaluated, ten were excluded because of incomplete data. Out of 111 patients, 59 (53.2%) were males, with a male to female ratio of 1.13: 1 and 49 (44.1 %) were Saudis. Thirty-three patients (29.7%) were 40 years or less and 78 (70.3%) were mor...

  3. Ultra-high CPV system development and deployment in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonkar, Hussam; Wacaser, Brent; Martin, Yves; Kirchner, Peter; Alyahya, Abdulaziz; Aljouad, Mazen; Halawani, Mohamed; van Kessel, Theodor

    2013-09-01

    This paper discusses the development and deployment of an ultra-high concentrating PV module that utilizes concentration above 1400X on multijunction solar cells. The development process included the selection of cell assemblies, primary and secondary optics, and focal distance. The systems were deployed in Saudi Arabia inside the Solar Village near Riyadh and in Khafji near the border of Saudi and Kuwait, following the deployment of first prototype in Yorktown, NY. Data from operation in those areas are shown here, and next steps of optimizing the module performance are discussed.

  4. Acetabular dysplasia in adult hips of a Saudi population. A possible relation to coxarthrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Moussa; Abdullah Alomran

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate acetabular morphology and the prevalence of dysplasia in a Saudi population, and compare it with others in different geographical areas. METHODS The study took place at King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from May 2005 to April 2006. We recruited radiographs of 104 patients of 40-88 years of age. We digitally measured the center edge angle (CEA) of both hips. RESULTS Of the 208 hips examined, 3 hips (1.44%) had mild-to-modera...

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices toward Energy Drinks among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulrahman Musaiger; Nisreen Zagzoog

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of inf...

  6. Lung functions in poorly controlled type 1 Saudi diabetic children and adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Muslim M. Al-Saadi; Meo, Sultan A.; Abdul M. Al-Drees; Sarar Mohamed; Shaffi A. Shaikh; Khalid Al-Rubeaan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the lung function among Saudi type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) children and adolescents. METHODS This study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Pulmonology and University Diabetes Centre, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from December 2008 to July 2010. A group of 52 (26 male and 26 female) volunteer T1DM children were recruited with an age range from 8-14 years (mean 12.05 +/- 1.42 year...

  7. A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Alqarni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, C. riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L. (Acanthaceae. The occurrence of modified facial setae is documented and discussed for the first time in eight other species of Pseudomegachile, and a key to the genera and subgenera of Megachilini currently confirmed for Saudi Arabia is provided.

  8. Determination of Essential Fatty Acids in Popular Olive Cultivars Grown in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim M. Alruqaie; F.A. Al Ghamidi; Hend A. AbuHaimed

    2013-01-01

    Presently, the use of olive oil is increasing in many conventional food items owing to its health benefits due to the presence of essential fatty acid. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of some of these fatty acids such as Omega-3 and Omega-6 in locally produced olive oil in Saudi Arabia. Olive oil samples used for analysis were collected from NADEC and Al-Jouf farms located in Al-Jouf Region (Northern of Saudi Arabia) and ...

  9. The pattern of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Ministry of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghamdi IG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study describes the epidemiology of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: Epidemiological analysis was performed on data from all MERS-CoV cases recorded by the Saudi Ministry of Health between June 6, 2013 and May 14, 2014. The frequency of cases and deaths was calculated and adjusted by month, sex, age group, and region. The average monthly temperature and humidity of infected regions throughout the year was also calculated. Results: A total of 425 cases were recorded over the study period. The highest number of cases and deaths occurred between April and May 2014. Disease occurrence among men (260 cases [62%] was higher than in women (162 cases [38%], and the case fatality rate was higher for men (52% than for women (23%. In addition, those in the 45–59 years and ?60 years age groups were most likely to be infected, and the case fatality rate for these people was higher than for other groups. The highest number of cases and deaths were reported in Riyadh (169 cases; 43 deaths, followed by Jeddah (156 cases; 36 deaths and the Eastern Region (24 cases; 22 deaths. The highest case fatality rate was in the Eastern Region (92%, followed by Medinah (36% and Najran (33%. MERS-CoV infection actively causes disease in environments with low relative humidity (<20% and high temperature (15°C–35°C. Conclusion: MERS-CoV is considered an epidemic in Saudi Arabia. The frequency of cases and deaths is higher among men than women, and those above 45 years of age are most affected. Low relative humidity and high temperature can enhance the spread of this disease in the entire population. Further analytical studies are required to determine the source and mode of infection in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: Middle East respiratory syndrome, case fatality rate, descriptive epidemiology, temperature, humidity

  10. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

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    Alghamdi IG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi women, including the frequency and percentage of cases, the crude incidence rate (CIR, and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by the region and year of diagnosis. Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive epidemiological study of all Saudi female breast cancer cases from 2001 to 2008. The statistical analyses were conducted using descriptive statistics, a linear regression model, and analysis of variance with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA. Results: A total of 6,922 female breast cancer cases were recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The highest overall percentages (38.6% and 31.2% of female breast cancer cases were documented in women who were 30–44 and 45–59 years of age, respectively. The eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 26.6 per 100,000 women, followed by Riyadh at 20.5 and Makkah at 19.4. Jazan, Baha, and Asir had the lowest average ASIRs, at 4.8, 6.1, and 7.3 per 100,000 women, respectively. The region of Jouf (24.2%; CIR 11.2, ASIR 17.2 had the highest changes in CIR and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. While Qassim, Jazan and Tabuk recorded down-trending rates with negative values. Conclusion: There was a significant increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for female breast cancer between 2001 and 2008. The majority of breast cancer cases occurred among younger women. The region of Jouf had the greatest significant differences of CIR and ASIR during 2001 to 2008. Jazan, Baha, and Najran had the lowest average CIRs and ASIRs of female breast cancer, whereas the linear trend upward is a concern in certain regions, such as the eastern region, Makkah, and Riyadh. However, further analytical epidemiological research is needed to identify the potential risk factors involved in the increase in the prevalence of breast cancer among Saudi women. Keywords: epidemiology, breast cancer, morbidity measure, public health, cancer epidemiology

  11. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  12. An Economic Study of the Demand for Red Meat in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia using Almost Ideal Demand System

    OpenAIRE

    Al-shuaibi, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-01-01

    Animal protein is one of the most important food products essential for normal growth of human body. The main objective of this study were to assess the demand of Saudi red meat, to estimate the system of Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) on various types of red meat and study the variances of price elasticity, cross elasticity and income elasticity according to the types and sources of meat in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Mean spending (billion Saudi Riyals) on different types of meat ranged...

  13. Characterization, quantification, and assessment of immune protection potential of secretory immunoglobulin A in colostrum samples from Saudi women

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Almogren

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize, quantify, and assess the function of colostral secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA)  in Saudi women. Methods: This prospective study was performed between March 2009 and February 2010 at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty milliliters of colostrum sample was collected from each of 23 healthy Saudi women (mean age 26±4 years) included in the study within 48 hours postpartum. Levels of sIgA and sIgM were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbe...

  14. Iran’s Economic Considerations after the War and its Role in Renewing of Iran-Saudi Diplomatic Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni; Reza Ekhtiari Amiri; Ku Hasnita Binti Ku Samsu

    2010-01-01

    Iran-Saudi relationship has constantly been frictional after Islamic revolution of Iran. In general, Saudi heavy support of Iraqi government during Iran-Iraq war and Iran’s holding political demonstration so-called the Liberation from Infidels gave rise to frigidity of mutual relations of the two countries. Meanwhile, one of the means that Saudi Arabia, as ally of Iraq, applied to put Iran under pressure was oil and reduction of its price in order to decrease Iran’s foreign exchange reven...

  15. The puzzle of self-reported weight gain in a month of fasting (Ramadan among a cohort of Saudi families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia

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    Bakhotmah Balkees

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During Ramadan fast, approximately one billion Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and another meal before sunrise. Many studies reported good health-related outcomes of fasting including weight loss. The objective of this study is to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a group of families in Jeddah, Western Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross-section study using a pre-designed questionnaire to identify the local pattern of expenditure on food consumption, dietary habits during Ramadan and correlate that to self-reported weight gain after Ramadan in a representative cohort of Saudis living in Jeddah. It was piloted on 173 nutrition students and administered by them to their families. Results A total of 173 Saudi families were interviewed. One out of 5 indicated that their expenditure increases during Ramadan. Approximately two thirds of the respondents (59.5% reported weight gain after Ramadan. When asked about their perspective explanations for that: 40% attributed that to types of foods being rich in fat and carbohydrates particularly date in (Sunset meal 97.7% and rice in (Dawn meal 80.9%. One third (31.2% indicated that it was due to relative lack of physical exercise in Ramadan and 14.5% referred that to increase in food consumption. Two thirds (65.2% of those with increased expenditure reported weight gain. Conclusion Surprisingly weight gain and not weight loss was reported after Ramadan by Saudis which indicates timely needed life-style and dietary modification programs for a population which reports one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes.

  16. The incidence rate of female breast cancer in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; El-Sheemy MA

    2013-01-01

    Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 am...

  17. Acute Occlusive Mesenteric Ischemia in Taif Province, Saudi Arabia

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    Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all patients. Secondary polycythemia was seen in 38.9% of patients. D-Dimer level was high in all patients. In 61.1% of patients, exploratory laparotomies were done based on clinical, laboratory, abdominal ultrasound and plain x-ray findings without performing CT angiography due to presentation with marked peritoneal signs. In all patients gangrenous lesions were detected during surgery and resection of these parts was done. Gangrene and in turn resection, was extensive in 14/36 patients (38.9% and they developed short bowel syndrome. There were 22/36 patients (61.1% with superior or/and inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis, 10/36 patients (27.8% with superior mesenteric artery thrombosis, in one of them there is associated focal thrombosis of aorta and renal arteries and 4/36 patients (11.1% with superior mesenteric artery embolism. All patients received postoperative anticoagulant therapy. Patients with short bowel syndrome were prepared to receive total parental nutrition (TPN for life. Intra-operative deaths were 3/36 (8.3%.There were 5/36 deaths (13.9% accruing within one month after surgery and all died secondary to sepsis and its sequalae with total deaths of 8/36 patients (22.2%. Conclusion: Acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI especially of venous type will represent a challenging problem in Taif and related districts. The surgeon must pay intensive attention to patients presented by unexplained central abdominal pain and he has to be with high index of suspicion especially if it meets with the classic teaching of "pain out of proportion to physical findings ". Early diagnosis, aggressive approach to early resuscitation of the patients, correction of metabolic and hemodynamic derangements, and performing laparotomy as soon as these derangements were corrected would decrease morbidity and mortality. In some patients it is necessary to perform second look operation for re-evaluation of the viability of the intestine

  18. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major urgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  19. Aerobic Microbial Skin Flora in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

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    Rajaa M. Milyani

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms in endogenous, exogenous and nosocomial infections was emphasized.

  20. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Binali Ali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. Results: The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 ± 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%, kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%, caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%, hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB in eight patients (11.1%, and other material in seven patients (9.7%. Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%, 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Conclusion: Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine.

  1. Visual and neurologic sequelae of methanol poisoning in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Elkhamary, Sahar M.; Asghar, Nasira; Bosley, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To present the visual sequelae of methanol poisoning and to emphasize the characteristics of methanol exposure in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective case series was carried out on 50 sequential patients with methanol poisoning seen at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital and King Saud University Hospitals in Riyadh, KSA between 2008 and 2014. All patients were examined by a neuro-ophthalmologist at least one month after methanol intoxication. Results: All 50 patients were young or middle-aged males. All admitted to drinking unbranded alcohol within 2-3 days before profound or relatively profound, painless, bilateral visual loss. Mean visual acuity in this group was hand motions (logMAR 2.82; range 0.1 - 5.0) with some eye to eye variability within individuals. Worse visual acuity was correlated with advancing age (Pearson correlation: oculus dextrus [right eye] - 0.37, p=0.008; oculus sinister [left eye] - 0.36, p=0.011). All patients had optic atrophy bilaterally, and all tested patients had visual field defects. Tremors with or without rigidity were present in 12 patients, and 11 of 30 patients who had neuroimaging performed had evidence of putaminal necrosis. Conclusion: Methanol intoxication causes visual loss within 12-48 hours due to relatively severe, painless, bilateral optic nerve damage that may be somewhat variable between eyes, and is generally worse with advancing age. The coincidence of bilateral optic nerve damage and bilateral putaminal necrosis in a young or middle-aged male is very suspicious for methanol-induced damage. PMID:25935177

  2. Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action

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    Al-Naami Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution.

  3. The Effects of Using WebQuests on Reading Comprehension Performance of Saudi EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshumaimeri, Yousif A.; Almasri, Meshail M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report on the effects of using WebQuest on Saudi male EFL students reading comprehension performance. WebQuests expose students to several online resources and require them to gather information about a specific topic. The experimental group received traditional teaching plus WebQuests as supplementary activities. The control group…

  4. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Waleed H. Albuali; Bertram, Stephanie; Abdullah M. Al-Rubaish; Yousef, Abdullah A; Awatif N. Al-Nafaie; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province.

  5. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors

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    El-Gilany Abdel-Hady

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors. The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors. Conclusions: Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students.

  6. Methods of Care for Children Living in Orphanages in Saudi Arabia (An Exploratory Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…

  7. A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia

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    Al-Akloby Omar M Al-Amro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestations were extracted into data collection forms and analyzed. During the 5 year study period, 10,455 new cases were seen in our dermatology OPD. Of these, 61 had hereditary icthyosis, with 37 males and 24 females with a male to female ratio of 1.5:1. Thus, the frequency of HI among Saudi hospital attendees was 6 per 1000 new cases. The type of HI was ichthyosis vulgaris in 25 (41% patients, X-linked recessive ichthyosis in 11 (18%, lamellar ichthyosis in 4(7%, bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma in 2 (3% and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythroderma was seen in 19 (31%. Generalized pruritus was present in 49 (80% cases, atopic dermatitis in , elevated serum IgE level was noted in 27 and bronchial asthma in 3 cases. Dandruff was reported in 24 cases, keratosis pilaris in15, recurrent skin infection in 7. Combination of hereditary ichthyosis, generalized pruritus and high serum IGE level was reported in 27 (44.3% patient.

  8. Attitudes of Saudi Universities Faculty Members towards Using Learning Management System (JUSUR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hisham Barakat

    2011-01-01

    The research aims to identify the Attitudes of faculty members at Saudi Universities towards using E-learning Management System JUSUR, which follows the National Center for E-learning. A descriptive analysis was used as a research methodology. Ninety participants in this research were asked to complete a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire, which…

  9. Saudi Secondary School Teachers Attitudes' towards Using Interactive Whiteboard in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Abanmy, Fahad AbdulAziz; Hussein, Hisham Barakat; Al Saadany, Mohammed Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    The research aims at investigating the Saudi Secondary school Teachers' Attitudes towards using Interactive Whiteboard in the classrooms. The research uses the Quasi- Experimental approach, with one group (100) teachers, and limited to the Secondary school Teachers that enrolled in the first semester of (2011/2012) academic year. The research uses…

  10. Violence against Primary Health Care Workers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; El-Wehady, Adel; Amr, Mostafa

    2010-01-01

    This self-report questionnaire study was carried out in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia to highlight the magnitude, predictors, and circumstances of workplace violence against primary health care (PHC) workers. A total of 1,091 workers completed a self-administered questionnaire. About 28% were exposed to at least one violent event during the past year.…

  11. Examining the Broken Sales-Cycle in the Saudi Arabia Automotive Market

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    Fadye Saud Al Fayad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the subject of the Saudi Arabian new vehicle market. The topic addressed involved thesales-cycle within the new vehicle purchase process in Saudi Arabia. The specific research problem identified abreak-down in the sales-cycle or, alternatively, a dysfunctional approach to the final step in the sales-cycle whichinvolves the post-purchase stage where the consumer typically makes referrals or recommendations to family,friends and colleagues regarding the product or service in question. In this case, the data collected for this studyin the form of an informal, anonymous survey of people that have purchased a new vehicle in the Saudi marketfound that the satisfaction rates with dealers were an abysmal 50 to 60% depending on the specific aspect ofservice quality addressed. The secondary data found that there are more than 700 thousand new vehicles sold inSaudi Arabia on average annually and this figure is expected to surpass one million in several years. Additionally,with the after sales market in service, parts and warranties continuing to expand to more than $1 billion, thispost-purchase process in the sales-cycle can no longer be ignored by new car dealerships in the market. Therecommendation is that new car dealerships develop and integrate social media into a customer loyalty programin the new car sales-cycle in order to improve customer satisfaction and referral rates.

  12. Characteristics and Dental Experiences of Autistic Children in Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Ebtissam Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…

  13. Scientific Research in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Potential for Excellence and Indicators of Underdevelopment

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    Ali Alshayea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the status of scientific research and development efforts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and then sheds lights on the potential for excellence in this area in terms of organization and structure, financing and partnership, and human resources. Accordingly, the study reviews both achievements and indicators of underdevelopment in the subject mentioned above.

  14. Combined true and pseudoexfoliation in a Saudi patient with co-existing cataract and glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Alodhayb, Sami; Edward, Deepak P.

    2014-01-01

    True exfoliation and pseudoexfoliation of the anterior lens capsule are different conditions, their coexistence is rare. We report a case with clinical findings of unilateral combined true exfoliation and pseudoexfoliation in a Saudi Bedouin that was confirmed histologically. We suggest that high levels of infrared radiation in the desert may have contributed to the capsular delamination.

  15. Combined true and pseudoexfoliation in a Saudi patient with co-existing cataract and glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alodhayb, Sami; Edward, Deepak P

    2014-10-01

    True exfoliation and pseudoexfoliation of the anterior lens capsule are different conditions, their coexistence is rare. We report a case with clinical findings of unilateral combined true exfoliation and pseudoexfoliation in a Saudi Bedouin that was confirmed histologically. We suggest that high levels of infrared radiation in the desert may have contributed to the capsular delamination. PMID:25473356

  16. Guidelines for Irrigation Water Quality and Water Management in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, G; A. Alquwaizany; A. Al-Zarah

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive review summarized the total available water supplies, water quality evaluation and the potential management strategies for efficient utilization of the available water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The review discussed different water quality classifications applied elsewhere on the use of different types of surface, drainage waters and groundwater irrespective of the total salinity status and the conditions of use.

  17. The petrochemical production capacity of the Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Corporation (SABIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development program of the SABIC (Saudi Arabian Basic Industry Co.) which has provided the building of new petrochemical units while retrofitting old units or developing the capacities of some of them. Statistical data on petrochemical production, sales and exports, contracts and joint ventures are also given. 2 tabs

  18. Glycaemic threshold for diabetes-specific retinopathy among individuals from Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup

    2014-01-01

    We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%.

  19. Human orf (ecthyma contagious) a report of two cases from Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Boulos, A M; Akhtar, M; Bendl, B

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of orf occuring in one family are reported. The patients developed characteristic skin lesions one week after sustaining cuts while slaughtering a sheep. The diagnosis of orf was confirmed by electron microscopy which revealed numerous large oval virus particle characteristics of parapox virus. This we believe is the first report of orf in Saudi Arabia. PMID:21164240

  20. A Think-Aloud Protocols Investigation of Dictionary Processing Strategies among Saudi EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaysony, Maha

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine qualitatively how Saudi EFL female students look-up word meanings in their dictionaries while reading. We aimed to identify and describe the look-up strategies used by these students. The subjects of the study were ten third-year English major students. A think-aloud protocol was used in order to gain insights into the…

  1. Making E-Learning Invisible: Experience at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwalidi, Abdullah; Lefrere, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe progress at King Khalid University (KKU) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in developing and implementing a user-centered road map for teaching and learning, with pervasive e-learning as a core element. They named the approach "Invisible" e-learning. As part of it, they are investigating ways to capture and share expertise, as in…

  2. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia:effects of sociodemographic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (autcilities caring for medical students. (author)

  3. Perceived stress among male medical students in Egypt and Saudi Arabia : Effect of sociodemographic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilntegral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).

  4. Stroke from systemic vascular disorders in Saudi children: The devastating role of hypernatremic dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic vascular disorders, leading to childhood stroke, include volume depletion or systemic hypotension and hypernatremic dehydration. We describe 3 cases of stroke following systemic vascular disorders. These were diagnosed during a prospective and retrospective study on childhood stroke, which included 104 patients. Post-gastroenteritis hypernatremic dehydration is an important, potentially preventable, cause of stroke in Saudi children. (author)

  5. Psychiatric Disorders in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa Abdel-Monhem; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Hablas, Hatem Refaat

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of psychiatric disorders and to define socio-demographic and disease-related risk factors in a sample of adolescents with SCD in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 110 adolescents with SCD and a convenient sample of 202 adolescents without SCD as controls. Psychiatric…

  6. Efforts of Controlling Money Laundering of Narcotics Money in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. ALASMARI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.

  7. Risk Matrix for Delay Causes in Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Time performance of a project is usually a particularly important consideration for the construction parties. Often, the most troublesome construction disputes involve delay and failure to complete the work in the specified time frame. Many variables have an impact upon construction delay in Saudi Arabia. This study aims at identifying the risk matrix for delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ viewpoint. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of 51 consultants working on construction projects in the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia. Thirty five delay causes were identified through literature review. The study concluded that the top delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ perspective are: bid award for lowest price, changes in material types and specifications during construction, contract management, duration of contract period, fluctuation of prices of materials, frequent changes in design, improper planning, inflationary pressure, lack of adequate manpower, long period between design and time of implementation, payments delay, poor labor productivity and rework.

  8. Analysis of HIV subtypes and the phylogenetic tree in HIV-positive samples from Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1 and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Abbott laboratories (United States of America) from2004 to 2007. All samples were seropositive for HIV-1 group M. Of the 39 seropositive samples, only 12 were polymerase chain reaction positive. Subtype C is the most common virus strain as it occurred in 58% of these samples; subtype B occurred in 17%; subtypes A, D and G were found in 8% each. The phylogenetic tree was also identified for the isolates. Detection of HIV subtypes is important for epidemiological purposes and may help in tracing the source of HIV infections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  9. Lack of MERS Coronavirus Neutralizing Antibodies in Humans, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierer, Stefanie; Hofmann-Winkler, Heike; Albuali, Waleed H.; Bertram, Stephanie; Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M.; Yousef, Abdullah A.; Al-Nafaie, Awatif N.; Al-Ali, Amein K.; Obeid, Obeid E.; Alkharsah, Khaled R.

    2013-01-01

    We used a lentiviral vector bearing the viral spike protein to detect neutralizing antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in persons from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. None of the 268 samples tested displayed neutralizing activity, which suggests that MERS-CoV infections in humans are infrequent in this province. PMID:24274664

  10. Prevalence of ocular pseudoexfoliation syndrome and associated complications in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Sulaiman A.; Al-Dabbagh, Najwa M.; Al-Shamrani, Saad M.; Khan, Nusrat M.; Arfin, Misbahul; Tariq, Mohammad; Al-Faleh, Hafez M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX), and associated ophthalmic complications among Saudi patients. Methods: The prevalence of PEX and associated ocular co-morbidities were determined among the Saudi patients visiting the Primary Care Clinic of Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 2009 and January 2010. A total of 1967 patients were examined biomicoscopically by ophthalmologists to determine the presence of PEX and associated ocular complications. Results: Sixty-nine of the 1967 examined patients (3.5%) showed the presence of PEX with no significant gender difference. There was an age dependent increase in the prevalence of PEX after the age of 50 years. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome was associated with higher intraocular pressure, cataract, and poor vision. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of PEX in male and female Saudi patients. Conclusion: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an age-related disorder, and its prevalence increases with age. Further larger population based studies are warranted to assess the prevalence of PEX and associated risk factors. PMID:25630014

  11. Teaching Arabic and the Preparation of Its Teachers before Service in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…

  12. Determinants of Competitive Advantages of Dates Exporting: An Applied Study on Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber Mohamed M. Abdel Gawad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study focus on testing the determinants of competitive advantage of dates marketing from Saudi Arabia through multi- regression model based on Porter’s diamond, which is determined the factor that affecting on competitiveness of nations in international marketing, such as factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries, and company strategy; structure; and rivalry. Our study selected the most competitive countries for Saudi Arabia in marketing dates in its markets (like Egypt, Iraq, and Tunisia. The results of study showed that the four determinants are significant and R square is high more than 95% in all equations this is agree with our assumptions, but the signs parameters of these determinants are different from our expectations specially with the quantity of production in Saudi Arabia which appear negative with the value of export of dates from KSA, that is because the consumption of dates in domestic market is high and it absorbs the high quality kind of dates, which is needed for external market. We tested also the same determinants for the competitive countries (Egypt, Iraq, and Tunisia; we found the same results, except Egypt, which have huge domestic demand that is effect on demand conditions in this country. Our study suggested more studies are needed for related and supporting industries of dates with this crop, to save data base in this field, and give more attention for quality of dates, packaging and prices for Saudi exporting of dates. 

  13. Business Process Re-engineering in Saudi Arabia: A Survey of Understanding and Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Chiu; Johnson Agbinya; Zenon Chaczko; Essam Rahali

    2009-01-01

    This survey was conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to investigate the level of awareness of BPR. Respondents (customers, employees, and Managers) had different educational backgrounds and were from private and public sectors. Findings of the study indicate a general awareness of BPR in KSA.

  14. Examining Linkages between Saudi Stock Market (TASI and Selected Stock Markets Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ziaur Rehman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study makes an endeavor to examine the existence of linkages between Saudi Stock Market Index (TASI and the bigwig stock markets indices, namely, US, UK, Japan and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC. Data are culled and collated on a weekly basis commencing from 01/07/2004 to 31/12/2008 for the Period-I (This phase cover substantial economic boom period in Saudi Arabia and from 01/01/2009 to 31/07/2013 for the Period-II (This duration encapsulates major restructuring in the Saudi stock market sectors. Significant tests are employed in the study, namely, the Pearson Correlation, Unit root, Johansen Co-integration, and Pairwise Causality tests. The results have demonstrated that volatility of TASI returns have decreased over the years and the correlations between the stock markets have increased. Further, the study reveals that the stock market indices have integration traits. Similarly, numerous causations between stock markets indices have increased in the period-II. Therefore, these findings are pertinent for all investors at domestic and international level. Further the findings of the study shall sanguinely carve a niche on the literature domain of Saudi Stock Market Index (TASI.

  15. Respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoub Meo, Sultan; Fahad A Al-Kheraiji, Mohammad; Fahad AlFaraj, Ziyad; abdulaziz Alwehaibi, Nasser; Adnan Aldereihim, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Sandstorms are metrological events and frequently occur in many regions throughout the world. Sandstorms are a main source of long-distance transport of dust, air pollution and cause various health problems. This study aimed to investigate the acute respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

  16. Factors That Affect Consumption Patterns and Market Demands for Honey in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhy Ismaiel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the significant annual consumption of honey in Saudi Arabia, information gaps remain with regard to the marketing and market structure of honey along the value chain. This study analyzed the major factors that influenced the consumption, expenditure patterns, and demand of honey in Saudi Arabia. This study forecasted the near-future expected market demands for honey in Saudi Arabia by collecting and analyzing the primary data using questionnaires. A total of 331 respondents from representative regions and large cities were randomly selected and interviewed. The data were analyzed using qualitative and quantitative methods as well as appropriate econometric models. Respondents characterized honey quality using organoleptic words, and these characterizations varied based on the relative significance of perception parameters. Taste, aroma, physical state, and color had aggregated average scores of 4.58, 4.44, 3.54, and 3.28, respectively. In addition to the above parameters, honey source, brand name, and confidence in the producers influenced its perceived quality. The major outlets for honey in Saudi Arabia included producers, specialized honey stores, and auction markets in major cities during the harvesting seasons. Medication, food, and sweetening were the major motivations for buying honey in the Saudi market, with aggregate scores of 4.52, 3.71, and 1.52, respectively. Significant honey price variations were observed within and among different honeys and packaging volumes; this finding might be due to factors such as botanical and geographical origins, package volume size economics (i.e., bulk purchases, honey variety blending, brand names, and producer policies. The average price of locally produced honey was approximately $73 per kg, which is 10 times more than the average price of honey in the US and the EU. The estimated consumption/income elasticity was 0.27. These results suggest that honey is a basic commodity in Saudi Arabia. Based on econometric model forecasts, the Saudi market demand for honey is expected to reach approximately 29,784 tons in 2025.

  17. Developing sustainable energy policies for electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is takenogramming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this paper, the major challenges facing the Saudi electrical power sector in implementing sustainable development are discussed and analyzed. The paper also looks at a number of developed countries and examines their experiences with energy conservation programs. The paper highlights current Saudi programs and experience for promoting awareness and participation in energy conservation. Strategies and major policy measures for energy conservation in Saudi Arabia are proposed

  18. Gastroenteritis attributable to rotavirus in hospitalized Saudi Arabian children in the period 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Khalil,1 Esam Azhar,2,3 Moujahed Kao,3 Noura Al-Kaiedi,3 Hatim Alhani,4 Ibrahim Al Olayan,5 Robert Pawinski,6,7 Kusuma Gopala,8 Walid Kandeil,7 Sameh Anis,7,9 Leen Jan Van Doorn,10 Rodrigo DeAntonio7 1Public Health and Research Development, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, 3Special Infectious Agents Unit, Bio-Safety Level 3, King Fahad Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 4Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Maternity and Children’s Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia; 6Reckitt Benckiser Pharmaceuticals, Slough, UK; 7GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines, Wavre, Belgium; 8GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Bangalore, Karnataka, India; 9AbbVie Biopharmaceuticals GmbH, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; 10DDL Diagnostic Laboratory, Rijswijk, the Netherlands Purpose: Rotavirus (RV is a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis (GE in children across the world. As there is a lack of epidemiological data for RV gastroenteritis (RVGE in Saudi Arabia, this hospital-based study was designed to estimate the disease burden of RVGE and assess the prevalent RV types in Saudi children younger than 5 years of age.Patients and methods: Children hospitalized for acute GE were enrolled at four pediatric referral hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from February 2007 to March 2008 and used the World Health Organization's generic protocol for RVGE surveillance. The Vesikari severity scale was used to assess the severity of RVGE. Stool samples were tested for RV using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Samples were further typed by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and hybridization assay for determining the G and P types.Results: A total of 1,007 children were enrolled; the final analysis included 970 children, of whom 395 were RV positive, 568 were RV negative, and seven had unknown RV status. The proportion of RVGE among GE hospitalizations was 40.7% (95% confidence interval: 37.6–43.9. The highest percentage of RVGE hospitalizations (83.1% was seen in children younger than 2 years of age. The highest proportion of RV among GE hospitalizations was in June 2007 with 57.1%. The most common RV types detected were G1P[8] (49.3%, G1G9P[8] (13.2%, and G9P[8] (9.6%. Before hospitalization, severe GE episodes occurred in 88.1% RV-positive and 79.6% RV-negative children. Overall, 94% children had recovered by the time they were discharged. Two children (one RV positive and one RV negative died due to GE complications.Conclusion: RVGE is responsible for a high proportion of hospitalizations in Saudi children younger than 5 years of age. Routine RV vaccination has therefore been introduced into the national immunization program and may help reduce the morbidity, mortality, and disease burden associated with RVGE in Saudi Arabia. Keywords: disease burden, Saudi Arabia, rotavirus, RVGE, epidemiology

  19. Incorporating the Delphi Technique to investigate renewable energy technology transfer in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.

    Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.

  20. The Effect of Explicit Instruction of Textual Discourse Markers on Saudi EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Ali Al-Qahtani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Discourse markers (DMs instruction is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention in the literature on second language learning. As noted by Al-Yaari, Al Hammadi, Alyami, and Almaflehi (2013, and Algouzi (2014, the use of DMs is insufficient to support the development of the language skills, especially reading, of Saudi English as a Foreign Language (EFL learners’. Recurrent reports (e.g., Al Abik, 2014; Al-Mansour & Al-Shorman, 2011 have shown that Saudi EFL learners perform poorly on reading comprehension tasks. Since these studies were generally descriptive, the current study attempted to fill the gap by providing empirical data, particular to low-proficiency learners in the Saudi EFL context, based on an eight-session intervention programme to familiarise learners with DMs. This study hypothesised that explicit DM instruction could improve learners’ reading comprehension and that there would be a significant positive relationship between Saudi EFL learners’ knowledge of DMs and their reading performance. To test these hypotheses, two classes with a total of 70 Saudi male third-grade secondary students were assigned as control and experimental groups. The experimental group was introduced to the intervention programme, whereas the control group was only taught the prescribed reading lessons. Two forms of tests in both DMs and reading comprehension were administered to the two groups before and after the intervention. A correlation analysis was also run to determine the relationship between learners’ knowledge of DMs and their reading performance. Results confirmed, with a large effect size, that explicit instruction in DMs improved low-proficiency EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The finding also suggested that knowledge of DMs correlated highly with reading comprehension. In other words, learners who were good at recognising DMs performed better in reading comprehension tasks, whereas those who were poor at recognising DMs performed poorly. Practical suggestions for pedagogy and future research were also identified.