WorldWideScience
 
 
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Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this briefing, some specific problems facing the petroleum industry in Saudi Arabia over the next few years are considered. They include: marketing difficulties caused by a glut in the Asian market to which Saudi Arabia is increasingly directing sales; the current high cost of maintaining a surplus production capacity that is unlikely to be used in the short term; a need to revise the budget to take into account the unexpected collapse in oil revenues in recent months; a need to prevent gross overproduction by both OPEC and non-OPEC rivals in order to prevent either loss of market share or persistent low prices. (UK)

Roberts, J.

1998-04-01

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Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues.  

Science.gov (United States)

The September 11, 2001 attacks fueled criticisms within the United States of alleged Saudi involvement in terrorism or of Saudi laxity in acting against terrorist groups. Of particular concern have been reports that funds may be flowing from Saudi Arabia ...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2004-01-01

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Geopolitical hotspots : Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation.

2004-01-01

4

Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

2000-01-01

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Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

Shammas, Pierre [Arab Press Services (APS) Group, Nicosia (Cyprus)

2000-07-01

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Disability in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disability, and most of this is on disabled children. There are several difficulties associated with conducting research on disability related issues in Saudi Arabia. Here, we review the current situation of disability, disability research, and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia from the published literature. 

Maher S. Al-Jadid

2013-01-01

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Hypertension in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hypertension is considered a major health problem in several populations of the world. We compared a few isolated and three comprehensive studies covering the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results show that different investigators found different prevalence of hypertension in different areas of...

El-Hazmi Mohsen; Warsy Arjumand

8

Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs.

Al-Qudsi, S. [Canadian Energy Research Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2006-07-01

9

Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs.

2006-01-01

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Hypertension in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hypertension is considered a major health problem in several populations of the world. We compared a few isolated and three comprehensive studies covering the whole Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The results show that different investigators found different prevalence of hypertension in different areas of the kingdom. There is a need to unify the diagnostic procedures and to determine the factors behind such significant differences.

El-Hazmi Mohsen; Warsy Arjumand

1999-01-01

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Communication with Saudis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People have different cultural characteristics that affect the way they do business. Using compelling ways to categorize major cultural differences, this paper helps the reader understand how different concepts of time, the relevance of status and power in shaping organizational structure, communication methods, and ways to conduct  meetings and social gatherings, all influence how interactions with a specific culture in Saudi Arabia can be made effective.

Wang Heng

2009-01-01

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Saudi Arabia: Problems and prospects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabia has a central role in the world oil market. After analyzing the country's political and economic situation with all its possible outgrowths, this article indicates the various development prospects relevant to Saudi oil production and its future impacts on the market

1993-01-01

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Saudi License Plate Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automatic license plate recognition systems (LPR)can help reduce the number of traffic violations and make ourstreets safer. In this project we developed an automatic systemthat locates Saudi license plates in a captured image regardlessof the time of day or license plate scale. The proposed systemcan tolerate slight tilting of the license plate. The localizationprocess is fairly complex due to the highly varying nature of thebackground. Good results were obtained using the localizationstage. A second part of the system was developed to segmentand recognize the characters in the located license plate.

Saleh Basalamah

2013-01-01

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Saudi National Security. Research report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this research paper is to focus on Saudi National Security. The author highlights geographic and historic factors that impact on threats to Saudi Arabia, and the objectives for providing security. He discusses how to achieve these objectives, including military readiness and cooperation with other countries to guarantee Saudi security. This is to ensure interests which are vital to the industrial world as the result of a continued flow of oil with a reasonable price. Given is the author`s opinion about U.S. political strategy in the region to achieve stability in the Gulf Region.

Al-Ayed, I.

1996-05-01

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Stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and cardiac diseases in 6 (5.8%). Six patients (5.8%) had moyamoya syndrome, which was associated with another disease in all of them. Inherited metabolic disorders (3.8%) included 3 children with Leigh syndrome and a 29-months-old girl with mitochondrial encephalomypathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Systemic vascular disease was a risk factor in 3 children (2.9%) including 2 who had hypernatrmic dehydration; and post-traumatic arterial dissection was causative in 3 cases (2.9%). Several patients had multiple risk factors, whereas no risk factor could be identified in 11 (10.6%). Due to high prevalence and importance of multiple risk factors, a comprehensive investigation, including hematologic, neuroimaging and metabolic studies should be considered in every child with stroke. (author)

2006-01-01

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Energy analysis of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides an energy outlook for Saudi Arabia's energy resources, their production and consumption, as well as their future projections. Crude oil, natural gas and refined products, and electricity are the main energy resources of the country. Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that has the largest crude oil reserves and this is one of the main energy producers. The high growth rates of Saudi Arabia's population and the sectorial energy utilisation are the two main factors affecting its energy consumption dramatically. Moreover, Saudi Arabia is not only one of the main energy producers in the world but is also one of the world's largest energy consumers per capita. (Author)

Dincer, Ibrahim; Al-Rashed, Bandar [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2002-07-01

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Country Analysis Briefs: Saudi Arabia, January 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia was the worlds largest producer and exporter of total petroleum liquids in 2010, and the worlds second largest crude oil producer behind Russia. Saudi Arabias economy remains heavily dependent on crude oil. Oil export revenues have accounted ...

2011-01-01

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Radon in Saudi houses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 637 passive radon dosemeters (CR-39 nuclear track detectors in a closed chamber) were used in a survey in 400 houses in Saudi Arabia. The radon concentration was found to vary from 5 to 36 Bq.m-3 (0.13 to 0.98 pCi.l-1) with a mean of 16 Bq.m-3 (0.43 pCi.l-1). The unoccupied houses showed a concentration of 29+-7 Bq.m-3 (0.78+-0.19 pCi.l-1) double that of the occupied houses, 14+-1 Bq.m-3 (0.39+-0.02 pCi.l-1), in the same area. The radon daughter concentration measured with a Working Level monitor in 17 unoccupied houses was found to vary from 1.35x10-3 to 24x10-3 WL with an average of 6.9+-1.4x10-3 WL. The average exhalation rate measured in 37 houses by 95 passive detectors in cans sealed to the walls ranged from 0.013 to 0.044 Bq.m-2.h-1(0.35 to 1.2 pCi.m-2.h-1) with an average of 0.021+-0.003 Bq.m-2.h-1(0.56+-0.09 pCi.m-2.h-1). This survey is the first in Saudi Arabia (a hot climate) and can usefully be compared with similar surveys in countries with cold climates. (author).

1986-01-01

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Radon Awareness among Saudi People in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people in Riyadh. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among 2297 persons of various educational background. It was found that about 82% of the Saudi public in Riyadh were ignorant of radon and its associated health risks. It was also found that only ~18% of educated public knew about radon. It was concluded that Saudi public needs to be educated in this respect properly.

Abdulaziz S. Alaamer

2012-01-01

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Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Saudi Arabia. Energy situation 1994; Saudi-Arabien. Energiewirtschaft 1994  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Saudi Arabia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country`s national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country`s external trade and balance of payments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Saudi-Arabiens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel bzw. zur Zahlungsbilanz angegeben. (orig.)

NONE

1995-11-01

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75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011. Led by a...Commerce official, the mission to Saudi Arabia is intended to include...

2010-09-07

23

Current portfolio of Saudi petrochemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an overall description of current Saudi petrochemicals portfolio with special emphasis on hydrocarbon feedstocks used in the country. It is the Kingdom's enormous associated gas resources that have contributed in making the Kingdom a highly cost competitive petrochemical supplier to world markets. (orig.)

Aitani, A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Center for Refining and Petroleums

2001-09-01

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Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol  

CERN Multimedia

On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

2008-01-01

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Saudi Arabia launches new development plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia's Third Five-Year Economic Development Plan (1980 to 1985) will continue to expand imports of American technology and products. Now the seventh largest world market for American exports, Saudi Arabia's purchases grew 20 percent to $5 billion in 1979. A preliminary analysis of priorities under the Third Plan and the opportunities presented for American exporters leads off a special section on Saudi Arabia in this issue of Business America and is followed by an analysis of trends in the Saudi economy, a highly successful Water Resources Equipment and Systems exhibition, and the foundation of Islamic legal tradition as embodied in Shari's.

Sams, T.A.

1980-06-30

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Saudi Arabia's oil policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyzes: how Saudi Arabia has used its oil power in the recent past; the mixture of motives that seem to go into Saudi oil policy; the prospects for Saudi Arabia remaining dominant force in the world oil market in light of changing supply and demand conditions; and internal instability that could change the willingness or ability of Saudi leaders to act as price leaders. Also discussed is how the US can develop policies to ensure the stability of the Middle East region. (DMC)

Quandt, W.B.

1982-01-01

27

Blood group phenotype distribution in Saudi Arabs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of eight blood phenotypes (ABO, Rh, MNSs Lutheran, Kell, Duffy, Kidd and Lewis) was determined in Saudi Arabs and compared with corresponding published information for Caucasians and Negroes of United States of America, Saudi Arabs manifest ABO phenotype distribution similar to Negroes; rhesus phenotypes similar to Caucasians but an MNSs pattern largely distinct. Heterozygous Kell phenotype, Kk, was much more frequent in Saudi Arabs than in either Caucasians, or Negroes. The Kidd system null allete, JKa-b- was not seen in the studied group. However, increased frequencies of null alleles of the Duff (Fya-b-) and Lewis (Le(a-b-)) systems were observed in Saudi Arabs. PMID:11205816

Abdelaal, M A; Anyaegbu, C C; al Sobhi, E M; al Baz, N M; Hodan, K

28

78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...  

Science.gov (United States)

...India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey...India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey...India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand,...

2013-08-22

29

Family Boraginaceae in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was pointed the need of more ecological studies to know the reasons of the change in the flora and to study how much the ecological stress may affect the speciation.

Wafaa K.Taia; Wafaa M. El-Ghanem

2004-01-01

30

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.

Kheyami Ali; Cunliffe Nigel; Hart C

2006-01-01

31

The Saudi Initiative for asthma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA) provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

Al-Moamary Mohamed; Al-Hajjaj Mohamed; Idrees Majdy; Zeitouni Mohamed; Alanezi Mohammed; Al-Jahdal Hamdan; Al Dabbagh Maha

2009-01-01

32

Saudi Arabia plans future strategy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK).

1996-01-01

33

Climatic conditions for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degree-day concept has been in use for more than 60 years as a means for utilities and fuel suppliers to predict the energy demand of the average population of buildings in any given location. It has also been used to assist the building design profession in estimating monthly and annual cooling and heating requirements of specific buildings in different locations. This paper presents the climatic conditions for Saudi Arabia, including the monthly average ambient temperature, the values of cooling and heating degree-days for different base temperatures, and the winter and summer outdoor design conditions for 20 cities in Saudi Arabia. These cities are located in five different climatic zones. The data presented in this paper will be useful to the building design profession and to designers and manufacturers of heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigerating (HVAC and R) equipment. It will also cover part of the present lack of information in ASHRAE Handbooks concerning degree-days and outdoor design conditions in Saudi Arabia.

Said, S.A.M.; Kadry, H.M.; Ismail, B.I. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1996-11-01

34

Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2005-01-01

35

Sulphur Oxidation In Saudi Arabian Agricultural Soils ????? ??????? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the oxidation of elemental sulphur in eight localities of Saudi Arabian soils. The effect of sulphur application on related properties of calcareous soils in Saudi Arabia was also investigated. Elemental S (1%) was oxidized to sulphate in all soils test...

Al Falih, Abdullah M. [??? ???? ????? ??? ??????

36

Hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease...

Akbar Hisham

37

Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P

2009-01-01

38

Arab oil industry: Petroline - Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Director General for Financial Affairs for Petroline described the oil pipeline linking the east and west coasts of Saudi Arabia in an interview. Owned by Petromin (General Petroleum and Mineral Organization), Petroline has a design capacity of 1.85 million barrels per day, with the rate varying according to oil demand on the international market and the rate of use of Saudi refineries supplied by the pipeline. Mr. Taher describes the economic advantages of the pipeline, the significance of the Iraqi pipeline through Saudi territory, the distribution of petroleum products to remote areas, and the development of other mineral resources.

1985-02-01

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Acute pancreatitis in Saudi patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology of acute pancreatitis in Saudi Arabia is greatly different from that in Western Countries. Aim: To evaluate and compare the risk factors and clinical features of acute pancreatitis. Patients and Methods: The course of acute pancreatitis was retrospectively analyzed in 218 patients who had their first attack and were admitted at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital during the period 1.01.85-31.05.97. Results: From these 218, 130 patients were in the age group of 20-55 yrs. (74+, 56>), 76 were > 55 yrs. Of age (42 +, 34>) and only 12 were 55 yrs. of age and 45 were precipitated by biliary disease. Twenty six developed complications (21 were > 55 yrs. old) and four deaths. Twenty two patients of these who had severe form had diabetes mellitus, 37 had fever at presentation and 56 had leukocytosis. Conclusions: The commonest etiology of acute pancreatitis was biliary in 147 patients (67.5%) followed by postoperative pancreatitis in 10 patients (4.6%). Alcohol as etiological factor was rare (1.8%). The epidemiology and the risk factors differed markedly in Saudi Arabia, where alcohol is prohibited

Al-Karawi Mohamed; Mohamed Abdulrahman; Dafala Mustasim; Yasawi Mohamed; Ghadour Zuhail

2001-01-01

40

Reading Strategy Instruction in Saudi Schools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores the attitudes of Saudi EFL teachers toward explicit instruction of readingstrategies. The study also compares actual practices of Saudi teachers with their beliefs and attitudes towardreading strategy instruction. In this study, quantitative data were collected using an attitude questionnaire,while qualitative data were collected using observation and semi-structured interviews. The quantitative dataobtained were analyzed by using means, standard deviations, and the Pearson product-moment correlationcoefficient. Qualitative data from a semi-structured interview were also analyzed to explore teachers'knowledge about reading strategy instruction. The results of this study show that Saudi teachers believestrongly in the importance of cognitive reading strategies and that they have insufficient knowledge of theimportance of metacognitive reading strategies. The study ends with recommendations for training Saudi EFLteachers in some of the most effective metacognitive reading strategies to help students plan, monitor, evaluate,and regulate their learning.

Hashem Ahmed Alsamadani

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Future of energy demand in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.

Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.

1981-01-01

42

Public health nursing education in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Public health nurses are key personnel in promoting and protecting the health of populations using knowledge from the nursing, social, and public health sciences. In Saudi Arabia, the nursing profession requires the integration of public health education and associated competencies in the nursing curriculum. In this paper, we aim to highlight the importance of public health nursing in overcoming the challenges associated with epidemiological transitions and responding to the health needs of rising populations, describe the development of the nursing profession in Saudi Arabia, and recommend public health teaching and training objectives for nursing education. The future Saudi public health nurse should be competent in addressing the determinants of health and illness that are salient to a culturally distinct group. This newly outlined role for public health nurses will maximize the use of the educated Saudi nursing workforce and will fill the gap in population public health needs in an efficient and effective way.

Jradi H; Zaidan A; Shehri AM

2013-04-01

43

Saudi Arabian Banks on the Web  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The advent of Internet has set in motion an electronic revolution in the global banking sector since 1995. Internet banking has become a major fully-fledged distribution channel of banking products and services in developed world. Within one year of the introduction of internet service in Saudi Arabia, Saudi banks have at least decided on their Internet presence. 73% of the Saudi banks possess their own web sites and 25% of the web sites are offering full services over Internet. They are increasingly viewing the Internet as a key alternative delivery channel. However, there is no specific strategy for exploiting the opportunities offered by Internet. Hence, Saudi banks via Internet have much to improve in their Websites.

Sajjad M. Jasimuddin

2001-01-01

44

Trajectory analysis of Saudi Arabian dust storms  

Science.gov (United States)

Temporal and spatial characteristics of Saudi Arabian dust storms, with focus on associated air parcel trajectories, are investigated using station and gridded weather observations and remotely-sensed aerosol optical depth (AOD). For 13 focal stations, an extensive pool of 84-h backward trajectories is developed for dust storm days, and the trajectories are grouped into 3-5 representative clusters based on the K-means technique and Silhouette Coefficients. Saudi Arabian dust storms are most prominent during February-June, with a mid-winter peak along the southern coast of the Red Sea, spring peak across northern Saudi Arabia around the An Nafud Desert, and early summer peak in eastern Saudi Arabia around the Ad Dahna Desert. Based on backward trajectories, the primary local dust source is the Rub Al Khali Desert and the primary remote sources are the Saharan Desert, for western Saudi Arabia, and Iraqi Deserts, for northern and eastern Saudi Arabia. During February-April, the Mediterranean storm track is active, with passing cyclones and associated cold fronts carrying Saharan dust to Saudi Arabian stations along the northern coast of the Red Sea. Across Saudi Arabia, the highest AOD is achieved during dust storms that originate from the Rub Al Khali and Iraqi Deserts. Most stations are dominated by local dust sources (primarily Rub Al Khali), are characterized by three dominant trajectory paths, and achieve AOD values exceeding 1. In contrast, for stations receiving predominantly remote dust (particularly Saharan), 3-5 trajectory paths emerge and AOD values only reach approximately 0.6 as dust is lost during transport.

Notaro, Michael; Alkolibi, Fahad; Fadda, Eyad; Bakhrjy, Fawzieh

2013-06-01

45

Saudi decree encourages MTBE, Chevron aromatics plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Chevron Chemical (Houston), encouraged by a new Saudi royal decree that establishes extremely low feedstock prices, is in final negotiations to build a novel aromatics plant in Saudi Arabia. Chevron says it plans to close the deal and announce details the first week of March. The unit will be based on Chevron's Aromax reforming process, which uses a zeolite catalyst to convert light naphtha into benzene and toluene. No existing plant is using the technology, but Chevron is building a $250-million, 150-million gal/year Aromax unit at its refinery site in Pascagoula, MS, and Idemitsu has licensed the process for a plant in Chiba, Japan. The Saudi decree, issued late last year, pegs domestic feedstocks - propane, butane, and naphthas - at 30% below the lowest price of the prior quarter in major non-domestic markets. That clarifies and guarantees the Saudi feedstock price, which has always been nebulous, and thus allows project feasibility to be more clearly assessed. The decree is designed to encourage further private petrochemical investment in the country. In particular, the Saudi government hopes guaranteed low prices for butane will encourage more methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects. Arabian American Chemical, a 50/50 joint venture between Mobile and Arabian Chemical Investments, said in October of last year that its 830,000-m.t./year MTBE project at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, would go ahead if feedstock questions could be resolved. The decree apparently resolves those questions

1993-02-24

46

Saudi Arabia: energy, developmental planning, and industrialization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petrodollars, having catapulted Saudi Arabia to the forefront of the global economy, now fuel the Kingdon's industrial-development process. The rapid influx of oil-generated funds into this developing country carries its own set of chracteristics and demands. Government officials and Saudi and non-Saudi academicians and industry representatives offer varied views and responses to the economic and international complexities of development. Moving from a general overview to specific economic and political topics, the book emphasizes the importance of carefully developed government growth programs to the creation of a well-balanced and industrially diverse society. Contributors examine the roles of the petroleum sector and technology transfer, trace the interdependence of Saudi Arabia and the industrialized countries, and analyze the roots of indigenous and imported inflation. They also consider Saudi Arabia's new role in international finance and development assistance. A discussion of the special historical and cultural factors that affect the Saudi transition from tribal society to industrialized nation provides a background for understanding the particular human-resource needs and goals of the nation. The book concludes with an analysis of the Third Development Plan as a blueprint of the development objectives and government-spending priorities in manpower, industrialization, and the agricultural and petroleum sectors. 10 figures, 20 tables.

El Mallakh, R.; El Mallakh, D.H. (eds.)

1982-01-01

47

The Saudi King: Power and Limitation in the Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy Making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When reviewing the literature, there is a widely held assumption that in Saudi Arabia, the monarch rules unchecked and is the ultimate foreign policy decision-maker. However, as it argues in this paper, the king is not the sole actor, because, senior members of the royal family are participating in directing the Saudi internal and external policies.

Fahad M. Alsultan

2013-01-01

48

Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

Fitzhugh, William

2006-01-01

49

Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To measure the smoking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi adults residing in Riyadh City, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Riyadh City were selected by stratified random sampling. ...

Saeed, A. A.; Khoja, T. A.; Khan, S. B.

50

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. The United States and Saudi Arabia have longstanding econo...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2007-01-01

51

Paleocene Vertebrates from Jabal Umm Himar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: The Umm Himar Formation (Paleocene) of Saudi Arabia and Associated Strata: Stratigraphy, Vertebrate Fauna, and Paleoenvironment; A Paleocene Percoid Fish, Tentatively Referred to the Family Serranidae, from Jabal Umm Himar, Kingdom of Saudi Arab...

F. C. Whitmore C. T. Madden

1995-01-01

52

Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A...

Najla M. Alghanmi; Layla S. Abdullah

53

Radon activity in Saudi houses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Long term measurements of radon's concentrations inside Saudi houses being studied using CR-39 Plastic Track Detectors fixed inside sealed plastic cups. The cups were left for about 7 months in the houses. The measurements were done in different cities of different provinces in the country. The analysis of 636 cups showed that the radon concentration in different cities was ranging from 0.27 pCi/l (in Khobar) to 0.98 pCi/l (in Taif). In exceptional places in Eastern Province, it is found that the lowest concentration was in the University offices (0.13 pCi/l) and the highest was in the University unoccupied houses (0.81 pCi/l). It is found that the ventilation is the main factor affecting the radon concentration in houses. (author).

1984-01-01

54

Radon activity in Saudi houses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Long term measurements of radon's concentrations inside Saudi houses being studied using CR-39 Plastic Track Detectors fixed inside sealed plastic cups. The cups were left for about 7 months in the houses. The measurements were done in different cities of different provinces in the country. The analysis of 636 cups showed that the radon concentration in different cities was ranging from 0.27 pCi/l (in Khobar) to 0.98 pCi/l (in Taif). In exceptional places in Eastern Province, it is found that the lowest concentration was in the University offices (0.13 pCi/l) and the highest was in the University unoccupied houses (0.81 pCi/l). It is found that the ventilation is the main factor affecting the radon concentration in houses.

Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Jarallah, M.I. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Physics)

1984-01-01

55

Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued) in 1980,198 1and 1982 by 25%, 16% and 7% respectively. Following 1983, the Saudi real exchange rate rose above the equilibrium exchange rate thus starting an era of undervaluation of the Saudi currency that lasted until the year 2009.The downward slide began in 1983 when the riyal fell below its equilibrium exchange rate by 1% with the declining trend deteriorating further to 10% in 1984, 19% percent in 1985, 27% in 1986 and so on until it hit an all-time low of 84 percent below estimated equilibrium in 2006. Thereafter, the decline started receding gradually with the misalignment below exchange rate equilibrium improving to about 80 percent in 2009.

Emad Omar Elhendawy

2012-01-01

56

Exploring COBIT Processes for ITG in Saudi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT) has become one of the most important guidelines for information technology governance (ITG), which provides organizations with a useful tool to start evaluating their own ITG systems. COBIT introduces an ITG framework and supporting toolset that allows IT managers to bridge the gap between control requirements, technical issues and business risks. The objective of this study is to investigate the formality, auditing, responsibility and accountability of implementing COBIT processes for ITG in Saudi organizations. An empirical survey, using a self-administered questionnaire, was conducted to achieve these objectives. Five hundred questionnaires were distributed to a sample of Saudi organizations in a selected number of Saudi cities. One hundred and twenty seven valid questionnaires – representing a 25.4 percent response rate –were collected and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. While the results of the study reveal that the majority of respondents reported that implementing ITG COBIT processes and domains is the responsibility of IT departments in Saudi organizations, most of the respondents reported that the COBIT processes and domains are neither audited nor formally conducted in their organizations. From a practical standpoint, managers and practitioners alike stand to gain from the findings of this study. The study provides useful information for senior management, IT managers, accountants, auditors, and academics to understand the implementation phase and the impact ofCOBIT on ITG in Saudi organizations.

Ahmad A. Abu-Musa

2009-01-01

57

Hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common global cause of chronic liver disease, which is also true in Saudi Arabia. HCV prevalence in Saudi Arabia varies in different provinces being highest in the Western and Southern provinces. Most of the studies among blood donors documented a decrease in HCV prevalence, probably due to increase awareness and improved socioeconomic status. Genotype 4 is the commonest genotype in Saudi patients infected with HCV which unfortunately is least likely to respond to the standard interferon therapy though recent studies using pegylated interferon demonstrated promising results. Liver transplantation for patients with end stage liver disease was started in 1994 but the cases currently done are still less than that required

Akbar Hisham

2004-01-01

58

Correlation estimates Saudi crude oil viscosity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new correlation estimates the viscosity of Saudi crude oils in the undersaturated oil regions as a function of pressure, temperature, and API-gravity. Field data of 182 crude oil samples obtained from the major producing areas of Saudi reservoirs were statistically treated and used to derive the viscosity correlation. The accuracy of the developed correlation was determined using statistical error analysis. Statistical error analysis techniques were employed to check the validity of the developed correlation as compared to other published crude oil viscosity correlations using the field data of Saudi reservoirs. The results show that the developed correlation provides a more accurate estimation of crude oil viscosity with an average relative error of {minus} 13.58%.

Al-Blehed, M.; Sayyouth, M.H.; Desouky, S.M. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))

1990-03-05

59

Obesity in Saudi children: a dangerous reality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity among children is an increasing concern. This cross-sectional study in 2006 determined the prevalence and demographic characteristics of overweight and obesity in children in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A total of 7056 children (aged 2-18 years) were selected from schools and the outpatient department of a hospital. The overall prevalence of overweight was 19.0% and of obesity was 23.3%. More than 50% of children between 14 and 18 years had weight above the 85th percentile. More males than females were obese by ages 14-18 years (35.6% versus 19.2%). Saudi and non-Saudi nationalities had the same distribution of body mass index. Interventions to encourage healthier lifestyles for children are needed at the national level. PMID:21218729

Al-Dossary, S S; Sarkis, P E; Hassan, A; Ezz El Regal, M; Fouda, A E

2010-09-01

60

Obesity in Saudi children: a dangerous reality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity among children is an increasing concern. This cross-sectional study in 2006 determined the prevalence and demographic characteristics of overweight and obesity in children in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A total of 7056 children (aged 2-18 years) were selected from schools and the outpatient department of a hospital. The overall prevalence of overweight was 19.0% and of obesity was 23.3%. More than 50% of children between 14 and 18 years had weight above the 85th percentile. More males than females were obese by ages 14-18 years (35.6% versus 19.2%). Saudi and non-Saudi nationalities had the same distribution of body mass index. Interventions to encourage healthier lifestyles for children are needed at the national level.

Al-Dossary SS; Sarkis PE; Hassan A; Ezz El Regal M; Fouda AE

2010-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Saudi Arabia; L`arabie Saoudite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.) 9 refs.

Sambart, A

1998-05-01

62

Medication administration errors in Eastern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of

2010-01-01

63

Genetic variability of PXR in Saudi Arabians.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polymorphisms in the PXR gene play important roles in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of a large number of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Because of ethnic specificity, several studies have been directed toward the determination of PXR polymorphisms in various populations. In the current study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of 19 coding and regulatory polymorphisms in the PXR gene in Saudi Arabians by direct sequencing. Our results show that the frequencies of the regulatory PXR SNPs in Saudi Arabians differ from those in other ethnic groups, and the results endorse the commonly seen ethnic pattern of a paucity of the PXR coding SNPs. PMID:23576071

Al-Dosari, Mohammed S; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Alghamdi, Amal M; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Halwani, Rabih; Khalid Parvez, M

2013-04-12

64

Genetic variability of PXR in Saudi Arabians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polymorphisms in the PXR gene play important roles in influencing the efficacy and toxicity of a large number of endogenous and exogenous substrates. Because of ethnic specificity, several studies have been directed toward the determination of PXR polymorphisms in various populations. In the current study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of 19 coding and regulatory polymorphisms in the PXR gene in Saudi Arabians by direct sequencing. Our results show that the frequencies of the regulatory PXR SNPs in Saudi Arabians differ from those in other ethnic groups, and the results endorse the commonly seen ethnic pattern of a paucity of the PXR coding SNPs.

Al-Dosari MS; Alkharfy KM; Alghamdi AM; Al-Mohizea AM; Al-Jenoobi FI; Al-Muhsen S; Halwani R; Khalid Parvez M

2013-08-01

65

Saudi-Arabia. Energy situation 2003; Saudi-Arabien. Energiewirtschaft 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A short survey of the energy situation in Saudi Arabia is given with the aid of some interesting figures. Following remarks on the national and international energy policy, the developments regarding individual energy sources and electricity production are described. [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein ausfuehrlicher Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation in Saudi-Arabien gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben.

NONE

2004-07-01

66

Saudi experience with classic homocystinuria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Classic homocystinuria is an autosomal recessive disorder due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency. The clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings of classic homcystinuria diagnosed at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC) are presented in this report. Twenty-four patients (15 females and 9 males) were referred to KFSH and RC for work-up of mental retardation, seizures, thrombo-embolic episodes and dislocation of the ocular lenses. The common clinical findings included ectopia lentis (20 patients), skeletal system involvement (18 patients), vascular system involvement (9patients), and mental retardation (all patients to varying degrees). Unusual findings consisted of a patient who developed severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding, a patient with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, probably due to vasculopathy, and other having severe bronchiectasis, which may have been due to fibrillin disruption, and required the resection of a lobe of lung. The parents of 21 patients were first-degree relatives, and 19 patients had one or more family members affected by the same disease. All patients had markedly elevated plasma levels of methionine. Cystathionine synthase activity in the fibroblast was measured in 25% of the patients and was deficient. Only four patients responded to pyridoxine and their methionine level decreased to almost normal range. The aim of this study was to increase the awareness of this disease in the scientific and medical community, in particular in the general pediatrician working in Saudi Arabia who first encounters the clinical manifestations of disease. Early detection through tandem mass spectrometry of blood spot screening and treatment are important and may prevent the major complications of this disease. (author)

1998-01-01

67

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this st...

Al-Otaibi Fawzia; El Hazmi Malak

68

Application of photovoltaic systems in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the issue of the economic competitiveness of PV-powered irrigation when compared with conventional diesel powered pumps in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The cost comparison gives a breakdown cost of a solar photovoltaic module of US$ 2.5 per peak watt. (author).

Said, S.A.M. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-12-01

69

Radioactivity of dates in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Samples of dates from three regions of Saudi Arabia were measured for the radioactivity of both natural and artificial origins. The results were compared with gross ..beta.. and /sup 187/Cs activity of coffee beans produced in different countries. No significant activity in date samples was detected.

Nasser Al-Mohawes; Pao-Shan Weng

1984-06-01

70

Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

2008-01-01

71

Teachers' Online Discussion Forums in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

72

Establishing a petrochemical industry. [Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of Saudi Arabia's biggest and most extensive development projects will soon be completed. The country's new petrochemical industry combines different elements: Natural resources, technology transfer, and the government's plans for diversified long-term economic development.

1985-06-01

73

Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2013-01-01

74

Examination of absorptive capacity in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because of the oil price and production increases, in the last decade, a huge transfer of wealth and income began moving from the consuming to the oil-producing countries. Moreover, the industrialized developed countries entered a new era of slower economic growth as compared to the pre-OPEC era. The oil-producing countries rates of economic growth, on the other hand, have skyrocketed, and all their economic indicators are steeply upward and positive. During the past decade, therefore, Saudi Arabia has undergone rapid economic growth and development. This newly acquired and still increasing revenue has permitted the government to embark upon a series of ambitious and expensive five-year development plans to industrialize the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by the year 2000. Because of the limited duration of this development effort and the absence of studies of the process itself as it unfolded in Saudi Arabia, it is not at all clear why this success had been achieved. Therefore, the question to be asked is: How was it possible for Saudi Arabia to have made such rapid progress in the achievement of its development goals. It was determined through this study that the rapid increase in domestic absorptive capacity was due, first of all, to the large increases in oil revenues, which permitted importation and augmentation of cooperant factors. Second, this absorptive capacity also expanded as a result of skillful and insightful planning that was undertaken to eliminate bottlenecks, establish priorities, and maintain a degree of balance.

Bassam, A.A.

1981-01-01

75

Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-10-28

76

Gamma Ray Shielding from Saudi White Sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements i...

Hefne JAMEEL; Al-Dayel OMAR; Al-horayess OKLA; Bagazi ALI; Al-Ajyan TURKI

77

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431) with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5%) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and 248 (57.5%) extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA) (86.3%) and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA) 59 (13.7%). The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years). The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9%) compared to SA patients (55.1%). Females had higher proportion (59.5%) of EPTB than males (55.6%). The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%). In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB) control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.

Al-Otaibi Fawzia; El Hazmi Malak

2010-01-01

78

Liver size in Saudi Children and adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background/Aim: To examine the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods: A large sample of children was selected from the general population by multistage random probability sampling for the assessment of physical growth. A random subsample of children-newborns to 18 ye...

El Mouzan Mohammad; Al Salloum Abdulla; Al Herbish Abdulla; Qurachi Mansour; Al Omar Ahmad

79

Mortality among tuberculosis patients in Saudi Arabia (2001-2010).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis (TB) still contributes to deaths in Saudi Arabia, among both Saudis and non-Saudis. Exploring the trend of deaths caused by TB and determinants associated with high fatality rate among TB patients is considered as a part of monitoring and evaluation of the performance of National Tuberculosis Control Program to help planners improve policies and procedures used to achieve the targets of TB control. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: The current study is a retrospective one, which used the official notifications of NTP in Saudi Arabia over a period of 10 years (2001-2010). METHODS: A 10-year retrospective study included all TB cases registered in Saudi Arabia with known outcome of survival or death while under anti-TB therapy covering the period January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2010. RESULTS: Mortality among TB patients show a declining trend among Saudis starting from the year 2003 (7.2%6.1%) and a stagnant trend among non-Saudis. Saudi nationality was associated with higher fatality rate compared to non-Saudis (6.4% and 5.4%, respectively). Mortality was positively correlated with advancing age, male sex among Saudis (7.3% compared to 5.3% among females), and female sex among non-Saudis (6% compared to 5% among males), prior history of anti-TB therapy, smear positivity, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend WHO to modify the definition of death among TB patients. We recommend NTP in Saudi Arabia to adopt and implement International Classification of Diseases (ICD10) for TB patients' registration, improve health care services provided for elderly, monitor and strengthen NTP performance to decrease defaulter and early detect and treat patients, initiate a collaborative TB/HIV activities, and screen all suspected TB patients for HIV. In addition to these, more extended research has to be initiated concerning delayed diagnosis and comorbidities with TB.

Abouzeid MS; Al RF; Memish ZA

2013-05-01

80

Oil conservation and economic development in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation is to discuss and recommend an appropriate oil-conservation policy for Saudi Arabia in the light of past, present, and future economic development plans. The basic concept is the fact that oil is a depletable resource representing over 95% of Saudi national income. Two exogenous constraints face the government in its efforts to develop an efficient conservation policy. The first is the membership of Saudi Arabia in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. The second is the world energy market. These two constraints hinder the ability of Saudi Arabia to use an appropriate social rate of discount to allocate oil revenues efficiently. Using social rate of discount implies that Saudi oil reserves would be allocated over time according to a rate that reflects the Saudi society's time preference. A high discount rate means that oil production would be pushed from the future to the present, whereas a low discount rate means that Saudi Arabia prefers producing oil in the future rather than in the present. A strategy based on social rates of return on domestic and foreign investment seems to be appropriate for Saudi Arabia. But the existence of the exogenous constraints and also events of 1983 and 1984 in the domestic economy and world energy market impose restrictions on using discount rate. It is appropriate for Saudi Arabia in the meantime to deal with the deteriorating situation in the world energy market.

Shams, M.M.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: > How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? > How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? > What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? > What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

Alyousef, Yousef, E-mail: alyousef@kacst.edu.sa [King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Stevens, Paul, E-mail: p.j.stevens@dundee.ac.uk [Chatham House, 10 St James' s Square, London Sw1Y4LE (United Kingdom)

2011-11-15

82

The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: ? How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? ? How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? ? What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? ? What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

2011-01-01

83

Saudi Araabia ei kavatse lubada tänavail ühtegi meeleavaldust / Heiki Suurkask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Saudi Araabias keelati igasugused protestimeeleavaldused, samas on 11. märtsiks välja kuulutatud "raevupäev". Veebruaris tegid 10 islamistliku intelligentsi esindajat katse luua opositsioonijõud, mõni päev hiljem nad vangistati

Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

2011-01-01

84

Gender-segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms the Saudi Labor Market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by considering segregation, women's mobility, videoconferencing courses, and the roles of professors. I attempt to explain how the current education system fails to prepare its students for the global economy: by limiting women's access to the labor market, and by not preparing men for the realities of the global market and therefore creating the need for migrant workers. In conclusion, conserving culture is significant, but for economic change to occur, the extent of cultural conservatism and its effect on the education system need to be re-evaluated.

Roula Baki

2004-01-01

85

Waters and desalination programs of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is an arid desert country without rivers or sweet-water lakes. It does, however, have large amounts of ground water and seawater. These waters must be desalted by some means in order to make them potable. The most frequently used methods for that purpose are: multistage flash (MSF) evaporation, reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED). Because of rapid industrialization of the country, the demand for fresh water has been growing steadily. This, in turn, has resulted in a spectacular growth of the water-desalination industry. This paper discusses the availability and properties of the waters. It gives a detailed description of the major accomplishments and of the ongoing and future programs in the field of water desalination in Saudi Arabia. 14 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

Wojcik, C.K.; Maadhah, A.G.

1981-07-01

86

Saudi ground water chemistry and significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general chemistry of Saudi Ground water is introduced by way of chemical analysis and parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (e.g.), total dissolved solids (T.D.S.), and major cations and anions which are of significance to water quality. The frequency distribution of E.C. and T.D.S. in a random group water sample (n = 530) with respect to water quality is presented. A new association between E.C. and T.D.S. for Saudi ground water is proposed with a modified formula: T.D.S. = (E.C. x 850) - 200, which is subjected to further modification according to each regional ground water characteristics. Range and variation of individual major cations and anions are summarized for comparison via the utilization of RAWRC Water Bank samples which were collected according to E.C. range from 0.8 to 9.0 for the years 1981 and 1982.

Mee, J.M.

1983-01-01

87

Peaceful nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)[de] X/Die Argumente fuer und gegen die friedliche Nutzung der Kernenergie in Saudi-Arabien werden unter Beruecksichtigung der industriellen Entwicklung des Landes und seines Energiebedarfs fuer die Stromerzeugung und die Meerwasserentsalzung diskutiert. Die Schlussfolgerung lautet, dass Saudi-Arabien aufgrund seiner grossen Oelvorkommen zulassen koennte, dass das Land bis zum Jahre 2000 in wohlueberlegter Weise den Weg in Richtung Kernenergie einschlaegt. Nach diesem Zeitpunkt sollte die Kernenergie eingesetzt werden, um das Land zu der gewuenschten industriellen Reife zu bringen. Der Einfuehrung der Kernenergie stehen jedoch drei Einschraenkungen gegenueber, naemlich Verfuegbarkeit von Arbeitskraeften, Bedarf an Kuehlwasser und Umfang des Stromnetzes. Aus diesem Grund ist der Zeitraum von 1980-2000 fuer wichtige vorbereitende Schritte sehr geeignet. Dazu gehoeren der Erlass von Durchfuehrungsbestimmungen, die Errichtung von kerntechnischen Forschungsanlagen und deren notwendige apparative Ausruestung, die Ausbildung der Mitarbeiter zur Ausarbeitung von Sicherheitsvorschriften, sowie fuer organisatorische und technische Aufgaben. Der Beitrag gibt ein Schema fuer die einleitenden Schritte und Bemuehungen, die erforderlich sind, um die genannten Anforderungen zu erfuellen. (orig.)

1980-01-01

88

Quality of life in Saudi vitiligo patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo has a devastating psychosocial effect. The cultural traditions of Saudi society are quite different compared with the western world. Hence, a quality of life study using a different questionnaire suitable to the cultural traditions of the society is necessary to measure qualify of life in vitiligo patients. Objective : This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL) in Saudi vitiligo patients and their family. Materials and Methods : A prospective cross-sectional study at National Center for Vitiligo and Psoriasis, Saudi Arabia. A validated Arabic questionnaire of 41 questions was developed and utilized specifically for this study. Arabic language instrument was distributed to 260 vitiligo patients. Scores were compared in relation to demographic, clinical, and social variables in 4 dimensions of scale (relationship with colleagues, family relationship, social relationship, and self respect). Results : Overall score QOL was 17.1. Mean score for males was 11.1, whereas that for females was 23.9 (P P Conclusion : The overall score of QOL in vitiligo is relatively high, indicating a negative impact of the disease on QOL. QOL in women is significantly more affected than in men.

Al-Mubarak Luluah; Al-Mohanna Hind; Al-Issa Ahmed; Jabak Monzer; Mulekar Sanjeev

2011-01-01

89

Saudi-Arabia. Energy situation 1999/2000; Saudi-Arabien. Energiewirtschaft 1999/2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Saudi Arabia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade. [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Saudi-Arabiens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel angegeben.

NONE

2001-07-01

90

Saudi-Arabia. Energy situation 1998/99; Saudi-Arabien. Energiewirtschaft 1998/99  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Saudi Arabia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country's national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country's external trade and balance of payments. (orig.) [German] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Saudi-Arabiens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel bzw. zur Zahlungsbilanz angegeben. (orig.)

NONE

1999-11-01

91

Saudi-Arabia. Energy situation 1995; Saudi-Arabien. Energiewirtschaft 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy situation of Saudi Arabia is reviewed on the basis of relevant data. Data on the country`s national and international energy policy are followed by an outline of trends in energy sources and electric power generation. Key figures are presented on the country`s external trade and balance of payments. (HS) [Deutsch] Unter Angabe einiger markanter Daten wird ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Energiesituation Saudi-Arabiens gegeben. Nach einigen Anmerkungen zur nationalen und internationalen Energiepolitik werden die Entwicklungen bezueglich der einzelnen Energietraeger und der Stromerzeugung beschrieben. Ausserdem werden einige wichtige Zahlen zum Aussenhandel bzw. zur Zahlungsbilanz angegeben. (HS)

NONE

1996-11-01

92

The importance of silicon photovoltaic manufacturing in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the potential of silicon development for photovoltaics will be discussed in conjunction with the availability of raw material and photovoltaic demand in Saudi Arabia. Recent studies suggest that silicon raw material for photovoltaic production should be considered for further investigation towards solar cells manufacturing in Saudi Arabia. (author)

1998-04-01

93

Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi

Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

2011-01-01

94

The importance of silicon photovoltaic manufacturing in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the potential of silicon development for photovoltaics will be discussed in conjunction with the availability of raw material and photovoltaic demand in Saudi Arabia. Recent studies suggest that silicon raw material for photovoltaic production should be considered for further investigation towards solar cells manufacturing in Saudi Arabia. (author)

Elani, U.A.; Bagazi, S.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1998-05-01

95

TEACHING ENGLISH IN SAUDI ARABIA: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper will reflect three major issues related to the teaching of English in Saudi Arabia. Firstly, it will discuss the present status of education and ELT in Saudi Arabia, secondly, it will state various challenges of teaching English, and finally, it will attempt some remedies that can be recommended to tackle those challenges.

Mohd. Mahib ur Rahman; Eid Alhaisoni

2013-01-01

96

Producers and oil markets; The example of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

Greaves, W.

1993-08-01

97

Social responsibility of the multinational corporations operating in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation explores the social responsibility of MNCs operating in Saudi Arabia (SA) and their social impact on Saudi society through survey research using both primary and secondary data. To furnish the reader with a better understanding of this subject, to develop the hypothesis to be tested, and to define NMCs and social responsibility, this author reviewed literature related to MNCs and social responsibility with specific reference to developing countries, particularly SA; described briefly the Saudi environment in which MNCs operate; and determined the number and type of MNCs and their activities in SA as reported in Saudi government records. The author examined the social responsibility of MNCs toward Saudi society by comparing the perception of MNCs' non-Saudi managers with Saudis (managers, government officials, and elite) regarding some specific issues (e.g., MNCs' concerns for profit versus public good); regarding some suggested programs (e.g., training); and through looking at the actual programs undertaken by MNCs (e.g., medical care). The study helped to understand better the nature of MNCs. It indicated that MNCs seem to be attracted to SA, that their number is greater than government records indicate, and that a large number of MNCs have Saudi nationality.

Kurashi, M.F.Y.

1984-01-01

98

Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, wit...

Abdulrahman M Aljebreen; Majid A Almadi; Alwaleed Alhammad; Faleh Z Al Faleh

99

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 193...

A. B. Prados

2003-01-01

100

Kas Saudi Araabia naftatulu leiab tee Rootsi pangandusturule? / Romet Enok  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma

Enok, Romet

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Environmental education in Saudi general environment system - an engineering perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Saudi Cabinet of Ministers approved the Saudi General Environment System (SGES) in 2001. This approval is considered a step forward towards preserving the environment in Saudi Arabia. One of the targets of this system is to make environmental planning as an un-replaceable part of every comprehensive development planning in all industrial, agricultural, and architectural sectors. Achieving such a target requires a specialized labor force. Therefore, College of Engineering should act positively and actively in disseminating environmental awareness among engineers since they play a major rule in development projects. A degree in environmental engineering is a must at present, which is not available yet at any university in Saudi Arabia. Details of a B. Sc degree in environmental engineering offered by two universities in USA, are discussed. The syllabus of a degree in environment engineering adapted for the Saudi environment and culture is outlined

2006-01-01

102

Introducing SMART Table Technology in Saudi Arabia Education System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education remains one of the most important economic development indicators in Saudi Arabia. This is evident in the continuous priority of the development and enhancement of education. The application of technology is crucial to the growth and improvement of the educational system in Saudi Arabia. Introducing SMART Table technology in the Saudi Arabian education system is argued in this paper as being able to assist teachers and students in the process of accommodating both technological changes and new knowledge. SMART Tables also can enhance the level of flexibility in the educational system, thus improving the quality of education within a modern Saudi Arabia. It is crucial to integrate technology effectively and efficiently within the educational system to improve the quality of student outcomes. This study will consider the potential benefits and recommendations associated with the adoption of SMART Tables in Saudi Arabian education system.

Gafar Almalki; Professor Glenn Finger; Dr Jason Zagami

2013-01-01

103

Target revenue theory and Saudi Arabian oil policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shifts in Saudi Arabian oil policy are explained by using data covering public revenues and expenditures plus the balance of payments. It is concluded that, according to the target revenue theory, Saudi Arabia only for a very short time after the first and second oil crises was on the backward sloping part of the supply curve. Perhaps Saudi Arabia cut oil production during the two oil crises because it wanted big oil price increases to prevent budget cuts. In any case, it started to increase oil production in the middle of 1985 when its economy was in great imbalance. Furthermore, calculations for the period 1989-2000 reveal that Saudi Arabia will probably face economic problems in the 1990s so that it will not again be OPEC's swing producer. On the contrary, Saudi Arabia will probably increase its share of OPEC's oil production in the 1990s. (author).

Linderoth, Hans (Aarhus School of Business (Denmark))

1992-11-01

104

Developing sustainable residential buildings in Saudi Arabia: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper assesses the energy and water consumption practices of existing housing in Saudi Arabia, with the ultimate aim of establishing guidelines for delivering sustainable residential buildings in the near future. In order to achieve this aim the current status of a typical Saudi residence (i.e. an apartment complex) is investigated in terms of energy and water consumption using simulation software packages. The paper then examines the prospects for applying various measures to the typical Saudi residence to manage energy and water use more sustainably. This research identifies several design-related faults common to Saudi Arabian house design. These faults contribute to an inefficient use of energy and domestic water resources. Finally, the paper puts forward a set of recommendations and guidelines, design-related and otherwise, to enhance the sustainability of future Saudi residential buildings. (author)

Taleb, Hanan M.; Sharples, Steve [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15

105

The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN) accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6%) were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (21.3%) and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) (20.7%) were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0%) and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

Huraib S; Al Khader A; Shaheen F.A.M; Abu Aisha H; Souqiyyeh M; Al Mohana F; Soliman M; Al Wakeel J; Mitwalli A; Al Mohaya S; Said R; Abdulhaleem; Al Menawy L; Sohaibani M; Chan N

2000-01-01

106

Anemia and Iron Intake of Adult Saudis in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52) and non-smokers (n = 80). Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days. The results showed that iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in males compared to females. Mean iron intake of males (13.6±3.1 mg/day) was adequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean concentrations of hemoglobin (15.89±0.95 g/dL) and hematocrit (47.7±3.6%) for males were normal. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers, but both were normal, which suggested that iron deficiency anemia is not found among adult Saudi males. Mean iron intake of females (10.2±2.8 mg/day) was inadequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean hemoglobin level (13.68±0.83 g/gL) and mean hematocrit level (38.9±3.2%) of females were lower than cutoff values for determining iron deficiency anemia. Based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values, 21.6% and 20.6% of female participants, respectively were anemic. Based on iron intake, 95.1% of female participants had intake lower than the recommendation. Results of this study illustrated that iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent among adult Saudi women in Riyadh City and suggests actions to eradicate iron deficiency anemia. These actions include increasing nutritional awareness and education for the purpose of changing inappropriate consumption patterns as well as fortification of certain foods in combination with additional intakes of iron from supplements.

Abdullah H. Al-Assaf

2007-01-01

107

Economic costs of diabetes in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group) with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. RESULTS: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380) than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. CONCLUSION: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our understanding of economic costs of diabetes and its related complications.

Alhowaish AK

2013-01-01

108

Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Saudi Arabia (SA) and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%), trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%), gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%), syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%), human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%), genital warts (1382, 3.5%), genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%), and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%). The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.

Madani Tariq A

2006-01-01

109

Evaluation of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality and quantity of biomedical studies published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) between 2010 and 2011. METHODS: This study was conducted on January 2013 at the Internal Medicine Department, Taif University, Taif, KSA. An online search was conducted on PubMed to collect the articles published from KSA using the country name (Saudi Arabia) as a keyword. The search was limited to studies published in the period of 2 years from January 2010 to December 2011. The year 2012 was not included to give at least one year for citation. The total number of studies during the stated period was compared with those published from other countries in the same period, and adjusted per population size. Impact factor and number of citations were used to assess the quality of the studies. RESULTS: A total of 1905 published articles/studies were from KSA in the said period. Australia had the maximum number of studies (100%) published per million population (1258.571+). The KSA had 72.71 articles per million population, and was ranked 16th among the other countries. Most of the articles (65.3%) were published from Riyadh followed by Jeddah (13.3%), and most of them were from the fields of Community Medicine (15.5%), Pathology (13.7%), Medicine (13.2%), and Surgery (13.1%). King Faisal Specialist Hospital in Riyadh had the highest impact factor with a mean of 2.74 +/- 3.45. CONCLUSION: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is lagging behind in biomedical research. While King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre appears to be doing better than other institutions in biomedical research, there is an urgent need for greater investment in biomedical research in the kingdom.

Al-Bishri J

2013-09-01

110

Histiocytosis-X in Saudi children.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A retrospective analysis of 21 Saudi children with Histiocytosis-X were reviewed. 13 were males, 8 were females, with a ratio of 1.62:1. Five had unifocal disease while 16 were with multifocal disease. Bone involvement was seen in 19 patients (90.4%), and three patients had organ dysfunction. One patient had family history of Histiocytosis-X. Follow-up was from 1-10 years (Median 3 years). Three patients died, three had recurrences and eight patients had various disabilities (38%). Overall disease free survival was 84.2 percent.

al-Mulhim I; Sabbah R; al-Akkad S

1991-01-01

111

Assays of two Saudi crudes updated  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reports that updated assays are now available for two crudes form Saudi Arabia: Arabian Medium-Offshore, Zuluf/Marjan and Arabian Medium-Khursaniyah/Abu Safah. The new assays show lower API gravities than previously published. Both crudes have decreased in gravity by 2.3 degrees API: the Zuluf/Marjan variety from 31.1 to 28.8, and Khursaniyah/Abu Safah, form 30.8 to 28.5. In addition, the sulfur content of Khursaniyah/Abu Safah has increased form 2.40 wt % to 2.85 wt %, while that of the offshore crude has remained essentially unchanged

1992-09-28

112

Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.).

1996-01-01

113

Fresh Water Fungi of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was conducted to screen the fresh water fungi from different areas of Saudi Arabia viz. Al-Ahsa, Al-Direyah, Al-Haer, Al-Kharj, Al-Qasim and Wadi Laban. Twenty six species were recorded from as an aquatic fungi and thirty two species as an aero-aquatic fungi from fresh water, while twenty-six species were isolated as an aero-aquatic fungi from under water soil of these regions. Percent relative frequency of each fungus was also calculated.

Ibrahim A. Arif

1999-01-01

114

Statistical characteristics of wind in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The statistical characteristics of wind at 10 locations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are studied. The autocorrelation coefficients are computed and correlograms are found compatible with the real diurnal variation of mean wind speed for almost all the locations. The stochastic time series analysis is found to be suitable for the description of autoregressive models involving time lags of 1 and 24 h. The forecast wind values obtained from these autoregressive models are compared with the observed wind data for almost all the locations and are found to be in very good agreement. (author)

Rehman, Shafiqur; Halawani, T.O. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Development and Manufacturing Centre)

1994-01-01

115

Bacillus stearothermophilus from Saudi Arabian Soils.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ten thermophilic Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from various soils of Saudi Arabia. The strains are spore-forming rods belonging to the species Bacillus stearothermophilus. The cells are motile, strictly aerobic, catalase and oxidase positive. The sporangia appear to be swollen and their position varies from terminal in some to sub-terminal in others. The thermal stability of some enzymes of these bacteria was investigated; extracellular alpha-amylase appears to be very sensitive to pH and temperature. The ultrastructure of these bacteria shows specific changes in the cell wall when grown at the maximum, minimum and optimum growth temperatures, respectively.

Abu-Zinada AH; Hossain A; Yonis HI; Elwan SH

1981-01-01

116

Bacillus stearothermophilus from Saudi Arabian Soils.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten thermophilic Gram-positive bacteria were isolated from various soils of Saudi Arabia. The strains are spore-forming rods belonging to the species Bacillus stearothermophilus. The cells are motile, strictly aerobic, catalase and oxidase positive. The sporangia appear to be swollen and their position varies from terminal in some to sub-terminal in others. The thermal stability of some enzymes of these bacteria was investigated; extracellular alpha-amylase appears to be very sensitive to pH and temperature. The ultrastructure of these bacteria shows specific changes in the cell wall when grown at the maximum, minimum and optimum growth temperatures, respectively. PMID:7319400

Abu-Zinada, A H; Hossain, A; Yonis, H I; Elwan, S H

1981-01-01

117

Bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteoporosis is reported to be common among postmenopausal Saudi women. The reported incidence varies between 50-60%. Different machines were used to reach these conclusions. At present it is believed that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate method to diagnose osteoporosis. This study was conducted to measure bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur of Saudi postmenopausal women attending orthopedic clinic with unrelated complaints. This study comprises of 256 patients attending orthopedic clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2002 and June 2003. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Women with secondary osteoporosis were excluded from study. Patient's orthopedic complaints were also recorded in the database. Bone mineral density measurements were carried out using Hologic total body DEXA machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS package. The data of 256 patients was available for analysis. The average age of patients screened was 57.62 years (49-76) SD+-6.71. The BMI was 21.3-42.9 Kg/m (SD+-5.34). The BMD of lumbar spine was 0.785 gm/cm2 (0.527-1.023) SD +-0.142 and that of the hip region was 0.764 gm/cm2 (0.500-1.069) SD +-0.149. As per the WHO classification 59 women (23%) were classified as normal with the T score of -0.82, 78 (30.5%) as osteopenic with T score -2.5 and 119 (46.7%) as osteoporosis with T score -3.58. When the BMD of the hip was analyzed 62 (24.2%) were normal T score -1.0, 81 (31.6%) as osteopenic, T score -2.5 and 113 (44.1%0 as osteoporotic, with a T score of -3.1. on the basis of analysis of lumbar spine 190 (74.2%) had increased risk of fracture as compared to the analysis of hip 59% were at increased risk of fracture. Our results indicate that postmenopausal Saudi women suffer from osteoporosis and osteopenia higher than those from other parts of the country. Necessary steps are needed so as to avoid osteoporosis and its complications which could end up in epidemic proportions. (author)

2004-01-01

118

Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

1985-06-01

119

Osteoporosis among male Saudi Arabs: a pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Little attention has been paid to the problem of male osteoporosis in Saudi Arabia. In this prospective study we assessed the prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabs. We studied Saudi Arabian males > 50 years of age attending outpatient clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, between 1st May 2005 and 30th January 2006. We determined body mass index (BMI) and tests were done to rule out secondary osteoporosis. All subjects had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of the hip area and the lumbar spine using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). A T-score of

2006-01-00

120

Photovoltaic concentrator power station for a village in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Saudi Arabian National Center for Science and Technology has initiated a project under the Saudi Arabia-United States Program for Cooperation in the Field of Solar Energy (SOLERAS) to build and test an experimental photovoltaic power station capable of delivering 350-KW peak dc power in an agricultural village in Saudi Arabia. The proposed system is based on Martin Marietta Fresnel lens concentrator silicon cell arrays, coupled with 1100-KW-h lead acid cells storage and the necessary power conditioning and controls. 2 refs.

Nazer, M.O.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Improving fractionation lowers butane sulfur level at Saudi gas plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing the debutanizer reflux/feed ratio to improve fractionation at an eastern Saudi Arabian NGL plant reduced high sulfur in the butane product. The sulfur resulted from dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contamination in the feed stream from an offshore crude-oil reservoir in the northern Arabian Gulf. The contamination is limited to two northeastern offshore gas-oil separation plants operated by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) and, therefore, cannot be transported to facilities outside the Eastern Province. Two technically acceptable solutions for removing this contaminant were investigated: 13X molecular-sieve adsorption of the DMS and increased fractionation efficiency. The latter would force DMS into the debutanizer bottoms.

Harruff, L.G.; Martinie, G.D.; Rahman, A. [Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1998-10-12

122

Black (samsum) ant induced anaphylaxis in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ant allergy is a rare clinical problem that ranges from local to systemic reaction and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Different types of ants including the imported fire ants, the black (samsum) ants, and others, are considered health hazard in many parts of the world. We report a 32-year-old Saudi female from Hafr-Al-Batin in the Northern region of Saudi Arabia, with history of recurrent anaphylaxis following black (samsum) ant stings and we review the related literature. This is the first report of black (samsum) ant allergy in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Shahwan M; Al-Khenaizan S; Al-Khalifa M

2006-11-01

123

Liver size in Saudi Children and adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim: To examine the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods: A large sample of children was selected from the general population by multistage random probability sampling for the assessment of physical growth. A random subsample of children-newborns to 18 years old-was taken from this larger sample for this study. Liver size below the costal margin and liver span along the midclavicular line were determined by physicians. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and medians and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Between 2004 and 2005, 18 112 healthy children up to 18 years of age were examined. All were term and appropriate for gestational age. There were 9 130 boys and 8 982 girls, yielding a nearly 1:1 male to female ratio. The maximum palpable liver size below the costal margin was 2.4 cm. The median and + 2 SD liver span at birth were 4 and 6.9 cm, respectively. There was no difference in the liver span between boys and girls of up to 60 months of age. Thereafter, a difference could be seen increasing with age, with girls having smaller liver spans than boys. Conclusion: This manuscript reports the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. The data should help physicians in the interpretation of liver size determined by physical examination of children and adolescents.

El Mouzan Mohammad; Al Salloum Abdulla; Al Herbish Abdulla; Qurachi Mansour; Al Omar Ahmad

2009-01-01

124

Liver size in Saudi Children and adolescents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. A large sample of children was selected from the general population by multistage random probability sampling for the assessment of physical growth. A random subsample of children-newborns to 18 years old-was taken from this larger sample for this study. Liver size below the costal margin and liver span along the midclavicular line were determined by physicians. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and medians and standard deviations were calculated. Between 2004 and 2005, 18 112 healthy children up to 18 years of age were examined. All were term and appropriate for gestational age. There were 9 130 boys and 8 982 girls, yielding a nearly 1:1 male to female ratio. The maximum palpable liver size below the costal margin was 2.4 cm. The median and + 2 SD liver span at birth were 4 and 6.9 cm, respectively. There was no difference in the liver span between boys and girls of up to 60 months of age. Thereafter, a difference could be seen increasing with age, with girls having smaller liver spans than boys. This manuscript reports the liver size in Saudi children and adolescents. The data should help physicians in the interpretation of liver size determined by physical examination of children and adolescents. (author)

2004-01-00

125

Kawasaki disease in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kawasaki disease in this study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 3.1+/-2.4 years. Most patients were younger than 5 years (83.3%). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Diagnosis was made 8.1+/-3.3 days after start of fever with a range from 4-15 days. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with 2 requiring another dose of IVIG. Echocardiography was performed 10.1+/-3.9 days from onset of fever with a range of 4-20 days. The duration of hospital stay was 7.9+/-5.8 days with a range from 3-25 days. Three patients had coronary artery abnormalities and still have coronary artery dilatation at last follow-up appointment. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease as delayed diagnosis may lead to coronary lesions. A national awareness program on Kawasaki disease is recommended (Author).

2010-01-01

126

Stress among dentists in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)

2008-01-01

127

Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

2007-01-01

128

Mucolipidosis II: first report from Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Mucolipidosis II (MLII) is characterized by severe global developmental delay, coarse facial features, skeletal deformities, and other systemic involvement. It is caused by a deficiency in N-acetylglucosamine-1 phosphotransferase. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: This is a case series study conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 2008-2012. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We described three unrelated Saudi children who presented with neonatal hyperparathyroidism, microcephaly, craniosynostosis, coarse facial features, cardiac involvement, and skeletal deformities. RESULTS: The MLII diagnosis was confirmed by assaying enzyme activities in fibroblasts, which showed a severe reduction in hydrolyzed substrates compared to controls, and by identifying a pathogenic homozygous GNPTAB gene mutation. One of the children died at 2 months of age due to severe pulmonary hypertension, and the other two children were still alive at 12 months and 18 months of age, respectively. Both surviving children had severe global developmental delay at 2 months of age. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should investigate any child presenting with neonatal hyperparathyroidism, craniosynostosis, skeletal deformities, and coarse facial features for MLII.

Alfadhel M; Alshehhi W; Alshaalan H; Balwi MA; Eyaida W

2013-07-01

129

Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

Abeer Abdullah Al Saud; Muhammad Rahatullah Khan

2013-01-01

130

EFL Teacher Preparation Programs in Saudi Arabia. Trends and Challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia and argues that available program options are in adequate for EFL teacher preparation. Recommendations are offered for improving EFL teacher education programs. (Author/VWL)

Al-Hazmi, Sultan

2003-01-01

131

Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae) in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphologic...

Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi

132

Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P

2001-01-01

133

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model for solar-hydrogen energy system for Saudi Arabia has been developed by obtaining relationships for and between main energy and energy-related parameters. The parameters' magnitude and trends with and without hydrogen introduction have been investigated over a period of time. The results indicate that the oil resources of Saudi Arabia would not be enough to meet the domestic and export markets starting in three to four decades. The results also show that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would extend the availability of oil resources, reduce pollution, and establish a permanent energy system for Saudi Arabia. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia could become an exporter of hydrogen forever. (Author)

Almogren, Sulaiman; Veziroglu, T.N.T. Nejat [Miami Univ., Coll. of Engineering, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

2004-09-01

134

Saudi Financial Structure and Economic Growth: A Macroeconometric Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the nexus between financial sector development and economic growth in the Saudi economy over the period 1970-2012 by using four alternative proxies for financial development and several techniques including unit root tests, the co-integration test, the Granger Causality Test, and the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). We used time series econometrics techniques to examine the causal relationship between financial sector development and economic growth in the Saudi economy. The results obtained from the analyses show that there is a positive relationship between financial sector development and economic growth in Saudi Arabia. The development of the financial system will thus have a positive impact on the growth of the Saudi economy.

Mohammed Moosa Ageli; Shatha Mousa Zaidan

2013-01-01

135

Symptomatic gallstones: A disease of young Saudi women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a study performed to identify the risk factors for gallstones in Saudis, taking the patient population of King Khalid University Hospital as a sample. Only Saudis with symptomatic gallstones were studied, the parameters being age, sex, weight, body mass index, fertility, age at menarche and age at marriage. The results showed that sex, weight, body mass index and fertility all appeared to be important factors in the development of gallstones and that the condition affects more Saudi females and at a younger age than reported in the literature, probably due to overweight and factors related to reproductivity. We conclude that gallstones are common in Saudi women and affect them at a younger age than western women, weight and fertility appear to be important risk factors.

Murshid Khalid

1998-01-01

136

Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire...

Zuhair T. Bakhsh; Ameerah Y. Mansour; Edward K. Mensah; Kevin G. Croke; James L. Drummond; Anne Koerber

137

The effects of birth interval on intellectual development of Saudi school children in Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of birth intervals on some aspects of intellectual ability of Saudi primary school boys. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of Saudi school children comparing their intellectual ability (general intelligence) in relation to the length of the birth interval before and after the birth of the index child. The study area comprised 3 townships in the eastern province; Khobar, Thogba and Dhahran. The study was conducted in 2000/2001 and the study population comprised Saudi primary school boys aged 9-10 years from a middle class background. A 2 stage random sampling technique was adopted. Data were collected using student data sheet, a family questionnaire and the Standard Progressive Raven Matrices Test of intellectual ability, standardized for use in Saudi Arabia. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. RESULTS: More than 90% of children born after a birth interval greater than 35 months were classified as average and above according to the Raven Matrices Test, compared to 79% of children born after a birth interval of less than 19 months (p<0.03). Analysis of variance showed that test scores increased consistently as the succeeding birth interval increased. Multivariate analysis showed the most import predicting variables in the Raven Matrices Test to be family income and height. CONCLUSION: Longer birth intervals were shown to be associated with higher general intelligence levels in the 9-10 year olds. These results confirm those obtained in a previous study in Singapore conducted more than 2 decades ago. Our results have also shown that the succeeding birth interval is more significant than the preceding interval in relation to perceptive ability of children. The findings enable us to advise parents that by observing a birth interval between 2-3 years would make their children grow and do better at school.

Bella H; Khalil MS; Al-Almaie SM; Kurashi NY; Wahas S

2005-05-01

138

Prevalence of obesity and overweight among Saudi adolescents in Eastern Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Saudi adolescents, using the 2 most widely used international references. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted towards the end of 2001 on a random sample of third grade intermediate and all 3 grades of secondary school Saudi students of both genders in Al-Khobar area, Eastern Saudi Arabia. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) growth charts, which have been adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO), were used. Student with a BMI of <85th and >95th percentile for age and genders, were defined as overweight and <95th percentile defined as obese. The International Obesity Taskforce (IOTF) age-sex-specific BMI cut-offs reference for defining overweight and obesity was used for comparison. RESULTS: The sample was 1766 students, comprising 675 males and 1091 females. The mean age was 16.4 +/- 1.7 years. The prevalence of obesity was higher in male than female students (19.3% versus 11.8%) while a higher proportion of female students than males were overweight (17.2% versus 10.2%). No significant difference was found between the 2 references used to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of overweight and obesity recorded in this study call for prevention programs based on dietary and physical education in schools.

Al-Almaie SM

2005-04-01

139

Survey of Saudi Arabian drinking water for trihalomethanes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) as a result of drinking water chlorination is well documented. The presence of THMs in drinking water may adversely affect human health. The objectives of this study are to determine the concentration levels of THMs in drinking water of eight major cities in Saudi Arabia and to compare these concentrations with Saudi Arabian Water standards, as well as with THMs concentrations reported in drinking water in other parts of the world.

Fayad, N.M.; Tawabini, B.S. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1991-02-01

140

Radiation monitoring of imported food to Saudi Arabia after Chernobyl  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabia has been indirectly affected by the Chernobyl accident. Large amounts of food or products that may enter the food chain are daily imported from European countries. After April 27, the Saudi government assigned the responsibilities of radiation monitoring of imported food to some universities and governmental sectors. The nuclear engineering department at King Abdulaziz Univ. (KAU) has undertaken the monitoring duties for products coming to western and southern provinces of the country. The sampling and monitoring procedures and results are described.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Saudi Arabia, OPEC, and the price of crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In his recent The Myth of the OPEC Cartel (Wiley, New York) Ali D. Johany argues forcefully that OPEC is not a cartel, and that higher oil prices derive from changes in property rights. This paper examines the incentives facing Saudi Arabia, as compared to those facing OPEC as a whole, to restrict production. The author concludes that, acting in its own self-interest, Saudi Arabia would adopt a posture of pricing moderation. 2 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Mixon, J.W. Jr.

1982-06-01

142

Solar hydrogen in Saudi Arabia: A long-term outlook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen in Saudi Arabia as an alternative to fossil fuels. The hydrogen would be produced as a method of storage and transmission of solar energy. The topics examined include the case for Saudi Arabia, technical and economical considerations, a long-term outlook. Hydrogen production is considered due to low NO{sub x} emissions and the ease of adapting existing energy utilization technologies to use hydrogen.

Al-Garni, M. (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

1991-08-01

143

A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

1986-01-01

144

Solar energy in Saudi Arabia: The soleras project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over the next 20 years, Saudi Arabia plans to make significant progress towards industrialisation. If solar energy is to make a major contribution, the suitability of current solar technology to the environmental, technical and social conditions in Saudi Arabia must be assessed. Soleras has therefore concentrated initially on engineering R and D. Standards of efficiency, reliability and cost will be established enabling the Government to make realistic planning decisions. In the longer term, it is planned that the second generation solar technology will evolve out of a national solar science programme. Soleras will create solar research groups at the highest levels in the universities using ''leading edge'' scientific technology. This will encourage the best Saudi scientists to remain in Saudi Arabia, thereby establishing continuity, and discouraging the reverse brain-drain that has handicapped development in many third-world countries. The experience gained from the Soleras project leaves Saudi Arabia ideally suited to co-ordinate and stimulate a pan-Arabian solar energy programme. The common language and culture, and similar climatic conditions, justify close collaboration between the Arab countries. A recent report by the Economist Intelligence Unit estimates that the current S15 million annual solar budget of Saudi Arabia constitutes over 60% of the total expenditure of all the Arab countries.

Fendley, J.J.; Bakr, R.

1982-10-01

145

Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. METHOD: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009-2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. RESULTS: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. CONCLUSION: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience.

Qureshi NA; Al-Habeeb AA; Koenig HG

2013-01-01

146

Blended learning in Saudi universities: challenges and perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universities is the adaptation of this element in the traditional university culture. Finding the right design of blended learning is another challenge that is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the time issue is considered a crucial challenge facing blended learning faculty. Practical recommendations that would facilitate transition to a blended learning university environment are presented. It is hoped that this study will help to provide insight for the faculties and the decision-makers throughout higher education in Saudi Arabia. Although this investigation is specifically related to the implementation of blended learning in the universities of Saudi Arabia, we are confident that the assumptions and recommendations contained herein will be of great value to other populations facing similar challenges.

Reem Alebaikan; Salah Troudi

2010-01-01

147

Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility.

Gallagher EB; Searle CM

1985-01-01

148

Health services and the political culture of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Health services occupy a high priority in the development agenda of Saudi Arabia, Saudi culture--devotion to Islam, extended-family values, the segregated status of females and the Al Saud monarchic hegemony--is being formulated in an increasingly deliberate fashion, constituting a new 'political culture' which acts as a screen to insure that technological and human progress remain within acceptable bounds. There is a general disposition on the part of the Saudi populace to use modern health services as these become available, largely under governmental auspice. The role of the government in providing health care for pilgrims during the hajj to Mecca is of particular culture importance. Cultural sensitivities concerning male physicians and female patients will be minimized by the training of a substantial number of Saudi female physicians, whose efforts will be directed toward female patients. At present, most health care in the Kingdom is delivered by male expatriate physicians, as part of the general massive reliance upon expatriate workers: although the expatriates will eventually be replaced by Saudi physicians, this dependency, which is felt to threaten Saudi culture, will continue for a decade or more. Private medicine is rapidly increasing though not on the same scale as government medicine. The provision of government health services is a source of legitimation for the Al Saud regime. In general, health services appear to constitute a form of modernization which meets the test of cultural compatibility. PMID:4035414

Gallagher, E B; Searle, C M

1985-01-01

149

Breast Cancer Awareness among Saudi Females in Jeddah.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to- face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females. PMID:23991994

Radi, Sahar Mahmoud

2013-01-01

150

Breast Cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy of women worldwide. It is the leading cause of female cancer related disability and mortality. In Saudi Arabia breast cancer ranks first among cancerous diseases in females. In the Gulf region, and especially in Saudi Arabia, few studies have been conducted to address breast cancer awareness. The purpose of the current study was therefore to investigate the level of breast cancer awareness among Saudi females in Jeddah, focusing on knowledge of breast cancer warning signs, risk factors, screening programs and breast self-examination (BSE). The design of this study was an exploratory correlational analysis. The sample comprised 200 Saudi females aged 20 and older living in Jeddah. Data were collected using face-to- face interviews. Breast cancer awareness was measured using a modified Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (Breast CAM) version 2. Descriptive statistical analysis, Pearson's Product Moment correlation coefficients and ANOVA test were used to answer study questions. Out of 200 participants, 50.5% were aware of breast lump as a warning sign of breast cancer, 57.5% claimed that family history was risk factor, 20.5% had undergone breast screening, 79% heard about BSE, and 47.5% knew how to perform BSE. Findings indicated that Saudi females level of awareness of breast cancer is very inadequate. Public awareness interventions are needed in order to overcome an ever-increasing burden of this disease among Saudi females.

Radi SM

2013-01-01

151

Salmonella infections in Asir region, southern Saudi Arabia: Expatriated implications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

One hundred forty-two cases of salmonella infection seen in Asir region, Southern Saudi Arabia, during the period of 1989-1991 inclusive, were analyzed. Ninety-four cases were found to have enteric fever and 48 cases were found to have, Salmonella enteritidis gastroenteritis. Enteric fever is more common in non-Saudis (64%) than in the indigenous Saudi population (34%). Salmonella enteriditis gastroenteritis is more common among the Saudi population (75%) than non-Saudis (25%). The clinical presentation of both types of salmonella infection is outlined. Enteric fever is more common among expatriates who recently came from India (40.5%), Egypt (10.6%), Pakistan (6.4%), and Syria (4.3%). Salmonella typhi resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol are more common among Indian patients (75% of resistant cases) and Syrian patients (12.5-28% of resistant cases). Resistance to cotrimoxazole is commonly encountered in Indians (50% of resistant cases) and Egyptians (33.3%). Salmonella enteriditis resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol is more common among Saudis (66.7% of resistant cases) and Filipinos (16.7-33.3% of resistant cases). Recommendations regarding screening of expatriates for enteric fever and proper drug therapy of possible resistant cases are outlined.

Malik GM; Al-Wabel AA; El Bagir Khalafalla Ahmed MM; Bilal NE; Shenoy A; Abdalla M; Mekki TE

1993-05-01

152

Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs) helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience.

Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Koenig, Harold G

2013-01-01

153

OPEN INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PRESENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the scope, development, and future of Institutional Repositories (IR) in Saudi Arabia. This paper is based on the authors’ working experience at King Saud University Dspace repository project. To ensure the number of repository projects in Saudi Arabia the directory of open access repositories, (Open DOAR), Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR), and the websites of the existing universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been browsed. There is a general lack of awareness with regard to Open Institutional Repositories in Saudi Universities and higher education institutions. Only four Universities i.e. King Saud University (KSU), King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Umm Al-Qura University, and University of Dammam have taken some initiatives in this regard. Though these universities have made commendable efforts there still lots of improvements and developments required with regard to Institutional Repositories. It is expected that this paper will encourage Saudi Academic organizations to take the initiatives in the development of open institutional repositories. No such study (Research type, Essay, View point) has been conducted so far in the context of Saudi Arabia.

Parvez Ahmad; Mohammad Aqil; Mohammad Asad Siddique

2012-01-01

154

Screening criteria for enhanced recovery of Saudi crude oils  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This investigation studies and analyzes the screening guides that can be used to select the applicable enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method under Saudi oil field conditions. Based on the analysis of data obtained from 186 Saudi formations, the crude oils are produced from low to intermediate permeability formations in the range of 1-1500 millidarcies. The original reservoirs' pressure and temperature range from 2000 to 5500 psi and from 140 to 240{degrees}F, respectively. The porosity of the formations varies from 10 to 30% and the formations thickness ranges from 10 to 300 feet. The reservoirs of Saudi Arabia are characterized by high formation water salinity, which can be as high as 30% by weight. Saudi oil formations are characterized by connate water in the range of 10-50%. Thus residual oil saturation is expected to be high. The viscosity of most Saudi crude oils ranges from 0.10 to 10 centipoise. The API gravity ranges from 15 to 45. The basic parameters studied include formation permeability, porosity, and thickness; reservoir pressure and temperature; crude oil viscosity and API gravity, formation connate water saturation and its salinity, and formation type and heterogeneity. Based on the screening analysis the most suitable technical methods applicable to Saudi oil fields are the miscible processes using gases.

Sayyouh, M.H.; Al-Blehed (Petroleum Engineering Dept., King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))

1990-01-01

155

Hypertension in Renal Transplantation: Saudi Arabian Experience  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence, etiologic factors and therapy of hypertension in actively followed up transplant population in Saudi Arabia; we retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia. These subjects were transplanted between January 1979 and November 1998. The patients were grouped according to the measurement of blood pressure; group 1 (considered normo-tensive): blood pressure below 140/90 mmHg, group2: blood pressure between 140-159/90-99, group 3: blood pressure 160-179/100-109 group 4: equal to or above 180/110. There were 1115 patients? records included in the study. The mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 ± 50.1 months. According to the level of measured blood pressure, there were 641 (57.5%) patients in the normotensive group (group 1), 404 (36.3%) patients in the mildly hypertensive group (group 2) 64 (5.7%) patients in the moderately severe hypertension group (group 3) and only six (0.5%) patients in the severe hypertension group (group 4). The estimated prevalence of hypertension in this study was almost 85%. We found no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension in terms of gender, year of transplantation, duration of transplantation, type of donor, number of previous transplants, diagnosis of renal artery stenosis, etiology of kidney disease, diagnosis of diabetes after transplantation, diagnosis of cerebrovascular accidents, or mean dose of prednisolone and cyclosporine. There was a statistically significant association between increased level of blood pressure and old age (above 50 years), original disease associated with hypertension, history of hypertension on dialysis, acute rejection (once or more), presence of protienuria (more than 0.3 mg/day), abnormality of ECG, or serum creatinine above 300 µmol/L. We conclude that hypertension is highly prevalent in the renal transplant population in Saudi Arabia. Risk factors for the development of hypertension or its complication should be more aggressively approached in order to protect the patients and their grafts alike.

Souqiyyeh Muhammad; Shaheen Faissal; Sheikh Iftikhar; Al-Khader Abdullah; Fedhail Halima; Al-Sulaiman Mohammed; Mousa Dujana; Al-Hawas Fahd

1999-01-01

156

Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species.

Williams JB; Shobrak M; Wilms TM; Arif IA; Khan HA

2012-04-01

157

78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia...Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia...2013. The mission will focus on the cyber security, critical infrastructure...

2013-01-31

158

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Science.gov (United States)

...From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping...from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and Vietnam of certain oil country...

2013-07-10

159

78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

2013-09-13

160

78 FR 23625 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby report the waiver of this...

2013-04-19

 
 
 
 
161

76 FR 7152 - ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Science.gov (United States)

...International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts Ahmed Khayyat, Phone:...

2011-02-09

162

75 FR 56506 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended  

Science.gov (United States)

...Administration Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International...Natalia.Susak@trade.gov. U.S. Commercial Service Saudi Arabia Contacts: Mr. Habeeb Saeed, U.S. Commercial...

2010-09-16

163

75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

2010-09-28

164

Congenital heart defects in Down syndrome patients from western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To characterize congenital heart defects in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia, and compare with studies from other regions of Saudi Arabia and with international figures. Methods: We conducted a prospecti...

Jumana Y. Al-Aama; Nabeel S. Bondagji; Ashraf A. El-Harouni

165

Toxoplasmosis in Goats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During an outbreak of caprine abortion in a farm in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, serum samples from 57 Aardi goats with recent history of abortion and stillbirths (herd 1) along with samples from 30 control goats without abortion history (herd 2) were analyzed for anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Indirect Haemagglutination (IHA) tests. Antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 63.2% of the goats in herd 1 and 50% of the control goats (herd 2). About >80% of the former goats had ELISA percent optical densities (O.D.%) ?100 while >86% of the control goats were weakly positive with ELISA O.D.’s (%) T. gondii as the cause of abortion in herd 1.

S.I. Al-Mufarrej; M.F. Hussein; R.S. Aljumaah; A.R. Gar ElNabi

2011-01-01

166

Natural background radiation in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF2Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a 137Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 ?R h-1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 ?R h-1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

1993-01-01

167

Saudis let contract for Rabigh refinery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petromin has let contract to Petrola International to build a $2.62 billion, 325,000 bbl/day export refinery at Rabigh, Saudi Arabia. The refinery will be a 50-50 joint venture by Petromin and Petrola. Petrola will provide engineering, procurement, construction, and commissioning services for the two-phase project. The first phase, scheduled for completion in 1982, will include a tank farm, marine facilities, and utilities system. The second phase, scheduled for completion in 1986, will include a naphtha hydrotreater, catalytic reformer, fluid catalytic cracking, and visbreaking units. The refinery will run Arabian light and medium crudes. Petromin is negotiating with Ashland Oil Inc. for a joint-venture 5000 bbl/day lubricating oil base stocks refinery at Rabigh which would use feedstock from the 325,000 bbl/day refinery.

1980-08-11

168

Pediatric burns in Western Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Results: The mean age was 5.97, and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common cause was scalding (81.7%). Approximately 92.8% of patients had burn injuries involving 25% of the total body surface area, or less. The mean hospital stay was 9.51 days. Approximately 92% of patients were treated conservatively. Conclusion: Toddlers are at high risk of having scald burns. We also noted the number of admissions is increasing every year. Therefore, an effective scientific-based prevention program is required. 

Abdulatif A. Gari; Yahya A. Al-Ghamdi; Hamed S. Qutbuddeen; Munzir M. Alandonisi; Faisal A. Mandili; Alaa Sultan

2012-01-01

169

Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although crypto-sporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal diseases in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 pub--lished studies of Cryptosporidium and the etiology of diarrhea between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in humans ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was different for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age, and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the stud--ies, but it was generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C. hominis was detected in only one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in humans and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries.

Areeshi Mohammed; Beeching Nicholas; Hart C

2007-01-01

170

EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Evaluations and Expectations about English Language Courses as EFL in Saudi Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this study is to explore EFL teachers' perceptions, evaluations and expectations about English language courses as EFL in Saudi tertiary level. In other words, this article aims at creating a new avenue for effective EFL teaching-learning curriculum techniques and syllabus in the Saudi tertiary context. Saudi universities offer credit…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2013-01-01

171

Saudi Arabia in the oil era: Regime and elites; Conflict and collaboration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book explores the recent history of the Saudi oil state, in an analysis of the struggle for social and political power in modern Saudi Arabia, including a discussion of the impact on the Saudi Economy of the present crisis in the oil market.

Abir, M.

1987-01-01

172

Saudi Arabia: Post-War Issues and U.S. Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saudi dynasty, enjoys special importance in the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. Since the establishment of the modern Saudi kingdom in 1932, it h...

A. B. Prados

2001-01-01

173

HIV/AIDS epidemic features and trends in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND : More than 60 million persons have been infected since AIDS was described in 1981. By the end of 2003, an estimated 40 million individuals were living with HIV globally. The surveillance of HIV/AIDS still faces challenges in Saudi Arabia. This study describes the pattern and characteristics of HIV/AIDS cases in Saudi Arabia. METHODS : This descriptive analytic study describes the reported HIV/AIDS data for all notifiable cases during the period 1984 to 2003 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Case definitions based on ELISA and Western Blot tests were used. Age, sex and regional distribution were studied in addition to survival rates. RESULTS : As of 2003, 1743 Saudi nationals and 6064 non-Saudi HIV cases were reported. Among Saudis, 872 were AIDS cases. Males accounted for 1329 HIV infections, comprising 77%, with a male-to-female ratio of about 3:1. Adults 15-49 years constituted 78% of cases, including 46% of cases infected through sexual activity, while 33% of reported HIV seropositive cases had already died. Most cases (67%) were registered in Jeddah, Riyadh and Dammam. Infection through blood transfusion declined with no reported cases since 2001. CONCLUSION : The number of reported HIV infections in KSA has increased in the last few years. Using the coverage rate estimating method, the number of Saudi HIV infections since the emergence of the epidemic was estimated to be 2640 cases as of the beginning of the year 2004. The estimated number of HIV infections is almost one and one-half times the reported number, indicating that a problem of underreporting of HIV/AIDS cases still exists.

Al-Mazrou Yagob; Al-Jeffri Mohamed; Fidail Abdulla; Al-Huzaim Nasir; El-Gizouli Sirrag

2005-01-01

174

Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. FINDINGS: We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported) found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. CONCLUSIONS: Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.

Imtiaz F; Al-Sayed M; Trabzuni D; Al-Mubarak BR; Alsmadi O; Rashed MS; Meyer BF

2010-01-01

175

Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA), PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported) found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. Conclusions Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.

Imtiaz Faiqa; Al-Sayed Moeen; Trabzuni Danyah; Al-Mubarak Bashair R; Alsmadi Osama; Rashed Mohamed S; Meyer Brian F

2010-01-01

176

Saudi Arabia in the 1980s: foreign policy, security, and oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This assessment of Saudi Arabia's foreign policy acknowledges the strengths and the weaknesses of the Saudi system that have been influential in the past and that are likely to remain influential in the future. It portrays a rich but weak country whose oil has involved it in an intricate web of international issues for which its previous experience has provided few useful precedents. the US-Saudi relationship is an issue of importance to Middle East stability and energy security. The author explores three topics: the external threats faced by the Saudis and Saudi foreign policy; the political, economic, and military capabilities of the Saudis to pursue their national interests; and how Arab-Israeli peace negotiations, arms sales, and oil-production policies have strained its long-standing and friendly ties with the US. Saudi oil production and pricing decisions are also discussed. He concludes that a cooperative relationship based on interdependence can surmount these difficulties. 106 references.

Quandt, W.B.

1982-01-01

177

Development of new relative permeability correlations to Saudi reservoirs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article new relative permeability correlations for Saudi formations are developed. A systematic method for estimating the relative permeability curves for both oil-water and oil-gas systems, using the developed correlations, are suggested. In addition an application of a new technique for determining the average two-phase, oil-water and oil-gas, relative permeability curves to some Saudi reservoirs is indicated. Also, a systematic method for estimating the average two-phase relative permeability curves, using this technique, is suggested. The results showed that the developed correlations predicted the average relative permeability of Saudi reservoirs more accurate than published correlations. The results also showed a deviation between the average relative permeability curves generated from core analysis data and that estimated using well log and pressure build-up data analysis. Comparisons of the results of the developed equations with that at of published correlations are shown. (orig.)

Khairy, M.; Alsughayer, A.A.; Al-Quraishi, A.; Al-Homadhi, E.S.

2002-12-01

178

Wagner's Law in Saudi Arabia 1970 - 2012: An Econometric Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our goal in this paper is to explorethe validity of Wagner’s Law in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012) for real oil GDP and Non-oil GDP.Wagner’s Law investigated that fundamental economic growth is validity to the public sector growth. In the previousstudies have been tested the six versions of Wagner’s law to support the existence of long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth.We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques to examine how far Wagner’s Law validity can be applied in Saudi economy. The results obtained from the analyses find that the Wagnerian proposition can explain the growth of government in Saudi Arabia, which holds for both the oil and non-oil income cases. The findings also note that the existence of strong causality for all of Wagner’s law versions in the long run.

Mohammed Moosa Ageli

2013-01-01

179

Information and Communication Technologies 'ICTs' in the Saudi Household  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a study submitted originally to the Information Dept. Committee in Humanities and Arts College, King Abdul Aziz University, in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Masters in the Information Management Program. The goal of this study is to explore the Saudi household use of ICT 'Information and Communication Technology'; one the Saudi household clearly depends on nowadays. Most Saudi households have access to ICTs like mobiles and Internet connections. It is important to analyze to what extent are they used, the goals of their use, and its impact on the households. This paper focuses on five questions related to the ICTs use, awareness and effects as well as investigating the correlation between some households' characteristics and the raised issues. The sample was an accidental sample, and the study questionnaire was built and judged according to the study questions and purposes.

Muna D. Alsuraihi; Heba Omar Bashraheel

2013-01-01

180

25-Hydoxyvitamin D. levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to assess the serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD)among healthy Saudi Arabian women living in the eastern province. Across-sectional randomized study was conducted between February 1st 2008 andMay 31st at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of SaudiArabia in 200 Saudi women between 25-35 years (group 1) and women of >=50years (group 2). Clinical examination, laboratory tests, a complete bloodpicture, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, parathromone, andthe serum levels of 25 OHD levels were carried out. Data on life style,dietary and demographic questionnaires were collected. Vitamin D was definedas deficient with serum level =50 years. This study indicates that hypovitaminosis D is commonin young and postmenopausal women. Efforts are required augment andencouraged women for adequate exposure to sunlight and increased intake offortified vitamin D products to maintain skeletal health. (author)

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Analysis of sectoral energy and exergy use of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the analysis of sectoral energy and exergy utilization of Saudi Arabia by considering the energy and exergy flows for the 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for the subsectors and the devices used in each sector. Energy and exergy flow diagrams for Saudi Arabia are also presented, respectively, to illustrate the situation on how energy and exergy efficiencies vary in each sector. The residential sector appears to be the most energy efficient sector, and the industrial sector to be the most exergy efficient. It is believed that the current methodology is useful for analysing sectoral energy and exergy utilization, which will help Saudi Arabia with energy savings through energy efficiency and/or energy conservation measures. It is also be helpful to establish standards to facilitate application in various sectors and processes for a sustainable energy planning. (author)

Dincer, I.; Hussain, M.M.; Al-Zaharnah, I. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2004-07-01

182

Wind energy applications in remote areas of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential of wind power generation near the remote areas of Saudi Arabia is investigated. Meteorological data from twenty weather stations for a period of ten years are analyzed to obtain wind pattern characteristics. The annual average wind velocity distribution, and frequency of occurrence are significant in assessing the wind power potential of a site, especially as the power in the wind is related to the cube of the wind velocity. The analysis of the data revealed that the potential of wind power is promising. The possible sites for capturing the wind energy are the northern and coastal sites of Saudi Arabia. Small desalination units, irrigation pumps and electrical power generators could therefore be powered by wind energy in remote areas of Saudi Arabia. (author)

Radhwan, A.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering)

1994-07-01

183

Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque of healthy Saudis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque of healthy Saudis and its relation to dental care. One hundred randomly selected healthy Saudis attending the dental clinic were assessed for oral hygiene and periodontal disease by dental examination. Information about the use of toothpaste, chewing stick, smoking and dentures was obtained. Samples of dental plaque were collected after scoring it according to the plaque index. Presence of H. pylori in the plaque was sought by a commercially available rapid urease test with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100%. The presence of H. pylori was indicated by a positive rapid urease test in 81 %. There was significant correlation of heavy dental plaque (plaque index score 3) with presence of H. pylori (p=0.03). We conclude that H. pylori is present in the dental plaque of most Saudis and this is due to poor oral hygiene.

Contractor Qais; Tahir Mohammed; Naseem Shahzad; Ahmad Shamweel

1998-01-01

184

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi secondary school girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. Results: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psychoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level.

Al Gelban Khalid

2009-01-01

185

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

2009-01-01

186

Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

2009-01-01

187

Epilepsy; what do Saudi's living in Riyadh know?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Epilepsy is very common in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with a prevalence of 6.54 per 1000. The present study was conducted to investigate the level of public awareness, and the attitudes and knowledge regarding epilepsy in the Saudi population in Riyadh - capital city of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A survey consisting of 19 questions pertaining to epilepsy awareness was distributed to Saudi citizens living in Riyadh older than 15 years of age in malls, supermarkets, health clubs, mosques, universities and schools. RESULTS: Of the 7078 respondents who completed the questionnaire, 6756 (95.5%) had heard about epilepsy, 3024 (42.7%) had witnessed what they believed to be a seizure and 5164 (73%) would allow their children to interact with an individual who had epilepsy. However, 5382 (76%) respondents would not want their children to marry an individual with epilepsy, 1004 (14.2%) believed that epilepsy was infectious and 574 (8.1%) believed that epilepsy was a type of mental illness. A total of 1509 (21.3%) respondents were not aware of a single potential cause of epilepsy, 3493 (50.6%) would not seek medical advice if one of their relatives had epilepsy, 2221 (31.4%) did not know how to deal with an individual experiencing an epileptic episode and 6554 (92.6%) did not know that surgery was a treatment option for individuals with epilepsy in Saudi Arabia. Of the 7078 respondents, 3237 (45.7%) would not abide by a physician's advice not to operate a motor vehicle because of their illness, of whom 1631 (50.4%) cited problems with the public transportation system as a reason for disregarding the doctor's advice. The effect of age and level of education were statistically significant on most of the study variables. CONCLUSION: The level of epilepsy awareness in the Saudi population needs improvement.

Alaqeel A; Sabbagh AJ

2013-04-01

188

Impact of Obesity on Fetomaternal Outcome in Pregnant Saudi Females  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Obesity is rapidly increasing in most populations of the world including Saudi community. Maternal obesity adversely impacts pregnancy outcome through increased rates of hypertensive disease, diabetes, cesarean section and infections. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine frequency of obesity and its adverse effects on reproductive outcome in pregnant Saudi females. Methods: Prospective Cohort study. Eight months (Nov 2008 to June 2009), Maternity and Children Hospital (MCH) Buraida, Saudi Arabia Sample included a group of 1000 randomly recruited pregnant Saudi females. Patients were admitted through Outpatient and Emergency Departments. Height was recorded once and weight twice; at the beginning (prepregnancy weight) and end of pregnancy. The difference between the two weights was taken as net weight gain in pregnancy. Prepregnancy weight was used to calculate Body mass index (BMI) using formula; Weight in Kg/Height in (m). 2 The sample was divided into 5 groups depending upon their BMI ;40, classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese & morbidly obese respectively. The normal weight group was used as control group. Data were collected regarding complications of obesity in pregnancy and labor and recorded on a Performa. Results were calculated by using computer programme SPSS Version 13 for windows. A p-value of< 0.05 is used to calculate statistical significance. Results: The frequency of weight distribution in pregnant Saudi female calculated to be 2% (lean), 31% (normal weight), 33%(overweight), 30%(obese) and 4%(morbidly obese). Compared with normal weight women, both overweight and obese women had a significantly increased risk (p-value-<0.05) for gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, and delivery of a macrocosmic infant. Conclusion: Overweight & obesity is a growing problem in pregnant Saudi females associated with increased risks of fetomaternal complications like preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, and delivery of a macrocosmic infant.

Meher-un-nisa; Aslam, Muhammad; Ahmed, Salah Rosdy; Rajab, Maamon; Kattea, Lina

2009-01-01

189

Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children.Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. Subjects and Methods: We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. Results: A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and 1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Conclusion: Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing coun--tries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every popula--tion should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children.

Al Salloum Abdullah; El Mouzan Mohammad; Al Herbish Abdullah; Al Omar Ahmad; Qurashi Mansour

2009-01-01

190

Saudi Cancer Patients’ Attitudes towardsDisclosure of Cancer Information  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore Saudi cancer patients' views regarding cancer information disclosure and whether differences existed between regions or gender.Methods: In this cross-sectional questionnaire-based prospective survey, we interviewed 332 Saudi cancer patients who received oncological care at King Fahd University Hospital, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia from July 2002 to July 2009 to explore their attitudes regarding disclosure of cancer information. Results: The vast majority of Saudi cancer patients wanted to know the diagnosis of cancer (98%) and only 2% wanted the information to remain undisclosed. Seventy percent of the women wanted family members to know compared to only 39% of themen (P<0.001). Only 10% of the patients wanted their friends to know. In this study,99% and 98%, respectively, wanted to know about the benefits of therapy and about their diagnosis of cancer. Of both genders, 98% also wanted to know the side effects of therapy and the prognosis. The attitudes of Saudi men and women with cancer were almost identical apart from sharing information with their family members. 99% ofeastern region cancer patients wanted the diagnosis of cancer disclosed compared to74% of those from other regions (P=0.04). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that most Saudi cancer patients wanted disclosure of cancer information. Significantly more women than men wanted to share information with their family. More Eastern region patients wanted to know about their diagnosis of cancer compared to patients from other regions.

Ali M. Al-Amri

2010-01-01

191

Oral lesions in Saudi renal transplant patients  

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Full Text Available Renal transplantation has evolved as the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. Different oral problems arise in these patients, either as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or pharmacokinetics. To determine the prevalence of intra-oral lesions in a group of medically stable Saudi renal transplant patients (RTP) and to identify possible risk factors, in comparison with age and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCS), we studied 58 RTP and 52 HCS. All subjects had a thorough oral examination and oral lesions were diagnosed according to the clinically accepted criteria. Gingival overgrowth (GO), erythematous candidiasis (EC) and hairy leukoplakia (HL) were diagnosed in RTP with prevalence of 74.1%, 15.5%, and 8.6%, respectively. The severity of the gingival overgrowth significantly correlated with the use of cyclosporine and nifedipine combination therapy, serum cyclosporine, and serum creatinine level. In conclusions, the finding of our study strongly propose that RTP should undergo routine and regular comprehensive oral examination, and any suspicious lesion must be investigate and treated.

Al-Mohaya Maha; Darwazeh Azmi; Bin-Salih Salih; Al-Khudair Waleed

2009-01-01

192

Dietary practices of Saudi women during puerperium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Poor maternal health sometimes can be a consequence of practicing different myths during puerperium. This cross-sectional study describes the practice of different myths regarding diet among Saudi women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study comprised women attending the postnatal clinic at the Mother and Child Hospital in Buraidah from January to December 2011. RESULTS: Almost 65.9% of women were using a combination of herbs such as ginger (zingiber officinale), hilba (fenugreek) and black seeds (nigella sativa). The multinomial logistic regression of herbs on age, education, occupation, parity and mode of delivery was statistically significant (?(2) [48] = 214.645, P < 0.001). Hilba was more commonly used by women with instrumental delivery. It was common for women to avoid different fruits and vegetables (33.89%). Eggs were avoided by 16.5% of women and 11% avoided cold drinks. The multinomial logistic regression of diet on age, education, occupation, parity and mode of delivery was statistically significant (?(2) [72] = 389.861, P < 0.001). Individuals below college level education were more likely to avoid fruits, vegetables and cold drinks in their diet. CONCLUSION: Health education programs are needed to improve knowledge about dietary malpractices during puerperium. This may help eliminate myths regarding avoidance of certain dietary components.

Saadia Z; Roshdy S; Sagir F; Abidin S

2013-04-01

193

Solar energy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is blessed with abundant solar energy which is renewable, clean and available freely. It is harnessed through known processes and technologies, but progress towards its commercialization is very slow for several reasons, such as higher cost and low efficiency. This paper reviews our R+D efforts, and concludes that future utilization of solar energy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is dependent on current R+D activities in the field, combined with a proper educational campaign for its effective commercialization. (author) 5 figs., 6 tabs., 37 refs.

Al-Athel, S.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

1997-06-01

194

Middle East report/Saudi oil development thrusts West  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A discussion of Saudi petroleum projects involving Saudi Arabia's west coast covers construction progress on Petromin's 1.85 million bbl/day crude oil pipeline from Abqaiq to Yanbu and on its 11 pump stations; possible expansion of the line to 2.35 million bbl/day or to 3.6 million bbl/day; Mobil Oil Corp.'s partnership with Petromin in the construction of a 250,000 bbl/day export refinery.

Vielvoye, R.

1980-07-07

195

Screening of pregnant Saudi women for hepatitis B surface antigen.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) in pregnant women is considered the most important factor contributing to the higher carrier rate of HBsAg in some populations, including Saudi Arabia. Universal hepatitis B vaccination in infancy was implemented in Saudi Arabia in 1990 to avoid early acquisition of infection. At the same time, another program was launched to vaccinate all school children at school entry as a second target group. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HBsAg prevalence rate in Saudi pregnant women 12 years after launching the program and to assess regional variation, if any. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 2664 pregnant Saudi women were recruited from the five main regions in Saudi Arabia. Blood samples were tested for HBsAg. Positive samples were tested also for HBeAg. RESULTS: Of 2664 pregnant Saudi women, 65 were positive for HBsAg (2.46%, 95% CI=2.11%-2.69%). Four were positive for HBeAg (0.15%). The HBsAg prevalence rate was higher in Gizan (4.2%) and lower in Tabuk (1.4%) (P=-0.035). Only one case was positive for HBsAg in women under the age of 20 years (1/186), a 0.5% positivity rate in this age group compared with 2.6% in the older age group (P=-0.049 for the one-sided test). A history of surgical procedures was associated with a higher (3%), but not significantly higher rate of HBsAg positivity. No significant association was found between HBsAg positivity and a history of dental procedures or blood transfusion. CONCLUSION: Although the HBsAg prevalence rate among Saudi pregnant women was lower than previously published data, the full impact of the hepatitis B vaccination program in infancy and childhood will take more years to decrease the prevalence rate in pregnant women. The MOH should continue to give the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine at birth to prevent early acquisition, but in the meantime a regional policy can be adopted to deal with the high prevalence rate of HBsAg among pregnant Saudi women.

Al-Mazrou Yagob; Al-Jeffri M; Khalil Mohamed; Al-Ghamdi Yasser; Mishkhas A; Bakhsh M; Eisa M; Nageeb M; Tumsah S

2004-01-01

196

Medical liability litigation in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H-1429H (1999-2008) were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together with the trend along the studied period. Results: Data analysis showed an escalating trend for the total number of claims over the study period being started with 440 cases on 1420H and ended with 1356 cases by the year 1429H. The annual percentage of the final verdicts of accusation to the total number of claims presented to all committees ranges between 45.5%?60.2% with a mean value of 49.9%. Distribution of final verdicts among different clinical specialities showed that obstetrics takes the lead with a mean percentage of 25.5% along the studied period (1420H-1429H), followed by the practice of general surgery with a mean percentage of 13.8%. The sector of health care service showed a significant variation in relation to the mean number of final verdicts with accusation along the studied period, being the highest in the Ministry of Health sector with a mean number of 216.8 claims, followed by the private sector with a mean number of 197.3 claims. Conclusion: Adherence to the standards of medical practice is by far to the best approach to avoid and reduce the incidence of litigation.

Al-Saeed Abdulhamid

2010-01-01

197

Regional variations in the growth of Saudi children and adolescents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

No previous study has provided a detailed description of regional variations of growth within the various regions of Saudi Arabia. Thus, we sought to demonstrate differences in growth of children and adolescents in different regions. The 2005 Saudi reference was based on a cross-sectional representative sample of the Saudi population of healthy children and adolescents from birth to 18 years of age. Body measurements of the length, stature, weight, head circumference and calculation of the BMI were performed according to standard recommendations. Percentile construction and smoothing were performed using the LMS (lambda, mu and sigma) methodology, followed by transformation of all individual measurements into standard deviation scores. Factors such as weight for age, height for age, weight for height, and head circumference for children from birth to 3 years, stature for age, head circumference and body mass index for children between 2-18 years of age were assessed. Subsequently, variations in growth between the three main regions in the north, southwest, and center of Saudi Arabia were calculated, with the Bonferroni: method used to assess the significance of differences between regions. There were significant differences in growth between regions that varied according to age, gender, growth parameter and region. The highest variation was found between children and adolescents of the southwestern region and those of the other two regions The regression lines for all growth parameters in children

2009-01-01

198

Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. FINDINGS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years' medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as "a "persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient". Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0%) of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

Alzahrani HA

2012-01-01

199

Groundwater Quality Assessment in Wadi Tharad Area Southern Saudi Arabia ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hydrochemical study is carried out on Wadi Tharad area in south of Saudi Arabia, where 42 wells were chosen for collection of water samples. The electrical conductivity and pH of the collected samples are measured in the field. The water samples are chemically analyzed and the major cations and anio...

MASOUD AL-AHMADI; NASR ALJAHDALI

200

The Use of the Mother Tongue in Saudi EFL Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue of including or excluding the learner's mother tongue in the EFL classroom has been the subject of ongoing discussion and controversy for a long time. This paper attempts to investigate the use of native Arabic in English classes at two Saudi technical colleges. The main objectives were to examine the purpose of L1 use and the attitudes…

Alshammari, Marzook M.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Prospects of cool thermal storage utilization in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) industry, Cool Thermal Storage (CTS), commonly known as Thermal Energy Storage (TES), is the most preferred demand side management (DSM) technology for shifting cooling electrical demand from peak daytime periods to off peak night time periods. This paper shows how CTS offers a means of reducing the peak electrical demand in large Saudi office buildings. The effect of CTS based pre-cooled air as inlet to the turbine on enhancement of its efficiency is also discussed. CTS economics is considered, and a cost analysis is presented to illustrate the savings that can be achieved by the use of CTS in Saudi Arabia, especially for peak electric load levelling purposes during the summer period. It has been found that incorporation of a partial ice storage system in Saudi office buildings will reduce the peak time electrical power demand and the peak time cooling load in the range of 10-20% and 30-40%, respectively. Similarly, it is also estimated that in Saudi Arabia, the use of ice storage systems with gas turbines for inlet air cooling will increase the turbine's output by 30% and reduce its heat rate by 10% at a mere fraction of the cost of installing additional capacity for power generation in order to meet the summer peak demand. (Author)

Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H.; Al-Ibrahim, A.M.; Smiai, M.S. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Energy Research Inst., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

2000-11-01

202

Applications of thermal energy storage in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Saudi Arabia, the heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system typically accounts for 65% of the total electrical energy consumption in buildings. This is due to a very high ambient temperature which persists for a long period of time in a summer season. Moreover, gas turbines efficiency decrease also with the high ambient temperatures. In the HVAC industry cool storage, or commonly known as Thermal Energy Storage (TES) is the most preferred demand side management (DSM) technology for shifting cooling electrical demand from peak daytime periods to off-peak night-time. The most popular and well-suited TES concept for Saudi Arabia is either chilled water or ice storage system, depending upon the applications and the required storage capacity. This paper shows how TES offers a means of reducing the electrical demand in large commercial buildings. Additionally, it is seen that efficiencies of the air cooled chillers are increased if they run overnight. Similarly efficiencies of gas turbine is also increased when a TES based pre-cooled air is used as an inlet to the turbine. This paper also discusses favouring conditions and other aspects of cool storage applications in Saudi Arabia. TES economics are considered and cost analysis is presented to illustrate the potential savings that can be achieved by the use of TES in Saudi Arabia. (Author)

Hasnain, Syed Mahmood; Alawaji, Saleh Hussain; Al-Ibrahim, Abdulrahman; Smiai, Mohmmed Saleh [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Energy Research Inst. (ERI), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

1999-07-01

203

Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

204

Solar energy in Saudi Arabia: the Soleras Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to conserve its oil resources is one of the main reasons behind the development of solar energy in Saudi Arabia, which is a country well suited for the use of solar energy. Particular projects for developing solar energy in Saudia Arabia are discussed.

Fendley, J.J.

1982-07-01

205

Caries risk assessment in preschool children in saudi arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Purpose: Caries is a prevalent condition in Saudi Arabia. At present, knowledge regarding caries risk factors in Saudi Arabia is limited. The present study aimed to identify characteristic features of Saudi preschoolers at high risk for caries, using the American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry caries risk assessment tool (CAT ) and to report the most significant caries risk predictors. Materials and Methods: A sample of 407 children aged 4 and 5 years was selected randomly from private and public nursery schools. Their parents answered a questionnaire prepared using the CAT . Each child was examined for the presence of caries and his/her oral hygiene status. Results: According to the CAT , almost all children (89%) were considered to be at high risk. Caries was significantly more prevalent among children attending public than private schools. All CAT variables were significantly related to the presence of caries except general health condition and water fluoridation. Logistic regression analysis showed previous caries experience, enamel demineralisation, and socio-economic status to be the most significant caries risk factors. Conclusion: Most of the Saudi children are considered to be at high risk for caries. Previous caries experience, enamel demineralisation and socioeconomic status are the most significant caries risk predictors. These groups should be targeted for inclusion in caries prevention programmes.

Farsi N; Merdad L; Mirdad S

2013-01-01

206

Electricity development in Saudi Arabia (1970-1994)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of the electric power generation system of Saudi Arabia has been quite impressive over the last twenty years. This report emphasizes the major accomplishments of this development while stressing the current situation of electricity generation and consumption in the country. The organization for electricity planning at the national level is also described in the paper. (author). 1 ref., 4 tabs.

1996-01-01

207

Central Medical Library In Saudi Arabia : Establishment and Prospective Develpment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case study about the steps taken for the establishment of the Central Medical Library at the Ministry of Health in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, it include historical background, location of the library, staff, collections, automation system, and gives some recommendations about the project.

Mohammed A. Marghalani

2005-01-01

208

Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

2011-10-11

209

Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0%) of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

Alzahrani Hasan

2012-01-01

210

Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy Saudi adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study carried out as part of the screening and early evaluation of kidney disease project. Vitamin D was measured in subjects recruited at 2 screening camps in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between March to May 2008. Subjects from the 2 large commercial centers in Riyadh aged >/=18 years and Saudi nationals were invited. RESULTS: The study sample comprised of 488 subjects. The mean age of the subjects was 37.43 (11.32) years, of which 50.2% (n=245) were males. Twenty-nine percent of subjects were in the vitamin D deficiency group, 22.7% were in the relative insufficiency group, and 47.5% had normal levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. We observed that female gender was an independent predictor of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (odds ratio [OR]: 2.992; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.069-4.327). Anemia was also a predictor for vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency (OR: 3.16; 95% CI 2.02-4.92). Age was positively correlated with vitamin D levels (Pearson correlation=0.183, p<0.000). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D deficiency is common in healthy Saudi adults. This is more pronounced in females and in the younger age groups. Wearing of traditional clothes, deliberate avoidance of the sun, and inadequate dietary intake are likely to be the principal causes of low vitamin D levels.

Alsuwadia AO; Farag YM; Al Sayyari AA; Mousa DH; Alhejaili FF; Al-Harbi AS; Housawi AA; Mittal BV; Singh AK

2013-08-01

211

Cultural considerations in teaching the Saudi Arabian renal transplant recipient.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Teaching renal transplant recipients in Saudi Arabia requires incorporation of basic nursing principles with cultural and religious beliefs to develop individualized plans of care. Multinational nursing staffs collaborate on teaching methods and materials to promote compliance with diet, medications, and activities to return the transplant patient to health and a normal lifestyle.

Nicholls PH

1990-10-01

212

Edaphic properties and soil cyanobacteria of South Western Saudi Arabia. ???? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three sites at each of five localities, in the South Western Region of Saudi Arabia were surveyed during 1992, for their soil physico-chemical properties, and cyanobacterial communities. The soils were moderately calcareous, and characterized as sandy loam textured and alkaline. Electrical conductiv...

Arif, I. A. [??????? ??? ?????? ????

213

Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Four Saudi Camel Breeds  

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The present study was conducted to investigate the carcass characteristics and meat quality in four Saudi camel breeds. Four young male camel breeds were used (Majaheem, Suffr, Sho’l and Wodoh) 6-9 months old with average weight 133.83±2.83 kg. Animals were group fed of three animals in four rep...

A.M. El-Waziry; A.N. Al-Owaimer; S. Basmaeil; H. Metwally; G.M. Suliman

214

Neural tube defects in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia.  

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BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) among admissions at a regional referral hospital in Saudi Arabia, compare trends over several years and note any influence of prenatal folic acid treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For every NTD admission into...

Asindi A; Al-Shehri A

215

Stakeholding as a new development strategy for Saudi Arabia  

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The transition from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy requires that the Saudi population dramatically increases its level of human capital. This paper argues that noncognitive skills may be a bottleneck in the formation of human capital and proposes a policy to indirectly strengthen those sk...

Corneo, Giacomo

216

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective : There is limited information on overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to establish the national prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods : The 2005 Saudi reference data set was used to calculate the body mass index (BMI) for children aged 5 to 18 years. Using the 2007 WHO reference, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined as the proportion of children with a BMI standard deviation score more than +1, +2 and +3, respectively. The 2000 CDC reference was also used for comparison. Results : There were 19 317 healthy children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age, 50.8% of whom were boys. The overall prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity in all age groups was 23.1%, 9.3% and 2%, respectively. A significantly lower prevalence of overweight (23.8 vs 20.4; P P Conclusions : This report establishes baseline national prevalence rates for overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Saudi children and adolescents, indicating intermediate levels between developing and industrialized countries. Measures should be implemented to prevent further increases in the numbers of overweight school-age children and adolescents and the associated health hazards.

El Mouzan Mohammad; Foster Peter; Al Herbish Abdullah; Al Salloum Abdullah; Al Omer Ahmad; Qurachi Mansour; Kecojevic Tatjana

2010-01-01

217

Dialysis Centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD) centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients ...

Souqiyyeh Muhammad; Al-Attar Muhammad Besher; Zakaria Haroun; Shaheen Faissal

218

Dental caries. A meta analysis on a Saudi population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of caries in the primary and permanent teeth in a Saudi population. METHODS: This study was conducted at the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In June 2010, a literature search was started and found all studies conducted in Saudi Arabia on dental caries from 1999 to 2008. Sixty articles were found on PubMed, which had been published during the considered time period. Sixteen studies were passed through inclusion criteria and included in analysis. A 2 to 12-year-old Saudi population was included to determine the prevalence of caries in primary teeth, and for permanent teeth, the age range was 6-18 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of caries in primary and permanent teeth were analyzed separately. Forest plot and Chi-square test revealed considerable heterogeneity. A random effect model was used to find caries prevalence in primary and permanent teeth. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) was 5.38 (95% CI: 4.314 - 6.436), and in the permanent teeth the DMFT was 3.34 (95% CI: 1.97 - 4.75). Publication bias diagnostics suggested possible overestimation of caries prevalence in permanent teeth but not in primary teeth. CONCLUSION: The results in this study present a high decayed, missing, and filled teeth score in the adult and young population of Saudi Arabia, however, more published data is required as the results obtained from this meta analysis may not give a true picture, and reality may be worse.

Khan SQ; Khan NB; Arrejaie AS

2013-07-01

219

Vitamin D levels in healthy men in eastern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Studies in 1980s and 1990s indicated that vitamin D levels in the ethnic Saudi Arabian population were low but no studies since that time have evaluated vitamin D levels among healthy young or middle-aged Saudi men. Thus, we assessed the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) among healthy Saudi Arabian men living in the Eastern Province. Subjects and Methods : One hundred males aged 25-35 years (the age range of peak bone mass) and 100 males aged 50 years or older were randomly selected and evaluated clinically, including measurement of serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum 25OHD levels. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum level of 25OHD of ?20 ng/mL and insufficiency as a serum level between> 20 ng/mL and < 30 ng/mL and normal ?30 ng/mL. Results: The mean (SD) age of subjects in the younger age group was 28.2 (4.5) years. Twenty-eight (28%) had low 25OHD levels; 10 (10%) subjects were vitamin D deficient with a mean level of 16.6 (3.4) ng/mL and 18 (18%) were vitamin D insufficient with a mean level of 25.4 (2.7) ng/mL. In the older age group, the mean age was 59.4 (15.6) years and 37 (37%) had low 25OHD; 12 (12%) subjects were deficient with a mean 25OHD level of 16.7 (3.4) ng/mL and 25 (25%) were insufficient with a mean 25OHD level of 25.3 (3.3) ng/mL. Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Saudi men is between 28% to 37%. Vitamin D deficiency among young and middle age Saudi Arabian males could lead to serious health consequences if the issue is not urgently addressed.

Sadat-Ali Mir; AlElq Abdulmohsen; Al-Turki Haifa; Al-Mulhim Fatma; Al-Ali Amein

2009-01-01

220

Leadership Styles and Organizational Learning An Empirical Study on Saudi Banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS) and Organizational Learning (OL), might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1) the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2) the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research is practical, according to its purpose, and descriptive according to its data collection method. Three groups of employees at Saudi banks were reviewed. Of the 335 questionnaires that were distributed, 285 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 85%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards LS and OL. Also, this study reveals that the aspects of LS have a significantly direct effect on OL.Accordingly, the study provides a set of recommendations that included the need for Transactional Leadership Styles (TALS) in general, and Transformational Leadership Style (TFLS) in particular, in order to achieve the best response to the needs and wishes of the workers at Saudi banks to increase their contribution to the achievement of OL on the one hand, and raise the level of their performance and enhance competitive advantage of these organizations on the other hand.

Wageeh A. Nafei; Nile M. Khanfar; Belal A. Kaifi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Saudi Arabia as an actor in world affairs: a study in the political role of oil and wealth in Saudi Arabian foreign relations behavior, 1965-1984  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main purpose of this study is to analyze the way in which Saudi Arabian foreign-policy interacts with its oil policy. It examines the role and significant oil and financial power use as influence by Saudi Arabia - its only source of major international leverage - to achieve foreign policy objectives. It focuses on the political economy of Saudi Arabian foreign policy and the implications of this interaction in terms of world policy, and also the effectiveness of the Saudi Arabian use of political oil in international relationships. This study analyzes the relationship between political economy of oil and international politics through an examination of so-called oil power and examines the role of power that oil and wealth play in shaping international relationships between Saudi Arabia and other countries.

Mehros, S.s.

1985-01-01

222

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study  

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Full Text Available There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The over-all prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mel-litus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients.

Alsuwaida Abdulkareem; Farag Youssef; Al Sayyari Abdulla; Mousa Dujanah; Alhejaili Fayez; Al-Harbi Ali; Housawi Abdulrahman; Mittal Bharati; Singh Ajay

2010-01-01

223

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

2010-01-01

224

A case study on Journalistic Coverage for Chinese issues in Saudi Newspapers  

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Full Text Available As Journalism could instinctively exert some effects on international relationships; the importance is how to effectively journalism captures attention. This paper, from the perspective of Saudi-China relationship, chose two renowned Saudi newspapers ?AL RIYADH? and ?AL WATAN?, as objective samples. Deductive and descriptive methodologies have been applied to a detailed study on the coverage of Chinese issues in Saudi newspapers before & after the visit of King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz to China.

Yahya Sharahili

2008-01-01

225

Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)

2005-01-01

226

Diabetes and Renal Transplantation: Saudi Experience  

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Full Text Available We conducted this study to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus (DM) in our renal transplant population. We retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, transplanted between 1979 and November 1998. The recipients were grouped according to the diagnosis of diabetes; group I: diabetes developed before transplantation (BTDM), group II: diabetes developed only after transplantation (ATDM) and group III: did not have diabetes (NDM). There were 1112 patients? records included in the study. The mean age was 38.2 years and the mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 months. There were 113(10.2%) patients in BTDM group, 134 (12.1%) patients in the ATDM group and 865 (77.8%) patients in the NDM group. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension among the study groups. In comparison to the other groups, the BTDM group had significantly more males (78.8%), more patients who were transplanted after 1990 (pre-cyclosporin era), more patients with grafts from living non-related donors (46%), higher incidence of acute rejection episodes (39%), higher mean serum creatinine and more patients treated with azathioprine (71%). The ATDM group had significantly higher mean age (46.4 years), higher mean duration of transplantation (91.5 months), higher rate of retransplantation (8.2%), higher mean serum cholesterol level (6.0mmol/L) and more frequently abnormal electrocardiogram (24.6%) than the other two groups. The ATDM group had comparable mean weight (70.2 kg) to the BTDM group but significantly higher than the NDM group (66.1kg). The NDM group had significantly higher mean dose of cyclosporine (3.3 mg/kg/day) and higher mean dose of prednisone (0.16 mg/kg/day) than the other groups. The only independent risk factor for developing DM after transplantation was advancing age. The currently used low-dose steroid therapy was not significantly associated with development of DM after renal transplantation. Nevertheless DM is an important co-morbid condition in the transplant population and is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.

Souqiyyeh Muhammad; Shaheen Faissal; Shiek Iftikhar; Al-Khader Abdulla; Fedhail Halima; Al-Sulaiman Mohammed; Mousa Dujana; Al-Hawas Fahd

2000-01-01

227

Saudi Arabia: perspective on oil, foreign policy, and the Arab-Israeli conflict, 1970-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines, through a descriptive and analytical approach, the Saudi perspective on its oil power and policies in world affairs and how the Arab-Israeli conflict affects these policies. A special emphasis on the United States-Saudi Arabian relationship is made, since Saudi Arabia looks at the United States as the key factor in the Arab-Israeli conflict. To serve this end, the dissertation is divided into three parts. Part one examines the economic and political reality of oil power, its implication and limitation. Also, this part examines the behavior and the policies of the oil companies, the oil-consuming countries, and the oil-producing countries after the structural change of the oil industry and the shift in control of production and prices from the hands of the oil companies to those of the oil-producing countries. Part two examines the Saudi Arabian economy, the role of oil in developing this economy, and the effect of Saudi development plans on Saudi oil policies. Part three examines Saudi foreign policy, especially its role in the Arab-Israeli conflict, with emphasis on the Saudi oil role in this regard. Also, this part examines the United States-Saudi Arabia relationship and interest, the United States interest in Israel, and, finally, how Riyadh sees these interests affecting United States policies in the Middle East.

Kurdi, M.A.M.

1982-01-01

228

Ajaleht väidab: Saudi Araabia on andnud Iisraelile võimaluse rünnata Iraani / Kaivo Kopli  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Londoni Timesi allikate väitel on Saudi Araabia nõustunud andma oma põhjapoolses õhuruumis Iisraeli käsutusse kitsa õhukoridori, mis võimaldab Iisraeli sõjalennukitel jõuda lühemat teed pidi pommitama Iraani tuumarajatisi. Kaart

Kopli, Kaivo

2010-01-01

229

OIL PRICES AND THE KUWAITI AND THE SAUDI STOCK MARKETS  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to test the impact of oil price shocks on the stock markets of the two biggest and most liquid GCC equity markets, those of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. It is expected that the two stock markets react similarly to oil price shocks. Actually the results show heterogeneity in responses. While there is prima facie evidence that both stock markets are influenced positively and linearly by oil price shocks, this evidence disappears when additional variables are added to the regressions. With the larger specification oil price shocks do not impact, neither linearly or non-linearly, Kuwaiti stock markets. By contrast Saudi markets react non-linearly to both oil price shocks and shocks in the US S&P 500. The only common feature for both equity markets is the positive relation with the shocks in the US S&P 500.

Samih Antoine Azar; Loucine Basmajian

2013-01-01

230

Pigmentary demarcation lines on the face in Saudi women  

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Full Text Available Background: Pigmentary demarcation lines (PDL) are physiological abrupt transition lines between hyperpigmented skin and lighter areas. Recent evidence suggests that they involve the face. Aims: To survey facial PDL in Saudi females referred to general dermatology clinics for various complaints and determine any associated risks. Methods: Screening for facial lines was done in general dermatology clinics over a year. Whenever a patient was found to have facial PDL, a detailed questionnaire and examination were undertaken. Results: Out of 1033 patients screened, 144 patients (14%) were found to have at least one of the facial PDLs. The median age of onset was 16 years. The most common line was F with 76 patients (53%). Family history was positive in 51 patients (35%). Conclusion: Facial PDL is a common and chronic pigmentary problem in Saudi women. It should be recognized and differentiated from other similar diseases like melasma. A significant proportion of patients have a milder presentation.

Al-Samary Abdullah; Al Mohizea Saad; Bin-Saif Ghada; Al-Balbeesi Amal

2010-01-01

231

Impact of unleaded gasoline in reducing emissions in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is dealing progressively with tighter restrictions on refined product qualities. Efforts are ongoing within the country concerning the phase-out of lead in motor gasoline and the reduction of sulfur in diesel as well. The removal of lead is the main characteristic of environmental friendly gasoline. The detrimental health effects of using leaded gasoline are many, and lead exposure can cause kidney failure, brain dysfunction, behavioral problems, and neurological impairment. Saudi Arabia is moving towards using unleaded gasoline, and efforts are being put forward by research organizations to produce lead-free gasoline in the Kingdom. A high severity fluid catalytic cracking process is being developed for converting vacuum gas oil into high-octane gasoline components. This process requires high temperature and pressure and low contact time as compared to the conventional FCC process. (author)

Hamid, S.H.

2001-01-15

232

Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae) in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number of seeds per pod, inflorescences position, flower opening, shape of the upper 2 teeth of calyx, shape of sepals apex, shape of wings, length of hairs on ovary, direction of staminal tube tip, leaflets shape and surface and stem habit form and life spin. A key for the identification of the investigated species based on these morphological features is provided.

Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi

2013-01-01

233

Saudi Arabia is committed to free trade in petrochemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia sees protectionism in the petrochemical industry as self-defeating and against the interests of the world economy. Taking a world view based on the forces of a free market, the Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources argues that a free market, at best, is burdened with second-best solutions unless it is a universal free market. The burden is greatest on developing countries. Saudi Arabia's industrialization program is aimed at developing independence from oil exports by enhancing the value-added of hydrocarbon and mineral resources through manufacturing activities. An internal free market based on competition and privatization is forming a stronger economic base than government nurturing of infant industries.

Nazer, H.M.

1987-05-01

234

SAUDI MEDICAL EDUCATION: CHALLENGES IN THE NEW MILLENNIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical education has been and continues to be a priority in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since the establishment of the first medical school more than 30 years ago. As the kingdom moves into the new millennium through its 100th birthday, several issues pertaining to medical education are noted. These include selection and admission criteria to medical schools, suitability concerns, and the need for reform of the current undergraduate curriculum as well as allocation and utilization of available resources. The postgraduate medical training programs, particularly the university-based, need re-evaluation, and definition of their future role in graduate medical education. Medical educators must make sure that research in medical education should not only survive but also thrive. In this article, some suggestions for Saudi medical education in n the new millennium are put forth.

Al-Sulaiman, Abdulsalam A.

2000-01-01

235

Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

1990-01-01

236

Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of four Saudi Arabian cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An indoor radon survey of a total of 269 dwellings, with one dosimeter per house, distributed in four Saudi Arabian cities was carried out. The objective of this survey was to carry out indoor radon measurements of two cities in the Eastern Province, Khafji and Hafr Al-Batin and to compare this with two cities in the Western Province, Al-Madina and Taif. The survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia. The results of the survey in these cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentration were 7,137 and 30 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. The lowest average radon concentration (20 Bq m{sup -3}) was found in Hafr Al-Batin, while the highest average concentration was found in Khafji (40 Bq m{sup -3})

Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Shukri, A

2003-06-01

237

The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and English classes in particular. It is believed that if the teacher of English has undergone a pre-service teacher training it is better for the learners of Saudi Arabia. In the other case, those who have not attended pre-service teacher training, they should go for in-service professional development programs in order to equip them further for innovative teaching and educational output.

Intakhab Alam Khan

2011-01-01

238

The hymen morphology in normal newborn Saudi girls.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hymen morphology has a medico-legal importance. In view of the lack of national norms, establishing the hymen morphology of Saudi newborn infants is essential. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Over a period of 4 months, the genitalia of 345 full-term female newborn infants were examined to determine the shape of the hymen. A previously described labia traction technique was used to classify the hymen morphology into annular, sleeve-like, fimbriated, crescentric, and other types. RESULTS: The hymen was present in all 345 female newborn infants examined. A total of 207 (60%) were of the annular type, 76 (22%) were sleeve-like, 43 (12.5%) fimbriated, 17 (4.9%) crescentric, and 2 (0.6%) of other types. CONCLUSION: The most common hymen morphology in Saudi newborn girls was annular, followed by sleeve-like, fimbriated, and crescentric. This study may be the first to define normal configuration of the hymen in this community.

Al Herbish A

2001-01-01

239

Saudi Arabia joins world market in commodity petrochemicals: utilizes joint-venture approach to promote rapid industrial growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi industry is emphasizing a program of efficiency and cost reduction. Assured of a supply of feedstock, the growth of private sector secondary industries along with the planned development of human resources can be expected to highlight the continuing industrialization of Saudi Arabia. This article focuses on the development and expansion of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia.

Hodel, A.E.

1985-03-01

240

Ibn Sina plans giant methanol plant in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following an announcement last week by Saudi Basic Industries Corp. that its Ar Razi joint venture plans to build an 850,000 m.t./year methanol plant at Al Jubail (CW December 7, p. 20) comes word that Sabic`s other domestic methanol production subsidiary, Ibn Sina, plans to add 1 million m.t./year of capacity. The new project will likely exceed $300 million.

NONE

1994-12-14

 
 
 
 
241

Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

Huraib, F.S.; Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1996-09-01

242

Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author).

1996-01-01

243

An Evaluation Framework for Saudi E-Government  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-government supports the integration of technology into the social structure to transform administrative procedures to achieve a more effective form of government. Technological advances and the miniaturization of Information and Communication Technologies provide tools to enhance the diffusion of information and services to form part of an intellectual society serving citizens, customers, and professionals. Global e-government evaluation reports, such as the Brown University global e-government report, ranked the Saudi e-government at 72 in 2005, 98 in 2006, and 89 in 2007, while Saudi e-government jumped in the UN global ranking from 70 in 2008 to 58 in 2010. The purpose of this research was to assess the current state of the Saudi e-government by evaluating its ministries’ web sites using a citizen-centered e-government approach. An interactive services e-government framework circumvents the limitations of existing evaluation frameworks examined in the literature while simultaneously building on their strengths. This study’s framework quantitatively assesses stages of the Saudi ministry e-government web site and its problems. It was found that 8 (41%) of 21 ministries did not implement the main features of an e-government web site. In addition, 10 ministries (45.4%) were completely or partially in the first stage (web presence); 3 ministries (13.6%) were in the second stage (one-way interaction); and 6 ministries had no online service at all. These findings clearly demonstrate that the evaluated ministries were not citizen-centered e-government web sites and lacked transactional services, resulting in citizen dissatisfaction and frustration.

Hana Abdullah Al-Nuaim

2011-01-01

244

Saudi Arabia may be about to revive stalled gas programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia may be about to try again to revive its neglected natural gas industry. For some years, the kingdom has been trying to develop its enormous reserves of natural gas, but has been unable to decide what sort of role-if any-foreign companies should have, or whether upstream gas developments should be linked to downstream projects such as power generation. (author)

Anon

2006-06-15

245

An Increase of Intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977-2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Normative data for 8-15 year olds for the Standard Progressive Matrices in Saudi Arabia were obtained in 1977 and 2010. The 2010 sample obtained higher average scores than the 1977 sample by 0.78d, equivalent to 11.7 IQ points. This represents a gain of 3.55 IQ points a decade over the 33 year period. (Contains 1 table.)

Batterjee, Adel A.; Khaleefa, Omar; Ali, Khalil; Lynn, Richard

2013-01-01

246

Introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Policies for the introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia are examined. Differentiation is made between areas of low density (nomadic) and high density (urban) population. Five strateges are considered which encompass the evolution from overall dependence on fossil fuel to a total energy system solely based on solar energy. Use is made of the multiattribute utility theory in the decision analysis of the various strategies.

El-Sharkawy, A.I. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah, Saudi Arabia); Husseiny, A.A.; Kenarangui, R.

1981-01-01

247

Pulmonary hypertension in Saudi Arabia: A single center experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Several international studies have described the epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, information about the incidence and prevalence of PH in Saudi Arabia is unknown. AIMS: To report cases of PH and compare the demographic and clinical characteristics of PH due to various causes in a Saudi population. METHODS: Newly diagnosed cases of PH [defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mmHg at right heart cauterization (RHC)] were prospectively collected at a single tertiary care hospital from January 2009 and June 2012. Detailed demographic and clinical data were collected at the time of diagnosis, along with hemodynamic parameters. RESULTS: Of the total 264 patients who underwent RHC, 112 were identified as having PH. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.8 ± 15.8 years, and there was a female preponderance of 72.3%. About 88 (78.6%) of the PH patients were native Saudis and 24 (21.4%) had other origins. Twelve PH patients (10.7%) were classified in group 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 7 (6.2%) in group 2 (PH due to left heart disease), 73 (65.2%) in group 3 (PH due to lung disease), 4 (3.6%) in group 4 (chronic thromboembolic PH), and 16 (14.3%) in group 5 (PH due to multifactorial mechanisms). PH associated with diastolic dysfunction was noted in 28.6% of group 2 patients, 31.5% of group 3 patients, and 25% of group 5 patients. CONCLUSIONS: These results offer the first report of incident cases of PH across five groups in Saudi Arabia.

Alhamad EH; Cal JG; Alfaleh HF; Alshamiri MQ; Alboukai AA; Alhomida SA

2013-04-01

248

Introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia - A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Policies for the introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia are examined. Differentiation is made between areas of low density (nomadic) and high density (urban) population. Five strategies are considered which encompass the evolution from overall dependence on fossil fuel to a total energy system solely based on solar energy. Use is made of the multiattribute utility theory in the decision analysis of the various strategies.

El-Sharkawy, A.I. (King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia); Husseiny, A.A. (Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, IA)

1981-01-01

249

Osteoporosis among male Saudi Arabs : A pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Little attention has been paid to the problem of male os-teopororsis in Saudi Arabia. In this prospective study we assessed the prevalence of male osteoporosis among Saudi Arabs. Subjects and Methods: We studied Saudi Arabian males > 50 years of age attending outpatient clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, between 1 May 2005 and 30 January 2006. We determined body mass index (BMI) and tests were done to rule out secondary os-teoporosis. All subjects had a bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of the hip area and the lumbar spine using dual energy X-ray absorpti-ometry (DEXA). A T-score of -2.5 SD that of young, healthy adults was taken as osteoporotic and scores between -1 to -2.5 SD were taken as osteopenic. Results: One hundred fifteen patients (mean age, 61.8±0.75 years; range, 50 to 76 years) had a mean BMI of 24.7±0.35 (range, 18.5 to 31). Based on hip scans, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 24.3%. Sixty-four percent were osteopenic. Based on scans of the lumbar spine, the prevalence of osteoporosis was 37.4% and 33.9% were osteopenic. Spinal osteoporosis was more common than hip osteoporosis. Conclusions: Our study indicates that the prevalence of osteoporosis among Saudi Arabian males is higher than among Western males. More studies are needed to determine the national prevalence of male osteo-porosis. It is recommended that serious measures to be undertaken to prevent male osteoporosis to stop any future epidemic of catastrophic osteoporosis-related fractures.

Sadat-Ali Mir; AlElq AbdulMohsen

2006-01-01

250

Organization Justice, Support and Trust: Evidence from Saudi Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A considerable number of studies have investigated the relationship between perceptions of organizational justice and employees’ work attitude. This study investigates the effect of distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice on supervisor support, organization support, supervisor trust and organization trust in Saudi companies. A questionnaire was used to assess the different relationships. Different results were found confirming or rejecting the different hypotheses.

Mourad Mansour

2014-01-01

251

Senior-Loken Syndrome in a Saudi Child  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Senior-Loken syndrome is a rare syndrome of retinopathy and nephrono-phthisis. The clinical features of this syndrome include renal involvement, ocular involve-ment, retinitis pigmentosa and other systemic involvement. We describe an 11-year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed to have this syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this syndrome from the Arabian Peninsula.

AlFadhel Majid; AlAmir Abdulrahman

2008-01-01

252

Developmental oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present report gives prevalence values for some developmental oral anomalies in 1932 schoolchildren aged 6-12 yr in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. The developmental oral anomalies identified in this study were: torus palatinus (1.4%), fissured tongue (0.8%), geographic tongue (0.2%), and tongue tie (0.1%). None of the following developmental oral anomalies were observed: lip pits, cleft lip and/or palate, torus mandibularis, microglossia, macroglossia or median rhomboid glossitis.

Salem G; Holm SA; Fattah R; Basset S; Nasser C

1987-06-01

253

NSR project in Saudi Arabia. Implementation of the longest ERTMS network in the world; NSR-Projekt in Saudi Arabien. Errichtung der laengsten ERTMS-Strecke der Welt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North-South-Railway, a 2400 km railway system is built in Saudi Arbia. It connects the phosphate and bauxite mines in the north with the plant in Raz Al Zour, and the port in Jubail. In parallel, it provides high speed passenger traffic between Riyadh and the Jordanian border. The Saudi Arabian Railway Company is the Employer and the joint venture of Thales and the Saudi Binladen Group - the Contractor. The network will be equipped with ERTMS L2, and no conventional light signals will be installed as fallback. (orig.)

Fischer, Frank [Thales Deutschland (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Transportation Systems; Gumprecht, Mikko [Institut fuer Bahntechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2011-03-15

254

The on-Line Shopping Consumption Patterns of Saudi Shoppers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The world is witnessing a significant change in the global economic dimension in recent years; this change is reflected in the transformation from traditional commerce to electronic commerce. Confirms this shifts the indicators and statistical estimates the growth of individuals online shoppers in the whole world. Through follow-up of these indicators is clear to the observer different shopping patterns from one country to another and from one society to another. The aim of this study is to identify the consumption patterns used in electronic shopping by the Saudis. To achieve this aim, the on-line questionnaire was used and the respondents were 472 participants. The results showed the lake of use and adoption on-line shopping although the high number of Internet users and increase the experience to use the computers and the Internet by Saudis. Also the results showed that the top five factors that encourage the Saudis to electronic shopping are as follows: Save time, cheaper, easy and faster shopping and delivery services.

Faisal Fahhad Alsharif; François Siewe; Chris Fidler; Giampaolo Bella

2013-01-01

255

Crude oil price fluctuations and Saudi Arabia's behaviour  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)

2003-01-01

256

Physical inactivity among Egyptian and Saudi medical students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Medical students, the future doctors, were presumed to be knowledgeable about physical activity and would have future influence on their patients. This study aims to describe the pattern of physical activity, predictors of physical inactivity and perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity among a sample of Egyptian and Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was carried out on 319 Egyptian and 297 Saudi medical students. The long form of the international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to measure physical activity. Data was analyzed according to the guidelines for data processing and analysis of the IPAQ. Perceived barriers to and potential benefits of physical activity were reported. Results: Physical inactivity was significantly higher among Saudi than Egyptian medical students (41.1% versus 15.4%, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of physical inactivity were non-membership in sports clubs (OR =4.6) and use of private cars for transportation (OR=3.9). The most frequent barriers to physical activity are time limitation due to busy study schedule and lack of accessible and suitable sporting places. More than 70% of students perceived that physical activity promotes and maintains health. Conclusions: Because time and access are key barriers to medical student exercise, we believe that provision of free playgrounds in the college to practice sports during free times will promote physical activity in students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000): 35-44

Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Ragaa El-Masry

2011-01-01

257

Human sensitization to Prosopis Juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)

1999-01-01

258

EER Improvement for Room Air-Conditioners in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility of achieving a higher Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER) for Room Air Conditioners (RACs) that complies with the Saudi energy efficiency standards and satisfies the energy conservation requirements for the Saudi Building Code (SBC). This study considers several design options for improving the performance and efficiency of the RAC in comparison with a baseline RAC unit manufactured by Al-Zamil Company of Saudi Arabia. These design options include the number of condenser and evaporator rows, fins density, frontal area, compressor types, and refrigerant types. The experimental data obtained is through testing the units in Calorimeter according to standard ASHRAE-16. Also, the uncertainty in measurements and its propagation are included in this study. This paper reports the results of a set of measurements carried out on a modified RAC and compares them with the tested baseline RAC unit at similar load conditions. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of increasing the number of condenser rows in comparison with other design options considered for achieving higher EER for RACs.

Abdullah M. Al-Shaalan

2012-01-01

259

Epidemiology of domestic chemical burns in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors reviewed the domestic chemical injury experience in two major government hospitals in Saudi Arabia to determine the most common causative agents and the circumstances of the injury in order to give recommendations for their prevention and reduction of their morbidity. A total of 59 cases were included. The mean age was 25 years and the male to female ratio was 3:1. Alkali drain cleaners were the major cause of chemical burns in the series and this was seen in 75% of the total study population. The remaining 25% of cases resulted from concentrated sulfuric acid, car battery acid and topical application of medical herbs by non-professionals. Unfortunately, immediate water lavage was not done in the majority of alkali and acid burns and hence skin grafting was required in most patients. It was concluded that efforts for prevention of chemical burns in Saudi Arabia should be directed towards education of the population regarding the proper use of alkali cleaners for clogged drains. These cleaners and battery acid containers should also be kept in a safe place away from the reach of children. Furthermore, a warning to the public regarding the non-professional use of medical herbs should be given. Finally, increased awareness among the Saudi population as to the need for prompt water irrigation of chemical burns should help reduce the morbidity from these injuries. PMID:11348747

Pitkanen, J; Al-Qattan, M M

2001-06-01

260

Epidemiology of domestic chemical burns in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors reviewed the domestic chemical injury experience in two major government hospitals in Saudi Arabia to determine the most common causative agents and the circumstances of the injury in order to give recommendations for their prevention and reduction of their morbidity. A total of 59 cases were included. The mean age was 25 years and the male to female ratio was 3:1. Alkali drain cleaners were the major cause of chemical burns in the series and this was seen in 75% of the total study population. The remaining 25% of cases resulted from concentrated sulfuric acid, car battery acid and topical application of medical herbs by non-professionals. Unfortunately, immediate water lavage was not done in the majority of alkali and acid burns and hence skin grafting was required in most patients. It was concluded that efforts for prevention of chemical burns in Saudi Arabia should be directed towards education of the population regarding the proper use of alkali cleaners for clogged drains. These cleaners and battery acid containers should also be kept in a safe place away from the reach of children. Furthermore, a warning to the public regarding the non-professional use of medical herbs should be given. Finally, increased awareness among the Saudi population as to the need for prompt water irrigation of chemical burns should help reduce the morbidity from these injuries.

Pitkanen J; Al-Qattan MM

2001-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Geographical distribution of congenital heart defects in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Congenital heart defects (CHD), which are caused by abnormalities early in fetal life, encompass over 50 diagnoses. Since the detailed etiology is unknown, the geographical distribution of defects might suggest likely risk factors. METHODS : The geographical distribution of 5 865 Saudi Arabian nationals with CHD was studied by cross-matching their residential provinces and towns with a geographical information system provided by the General Directorate for Military Survey. Population data were obtained from the 1413H census. RESULTS : CHD cases were mostly distributed across the provinces in proportion to their total population but due to their size and inhomogeneity, province-based thematic maps were found to be misleading. City-based maps were preferable and showed similar geographic distributions for cases registered in successive years. Thematic maps of the distribution of the CHD burden highlighted the southwestern provinces, near the border with Yemen, and the northeast section of the Eastern Province. CONCLUSIONS : Patterns of disease in Saudi Arabia are best studied at the level of individual towns and villages. The CHD registry has already attained good national coverage and can therefore support nationwide epidemiological studies. Southwestern Saudi Arabia and the northern part of the Eastern Province appear to exhibit a higher burden of CHD.

Greer W; Sandridge A; Al-Menieir M; Al Rowais A

2005-01-01

262

Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

Mohammed A. Alsaif; Latifa K. Khan; Adel A.H. Alhamdan; Saada M. Alorf; Abdulaziz M. Al-Othman; Rabab J. Makki

2007-01-01

263

Indoor Radon Concentration Levels in Najran Region, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurement of indoor radon concentration was performed in Najran region in the south west of Saudi Arabia, using CR-39 dosimeter. Despite many previous studies on indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia, the data available are still limited. The objective of this study, which is the first of its kind in the region, is to have preliminary data of radon in this region. Such measurement will contribute towards further studies in this region of Saudi Arabia. The indoor radon concentration was measured in the villages of Fara Al-Jabal and Badr Al-Janoob (about 2000 m above sea level), Hadadah and Al-Khanig (about 1700 m above sea level). It was found that radon distribution in these villages is normal skewed to the right, with a range of 9±5 to 163±32 Bqm-3 and an average of 49±2 Bqm-3. It was also found that the average radon concentration is independent of altitude. Our findings show that the values are below the safe limit of 150 Bqm-3 set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of the USA

2010-07-07

264

ADELOYE-ODEKU DISEASE IN ASSER REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adeloye-Odeku disease, also known as congenital inclusion dermoid cyst (CIDC) of the anterior fontanelle was first described by Adeloye A and Odeku EL, as a solitary congenital subgaleal inclusion dermoid cyst of the anterior fontanelle. This rare lesion was initially thought to be confined to Africans . The universal distribution of this cyst has subsequently been shown in accumulated literature of other ethnic distribution ,Caucasian, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, Turkish and others. This is the first published report that we know of Adeloye-Odeku disease in Arab-Saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Four patients with Adeloye-Odeku disease, two boys and two girls, Saudi patients with ages ranging from 3months to 9 years are presented. Successful surgical excision of the cyst was achieved in each of the three patients who consented for surgery with no recurrence. The oldest patient did not go for surgery due to parental refusal but the lesion proved to be stable on follow up.

Mubarak Ali AlGahtany

2013-01-01

265

Hepatitis virus genotyping by Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA Enzyme immunoassay among Saudi patients in the Western Province, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalent HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive Saudi patients in the Western Province and to study the relationship between types/subtypes, clinical status and liver histology. Serum samples were collected from 140 consecutive patients attending the Hematology Clinic with varying grades of liver diseases, high almandine transferees (ALT) for > 6 months, positive HCV, qualitative PCR and who had liver biopsy. HCV genotyping was determined on patients who had tested positive by both HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of the 140 patients, 97 (69.2%) had genotype 4, 18 (12.8%) had genotype 1a, and 16 (11.4%) had genotype 1b. Genotype 2b and 5 were found in two patients (1.4%) each, while 5 patients (3.6%) had mixed infections with genotype 4 and 5. Of the 97 patients infected with genotype 4, 84 (86.6%) had chronic active hepatitis (CAH), two (2.1%) had CAH with active cirrhosis, 9(9.3%) had cirrhosis and two (2.1%) had normal liver histology (NLH). The most prevalent HCV genotype in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia was genotype 4 (69.2%). Genotype 1b was encountered in 16 (11.4%) patients. For the first time, genotype 5 was identified in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Genotype 1b and 4 were associated with different histological grades of liver disease. (author)

2000-01-01

266

Saudi mothers' preferences about breaking bad news concerning newborns: a structured verbal questionnaire  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Breaking bad news (BBN) to parents whose newborn has a major disease is an ethical dilemma. In Saudi Arabia, BBN about newborns is performed according to the parental preferences that have been reported from non-Arabic/non-Islamic countries. Saudi mothers' prefer...

Al-Abdi Sameer Y; Al-Ali Eman A; Daheer Matar H; Al-Saleh Yaseen M; Al-Qurashi Khalid H; Al-Aamri Maryam A

267

Developing EFL Teaching and Learning Practices in Saudi Colleges: A Review  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Ministry of education is highly concerned with the pursuit of excellence in effective EFL teaching-learning in the arena of education but it experiences tardy progress especially in college level. This is a common scenario in almost every stage of learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores the new…

Liton, Hussain Ahmed

2012-01-01

268

Evaluating EFL Intermediate Teachers' Performance in the Light of Quality Standards in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research aimed at four points: First, Identifying the most appropriate standards of EFL Saudi teachers' performance in the light of quality standards. Second, designing an objective and comprehensive evaluation rubric based on quality standards to evaluate EFL Saudi intermediate teachers' performance. Third, determining to what extent…

Al-Thumali, Amani Dakheel Allah

2011-01-01

269

Metal concentrations in the sediments from the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Saudi Arabia, trace metal enrichment of marine environment may result from a number of anthropogenic activities, especially from petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes. The objective of this study was to determine metal concentrations in the sediments from the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. This study may serve as baseline information for future evaluation of metal pollution in this region.

Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

1985-04-01

270

Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi

Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

2009-01-01

271

Tirbyi in the Muslim World, with a Focus on Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The educational systems of Muslim societies, particularly that of Saudi Arabia, have been under scrutiny, especially after the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC. The Saudi educational system is mostly based on Islamic precepts. Nonetheless, the United States government and other…

Bangura, Abdul Karim

2004-01-01

272

A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailing
environment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of online
retailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slo...

Rayed AlGhamdi; Steve Drew; Thamer Alhussain

273

A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in Saudi Arabia: A survey of junior residents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The sur...

Alwadani Fahad; Alrushood Aziz; Altokhy Hisham; Alasbali Tariq

274

Recent Fulminant Incursions of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Severe fulminant incursions of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD) swept Saudi Arabia during 2004-2006. The disease was reported in most of the rabbitries in the country. The clinical signs were recorded and the virus was identified using sandwich ELISA and the Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) test. Epidemiology of the disease in Saudi Arabia was discussed in relation to the present outbreak.

S.I. Al-Mufarrej; E.M.E. Abu-Elzein; M.F. Hussein A. Gar-El Nabi; H. Bushara

2006-01-01

275

Renal Abnormalities in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: A Single Center Report from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Renal abnormalities in SCD are well known but renal involvement in Saudi patients with SCD has not been studied. We sought to identify renal abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with SCD...

Aleem Aamer

276

Bin-Jaliah Elected as Secretary General of Saudi Society for Medical Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This is an article from The Physiologist. "Ismaeel M. Bin-Jaliah, a Regular Member of APS, has been elected as the Secretary General of Saudi Society for Medical Education (SSME) in November 2007. Dr Bin-Jaliah is an Assistant Professor of Neurophysiology and the Director of Medical Education Center at King Khalid University in Abha, Aseer, Saudi Arabia."

2008-02-01

277

Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

Al-maghrabi, T.; Dennis, C.

2010-01-01

278

Analysis of the Impact of Reforms on Insurance Industry of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper attempts to find out the impact of reforms on insurance industry of Saudi Arabia. The study finds out the impact of reforms vis-à-vis premium growth, regulation of insurance industry and entry of new companies in the industry. The study is based on secondary data collected mainly from the annual reports of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA) from 2005 through 2009. The study made a comparative study of the performance of insurance industry in pre and post reforms era. Further it analyzes the impact of reforms on standardization of insurance industry through regulatory framework and participation of new companies from Saudi Arabia and other foreign multinational companies in the industry. Since reform in 2004 Saudi Insurance is growing fast registering remarkably high growth rate in premium. Besides premium large numbers of indigenous companies have entered the insurance market. The government has established sound regulatorysystem to develop the insurance industry of Saudi Arabia to international standard.

Dr. Zaid Ahmad Ansari

2011-01-01

279

Variable-base heating and cooling degree-day data for 24 Saudi Arabian cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Degree-day data are fundamental for simplified energy calculations. For Saudi Arabia the data necessary for simplified energy analysis are lacking, and the need of designers, engineers, and researchers in the building sector for such data as heating and cooling degree-days is growing. Weather data are available for many Saudi cities but not in a format usable by building designers and engineers. This paper presents variable-base heating and cooling degree-days is growing. Weather data are available for many Saudi cities but not in a format usable by building designers and engineers. This paper presents variable-base heating and cooling degree-day data for 24 Saudi locations based on long-term monthly average temperatures. These data will be of great help in performing simplified energy calculations for Saudi buildings.

Al-Homoud, M.S. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architectural Engineering

1998-12-31

280

Susceptibility of Saudi Bulinus truncatus to infection with Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails.  

Science.gov (United States)

A laboratory-based susceptibility study was carried out on snails Bulinus truncatus collected from highland Abha, Asser, Saudi Arabia to Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium to investigate the potential role of Saudi B. truncatus in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium and to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that, compared to Egyptian snails, survival of snails at day 25 post-exposure was significantly higher in Saudi B. truncatus ones. The infection rate was higher in Saudi snails as compared to Egyptian ones. The incubation period was shorter in Saudi snails but the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian than in the Saudi snails. The production of S. haematobium cercariae per snail was higher in Egyptian snails than in Saudi ones. These results suggest that Saudi B. truncatus can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of tissue soluble proteins was done to determine the effects of the parasite on both the Egyptian and Saudi snails. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the occasional presence or absence of certain bands in infected snails in comparison with non-infected one. PMID:19329256

Mostafa, Osama M S; Bin Dajem, Saad M; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M

2009-03-09

 
 
 
 
281

Susceptibility of Saudi Bulinus truncatus to infection with Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A laboratory-based susceptibility study was carried out on snails Bulinus truncatus collected from highland Abha, Asser, Saudi Arabia to Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium to investigate the potential role of Saudi B. truncatus in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium and to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that, compared to Egyptian snails, survival of snails at day 25 post-exposure was significantly higher in Saudi B. truncatus ones. The infection rate was higher in Saudi snails as compared to Egyptian ones. The incubation period was shorter in Saudi snails but the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian than in the Saudi snails. The production of S. haematobium cercariae per snail was higher in Egyptian snails than in Saudi ones. These results suggest that Saudi B. truncatus can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of tissue soluble proteins was done to determine the effects of the parasite on both the Egyptian and Saudi snails. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the occasional presence or absence of certain bands in infected snails in comparison with non-infected one.

Mostafa OM; Bin Dajem SM; Abu El Einin HM

2009-05-01

282

Prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infections in healthy Saudi women attending gynecologic clinics in the western region of Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major cause of cervical cancer. There is little published data on the prevalence of HPV infection among Saudi women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in a group of women in the western region of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study of Saudi women seeking gynecologic care at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from March 2010 to January 2011. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Four hundred eighty-five Saudi women of different age groups attending gynecology clinic were tested for high-risk HPV DNA. HPV DNA was detected in cervical scrapes using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) high-risk HPV DNA test. The prevalence of HPV DNA positivity in different age groups was calculated. RESULTS: Out of the 485 specimens, 27 (5.6%) were positive for the high-risk HPV. The highest percentage was among women aged 60 years and older. Patients in the age group 40-49 years were more likely to accept HPV testing with a total of 188 patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HPV in this group of Saudi women is similar to what was reported in some Arab countries and lower than that reported in developed countries. This information could be used to help in establishing a primary screening program using HPV DNA testing in Saudi Arabia.

Bondagji NS; Gazzaz FS; Sait K; Abdullah L

2013-01-01

283

First shale gas experience in Saudi Arabia - lessons learned  

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Full Text Available Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand (Saudi Aramco. 2010).During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.The Multidisciplinary task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both companies and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011. All targets set for the SHALE-1 well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for future utilization as an observation well.

ALEXEYENKO A.V; BARTKO K. M.; ADEBIYI I. A.; FARAJ O. A.; CAMPO C.

2013-01-01

284

The perceived health promotion practice of nurses in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The health promotion practice of nurses working in Saudi Arabia is unidentified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceived health promotion practice of staff nurses in Saudi Arabia. This was achieved by surveying the views of nurses (n = 614), doctors (n = 130) and patients (n = 322) in 10 hospitals located in the Eastern Province of the country using a self-report questionnaire. There was agreement that nurses had the necessary skills to promote health in general and had sufficient knowledge to promote health in the three specific areas explored: physical activity, smoking cessation and weight control. However, the findings also showed that the majority of participants wanted nurses to give priority to acute care over health promotion within the hospital setting and that patients dislike nurses asking about health-related behaviours when these are not directly relevant to their presenting health problems. Concerns were also raised about the language and cultural competency of a largely migrant nursing workforce to effectively communicate health promotion messages to patients. In view of the findings, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia need to consider providing appropriate training programmes for nurses to introduce the wider concept of their health promotion role. Health promotion protocols, strategies and standards to support nurses to more effectively implement health promotion with their routine practice are also required. It is suggested that, while reliance on a largely migrant workforce who do not speak Arabic continues, the potential benefits of a good quality interpretation service to improve nurse-patient communication should be considered.

Aldossary A; Barriball L; While A

2013-09-01

285

Peeling skin syndrome : 11 cases from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance. In Saudi Arabia, consan-guinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of famil-ial disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. Methods: To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photo-graphs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleav-age. Results: Eleven patients with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.7%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did not play a role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%) and consanguinity of marriage was evident in 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of skin biopsies showed either intra-corneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granular layer in all biopsied patients. Conclusion: Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intracorneal cleavage within the superfi-cial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vesicobullous disease.

Al-Ghamdi Faiza; Al-Raddadi Ali; Satti Mohamed

2006-01-01

286

Perception of Canadian training programs by Saudi resident trainees.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine how Saudi medical trainees in Canada perceive their training programs with regards to educational, ethnic and socio-cultural issues, and if different factors such as the chosen field of training, place or level of training make any difference to this perception. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: All Saudi residents in training programs in Canada in the 1996/1997 academic year were surveyed using a written anonymous self-administered questionnaire, evaluating educational, ethnic and socio-cultural aspects of various training programs. RESULTS: The response rate was 72.5% (185/255). Most of the respondents were in the fourth year of training. Overall, the level of stress was rated as tolerable in 154 (83%), and 179 respondents (96.8%) described the educational aspects of their program positively. Furthermore, 154 (83%) of the respondents agreed that they were treated fairly in the distribution of job functions with regards to Canadian residents, and 133 (72%) did not face any major difficulty in practicing their religion. The sites of training, type of specialty and the level of training made significant impact on the perceived educational, social, religious and administrative aspects of training. CONCLUSION: The majority of Saudi medical trainees in Canada perceived the educational aspects of their training as a positive experience. Major problems faced were mainly related to administrative matters and to some extent, social adjustment. Issues that affect the training process need to be tackled by the concerned authorities to ensure the success of the training programs.

Assiri Abdullah; Al-Jarallah Abdullah; Al-Amari O; Turnbull J

2002-01-01

287

Nutrition Knowledge of Primary Care Physicians in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Several studies have indicated a lack of nutritional knowledge among physicians. As there is no published data in nutritional knowledge among physicians in Saudi Arabia, hence the purpose of this current study was to assess the nutrition knowledge of primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nutrition knowledge questionnaire consisted of 16 multiple-choice questions, was mailed to 105 primary care physicians working in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire was pre- tested in a pilot study. Non-respondents received a second questionnaire and a phone call. Of the 105 primary care physicians, 59 replies were received (56.2%). The mean mark for correctly answered questions was 51.7%. Approximately 75 % of the physicians described their knowledge of nutrition as `Poor`. The results indicate that physicians are generally aware of information which has been publicized in the medical press: nutrient which helps prevent thrombosis (omega-3 fat); the preventive action of fruit and vegetables against cancer; which nutrients are antioxidants; the nutrient associated with the prevention of neural tube defects (folate). By contrast they have a poor knowledge of other important topics in nutrition: the major type of fat in olive oil; hydrogenated fats; source of vitamin B12; Substance raises the blood HDL-cholesterol level (Alcohol); the association between excess protein intake and calcium loss; the type of dietary fiber helpful in lowering the blood cholesterol level (soluble fiber) and Nutrient is protective against hypertension. These results support other data that physicians need more education in nutrition. Nutrition should be an essential part in continuing medical education.

Khalid S. Al-Numair

2004-01-01

288

Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2010. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic category were divided into melanocytic and non-melanocytic subcategories. Non-neoplastic category was divided into the following subcategories: dermatitis, infection, vascular, vesiculobullous, connective tissue disease, drugs, panniculitis, non-infectious granuloma, degenerative, metabolic, and pigmentary. Results: Three hundred and sixty skin biopsies were reviewed. Out of these, 207 (57.5%) were non-neoplastic skin diseases, while 153 (42.5%) were neoplastic. Both non-neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.3:1) and neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.2: 1) categories were more common in females than in males. Among the non-neoplastic category, the most common diagnosed subcategory was vesiculobullous disease (n=46, 22.2%), followed by dermatitis (n=30, 14.5%). The neoplastic category was divided into melanocytic (n=31, 20.3%) and non-melanocytic neoplasms (n=122, 79.7%). Both neoplastic and non-neoplastic categories were most common in the age group of 46 years and older. Conclusion: Vesiculobullous diseases, dermatitis, and infections are the 3 most common non-neoplastic skin diseases and the most common neoplastic are benign non-melanocytic neoplasms. The prevalence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin diseases in general increases with age. 

Najla M. Alghanmi; Layla S. Abdullah

2013-01-01

289

Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh). The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400) and females (1506) aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR), screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use), physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire), and dietary habits (intake frequency per week). Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk), but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories) or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories) were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR) and frequency of breakfast (aOR for? Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority.

Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O

2012-01-01

290

Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. METHODS: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2010. Neoplastic and non-neoplastic category were divided into melanocytic and non-melanocytic subcategories. Non-neoplastic category was divided into the following subcategories: dermatitis, infection, vascular, vesiculobullous, connective tissue disease, drugs, panniculitis, non-infectious granuloma, degenerative, metabolic, and pigmentary. RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty skin biopsies were reviewed. Out of these, 207 (57.5%) were non-neoplastic skin diseases, while 153 (42.5%) were neoplastic. Both non-neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.3:1) and neoplastic (female to male ratio of 1.2: 1) categories were more common in females than in males. Among the non-neoplastic category, the most common diagnosed subcategory was vesiculobullous disease (n=46, 22.2%), followed by dermatitis (n=30, 14.5%). The neoplastic category was divided into melanocytic (n=31, 20.3%) and non-melanocytic neoplasms (n=122, 79.7%). Both neoplastic and non-neoplastic categories were most common in the age group of 46 years and older. CONCLUSION: Vesiculobullous diseases, dermatitis, and infections are the 3 most common non-neoplastic skin diseases and the most common neoplastic are benign non-melanocytic neoplasms. The prevalence of neoplastic and non-neoplastic skin diseases in general increases with age.

Alghanmi NM; Abdullah LS

2013-01-01

291

Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10(th) to 12(th) grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.

Aljebreen AM; Almadi MA; Alhammad A; Al Faleh FZ

2013-04-01

292

Pattern of management of urologic cancer in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: To compare the current uro-oncologic practice pattern in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care practice and to identify obstacles in our health care system that prevent offering such a treatment. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 247 practicing urologists in Saudi Arabia using a designed questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 19 questions focusing on management of bladder and renal cancers. Results: Of the 247 contacted urologists, 86 completed the questionnaire. Seventy six percent see more than 10 bladder cancer cases/year and 83% used rigid cystoscope for diagnosis under general anesthesia. Eighty two percent perform over 10 bladder tumor resections/year; however, 90% of them perform less than five cystectomies/year, if any. Seventy nine percent had intravesical therapy available at their hospitals and majority of them use it after resection in selected patients. Fifty percent preferred re-resection within 2-4 weeks for T1 and/or G3 tumors and majority of them (86%) perform cystectomy for muscle invasive disease and ninety six percent perform ileal conduit. Thirty four percent see over 10 renal cancers/year. Forty nine percent perform radical nephrectomy for less than 4 cm renal masses and for more than 4 cm, only 9% do laparoscopic nephrectomy while the majority preferred open technique although 77% of the hospitals participated in this survey have a urologist capable of doing laparoscopy. Conclusion: A significant number of urologists in Saudi Arabia do not apply some of the well-accepted standard practices in urologic cancer. To improve this, we need to work on our referral system and establish education and training programs to make the urologist familiar with the new modalities of treatment.

Al-Othman Khalid; Al-Hathal Naif

2010-01-01

293

Seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy adolescents in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available AIM: To identify the seroprevalence of celiac disease among healthy Saudi adolescents. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2008, healthy students from the 10th to 12th grades were randomly selected from three regions in Saudi Arabia. These regions included the following: (1) Aseer region, with a student population of 25512; (2) Madinah, with a student population of 23852; and (3) Al-Qaseem, with a student population of 16067. Demographic data were recorded, and a venous blood sample (5-10 mL) was taken from each student. The blood samples were tested for immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G endomysial antibodies (EMA) by indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: In total, 1167 students (614 males and 553 females) from these three regions were randomly selected. The majority of the study population was classified as lower middle class (82.7%). There were 26 (2.2%) students who had a positive anti-EMA test, including 17 females (3.1%) and 9 males (1.5%). Al-Qaseem region had the highest celiac disease prevalence among the three studied regions in Saudi Arabia (3.1%). The prevalence by region was as follows: Aseer 2.1% (10/479), Madinah 1.8% (8/436), and Al-Qaseem 3.2% (8/252). The prevalence in Madinah was significantly lower than the prevalence in Aseer and Al-Qaseem (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest celiac disease prevalence might be one of the highest in the world. Further studies are needed to determine the real prevalence.

Abdulrahman M Aljebreen; Majid A Almadi; Alwaleed Alhammad; Faleh Z Al Faleh

2013-01-01

294

Sarcoidosis in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital?s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008). Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17). The most common presentations were cough (48%), dyspnea (21%), joint pain (18%), splenomegaly (12%), hepatomegaly (9%), and lymphadenopathy (5%). The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in 14 (46.7%). The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29) except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%), and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.

Al-Khouzaie Thamer; Al-Tawfiq Jaffar; Al Subhi Faisal

2011-01-01

295

Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

2006-01-01

296

Prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few studies have been conducted in the Saudi population on oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and extent of oral lesions in a study among dental patients at a college of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Over a 3-year period, 2552 dental outpatients were interviewed and investigated clinically for the presence of oral mucosal conditions. A thorough oral clinical examination was performed, including a radiographic examination. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically when necessary. Of 383 (15.0%) patients found to have oral mucosal lesions, females constituted 57.7% (n=221) and males 42.3% (n=162). The age range of the patients was between 15 to 73 years with a mean age of 38.2 years. The most commonly affected age group was 31 to 40 years, which comprised 21.4% (n=82) of all affected individuals. The least affected age group were individuals older than 61 years. The most common lesion was Fordyce granules (3.8%; n=98), followed by leukoedema (3.4%; n=86) and traumatic lesions (ulcer, erosion) in 1.9% (n=48). Tongue abnormalities were present in 4.0% (n=101) of all oral conditions observed, ranging from 1.4% (n=36) for fissured tongue to 0.1% (n=2) for bifid tongue. Other findings detected were torous platinus (1.3%; n=34), mandibular tori (0.1%; n=2) aphthous ulcer (0.4%; n=10), herpes simplex (0.3%; n=7), frictional hyperkeratosis (0.9%; n=23), melanosis (0.6%; n=14), lichen planus (0.3%; n=9) and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=13). The findings of this study provide information on the types and prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients. This provides baseline data for future studies about the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population. (author)

2009-01-01

297

Prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Few studies have been conducted in the Saudi population on oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and extent of oral lesions in a study among dental patients at a college of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: Over a 3-year period, 2552 dental outpatients were interviewed and investigated clinically for the presence of oral mucosal conditions. A thorough oral clinical examination was performed, including a radiographic examination. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically when necessary. Results: Of 383 (15.0%) patients found to have oral mucosal lesions, females constituted 57.7% (n=221) and males 42.3% (n=162). The age range of the patients was between 15 to 73 years with a mean age of 38.2 years. The most commonly affected age group was 31 to 40 years, which comprised 21.4% (n=82) of all affected individuals. The least affected age group were individuals older than 61 years. The most common lesion was Fordyce granules (3.8%; n=98), followed by leukoedema (3.4%; n=86) and traumatic lesions (ulcer, erosion) in 1.9% (n=48). Tongue abnormalities were present in 4.0% (n=101) of all oral conditions observed, ranging from 1.4% (n=36) for fissured tongue to 0.1% (n=2) for bifid tongue. Other findings detected were torous platinus (1.3%; n=34), mandibular tori (0.1%; n=2) aphthous ulcer (0.4%; n=10), herpes simplex (0.3%; n=7), frictional hyperkeratosis (0.9%; n=23), melanosis (0.6%; n=14), lichen planus (0.3%; n=9) and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=13). Conclusion: The findings of this study provide information on the types and prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients. This provides baseline data for future studies about the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population.

Al-Mobeeriek Azizah; AlDosari Abdullah

2009-01-01

298

Human sensitization to Prosopis juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Allergenicity to Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported from only a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. In some parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by the millions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasons during which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role of Prosopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or triggering agent of allergic asthma and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has never been evaluated. Patients and Methods: A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from bronchial asthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf and Gizan), and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university and Ministry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediate hypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis juliflora allergens. Airborne pollen grains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetric sampling techniques. Results: A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29% in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiple sensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. The level of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m -3 of air. Conclusion: In view of the documented evidence of Prosopis-involved allergenicity, the role of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizing factor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However, the cause of elicitation of symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the question of cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitro confirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopis as one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. PMID:17277534

Al-Frayh, A; Hasnain, S M; Gad-El-Rab, M O; Al-Turki, T; Al-Mobeireek, K; Al-Sedairy, S T

299

Human sensitization to Prosopis juliflora antigen in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Allergenicity to Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported from only a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. In some parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by the millions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasons during which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role of Prosopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or triggering agent of allergic asthma and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has never been evaluated. Patients and Methods: A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from bronchial asthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf and Gizan), and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university and Ministry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediate hypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis juliflora allergens. Airborne pollen grains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetric sampling techniques. Results: A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29% in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiple sensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. The level of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m -3 of air. Conclusion: In view of the documented evidence of Prosopis-involved allergenicity, the role of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizing factor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However, the cause of elicitation of symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the question of cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitro confirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopis as one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia.

Al-Frayh A; Hasnain SM; Gad-El-Rab MO; Al-Turki T; Al-Mobeireek K; Al-Sedairy ST

1999-07-01

300

A multicultural nursing work force and cultural perspectives in Saudi Arabia: An overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the cultural perspectives and practices in Saudi Arabia that could help expatriate health care providers to understand Saudi culture and enhance cultural competence. The healthcare system in Gulf countries, particularly, Saudi Arabia, is mainly staffed by expatriate nurses, who account for 67.7% of the total number of nurses. This gives rise to a multicultural environment in the hospital, where people of different cultures interact with each other and take care of Saudi patients who are from the dominant culture. In this scenario, a lack of knowledge of Saudi culture among nurses can lead to cultural conflicts and misunderstanding of some of the behaviours and practices of the indigenous Saudi people. Culture is a complex notion; however, being aware of cultural differences and having cultural knowledge can help people to interact safely. Educating expatriate nurses about the cultural heritage of the Saudi people, which is mainly influenced by Islamic teachings, is important to increase cultural harmony.

Almutairi AF, McCarthy A

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV)1 (R0a) was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni) and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%), similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%). In addition, a small Indian influence (3%) was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85%) have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV)1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages) matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.

Abu-Amero Khaled K; González Ana M; Larruga Jose M; Bosley Thomas M; Cabrera Vicente M

2007-01-01

302

Sale of US military aircraft to Saudi Arabia. Master`s thesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The end of the Cold War in the late 1980s resulted in a gigantic downsizing and consolidation of America`s defense industries, as domestic demand plummeted and the volume of international arms trading fell. However, in total world arms exports the United States exports more arms than any other nation. The country of Saudi Arabia has been the destination of a disproportionate amount of these weapons. The following account is an examination of the US military aerospace industry, the world military aerospace market, US government policy concerning arms exports, and the Saudi aerospace market. Each of these entities profoundly impacts US-Saudi military aerospace commerce. By individually analyzing the above factors, it will be demonstrated that the supply relationship between the US and Saudi Arabia is dependent on the convergence of several long standing and deep seated aspirations on the part of the three major players: the US Aerospace Industry, the US Government, and the Saudi Government. The US military aerospace industry`s exports are critical to ensure its independent survival, help fund crucial RD programs, and maintain a viable defense high tech industrial base in the U.S. In addition, it wishes to exert a military presence in the Gulf area and nurture relations with Saudi Arabia in particular, as the world`s leading oil producer. The Saudi government requires a military defense anchored in high tech aerospace systems, as well as a dependable and capable military ally such as the US.

Bents, E.R.

1995-05-01

303

Physicians perception of health insurance in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess physicians views on health insurance and its implication on the health care system. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected from January to December 2002 through self-administered questionnaires that were distributed to a total sample of 400 physicians. The instrument consisted of 28 items that focused on assessing physicians' perception towards health insurance and its effect on health services. We performed a descriptive statistics and analysis of variance using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. RESULTS: Overall, 151 physicians (38%) completed the survey. This study clearly shows that access to health care services is a major concern; more than 94% of the respondents agree that everyone in the Kingdom should have access to healthcare services. Respondents also agree that health insurance will improve access to healthcare services for all citizens. Physicians also believed that health insurance would lead to more regulations and utilization review of services, create more competition between healthcare providers, and create new jobs in the healthcare sector. Saudi physicians reported a higher mean score for 11 items with significant p-values as compared with non-Saudi physicians. CONCLUSION: Physicians in this survey believed that accessibility is a major policy concern, and that health insurance will have a positive effect on access to the health care system. Yet, accessibility is an illusive term with many aspects that go beyond the identification of need for health care to the actual delivery of health care services and the organizational structures to match the needs of society. Cooperation as a national health system should be built on collaborative efforts rather than market competition in itself. It has been suggested that markets are stronger in the role of delivery than in the financing of health care, that markets tend to promote more expenditure on technological innovation rather than producing the most desired set of social outcomes. Cooperative health insurance can be an answer to the current problems facing the health care system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as long as it remains cooperative rather than competitive.

Alnaif MS

2006-05-01

304

Wastewater reuse in saudi arabia: the new oasis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reverse osmosis, ion exchange, upflow/downflow carbon adsorption, and chemical recovery and reuse are among the state of the art processes used at the Riyadh wastewater treatment plant to transform municipal wastewater into high quality process water for a Saudi Arabian refinery. The treatment plant handles an average flow of 10.6 mgd. Criteria used in determining the initial plant design ensures that the levels of water quality required for the refinery processes will be achieved. Problems encountered during initial plant operation and solutions implemented are discussed. (5 diagrams, 4 tables)

Kalinske, A.A.; Willis, J.F.; Martin, S.R.

1980-06-01

305

Energy conservation measures on residential buildings in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of energy conservation measures for a typical two-storey residential building in Saudi Arabia are studied. The analysis shows that insulating the walls and the roof (15 mm-thick insulation) results in a significant reduction in the peak cooling load (> 23%) and the annual energy consumption (> 27%). Hence, a significant saving in customer and government equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) will be observed. The effects of additional measures, such as reducing the glazing area and the infiltration rate, are also reported. (author)

Said, S.A.M.; Al-Hammad, A. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1993-06-01

306

Behaviour of global solar radiation over Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives an overview of available global solar radiation and the hours of bright sunshine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The discussion covers the behavior of monthly average daily values of global solar radiation, the bright hours of sunshine, and the Angstrom coefficients for all the 41 solar radiation stations spread all over the Kingdom. The study finds a slight dependence of global solar radiation on latitude, longitude and altitude of the location and suggests developing empirical correlation for the estimation of global solar radiation on horizontal surface taking into consideration the effects of these parameters along with the sunshine duration.

Shafiqur, Rehman [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Center for Engineering Research, The Research Institute (Saudi Arabia)

2000-07-01

307

Solar radiation availability in the northeastern region of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar energy potential of the northeastern part of Saudi Arabia is investigated based on measurements of a complete year of data at a coastal location near Dhahran. High-resolution, real-time solar radiation data were collected and processed. Hourly, daily, and monthly statistics of solar radiation were made from the recorded 1-min averaged values. Clearness index is discussed on the basis of hourly, daily,and monthly averages. Variation of the diffuse fraction of total radiation is also determined, and results are discussed. (Author)

Sahin, A.Z.; Aksakal, A.; Kahraman, R.

2000-12-01

308

Noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome in a Saudi male  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nesidioblastosis is focal or diffuse islet hyperplasia leading tohyperinsulinism with subsequent hypoglycemia in the absence of insulinoma,usually described in neonates and infancy. We described the first adult caseof nesidioblastosis in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The diagnosis andtreatment of the condition can be very difficult and challenging. Despite thefact that our patient responded initially to surgical treatment, hishypoglycemic symptoms occasionally recurred and needed adjunctive medicaltreatment. Although initially thought to affect only infants and children,cases of nesidioblastosis can effect adults and pose a diagnostic andtherapeutic challenge to the clinicians. (author)

2008-01-01

309

Database for building energy prediction in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents information about outdoor design conditions, degree-days, bin data and weather data sets that have been generated from weather histories, recorded over a period of many years, for 20 cities located in five different climatic zones in Saudi Arabia. The information and data presented in this paper should be useful to many engineers and researchers in the field of energy conservation in buildings. Also, the need for weather data-sets in a format useful for dynamic energy calculations is emphasized. (Author)

Said, S.A.M.; Habib, M.A.; Iqbal, M.O. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2003-01-01

310

Rainfall quality at selected sites in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The chemical composition of rainfall in Saudi Arabia was studied. Data indicate the pH of rainfall is near neutral or basic, indicating a lack of effect from imported nitric or sulfuric acids. Sodium and chloride from the Red Sea or the Arabian Gulf do not appear to be present in appreciable amounts. Particles of calcium, bicarbonate, or sulfate from local disturbances appear to be more important to the chemical quality of rainfall than ions from greater distances. Dry fallout is similar in concentration to the rainfall samples collected concurrently. 12 refs., 2 figs. (ACR)

Handy, A.H.; Tucker, R.A.

1984-01-01

311

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity.

Ageel AM; Parmar NS; Mossa JS; Al-Yahya MA; Al-Said MS; Tariq M

1986-01-01

312

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894

Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M

1986-01-01

313

Application of using Hybrid Renewable Energy in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the major world wide concerns of the utilities is to reduce the emissions from traditional power plants by using renewable energy and to reduce the high cost of supplying electricity to remote areas. Hybrid power systems can provide a good solution for such problems because they integrate renewable energy along with the traditional power plants. In Kingdom of Saudi Arabia a remote village called Al-Qtqt, was selected as a case study in order to investigate the ability to use a hybrid power system to provide the village with its needs of electricity. The simulation of this hybrid power system was done using HOMER software.

N. H. Malik; M. Usman

2011-01-01

314

Focus on OPEC oil companies. Saudi Arabia: PETROMIN  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia nationalized the General Petroleum and Mineral Organization (PETROMIN) in 1962 as a way to maximize the economic benefits of resource development. The organization is empowered to manage petroleum and mineral development, to import needed minerals, to cooperate with private companies, and to establish its own domestic and foreign enterprises. The article traces the growth and development of PETROMIN, describes its functions and operations in production and refining, and summarized current work on pipelines, gas collection, sulfur recovery. It concludes with an overview of PETROMIN's management policies. 3 figures, 8 tables.

1984-06-01

315

Luminescence dating of the Wabar meteorite craters, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Luminescence dating has been used to find the age of meteorite impact craters at Wabar (Al Hadida) in Saudi Arabia. The luminescence characteristics of the shocked material were determined. Using a variety of luminescence dating techniques applied to impactite formed by the meteorite, and to the underlying sand, the age is found to be 290 ?? 38 years. A comparison is made with two possible historically recorded ages. An impact as young as this has implications for the assessment of hazards from the impact on Earth of small meteorites. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

Prescott, J. R.; Robertson, G. B.; Shoemaker, C.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Wynn, J.

2004-01-01

316

Hematologic risk factors for stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography. The study strongly highlights the importance of prothrombotic disorders and the severe phenotype of SCD as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. (author)

2006-01-01

317

Medication burden of Saudi Arabian women receiving antiresorptive therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Bader Al-Shafie,2 Abdallah S Al-Omran,1 Mohammed Q Azam11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacy, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi ArabiaBackground and purpose: Osteoporosis is common in the Saudi Arabian population, and its successful treatment requires full compliance. Patients who require antiresorptive therapy, such as oral bisphosphonates, may suffer from other diseases requiring medications, which increases the medication burden and ends up in drug noncompliance on the part of patients, making them vulnerable to osteoporosis-related fractures. We decided to undertake this study to analyze the concomitant medications that osteoporotic patients are receiving at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar.Methods: Osteoporotic patients receiving antiresorptive therapy (ART) at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, were identified through the database of the QuadraMed Patient Care system and cross-checked with the radiology database of the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and pharmacy drug-dispensing system between January 2009 and December 2009. Concomitant medication is defined as the use of other drugs for $30 days with oral bisphosphonates, calcium, and vitamin D. Medication burdens are defined as mild (?1 concomitant medication), moderate (?2 and ?4 medications), and severe (?5 medications). The demographic data, such as age, sex, and diagnosis, were collected from the medical records. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).Results: During the study period, 516 patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis, and 473 were on ART while the rest were using anabolic Teriperatide. Sixty-eight (14.4%) of the patients, with an average age of 50.15 ± 2.4 years, were on one medication besides ART, vitamin D, and elemental calcium; 129 (27.3%) of the patients, with an average age of 51.6 ± 9.7 years, were taking 3.32 medications, and 276 (58.3%) of the patients, with a mean age of 62.1 ± 10.7 years, were on 8.02 concomitant medications. The most common concomitant medications in use were cardiac, endocrine, systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, in that order. This study suggests that the majority of Saudi women who are osteoporotic and undergoing oral bisphosphonate therapy have a concomitant medication burden of $5 other medications. For full compliance with the therapy, the patients' medication burden should be considered prior to selecting the treatment route.Keywords: osteoporosis, concomitant medications, polypharmacy, compliance

Sadat-Ali M; Al-Shafie B; Al-Omran AS; Azam MQ

2012-01-01

318

Isolation of pigeon herpes encephalomyelitis virus in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A virus was isolated from the brains of pigeons suffering from nervous disorders in different localities of the Eastern Province, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The new isolate caused a high morbidity, ranging from 33% to 50%, and a mortality rate which reached 40%. The virus produced pinpoint greyish pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membrane of embryonated hens' eggs and induced syncytial formation followed by rounding and lysis of the cells in chicken embryo fibroblast cultures. Virus infectivity was significantly reduced following treatment by 20% ether or chloroform. The isolated virus was identified as pigeon herpes encephalomyelitis virus by serum-neutralization, agar gel diffusion and fluorescent antibody staining techniques.

Shalaby MA; el-Sisi MA; Ismail OE; Afaleque AI

1985-07-01

319

A Comparative Study on United Nations E-Government Indicators between Saudi Arabia and USA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-government has a significant impact on the performance of public sector as a result continuous growth has been seen in the e-governments development around the world since last two decades. This paper investigates the e-government develop ment scenario in Saudi Arabia and to compare it with the USA. The study is based on the e-government survey reports conducted by the United Nations between 2003 and 2010. From the experience of USA e-government, this report gave us some critical remarks related to Saudi Arabia e-government. This study also gave us suggestions and countermeasures to improve egovernment in Saudi Arabia

Saleh Alshomrani

2012-01-01

320

First Record of Five Soil Ciliates (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The morphology and infraciliature of five soil hypotrichous collected from the farm-land at Zulfi city, Saudi Arabia were investigated using living observation and silver impregnation methods. Gastrostyla steinii was found to have 4-8 macronuclei and thus its congener, G. muscorum which was characterized by eight macronuclei is likely a synonym with G. steinii. Redescriptions on Hemiamphisiella granulifera, Urostyla grandis Ehrenberg, 1830 and Nudiamphisiella interrupta, revealed that Saudi Arabia populations were morphologically identical with previous studies. A Nudiamphisiella species which is quite similar with N. illuvialis was also discussed. The abovementioned species show first show in Saudi Arabia and extend the known distribution areas of these species.

Saleh A. Al-Farraj

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Saudi regulations for the accreditation of sleep medicine physicians and technologists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The professional content of sleep medicine has grown significantly over the past few decades, warranting the recognition of sleep medicine as an independent specialty. Because the practice of sleep medicine has expanded in Saudi Arabia over the past few years, a national regulation system to license and ascertain the competence of sleep medicine physicians and technologists has become essential. Recently, the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties formed the National Committee for the Accreditation of Sleep Medicine Practice and developed national accreditation criteria. This paper presents the newly approved Saudi accreditation criteria for sleep medicine physicians and technologists.

Bahammam AS; Al-Jahdali H; Alharbi AS; Alotaibi G; Asiri SM; Alsayegh A

2013-01-01

322

Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: With the evolution of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia, there has been an increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico- Legal malpractice claims over the period 1420H-1424H (1999-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Results: Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-2002). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims; the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Conclusion: Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation.

Samarkandi Abdulhamid

2006-01-01

323

Sand Dune and Sabkha Vegetations of Eastern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available A study was conducted during 2006 and 2007 in Eastern Saudi Arabia to provide the needed information about the vegetation of sand dunes and sabkhas in the region and to provide insight into the factors controlling community distribution. Eastern Saudi Arabia with arid climatic conditions has sparsely distributed sand dune and sabkha vegetation cover. The vegetation comprises of perennial herbs, dwarf shrubs and few tree species. Seven major plant communities were recognized according to their dominant and co-dominant species: Panicum turgidum-Stipa capensis, Panicum turgidum-Pennisetum divisum, Panicum turgidum-Zygophyllum coccineum, Lasiurus scindicus-Stipagrostis plumose, Aeluropus lagopoides-Halopeplis perfoliata, Tamafix arabica-Aeluropus lagopoides and Zygophyllum coccineum-Cyperus conglomeratus. The seven communities represented different combinations of species. Soil organic carbon, soil salinity and soil water holding capacity appear to have a substantial influence on determining vegetation composition and abundance. In general, there are 45 species in the study area differing in their relative abundance, frequency and richness.

Mohammed A. Al-Fredan

2008-01-01

324

Evaluation of Saudi pegmatite and its use in porcelain industry  

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Full Text Available Pegmatite is the main source of feldspar for ceramics industry. Usage of pegmatite in ceramic industry causes some problems due to the presence of mica and iron oxides. These materials reduce tile strength, hardness and density of the final product leading to low quality ceramic products. Southern Saudi pegmatite separation treatment was carried out in two phases in order to improve the ceramic quality of the feldspar obtained from this pegmatite. The first phase consists of gravitational separation to remove the heavy impurities and in the second phase magnetic separation was carried out to further minimize iron content. Porcelain ceramic batches were prepared by wet-mixing, drying, pressing (semi-dry press) and fired at temperatures from 1000 to 1350 °C. The porcelain ceramic bodies were prepared and examined by DTA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and tested for bulk density, linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural strength. These results indicated that, after treatment (gravity and magnetic separation), the pegmatite can be considered as a good source of potash feldspar. The present study provides a positive indication for using of Southern Saudi pegmatite after treatment in ceramic industries.

Hassan M.H. Al-Marzouki; Christopher Jeffery; Gamal A. Khater

2012-01-01

325

Differences in prostate cancer detection between Canadian and Saudi populations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4?ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P?1·g?1, respectively, for MUHC patients and 5.2?ng/mL, 64.5?g, and 0.08?ng·mL?1·g?1, respectively, for KSUH patients (P

O.Z. Al-Abdin; D.M. Rabah; G. Badr; A. Kotb; A. Aprikian

2013-01-01

326

The Saudi health care system: a view from the minaret.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review article provides information about the origins, history, evolution and current status of the Saudi healthcare system, which is currently being transformed from a publicly financed and managed welfare system to a market-oriented, employment-based, insurance-driven system. Since its inception in the 1920s, the system has provided free healthcare to all Saudi nationals at publicly owned facilities run by government-employed administrators and healthcare providers. For millions of foreign workers in the country, healthcare at privately owned for-profit facilities has been paid for either by the employer or by the individual. At the completion of the three-stage transition, everyone in the country, whether employed in the public or private sector, is expected to have insurance coverage provided by the employer. All Ministry of Health-owned hospitals will be divested to the private sector, whereas primary health centres are likely to be retained by the government. Many of the operational details of the transition are unclear at this stage and will be worked out in the coming years. This paper provides a context for these changes and highlights some of the existing issues and weaknesses. The article also points to some of the future challenges and cautions against pitfalls involved in the complete transformation of the system. PMID:22555119

Khaliq, Amir A

2012-01-01

327

The Saudi health care system: a view from the minaret.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review article provides information about the origins, history, evolution and current status of the Saudi healthcare system, which is currently being transformed from a publicly financed and managed welfare system to a market-oriented, employment-based, insurance-driven system. Since its inception in the 1920s, the system has provided free healthcare to all Saudi nationals at publicly owned facilities run by government-employed administrators and healthcare providers. For millions of foreign workers in the country, healthcare at privately owned for-profit facilities has been paid for either by the employer or by the individual. At the completion of the three-stage transition, everyone in the country, whether employed in the public or private sector, is expected to have insurance coverage provided by the employer. All Ministry of Health-owned hospitals will be divested to the private sector, whereas primary health centres are likely to be retained by the government. Many of the operational details of the transition are unclear at this stage and will be worked out in the coming years. This paper provides a context for these changes and highlights some of the existing issues and weaknesses. The article also points to some of the future challenges and cautions against pitfalls involved in the complete transformation of the system.

Khaliq AA

2012-01-01

328

Insomnia in chronic renal patients on dialysis in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that insomnia is a common sleep disorder among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Saudi patients with ESRD who are on maintenance dialysis. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study carried out over a period of five months in two hemodialysis centers in Saudi Arabia. To assess the prevalence of insomnia, we used the ICSD-2 definition. We also examined the association between insomnia and other sleep disorders, the underlying causes of renal failure, dialysis duration, dialysis shift, and other demographic data. Results Out of 227 enrolled patients, insomnia was reported by 60.8%. The mean patient age was 55.7 ± 17.2 years; 53.7% were male and 46.3% were female. Insomnia was significantly associated with female gender, afternoon hemodialysis, Restless Legs Syndrome, high risk for obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and excessive daytime sleepiness (P-values: 0.05, 0.01, Conclusion Insomnia is common in dialysis patients and was significantly associated with other sleep disorders. Greater attention needs to be given to the care of dialysis patients with regard to the diagnosis and management of insomnia and associated sleep disorders.

Al-Jahdali Hamdan H; Khogeer Haithm A; Al-Qadhi Waleed A; Baharoon Salim; Tamim Hani; Al-Hejaili Fayez F; Al-Ghamdi Saeed M; Al-Sayyari Abdullah A

2010-01-01

329

Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ=-0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r=0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t=2.898; df=18; p<0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean.

Alharbi OA; Phillips MR; Williams AT; Gheith AM; Bantan RA; Rasul NM

2012-04-01

330

Assessing Oral Cancer Knowledge Among Saudi Medical Undergraduates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide with more than 263,000 patients diagnosed in 2008. Nonspecialists' negative attitudes and poor working knowledge of oral cancer significantly contribute to suboptimal detection of early-stage disease which leads to delays in diagnosis. We aimed to assess the working knowledge and views associated with oral cancer prevention among medical students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 4th, 5th, and 6th year undergraduate medical students was undertaken. Questions included knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention. The overall response rate was 82 % (137/167). Mean score of cancer knowledge was 57.8 % which was below the expected standard of 70 %. Only 53 % correctly answered all questions related to oral cancer. This result had no association with either the academic year (p?=?0.23) or gender (p?=?0.37). Interestingly, 72 % of the respondents did not feel confident in performing an oral examination. Sixty-three percent of the medical students believed it to be beyond their role to aid patients in smoking cessation measures or to take part in other disease preventative strategies. This study demonstrates a dearth of knowledge relating to the diagnosis and management of oral cancer among clinical students within an established Saudi medical school. An immediate refinement of current medical curricula to address these deficiencies is warranted.

Kujan O; Abuderman A; Azzegahiby S; Alenzi FQ; Idrees M

2013-08-01

331

Malaria screening of blood donors in Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusion-associated malaria is a potentially serious complication that continues to pose risks in blood bank settings. There is a need for effective malaria screening of blood donations to improve on the current exclusion policies of potentially infected carriers on the basis of clinical and travel history. We evaluated the potential usefulness of ELISA screening for malaria antibody and P. falciparum antigen among Saudi blood donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1756 donors were studied, 1100 from the malaria endemic Southern Region and 656 donors from the known malaria-free Riyadh area. RESULTS: The overall antibody prevalence for the antibody was 7.6%, in comparison to only 0.17% for the antigen. In the endemic region, the antibody positivity rate of 9.1% was almost double the rate in the non-endemic area (4.8%). There was no difference in the antigen prevalence rates; 0.18% in endemic and 0.15% in nonendemic areas. CONCLUSIONS: In malaria endemic countries like Saudi Arabia, excluding antibody-positive donations would result in too much wastage of blood units. However, antigen malaria testing appears to offer a potential utility, as only few donations would be rejected.

Saeed Awad; Al Rasheed Abdul; Al Nasser I; Al Onaizi M; Al Kahtani S; Dubois L

2002-01-01

332

Angiographic patterns of carotid ischemic cerebrovascular disease in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The angiographic findings in 100 Saudi patients with carotid ischemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (transient ischemic attacks (TIA) or strokes) were retrospectively reviewed. These patients were representative of all patients with similar disorders in the terms of sex, frequency of diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. They were, however, significantly younger, smoked more, had more cervical bruits and less atrial fibrillation. Analysis of the data showed that a significant stenosis (> 70%) of the carotid artery origin was found only in 12% of TIA cases, 4% in the lacunar infarction cases and 6% of the large infarction cases on the symptomatic side and only in one case of TIA in the asymptomatic side. These frequencies were significantly lower than those found in similar studies performed in western countries. This study suggests that stenoses and occlusions of extracranial carotid artery plays a smaller role in the pathogenesis of ischemic CVD in Saudis than in Caucasians. The low consumption of cigarettes among elderly and females may be one of the explanations.

Al Rajeh S; Awada A; Naufal R; Amene P; Larbi E; Obeid T

1995-12-01

333

Angiographic patterns of carotid ischemic cerebrovascular disease in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The angiographic findings in 100 Saudi patients with carotid ischemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) (transient ischemic attacks (TIA) or strokes) were retrospectively reviewed. These patients were representative of all patients with similar disorders in the terms of sex, frequency of diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease. They were, however, significantly younger, smoked more, had more cervical bruits and less atrial fibrillation. Analysis of the data showed that a significant stenosis (> 70%) of the carotid artery origin was found only in 12% of TIA cases, 4% in the lacunar infarction cases and 6% of the large infarction cases on the symptomatic side and only in one case of TIA in the asymptomatic side. These frequencies were significantly lower than those found in similar studies performed in western countries. This study suggests that stenoses and occlusions of extracranial carotid artery plays a smaller role in the pathogenesis of ischemic CVD in Saudis than in Caucasians. The low consumption of cigarettes among elderly and females may be one of the explanations. PMID:8747861

Al Rajeh, S; Awada, A; Naufal, R; Amene, P; Larbi, E; Obeid, T

1995-12-01

334

Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning.

2004-01-01

335

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-06-01

336

Inflammatory bowel disease in the Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the pattern of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among the people of Western region of Saudi Arabia, and to correlate the findings with published data. This is a retrospective study. All colonic biopsies were reviewed which were received, and processed at the Histopathology Department of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2002 to July 2007. Ethical approval was obtained from the Bioethical and Research Committee. There were 711 colonic biopsies received during this period. One hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). There were 65 males and 57 females. The age ranged between 4-73 years. Most of the UC patients presented in adolescence, and in the adult age. Crohn's disease (CD) was diagnosed in 15 patients, 7 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 1-40 years. Most of the cases were seen in the adult age group. We conclude that IBD is certainly one of the major serious colonic lesions in our society, which should be thoroughly investigated by the combined efforts of clinicians and pathologists. We also conclude that gastrointestinal tuberculosis and infective colitis should always be investigated before suggesting the specific diagnosis of IBD. We recommend a broad based epidemiological study, simultaneously involving clinicians, and pathologists, to document the characteristics of this disease in our society. (author)

2009-01-01

337

Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

2005-11-15

338

Prevalence of human papillomavirus in women from saudi arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main causes of cervical cancer in women worldwide. The goal of the present study was to determine the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes in women from Saudi Arabia. Recently, several HPV detection methods have been developed, each with different sensitivities and specificities. Methods: In this study, total forty cervical samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction and hybridization to BioFilmChip microarray assessment. Results: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections were found in 43% of the specimens. The most prevalent genotypes were HPV 16 (30%) HPV 18 (8.0%) followed by type HPV 45, occurring at 5.0%. Conclusion: Our finding showed the HPV infection and prevalence is increasing at alarming rate in women of Saudi Arabia. There was no low risk infection detected in the tested samples. The BioFilmChip microarray detection system is highly accurate and suitable for detection of single and multiple infections, allowing rapid detection with less time-consumption and easier performance as compared with other methods.

Turki R; Sait K; Anfinan N; Sohrab SS; Abuzenadah AM

2013-01-01

339

Musculoskeletal Pain Disorders among Secondary School Saudi Female Teachers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective. This study was conducted to estimate prevalence and pattern of musculoskeletal pain disorders among secondary school Saudi female teachers in Al-Khobar area and the psychodemographic and psychosocial factors that may affect them. Material and Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using sample of secondary schools teachers (governmental and private school) in Al-Khobar area, Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. Result. Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain disorders was 79.17%. Main sites of pain were lower back (63.8%) followed by shoulder (45.4%), neck (42.1%), leg (40.0%), wrist (16.2%), and elbow joint (10.0%). Factors that showed significant relationship were type of school (p value 0.038), age (p value 0.002), weight (p value 0.007), number of children (p value 0.006), shoe type (p value 0.000), teaching years (p value 0.003), and working daily hours (p value 0.027). Conclusion. Secondary school female teachers showed high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain disorders in most anatomic sites, namely, the back, shoulder, neck, legs, wrist, and elbow joint. Risk factors associated with significant pain were type of school, age, weight, number of children, and number of teaching years.

Darwish MA; Al-Zuhair SZ

2013-01-01

340

Quality assessment of various bottled waters marketed in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study focuses on the chemical analysis of the available brands of domestic bottled water in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. The distribution of the chemical constituents (major, minor, and trace elements) is determined and compared with the chemical content labeled on the bottles and with drinking water standards of Saudi Arabian, World Health Organization, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The obtained results indicated that except for fluoride and bromate, the concentrations of dissolved salts, soluble cations and anions, nitrate, and trace elements of most bottled waters on sale were within the permissible limits set by standards used. On the other hand, the comparison between determined and reported label values recorded a substantial variation in some parameter values. Results indicated that more than 18 % of the sampled bottled waters exceeded the allowable limits for drinking water. Generated Piper diagrams revealed that the majority of investigated waters were sodium chloride-sulfate type; however, the hydrochemical modeling indicated that all water samples were undersaturated for anhydrite, gypsum, and halite.

Al-Omran AM; El-Maghraby SE; Aly AA; Al-Wabel MI; Al-Asmari ZA; Nadeem ME

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
341

Determination of Prevalence of Strangles in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strangles is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect the respiratory system of the horse. The disease is characterized by fever, nasal discharges and enlargement of the associated lymph nodes. Strptococcus equi the causative agent of strangles, is a Gram positive bacteria. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of strangles among horses residing on horse farms in main regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To achieve this goal, field visits were made to horse farms in Al-Ahsa, Dammam, Jubail, Riyadh, Jeddah and Tayf. A total of 75 farms that contain 926 horses were visited. Farm owners and managers were questioned regarding the presence of signs similar to strangles. In the meantime, horses were clinically evaluated. This survey indicated no horses were strangles confirmed. Finally, 35 horses admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at King Faisal University were examined. These horses were admitted for signs of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination as well as bacterial culture indicated they were strangles free. Strangles seems not to be a threat to horses in Saudi Arabia.

Ghanem M. Al-Ghamdi

2008-01-01

342

Structural model for the Saudi Arabian economy: a monetary approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In an attempt to quantify the sensitivity of the major macroeconomic variables of the Saudi Arabian economy with respect to (i) monetary and fiscal actions, (ii) the price and quantity of oil exports, and (iii) the price of imports variable, this study employs the monetary approach in constructing a macroeconomic model for the Saudi economy. This macroeconomic model, estimated for 1968-1984, proved to be stable since the historical dynamic simulation of the model for the estimation period resulted in simulated series that closely follow their corresponding actual series. Using this model, the multiplier analysis implies that fiscal policy is far more effective than monetary policy. Furthermore, the multiplier analysis suggests that due to changes in the price and quantity of oil exports, the monetary base is subject to feedback effects from the foreign and government sectors. Finally, using the model, the levels of major macroeconomic variables were forecasted for the period 1985-1995. Based on three scenarios related to the price and quantity of oil exports, findings indicate that, with implementation of fiscal policy, the economy will adjust to the adverse effects of the sharp decline in the price of oil in 1986-1987 and conditions suitable for a growing economy can be created.

Al-Hajji, M.A.

1987-01-01

343

The knowledge of breast cancer among young Saudi females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students.A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionnaires were then statistically analyzed. This Pilot study of 500 students was performed in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital using high schools from the city of Jeddah between April and June 2009. The results were used to build up a base for designing a community educational program. Analysis of the data from 337 questionnaires from high school and college students showed that the level of knowledge of young females on breast cancer is limited. However, it also indicated that the students are very enthusiastic to learn about cancer breast, and its prevention. The limited knowledge level of breast cancer in the younger generation might be an obstacle to screening programs and early diagnosis. Awareness programs should be developed including lectures, seminars workshops, and on hands training (Author).

2010-01-01

344

Natural radioactivity of potable waters in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An arid and desert country, Saudi Arabia has very few natural water resources. In the past potable water was obtained from wells. Today, well water and ''raw'' water (processed well water, sometimes slightly softened through the addition of desalinated water) are used mostly for cooking and washing, whereas drinking water is obtained through the desalination of sea water. The ''sweet'' water so produced has still too high a mineral content for the taste of many people who prefer to use bottled mineral water for drinking. This paper presents the results of a first quantitative study of raw and sweet waters from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, as well as of one domestic and five imported brand-name mineral waters available in stores in the same region. The study was extended to rainwater collected locally so as to include all types of potable water available in the area. The natural radioactivity of these waters was measured using a standard ..gamma..-ray spectrometry technique.

Martin, P.

1984-04-01

345

BK virus infection in a renal transplant Saudi child  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

BK human polyomavirus (BKV) causes an asymptomatic primary infection in children, but later, establishes latency mainly in the urinary tract. Virus-host interactions influencing persistence and pathogenicity are not well-understood. We present here a 12-year-old Saudi boy, who had renal transplant in Egypt. Seven months later, he was admitted to our Pediatric Nephrology Unit as a case of renal impairment. He developed BKV infection, diagnosed and successfully managed in our hospital. This case demonstrates the expanding clinical importance of BKV in a post renal transplant patient. This virus can be detected in transitional cells in the urine (decoy cells) using cytology. Testing for BKV deoxyribonucleic acid in urine and blood is an early detection assay, and can be used as a screening test in the early stages. The early reduction of immunosuppression can improve the prognosis. No specific antiviral treatment has been established yet. This is the first report of detecting BK virus in a Saudi post-transplant child in urine and blood specimens by using polymerase chain reaction. (author)

2007-01-01

346

Evolution of gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The beginning of the natural gas processing industry in Saudi Arabia is traced back to 1959 when Aramco embarked on a program to recover natural gas liquids (NGL) for export from low pressure gases such as stabilizer overhead, spheroid, tank farm, and refinery off-gases. The processing scheme involves compression and refrigeration to extract C3+ raw NGL, a raw NGL gathering system, and a fractionation plant to separate propane, butane, and natural gasoline. NGL extracted in Abqaiq and Ras Tanura is moved to Ras Tanura for fractionation, storage, and export. The system, built in several increments, has total design capacity of 500 MMscfd of feed gases to produce 320,000 bpd of NGL composed of 40% propane, 30% butane, and 30% natural gasoline. Phase II of the Saudi gas program envisages collection and processing of associated gas produced with Arabian medium and heavy crude oils largely in the northern onshore and offshore fields. Further domestic development may focus on more diversification in gas product utilization and on upgrading to higher value products.

Showail, A.

1983-01-01

347

Celiac disease presenting as rickets in Saudi children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rickets is commonly seen as a sign of malabsorption like celiac disease if it is not treated appropriately with vitamin D and calcium supplements. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of diagnosis of celiac disease among children with unexplained rickets in Saudi children at a tertiary hospital setting. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective review of records of patients referred over 10 years to a pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology unit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included all patients referred for evaluation of unexplained rickets and osteomalacia and screened for celiac disease. The diagnosis of rickets was made on the basis of history, physical examination, biochemical and radiological investigations. The diagnosis of celiac disease was made based on the ESPGHAN (European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition) criteria. RESULTS: Twenty-six children with a mean (SD) age of 9.5 (4.6) years (5 males, range 1-15 years) were referred for evaluation of unexplained rickets and were screened for celiac disease. The diagnosis of celiac disease based on small bowel biopsy findings was confirmed in 10 (38.4%) patients with rickets. Serological markers for celiac disease including antiendomyseal antibodies and antitissue transglutaminase antibodies were positive in all ten children. CONCLUSION: Rickets is not an uncommon presentation of celiac disease in Saudi children and pediatricians should consider celiac disease as an underlying cause for rickets.

Assiri A; Saeed A; AlSarkhy A; El Mouzan MI; El Matary W

2013-01-01

348

A Phytogeographical Analysis of the Floristic Elements in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An analysis has been carried out on the chorological units of Saudi Arabia. Three chorological units have been identified within the country, based on the richness of endemism. They are: Saharo-Sindian regional zone, Somalia-Masai regional centre of endemism and the Afro-montane archipelago-like regional centre of endemism. The Saharo-Sindian regional zone is divided into three subzones; of which, Nubo-Sindian local centre of endemism and the Arabian regional subzone are present in the Kingdom. The boundary line of the Nubo-Sindian local centre of endemism within Saudi Arabia has been extended towards the eastern region to cover most of the regions in the western Najd. The Somalia-Masai region contains the highest percentage (25.66%) of species. The highest number of uni-regional endemics per unit area is found in the Afromontane archipelago-like regional centre of endemism while the lowest of that is in the Arabian regional subzone.

Ahmed H. Alfarhan

1999-01-01

349

Denied Dignity: Systematic Discrimination and Hostility toward Saudi Shia Citizens  

Science.gov (United States)

Human Rights Watch, "the world's leading independent organizations dedicated to defending and protecting human rights", has a revealing report available on their website about the discrimination that has occurred against the Shia religious community in Saudi Arabia. The Report, found in the "Publications" tab of the website, can be read online in English or Arabic (click the yellow "L" near the top of the page), can be downloaded as a PDF, or ordered for purchase. The report includes a summary of the situation at the beginning of the report, plus recommendations to Saudi Arabia from Human Rights Watch to rectify the situation, as well as information about the report's research methodology. Under the "Reports" tab there are hundreds of other reports available online, and they can be browsed by date, country, or issue. Additionally scholars will appreciate that the "Methodology" the Human Rights Watch researchers use to document abuse of human rights throughout the world is available here in a comprehensive document entitled "Our Research Methodology".

350

Effectiveness of the Saudi Arabian government's programs to modernize Saudi society through the development of a non-oil industrial sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To reduce its dependence on a depletable resource, and its reliance on imports, and increase the country's export base, the Saudi government is using oil revenues to develop alternative sources of income to ensure the continuation of modernization. Having limited agricultural resources, the development of a non-oil industrial sector seems the best choice to diversify the Saudi economic base, given the availability of capital, abundance of oil and natural gas, and the discovery of minerals. The economy, however, faces a severe labor shortage and over 40% of the labor force is composed of foreign workers. In addition, Saudis are reluctant to take blue collar or technical jobs. Saudi Arabia needs to reduce its dependence on foreign labor and increase the participation of Saudis as workers and investors in the industrial sector. This study concludes that the government's policy of using the development of a non-oil industrial sector to achieve its goal of modernization has met with mixed success. Some aspects of modernization, such as the introduction of new technologies, have been actively promoted by the government easily accepted by the population in general. Other aspects of modernization, especially those involving political and social change, have met with resistance from the government, the population, or both.

Al-Rowaithy, A.S.

1987-01-01

351

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, May 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of May 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

352

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-03-01

353

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, April 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of April 1985 was presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

354

78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Clarification...20 participants is selected, all interested U.S. IT and cyber-security firms and trade organizations which have not...

2013-07-02

355

Acute myocardial infarction at high altitude: the experience in Asir Region, southern Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the first report from southern Saudi Arabia, we studied retrospectively 124 patients admitted to Asir Central Hospital, Abha, with proved acute myocardial infarction. There were 116 men (94%) and 98 patients were Saudi (79%). The majority of non-Saudi patients were Egyptians and Pakistanis. The mean age was 57 (SD = 13) years. Diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and hypercholestrolemia were the most common risk factors. Most of the patients had anterior acute myocardial infarction and, remarkably, both the incidence of complications and the mortality rate were lower than those reported from the rest of Saudi Arabia and the western world. A possible explanation for this trend, among others, could be prolonged residence at high altitude, which may have acted as a protective factor to the myocardium.

Ashouri K; Ahmed ME; Kardash MO; Sharif AY; Abdalsattar M; al Ghozeim A

1994-01-01

356

Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Amaranthus pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and a potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. M...

Hasnain Syed; Fatima Khatija; Al-Frayh Abdulrahman

357

Electronic-government in Saudi Arabia: A positive revolution in the peninsula  

CERN Document Server

The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...

Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful

2012-01-01

358

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, June 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of June 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

359

Normative data for IQ, height and head circumference for children in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Normative data are reported for intelligence, height and head circumference for a sample of 1553 6- to 15-year-olds in Saudi Arabia, and for the correlations between these variables. Intelligence was tested with the Standard Progressive Matrices, on which the Saudi sample obtained a British IQ of 76.2. There were no significant differences in means between boys and girls and differences in variability were inconsistent. The heights of the Saudi sample were generally lower than those of the American norms. The differences in head circumferences between the Saudi children and the American norms were inconsistent. Correlations between IQ and height were weaker than those found in other studies but correlations between IQ and head circumference were positive.

Batterjee AA; Khaleefa O; Ashaer K; Lynn R

2013-07-01

360

75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...

2010-11-02

 
 
 
 
361

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar Energy Falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of March 1985 are presented. (ERA ...

1985-01-01

362

New MERS-Coronavirus Cases in Saudi Bring Global Total to 102  

Science.gov (United States)

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. New MERS-coronavirus cases in Saudi bring global total to 102: ... 2013) Wednesday, August 28, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Coronavirus Infections International Health GENEVA (Reuters) - Eight more people ...

363

The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market

2008-01-01

364

The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market. (author)

Al-Muhawesh, Tareq A. [Saudi Electricity Company, Department of CA, P.O. Box 5190, Dammam 31422 (Saudi Arabia); Qamber, Isa S. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 33831 (Bahrain)

2008-01-15

365

Human infection with Bertiella studeri (Cestode: Anoplocephalidae) in an Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Perhaps this is the first case of bertiellosis studeri record in Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia. The patient was resistant to Niclosamide but successfully treated with Commiphora molmol extract.

Al-Mathal EM; Saleh NM; Morsy TA

2010-04-01

366

Human infection with Bertiella studeri (Cestode: Anoplocephalidae) in an Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perhaps this is the first case of bertiellosis studeri record in Egyptian worker returning back from Saudi Arabia. The patient was resistant to Niclosamide but successfully treated with Commiphora molmol extract. PMID:20503589

Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M; Saleh, Nagla Mostafa K; Morsy, Tosson A

2010-04-01

367

Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Atawi FJ

2011-07-01

368

Prevalence of obesity among military personnel in Saudi Arabia and associated risk factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To measure the prevalence of obesity among military personnel in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to identify its risk factors. Methods: This nationwide cross-sectional study covered...

Ghalib Bin Horaib; Hesham I. Al-Khashan; Adel M. Mishriky; Mohei A. Selim; Noura AlNowaiser; Abdulaziz A. BinSaeed

369

Nutritional and health status of medical students at a university in Northwestern Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To assess the nutrition and health status, nutrients intake, and physical activity among Saudi medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory assessme...

Abdulkader R. Allam; Inass M. Taha; Omar M. Al-Nozha; Intessar E. Sultan

370

Assessment of hepatitis B vaccination and compliance with infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To evaluate hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine coverage and the use of infection control among dentists in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out during the Third International Conference at the King Abdulaziz University...

Ayman A. Al-Dharrab; Khalid H. Al-Samadani

371

Guidelines for Irrigation Water Quality and Water Management in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: An Overview  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comprehensive review summarized the total available water supplies, water quality evaluation and the potential management strategies for efficient utilization of the available water resources in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The review discussed different water quality classifications applied elsew...

G. Hussain; A. Alquwaizany; A. Al-Zarah

372

Fortification with vitamin D: Comparative study in the Saudi Arabian and US markets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is common among Saudi Arabian population. To evaluate the current status of vitamin D fortification and calcium content of commonly consumed food items by the Saudi population and to compare it to US data. SETTING AND DESIGN: Cross-sectional market survey at markets of Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and State of Illinois, USA. METHODS: A dietary survey was carried out for the content of calcium and vitamin D on the most commonly consumed food products by the Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D. The survey included different brands of fresh milk, yoghurt, powdered milk, cheese, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and orange juice. Vitamin D content in the products studied from the Saudi marketplace was compared with the suggested vitamin D content in the same products according to US Code of Federal Regulations recommendations. RESULTS: The overall calcium content in the processed dairy products is generally higher than the content in fresh dairy products. Vitamin D content in the fresh dairy products varied from 40 IU/L to 400 IU/L. None of the cereals or orange juice in Saudi Arabia contain vitamin D supplement. The vitamin D content in the food items from the Saudi marketplace is mostly lower than recommended by the US Code of Federal Regulations. CONCLUSION: Most commonly consumed food products by Saudi population which are suppose to be fortified by vitamin D either not fortified or contain an amount less than recommended by guidelines set for US marketplace.

Sadat-Ali M; Al Elq A; Al-Farhan M; Sadat NA

2013-01-01

373

Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits; Arabie Seoudite: deficits persistants mais soutenables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs.

Anon.

1996-04-16

374

Enclosed and open spaces in the arid region-Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study of the enclosed (sheltered) and open (unsheltered) spaces in two tradiational and three-contemporary settlements in Saudi Arabia - comparative analysis of micro climatic conditions - solar exposure - analysis of the differences in the design approaches of the old and new ''modern'' developments - recommendations for the appropriate approach to the design of enclosed and open spaces in the arid regions of Saudi Arabia.

Talib, K.; Al-Zamil, A.A.

1986-01-01

375

Petroleum and international relations: Saudi Arabia, victim of the new world energy deal?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country

2002-01-01

376

Attribution and helping behavior: testing the attribution-affect-help judgment model in a Saudi sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A review of the literature on Weiner's attributional theory indicates that the theory has not been tested in Arabic cultures. The present study examined the reactions of Saudi men toward a friend with AIDS, using Weiner's attributional theory of social motivation. A sample of 298 Saudi men read two different vignettes about a friend with AIDS, in which the cause of AIDS was manipulated. Then the assignment of responsibility, reactions of anger and pity, and participants' willingness to provide help were measured.

Badahdah AM

2005-10-01

377

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401) and females (1507) aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use), physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females) of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M; Abahussain Nada A; Al-Sobayel Hana I; Qahwaji Dina M; Musaiger Abdulrahman O

2011-01-01

378

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

Kamel RM

2013-01-01

379

Depletion theory of exhaustible resources: a case study of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall aim of this study is to examine the optimal depletion policy for Saudi crude oil in the light of its impact on the economic process and the absorptive capacity of the country in order to judge to what extent the rate of oil depletion is optimal. This, of course, raises a question about the future of the Saudi economy after the oil has been depleted and entails some policy implications. In order to achieve the main objective, it is useful to examine the depletion theory in general and the depletion of oil in particular with its application to the Saudi economy through the estimation of the government's goal function. A nonlinear regression model and a discount form of a dynamic recursive linear model are used to estimate the future demand for Saudi crude oil. A price-leadership model is presented when discussion is to be made about the structure of the oil market. The impact of oil revenue on the Saudi economy is discussed to point out the importance of oil revenue on economic planning and foreign-exchange earnings. Finally, a macroeconomic model is presented to measure the impact of oil depletion and its subsequent revenue on the Saudi absorptive capacity.

Hassan, A.A.

1987-01-01

380

Level of evidence of clinical orthopedic surgery research in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of evidence (LOE) of Saudi clinical orthopedic research. METHODS: In July 2012, a list of Saudi orthopedic surgeons (N=93) affiliated with all major universities and hospitals in Saudi Arabia were obtained. PubMed and Embase searches were performed for all eligible studies over the last 2 decades (August 1991 to May 2012). The Oxford LOE scale was utilized to determine the LOE of these studies (Level V studies were excluded). The LOE trends were compared between the last 2 decades. In addition, the LOE of Saudi orthopedic studies was compared with North American studies. RESULTS: Of 251 articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria for the LOE evaluation. Most of the published studies are Level IV (86%). The average level of evidence was 3.75. There was no statistically significant difference when we compared the LOE trend between the last 2 decades. North American studies contained higher proportions of high-level studies when compared to Saudi studies (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Most of the published studies are low LOE. Academic staff, institutions, and training programs are required to develop research strategies to improve orthopedic research quality in Saudi Arabia.

Makhdom AM; Alqahtani SM; Alsheikh KA; Samargandi OA; Saran N

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
381

Shell and Sabic (Saudi Basic Industries Corp. ) to construct Jubail petrochemical plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shell Oil Co.'s Pecten Arabian Ltd. affiliate and Saudi Basic Industries Corp. have agreed to build a $3 billion petrochemical complex at Jubail, Saudi Arabia; the final documents will be signed in late Sept. 1980. The partners will invest about $400 million each in the joint venture, with Saudi public investment funds and commercial banks providing the balance of the funding. Shell will have the right to purchase Saudi crude oil on a long-term basis, as well as some chemical raw materials; the volume of crude made available will be determined by a formula that the Saudis are now developing. One plan under discussion would offer firms options to buy 500 bbl/day of Saudi crude for each $1 million of their investment. The feed for the new plant will be methane and ethane from associated gas now being flared. Product exports are scheduled to begin in late 1985. Product capacities will include (in thousands of metric tons/yr): ethane, 656; chlorine, 333; caustic soda, 377; ethylene dichloride, 454; ethyl benzene, 327; styrene, 295; and crude industrial ethanol, 281. Ships, terminals, and other infrastructure facilities are included in the agreement.

1980-07-14

382

Vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency is an unrecognized epidemic and a common health problem worldwide. This study was conducted to evaluate the vitamin D status in children living in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and to study its relation to various variables. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the pediatric clinic in Jeddah Clinic Hospital-Kandarah, Jeddah, KSA, from October through December 2010, in which 510 healthy children aged 4-15 years were enrolled. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were measured. Dietary vitamin D intake and duration of daily sunlight exposure were determined. 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL and <7 ng/mL were defined as relative and severe vitamin D deficiency, respectively. RESULTS: The mean concentration of 25(OH)D was 13.07 ± 7.81 ng/mL. Seventy subjects (13.72%) had normal 25(OH)D level ranging 20-70 ng/mL. Three hundred (58.82%) had relative 25(OH)D deficiency and 140 (27.45%) had severe deficiency (P=0.000). 220 (43.14%) subjects were males and 290 (56.86%) were females having a statistically significant higher incidence of 25(OH)D deficiency (P=0.019). 54.9% were Saudis, 27.45% were Yemenis and 11.76% were Egyptians. Saudis and Yemenis were more subjected to 25(OH)D deficiency in comparison to Egyptians and other nationalities (P=0.01). There were significant inverse correlations between 25(OH)D levels and bony aches (P=0.000). 56.25% of asymptomatic children had vitamin D deficiency (P=0.000). Duration of sunlight exposure and daily intake of vitamin D had significant effects on serum level of vitamin D (P=0.000). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children living in Jeddah was observed in this study. Vitamin D supplementation of food products can prevent vitamin D deficiency in these children.

Mansour MM; Alhadidi KM

2012-03-01

383

Stroke due to mitochondrial disorders in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had raised cerebrospinal fluid lactate but no ragged red fibres on muscle histochemistry. Biochemical assay of muscle homogenate showed reduction in respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Mutation screening of mtDNA at nucleotides 3243 (tRNA) and 8344 (tRNA) was negative. Mitochondrial disorders constitute a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. However, demanding and highly specialized investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis. These are better performed at supraregional centers where facilities for clinical biochemical and molecular work-up are available. (author)

1992-07-00

384

Saudi Arabia. Energy giant between geopolitical reorientation and internal political reforms; Saudi-Arabien. Energieriese zwischen geopolitischer Neuausrichtung und innenpolitischer Reform  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The publication shows that no matter how external policy in Saudi Arabia will develop, oil will remain too important and the Gulf states will remain too weak for outside influences to subside. Internal social challenges will continue. Education, political culture and economic problems are at the center of things. If Saudi Arabia will not be able to find a labour-intensive development path that is at least partly independent of petroleum, and if population growth cannot be stopped, considerable social unrest and even upheaval must be expected. (orig.)

Woertz, E.

2006-09-15

385

Taxonomy of Cyber Crimes and Legislation in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments in the field of internetcommunication in the last decade worldwide have crossed allthe physical boundaries laid down by human being and this erawitnessed a major development in the field of InformationTechnology and made a large number of computer users in theworld. Every common man is influenced by this new world ofcommunication named as cyber world. But there are alwaystwo aspects associated with every technology; the destructiveside is threats associated with this internet communication incyberspace. A rapid growth of computer crimes and formationof laws in different countries addresses the severity of problem.This paper discusses the stand of Saudi Arabian governmentagainst cyber crime and its IT act. It analyzes the cybercrimein the Kingdom and the associated legislation to combat thesame.

Naasir Kamaal Khan

2012-01-01

386

Antifungal Activity of Some Saudi Plants Used in Traditional Medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methanolic, chloroform and aqueous extracts of 11 medicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Saudi Arabia, were investigated for in vitro activity against four pathogenic fungi. The extracts at concentration of 0.5 mL plate-1 showed varying degrees of total inhibition of fungal growth. Extracts from Salvadora persica and Vigna fragrans showed the highest activity, followed by Peganum harmala and Withania somnifera, while Polycarpaea corymbosa demonstrated the least activity, when compared to 25 ?g mL-1 Clotrimazole control antibiotic. The fungal strains tested differed significantly in their susceptibility to plant extracts, with complete inhibition in Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. The plants which exhibited a marked antifungal activity were shown to be rich in alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and glycosides. These results support the traditional use of these plants in the treatment of some fungal infections.

Abdulmoniem M.A. Saadabi

2006-01-01

387

Measurement of quality in Saudi Arabian service industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Quality problems in the service organisation are the result of the mismatch between prior expectation and perceived quality of the service. Each organisation will attempt to determine the requirements of its customers and translate these requirements into product and delivery process specifications. This paper examines a particular electric company (SCECO-East), a typical service provider in Saudi Arabia, in which service quality is a distinguishing feature of primary importance. It describes a detailed survey and analysis in the light of the model put forward by Parasuraman et al. It utilises SERVQUAL for measuring customers' perceptions of service quality. The study revealed that SCECO-East scored high in tangibles dimension but low in features of responsiveness and reliability. In addition, while the performance of SCECO-East was acceptable to all customer categories, service quality was perceived differently by various types of customers, with reinforcement and commercial customers awarding SCECO-East even lower ratings than other customers did. (Author)

Jannadi, O.A. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Saggaf, H. [SCECO-East (Saudi Arabia)

2000-10-12

388

Dental visit patterns and periodontal treatment needs among Saudi students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to report on dental visit patterns and their association with periodontal health among young Saudi Arabian students. A representative sample of 3090 students was randomly selected. The students' dental visit patterns were assessed with a questionnaire. Clinical examinations were carried out using the community periodontal index of treatment needs. Age, sex and education level were significantly associated with the periodontal health. The prevalence of periodontal disease was significantly lower among subjects who were taught the right way to brush their teeth by the dentist. The highest occurrence of healthy periodontium (23.9%) and the lowest need for complex treatment (0%) were found among students who had annual reminders for check-ups (only 2.8% of the students).

Farsi JM

2010-07-01

389

The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many countries now struggle to provide cost-effective, quality healthcare services to their citizens. Saudi Arabia has experienced high costs along with concerns about quality of care in its public facilities. To address these issues the country is currently restructuring their healthcare system to privatize public hospitals and introduce insurance coverage for both foreign workers and citizens. The changes provide an interesting and insightful case for the challenges in radically changing a country's healthcare system. The situation also demonstrates a unique case in the Middle East for greater reliance of the private sector to address rapidly escalating healthcare costs and deteriorating quality. The complexity of changing a healthcare system is discusses with the many challenges associated with the change. PMID:18596400

Walston, Stephen; Al-Harbi, Yousef; Al-Omar, Badran

390

Dialysis Centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD) centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients at the end of the year 2000. Almost all the dialysis centers were on hospital campus but of variable sizes with an average ratio of 14.8 dialysis machines per center (range 2-113 machines per center). The distribution of the dialysis centers according to the geographical regions of Saudi Arabia included 18(14%) in the northern, 25(19%) in the southern, 13(10%) in the eastern, 35(27%) in the western and 39(30%) in the central region. There was a total of 6,694 dialysis patients served on 1,918 hemodialysis machines. There were 1,793(93%) HD machines capable of performing bicarbonate dialysis. There was an average ratio of 3.5 patients per one HD machine. In addition to the hemodialysis, there were 28(22%) centers engaged in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 56(43%) centers in the follow-up of post transplant patients. The total number of the nephrologists, regardless of their expertise was 212 of whom 180(84%) spoke Arabic; the average ratio was 32 patients per nephrologist (range of 14-58). There were 1320 hemodialysis nurses of whom only 465(35%) spoke Arabic. The average ratio of patients to nurses was five patients per nurse (range of 4-6). There were 72(55%) social workers and 70(54%)dietitians with average patients ratios to these supporting services of 1:93 patients (range of 1:58-137) and 1:96 patients (range of 1:53-137), respectively. The study HD patients had a mean age of 47.8 ± 17.1 years (range: 2-92 years); of them, 52.5% were males and 12% had non-Saudi nationality. Of the hemodialysis patients, 1,815(27%) were diabetics. The calculated net increase of dialysis population was 988 patients per year (14.8%). There were 5,700(85%) patients on regular bicarbonate dialysate. Chronic viral infection were noted in more than half of all the dialysis population: thus 3,380(50%) were positive for hepatitis C viral (HCV) serology, 448(7%) had positive hepatitis B (HBV) antigenemia and six(0.1%) had the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a satisfactory advancement achieved in many Saudi dialysis centers in terms of equipment, personnel and patients? care. However, there should be more emphasis in the future on quality care through better self-assessment of the performance of these centers.

Souqiyyeh Muhammad; Al-Attar Muhammad Besher; Zakaria Haroun; Shaheen Faissal

2001-01-01

391

Measuring Studentsâ Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-10-02

392

Quality issues in continuing medical education in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The issue of continuing medical education (CME) in Saudi Arabia is no longer quantity but rather quality. Quality Management (QM) of the current huge number of CME activities is essential to ensure its merits and outcomes. Sound evaluation is the cornerstone of any QM process to CME. However, issues related to models of evaluation, CME stakeholders, principles of adult learning and assessment should be consid--ered before deciding on the type of evaluation appropriate for QM of CME. Our aim is to draw attention to the importance of developing a QM process for CME that is valid, reliable, feasible and acceptable to dif--ferent CME stakeholders. The huge volume of CME programs needs QM to ensure its utility for healthcare providers and consumers. Understanding relevant evaluation models and the complexity of evaluating CME is a necessary step towards appropriate action.

Al-Shehri Ali; Alhaqwi Ali; Al-Sultan Mohammed

2008-01-01

393

Solar radiation over Saudi Arabia and comparisons with empirical models  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present a comparison between models developed by the present authors and 16 other models for different geographical and varied meteorological conditions. The comparisons are made using the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean percentage error (MPE), and mean absolute bias error (MABE). These errors are calculated using monthly-mean, measured daily and estimated values of total solar radiation for 41 locations in Saudi Arabia. We find that our latitude, longitude, altitude, and sunshine-duration-dependent model given in Eq. (1) produced the best estimates for global solar radiation. The second- and third-best estimates were obtained from our linear model and other models given in Eq. (2) and Eq. (11), respectively. (author)

Rehman, S. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Research Institute

1998-12-01

394

Aspartoacylase deficiency and Canavan disease in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We found defective aspartoacylase activity in fibroblasts cultured from 12 patients with leukodystrophy clinically diagnosed as spongy degeneration of the brain (Canavan disease), three confirmed by brain biopsy. The activity of aspartoacylase ranged between 1 and 13% of two groups of control individuals, normals, and those with other leukodystrophies. The present report confirms the study of Matalon et al. [1988] in a totally different ethnic group and provides independent verification that aspartoacylase activity is the first documented specific biochemical marker in Canavan disease and plays an important role in pathogenesis. Considering that only some 75 cases had been reported up to 1982, our group of 12, accumulated within 3 years, is inordinately large and suggests that Saudi Arabia provides a promising venue in which to study the biochemical and molecular genetics of Canavan disease.

Ozand PT; Gascon GG; Dhalla M

1990-02-01

395

Market Based Mergers- Study on Indian & Saudi Arabian Banks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the efficiency and performance of post merger using CRAMEL–type variable of selected private banks in India & Saudi Arabia which are initiated by the market forces. The results suggest that the mergers did not seem to enhance the productive efficiency of the banks as they do not indicate any significant difference. The financial performance suggests that the banks are becoming more focused on their retail activities (intermediation) and the main reasons for their merger is to scale up their operations. However, it is found that the loan to total Assets and the profitability are the two main parameters which are to be considered since they are very much affected by mergers. Also, the profitability of the firm is significantly affected after merger giving a negative impact on Earnings.

Ravichandran Krishnamurthy; khalid abdullah alkathlan

2010-01-01

396

Neural tube defects in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) among admissions at a regional referral hospital in Saudi Arabia, compare trends over several years and note any influence of prenatal folic acid treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For every NTD admission into the newborn unit of Asir Central Hospital, during the period January 1995 through December 1998, data were collected on the infant and mother and input into a programmed form. RESULTS: During the period, 64 infants were admitted with NTDs, giving an incidence of 0.78/1000 births in the region. The yearly admission frequency (4.5%-8%) was closely the same (average 6.6%) over the 4-year period (P>0.05). The sex incidence was equal and the major lesions were myelomeningocele (70%) and encephalocele (23%). Thoracolumbar (44.4%) and lumbosacral (40%) regions were the most common sites of spina bifida; encephalocele were largely occipital (93%). A majority (87%) of infants with myelomeningocele were hydrocephalic at birth. Fifty percent of the infants were offspring of consanguineous marriage (first and second cousins). Eighty-three percent of the mothers attended antenatal care, but 70% of these reported late (from the 12th week of pregnancy). Only 25% of the 64 mothers were on folate supplementation during the affected pregnancy and no mother received preconceptional folic acid supplementation. CONCLUSION: The incidence of NTD in the region appears to be non-declining over the years, a situation which is at variance with experience in Western countries. There is a need to consider an intensive approach to periconceptional folic acid supplementation for Saudi women. Genetic counseling may also be important.

Asindi A; Al-Shehri A

2001-01-01

397

Spirometric reference values for healthy nonsmoking Saudi adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To derive prediction equations of spirometric values of healthy Saudi adults and to compare the derived equations with equations reported in selected population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of healthy nonsmoking men and women Saudi adults. The measured spirometric values were the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1 ), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and forced mid-expiratory flow (FEF25-75%). RESULTS: A total of 621 spirometric tests done. The prediction equations were derived using the following formula: Predicted spirometric value = constant + (b1 x age) + (b2 x height (cm)), where b1 and b2 represent the regression coefficients for age and height respectively. Variable Constant Age (years) Height (cm) Variable Constant Age (years) Height (cm) Males (n=292) Females (n=175) FVC -2.933 -.018 .046 FVC -3.470 -.016 .045 FEV1 -1.886 -.019 .036 FEV1 -2.482 -.018 .036 FEV1 /FVC (%) 98.41 -.095 -.068 FEV1 /FVC (%) 100.67 -.142 -.072 PEF 17.274 -1.243 3.471 PEF -226.648 -.499 4.076 FEF25-75% .100 -.024 .027 FEF25-75% -1.337 -.021 .031 The means of the measured FVC and FEV1 were significantly lower than the predicted values derived by the Americans equations of -7.2% and -4.6%, among males respectively (p value < 0.00001) and -4.7%, and -5.26%, among females respectively (p value < 0.00001). CONCLUSION: The reference spirometric values derived in our study were significantly lower than the predicted values derived by the Americans equations.

Ghobain MO; Alhamad E; Alorainy HS; Hazmi MA; Moamary MS; Al-Hajjaj MS; Idress M; Jahdali HA; Zaitoni M

2013-06-01

398

Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7%) at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay

Tarek Tawfik Amin; Feroze Kaliyadan; Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib

2011-01-01

399

Marjan Field system features coating innovations in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Innovations and advanced techniques in pipecoating and field joints for offshore pipelines are features of the 147-mile offshore oil and gas pipeline system installed for Aramco in the Marjan Field offshore Saudi Arabia. The project involved a network of oil and gas lines including 77 miles of 30-in. pipe, 62 miles of 36-in. pipe, and 8 miles of 16-in. pipe. Project is scheduled for completion by the end of 1984. Corrosion coating for all of the pipe, applied by Bredero Price Saudi Arabia Ltd., is 5/32-in. coal tar enamel over a synthetic primer, plus a reinforcing glass fiber wrap and an asbestos felt overwrap. Hevicote /SUP r/ concrete-weight coating was applied at a density of 190 lb per cu ft; thickness varies from 1- to 6.375-in. Pipecoating improvements pioneered in Europe for demanding North Sea projects were further developed by Bredero Price at its Jubail pipecoating facility for use on the Persian Gulf project. These included: Waterslotting. This is considered the most efficient method to control concrete cracking and subsequent spalling and to reduce stress on the concrete coating. Welded wire mesh. The 1.6 mm by 1.6 mm welded wire cross-sectional area is 36% greater than standard wire netting, increasing the amount of reinforcing steel in the concrete coating. New joint fill method. The Marjan project is the first offshore pipeline to use Joint Systems Corp's new IMAD automatic joint fill machine to coat the field joints on the pipe after welding and inspection.

1984-10-01

400

Incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations in Western Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To present the incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and associated anomalies and to compare the findings with published literature. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted during the period January 2011 to December 2011. We reviewed the medical charts of all cases with ARMs admitted at Al-Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1998-2010. The incidence and spectrum of ARMs, associated regional anomalies, and those with a positive family history of ARMs were identified. The 95% confidence interval and Chi square trend test were used to quantify the significance of variation in annual incidence. Results: One hundred eighty-eight cases of ARMs were detected from 189,145 live births with an incidence of approximately 1/1000 live births with a male-to-female ratio of 1.9:1. The incidence showed yearly stability (p=0.3509). The most common ARMs was perineal fistula (32.9%). There was a statistically significant gender difference (p=0.000). The most common in boys was rectourethral fistula (47.2%) and in girls was vestibular fistula (46.2%). Isolated non-familial ARMs was found in 106 (56.3%), isolated familial 9 (4.7%), and associated ARMs in 73 (38.8%) cases. In terms of associated anomalies, genitourinary (34%), and cardiovascular (19.2%) systems reported a high incidence. Conclusion: The incidence of ARMs in Madinah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is higher than the reported data. Isolated ARMs was more common than the associated category, and the familial one was rarely reported. 

Hamdi H. Almaramhy

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Mineral exploration, Mahd adh Dhahab District, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Mahd adh Dhahab is the largest of numerous ancient gold mines scattered through the Precambrian shield of Saudi Arabia and the only one with recent production. During the period 1939-54, 765,768 fine ounces of gold and 1,002,029 ounces of silver were produced from the mines by the Saudi Arabian Mining Syndicate. Ore minerals at Mahd adh Dhahab include free gold and silver, tellurides, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite in and associated with a system of north-trending quartz veins and quartz veinlet stockworks. Pyrite is a common sulfide gangue mineral. Country rocks are a north dipping sequence of pyroclastic and transported pyroclastic rocks of the Hulayfah Group that are locally highly silicified and potassium-feldspathized. The prime target for this exploration program was a north-trending zone of quartz veins and breccias, faults, alteration, and metalization approximately 400 m wide and 1000 m long. The ancient and recent mine workings are located in the northern part of this zone. Although the quartz veins and alteration cut all lithologies, the major metalization is confined to the intersection of veins and agglomerate. Ten holes were diamond drilled to explore geochemical, geological, and geophysical targets in the area. A significant new zone of metalization was discovered 700 m south of the ancient and recent mine workings and within the same major zone of quartz veins, alteration, and faults. Metalization in this southern mineralized zone is at the intersection of the quartz veins and a distinctive and highly altered agglomerate. The total zone of vein and agglomerate intercept is potentially metalized and comprises a block of ground 40 m thick and 400 m wide along the strike of the agglomerate and projected downdip 250 m. Tonnage of this block is 17.2 million tons. The explored zone, approximately 25 percent of the potentially metalized rock, has a potential resource of 1.1 million tons containing 27 g/t gold and 73 g/t silver.

Worl, Ronald G.

1978-01-01

402

Smoking pattern among female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Smoking is the most important avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the world. The estimated annual death rate of 4.9 million people in 1999 is expected to rise to 10 million by the 2020s and 2030s, 7 million of which will occur in developing countries. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and assess its pattern among non-medical female college students in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1020 female students selected from the literature and science colleges by multi-stage stratified random sampling technique with proportional allocation. Data were collected using a self-administered modified WHO Global Youth Tobacco Survey questionnaire. Results: Results revealed that occurrence of smoking among female college students was 8.6%. It was significantly higher among literature college students (12.1%) than among Science College students (3.4%). The mean age at which smoking started was 16 ± 2.4 years, with a minimum of 11 years. More than half of the students who smoked were cigarette smokers, while 43.2% were shisha smokers. There was a strong relationship between parents who smoked and daughters who smoked. The main motive for smoking was curiosity (44.3%), followed by relief of tension (26.1%). Conclusions: It may be concluded that smoking is increasing among female college students in Saudi Arabia. Accordingly, it is recommended that a preventive comprehensive health education program on smoking be initiated for females in middle schools, that stricter tobacco control measures be adopted by the government, and that anti-smoking clinics be established in colleges.

Koura, Manal R.; Al-Dossary, Ahlam F.; Bahnassy, Ahmed A.

2011-01-01

403

Differences in prostate cancer detection between Canadian and Saudi populations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may requ (more) ire adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4'ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P<0.0001). Median serum PSA, prostate volume, and PSA density values were 6.1'ng/mL, 47.3 g, and 0.12'ng·mL?1·g?1, respectively, for MUHC patients and 5.2'ng/mL, 64.5'g, and 0.08'ng·mL?1·g?1, respectively, for KSUH patients (P<0.0001, t-test followed by one-way ANOVA). In addition, the KSUH group had a significantly lower PCa detection rate among patients younger than 60 years of age and with PSA values <10'ng/mL.

Al-Abdin, O.Z.; Rabah, D.M.; Badr, G.; Kotb, A.; Aprikian, A.

2013-06-01

404

Erythrocyte membrane proteins in healthy Saudis and patients with hereditary spherocytosis and hereditary elliptocytosis.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) in the native population of Saudi Arabia, even though these conditions are seemingly common. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the protein make-up of the red cell membrane in healthy Saudis and in patients with HS and HE. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen healthy Saudi subjects (13 males and 5 females), 11 patients with HS (6 males and 5 females) and 11 patients with HE (7 males and 4 females) were studied. All normal controls and patients underwent SDS-PAGE red cell membrane protein analysis in duplicate and the stained protein bands were identified and quantitated by densitometry. RESULTS: In normal, healthy Saudis, the mean values for seven membrane proteins ( I+/- spectrin, I(2) spectrin, ankyrin, band 3, protein 4.1, protein 4.2, and actin) were similar to those published for normal, healthy Americans. Of the eleven cases with HS, 7 (64%) demonstrated detectable protein abnormalities while 4 (36%) were apparently normal. The electrophoretic patterns of membrane proteins in Saudis with HS differed from those of patients with HS in other parts of the world. Of the 11 cases of HE, 7 (64%) displayed abnormalities while 4 (36%) were normal. CONCLUSION: The electrophoretic pattern of the main proteins in the membranes of red blood cells in healthy Saudis is similar to that reported from the USA. However, significant differences exist in the electrophoretic patterns between Saudi patients with HS and patients from other parts of the world.

Al Khairy Khalid; Al Zahrani K; Al-Saleh Saad; Oluboyede Olayide

2003-01-01

405

EGovernment Stage Model: Evaluating the Rate of Web Development Progress of Government Websites in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper contributes to the issue of eGovernment implementation in Saudi Arabia by discussing the current situation of ministry websites. It evaluates the rate of web development progress of vital government websites in Saudi Arabia using the eGovernment stage model. In 2010, Saudi Arabia ranked 58th in the world and 4th in the Gulf region in eGovernment readiness according to United Nations reports. In particular, Saudi Arabia has ranked 75th worldwide for its online service index and its components compared to the neighbouring Gulf country of Bahrain, which was ranked 8th for the same index. While this is still modest in relation to the Saudi government’s expectation concerning its vision for eGovernment implementation for 2010, and the results achieved by the neighbouring Gulf countries such as Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates on the eGovernment index, the Saudi government has endeavoured to meet the public needs concerning eGovernment and carry out the implementation of eGovernment properly. Governments may heed the importance of actively launching official government websites – the focus of this study – as the main portals for delivering their online services to all the different categories of eGovernment (including G2C, G2B, and G2G). However, certain Saudi ministries have not given due attention to this vital issue. This is evidenced by the fact that some of their websites are not fully developed or do not yet exist, which clearly impedes that particular ministry from appropriately delivering eServices.

Osama Alfarraj; Steve Drew; Rayed Abdullah AlGhamdi

2011-01-01

406

Bone mineral density: What normative data should we use to report Saudi female patients?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Despite the fact that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) was a pioneer in developing its bone mineral density (BMD) reference population (RP), BMD is still reported in most Saudi dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) centers according to Lebanese RP. The aim of the current work was to assess the implication of using normal ranges other than Saudi female normal range in reporting BMD of Saudi female patients (SFP). This study was conducted at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Three published Arabian female DEXA RPs were reviewed and statistically compared. The implication of using RPs other than Saudi female reference population (SFRP) in reporting SFP was assessed in 1653 patients who were reported according to SFRP, Lebanese female reference population (LFRP) and Kuwaiti female reference population (KFRP). All female patients BMD data performed between June 1995 and July 2003 were included in the study. This study was conducted at the Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, KSA. Three published Arabian female DEXA RPs were reviewed and statistically compared. The implication of using RPs other than Saudi female reference population (SFRP) in reporting SFP was assessed in 1653 patients who were reported according to SFRP, Lebanese female reference population (LFRP) and Kuwaiti female reference population (KFRP). All female patients BMD data performed between June 1995 and July 2003 were included in the study. The current use of LFRP in reporting SFP should be discontinued and instead SFRP should be used. Further national studies are needed to reassure the Saudi RP and to resolve the differences between the current 2 SFRP at the second and fifth age decades. (author)

2004-01-01

407

Energy conservation and its implication for architectural design and town planning in the hot-arid areas of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States keep their oil output high to satisfy an energy-hungry world. Correspondingly their income is high and national development intensive. A more modest development programme, better architectural designs, better town planning and more intensive use of solar energy would dramatically reduce the need for this high income and so would lead to production cuts and oil conservation.

Abd-El-Hamid; Khair-El-Din

1985-01-01

408

Hysolar - German-Saudi Arabian solar hydrogen research, development and demonstration program. Hysolar - Deutsch-Saudi Arabisches Forschungs-, Entwicklungs- und Demonstrationsprogramm Solarer Wasserstoff  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Hysolar project is carried out in international cooperation with Saudi Arabia. In a 350 kW pilot plant in Riyadh, hydrogen is produced by water decomposition in an electrolytic process. The electrical power required for this is supplied by a solar generator equipped with solar cells. (Sauter).

1991-01-01

409

SOLERAS - Saudi University Solar Cooling Laboratories Project: King Faisal University. Design analysis study. Volume 3. Appendixes VII-X  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Documentation supporting the proposed construction of a passively cooled house at King Faisal University in Saudi Arabia is presented. The documents include: computer printouts for comparisons of design; landscapes analysis; field station study for Al Batin, Saudi Arabia; data acquisition systems; and performance evaluation. (BCS)

1985-01-01

410

THE DYNAMICS OF ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATION AMONG WOMEN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BUSINESSWOMEN IN SAUDI ARABIA AND BAHRAIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explores the underlying dynamics of motivation for women entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia and Bahrain, using t-test and ANOVA analyses. Various distinct motivational factors were found in both countries. Self-achievement was the most prominent factor motivating Saudi women to start their own businesses. However, for Bahraini women, the profit motive was the most prominent motivational factor.

Muhammad A. Sadi; Basheer M. Al-Ghazali

2012-01-01

411

An Investigation of the Scope, Purpose, and Effects of United States Foreign Military Sales to Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States Security Assistance Program has grown rapidly in the 1970s and Saudi Arabia has been an integral part of the growth. By 1976 Saudi Arabia became the largest purchaser of U.S. arms and equipment worldwide. The research analyzes the purpos...

B. L. Dycus J. A. Fiorillo

1977-01-01

412

Incidence and patterns of inborn errors of metabolism in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, 1983-2008  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives :Individual inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare disorders, but may not be that uncommon in our patient population. We report the incidence of IEM in a defined cohort of births at the Saudi Aramco medical facilities in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia over ...

Moammar Hissa; Cheriyan George; Mathew Revi; Al-Sannaa Nouriya

413

SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

1985-01-01

414

Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in a group of morbidly obese Saudi patients undergoing bariatric surgery: A preliminary report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background/Aim: Earlier reports from Saudi Arabia have shown high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, recent studies have documented a reduction in the infection prevalence. No prior study has assessed the prevalence in morbidly obese Saudi patients. We aimed to study...

Al-Akwaa Ahmad

415

A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Dental caries critically impacts the health and development of children. Understanding caries experience is an important task for Saudi Arabian policymakers to identify intervention targets and improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to analyze current data to assess the nationwide prevalence and severity of caries in children, to identify gaps in baseline information, and to determine areas for future research. METHODS: A search of published and unpublished studies in PubMed, Google, and local Saudi medical and dental journals was conducted for the three keywords "dental," "caries," and "Saudi Arabia." The inclusion criteria required that the articles were population-based studies that assessed the prevalence of dental caries in healthy children attending regular schools using a cross-sectional study design of a random sample. RESULTS/DISCUSSION: The review was comprised of one unpublished thesis and 27 published surveys of childhood caries in Saudi Arabia. The earliest study was published in 1988 and the most recent was published in 2010. There is a lack of representative data on the prevalence of dental caries among the whole Saudi Arabian population. The national prevalence of dental caries and its severity in children in Saudi Arabia was estimated to be approximately 80% for the primary dentition with a mean dmft of 5.0 and approximately 70% for children's permanent dentition with a mean DMFT score of 3.5. The current estimates indicate that the World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 goals are still unmet for Saudi Arabian children. CONCLUSION: Childhood dental caries is a serious dental public health problem that warrants the immediate attention of the government and the dental profession officials in Saudi Arabia. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate oral health goals. Without the ability to describe the current situation, it is not possible to identify whether progress is being made toward these goals. A roadmap with a clear starting point, destination, and pathway is a desperately needed tool to improve the oral health of Saudi Arabian children.

Al Agili DE

2013-01-01

416

Portfolio approach to the oil surplus problem: Saudi Arabia as a study case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation investigated the different strategies that Saudi Arabia could have followed in the deployment of surplus oil funds, namely low risk, high risk strategy. The static mean variance portfolio selection model is used to derive the set of efficient portfolios. The optimum portfolios for Saudi Arabia as well as the efficient frontiers, under different constraints, were explored. To find the optimum portfolios, it is necessary to determine the real rate of return of the assets; we must adjust the nominal yield by the following factors; taxes imposed on nonresidents, exchange rate fluctuations, and the inflation rate. The results tend to support the conclusion that low risk strategy is successful through all periods studied while high-risk strategy was not always successful. In addition, the Saudi's strategy of avoiding the United States stock market was not costly, but the US stock market did not perform well during the period of the study. This suggests that if the Saudis want to continue their low risk strategy in the future, they must consider including US private stocks and bonds in their portfolio selection. The success of the high risk strategy seems to require the ability to predict exchange rates. It is observed that if the Saudis follow high risk strategy and fail to predict the exchange rates they might lose. The loss in terms of real rate of return could be greater than the real return if a low risk strategy were followed.

Gazali, M.N.

1985-01-01

417

Attracting Customer in Saudi Arabia to Buy from Your Business Online  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of companies have websites only to present products.Accordingly, new research has been conducted to explore the attraction of customers in Saudi Arabia to buyfrom businesses online. This will assist the Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) sector, which represents 90%of companies in Saudi Arabia, to increase communication channels with its customers electronically. Aquantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 381 consumer participants from Saudi Arabia whowere interested to buy online to see what factors would attract them to online shopping. Several factors emergedas attracting factors which were divided into organizational, technical, and cultural factors.

Adel Aboud Bahaddad; Luke Houghton; Steve Drew

2013-01-01

418

Distribution of chronotypes in a large sample of young adult Saudis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: There are no published data on the chronotypes of young Saudi adults. This study assessed the distribution of chronotypes in college-aged Saudis. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional survey of college students Patients and Methods: A validated abridged version of the original Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQr) was used to assess the chronotype of 759 subjects. Results: Of 540 (71.1%) males and 219 (28.9%) females participated in this study ( age range, 18-32 years), 138 (18.2%) were "morning-types," 417 (54.9%) were "neither-types" and 204 (26.9%) were "evening-types." There was no significant gender difference in MEQr typology. In Saudis, particularly males, the frequency of morning typology was somewhat higher than that reported for individuals in similar age groups in some Western countries. Conclusion: Most Saudi college students had no preference for morningness or eveningness and were classified as "intermediate-types." Morningness appears to be slightly more common in Saudis, especially males, than in individuals of some Western societies.

BaHammam Ahmed; Almestehi Wael; Albatli Abdurrahman; AlShaya Shaya

2011-01-01

419

Incidence of treated end-stage renal disease in asir region, southern saudi arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Incidence of treated end-stage renal disease (t-ESRD) in Saudi Arabia is not well documented and only few reports are available. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of t-ESRD in Asir region. The study period included January 1995 to December 1995. All new cases admitted for chronic dialysis treatment in all MOH-hospitals with a diagnosis of ESRD were included. There were 114 Saudi and 10 non-Saudi Patients. Among the 114 Saudi patients, there were 64 (56.1%) males and 50 (43.9%) females. Mean age 47.86 +/- 19.86 years (range 9-90 years). The overall incidence of t-ESRD was 214.9 pmp. Age adjusted incidence for males and females were 243 pmp and 186 pmp, respectively. There were no differences between males and females (X 2 =2.019, p = < 0.05). The majority of the patients (41.2%) did not have definitive diagnosis. Among the known causes, glomerulonephritis was diagnosed or suspected in 56.7%, diabetes was the cause of ESRD in 16.4% of the cases. This is the highest incidence of ESRD ever reported in Saudi Arabia. Geographical, environmental, genetical factors may have been contributing factors.

Al-Homrany M; Abolfotoh M

1998-10-01

420

Review of e-Government Policy and Outcomes in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Public sector organizations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were directed to place their communications and services online in 2005, in part to promote internet-based technologies throughout the country. Due to political and technical issues, the internet was late to the region; however, the advent of useful and affordable mobile devices accelerated private and commercial take up of data-sharing technologies, and Saudi Arabia currently has one of the highest national growth rates in this regard. Late adoption means that the Kingdom bypassed many early issues of large-scale technological change as managers could select from a range of proven technologies, nevertheless the traditionalist Saudi society remained until recently largely unconvinced of the benefits of the internet. Using the two aspects of rapidly improving technological infrastructure and a reticent family-based national consumer profile, this paper relates the progress of internet-based adoption in an emerging market through the prism of e-government status in Saudi Arabia. The issues raised in the context of Saudi Arabia have application in the Arab world and other emerging markets, especially Islamic.

Mohammed Ateeq Alanezi; Ahmad Kamil Mahmood; Shuib Basri

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Administration, economy and society of Saudi Arabia. Sauji arabia no seiji keizai shakai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyze petroleum policies of Saudi Arabia, it is essential to understand its administration, economy and society by and large. Therefore, general analysis of Saudi Arabia was conducted. Saudi Arabia is carrying out various policies to materialize the most preferential target, the stability of the nation and the society; that is, the stable structure of the Saud Family rule. Its petroleum policy is aimed at securing income to materialize other policies, and at strengthening foreign influences. Importance of other policies, however, are ever floating and sometimes they are even contradictory. Effects of the policies are not always clear, either. Moreover, as Saudi Arabia is not a sole supplier of crude oil, its policies are influenced by the world supply-demand relation of petroleum and the balance of powers in OPEC. It is, therefore, impossible to judge and predict the petroleum policy of Saudi Arabia by a simple policy making model. It is necessary to follow at all times the ever-changing internal and external conditions. 9 figs., 42 tabs.

1989-03-20

422

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. RESULTS: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method.

Kamel RM

2013-01-01

423

An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)has witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA) in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been able to catch up with the pace of digitaldevelopment in the rest of the world. The research paper attempts to identify the problems in implementinge-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research paper on the basis of analysis of data throughhierarchical multiple regression modeling and multiple response analysis of the data has identified statisticallysignificant problems in implementation of e-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and outlined key policyoptions that this country as well as other GCC nations can consider in formulation of policies to stimulate,support and maximize the effect e-commerce has on their economies.

Iftekhar Ahmad; Anand Mohan Agrawal

2012-01-01

424

End of the Islamic Cold War: The Saudi-Iranian Detente and Its Implications  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

Saudi Arabia and Iran are not only reconciling their diplomatic differences, but are also cooperating in numerous areas including oil, trade, and domestic security. Given their differences, what forces are lessening tensions and motivating them to pursue this new detente? More importantly,