WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this briefing, some specific problems facing the petroleum industry in Saudi Arabia over the next few years are considered. They include: marketing difficulties caused by a glut in the Asian market to which Saudi Arabia is increasingly directing sales; the current high cost of maintaining a surplus production capacity that is unlikely to be used in the short term; a need to revise the budget to take into account the unexpected collapse in oil revenues in recent months; a need to prevent gross overproduction by both OPEC and non-OPEC rivals in order to prevent either loss of market share or persistent low prices. (UK)

Roberts, J.

1998-04-01

2

Tabanidae (Diptera) of saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples were collected from southern, central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia using Malaise traps and sweep nets. Nine species of Tabanidae were identified, two for the first time from Saudi Arabia, Hybomitra peculiaris (Szilády) and Atylotus pulchellus (Loew). Therefore, the total number of Tabanidae in Saudi Arabia is 31 species. Remarks of the species recorded in this study were given. A key to the genera of Tabanidae occurring in the Arabian Peninsula is also provided. Available literature for Saudi Arabian Tabanidae is summarized and provided. It is concluded that the tabanid fauna of Saudi Arabia is more similar to that of the Palaearctic region than to the Afrotropical region. PMID:23961046

Al Dhafer, H M; Dawah, H A; Abdullah, M A

2009-10-01

3

Saudi Arabia: petroleum industry review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)

Shammas, Pierre [Arab Press Services (APS) Group, Nicosia (Cyprus)

2000-07-01

4

Disability in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and incidence of disability, and most of this is on disabled children. There are several difficulties associated with conducting research on disability related issues in Saudi Arabia. Here, we review the current situation of disability, disability research, and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia from the published literature. 

Maher S. Al-Jadid

2013-05-01

5

Puitsillad Saudi Araabiasse  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Projektbüroo AS Resandi osalusel on rajatud Saudi Araabiasse Jiddahi kaheksa puidust jalgteesilda: kuus talasilda ja kaks kaarsilda. Ideekavandi valmistab ette Risto Mäkipuro, OÜ NuvoEst. Inseneriarvutused ja silla projekt tehakse AS-s Resand (insenerid Ragnar Pabort, Alar Just). Silla detailid valmistatakse Soomes. Ill: 2 joonist, värv. foto

2006-01-01

6

Saudi Arabia : emerging with influence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs

2006-06-04

7

Communication with Saudis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People have different cultural characteristics that affect the way they do business. Using compelling ways to categorize major cultural differences, this paper helps the reader understand how different concepts of time, the relevance of status and power in shaping organizational structure, communication methods, and ways to conduct  meetings and social gatherings, all influence how interactions with a specific culture in Saudi Arabia can be made effective.

Wang Heng

2009-02-01

8

Disability in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Disability is a complex, influential, dynamic, multidimensional challenge, and it can substantially limit major life activities of human beings and their ability to integrate/reintegrate into society. According to the World Health Organization reports almost 15% of the world’s population lives with certain types of disability, of whom 2-4% experience substantial difficulties in functioning. In Saudi Arabia, very limited research has been conducted on the prevalence and inciden...

Al-jadid, Maher S.

2013-01-01

9

Communication with Saudis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

People have different cultural characteristics that affect the way they do business. Using compelling ways to categorize major cultural differences, this paper helps the reader understand how different concepts of time, the relevance of status and power in shaping organizational structure, communication methods, and ways to conduct  meetings and social gatherings, all influence how interactions with a specific culture in Saudi Arabia can be made effective.

Wang Heng

2009-01-01

10

Saudi Arabia:- Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Saudi Arabia - OECD  

...Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Saudi Arabia Aid for Trade,aid-for-trade,Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009,aid-for-tarde,Saudi aid,Saudi Arabia ...development aid,Saudian aid Saudi Arabia:- Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Saudi Arabia - OECD Français Follow us E-mail Alerts ...Blogs OECD Home About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Saudi Arabia › Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Saudi Arabia Aid ...for Trade at a Glance 2009 - Saudi Arabia Send Print Tweet   The Aid for Trade at a Glance 2009: Maintaining Momentum report presents ...

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76 FR 77977 - U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia April 14-18, 2012 AGENCY: International...Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia from April 14-18, 2012. Saudi Arabia...

2011-12-15

12

Stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the epidemiology and clinical features of stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the causes, pathogenesis, and risk factors. The Retrospective Study Group (RSG) included children with stroke who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period July 1992 to February 2001. The Prospective Study Group (PSG) included those seen between February 2001 and March 2003. During the combined study periods of 10 years and 7 months, 117 children (61 males and 56 females, aged one month-12 years) were evaluated; the majority (89%) of these were Saudis. The calculated annual hospital frequency rate of stroke was 27.1/100,000 of the pediatric (1month-12 years) population The mean age at onset of the initial stroke in the 104 Saudi children was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) median and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). Large-vessel infarcts (LVI, 51.9%) were more common than small-vessel lacunar lesions (SVLL, 19.2%). Five patients (4.8%) had combined LVI and SVLL. Intracranial hemorrhage was less common (18.2%), whereas sinovenous thrombosis was diagnosed in 6 (5.8%) patients. A major risk factor was identified in 94 of 104 (89.4%) Saudi children. Significantly more hematologic disorders and coagulopathies were identified in the PSG compared to the RSG (p=0.001), reflecting a better yield following introduction of more comprehensive hematologic and cogulation laboratory tests during the prospective study period. Hematologic disorders were the most common risk factor (46.2%); presumed perinatal ischemic cerebral injury was risk factor in 23 children (22.1) and infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system in 18 (17.3%). Congenital and genetic cerebrovascular anomalies were the underlying cause in 7 patients (6.7%) and cardiac diseases in 6 (5.8%). Six patients (5.8%) had moyamoya syndrome, which was associated with another disease in all of them. Inherited metabolic disorders (3.8%) included 3 children with Leigh syndrome and a 29-months-old girl with mitochondrial encephalomypathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes. Systemic vascular disease was a risk factor in 3 children (2.9%) including 2 who had hypernatrmic dehydration; and post-traumatic arterial dissection was causative in 3 cases (2.9%). Several patients had multiple risk factors, whereas no risk factor could be identified in 11 (10.6%). Due to high prevalence and importance of multiple risk factors, a comprehensive investigation, including hematologic, neuroimaging and metabolic studies should be considered in every child with stroke. (author)

2006-01-01

13

Energy analysis of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study provides an energy outlook for Saudi Arabia's energy resources, their production and consumption, as well as their future projections. Crude oil, natural gas and refined products, and electricity are the main energy resources of the country. Saudi Arabia is the only country in the world that has the largest crude oil reserves and this is one of the main energy producers. The high growth rates of Saudi Arabia's population and the sectorial energy utilisation are the two main factors affecting its energy consumption dramatically. Moreover, Saudi Arabia is not only one of the main energy producers in the world but is also one of the world's largest energy consumers per capita. (Author)

Dincer, Ibrahim; Al-Rashed, Bandar [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2002-07-01

14

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia throug...

Kheyami Ali; Cunliffe Nigel; Hart C

2006-01-01

15

Saudi Arabia walks a tightrope  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saudi diplomacy seems more active than ever. This has to do with three recent major regional developments: the summer 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, the violent clashes between Hamas and Fatah in the occupied Palestinian territories, and the Iraqi quagmire. In each of these, the role of Iran is difficult to overlook and this is troubling Riyadh. Yet Saudi Arabia has difficulty in responding to Iran's assertiveness: it wants to contain Tehran's ambitions, but at the same time it cannot...

2007-01-01

16

Demographics: The Downfall of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Threats to Saudi Arabia have historically been categorized as external, reference immediate neighbors, and internal via conservative Islamic opposition groups The United States, because of its security arrangement, has guaranteed the sovereignty of Saudi ...

A. N. Goetz

2003-01-01

17

Radon in Saudi houses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A total of 637 passive radon dosemeters (CR-39 nuclear track detectors in a closed chamber) were used in a survey in 400 houses in Saudi Arabia. The radon concentration was found to vary from 5 to 36 Bq.m"-"3 (0.13 to 0.98 pCi.l"-"1) with a mean of 16 Bq.m"-"3 (0.43 pCi.l"-"1). The unoccupied houses showed a concentration of 29+-7 Bq.m"-"3 (0.78+-0.19 pCi.l"-"1) double that of the occupied houses, 14+-1 Bq.m"-"3 (0.39+-0.02 pCi.l"-"1), in the same area. The radon daughter concentration measured with a Working Level monitor in 17 unoccupied houses was found to vary from 1.35x10"-"3 to 24x10"-"3 WL with an average of 6.9+-1.4x10"-"3 WL. The average exhalation rate measured in 37 houses by 95 passive detectors in cans sealed to the walls ranged from 0.013 to 0.044 Bq.m"-"2.h"-"1(0.35 to 1.2 pCi.m"-"2.h"-"1) with an average of 0.021+-0.003 Bq.m"-"2.h"-"1(0.56+-0.09 pCi.m"-"2.h"-"1). This survey is the first in Saudi Arabia (a hot climate) and can usefully be compared with similar surveys in countries with cold climates. (author)

1986-01-01

18

Radon Awareness among Saudi People in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available People should be aware of sources of health hazards, such as radon gas; and efforts should be made to educate them. Radon awareness among people is important for monitoring its level in their residential houses to reduce the risk of ad-verse health effects. Furthermore, radon awareness among public would support and facilitate researchers working for such surveys during the field work. In the present study, a public survey was conducted to investigate radon awareness level among Saudi people in Riyadh. A questionnaire was designed and distributed among 2297 persons of various educational background. It was found that about 82% of the Saudi public in Riyadh were ignorant of radon and its associated health risks. It was also found that only ~18% of educated public knew about radon. It was concluded that Saudi public needs to be educated in this respect properly.

Abdulaziz S. Alaamer

2012-10-01

19

Cephalometric norms of Saudi boys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was conducted to establish cephalometric norms of Saudi boys based on the Steiners analysis, and to compare the results of the present study with similar studies conducted on other racial or ethnic groups. For this purpose, fifty-five healthy Saudi boys, with a mean age of 12.04 years, were selected from different schools of Riyadh. Female Saudis were not used for this study due to social restrictions with respect to the Kingdom's customs and traditions. Selection was made on the basis of normal occlusion, balanced and pleasing profile with no obvious facial asymmetry. None of the boys have undergone orthodontic treatment prior to this study. Lateral skull cephaiograms were taken and traced using a standardized technique. Each cephalogram was traced twice with a one week interval by the authors. All angular and linear measurements were calculated to the nearest 0.5 degree and 0.5 mm, respectively. Steiners method of cephalometric analysis was used to establish cephalometric norms. The result of the study demonstrated that the Saudi boys differed from other racial and ethnic groups in some skeletal and dental measurements. Generally, the Saudi boys revealed a more protrusive maxillary apical base and double dental protrusion. (author)

1990-01-01

20

Nuptiality pattern in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The data of this work are based on the 'Saudi Maternal and Child Health Survey' conducted in 1991. This was a nationwide house to house field survey. The study included 6294 ever-married Saudi female in the childbearing age who represent the target population. They were randomly selected from both urban and rural settings of the five geographical areas of Saudi Arabia. The mean current age of the sample of ever-married women was 31 years and the mean age at first marriage was 17 and 16 years for urban and rural females, respectively. Education was associated with upward shift of the age at first marriage. About 20 per cent of the sampled ever-married Saudi females got married before their 15th birthday and 83 per cent before reaching 20 years of age. These percentages are even higher in rural than urban settings. The overall percentage of women who were currently married at the time of the survey was 96 per cent. The divorced and widowed women of childbearing age were 2 and 3 per cent, respectively, of the total. Husband's educational level had positive impact on the frequency of divorce. The latter was highest among women married to illiterate husbands with a dose response pattern. Comparison has been made with the situation 4 years ago. An increase in literacy rates among Saudi ever-married women and their husbands was observed, however, a significant (P < 0.05) difference still exists between female and male literacy rates (38 and 71 per cent, respectively). The events of early marriage, before the age of 15 years, became less frequent. There is an overall decline in teenage marriages which explains a large part of the recent changes observed in nuptiality and pattern of birth in Saudi Arabia. PMID:8568953

Farag, M K; al-Mazrou, Y Y; Baldo, M H; Aziz, K M; al-Shehri, S N

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Loan for Saudi methanol plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Methanol Co., a joint venture between Saudi Basic Industries Corp. (Sabic) and a consortium of Japanese companies, has signed a $150-million loan agreement with the Export Import Bank of Japan to finance its expansion program. The loan will fund construction of an 850,000-m.t./year chemical-grade methanol plant at Sabic`s Al-Jubail complex. The new plant is scheduled to come onstream in mid-1997. It and the company`s two existing plants will produce 1.4 million m.t./year.

NONE

1996-08-14

22

75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011. Led by a...Commerce official, the mission to Saudi Arabia is intended to include...

2010-09-07

23

75 FR 21598 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia AGENCY: International Trade Administration...trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, December 6-8, 2010. Led by...Commerce official, the mission to Saudi Arabia is intended to include...

2010-04-26

24

Changing attitudes in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Jean M. J. Fréchet, vice-president for research at the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), talked to Nature Materials about the achievements of this institution since its foundation in 2009 and its contribution to shaping research attitudes in Saudi Arabia.

Martiradonna, Luigi

2014-04-01

25

Abdullah reshapes Saudi oil policy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current oil market is having numerous remarkable effects. Mergers and meetings between hitherto unlikely partners have been the order of the day. More obscurely, the lack of the usual income has also been having some strange results in Saudi Arabia. Crown Prince Abdullah has been making his presence felt. (UK)

1998-10-01

26

Saudi Arabia and CERN sign protocol  

CERN Multimedia

On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...

2008-01-01

27

Real Exchange Rate Misalignment in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper attempts to measure degree of misalignment of the Saudi Riyal by estimating the long run equilibrium real exchange rate of the currency. Based on cointegration technique, this paper has identified, government consumption expenditure, GDP growth and gross capital formation as important determinants of the Saudi Riyal long run equilibrium value. Results suggest that the actual real exchange rate was below the estimated equilibrium (Saudi Riyal over valued) in 1980,198 1and 1...

Emad Omar Elhendawy

2012-01-01

28

Saudi Arabia's oil policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study analyzes: how Saudi Arabia has used its oil power in the recent past; the mixture of motives that seem to go into Saudi oil policy; the prospects for Saudi Arabia remaining dominant force in the world oil market in light of changing supply and demand conditions; and internal instability that could change the willingness or ability of Saudi leaders to act as price leaders. Also discussed is how the US can develop policies to ensure the stability of the Middle East region. (DMC)

Quandt, W.B.

1982-01-01

29

Saudi Arabia launches new development plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia's Third Five-Year Economic Development Plan (1980 to 1985) will continue to expand imports of American technology and products. Now the seventh largest world market for American exports, Saudi Arabia's purchases grew 20 percent to $5 billion in 1979. A preliminary analysis of priorities under the Third Plan and the opportunities presented for American exporters leads off a special section on Saudi Arabia in this issue of Business America and is followed by an analysis of trends in the Saudi economy, a highly successful Water Resources Equipment and Systems exhibition, and the foundation of Islamic legal tradition as embodied in Shari's.

Sams, T.A.

1980-06-30

30

Rock Art of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is not only oil in which Saudi Arabia is rich, but it is also among the four richest rock art regions of the world. Hundreds and thousands of petroglyphs, painted rock art, and ancient Arabian inscriptions sites are located all over the country, representing various cultural phases, from the Neolithic until the recent past. One can see the naturalistic, schematic, abstract, mythical, and mystical images representing ancient ideology, thoughts about the metaphysical world, religious entity, economy, environment, human activities, and variety of animal types, according to particular climatic and environmental conditions. The rock art of Saudi Arabia is the mirror of its rich cultural heritage of so-called Bedouin or desert dwellers that surprises the world with its 4000 archaeological and more than 1500 rock art sites.

Majeed Khan

2013-12-01

31

Family Boraginaceae in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sixty nine Boraginaceous species have been recorded in Saudi Arabia. Twenty nine of them not listed in the Flora of Saudi Arabia. These newly recorded species are mostly inhabit the mountains and the wadies as well as in the areas characterized by the great variations in temperature. The appearance of these species may be due to the rapid change in the ecological factors which leeds to the movement of the vegetation, or due to the uncomplete, previous survey of the flora. This study was pointed the need of more ecological studies to know the reasons of the change in the flora and to study how much the ecological stress may affect the speciation.

Wafaa K.Taia

2004-01-01

32

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries, including Saudi Arabia, and high mortality in developing countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. Methods: We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the aetiology of diarrhoea carried out from 1982 to 2003. Results: The prevalence of rotavirus infection ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in the first year of life. There were significant differences in seasonality within Saudi Arabia, with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains had been G-typed. The prevalence of nontypeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types. Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long electropherotype was predominant. Conclusion: Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhoea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited and there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines.

Kheyami Ali

2006-01-01

33

The Saudi Initiative for asthma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Saudi Initiative for Asthma (SINA provides up-to-date guidelines for healthcare workers managing patients with asthma. SINA was developed by a panel of Saudi experts with respectable academic backgrounds and long-standing experience in the field. SINA is founded on the latest available evidence, local literature, and knowledge of the current setting in Saudi Arabia. Emphasis is placed on understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, medications, and clinical presentation. SINA elaborates on the development of patient-doctor partnership, self-management, and control of precipitating factors. Approaches to asthma treatment in SINA are based on disease control by the utilization of Asthma Control Test for the initiation and adjustment of asthma treatment. This guideline is established for the treatment of asthma in both children and adults, with special attention to children 5 years and younger. It is expected that the implementation of these guidelines for treating asthma will lead to better asthma control and decrease patient utilization of the health care system.

Al-Moamary Mohamed

2009-01-01

34

Climatic conditions for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The degree-day concept has been in use for more than 60 years as a means for utilities and fuel suppliers to predict the energy demand of the average population of buildings in any given location. It has also been used to assist the building design profession in estimating monthly and annual cooling and heating requirements of specific buildings in different locations. This paper presents the climatic conditions for Saudi Arabia, including the monthly average ambient temperature, the values of cooling and heating degree-days for different base temperatures, and the winter and summer outdoor design conditions for 20 cities in Saudi Arabia. These cities are located in five different climatic zones. The data presented in this paper will be useful to the building design profession and to designers and manufacturers of heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and refrigerating (HVAC and R) equipment. It will also cover part of the present lack of information in ASHRAE Handbooks concerning degree-days and outdoor design conditions in Saudi Arabia.

Said, S.A.M.; Kadry, H.M.; Ismail, B.I. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1996-11-01

35

Rotavirus infection in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human rotavirus, an important causative agent of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, leads to high morbidity in both developing and developed countries. Effective control depends upon an accurate understanding of disease burden and the relative importance of circulating serotypes. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of rotavirus in Saudi Arabia through a review of 22 published studies of rotavirus and the antilogy diarrhea carried out from 1982 to 2003. The prevalence of rotavirus ranged between 10% to 46% with a median of 30%. Most cases were among children less than 2 years of age, and particularly in first year of life. There were significant differences in the seasonability within Saudi Arabia with increased infection during winter in some cities and during summer in others. G1 was the predominant serotype followed by G4, G3 and G2, in 4 studies where strains have been G-typed. The prevalence of noticeable strains ranged from 11.0% to 31.3%. No data were available on P types... Results of electropherotyping in 4 studies revealed that the long elctropherotype was predominant. Rotavirus is an important cause of severe diarrhea in Saudi children. However, the available data on rotavirus strains in circulation are limited. And there is an urgent need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies to evaluate rotavirus strains in circulation and identify unusual types that could be incorporated into future vaccines. (author)

2006-01-01

36

Women and Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges and Achievements  

Science.gov (United States)

The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…

Hamdan, Amani

2005-01-01

37

Connecting Students across Universities in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study reports results of an experiment in which the author and her students at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia shared an online grammar course with a professor and his students at Umm Al-Qura University (UQU) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia using www.makkahelearning.net. The experiment proved to be a total failure. Factors…

Al-Jarf, Reima Sado

2005-01-01

38

Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

1991-11-18

39

Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail

1991-11-18

40

Future of energy demand in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the most recent papers on this topic were reviewed to examine the future use of nuclear energy in seawater desalination and electric power generation, as well as its impact on the environment in Saudi Arabia. 14 refs.

Elshayal, I.M.; Al-Zakri, A.S.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Quality of life in Saudi vitiligo patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : Vitiligo has a devastating psychosocial effect. The cultural traditions of Saudi society are quite different compared with the western world. Hence, a quality of life study using a different questionnaire suitable to the cultural traditions of the society is necessary to measure qualify of life in vitiligo patients. Objective : This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL) in Saudi vitiligo patients and their family. Materials and Methods : A p...

Al-Mubarak Luluah; Al-Mohanna Hind; Al-Issa Ahmed; Jabak Monzer; Mulekar Sanjeev

2011-01-01

42

Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to d...

Abdel Gader Abdel Galil; Osman Abdel Moniem; Al Gahtani Furgah; Farghali Mohamed; Ramadan Ali; Al-Momen Abdel Kareem

2011-01-01

43

Traffic Accident Characteristics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia ???? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??? ? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Road traffic accidents are a major health problem in developing countries. Saudi Arabia is no exception to this worldwide dilemma. The increase in per capita income in the last two decades has made automobile available for alJ households. This increase along with other reasons has put the traffic accidents, injuries, and fatalities at an alarming figures. This paper presents the various traffic accident characteristics in Jeddah, the second largest city in Saudi Arabia, and recommends counter...

1994-01-01

44

Saudi decree encourages MTBE, Chevron aromatics plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chevron Chemical (Houston), encouraged by a new Saudi royal decree that establishes extremely low feedstock prices, is in final negotiations to build a novel aromatics plant in Saudi Arabia. Chevron says it plans to close the deal and announce details the first week of March. The unit will be based on Chevron's Aromax reforming process, which uses a zeolite catalyst to convert light naphtha into benzene and toluene. No existing plant is using the technology, but Chevron is building a $250-million, 150-million gal/year Aromax unit at its refinery site in Pascagoula, MS, and Idemitsu has licensed the process for a plant in Chiba, Japan. The Saudi decree, issued late last year, pegs domestic feedstocks - propane, butane, and naphthas - at 30% below the lowest price of the prior quarter in major non-domestic markets. That clarifies and guarantees the Saudi feedstock price, which has always been nebulous, and thus allows project feasibility to be more clearly assessed. The decree is designed to encourage further private petrochemical investment in the country. In particular, the Saudi government hopes guaranteed low prices for butane will encourage more methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) projects. Arabian American Chemical, a 50/50 joint venture between Mobile and Arabian Chemical Investments, said in October of last year that its 830,000-m.t./year MTBE project at Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, would go ahead if feedstock questions could be resolved. The decree apparently resolves those questions

1993-02-24

45

Saudi Arabia: energy, developmental planning, and industrialization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Petrodollars, having catapulted Saudi Arabia to the forefront of the global economy, now fuel the Kingdon's industrial-development process. The rapid influx of oil-generated funds into this developing country carries its own set of chracteristics and demands. Government officials and Saudi and non-Saudi academicians and industry representatives offer varied views and responses to the economic and international complexities of development. Moving from a general overview to specific economic and political topics, the book emphasizes the importance of carefully developed government growth programs to the creation of a well-balanced and industrially diverse society. Contributors examine the roles of the petroleum sector and technology transfer, trace the interdependence of Saudi Arabia and the industrialized countries, and analyze the roots of indigenous and imported inflation. They also consider Saudi Arabia's new role in international finance and development assistance. A discussion of the special historical and cultural factors that affect the Saudi transition from tribal society to industrialized nation provides a background for understanding the particular human-resource needs and goals of the nation. The book concludes with an analysis of the Third Development Plan as a blueprint of the development objectives and government-spending priorities in manpower, industrialization, and the agricultural and petroleum sectors. 10 figures, 20 tables.

El Mallakh, R.; El Mallakh, D.H. (eds.)

1982-01-01

46

The Saudi King: Power and Limitation in the Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy Making  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When reviewing the literature, there is a widely held assumption that in Saudi Arabia, the monarch rules unchecked and is the ultimate foreign policy decision-maker. However, as it argues in this paper, the king is not the sole actor, because, senior members of the royal family are participating in directing the Saudi internal and external policies.

Fahad M. Alsultan

2013-09-01

47

The Saudi King: Power and Limitation in the Saudi Arabian Foreign Policy Making  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

When reviewing the literature, there is a widely held assumption that in Saudi Arabia, the monarch rules unchecked and is the ultimate foreign policy decision-maker. However, as it argues in this paper, the king is not the sole actor, because, senior members of the royal family are participating in directing the Saudi internal and external policies.

2013-01-01

48

Celebrating Saudi Arabia: Using the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography in Order to Discover Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a large Arab, Muslim country in the Middle East. It has been an economic and political partner of the United States for many years. This unit, designed for elementary students, provides a text, questions, mapping skills, and fun activities. Students read about Saudi Arabia to gain insights and an appreciation of…

Fitzhugh, William

2006-01-01

49

Saudi Arabia: Current Issues and U.S. Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia, a monarchy ruled by the Saud dynasty, enjoys special importance in much of the international community because of its unique association with the Islamic religion and its oil wealth. The United States and Saudi Arabia have longstanding econo...

A. B. Prados C. M. Blanchard

2007-01-01

50

Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to learn from this unique phenomenon of migration medicine. PMID:12615370

Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

2003-02-01

51

Age at menarche and the reproductive performance of Saudi women.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Saudi Arabia has undergone substantial development in the recent past with concomitant changes in living conditions, and economic and general health status that have affected the age at menarche in Saudi women. We evaluated the current age at menarche and reproductive events among Saudi women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Age, age at menarche, age at marriage, age of first pregnancy, number of children, and number of abortions were collected for Saudi women attending King Khalid Universi...

Babay Zainab; Addar Mohammed; Shahid K; Meriki N

2004-01-01

52

Pathology of skin diseases. A study from Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To describe the histopathological pattern of skin diseases in patients from the western region of Saudi Arabia and to compare this with previously published data from other regions in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. Methods: A retrospective review of all skin biopsies received and reported by the Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and Decembe...

Alghanmi, Najla M.; Abdullah, Layla S.

2013-01-01

53

Saudi Arabia; L`arabie Saoudite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.) 9 refs.

Sambart, A

1998-05-01

54

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi secondary school girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year ...

Al Gelban Khalid

2009-01-01

55

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year ...

Al Gelban Khalid

2009-01-01

56

Smoking behaviour and attitudes among adult Saudi nationals in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To measure the smoking behaviour and attitudes among Saudi adults residing in Riyadh City, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Primary health care centres (PHCCs) in Riyadh City were selected by stratified random sampling. Subjects resident in each PHCC catchment area were selected by systematic sampling from their records in the PHCCs; 1534 adults aged 15 years and older were interviewed during January to April 19...

Saeed, A. A.; Khoja, T. A.; Khan, S. B.

1996-01-01

57

78 FR 52213 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Tubular Goods From India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...of imports from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...tubular goods from India, Korea, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan,...

2013-08-22

58

Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

Alwadie, Adnan D.

2013-01-01

59

The German-Saudi HYSOLAR program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper gives a very condensed overview on the manifold activities in the German-Saudi bilateral RD and D program HYSOLAR. Concentrating on Phase II of the program - which ended in 1995 - recent results in the fields of solar hydrogen production, hydrogen utilization, fundamental research, system studies and concentrating photovoltaics are shortly reviewed. (author)

Hassan Abaoud [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Steeb, H. [German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany)

1998-11-01

60

Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

2010-10-28

 
 
 
 
61

Making a Smart Campus in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Prince Sultan University (PSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, has conceptualized what it means to be a smart campus after surveying similar notions worldwide. A "smart" campus requires smart teachers, smart technology, and smart pedagogical centers. It deploys smart teachers and gives them smart tools and ongoing support to do their jobs while…

Abuelyaman, Eltayab Salih

2008-01-01

62

Teachers' Online Discussion Forums in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia has special online discussion forums for teachers as part of its internet website. The study surveys those teachers' online forums and reports the number of participants, number of threads and responses, topics with the highest and lowest posts and the forums role in teachers' professional development and…

Al-Jarf, Reima

2006-01-01

63

Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies from developed countries have reported that extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is on the rise due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic. However, similar studies from high-burden countries with low prevalence of HIV like Saudi Arabia are lacking. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. A retrospective analysis was carried out on all patients (n=431 with a culture - proven diagnosis of tuberculosis seen at University teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2001 to December 2007. A total of 183 (42.5% pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and 248 (57.5% extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB cases were compared in terms of age, sex, and nationality. There were 372 Saudis (SA (86.3% and the remaining non-Saudis (NSA 59 (13.7%. The age distribution of the PTB patients had a bimodal distribution. EPTB was more common at young age (20-29 years. The proportion of EPTB cases was significantly higher among NSA patients (72.9% compared to SA patients (55.1%. Females had higher proportion (59.5% of EPTB than males (55.6%. The most common site was lymph node tuberculosis (42%. In conclusion, our data suggest that EPTB was relatively common in younger age, female gender and NSA. Tuberculosis (TB control program may target those populations for EPTB case-finding.

Al-Otaibi Fawzia

2010-04-01

64

Establishing a petrochemical industry. [Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of Saudi Arabia's biggest and most extensive development projects will soon be completed. The country's new petrochemical industry combines different elements: Natural resources, technology transfer, and the government's plans for diversified long-term economic development.

1985-06-01

65

Application of photovoltaic systems in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper addresses the issue of the economic competitiveness of PV-powered irrigation when compared with conventional diesel powered pumps in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The cost comparison gives a breakdown cost of a solar photovoltaic module of US$ 2.5 per peak watt. (author).

Said, S.A.M. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1992-12-01

66

Implementation of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most of the Saudi desalination plants are of the multistage flash (MSF) type. These plants are often constructed as a dual purpose installation, producing power and water. MSF plants are considered to be energy intensive, where the energy cost is a major controlling parameter in the overall cost of desalination. Oil price fluctuations affect the cost of desalted water significantly. On the other hand, nuclear power offers price stability in the long term. Nuclear powered desalination provides long term availability of indigenous fuel, as well as long term fuel price stability. It has a minimum environmental impact if compared with other conventional desalination processes. The operational expenses of nuclear desalination are far lower than those of conventional plants. implementation of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia is essential where large water requirements exist. The CANDU PHWR is the appropriate type of nuclear reactor for Saudi Arabia. A hybrid reverse osmosis/MSF CANDU PHWR is the candidate system for applying dual purpose nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia. (author)

1997-12-01

67

Pediatric burns in Western Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a struct...

2012-01-01

68

Information Policies in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of national information policy focuses on Saudi Arabia and Malaysia. Documents from the two countries that were reviewed to examine policy provisions related to library and information services are listed, and Malaysia's national policy on library and information services is presented as a model for other developing countries. (Contains…

Chaudhry, Abdus Sattar

1993-01-01

69

Thunderstorm distribution and frequency in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

A new average annual thunder day map for Saudi Arabia is presented. Based on this map, the distribution of thunderstorms over Saudi Arabia is analysed in terms of the factors related to the lightning performance of transmission lines such as thunderstorm days per year (Td/yr). Lightning activity continues for the present to be represented by thunderstorm frequency, which is routinely recorded at meteorological observation sites. Thunderstorm occurrence at a particular location is usually expressed as the number of days in a calendar year when thunder was heard, averaged over several years. This paper examines thunderstorm days in different areas of Saudi Arabia and specifically those areas where lightning strikes are more frequent; for this purpose, the software ArcGIS is used to produce contour maps which demonstrate areas of concern in Saudi Arabia in the period 1985-2003. Establishing the annual and seasonal Td/yr for Saudi Arabia enables transmission and distribution line engineers to calculate and better design a lightning protection system. Maps of thunder days/year (Td/yr) were constructed on the basis of the database records available on lightning incidence in Saudi Arabia at the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) (http://www.pme.gov.sa/). Annual thunderstorms are most frequent over the southwestern parts of the country, and generally decrease towards the west and east. Due to its low latitude and less temporal change, the west coast of the Red Sea recorded the lowest Td/yr. A secondary maximum Td/yr is apparent in the southeast to central part of the country. Thunderstorm frequency does not, in general, appear to vary in any consistent way with rainfall. There appears to be no evidence of any widespread temporal trend in thunderstorm frequency. The southern region in general, and especially the cities of Abha, Taif and Al-Baha, has shown greater numbers of thunderstorm days all year round. Similarly, this variation did show higher frequency throughout the year. The development of lightning incidence and the counting of Td/yr, as well as the establishment of annual and seasonal lightning maps of Saudi Arabia, are initiating a new era of producing and archiving thunderstorm maps and data records which serve the PME, the utilities, industry and the public.

Shwehdi, M. H.

2005-09-01

70

Cephalometric norms for the Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia: a research report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have established specific cephalometric norms for children with different ethnic backgrounds, showing different facial features for each group. Up till now, there is a paucity of information about the cephalometric features of Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia, who have distinct social and climatic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to establish cephalometric norms for children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 62 lateral cephalometric radiographs of Saudis (33 females and 29 males; aged 9–12 years having good facial proportions and Class I dental occlusion, were traced and analyzed. Using the t-test, the mean value, standard deviation and the range of 20 angular and linear variables were calculated and compared to norms of adult Saudis living in the Western region of Saudi Arabia using the t-test. Male and female groups were also compared using the t- test. Results Saudi children tend to have a significantly shorter and lower face height, a larger angle of convexity, and more proclined and protruded incisors when compared with adult Saudis (P Conclusion Saudi children have distinct cephalometric features, which should be used as a reference in the orthodontic treatment of young Saudi patients.

Hassan Ali H

2005-08-01

71

Career profile of dentists in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)

2009-01-01

72

Normal Reference Levels of Serum Cystatin C in Saudi Adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the first report from Saudi Arabia studying the normal reference intervals in adult Saudi subjects and evaluating serum cystatin C as a prospective marker for the assessment of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Three hundred healthy adult Saudi subjects including 156 males (52%) and 144 females (48%), with a mean age of 31.21 ± 9.82 years were prospectively studied to establish normal reference ranges for cystatin C. A total of 68.34% of the study patie...

Al Wakeel Jamal; Memon Nawaz; Chaudhary Abdul; Mitwalli Ahmad; Tarif Nauman; Isnani Arthur; Hammad Durdana

2008-01-01

73

Medication burden of Saudi Arabian women receiving antiresorptive therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Bader Al-Shafie,2 Abdallah S Al-Omran,1 Mohammed Q Azam11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacy, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi ArabiaBackground and purpose: Osteoporosis is common in the Saudi Arabian population, and its successful treatment requires full compliance. Patients who require antiresorptive therapy, such as oral bisphosphonates, may suffer from other disease...

Sadat-Ali M; Al-Shafie B; As, Al-omran; Mq, Azam

2012-01-01

74

Symptomatic gallstones: A disease of young Saudi women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a study performed to identify the risk factors for gallstones in Saudis, taking the patient population of King Khalid University Hospital as a sample. Only Saudis with symptomatic gallstones were studied, the parameters being age, sex, weight, body mass index, fertility, age at menarche and age at marriage. The results showed that sex, weight, body mass index and fertility all appeared to be important factors in the development of gallstones and that the condition affects more Saudi f...

Murshid Khalid

1998-01-01

75

Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical s...

Alzahrani Hasan

2012-01-01

76

HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Health services in Saudi Arabia have developed enormously over the last two decades, as evidenced by the availability of health facilities throughout all parts of the vast Kingdom. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) provides over 60% of these services while the rest are shared among other government agencies and the private sector. A series of development plans in Saudi Arabia have established the infra-structure for the expansion of curative services all over the country. Rapid development i...

Sebai, Zohair A.; Milaat, Waleed A.; Al-zulaibani, Abdulmohsen A.

2001-01-01

77

Saudi Araabia ei kavatse lubada tänavail ühtegi meeleavaldust / Heiki Suurkask  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Saudi Araabias keelati igasugused protestimeeleavaldused, samas on 11. märtsiks välja kuulutatud "raevupäev". Veebruaris tegid 10 islamistliku intelligentsi esindajat katse luua opositsioonijõud, mõni päev hiljem nad vangistati

Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

2011-01-01

78

The cost of domestic energy prices to Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issue of subsidies on domestic energy prices has moved up the policy agenda, most recently as a result of the G20 commitment in September 2009 to phase out such subsidies. However, what constitutes a 'subsidy' is complex and controversial. The IEA in its last World Energy Outlook claimed that Saudi Arabia was second in the world in terms of its levels of subsidy on domestic energy prices. However, because Saudi Arabia is a price maker in the international oil market, the methodology used by the IEA is seriously flawed. This paper explains the problems with the methodology for computing subsidies and explains the correct method in the case of Saudi Arabia. It then attempts to measure the levels of subsidy in Saudi Arabia using this methodology. However, while it converts the IEA's 'subsidy' of $23 billion into a net 'profit' of $5.7 billion, it goes on to point out that the current low price regime is causing problems for Saudi Arabia. - Highlights: > How to define energy subsidies in the context of Saudi Arabia as the price maker for international oil prices? > How far do the low domestic energy price in Saudi Arabia represent subsidized prices? > What are the costs and benefits of low/subsidized domestic energy prices in Saudi Arabia? > What policy options are available to offset the very poor record of energy efficiency in Saudi Arabia?

Alyousef, Yousef, E-mail: alyousef@kacst.edu.sa [King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Stevens, Paul, E-mail: p.j.stevens@dundee.ac.uk [Chatham House, 10 St James' s Square, London Sw1Y4LE (United Kingdom)

2011-11-15

79

Oil conservation and economic development in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation is to discuss and recommend an appropriate oil-conservation policy for Saudi Arabia in the light of past, present, and future economic development plans. The basic concept is the fact that oil is a depletable resource representing over 95% of Saudi national income. Two exogenous constraints face the government in its efforts to develop an efficient conservation policy. The first is the membership of Saudi Arabia in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. The second is the world energy market. These two constraints hinder the ability of Saudi Arabia to use an appropriate social rate of discount to allocate oil revenues efficiently. Using social rate of discount implies that Saudi oil reserves would be allocated over time according to a rate that reflects the Saudi society's time preference. A high discount rate means that oil production would be pushed from the future to the present, whereas a low discount rate means that Saudi Arabia prefers producing oil in the future rather than in the present. A strategy based on social rates of return on domestic and foreign investment seems to be appropriate for Saudi Arabia. But the existence of the exogenous constraints and also events of 1983 and 1984 in the domestic economy and world energy market impose restrictions on using discount rate. It is appropriate for Saudi Arabia in the meantime to deal with the deteriorating situation in the world energy market.

Shams, M.M.

1984-01-01

80

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their esti...

Alsuwaida Abdulkareem; Farag Youssef; Al Sayyari Abdulla; Mousa Dujanah; Alhejaili Fayez; Al-Harbi Ali; Housawi Abdulrahman; Mittal Bharati; Singh Ajay

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Saudi National Assessment of Educational Progress (SNAEP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To provide a universal basic education, Saudi Arabia initially employed a rapid quantitative educational strategy, later developing a qualitative focus to improve standards of education delivery and quality of student outcomes. Despite generous resources provided for education, however, there is no national assessment system to provide statistical evidence on students’ learning outcomes. Educators are querying the curricula and quality of delivery for Saudi education, especially following low student performances on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS in 2003 and 2007. There is a growing demand for national assessment standards for all key subject areas to monitor students’ learning progress. This study acknowledges extant research on this important topic and offers a strategy of national assessment to guide educational reform.

Abdullah Saleh Al Sadaawi

2010-12-01

82

Heavy Metal Levels in Saudi Arabian Spirulina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A small farm of the microalga Spirulina platensis (Nordstedt Geitler was established in Saudi Arabia in 1999. The levels of arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, mercury (Hg, manganese (Mn, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn were measured in the final dry powder of this alga using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The content of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in the dry powder were very low and they ranged between 0.002 mg kg-1 for As and 0.109 mg kg-1 for Pb. Higher levels were found for Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn and they varied between 8.51 mg kg-1 for Cu and 394 mg kg-1 for Fe. The results indicated that the heavy metal content of Saudi Arabian Spirulina is within the recommended range established by major producers.

Ali A. Al-Homaidan

2006-01-01

83

The rifted margin of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of rifted continental margins has always been of great scientific interest, and now, with dwindling economic oil deposits, these complex geological features assume practical importance as well. The ocean-continent transition is, by definition, laterally heterogeneous and likely to be extremely complicated. The southernmost shotpoints (4, 5, and 6) in the U.S. Geological Survey seismic refraction profile in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia lie within a transition region and thus provide a testing ground for methods that treat wave propagation in laterally heterogeneous media. This portion of the profile runs from the Farasan Islands in the Red Sea across the coast line and the Hijaz-Asir escarpment into the Hijaz-Asir tectonic province. Because the southernmost shotpoint is within the margin of the Saudi sub-continent, the full transition region is not sampled. Furthermore, such an experiment is precluded by the narrowness of the purely oceanic portion of the Red Sea.

McClain, J. S.; Orcutt, J. A.

84

Waters and desalination programs of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is an arid desert country without rivers or sweet-water lakes. It does, however, have large amounts of ground water and seawater. These waters must be desalted by some means in order to make them potable. The most frequently used methods for that purpose are: multistage flash (MSF) evaporation, reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED). Because of rapid industrialization of the country, the demand for fresh water has been growing steadily. This, in turn, has resulted in a spectacular growth of the water-desalination industry. This paper discusses the availability and properties of the waters. It gives a detailed description of the major accomplishments and of the ongoing and future programs in the field of water desalination in Saudi Arabia. 14 references, 6 figures, 8 tables.

Wojcik, C.K.; Maadhah, A.G.

1981-07-01

85

Medical liability litigation in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The author analyzed the anesthesia medical malpractice closed claims that were referred to the Legal Health Organization (LHO) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Annual reports covering the period from 1420H-1429H (1999-2008) were statistically analyzed to give mean figures and percentages in each annual report, and then demonstrated all together to run the differential analysis together wi...

Al-Saeed Abdulhamid

2010-01-01

86

Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Saudi Arabia (SA) and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethriti...

Madani Tariq A

2006-01-01

87

Variable ?-globin haplotypes in Saudi ? thalassemia population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twenty two haplotypes were generated from a pool of 60 unrelated Saudi ? thalassemia major patients using previously described restriction sites in the ? globin gene. Linkage disequilibrium analysis of the polymorphic sites was also conducted, a few identified haplotypes were novel while the remainder was previously reported, haplotype1222212 was the most frequent haplotype in the study group and a strong linkage disequilibrium between two polymorphic restriction sites in these ? thalassemia patients was uncovered.

Jameela Shinwari

2013-08-01

88

Oral lesions in Saudi renal transplant patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Renal transplantation has evolved as the best treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease. Different oral problems arise in these patients, either as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or pharmacokinetics. To determine the prevalence of intra-oral lesions in a group of medically stable Saudi renal transplant patients (RTP) and to identify possible risk factors, in comparison with age and sex-matched healthy control subjects (HCS), we studied 58 RTP and 52 HC...

Al-Mohaya Maha; Darwazeh Azmi; Bin-Salih Salih; Al-Khudair Waleed

2009-01-01

89

Quality of life in Saudi vitiligo patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo has a devastating psychosocial effect. The cultural traditions of Saudi society are quite different compared with the western world. Hence, a quality of life study using a different questionnaire suitable to the cultural traditions of the society is necessary to measure qualify of life in vitiligo patients. Objective : This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL in Saudi vitiligo patients and their family. Materials and Methods : A prospective cross-sectional study at National Center for Vitiligo and Psoriasis, Saudi Arabia. A validated Arabic questionnaire of 41 questions was developed and utilized specifically for this study. Arabic language instrument was distributed to 260 vitiligo patients. Scores were compared in relation to demographic, clinical, and social variables in 4 dimensions of scale (relationship with colleagues, family relationship, social relationship, and self respect. Results : Overall score QOL was 17.1. Mean score for males was 11.1, whereas that for females was 23.9 (P < 0.05. Females scored significantly higher in all the 4 dimensions. Patients with exposed disease lesions scored significantly higher than those with unexposed lesions 5 vs 3.4 (P < 0.05. Conclusion : The overall score of QOL in vitiligo is relatively high, indicating a negative impact of the disease on QOL. QOL in women is significantly more affected than in men.

Al-Mubarak Luluah

2011-01-01

90

Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire sent to all Saudi students enrolled in healthcare profession programs in North America. The data was collected between January and March 2008 at the University of Illinois at Chica...

2012-01-01

91

Kas Saudi Araabia naftatulu leiab tee Rootsi pangandusturule? / Romet Enok  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Autor vaatleb, kes võiks enim olla huvitatud Põhjala pangandusturu ümberkorraldamisest ja kellel oleks selleks kõige rohkem vahendeid. Autori hinnangul on võimalik, et Investori ja SEB juhtide kohtumisel Saudi Araabia printsi Alwaleed bin Saudiga oli kõne all Saudi printsi kaasamine strateegilise investorina SEB kõrvale Nordeat ostma

Enok, Romet

2008-01-01

92

Special Education in Saudi Arabia: Challenges, Perspectives, Future Possibilities  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper provides a brief background of the education system in Saudi Arabia and current special education services and programs for students with disabilities. Additionally, this paper presents the findings of some studies that examined teachers' perspectives regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities. As Saudi Arabia continues its…

Alquraini, Turki

2011-01-01

93

Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi

Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

2011-01-01

94

The importance of silicon photovoltaic manufacturing in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the potential of silicon development for photovoltaics will be discussed in conjunction with the availability of raw material and photovoltaic demand in Saudi Arabia. Recent studies suggest that silicon raw material for photovoltaic production should be considered for further investigation towards solar cells manufacturing in Saudi Arabia. (author)

Elani, U.A.; Bagazi, S.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1998-05-01

95

Producers and oil markets; The example of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article attempts an assessment of the potential use of futures by the Middle East oil producers. It focuses on Saudi Arabia since the sheer size of Saudi Arabian sales poses problems, but the basic issues discussed are similar for the other Middle East producers. (Author)

Greaves, W.

1993-08-01

96

Saudi production capacity climbing to 10 million b/d  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Saudi Arabia this year is completing its expansion of production capacity and developing recent discoveries to enhance export flexibility. The 3 million b/d capacity expansion to 10 million b/d, announced in 1989, is on target for completion by year end 1994. Most of the effort involves restoration of mothballed production equipment and installation of several gas-oil separation plants (GOSPs) in existing fields. But Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) also this year will start up production of extra-light oil from a new field in the central part of the kingdom. Start-up of Hawtah area production demonstrates success of an oil search Aramco began after receiving exclusive exploration rights to nearly all of Saudi Arabia's prospective area in 1986. From new fields and traditional producing areas, therefore, Saudi Arabia has the potential to expand production capacity beyond 10 million b/d. The paper describes the development of the extra capacity

1994-07-11

97

Environmental education in Saudi general environment system - an engineering perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Saudi Cabinet of Ministers approved the Saudi General Environment System (SGES) in 2001. This approval is considered a step forward towards preserving the environment in Saudi Arabia. One of the targets of this system is to make environmental planning as an un-replaceable part of every comprehensive development planning in all industrial, agricultural, and architectural sectors. Achieving such a target requires a specialized labor force. Therefore, College of Engineering should act positively and actively in disseminating environmental awareness among engineers since they play a major rule in development projects. A degree in environmental engineering is a must at present, which is not available yet at any university in Saudi Arabia. Details of a B. Sc degree in environmental engineering offered by two universities in USA, are discussed. The syllabus of a degree in environment engineering adapted for the Saudi environment and culture is outlined

2006-12-01

98

Developing sustainable residential buildings in Saudi Arabia: A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper assesses the energy and water consumption practices of existing housing in Saudi Arabia, with the ultimate aim of establishing guidelines for delivering sustainable residential buildings in the near future. In order to achieve this aim the current status of a typical Saudi residence (i.e. an apartment complex) is investigated in terms of energy and water consumption using simulation software packages. The paper then examines the prospects for applying various measures to the typical Saudi residence to manage energy and water use more sustainably. This research identifies several design-related faults common to Saudi Arabian house design. These faults contribute to an inefficient use of energy and domestic water resources. Finally, the paper puts forward a set of recommendations and guidelines, design-related and otherwise, to enhance the sustainability of future Saudi residential buildings. (author)

Taleb, Hanan M.; Sharples, Steve [School of Architecture, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2011-01-15

99

The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.

Huraib S

2000-01-01

100

Anemia and Iron Intake of Adult Saudis in Riyadh City-Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate iron deficiency anemia among adult healthy Saudi males and adult healthy non-pregnant Saudi females in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. 234 healthy adults were recruited of which, 102 were females and 132 were males. Male subjects were reclassified to cigarette smokers (n = 52 and non-smokers (n = 80. Anemia was assessed by dietary iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Iron intake was measured by analyzing the intake of three consecutive days. The results showed that iron intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in males compared to females. Mean iron intake of males (13.6±3.1 mg/day was adequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean concentrations of hemoglobin (15.89±0.95 g/dL and hematocrit (47.7±3.6% for males were normal. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were significantly higher in smokers compared to non-smokers, but both were normal, which suggested that iron deficiency anemia is not found among adult Saudi males. Mean iron intake of females (10.2±2.8 mg/day was inadequate compared to DRI recommendation. Mean hemoglobin level (13.68±0.83 g/gL and mean hematocrit level (38.9±3.2% of females were lower than cutoff values for determining iron deficiency anemia. Based on hemoglobin and hematocrit values, 21.6% and 20.6% of female participants, respectively were anemic. Based on iron intake, 95.1% of female participants had intake lower than the recommendation. Results of this study illustrated that iron deficiency anemia is highly prevalent among adult Saudi women in Riyadh City and suggests actions to eradicate iron deficiency anemia. These actions include increasing nutritional awareness and education for the purpose of changing inappropriate consumption patterns as well as fortification of certain foods in combination with additional intakes of iron from supplements.

Abdullah H. Al-Assaf

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STIs in Saudi Arabia (SA and other Islamic countries are limited. This study describes the results of a five-year surveillance for STIs in SA. Methods This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999. Results A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%, trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%, gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%, syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%, human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%, genital warts (1382, 3.5%, genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%, and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%. The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased. Conclusion Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.

Madani Tariq A

2006-01-01

102

The Najd Fault System of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Najd Fault System of the Arabian-Nubian Shield is considered to be the largest Proterozoic Shear zone system on Earth. The shear zone was active during the late stages of the Pan African evolution and is known to be responsible for the exhumation of fragments of juvenile Proterozoic continental crust that form a series of basement domes across the shield areas of Egypt and Saudi Arabia. A three year research project funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and supported by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) has focused on structural mapping, petrology and geochronology of the shear zone system in order to constrain age and mechanisms of exhumation of the domes - with focus on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea. We recognise important differences in comparison with the basement domes in the Eastern desert of Egypt. In particular, high grade metamorphic rocks are not exclusively confined to basement domes surrounded by shear zones, but also occur within shear zones themselves. Moreover, we recognise both exhumation in extensional and in transpressive regimes to be responsible for exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks in different parts of the shield. We suggest that these apparent structural differences between different sub-regions of the shield largely reflect different timing of activity of various branches of the Najd Fault System. In order to tackle the ill-resolved timing of the Najd Fault System, zircon geochronology is performed on intrusive rocks with different cross cutting relationships to the shear zone. We are able to constrain an age between 580 Ma and 605 Ma for one of the major branches of the shear zone, namely the Ajjaj shear zone. In our contribution we present a strain map for the shield as well as early geochronological data for selected shear zone branches.

Stüwe, Kurt; Kadi, Khalid; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Hassan, Mahmoud

2014-05-01

103

Saudi Arabia: Petroleum and new economic trends  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)

1996-06-01

104

Fresh Water Fungi of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A survey was conducted to screen the fresh water fungi from different areas of Saudi Arabia viz. Al-Ahsa, Al-Direyah, Al-Haer, Al-Kharj, Al-Qasim and Wadi Laban. Twenty six species were recorded from as an aquatic fungi and thirty two species as an aero-aquatic fungi from fresh water, while twenty-six species were isolated as an aero-aquatic fungi from under water soil of these regions. Percent relative frequency of each fungus was also calculated.

Ibrahim A. Arif

1999-01-01

105

Bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi women  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Osteoporosis is reported to be common among postmenopausal Saudi women. The reported incidence varies between 50-60%. Different machines were used to reach these conclusions. At present it is believed that dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is the most accurate method to diagnose osteoporosis. This study was conducted to measure bone mineral density (BMD) measurement of lumbar spine and the upper femur of Saudi postmenopausal women attending orthopedic clinic with unrelated complaints. This study comprises of 256 patients attending orthopedic clinics at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2002 and June 2003. The data gathered was age, duration of menopause, height and weight for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Women with secondary osteoporosis were excluded from study. Patient's orthopedic complaints were also recorded in the database. Bone mineral density measurements were carried out using Hologic total body DEXA machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS package. The data of 256 patients was available for analysis. The average age of patients screened was 57.62 years (49-76) SD+-6.71. The BMI was 21.3-42.9 Kg/m (SD+-5.34). The BMD of lumbar spine was 0.785 gm/cm2 (0.527-1.023) SD +-0.142 and that of the hip region was 0.764 gm/cm2 (0.500-1.069) SD +-0.149. As per the WHO classification 59 women (23%) were classified as normal with the T score of -0.82, 78 (30.5%) as osteopenic with T score -2.5 and 119 (46.7%) as osteoporosis with T score -3.58. When the BMD of the hip was analyzed 62 (24.2%) were normal T score -1.0, 81 (31.6%) as osteopenic, T score -2.5 and 113 (44.1%0 as osteoporotic, with a T score of -3.1. on the basis of analysis of lumbar spine 190 (74.2%) had increased risk of fracture as compared to the analysis of hip 59% were at increased risk of fracture. Our results indicate that postmenopausal Saudi women suffer from osteoporosis and osteopenia higher than those from other parts of the country. Necessary steps are needed so as to avoid osteoporosis and its complications which could end up in epidemic proportions. (author)

2004-01-01

106

Statistical characteristics of wind in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The statistical characteristics of wind at 10 locations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are studied. The autocorrelation coefficients are computed and correlograms are found compatible with the real diurnal variation of mean wind speed for almost all the locations. The stochastic time series analysis is found to be suitable for the description of autoregressive models involving time lags of 1 and 24 h. The forecast wind values obtained from these autoregressive models are compared with the observed wind data for almost all the locations and are found to be in very good agreement. (author)

Rehman, Shafiqur; Halawani, T.O. (King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Development and Manufacturing Centre)

1994-01-01

107

Gamma Ray Shielding from Saudi White Sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is a comparison of gamma ray linear attenuation coefficient of two typs of shielding materials made of Saudi white and red sand. Each shield was consisted of one part of cement two parts of sand in addi-tion to water. Different thicknesses were tested. The concentrations of all elements in each shield material were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The results obtained from the ICP-MS were used in MCNP4B (Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Computer ...

2010-01-01

108

Outcome of stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report on the prognosis, neurologic outcome, and recurrence of stroke in Saudi children. We evaluated a cohort of 104 Saudi children with stroke at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). We analyzed the salient clinical, neuroimaging, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and laboratory data following retrieval from a specially designed comprehensive protocol. Of the 104 children in the cohort (aged one month to 12 years), 5 (4.8%) died during the study period and 9(8.7%) were lost to follow-up. The mean duration of follow-up for the remaining 90 children was 40 months (median 33 months). Recovery was judged complete in 6(6.7%) of these 90 children. We detected residual hemiparesis (irrespective of its effect on daily functions) in 73 (81%) and this was combined with other motor deficits in 45 children (50%). Forty-one children (46%) had residual dysphasia or language deficits, whereas 45 (50%) were judged to have had cognitive deficit. Psychometry revealed an abnormal intelligence quotient test (70) in 19 of 26 (73%) children. Other neurologic sequelae included epilepsy in 52 (58%), recurrent headaches in 13 (14%) and hydrocephalus in 4 (4.4%) patients, Six of the 95 (6.3%) children, who were ascertained to have died or kept their follow-up, had one or more occurrences, one month to 5 years after initial stroke (median 23 months). Patients who had recurrent strokes were significantly more likely to be the product of consanguineous marriages (p=0.04). Regarding the group of 23 children with perinatal stroke, neither deaths nor recurrences occurred during the follow-up period. However, 20 (87%) of them had significant delays in their developmental milestones. The toll of stroke in Saudi children is demanding, with most children demonstrating persistent neurologic or cognitive deficits. Primary prevention for recurrences is feasible through informed genetic counseling. (author)

2006-01-01

109

Vitamin D levels in healthy men in eastern Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Studies in 1980s and 1990s indicated that vitamin D levels in the ethnic Saudi Arabian population were low but no studies since that time have evaluated vitamin D levels among healthy young or middle-aged Saudi men. Thus, we assessed the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) among healthy Saudi Arabian men living in the Eastern Province. Subjects and Methods : One hundred males aged 25-35 years (the age range of peak bone mass) and 100 males aged 50 years or o...

Sadat-Ali Mir; AlElq Abdulmohsen; Al-Turki Haifa; Al-Mulhim Fatma; Al-Ali Amein

2009-01-01

110

Kawasaki disease in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe our experience on Kawasaki disease in the Madinah region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This is a retrospective hospital based study. The study was conducted in Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during January 2007 to January 2010. The study included 51 patients' records as suspected cases of Kawasaki disease. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. Twenty-four patients were proven to have Kawasaki disease in this study. The mean age of the patients at diagnosis was 3.1+/-2.4 years. Most patients were younger than 5 years (83.3%). The male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Diagnosis was made 8.1+/-3.3 days after start of fever with a range from 4-15 days. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) with 2 requiring another dose of IVIG. Echocardiography was performed 10.1+/-3.9 days from onset of fever with a range of 4-20 days. The duration of hospital stay was 7.9+/-5.8 days with a range from 3-25 days. Three patients had coronary artery abnormalities and still have coronary artery dilatation at last follow-up appointment. A high index of suspicion is mandatory for early diagnosis of Kawasaki disease as delayed diagnosis may lead to coronary lesions. A national awareness program on Kawasaki disease is recommended (Author).

2010-01-01

111

Cryptosporidiosis in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cryptosporidium is a coccidian protozoan parasite of the intestinal tract that causes severe and sometimes fatal watery diarrhea in immunocompromised patients and self-limiting but prolonged diarrheal disease in immunocompetent individuals. It exists naturally in animals and can be zoonotic. Although cryptosporidiosis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease in both developing and developed countries, it is more prevalent in developing countries and in tropical environments. We examined the epidemiology and disease burden of Cryptosporidium in Saudi Arabia and neighboring countries by reviewing 23 published studies of Cryptosporidium and etiology of diarrhea in between 1986 and 2006. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in human's ranged from 1% to 37% with a median of 4%, while in animals it was for different species of animals and geographic locations of the studies. Most cases of cryptosporidiosis occurred among children less than 7 years of age and particularly in the first two years of life. The seasonality of Cryptosporidium varied depending on the geographic locations of the studies but it generally most prevalent in the rainy season. The most commonly identified species was Cryptosporidium parvum while C.hominis was detected only in one study from Kuwait. The cumulative experience from Saudi Arabia and four neighboring countries (Kuwait, Oman, Jordan and Iraq) suggest that Cryptosporidium is an important cause of diarrhea in human and cattle. However, the findings of this review also demonstrate the limitations of the available data regarding Cryptosporidium species and strains in circulation in these countries. (author)

2007-01-01

112

Evaluation of Vitamin B6 Status of Adult Saudis in Al-Qassim Region-Saudi Arabia  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin B6 status of adult Saudis in Al-Qassim region-Saudi Arabia. A sample of 239 (127 males and 112 females) healthy Saudi adults was recruited. Vitamin B6 status was evaluated by dietary intake and biochemical measurements. Results of dietary intake measurements showed that means of vitamin B6 intake and intake of vitamin B6 to protein ratio for males and females were 1.97±0.58 mg/day, 0.021±0.003 and 1.89...

Al-numair, Khalid S.

2009-01-01

113

Saudi guidelines for testing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection  

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Full Text Available Pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in Saudi Arabia. As most cases of tuberculosis are due to reactivation of latent infection, identification of individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI who are at increased risk of progression to active disease, is a key element of tuberculosis control programs. Whereas general screening of individuals for LTBI is not cost-effective, targeted testing of individuals at high risk of disease progression is the right approach. Treatment of those patients with LTBI can diminish the risk of progression to active tuberculosis disease in the majority of treated patients. This statement is the first Saudi guideline for testing and treatment of LTBI and is a result of the cooperative efforts of four local Saudi scientific societies. This Guideline is intended to provide physicians and allied health workers in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care for testing and treatment of LTBI.

Al Jahdali Hamdan

2010-01-01

114

Saudi rahuplaan ajas Iisraeli juhid tülli / Marek Laane  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Saudi Araabia esitatud Lähis-Ida rahuplaan on ajanud Iisraeli juhtkonna tülli: peaminister Ariel Sharon on selle vastu, president Moshe Katsar on aga valmis saudidega kohtuma. Kaart: Iisraeli muutuvad piirid

Laane, Marek, 1969-

2002-01-01

115

CHALLENGES TO SAUDI MEDICAL EDUCATION IN THE THIRD MILLENNIUM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medical education began in Saudi Arabia in 1969 when King Saud University, the first medical school was established. Since then globalization has brought numerous challenges. In this paper, we review the status of medical education and its expected future projects.

2009-01-01

116

Solar-hydrogen energy system for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A model for solar-hydrogen energy system for Saudi Arabia has been developed by obtaining relationships for and between main energy and energy-related parameters. The parameters' magnitude and trends with and without hydrogen introduction have been investigated over a period of time. The results indicate that the oil resources of Saudi Arabia would not be enough to meet the domestic and export markets starting in three to four decades. The results also show that adopting the solar-hydrogen energy system would extend the availability of oil resources, reduce pollution, and establish a permanent energy system for Saudi Arabia. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia could become an exporter of hydrogen forever. (Author)

Almogren, Sulaiman; Veziroglu, T.N.T. Nejat [Miami Univ., Coll. of Engineering, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

2004-09-01

117

The need for national medical licensing examination in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.

Alzahrani Khalid

2008-11-01

118

Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.

Abeer Abdullah Al Saud

2013-09-01

119

The Spectrum of Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: The Results of the Saudi Registry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary dia...

2000-01-01

120

Polyoma Virus Nephropathy, First Reported Case in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polyoma virus nephropathy (BK virus) is being recognized as an important cause of graft failure. It is usually confused with acute rejection. No cases have been reported from the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report a case of a Saudi gentleman, who was transplanted outside the country, with persistently elevated creatinine and urethral stenosis. He was treated for acute rejection on more than one occasion with no significant improvement in his renal function. Polyoma virus nephropathy was diagn...

Siddiqi N; Hamid M; El-Tayeb A; Bokhari E

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background : Nursing Staff is reported to be under extreme state of stress, leading to burnout syndrome (BS). Most of the studies have been conducted among the nurses working in their home countries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods : King Fahd University Hospital, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, is a tertiary care hospital employing 510 nurses of multinational workforce. Two hundred a...

Al-Turki Haifa; Al-Turki Rasha; Al-Dardas Hiba; Al-Gazal Manal; Al-Maghrabi Ghada; Al-Enizi Nawal; Ghareeb Basema

2010-01-01

122

Role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Sau...

Abeer Abdullah Al Saud; Muhammad Rahatullah Khan

2013-01-01

123

Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque of healthy Saudis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study is to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque of healthy Saudis and its relation to dental care. One hundred randomly selected healthy Saudis attending the dental clinic were assessed for oral hygiene and periodontal disease by dental examination. Information about the use of toothpaste, chewing stick, smoking and dentures was obtained. Samples of dental plaque were collected after scoring it according to the plaque index. Presence of H. ...

Contractor Qais; Tahir Mohammed; Naseem Shahzad; Ahmad Shamweel

1998-01-01

124

Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing),...

Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

2007-01-01

125

Pattern of management of urologic cancer in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: To compare the current uro-oncologic practice pattern in Saudi Arabia with the standard of care practice and to identify obstacles in our health care system that prevent offering such a treatment. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 247 practicing urologists in Saudi Arabia using a designed questionnaire. This questionnaire contains 19 questions focusing on management of bladder and renal cancers. Results: Of the 247 contacted urologists, 86 completed the ...

Al-Othman Khalid; Al-Hathal Naif

2010-01-01

126

Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training

Qureshi NA

2013-08-01

127

Enteric Fever in Asir Region, Southern of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ninety four cases of Enteric fever seen in Asir region, in southern Saudi. Arabia were analyzed. 68 cases were males and 26 were females. The average age was 2.5 years. The majority of cases were foreigners (66%), while the Saudis were only 34%. Among foreigners, enteric fever was commonly seen in patients from the Indian subcontinent (47% of all cases). No significant difference was found in the clinical presentation of patients of different nationalities. The disease was generally mild and ...

Malik, G. M.

1994-01-01

128

A modular success story the Saudi petrochemical project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Saudi Petrochemical Company is referred to within this paper as ''Sadaf''. Sadaf is the phonetic spelling of the Arabic word for seashell and is a joint venture of Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) and Pecten Arabian Ltd., an affiliate of Shell Oil Comapny, U.S.A. SABIC is a joint stock corporation responsible for the development of basic industries in the Kingdom in the petrochemicals, metals and fertilizers field.

Kirven, J.B.; Swenson, C.R.

1986-01-01

129

A case of unilocular hydatid disease imported from Saudi Arabia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 39-year-old Korean man with general malaise was found to have two hepatic cysts by computed tomography. He had the history of close contact with domesticated wild dog in Saudi Arabia in 1976. Two cysts, 15cm and 10cm in diameter which contained clear fluid, were excised from both lobes of the liver. He was pathologically diagnosed as unilocular hydatid disease. This case is regarded as an imported case from Saudi Arabia.

Huh, S.; Hong, S. T.; Lee, S. H.; Chi, J. G.; Kim, Y. I.; Choe, K. J.

1988-01-01

130

Sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia: Current problems and future challenges  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand f...

Bahammam, Ahmed S.

2011-01-01

131

Saudi Arabia, OPEC, and the price of crude oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In his recent The Myth of the OPEC Cartel (Wiley, New York) Ali D. Johany argues forcefully that OPEC is not a cartel, and that higher oil prices derive from changes in property rights. This paper examines the incentives facing Saudi Arabia, as compared to those facing OPEC as a whole, to restrict production. The author concludes that, acting in its own self-interest, Saudi Arabia would adopt a posture of pricing moderation. 2 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Mixon, J.W. Jr.

1982-06-01

132

Solar hydrogen in Saudi Arabia: A long-term outlook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article examines the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen in Saudi Arabia as an alternative to fossil fuels. The hydrogen would be produced as a method of storage and transmission of solar energy. The topics examined include the case for Saudi Arabia, technical and economical considerations, a long-term outlook. Hydrogen production is considered due to low NO{sub x} emissions and the ease of adapting existing energy utilization technologies to use hydrogen.

Al-Garni, M. (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia))

1991-08-01

133

Assessment of Flood Hazard of Jeddah Area 2009, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due climatic variability and anthropogenic changes, floods have been raised lately in several regions worldwide. The resulting impact from floods is often harmful. This can be applied to Saudi Arabia, the country which is known by dry climatic conditions, and it became lately a typical region for such natural hazard. Hence, floods are observed as a yearly disaster with high magnitude of influence. Jeddah, a coastal Saudi city on the Red Sea to the west, has witnessed severe event in November ...

Mashael Al Saud

2010-01-01

134

Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the E...

Jastaniah, Wasil

2011-01-01

135

Microbial Contamination and Mycotoxins from Nuts in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar....

Alwakeel, Suaad S.; Nasser, Laila A.

2011-01-01

136

Synovial biopsy : A comparative study from Saudi Arabia and Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comparative study of synovitis in Saudi Arabia and Malaysia was made with a view to determining any geographic variation in the incidence and pattern of the arthritides. The diagnostic spectrum in both series included pyogenic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, brucellar and tubercular arthritis, gout, pigmented villonodular synovitis, synovial chondromatosis and acute rheumatic fever. Date-palm thorn synovitis was observed only in the Saudi Arabian series. While brucellar and tuberculous art...

Sankaran-kutty, M.; Das, P. K.; Kannan Kutty, M.

1998-01-01

137

Blended learning in Saudi universities: challenges and perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the nature of obstacles and challenges encountered at Saudi universities while implementing a blended learning approach. A literature review of blended learning rationale and designs, and the status of web-based education in Saudi higher education are demonstrated. Three main challenges of applying blended learning in Saudi higher education are addressed. One major challenge to be considered in the implementation of blended learning in Saudi universities is the adaptation of this element in the traditional university culture. Finding the right design of blended learning is another challenge that is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the time issue is considered a crucial challenge facing blended learning faculty. Practical recommendations that would facilitate transition to a blended learning university environment are presented. It is hoped that this study will help to provide insight for the faculties and the decision-makers throughout higher education in Saudi Arabia. Although this investigation is specifically related to the implementation of blended learning in the universities of Saudi Arabia, we are confident that the assumptions and recommendations contained herein will be of great value to other populations facing similar challenges.

Reem Alebaikan

2010-12-01

138

OPEN INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORIES IN SAUDI ARABIA: PRESENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the scope, development, and future of Institutional Repositories (IR in Saudi Arabia. This paper is based on the authors’ working experience at King Saud University Dspace repository project. To ensure the number of repository projects in Saudi Arabia the directory of open access repositories, (Open DOAR, Registry of Open Access Repositories (ROAR, and the websites of the existing universities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been browsed. There is a general lack of awareness with regard to Open Institutional Repositories in Saudi Universities and higher education institutions. Only four Universities i.e. King Saud University (KSU, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Umm Al-Qura University, and University of Dammam have taken some initiatives in this regard. Though these universities have made commendable efforts there still lots of improvements and developments required with regard to Institutional Repositories. It is expected that this paper will encourage Saudi Academic organizations to take the initiatives in the development of open institutional repositories. No such study (Research type, Essay, View point has been conducted so far in the context of Saudi Arabia.

Parvez Ahmad

2012-01-01

139

Cephalometric norms for the Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia: a research report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Previous studies have established specific cephalometric norms for children with different ethnic backgrounds, showing different facial features for each group. Up till now, there is a paucity of information about the cephalometric features of Saudi children living in the western region of Saudi Arabia, who have distinct social and climatic characteristics. The aim of the present study was to establish cephalometric norms for children living in the western...

Hassan Ali H

2005-01-01

140

The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi town. The study found out that age affects EFL learning because early exposure to language instructions constantly results in better performance. Th...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi town. The study found out that age affects EFL learning because early exposure to language instructions constantly results in better performan...

2011-01-01

142

78 FR 41421 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, and...materially retarded, by reason of imports from India, Korea, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine,...

2013-07-10

143

78 FR 56767 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the Department...provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive this restriction. This...

2013-09-13

144

75 FR 59782 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to section 7086(c)(2) of the Department...1) of the Act with respect to the Government of Saudi Arabia, and I hereby waive such restriction. This...

2010-09-28

145

The pharmacoeconomic picture in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the region and it is the largest oil producing country in the world. It is one of the few countries in the world which was not affected significantly by the global economic crisis. Health care spending is led mainly by governmental expenditure. Private sector share of the health care services is supported by the government and increasing. The demands for pharmaceutical products, medical devices and health care services is fueled by the rapidly growing population and the wide spread of chronic diseases. Publications and expertise in the field of pharmacoeconomics is scarce within the country. There is an urgent need to establish a national center for pharmacoeconomics to lead the country efforts in controlling the cost of health care services. Such a center is needed to promote pharmacoeconomics research and train health care professionals in this field. PMID:24953076

Alkhenizan, Abdullah

2014-08-01

146

Natural background radiation in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural background radiation measurements have been made at numerous locations throughout the world. Little work in this field has been done in developing countries. In this study, the external exposure rates due to natural background radiation sources have been measured for different Saudi Arabian cities. Thermoluminescence dosimeters, CaF_2Dy(TLD-200), has been used for field measurements. Exposure to TLD's response correlations were obtained for each TLD using a "1"3"7Cs source. A correlation of TLD's response fading at a continuous radiation exposure environment was obtained and applied to correct field measurements. The measurements were taken every two months for a total of six intervals during the whole year. The average measurements of outdoor external exposure rates was found to vary between a minimum of 5.29 ?R h"-"1 in Dammam city and a maximum of 11.59 ?R h"-"1 in Al-Khamis city. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

1993-10-18

147

Rainfall Climatology over Asir Region, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Arid and semi-arid lands occupy about one-third of the land surface of the earth and support about one-fifth of the world population. The Asir area in Saudi Arabia is an example of these areas faced with the problem of maintaining sustainable water resources. This problem is exacerbated by the high levels of population growth, land use changes, increasing water demand, and climate variability. In this study, the characteristics of decade-scale variations in precipitation are examined in more detail for Asir region. The spatio-temporal distributions of rainfall over the region are analyzed. The objectives are to identify the sensitivity, magnitude, and range of changes in annual and seasonal evapotranspiration resulting from observed decade-scale precipitation variations. An additional objective is to characterize orographic controls on the space-time variability of rainfall. The rainfall data is obtained from more than 30 rain gauges spread over the region.

Sharif, H.; Furl, C.; Al-Zahrani, M.

2012-04-01

148

Pediatric burns in Western Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional analysis of the demographical, etiological, clinical pattern, and the outcome of pediatric burn injuries. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 459 pediatric burn patients admitted to Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah, Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to December 2010 were evaluated using a structured questionnaire. Results: The mean age was 5.97, and the male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The most common cause was scalding (81.7%. Approximately 92.8% of patients had burn injuries involving 25% of the total body surface area, or less. The mean hospital stay was 9.51 days. Approximately 92% of patients were treated conservatively. Conclusion: Toddlers are at high risk of having scald burns. We also noted the number of admissions is increasing every year. Therefore, an effective scientific-based prevention program is required. 

Alaa Sultan

2012-11-01

149

Attitude to blood donation in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.

Abdel Gader Abdel Galil

2011-01-01

150

Glomerulonephritis in Saudi Arabia: A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis (GN is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. A good understanding of its pattern and prevalence as well as exploration of effective therapeutic strategies for protecting the glomerulus, would have tremendous impact on public health. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, focal and segmental glomerulo sclerosis (FSGS is the commonest type of primary glomerular diseases (PGD encountered in clinical practice. Its prevalence varies from less than 4% in Gizan, in the southern part of KSA, to approximately 35% in Riyadh, central Saudi Arabia. In our experience, the nephrotic syndrome was the commonest mode of presentation of FSGS. Response to corticosteroid therapy is generally poor and the mortality rate is high. Mesangioproliferative GN is the second most common GN constituting up to 25% of PGD in our experience. Other researchers from different parts of the Kingdom, however, have given prevalence rates ranging from 8 to 57.1%. The reported prevalence of Immunoglobulin-A nephropathy (IgAN in KSA ranges from 5.8% to 13.6%. It is more common in the elderly, and men are affected more often than women. In contrast to KSA, IgAN is the commonest PGD in Japan, China, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan. Membranous GN (MGN is less common in KSA than encountered elsewhere, the prevalence ranging from 3.9 to 21.8%. Nephropathy secondary to systemic diseases are also common in KSA. Lupus nephritis (LN accounted for 48.5% of secondary glomerular diseases (SGD with the combination of WHO classes III and IV (aggressive types of LN accounting for 56% of all patients. LN is another disease where differences in racial susceptibility may account for the uneven distribution. Post-streptococcal GN seems to be declining in frequency in KSA, the reported prevalence ranging from 2.7% to 2.9%.

Mitwalli Ahmed

2000-01-01

151

Hirsutism in Saudi females of reproductive age : A hospital-based study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Hirsutism among women of fertile age is commonly seen in clinical practice, but the pattern of the disease in Saudi Arabs has not been studied. The aim of the study was to determine the clinical, biochemical and etiologic features of hirsutism in Saudi females. Methods: 101 Saudi Arab women presenting with hirsutism at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2005 were prospectively assessed using the recently appro...

Al-Ruhaily Atallah; Malabu Usman; Sulimani Riad

2008-01-01

152

Factors unflinching e-commerce adoption by retailers in Saudi Arabia: Qual Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the ...

Alghamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-ghaith, Waleed

2012-01-01

153

Factors influencing the decision of Saudi consumers to purchase form online retailers: Quantitative Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence the decision of Saudi customers to buy from online retailers in Saudi Arabia. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growth of ICT marketplaces in the Arab region, e-commerce activities are not progressing at the same speed...

Alghamdi, Rayed; Nguyen, Ann; Nguyen, Jeremy; Drew, Steve

2012-01-01

154

Apterogyninae (Hymenoptera: Bradynobaenidae) from Saudi Arabia, with description of a new species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven species in three genera from Saudi Arabia are listed. Macroocula riyadha Gadallah & Pagliano, spec. nov. is described and figured. Apterogyna mateui Giner Marí, 1945, Macroocula nitida nitida (Bischoff, 1920) are newly recorded from Arabian Peninsula and Saudi Arabia, Macroocula magna (Invrea, 1965) is newly recorded from Saudi Arabia. PMID:24869704

Gadallah, Neveen S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al; Aldryhim, Yousif N; Fadl, Hassan; Elgharbawy, Ali A; Pagliano, Guido

2014-01-01

155

Saudi Arabia in the oil era: Regime and elites; Conflict and collaboration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book explores the recent history of the Saudi oil state, in an analysis of the struggle for social and political power in modern Saudi Arabia, including a discussion of the impact on the Saudi Economy of the present crisis in the oil market.

Abir, M.

1987-01-01

156

Essays on oil and business cycles in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia. Second, the policymakers in Saudi Arabia should be more concerned with increasing productivity through adopting new technologies that increase economic prosperity. Therefore, the policymakers should continue diversifying economic resources and reduce their reliance on oil.

Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.

157

Industrial Purchase among Saudi Managers: Does Country of Origin Matter?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The country of origin or where a given product was designed or assembled has been found to be influential inseveral consumer studies. With the differentiation between the country of assembly and the country of design,the aim of this study was to examine the effect of country of origin (COO factors on the purchasing decisionsmade by purchasing Saudi managers in Saudi Arabia. The study identifes COO for two types of products,machine tools and component parts. Using convenience sampling method, a pilot-tested questionnaire surveywas sent out by email to 531 industrial managers responsible of the machine tools purchasing and componentsparts in Saudi Arabia with a response rate was 62 %, the author presents findings on purchasing managers’perceptions of industrial products sourced from a total of 18 countries. The findings of this study revealed thatCOO is a significant and major factor in Saudi managers’ purchase decisions with respect to industrial products.This study provides Saudi perspectives and insights on the ongoing debate regarding the role of country of originin our increasingly globalized world. The study is timely in view of the continued pace of globalization, withmost multinationals outsourcing their production in one or more countries. The results should be of interest to avariety of organizations involved in industrial products, including designers, manufacturers, buyers and otherstakeholders.

Abbas N. Albarq

2014-01-01

158

Gaped deficiency distribution and variants in Saudi Arabia: An overview  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)

2001-01-01

159

Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Cenozoic volcanic rocks of Saudi Arabia cover about 90,000 kin2, one of the largest areas of alkali olivine basalt in the world. These volcanic rocks are in 13 separate fields near the eastern coast of the Red Sea and in the western Arabian Peninsula highlands from Syria southward to the Yemen Arab Republic. The initial phase of rifting of the Arabian Plate from the African Plate began as a wide zone of continental-crust extension manifested by basin and range topography. Freshwater lakes, northwest-trending marine gulfs, and alkali olivine basalt flows occupied these basins. Extensive dike swarms intruded parallel to the proto-Red Sea and marked the first phase of new mafic crust formed by volcanic processes. After a hiatus in volcanic activity, counterclockwise rotation of the Arabian Plate during middle Miocene time changed the stress pattern in the plate and a second phase of extrusion of alkali olivine basalt commenced along north-trending fractures. This stress pattern continues to influence Holocene volcanism. The earliest (pre-uplift) basalts to erupt on the Arabian Plate were predominantly under saturated picrite and ankaramite, whereas those to erupt near the axis of the proto-Red Sea rift zone were tholeiite. The within-plate volcanic rocks evolved from picrite-ankaramite to alkali olivine basalt with minor volumes of fractionated, under-saturated felsic rocks. Continued crustal thinning and dike intrusion along the proto-Red Sea were accompanied by melting of the continental crust to produce silicic magma as part of a bimodal volcanic suite (tholeiite-rhyolite). These magmas were emplaced as dikes, sills, layered bodies, and flows that mark the early construction of the Red Sea crust. Second-phase lavas are predominantly fractionated hawaiites and alkali olivine basalts. Because under saturated and oversaturated silicic magmas represent the second phase of activity, both fractional crystallization of the basaltic magma and melting of the crust are believed to have occurred. The historical record of volcanic activity in Saudi Arabia suggests that volcanism is dormant. The harrats should be evaluated for their potential as volcanic hazards and as sources of geothermal energy. The volcanic rocks are natural traps for groundwater ; thus water resources for agriculture may be significant and should be investigated.

Coleman, R. G.; Gregory, R. T.; Brown, G. F.

1983-01-01

160

Saudi Arabia in the 1980s: foreign policy, security, and oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This assessment of Saudi Arabia's foreign policy acknowledges the strengths and the weaknesses of the Saudi system that have been influential in the past and that are likely to remain influential in the future. It portrays a rich but weak country whose oil has involved it in an intricate web of international issues for which its previous experience has provided few useful precedents. the US-Saudi relationship is an issue of importance to Middle East stability and energy security. The author explores three topics: the external threats faced by the Saudis and Saudi foreign policy; the political, economic, and military capabilities of the Saudis to pursue their national interests; and how Arab-Israeli peace negotiations, arms sales, and oil-production policies have strained its long-standing and friendly ties with the US. Saudi oil production and pricing decisions are also discussed. He concludes that a cooperative relationship based on interdependence can surmount these difficulties. 106 references.

Quandt, W.B.

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Wagner's Law in Saudi Arabia 1970 - 2012: An Econometric Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our goal in this paper is to explorethe validity of Wagner’s Law in Saudi Arabia during the period (1970-2012 for real oil GDP and Non-oil GDP.Wagner’s Law investigated that fundamental economic growth is validity to the public sector growth. In the previousstudies have been tested the six versions of Wagner’s law to support the existence of long-run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth.We used a method as a time series econometrics techniques to examine how far Wagner’s Law validity can be applied in Saudi economy. The results obtained from the analyses find that the Wagnerian proposition can explain the growth of government in Saudi Arabia, which holds for both the oil and non-oil income cases. The findings also note that the existence of strong causality for all of Wagner’s law versions in the long run.

Mohammed Moosa Ageli

2013-05-01

162

Wind energy applications in remote areas of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential of wind power generation near the remote areas of Saudi Arabia is investigated. Meteorological data from twenty weather stations for a period of ten years are analyzed to obtain wind pattern characteristics. The annual average wind velocity distribution, and frequency of occurrence are significant in assessing the wind power potential of a site, especially as the power in the wind is related to the cube of the wind velocity. The analysis of the data revealed that the potential of wind power is promising. The possible sites for capturing the wind energy are the northern and coastal sites of Saudi Arabia. Small desalination units, irrigation pumps and electrical power generators could therefore be powered by wind energy in remote areas of Saudi Arabia. (author)

Radhwan, A.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering)

1994-07-01

163

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi Secondary School girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)

2009-01-01

164

Hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Saudi newborns in the high altitude of Abha, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)

1996-01-01

165

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in Saudi secondary school girls in Abha, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives :Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R, a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. Results: The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%, psychoticism (14.8%, anxiety (14.3%, and somatization (14.2%. The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8% and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%. Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level.

Al Gelban Khalid

2009-01-01

166

Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

2009-01-01

167

Thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel diseases: a report from Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE) is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence...

2011-01-01

168

Solar energy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is blessed with abundant solar energy which is renewable, clean and available freely. It is harnessed through known processes and technologies, but progress towards its commercialization is very slow for several reasons, such as higher cost and low efficiency. This paper reviews our R+D efforts, and concludes that future utilization of solar energy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is dependent on current R+D activities in the field, combined with a proper educational campaign for its effective commercialization. (author) 5 figs., 6 tabs., 37 refs.

Al-Athel, S.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

1997-06-01

169

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in two unrelated Saudi patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due to a change in the codon from CCT>CTT. Expression of PNP (146L cDNA in E coli indicated that the mutation greatly reduced, but did not completely eliminate PNP activity.

Alangari Abdullah

2009-01-01

170

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency in two unrelated Saudi patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that results in combined immunodeficiency, neurologic dysfunction and autoimmunity. PNP deficiency has never been reported from Saudi Arabia or in patients with an Arabic ethnic background. We report on two Saudi girls with PNP deficiency. Both showed severe lymphopenia and neurological involvement. Sequencing of the PNP gene of one girl revealed a novel missense mutation Pro146>Leu in exon 4 due to a change in the codon from CCT>CTT. Expression of PNP (146L) cDNA in E coli indicated that the mutation greatly reduced, but did not completely eliminate PNP activity. (author)

2009-01-01

171

The Effects of Age Factor on Learning English: A Case Study of Learning English in Saudi Schools, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of age on learning English in Saudi Arabia. It aims at encouraging the learning of English as a foreign language at an early age in KSA. The populations of the study are English language teachers and Saudi students in elementary schools compared with intermediate school students in Dawadmi town. The study found out that age affects EFL learning because early exposure to language instructions constantly results in better performance. The results show that start learning English at an earlier age is an important factor in enhancing the skills of English language learners.

Elsadig Mohamed Khalifa Gawi

2012-01-01

172

Skin lipids from Saudi Arabian birds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Skin lipids play an important role in the regulation of cutaneous water loss (CWL). Earlier studies have shown that Saudi desert birds exhibit a tendency of reduced CWL than birds from temperate environment due to adaptive changes in composition of their skin lipids. In this study, we used thin-layer chromatography (TLC) for separation and detection of non-polar and polar lipids from the skin of six bird species including sooty gull, brown booby, house sparrow, Arabian waxbill, sand partridge, and laughing dove. The lipids were separated and detected on Silica gel G coated TLC plates and quantified by using densitometric image analysis. Rf values of the non-polar lipids were as follows: cholesterol (0.29), free fatty acids (0.58), triacylglycerol (0.69), fatty acids methyl esters (0.84) and cholesterol ester (0.97). Rf values for the polar lipids were: cerebroside (0.42), ceramide (0.55) and cholesterol (0.73). The results showed the abundance of fatty acids methyl esters (47.75-60.46%) followed by triacylglycerol (12.69-24.14%). The remaining lipid compositions were as follows: cholesterol (4.09-13.18%), ceramide (2.18-13.27%), and cerebroside (2.53-12.81%). In conclusion, our findings showed that TLC is a simple and sensitive method for the separation and quantification of skin lipids. We also reported a new protocol for lipid extraction using the zirconia beads for efficient disruption of skin tissues. This study will help us better understand the role of skin lipids in adaptive physiology towards adverse climatic conditions. PMID:24600311

Khan, Haseeb A; Arif, Ibrahim A; Williams, Joseph B; Champagne, Alex M; Shobrak, Mohammad

2014-04-01

173

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-12-19

174

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-01

175

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective : There is limited information on overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to establish the national prevalence of overweight and obesity in Saudi children and adolescents. Methods : The 2005 Saudi reference data set was used to calculate the body mass index (BMI for children aged 5 to 18 years. Using the 2007 WHO reference, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity were defined as the proportion of children with a BMI standard deviation score more than +1, +2 and +3, respectively. The 2000 CDC reference was also used for comparison. Results : There were 19 317 healthy children and adolescents from 5 to 18 years of age, 50.8% of whom were boys. The overall prevalence of overweight, obesity and severe obesity in all age groups was 23.1%, 9.3% and 2%, respectively. A significantly lower prevalence of overweight (23.8 vs 20.4; P < .001 and obesity (9.5 vs 5.7; P < .001 was found when the CDC reference was used. Conclusions : This report establishes baseline national prevalence rates for overweight, obesity and severe obesity in Saudi children and adolescents, indicating intermediate levels between developing and industrialized countries. Measures should be implemented to prevent further increases in the numbers of overweight school-age children and adolescents and the associated health hazards.

El Mouzan Mohammad

2010-01-01

176

Predicting deterioration for the Saudi Arabia Urban Road Network  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pavements represent an important infrastructure to all countries. In Saudi Arabia, huge investments have been made in constructing a large network. This network requires great care through conducting periodic evaluation and timely maintenance to keep the network operating under acceptable level of service.

2010-01-01

177

Senior-loken syndrome in a Saudi child  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Senior-loken syndrome is a rare syndrome of retinopathy and nephronophthisis. The clinical features of this syndrome include renal involvement, ocular involvement, retinitis pigmentosa and other systemic involvement. We describe an 11- year-old Saudi girl who was diagnosed to have this syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of this syndrome from Arabian Peninsula. (author)

2008-01-01

178

On Selected Morphemes in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Following a year of study of Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL), we are documenting our findings to provide a grammatical sketch of the language. This paper represents one part of that endeavor and focuses on a description of selected morphemes, both manual and non-manual, that have appeared in the course of data collection. While some of the…

Morris, Carla; Schneider, Erin

2012-01-01

179

Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

Science.gov (United States)

This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

2012-01-01

180

Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow: Saudi Arabia's 'Gas Initiative'  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy

2004-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Developing a Career Resource for College Students in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the development of Career Oasis, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM ) has pioneered the use of computer-based career guidance in Saudi Arabia. KFUPM contracted with Verbal Media, LLC, an American consulting company, to create a resource that would be available in both Arabic and English, in both online and paper-and-pencil…

Shatkin, Laurence; Atiyeh, Naim

182

Novel Gentic Variations Contributing to Asthma Susceptability in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes

2014-04-13

183

Perspectives of petroleum and petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion

1994-12-16

184

Geomatics Education in Saudi Arabia: Status, Challenges and Prospects  

Science.gov (United States)

Geospatial technology has been identified as one of the three most important emerging fields along with nanotechnology and biotechnology. The application of the technology is expected to grow and become more diversified in the coming years. In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of geotechnology is growing but still limited compared to the Western…

Aina, Yusuf Adedoyin

2009-01-01

185

University Teacher Educators' Research Engagement: Perspectives from Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…

Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif

2012-01-01

186

Saudi Aramco details 1990 surge in oil production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on Saudi Arabian Oil Co. that has jumped its crude oil production 29% to an average 6,257,600 b/d last year. That was Saudi Arabia's response to Iraq's Aug. 2, 1990, invasion of Kuwait and the ensuing Persian Gulf crisis with its United Nations embargo on Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports. It was Saudi Aramco's biggest average crude oil volume since the 6,327,220 b/d gauged in 1982, according to the company's 1990 annual report. By the end of 1990 Saudi Aramco's maximum sustained production capability was 8.5 million b/d of crude. To meet long term demand, it decided to advance the timetable and increase the scope of a crude oil expansion program adopted in 1989. Reserves at the end of the year were 257.9 billion bbl of crude and 180.5 tcf of dissolved, associated, and non-associated natural gas, compared with 257.5 billion bbl and 180.355 tcf at yearend 1989

1991-08-12

187

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Bats, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The source of human infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus remains unknown. Molecular investigation indicated that bats in Saudi Arabia are infected with several alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses. Virus from 1 bat showed 100% nucleotide identity to virus from the human index case-patient. Bats might play a role in human infection.

Memish, Ziad A.; Mishra, Nischay; Olival, Kevin J.; Fagbo, Shamsudeen F.; Kapoor, Vishal; Epstein, Jonathan H.; AlHakeem, Rafat; Durosinloun, Abdulkareem; Al Asmari, Mushabab; Islam, Ariful; Kapoor, Amit; Briese, Thomas; Daszak, Peter; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.

2013-01-01

188

Solar energy in Saudi Arabia: the Soleras Project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to conserve its oil resources is one of the main reasons behind the development of solar energy in Saudi Arabia, which is a country well suited for the use of solar energy. Particular projects for developing solar energy in Saudia Arabia are discussed.

Fendley, J.J.

1982-07-01

189

Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

Alzahrani Hasan

2012-07-01

190

Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language  

Science.gov (United States)

This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

2012-01-01

191

IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WATER RESOURCES IN SAUDI ARABIA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the impact of climate change in Saudi Arabia at the end of the 21st century has been investigated using a regional climate model called PRECIS ('Providing Regional Climates for Impacts Studies'), which was developed by the Hadley Center of British Met Office. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) A2 emission scenario was evaluated. Four types of boundary data were used: (i) 31-year (1960-1990) integration of HadAM3P, a 150 km resolution Hadley Center's global atmospheric model data, (ii) 31-year (2070-2100) integration of HadAM3P consistent with the SRES A2 emissions scenario, (iii) 31-year (1960-1990) of ERA40 (1957-2001) reanalysis data derived from ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting), (iv) Historical meteorological data for weather stations covering Saudi Arabia, provided by Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME). Meteorological parameters considered in this study were surface temperature at 1.5 m, precipitation; evaporation, wind speeds at 10 m, and surface runoff in order to determine the impacts of climate change particularly on water resources of Saudi Arabia. The differences of surface evaporation from precipitation were calculated to identify the sensitive locations affected by the climatic change with respect to water resources. Six regions and thirty seven locations in Saudi Arabia were analyzed. The model results showed there is an increase of more than 4 degrees Celsius of the daily mean temperature over Saudi Arabia. The results also indicated that precipitation, winds, and evaporation varied. Substantial percentages increases in runoff are detected from 100 to 350 percents. This study also aimed to utilize GIS technology to compare the present and future climatic conditions by using the local meteorological data and advanced climate model output data.

Faisal Macci Al Zawad [Presidency of Meteorology and Environment, Dammam (Saudia Arabia); Ahmet Aksakal [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudia Arabia)

2008-09-30

192

Vitamin D levels in healthy men in eastern Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Studies in 1980s and 1990s indicated that vitamin D levels in the ethnic Saudi Arabian population were low but no studies since that time have evaluated vitamin D levels among healthy young or middle-aged Saudi men. Thus, we assessed the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD among healthy Saudi Arabian men living in the Eastern Province. Subjects and Methods : One hundred males aged 25-35 years (the age range of peak bone mass and 100 males aged 50 years or older were randomly selected and evaluated clinically, including measurement of serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH and serum 25OHD levels. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum level of 25OHD of ?20 ng/mL and insufficiency as a serum level between> 20 ng/mL and < 30 ng/mL and normal ?30 ng/mL. Results: The mean (SD age of subjects in the younger age group was 28.2 (4.5 years. Twenty-eight (28% had low 25OHD levels; 10 (10% subjects were vitamin D deficient with a mean level of 16.6 (3.4 ng/mL and 18 (18% were vitamin D insufficient with a mean level of 25.4 (2.7 ng/mL. In the older age group, the mean age was 59.4 (15.6 years and 37 (37% had low 25OHD; 12 (12% subjects were deficient with a mean 25OHD level of 16.7 (3.4 ng/mL and 25 (25% were insufficient with a mean 25OHD level of 25.3 (3.3 ng/mL. Conclusions: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy Saudi men is between 28% to 37%. Vitamin D deficiency among young and middle age Saudi Arabian males could lead to serious health consequences if the issue is not urgently addressed.

Sadat-Ali Mir

2009-01-01

193

Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. Materials and methods: This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Conclusion: Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47. PMID:24155577

Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

2013-02-01

194

Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia - A Retrospective Study of 3 Years  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: To report the prevalence of impacted third molars according to the age, gender and type among Saudi population. Materials and methods: This retrospective study involved 3800 panoramic radiographs of subjects aged 18 to 45 years who presented to the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for oral care during the period from February 2009 to February 2011. Data collected was entered into a spreadsheet (Excel 2000; Microsoft, US) and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: A total of 713 impacted teeth were identified (18.76%) (p=0.003). The male to female ratio with impacted third molars was 604:109 (5.54:1) and the ratio of patients with impacted teeth was (5:1). Age group 1 (i.e., 20 to 25 years)had the highest prevalence of third molar tooth impaction (64.5%) and this decreased with increasing age. Conclusion: Incidence of tooth impaction is higher in the mandible than in maxilla. Males had a higher incidence of third molar impaction as compared to the females. Highest incidence is found in the age group of 20-25 years. Mesio-angular impaction was the most predominant type. How to cite this article: Syed KB, Kota Z, Ibrahim M, Bagi MA, Assiri MA. "Prevalence of Impacted Molar Teeth among Saudi Population in Asir Region, Saudi Arabia – A Retrospective Study of 3 Years". J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):43-47.

Syed, Kamran Bokhari; Zaheer, Kamran Bokhari; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Bagi, Mustafa Abdel; Assiri, Mohammed Abdullah

2013-01-01

195

Leadership Styles and Organizational Learning An Empirical Study on Saudi Banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS and Organizational Learning (OL, might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1 the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2 the relationship between LS and OL.This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Taif Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research is practical, according to its purpose, and descriptive according to its data collection method. Three groups of employees at Saudi banks were reviewed. Of the 335 questionnaires that were distributed, 285 usable questionnaires were returned, a response rate of 85%. The finding reveals that there are differences among the three groups of employees regarding their evaluative attitudes towards LS and OL. Also, this study reveals that the aspects of LS have a significantly direct effect on OL.Accordingly, the study provides a set of recommendations that included the need for Transactional Leadership Styles (TALS in general, and Transformational Leadership Style (TFLS in particular, in order to achieve the best response to the needs and wishes of the workers at Saudi banks to increase their contribution to the achievement of OL on the one hand, and raise the level of their performance and enhance competitive advantage of these organizations on the other hand.

Wageeh A. Nafei

2012-02-01

196

Risk Estimation of Type 2 Diabetes and Dietary Habits among Adult Saudi Non-diabetics in Central Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Background: International Diabetes Federation ranked Saudi Arabia on third among the top 10 countries for prevalence of diabetes in 2010. Identifying people those are at increased risk for diabetes, followed by blood glucose testing to establish the diagnosis, and are considered to be an appropriate way of dealing with this problem. Objectives and methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted for the first time in Saudi Arabia to estimate the 10-years risk of developing type 2 diabetes using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and to investigate the dietary habits in such individuals among the Saudi non-diabetic population from July 2009 to March 2010. A total of 2007 Saudi citizens from all 11 provinces of Al-Qassim region were assessed using combined pre-piloted questionnaires. Statistical analysis was done utilizing SPSS version 13.0. Results: The gender ratio of the study participants was 1.6 male: 1.0 female. The mean (SD age was 26.6 (10.2 years.  The mean (SD weight and height for males were 75.7 (19.6 kg and 169.4 (30.1 cm and for females were 64.4 (17.8 kg and 157.2 (10.4 respectively. Males had significantly higher body weight (kg, height (cm, and waist circumstance (cm as compared to females (p <0.05. Our findings estimated that more than one-fourth of Saudi non-diabetics were found to be at moderate (one in six, high (one in three, and very high (one in two risk to develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years. Majority of them were overweight and obese (36.8% and 60% respectively. More than ninety percent were found to have very limited physical activity with poor dietary habits. Conclusion: This study provides insight into progression and onset of type 2 diabetes in Saudi non-diabetic population within next 10 years using FINDRISC. The population at risk characterized by the sedentary activities, unhealthy dietary habits, obesity, and central obesity. Our findings suggest the need for urgent efforts to increase the level of physical activity, minimize sedentary lifestyle, and to improve the pattern of dietary habits especially among the population at risk in Saudi general population.

Abdelmarouf Hassan Mohieldein

2011-09-01

197

From barriers to bridges: An investigation on Saudi student mobility (2006-2009)  

Science.gov (United States)

Globalisation is often thought to advocate for a single set of beliefs and customs and for a rejection of the need to protect regional cultures and traditions. In the aftermath of 9/11, the rift between Western and Arab cultures has deepened, and there is a patent need for cultural bridges to be built. The government of Saudi Arabia has, by increasing funding for higher education through grants and scholarships, enabled Saudi students to study at overseas universities. A number of non-Saudi students are also enrolled at Saudi Arabian universities. After a brief introduction to the cultural and educational history of the Arab region and Saudi identity, this article turns to contemporary higher education in Saudi Arabia. It introduces the King Abdullah Scholarship Programme and then goes on to present detailed enrolment data for 2006-2009, demonstrating trends and policy changes and identifying patterns in student mobility.

Denman, Brian D.; Hilal, Kholoud T.

2011-08-01

198

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators - A pilot study  

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Full Text Available There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The over-all prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mel-litus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients.

Alsuwaida Abdulkareem

2010-01-01

199

Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SEEK-Saudi investigators) - A pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).

2010-01-01

200

Diabetes and Renal Transplantation: Saudi Experience  

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Full Text Available We conducted this study to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus (DM in our renal transplant population. We retrospectively reviewed the records of the active renal transplant patients at two large transplant centers in Riyadh and Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, transplanted between 1979 and November 1998. The recipients were grouped according to the diagnosis of diabetes; group I: diabetes developed before transplantation (BTDM, group II: diabetes developed only after transplantation (ATDM and group III: did not have diabetes (NDM. There were 1112 patients? records included in the study. The mean age was 38.2 years and the mean duration of transplantation was 66.9 months. There were 113(10.2% patients in BTDM group, 134 (12.1% patients in the ATDM group and 865 (77.8% patients in the NDM group. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension among the study groups. In comparison to the other groups, the BTDM group had significantly more males (78.8%, more patients who were transplanted after 1990 (pre-cyclosporin era, more patients with grafts from living non-related donors (46%, higher incidence of acute rejection episodes (39%, higher mean serum creatinine and more patients treated with azathioprine (71%. The ATDM group had significantly higher mean age (46.4 years, higher mean duration of transplantation (91.5 months, higher rate of retransplantation (8.2%, higher mean serum cholesterol level (6.0mmol/L and more frequently abnormal electrocardiogram (24.6% than the other two groups. The ATDM group had comparable mean weight (70.2 kg to the BTDM group but significantly higher than the NDM group (66.1kg. The NDM group had significantly higher mean dose of cyclosporine (3.3 mg/kg/day and higher mean dose of prednisone (0.16 mg/kg/day than the other groups. The only independent risk factor for developing DM after transplantation was advancing age. The currently used low-dose steroid therapy was not significantly associated with development of DM after renal transplantation. Nevertheless DM is an important co-morbid condition in the transplant population and is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events.

Souqiyyeh Muhammad

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)

2005-01-01

202

Road Traffic Accidents in Saudi Arabia: An ARDL Approach and Multivariate Granger Causality  

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The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA) and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999) for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, an...

Mohammed Moosa Ageli; Amal Mousa Zaidan

2013-01-01

203

The first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia  

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Background and Objectives: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlat...

2010-01-01

204

A Topic Diathesis In Hereditary Ichthyosis Patients Attending A Tertiary Health Care Center In Saudi Arabia  

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The occurrence of atopic diathesis in hereditary ichthyosis (HI) has not been documented in Saudi patients. The atopic manifestations in histopathologically confirmed HI patients attending the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University at Al-Khobar city, Saudi Arabia is discussed in this study. From the dermatology OPD logbook, all Saudi patients with confirmed HI seen between January 1990 to December 1995 were included in the study. The findings regarding atopic manifestatio...

2004-01-01

205

CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF EPISODES OF DIABETIC DETOACIDOSIS IN MADINAH AL-MUNWARAH, SAUDI ARABIA  

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BACKGROUND: Although the precipitating factors ad mortality has been studies, there is noreported of clinical and biochemical profile of patients with Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Saudi ArabiaOBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and laboratory profile of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis inMadinah-Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia. DESIGN king abdul Azaz and Fahad Hospital Madinah-Al-Munawarah Saudi Arabia. PERIODS: May 1991 to April 1992. SUBJECT: 85 consecutiveadmissions among adults =>age 12 years. MET...

1997-01-01

206

Hydrogeology of the Saq Aquifer Northwest of Tabuk, Northern Saudi Arabia ????????????? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????, ???? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Groundwater resources are precious commodity in general and for arid regions in particular. Their exploration, exploitation, protection and management play significant role in societal activities. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, extensive aquifers are available in the Arabian Shelf. The Saq aquifer is one of the most important aquifers in the northwestern part of Saudi Arabia. It is made up of a Cambro-Ordovician sandstone formation, which extends over 1200 km in Saudi Arabia and northwards i...

Masoud Al-Ahmadi

2009-01-01

207

Technology Transfer: A Case Study Analysis of the Saudi Oil and Petrochemical Sectors  

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In the recent past a number of technologies have been imported into The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This experience has affirmed the conviction that technology can make an invaluable contribution to the growth of The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. However, in doing so, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, like other nations, faces some questions of possible obstacles, trials and errors during the course of industrial development and technology transfer, that can be addressed by utilising scienc...

Ankari, A. A.

2009-01-01

208

Renal Abnormalities in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: A Single Center Report from Saudi Arabia  

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Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at increased risk of serious morbidity and mortality. Renal abnormalities in SCD are well known but renal involvement in Saudi patients with SCD has not been studied. We sought to identify renal abnormalities in adolescent and adult Saudi patients with SCD. We prospectively studied 73 patients with SCD followed up at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 2005 to November 2006,. All patients underwent evaluation of kidney fu...

Aleem Aamer

2008-01-01

209

Ajaleht väidab: Saudi Araabia on andnud Iisraelile võimaluse rünnata Iraani / Kaivo Kopli  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Londoni Timesi allikate väitel on Saudi Araabia nõustunud andma oma põhjapoolses õhuruumis Iisraeli käsutusse kitsa õhukoridori, mis võimaldab Iisraeli sõjalennukitel jõuda lühemat teed pidi pommitama Iraani tuumarajatisi. Kaart

Kopli, Kaivo

2010-01-01

210

Saudi Arabia: perspective on oil, foreign policy, and the Arab-Israeli conflict, 1970-1980  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines, through a descriptive and analytical approach, the Saudi perspective on its oil power and policies in world affairs and how the Arab-Israeli conflict affects these policies. A special emphasis on the United States-Saudi Arabian relationship is made, since Saudi Arabia looks at the United States as the key factor in the Arab-Israeli conflict. To serve this end, the dissertation is divided into three parts. Part one examines the economic and political reality of oil power, its implication and limitation. Also, this part examines the behavior and the policies of the oil companies, the oil-consuming countries, and the oil-producing countries after the structural change of the oil industry and the shift in control of production and prices from the hands of the oil companies to those of the oil-producing countries. Part two examines the Saudi Arabian economy, the role of oil in developing this economy, and the effect of Saudi development plans on Saudi oil policies. Part three examines Saudi foreign policy, especially its role in the Arab-Israeli conflict, with emphasis on the Saudi oil role in this regard. Also, this part examines the United States-Saudi Arabia relationship and interest, the United States interest in Israel, and, finally, how Riyadh sees these interests affecting United States policies in the Middle East.

Kurdi, M.A.M.

1982-01-01

211

E-Commerce Adoption Factors and Their Implications for E-Commerce Business Strategy in Saudi Arabia  

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This research project provides a comprehensive overview and current perspective of e-commerce usage and adoption factors in Saudi Arabia and seeks to explain why ecommerce use is still in a relatively immature state when compared to other regions. This study examines Saudi Arabia’s infrastructure readiness for online shopping and explores Saudi consumers’ behaviour and attitudes with regard to shopping online. An online survey was conducted to elicit general perceptions of Saudi consumers...

Alsharif, Mohammed

2011-01-01

212

A safety decision analysis for Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The first step in planning for introducing the nuclear energy to Saudi Arabia is to establish a nuclear research facility. Selection of a research reactor type for such a case is not an easy task. The fuzzy set decision theory is selected among different decision theories to be applied for this analysis. Four research reactors are selected for this study. These are: the University of Michigan Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR), Georgia Institute of Technology Research Reactor (GTRR), and University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor (UWNR). The IFDA computer code, which based on the fuzzy set theory is applied here. The results show that the FNR reactor is the best alternative for the case of Saudi Arabian nuclear research facility, and MITR is the second best

1985-01-01

213

Patent infection with Setaria digitata in goats in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A survey was carried out on Saudi sheep and goats during 1995, at the Veterinary Diagnostic laboratory, Jeddah, to study Setaria infection in small ruminants in Saudi Arabia. Setaria digitata worms were detected in the abdominal cavity of 5 out of 48 goats (10.4%). Sheep were not found to be infected. All infected goats were adults of 2-4 years of age and originating from the Jeddah, Mecca and Al-Leith areas. Four cases were recorded during January-March and one during August. No lesions due to S. digitata were found in the visceral organs and brains of the infected goats. This is the first record of patent infection with S. digitata in goats. PMID:10321587

El-Azazy, O M; Ahmed, Y F

1999-03-31

214

A Web-Based Cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available There is a distinct lack of online atlases to visualize and explore cancer incidence in Middle Eastern countries despite the clear benefit that such tools can deliver. This paper describes the development and implementation of a cancer Atlas of Saudi Arabia, which is a web-based client-server application with built-in analysis functions for analyzing patterns of cancer incidence. Built using ESRI’s ArcGIS Server API and ASP.NET, the atlas contains 45,532 incidences of cancer for the period from 1998 to 2004, which were provided by the Saudi Arabian National Cancer Registry. This tool is aimed at health care practitioners and researchers, who can use this tool for exploring cancer distribution and investigating trends, and as a decision support tool for service allocation. The tool allows users to map cancer incidence and undertake analyses at four spatial scales from city to national level.  

Khalid Al-Ahmadi

2013-10-01

215

Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students  

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Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

2014-05-01

216

Dermatological manifestations of hepatitis C virus infection in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saudi Ministry of Health data indicates that almost 32% of viral hepatitis cases were caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV). It has been widely reported that chronic HCV infection is associated with and may trigger or exacerbate many skin manifestations in 20-40% of patients visiting dermatologists. The most commonly encountered dermatological manifestations of HCV infection globally include mixed cryoglobulinemia, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous and/or oral lichen planus, urticaria, pruritus, thrombocytopenic purpura, and psoriasis. The current article indicates that HCV infection is increasing in Saudi Arabia and approximately 12% of the reported dermatological manifestations are caused by HCV infection. We recommend the urgent need for large-scale, case-control studies to understand the impact of HCV infection in patients with skin disease. PMID:24888650

Halawani, Mona R

2014-06-01

217

Prevalence of oral lichen planus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)

1990-01-01

218

Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number of seeds per pod, inflorescences position, flower opening, shape of the upper 2 teeth of calyx, shape of sepals apex, shape of wings, length of hairs on ovary, direction of staminal tube tip, leaflets shape and surface and stem habit form and life spin. A key for the identification of the investigated species based on these morphological features is provided.

Faraj A. Al-Ghamdi

2013-03-01

219

Saudi Arabia is committed to free trade in petrochemicals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia sees protectionism in the petrochemical industry as self-defeating and against the interests of the world economy. Taking a world view based on the forces of a free market, the Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources argues that a free market, at best, is burdened with second-best solutions unless it is a universal free market. The burden is greatest on developing countries. Saudi Arabia's industrialization program is aimed at developing independence from oil exports by enhancing the value-added of hydrocarbon and mineral resources through manufacturing activities. An internal free market based on competition and privatization is forming a stronger economic base than government nurturing of infant industries.

Nazer, H.M.

1987-05-01

220

Impact of unleaded gasoline in reducing emissions in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia is dealing progressively with tighter restrictions on refined product qualities. Efforts are ongoing within the country concerning the phase-out of lead in motor gasoline and the reduction of sulfur in diesel as well. The removal of lead is the main characteristic of environmental friendly gasoline. The detrimental health effects of using leaded gasoline are many, and lead exposure can cause kidney failure, brain dysfunction, behavioral problems, and neurological impairment. Saudi Arabia is moving towards using unleaded gasoline, and efforts are being put forward by research organizations to produce lead-free gasoline in the Kingdom. A high severity fluid catalytic cracking process is being developed for converting vacuum gas oil into high-octane gasoline components. This process requires high temperature and pressure and low contact time as compared to the conventional FCC process. (author)

Hamid, S.H.

2001-01-15

 
 
 
 
221

Perception of facial profile attractiveness by a Saudi sample  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have reported different levels of perception of attractiveness among different ethnicities and among varying education-level groups on facial profile rating.To study the perception of facial profile attractiveness among Saudi dentists and lay-individuals. Digital facial profile images with altered degree of prognathism and retrognathism were presented to a sample of 60 Saudi dentists and 60 lay-persons with equal gender distribution. High reliability of repeated assessment of profile images was detected (ICC=0.982). Significant difference in perception of facial profile was found between genders (P<0.05) and among the groups with different education backgrounds (P<0.001). General agreement was established in both sample groups on average facial profile to be the most attractive and on the most retrognathic profile to be the least attractive. (author)

2008-01-01

222

Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of four Saudi Arabian cities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An indoor radon survey of a total of 269 dwellings, with one dosimeter per house, distributed in four Saudi Arabian cities was carried out. The objective of this survey was to carry out indoor radon measurements of two cities in the Eastern Province, Khafji and Hafr Al-Batin and to compare this with two cities in the Western Province, Al-Madina and Taif. The survey provides additional information about indoor radon concentrations in Saudi Arabia. The results of the survey in these cities showed that the overall minimum, maximum and average radon concentration were 7,137 and 30 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. The lowest average radon concentration (20 Bq m{sup -3}) was found in Hafr Al-Batin, while the highest average concentration was found in Khafji (40 Bq m{sup -3})

Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F.; Al-Shukri, A

2003-06-01

223

Saudi Arabia joins world market in commodity petrochemicals: utilizes joint-venture approach to promote rapid industrial growth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi industry is emphasizing a program of efficiency and cost reduction. Assured of a supply of feedstock, the growth of private sector secondary industries along with the planned development of human resources can be expected to highlight the continuing industrialization of Saudi Arabia. This article focuses on the development and expansion of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia.

Hodel, A.E.

1985-03-01

224

Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

1996-06-15

225

Lessons learned from solar energy projects in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the lessons learned from the major RD and D activities at Energy Research Institute (ERI), King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in the field of solar energy. Photovoltaic, solar thermal dishes, solar water heating, solar water pumping and desalination, solar hydrogen production and utilization are some of the areas studied for solar energy applications. Recommendations and guidelines for future solar energy research, development, demonstration and dissemination in Saudi Arabia are also given. (Author)

Huraib, F.S.; Hasnain, S.M.; Alawaji, S.H. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1996-09-01

226

Dialysis Centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD) centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients at the end of the year 2000. Almost all the dialysis centers were on hospital campus but of variable sizes with an average ratio of 14.8 dialysis machines per center (range 2-113 machines per cente...

2001-01-01

227

Trichodiniasis in Farmed Freshwater Tilapia in Eastern Saudi Arabia ??? ??????????????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study is aimed at screening for the presence of Trichodina sp. among Tilapia spp. (Oreochromis niloticus and Oreochromis aureus) collected from various fish farms in the eastern Province of Saudi Arabia during January, 1995-May, 1997. Out of 675 fishes collected only 335, (49.6%) were infested with Trichodina. The highest prevalence was observed in the spring and winter followed by autumn and summer. In general, the intensity of infection was low except in cases where outbreaks of...

MOHAMED HASSAN

1999-01-01

228

Spatial Autocorrelation of Cancer Incidence in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.

Khalid Al-Ahmadi

2013-12-01

229

Stratigraphic palynology of Devonian boreholes from northern Saudi Arabia  

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This extended abstract describes well-preserved palynomorph assemblages recovered from Devonian strata in five shallow boreholes in the northern part of Saudi Arabia (Fig. 1). These fully cored holes overlap stratigraphically to form a 1,640 ft composite section spanning the upper Tawil, Jauf and lower Jubah formations (Fig. 2). Only the Jauf and lower Jubah, represented by 188 samples taken over a 1,300 ft stratigraphic interval, are addressed here as the sandy Tawil lithologies are unsuitab...

Breuer, Pierre; Al-ghazi, Abdullah; Filatoff, John; Higgs, Ken T.; Steemans, Philippe; Wellman, Charles H.

2005-01-01

230

The Risk of Cesarean Delivery in Short Saudi Women  

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Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between maternal height of <155 cm and the risk of caesarean delivery due to failure to progress (FTP) among nulliparous saudi women. Design: Observational cohort study. Material and Method: A total of 405 term (GA > 37 weeks), uncomplicated singleton nulliparous pregnant women were enrolled on admission to labour room. The patients were divided into two groups based on maternal height, >155 cm (247 cases) as control and < 155 cm (158 cases...

Al Qahtani, Nourah H.; Salha Al Ganmi; Asma Badran

2012-01-01

231

The Teacher of English: Pedagogic Relevance in Saudi Arabia  

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The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in gene...

Intakhab Alam Khan

2011-01-01

232

Incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations in Western Saudi Arabia  

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Objectives: To present the incidence and spectrum of anorectal malformations (ARMs) and associated anomalies and to compare the findings with published literature. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted during the period January 2011 to December 2011. We reviewed the medical charts of all cases with ARMs admitted at Al-Madinah Maternity and Children Hospital, Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 1998-2010. The inci...

Almaramhy, Hamdi H.

2012-01-01

233

Neural tube defects in the Asir Region of Saudi Arabia.  

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BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) among admissions at a regional referral hospital in Saudi Arabia, compare trends over several years and note any influence of prenatal folic acid treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For every NTD admission into the newborn unit of Asir Central Hospital, during the period January 1995 through December 1998, data were collected on the infant and mother and input into a programmed form. RESULTS: During the ...

Asindi A; Al-Shehri A

2001-01-01

234

Conjunctival nevi: Clinical and histopathologic features in a Saudi population  

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Background and Objective : Conjunctival nevi are benign lesions with wide variation in clinical and histopathological features. The differentiation between benign nevi and other pigmented lesions is essential. The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of the histopathologic types of conjunctival nevi among the Saudi population and to provide the basic knowledge needed for proper clinical diagnosis. Patients and Methods : This retrospective study of surgically excis...

2010-01-01

235

Hydrogeochemical Processes of Alkhobar Aquifer in Eastern Region, Saudi Arabia  

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A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na) is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration w...

2007-01-01

236

Geographical distribution of congenital heart defects in Saudi Arabia.  

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BACKGROUND : Congenital heart defects (CHD), which are caused by abnormalities early in fetal life, encompass over 50 diagnoses. Since the detailed etiology is unknown, the geographical distribution of defects might suggest likely risk factors. METHODS : The geographical distribution of 5 865 Saudi Arabian nationals with CHD was studied by cross-matching their residential provinces and towns with a geographical information system provided by the General Directorate for Military...

Greer W; Sandridge A; Al-Menieir M; Al Rowais A

2005-01-01

237

Medical students’ assessment preferences at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia  

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Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: ...

Tarek Tawfik Amin; Feroze Kaliyadan; Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib

2011-01-01

238

Saudi Arabia may be about to revive stalled gas programme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia may be about to try again to revive its neglected natural gas industry. For some years, the kingdom has been trying to develop its enormous reserves of natural gas, but has been unable to decide what sort of role-if any-foreign companies should have, or whether upstream gas developments should be linked to downstream projects such as power generation. (author)

Anon

2006-06-15

239

Introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia: a case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Policies for the introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia are examined. Differentiation is made between areas of low density (nomadic) and high density (urban) population. Five strateges are considered which encompass the evolution from overall dependence on fossil fuel to a total energy system solely based on solar energy. Use is made of the multiattribute utility theory in the decision analysis of the various strategies.

El-Sharkawy, A.I. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah, Saudi Arabia); Husseiny, A.A.; Kenarangui, R.

1981-01-01

240

Introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia - A case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Policies for the introduction of solar energy in Saudi Arabia are examined. Differentiation is made between areas of low density (nomadic) and high density (urban) population. Five strategies are considered which encompass the evolution from overall dependence on fossil fuel to a total energy system solely based on solar energy. Use is made of the multiattribute utility theory in the decision analysis of the various strategies.

El-Sharkawy, A.I. (King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia); Husseiny, A.A. (Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames, IA)

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Extreme Temperature Trends on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia  

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The extreme temperature trends are analyzed for a meteorological data collection station in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia over approximately last four decades stretching between years 1970 and 2006. The long-term change in temperature has been assessed by Mann-Kendell rank statistics and linear trend analysis. The study also includes the estimation of hot and cold days and nights frequencies and finally the temperature anomalies on yearly basis. The ratio between the seasonal mean temperatures (Tmmean...

2012-01-01

242

Musculo-Skeletal Injuries in Jeddah Industrial State, Saudi Arabia ???????? ??????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ? ??????? ??????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A retrospective analysis of 350 industrial injuries in a population of 12,828 workers was carried out in the Industrial State of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia with the objectives of evaluating Injuries in relation to the characteristics of workers, materials ’tools, work environment, and tasks. Data were collected by field surveillance, examining patients, notifying different factors, computing them and then analyzing using statistical analysis. Significant relationships were found in risk factors s...

ABDULLAH JUMA

1999-01-01

243

Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001–2008  

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Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, UK; 2Albaha University, Al Baha city, Saudi Arabia; 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al Baha, 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals NHSTrust, Lincoln, UK Background: This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods: Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results: In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32, followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07, and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69 than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men. Conclusion: A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men. Keywords: cancer epidemiology, non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas, incidence rate, age standardized incidence rate, Saudi Cancer Registry

Alghamdi IG

2014-06-01

244

NSR project in Saudi Arabia. Implementation of the longest ERTMS network in the world; NSR-Projekt in Saudi Arabien. Errichtung der laengsten ERTMS-Strecke der Welt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North-South-Railway, a 2400 km railway system is built in Saudi Arbia. It connects the phosphate and bauxite mines in the north with the plant in Raz Al Zour, and the port in Jubail. In parallel, it provides high speed passenger traffic between Riyadh and the Jordanian border. The Saudi Arabian Railway Company is the Employer and the joint venture of Thales and the Saudi Binladen Group - the Contractor. The network will be equipped with ERTMS L2, and no conventional light signals will be installed as fallback. (orig.)

Fischer, Frank [Thales Deutschland (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Transportation Systems; Gumprecht, Mikko [Institut fuer Bahntechnik GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

2011-03-15

245

Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire sent to all Saudi students enrolled in healthcare profession programs in North America. The data was collected between January and March 2008 at the University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America. Results were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 377 completed questionnaires were returned. Results revealed that 71% of respondents intended to return to work within the 2 major urban cities (Riyadh and Jeddah. Respondents who completed their undergraduate studies in a large city were more likely to work in the same city (odds ratio [OR]=3.2; p=0.000; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-5.2. Furthermore, 51% of the students were willing to work in a rural area for a 50% or more increase in their salary. Finally, men were more willing to work in a rural area for a financial incentive (OR=2.3; p=0.006, 95% CI = 1.3-4.3. Conclusion: This study suggests that realistic financial incentives would probably not suffice to attract Saudi healthcare providers to rural areas. The provision of medical schools in smaller cities and rural areas is predicted to be a more effective method for improving the current maldistribution of healthcare providers. 

Kevin G. Croke

2012-11-01

246

Geographical distribution of congenital heart defects in Saudi Arabia.  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Congenital heart defects (CHD, which are caused by abnormalities early in fetal life, encompass over 50 diagnoses. Since the detailed etiology is unknown, the geographical distribution of defects might suggest likely risk factors. METHODS : The geographical distribution of 5 865 Saudi Arabian nationals with CHD was studied by cross-matching their residential provinces and towns with a geographical information system provided by the General Directorate for Military Survey. Population data were obtained from the 1413H census. RESULTS : CHD cases were mostly distributed across the provinces in proportion to their total population but due to their size and inhomogeneity, province-based thematic maps were found to be misleading. City-based maps were preferable and showed similar geographic distributions for cases registered in successive years. Thematic maps of the distribution of the CHD burden highlighted the southwestern provinces, near the border with Yemen, and the northeast section of the Eastern Province. CONCLUSIONS : Patterns of disease in Saudi Arabia are best studied at the level of individual towns and villages. The CHD registry has already attained good national coverage and can therefore support nationwide epidemiological studies. Southwestern Saudi Arabia and the northern part of the Eastern Province appear to exhibit a higher burden of CHD.

Greer W

2005-01-01

247

EER Improvement for Room Air-Conditioners in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the possibility of achieving a higher Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER for Room Air Conditioners (RACs that complies with the Saudi energy efficiency standards and satisfies the energy conservation requirements for the Saudi Building Code (SBC. This study considers several design options for improving the performance and efficiency of the RAC in comparison with a baseline RAC unit manufactured by Al-Zamil Company of Saudi Arabia. These design options include the number of condenser and evaporator rows, fins density, frontal area, compressor types, and refrigerant types. The experimental data obtained is through testing the units in Calorimeter according to standard ASHRAE-16. Also, the uncertainty in measurements and its propagation are included in this study. This paper reports the results of a set of measurements carried out on a modified RAC and compares them with the tested baseline RAC unit at similar load conditions. The experimental results indicate the effectiveness of increasing the number of condenser rows in comparison with other design options considered for achieving higher EER for RACs.

Abdullah M. Al-Shaalan

2012-11-01

248

Thromboembolism in inflammatory bowel diseases: a report from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Hussain Issa1, Sami Al-Momen1, Bahaa Bseiso1, Ghada Ali Al-Janobi1, Mohamad Al-Jama1, Fadel Ali Almousa1, Mahdi E Al-Jarodi1, Ahmed H Al-Salem21Department of Internal Medicine, King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pediatric Surgery, Maternity and Children Hospital, Dammam, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Thromboembolism (TE is a serious but under-recognized complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. This is specially so in developing countries where the incidence of IBD is low. In Saudi Arabia, IBD is considered to be rare, but the incidence is increasing. Where the clinical manifestations resemble those of developed countries, TE as a complication of IBD is considered to be very rare. This report describes six IBD patients with TE. This importance of the complication of TE is stressed, and physicians caring for these patients should be aware of it in order to obviate potential morbidity and mortality.Keywords: thromboembolism, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis

Hussain Issa

2011-01-01

249

Epidemiology of sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by production of abnormal hemoglobin S and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Information about the prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia is patchy and probably underestimated, but studies have reported that SCD is a relatively common genetic disorder in this part of the world. The prevalence of SCD in Saudi Arabia varies significantly in different parts of the country, with the highest prevalence is in the Eastern province, followed by the southwestern provinces. The reported prevalence for sickle-cell trait ranges from 2% to 27%, and up to 2.6% will have SCD in some areas. Clinical and hematological variability exists in SCD in Saudi Arabia with two major phenotypes: a mild phenotype and a severe phenotype. Further studies on the prevalence, molecular and clinical epidemiology of SCD may help predict disease severity and risk stratification of patients to determine whether to receive early intensive care or continued symptomatic care.

Jastaniah Wasil

2011-01-01

250

Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women  

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Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing, anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD. Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

Mohammed A. Alsaif

2007-01-01

251

Medical Colleges in Saudi Arabia: Can We Predict Graduate Numbers?  

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Full Text Available The shortage of Physicians is a major problem in many countries. Medical colleges are often encouraged to increase the graduate numbers. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Saudi physicians form only 37.89% of the physician manpower. The remainder of the physicians are expatriates. It was recently estimated that the Kingdom would need 29,128 physicians by the year 2014 in order to maintain the same physicians-to-population ratio, i.e., 2.7 per 100,000. To solve the problem, the higher education institutions invested in medical education and increased their number of college graduates. However, there are many questions about whether this strategy will proof successful in covering the shortage or whether this will lead to problems, for example an excess in the number of physicians. These can only be answered if future graduate numbers are estimated and kept under control. In this study, common data mining techniques were reviewed and applied to the output of Saudi medical colleges over the past years. These techniques can be used to predict graduate numbers. The results show the importance of developing a national student information center to fix the data collection problems described in this paper.

Alaa Althubaiti

2014-05-01

252

E-Commerce Adoption Factors in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Some sectors in Saudi Arabia are slow in adopting eCommerce technologies for running their businesstransactions, and that is due to an internal set of factors (related to organizations or an external set of factors(related to infrastructure and governmental support. We have noticed that most of the studies in this subjectcovered either internal factors or external factors, but not both. Moreover, most of the papers that studiedeCommerce adoption factors in developing economies center on the environmental, infrastructural andgovernmental areas only, and overlook the organizational factors, while the focus of the subject studied andresearched on developed economies was organizational (SMEs and large enterprises related adoption factors byconsidering the technology infrastructure and government support as taken for granted, which is not the case indeveloping economies.The objectives of this study are 1 to find out the level of eCommerce adoption in Saudi Arabia, and 2 toidentify the factors that affect the adoption of eCommerce. By this, the output of the study can help the policymaker of ICT (Information and Communication Technology in Saudi Arabia to direct the related activitiestoward the most effective local factors that will enable and leverage eCommerce potential and usage on one hand,and on the other hand the study will identify the promising local opportunities for eCommerce infrastructureproviders (local banks, system integrators, IT solution providers, and major telecom operators by discoveringthe distinctive eCommerce adoption factors.

Sulaiman A. Al-Hudhaif

2011-09-01

253

Hepatitis virus genotyping by Polymerase Chain Reaction and DNA Enzyme immunoassay among Saudi patients in the Western Province, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia is unknown. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalent HCV genotypes among HCV seropositive Saudi patients in the Western Province and to study the relationship between types/subtypes, clinical status and liver histology. Serum samples were collected from 140 consecutive patients attending the Hematology Clinic with varying grades of liver diseases, high almandine transferees (ALT) for > 6 months, positive HCV, qualitative PCR and who had liver biopsy. HCV genotyping was determined on patients who had tested positive by both HCV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Of the 140 patients, 97 (69.2%) had genotype 4, 18 (12.8%) had genotype 1a, and 16 (11.4%) had genotype 1b. Genotype 2b and 5 were found in two patients (1.4%) each, while 5 patients (3.6%) had mixed infections with genotype 4 and 5. Of the 97 patients infected with genotype 4, 84 (86.6%) had chronic active hepatitis (CAH), two (2.1%) had CAH with active cirrhosis, 9(9.3%) had cirrhosis and two (2.1%) had normal liver histology (NLH). The most prevalent HCV genotype in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia was genotype 4 (69.2%). Genotype 1b was encountered in 16 (11.4%) patients. For the first time, genotype 5 was identified in the Western Province of Saudi Arabia. Genotype 1b and 4 were associated with different histological grades of liver disease. (author)

2000-01-01

254

Leadership Styles and Organizational Learning An Empirical Study on Saudi Banks in Al-Taif Governorate Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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This paper investigates how two important research streams, namely Leadership Styles (LS) and Organizational Learning (OL), might be related. In other words, LS and OL represent two rich lines of research: one is about how people lead and the other is about how people learn. Specifically, this contribution addresses two issues (1) the evaluative attitudes of the employees towards LS and OL and (2) the relationship between LS and OL.
This study was conducted at Saudi banks in Al-Tai...

2012-01-01

255

Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Health Informatics Masters Program at KSAU-HS University, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Saudi health sector has witnessed a significant progress in recent decades with some Saudi hospitals receiving international recognition. However, this progress has not been accompanied by the same advancement in the health informatics field whose applications have become a necessity for hospitals in order to achieve important objectives such…

Majid, Altuwaijri

2007-01-01

256

Recent Fulminant Incursions of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available Severe fulminant incursions of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease (RHD swept Saudi Arabia during 2004-2006. The disease was reported in most of the rabbitries in the country. The clinical signs were recorded and the virus was identified using sandwich ELISA and the Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI test. Epidemiology of the disease in Saudi Arabia was discussed in relation to the present outbreak.

E.M.E. Abu-Elzein

2006-01-01

257

Anxiety in Gifted Female Students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to identify the extent of anxiety among gifted girls in Saudi Arabia and, further, to determine whether differences in anxiety levels exist according to grade. The study sample consisted of 66 female 6th and 7th graders, 11 to 14 years old, attending public school enrichment programs for gifted students in Jeddah Province, Saudi

Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Tan, Mei

2009-01-01

258

Metal concentrations in the sediments from the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Saudi Arabia, trace metal enrichment of marine environment may result from a number of anthropogenic activities, especially from petroleum and petrochemical industry wastes. The objective of this study was to determine metal concentrations in the sediments from the Arabian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. This study may serve as baseline information for future evaluation of metal pollution in this region.

Sadiq, M.; Zaidi, T.H.

1985-04-01

259

Growing Up under Pressure: The Cultural and Religious Context of the Saudi System of Gifted Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay presents an overview of the system of gifted education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To highlight the characteristics of this system, however, its presentation is preceded by a discussion of particular aspects of Saudi society and its general system of education. These aspects distinctly differentiate the general and gifted systems of…

Aljughaiman, Abdullah M.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

2013-01-01

260

Regional variations in the growth of Saudi children and adolescents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

No previous study has provided a detailed description of regional variations of growth within the various regions of Saudi Arabia. Thus, we sought to demonstrate differences in growth of children and adolescents in different regions. The 2005 Saudi reference was based on a cross-sectional representative sample of the Saudi population of healthy children and adolescents from birth to 18 years of age. Body measurements of the length, stature, weight, head circumference and calculation of the BMI were performed according to standard recommendations. Percentile construction and smoothing were performed using the LMS (lambda, mu and sigma) methodology, followed by transformation of all individual measurements into standard deviation scores. Factors such as weight for age, height for age, weight for height, and head circumference for children from birth to 3 years, stature for age, head circumference and body mass index for children between 2-18 years of age were assessed. Subsequently, variations in growth between the three main regions in the north, southwest, and center of Saudi Arabia were calculated, with the Bonferroni: method used to assess the significance of differences between regions. There were significant differences in growth between regions that varied according to age, gender, growth parameter and region. The highest variation was found between children and adolescents of the southwestern region and those of the other two regions The regression lines for all growth parameters in children <3 years of age were significantly different from one region to another reaching - 0.65 standard deviation scores for the southwestern regions ( P =.001). However, the difference between the northern and central regions were not significant for the head circumference and for weight for length. For older children and adolescents a significant difference was found in all parameters except between the northern and central regions in BMI in girls and head circumference in boys. Finally, the difference in head circumference of girls between southwestern and northern regions was not significant. Such variation affected all growth parameters for both boys and girls. Regional variations in growth need to be taken into consideration when assessing the growth of Saudi children and adolescents. (author)

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Saudi Arabia- The Saudi Aramco announces falls of almost all price differentials of its crude oils in April  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Europe and Asia except, all the differentials of prices have readjusted in fall in the month of april. For United States, the fall of differentials have been varied between $0.05/b and $0.15/b according to the qualities. For Europe, similar falls have been decided for crude and middle oils and are following the strong increases of february, provoked by the cold spell of the two first months of the year. In an other point of view, the production and the benefits of the Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (Sabic) reach record levels of 22 Mt and $1.67 milliards in 1995. The Saudi Petrochemical Company (Sadaf), joint venture between Sabic and Pecten Saudi Arabia, affiliate of American Shell Oil, will begin next july the production, in experimental phase of its new unit of 700 000 t/year of MTBE/ETBE (methyl or ethyl-tertio-butyl-ether). It will be the first worldwide factory of this capacity to produce MTBE/ETBE. The National Plastic Company (Ibn Hayyan) has created a new affiliate Ibn Hayyan Plastic Products Company to build a new factory in its complex of Joubail, which will produce 40 000 t/year of plastic products. Finally, the construction at Joubail of the 50 000 t/year of caustic soda factory, the Arabian Industrial Development Company (Nama) will be achieved in january 1997 and the production start is planned two months later. (N.C.)

1996-04-01

262

Analysis of the Impact of Reforms on Insurance Industry of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper attempts to find out the impact of reforms on insurance industry of Saudi Arabia. The study finds out the impact of reforms vis-à-vis premium growth, regulation of insurance industry and entry of new companies in the industry. The study is based on secondary data collected mainly from the annual reports of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA from 2005 through 2009. The study made a comparative study of the performance of insurance industry in pre and post reforms era. Further it analyzes the impact of reforms on standardization of insurance industry through regulatory framework and participation of new companies from Saudi Arabia and other foreign multinational companies in the industry. Since reform in 2004 Saudi Insurance is growing fast registering remarkably high growth rate in premium. Besides premium large numbers of indigenous companies have entered the insurance market. The government has established sound regulatorysystem to develop the insurance industry of Saudi Arabia to international standard.

Dr. Zaid Ahmad Ansari

2011-10-01

263

Driving online shopping: Spending and behavioral differences among women in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondents’ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.

Al-maghrabi, T.

2010-01-01

264

Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples  

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Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions

Abolfotouh MA

2013-07-01

265

Susceptibility of Saudi Bulinus truncatus to infection with Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium with observations on protein electrophoretic pattern of the snails.  

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A laboratory-based susceptibility study was carried out on snails Bulinus truncatus collected from highland Abha, Asser, Saudi Arabia to Egyptian Schistosoma haematobium to investigate the potential role of Saudi B. truncatus in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium and to know the possibility that the parasite might be able to spread into Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that, compared to Egyptian snails, survival of snails at day 25 post-exposure was significantly higher in Saudi B. truncatus ones. The infection rate was higher in Saudi snails as compared to Egyptian ones. The incubation period was shorter in Saudi snails but the duration of cercarial shedding was longer in the Egyptian than in the Saudi snails. The production of S. haematobium cercariae per snail was higher in Egyptian snails than in Saudi ones. These results suggest that Saudi B. truncatus can play a role in the transmission of Egyptian S. haematobium in Saudi Arabia and therefore this parasite might be able to spread into the Kingdom. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of tissue soluble proteins was done to determine the effects of the parasite on both the Egyptian and Saudi snails. The electrophoretic analysis revealed the occasional presence or absence of certain bands in infected snails in comparison with non-infected one. PMID:19329256

Mostafa, Osama M S; Bin Dajem, Saad M; Abu El Einin, Hanaa M

2009-05-12

266

Prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Few studies have been conducted in the Saudi population on oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and extent of oral lesions in a study among dental patients at a college of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Over a 3-year period, 2552 dental outpatients were interviewed and investigated clinically for the presence of oral mucosal conditions. A thorough oral clinical examination was performed, including a radiographic examination. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically when necessary. Of 383 (15.0%) patients found to have oral mucosal lesions, females constituted 57.7% (n=221) and males 42.3% (n=162). The age range of the patients was between 15 to 73 years with a mean age of 38.2 years. The most commonly affected age group was 31 to 40 years, which comprised 21.4% (n=82) of all affected individuals. The least affected age group were individuals older than 61 years. The most common lesion was Fordyce granules (3.8%; n=98), followed by leukoedema (3.4%; n=86) and traumatic lesions (ulcer, erosion) in 1.9% (n=48). Tongue abnormalities were present in 4.0% (n=101) of all oral conditions observed, ranging from 1.4% (n=36) for fissured tongue to 0.1% (n=2) for bifid tongue. Other findings detected were torous platinus (1.3%; n=34), mandibular tori (0.1%; n=2) aphthous ulcer (0.4%; n=10), herpes simplex (0.3%; n=7), frictional hyperkeratosis (0.9%; n=23), melanosis (0.6%; n=14), lichen planus (0.3%; n=9) and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=13). The findings of this study provide information on the types and prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients. This provides baseline data for future studies about the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population. (author)

2009-01-01

267

Prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients  

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Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Few studies have been conducted in the Saudi population on oral mucosal lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and extent of oral lesions in a study among dental patients at a college of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: Over a 3-year period, 2552 dental outpatients were interviewed and investigated clinically for the presence of oral mucosal conditions. A thorough oral clinical examination was performed, including a radiographic examination. The diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically when necessary. Results: Of 383 (15.0% patients found to have oral mucosal lesions, females constituted 57.7% (n=221 and males 42.3% (n=162. The age range of the patients was between 15 to 73 years with a mean age of 38.2 years. The most commonly affected age group was 31 to 40 years, which comprised 21.4% (n=82 of all affected individuals. The least affected age group were individuals older than 61 years. The most common lesion was Fordyce granules (3.8%; n=98, followed by leukoedema (3.4%; n=86 and traumatic lesions (ulcer, erosion in 1.9% (n=48. Tongue abnormalities were present in 4.0% (n=101 of all oral conditions observed, ranging from 1.4% (n=36 for fissured tongue to 0.1% (n=2 for bifid tongue. Other findings detected were torous platinus (1.3%; n=34, mandibular tori (0.1%; n=2 aphthous ulcer (0.4%; n=10, herpes simplex (0.3%; n=7, frictional hyperkeratosis (0.9%; n=23, melanosis (0.6%; n=14, lichen planus (0.3%; n=9 and nicotinic stomatitis (0.5%; n=13. Conclusion: The findings of this study provide information on the types and prevalence of oral lesions among Saudi dental patients. This provides baseline data for future studies about the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population.

Al-Mobeeriek Azizah

2009-01-01

268

Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = ? 0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: ? New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. ? Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. ? Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. ? Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

2012-04-01

269

Aborting a malformed fetus: a debatable issue in saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674

Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M

2012-01-01

270

Peeling skin syndrome: 11 cases from Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)

2006-01-01

271

Desalination impacts on the coastal environment: Ash Shuqayq, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = - 0.59o). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.

Alharbi, O.A., E-mail: omar.alharbi@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Phillips, M.R., E-mail: m.phillips@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Williams, A.T., E-mail: allan.williams@smu.ac.uk [Faculty of Applied Design and Engineering, University of Wales, Swansea Metropolitan University, Swansea, Wales SA1 6ED (United Kingdom); Gheith, A.M., E-mail: amingheith@mans.edu.eg [Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Bantan, R.A., E-mail: rbantan@kau.edu.sa [Marine Geology Department, Faculty of Marine Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Rasul, N.M., E-mail: rasul.nm@sgs.org.sa [Saudi Geological Survey, Centre for Marine Geology, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

2012-04-01

272

Risk factors associated with postpartum depression in the Saudi population  

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Full Text Available Abeer A Alharbi,1 Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani2 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Department of Medical Education, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Postpartum depression (PPD is one of the major psychological disorders worldwide that affects both mother and child. The aim of this study was to correlate the risk of PPD with obstetric and demographic variables in Saudi females. Materials and methods: Data were collected by interviewing females 8–12 weeks postpartum. PPD symptoms were defined as present when subjects had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or higher. Variables included in this study were age, education, occupation, parity, baby's sex, pregnancy period, delivery type, hemoglobin level, anemia, and iron pills taken during pregnancy. Results: Of the 352 postpartum females, the prevalence of PPD symptom risk was 117 (33.2%. Among the PPD symptomatic females, 66 (39.8% had low hemoglobin levels, and 45 (40.5% females were anemic during pregnancy (P?0.05. These results suggest that early postpartum anemia, indicated by low hemoglobin level, is a significant risk factor for PPD (adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.74; P=0.03. Other variables, including age, parity, education, occupation, and delivery type, were not significantly correlated (P=0.15–0.95, but marginally indicative of the risk of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin level and anemia during pregnancy were risk factors for PPD in Saudi females. Many other factors may be considered risk factors, such as age, occupation, and parity. Anemic women need more attention and to be checked regarding their PPD, and treated if necessary. Keywords: postpartum depression, hemoglobin level, anemia, EPDS

Alharbi AA

2014-02-01

273

Lifestyle factors associated with overweight and obesity among Saudi adolescents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background A better understanding of the relationships between obesity and lifestyle factors is necessary for effective prevention and management of obesity in youth. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between obesity measures and several lifestyle factors, including physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents aged 14–19?years. Methods This was a school-based cross-sectional study that was conducted in three cities in Saudi Arabia (Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2906 secondary school males (1400 and females (1506 aged 14–19 years, who were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, waist/height ratio (WHtR, screen time (television viewing, video games and computer use, physical activity (determined using a validated questionnaire, and dietary habits (intake frequency per week. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations between obesity and lifestyle factors. Results Compared with non-obese, obese males and females were significantly less active, especially in terms of vigorous activity, had less favorable dietary habits (e.g., lower intake of breakfast, fruits and milk, but had lower intake of sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets/chocolates. Logistic regression analysis showed that overweight/obesity (based on BMI categories or abdominal obesity (based on WHtR categories were significantly and inversely associated with vigorous physical activity levels (aOR for high level?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.41–0.92 for BMI and 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89 for WHtR and frequency of breakfast (aOR for? Conclusions The present study identified several lifestyle factors associated with obesity that may represent valid targets for the prevention and management of obesity among Saudi adolescents. Primary prevention of obesity by promoting active lifestyles and healthy diets should be a national public health priority.

Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

2012-05-01

274

Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001–2008  

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Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.Keywords: cancer epidemiology, ovarian cancer, Saudi Cancer Registry, incidence rate

Alghamdi IG

2014-06-01

275

Eurasian and African mitochondrial DNA influences in the Saudi Arabian population  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A phylogeny of the most abundant haplogroup (preHV1 (R0a was constructed based on 13 whole mtDNA genomes. Results The Saudi Arabian group showed greatest similarity to other Arabian Peninsula populations (Bedouin from the Negev desert and Yemeni and to Levantine populations. Nearly all the main western Asia haplogroups were detected in the Saudi sample, including the rare U9 clade. Saudi Arabs had only a minority sub-Saharan Africa component (7%, similar to the specific North-African contribution (5%. In addition, a small Indian influence (3% was also detected. Conclusion The majority of the Saudi-Arab mitochondrial DNA lineages (85% have a western Asia provenance. Although the still large confidence intervals, the coalescence and phylogeography of (preHV1 haplogroup (accounting for 18 % of Saudi Arabian lineages matches a Neolithic expansion in Saudi Arabia.

Bosley Thomas M

2007-03-01

276

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894

Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M

1986-01-01

277

Rainfall quality at selected sites in Saudi Arabia  

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The chemical composition of rainfall in Saudi Arabia was studied. Data indicate the pH of rainfall is near neutral or basic, indicating a lack of effect from imported nitric or sulfuric acids. Sodium and chloride from the Red Sea or the Arabian Gulf do not appear to be present in appreciable amounts. Particles of calcium, bicarbonate, or sulfate from local disturbances appear to be more important to the chemical quality of rainfall than ions from greater distances. Dry fallout is similar in concentration to the rainfall samples collected concurrently. 12 refs., 2 figs. (ACR)

Handy, A.H.; Tucker, R.A.

1984-01-01

278

Medication burden of Saudi Arabian women receiving antiresorptive therapy  

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Full Text Available Mir Sadat-Ali,1 Bader Al-Shafie,2 Abdallah S Al-Omran,1 Mohammed Q Azam11Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Pharmacy, King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, Saudi ArabiaBackground and purpose: Osteoporosis is common in the Saudi Arabian population, and its successful treatment requires full compliance. Patients who require antiresorptive therapy, such as oral bisphosphonates, may suffer from other diseases requiring medications, which increases the medication burden and ends up in drug noncompliance on the part of patients, making them vulnerable to osteoporosis-related fractures. We decided to undertake this study to analyze the concomitant medications that osteoporotic patients are receiving at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar.Methods: Osteoporotic patients receiving antiresorptive therapy (ART at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al Khobar, were identified through the database of the QuadraMed Patient Care system and cross-checked with the radiology database of the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and pharmacy drug-dispensing system between January 2009 and December 2009. Concomitant medication is defined as the use of other drugs for $30 days with oral bisphosphonates, calcium, and vitamin D. Medication burdens are defined as mild (?1 concomitant medication, moderate (?2 and ?4 medications, and severe (?5 medications. The demographic data, such as age, sex, and diagnosis, were collected from the medical records. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS.Results: During the study period, 516 patients were diagnosed with osteoporosis, and 473 were on ART while the rest were using anabolic Teriperatide. Sixty-eight (14.4% of the patients, with an average age of 50.15 ± 2.4 years, were on one medication besides ART, vitamin D, and elemental calcium; 129 (27.3% of the patients, with an average age of 51.6 ± 9.7 years, were taking 3.32 medications, and 276 (58.3% of the patients, with a mean age of 62.1 ± 10.7 years, were on 8.02 concomitant medications. The most common concomitant medications in use were cardiac, endocrine, systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and analgesics, in that order. This study suggests that the majority of Saudi women who are osteoporotic and undergoing oral bisphosphonate therapy have a concomitant medication burden of $5 other medications. For full compliance with the therapy, the patients' medication burden should be considered prior to selecting the treatment route.Keywords: osteoporosis, concomitant medications, polypharmacy, compliance

Sadat-Ali M

2012-08-01

279

A passive solar test facility for Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A passive solar test facility has been designed for Dammam, Saudi Arabia. It will be located on the campus of King Faisal University, adjacent to the Persian Gulf. This maritime desert climate is terribly sevre, and one for which it is a formidable challenge to design a year around thermally efficient building. This facility incorporates seven different passive strategies: proper orientation, operable shading for windows, flow-through ventilation, externally insulated thermal mass, wind tower with direct evaporative cooling, indirect evaporative cooling through a double shell, and solar water heating. Construction should begin in June of 1983. Upon completion, the building will be monitored for at least two years.

Woods, P.K.

1983-06-01

280

Normal Reference Levels of Serum Cystatin C in Saudi Adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the first report from Saudi Arabia studying the normal reference intervals in adult Saudi subjects and evaluating serum cystatin C as a prospective marker for the assessment of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Three hundred healthy adult Saudi subjects including 156 males (52% and 144 females (48%, with a mean age of 31.21 ± 9.82 years were prospectively studied to establish normal reference ranges for cystatin C. A total of 68.34% of the study patients were in the age-group of 21-40 years. The mean serum cystatin C in the 300 healthy subjects was 0.751 ± 0.11 mg/L (0.50 - 1.09, increasing gradually with age: it was 0.738 ± 0.11 mg/L (0.51 - 1.09 in the age-group 21 - 30 years and 0.807 ± 0.12 (0.51 - 1.09 among subjects who were > 50 years of age. The mean serum cystatin C in females (0.778 ± 0.118 mg/L was significantly hig-her than in males (0.726 ± 0.095 mg/L (p < 0.0001. The serum cystatin C level was within the defined reference range of 0.53 - 0.95 mg/L in 95% of the subjects with a mean value of 0.74 ± 0.097 mg/L, and was falling within the 95% confidence interval of 0.73865 - 0.7637 mg/L, and with 98.84% area under the curve (AUC. All the other renal function markers (urea, serum crea-tinine, calculated GFR, BMI among the studied subjects were within the normal reference ranges for adult Saudi population. The serum cystatin C level had a significant correlation with the body mass index (BMI (r = 0.155; p = 0.007 and a correlation with serum creatinine as well (r = 0.009; p = 0.873. It showed a negative correlation with calculated GFR as per Cockroft-Gault equation (r = - 0.101; p = 0.083.

Al Wakeel Jamal

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome in a Saudi male  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nesidioblastosis is focal or diffuse islet hyperplasia leading tohyperinsulinism with subsequent hypoglycemia in the absence of insulinoma,usually described in neonates and infancy. We described the first adult caseof nesidioblastosis in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The diagnosis andtreatment of the condition can be very difficult and challenging. Despite thefact that our patient responded initially to surgical treatment, hishypoglycemic symptoms occasionally recurred and needed adjunctive medicaltreatment. Although initially thought to affect only infants and children,cases of nesidioblastosis can effect adults and pose a diagnostic andtherapeutic challenge to the clinicians. (author)

2008-01-01

282

Sydenham chorea in a 5-year-old Saudi patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite improvements in socio-economic status and the standard of health care services, rheumatic fever continuous to occur in Saudi Arabia, although with decreasing frequency. The disease is most commonly observed in school-aged children, but can also occur in a younger age group. Carditis and arthritis are the major clinical symptoms on presentation of acute rheumatic fever in young children. Rheumatic chorea is infrequently reported in young children. Here, a case of Sydenham chorea, in a 5-year-old boy, is presented. Although rare, the diagnosis of Sydenham chorea should always be considered in young children with choreiform movements. PMID:24983288

Lardhi, Amer A

2014-07-01

283

Heavy Metal Levels in Saudi Arabian Spirulina  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A small farm of the microalga Spirulina platensis (Nordstedt) Geitler was established in Saudi Arabia in 1999. The levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were measured in the final dry powder of this alga using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The content of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in the dry powder were very low and they ranged between 0.002 mg kg-1 for As and 0.109 mg kg-1 for Pb. Higher level...

Al-homaidan, Ali A.

2006-01-01

284

Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers w...

Al-Naami Mohammed; Arafah Maria; Al-Ibrahim Fatimah

2010-01-01

285

Ocular findings in Saudi Arabian patients with sickle cell disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM--This study was set up to determine whether or not retinal changes occur in sickle cell disease in Saudi Arabian subjects with either the Benin, which exists in the south western part of the kingdom, or Asian haplotypes in the east, and to compare the findings with those in sickle cell disease in Jamaica. METHODS--Retinal examination and fluorescein angiography were performed in 61 patients with SS disease (40 eastern, 20 south western, 1 central region) and 10 with sickle cell beta(0) th...

1995-01-01

286

Prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudi school children in Riyadh.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) constitutes one of the main health problems in Saudi Arabia, but little is known on the lipid profile of the juvenile population. METHODS: We measured the prevalence of high-risk levels of serum lipids in 1390 boys and girls, aged 9 or 12 years, in Riyadh city. RESULTS: High-risk levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG) and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL) cholesterol ratio were found in 32.7&#x...

Al-Shehri Sulieman; Saleh Zayed; Salama Mohamed; Hassan Yehia

2004-01-01

287

E-Commerce Adoption Factors in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some sectors in Saudi Arabia are slow in adopting eCommerce technologies for running their business
transactions, and that is due to an internal set of factors (related to organizations) or an external set of factors
(related to infrastructure and governmental support). We have noticed that most of the studies in this subject
covered either internal factors or external factors, but not both. Moreover, most of the papers that studied
eCommer...

Al-hudhaif, Sulaiman A.; Abdullah Alkubeyyer

2011-01-01

288

Analysis of G6PD enzyme deficiency in Saudi population  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The evolutionary conservation of a housekeeping gene such as G6PD is greater than that of tissue-specific genes, presumably because the latter may require more specific adaptation to the physiology of individual organisms. The abundance of distinct mutation sites and their clinical manifestations make G6PD ideal for structure-function analysis. Therefore, it is of interest to screen of G6PD deficiency in the blood donors in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We report the mean and variation of...

Alharbi, Khalid K.; Abed, Alaa Salem; Syed, Rabbani; Khan, Imran Ali; Mustafa, Sabeena Muhammed

2012-01-01

289

Burnout syndrome among multinational nurses working in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background : Nursing Staff is reported to be under extreme state of stress, leading to burnout syndrome (BS. Most of the studies have been conducted among the nurses working in their home countries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of BS among a multinational nursing workforce in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods : King Fahd University Hospital, AlKhobar, Saudi Arabia, is a tertiary care hospital employing 510 nurses of multinational workforce. Two hundred and fifty Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI individual-based questionnaires were distributed after modification to include the age, sex, marital status, nationality, unit working and number of years on the job. The data were entered in the database and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS, version 14.0. A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant . Results : One hundred and ninety-eight nurses (77.2% completed the questionnaire. Their average age was 34.46 ± 5.36 years. Forty-five percent (89 had high emotional exhaustion (EE and 28.9% (57 had moderate suffering with EE. Staffs who were on the job for longer duration had a lesser frequency of EE (P ? 0.001. The frequency of depersonalization (DP was 83 (42% and was graded as high and 61 (30.8% were moderately affected. Personal accomplishment (PA was moderate to low in the majority of the nurses (71.5%. Married nurses were prone to EE (28.17 ± 12.1 versus 22.3 ± 9.6 than unmarried nurses (P = 0.003, CI 95% and OR 2.4. The nurses in the patients? wards and clinics were more emotionally exhausted with higher DP compared to nurses in the high stress and high activity areas (P < 0.001, OR ?11.1; and P < 0.001, CI 95% and OR 9.65. Non-Saudi nurses were significantly more prone to EE (27.3 ± 12.1 versus 21.6 ± 2.9 than Saudi nurses (P = 0.004; 95% CI: <9.64. Conclusion : We found that majority of the nursing staff at our hospital were in a state of burnout with high frequency of EE and DP. Only a quarter of the surveyed staff felt that they had some level of PA. Age and working away from their home countries were the important predictors in the development of BS in nurses. We believe that working conditions have to be improved to develop strategies to cope and alleviate stressful situations.

Al-Turki Haifa

2010-12-01

290

Solar radiation availability in the northeastern region of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solar energy potential of the northeastern part of Saudi Arabia is investigated based on measurements of a complete year of data at a coastal location near Dhahran. High-resolution, real-time solar radiation data were collected and processed. Hourly, daily, and monthly statistics of solar radiation were made from the recorded 1-min averaged values. Clearness index is discussed on the basis of hourly, daily,and monthly averages. Variation of the diffuse fraction of total radiation is also determined, and results are discussed. (Author)

Sahin, A.Z.; Aksakal, A.; Kahraman, R.

2000-12-01

291

Behaviour of global solar radiation over Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper gives an overview of available global solar radiation and the hours of bright sunshine in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The discussion covers the behavior of monthly average daily values of global solar radiation, the bright hours of sunshine, and the Angstrom coefficients for all the 41 solar radiation stations spread all over the Kingdom. The study finds a slight dependence of global solar radiation on latitude, longitude and altitude of the location and suggests developing empirical correlation for the estimation of global solar radiation on horizontal surface taking into consideration the effects of these parameters along with the sunshine duration.

Shafiqur, Rehman [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Center for Engineering Research, The Research Institute (Saudi Arabia)

2000-07-01

292

Effective tools toward electrical energy conservation in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. Such technologies are investigated in this paper and categorised in three main groups: electrical equipment, energy conservation in buildings, i.e. about 50% reduction in the annual energy consumption can be achieved by adding thermal insulation to the building envelope, and energy conservation supporting tools, i.e. public awareness and information. It has been found that a considerable saving in the investments of constructing new power stations could be attained. (author)

Alajlan, S.A.; Smiai, M.S.; Elani, U.A. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Institute

1998-12-31

293

Energy conservation measures on residential buildings in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of energy conservation measures for a typical two-storey residential building in Saudi Arabia are studied. The analysis shows that insulating the walls and the roof (15 mm-thick insulation) results in a significant reduction in the peak cooling load (> 23%) and the annual energy consumption (> 27%). Hence, a significant saving in customer and government equivalent uniform annual cost (EUAC) will be observed. The effects of additional measures, such as reducing the glazing area and the infiltration rate, are also reported. (author)

Said, S.A.M.; Al-Hammad, A. (University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

1993-06-01

294

Database for building energy prediction in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents information about outdoor design conditions, degree-days, bin data and weather data sets that have been generated from weather histories, recorded over a period of many years, for 20 cities located in five different climatic zones in Saudi Arabia. The information and data presented in this paper should be useful to many engineers and researchers in the field of energy conservation in buildings. Also, the need for weather data-sets in a format useful for dynamic energy calculations is emphasized. (Author)

Said, S.A.M.; Habib, M.A.; Iqbal, M.O. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2003-01-01

295

Hematologic risk factors for stroke in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to explore the hematologic risk factors for stroke in cohort of Saudi children. We evaluated children at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, during the periods July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Investigations for suspected cases included neuroimaging, transcranial Dopppler (TCD) for cases of sickle cell diseases (SCD), and Duplex scan. Hemostatic assays included coagulation screening tests, tests of thrombin generation and fibrinolysis, coagulation inhibitors, and activated protein C resistance. During the study period, 104 Saudi children (aged one month to 12 years) with stroke were seen. The mean age of the cohort was 27.1 months (SD=39.3 months) and median was 6 months. Ischemic strokes accounted for the majority of cases (76%). A major risk factor was identified in 93 of 104 cases of stroke (89.4%). Hematologic disorders were the most common (46.2%), followed by prothrombic disorders (31.7%); microcystic hypochromic anemia (26%); sickle cell disease (SCD), or SCB-thalassemia, (11.5%), and factor IX deficiency (2.9%). Raised anticardiolipin antibodies (13/49, 26.5%) was the most frequent abnormality. Deficiencies of the natural anticoagulants (protein S, protein C and antithrombin III) were as follows: protein S (15/70, 21.4%); protein C (15/70,21.4%) and combined deficiency of 2 or more inhibitors (9/70, 12.9%). Activated protein C resistance has not been detected. Contrary to the findings of previous studies from Saudi Arabia, SCD is a common risk factor and is severe, as it resulted in multiple strokes. Moyamoya syndrome was diagnosed in 2 patients with SCD, one of whom had revascularization surgery (encephaldoduroarteriosynangiosis). Assessment of children with SCD at a risk of stroke was helped by the introduction of TCD followed by neuroimaging, using MRI and magnetic resonanceangiography. The study strongly highlights the importance of prothrombotic disorders and the severe phenotype of SCD as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children. (author)

2006-01-01

296

Fungi inhabiting household environments in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungi inhabiting household environments in the West, East and Central localities of Riyadh city were screened. The screened area included bedrooms, drawing rooms, living rooms, kitchens and bathrooms. The common genera of fungi isolated were Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cercospora, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Drechslera, Embellisia, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scytalidium, Trichoderma, Torula and Ulocladium. Two uncommon genera Nodulosporium and Oidiodendron for Saudi Arabian mycoflora were also isolated. In all the localities, the highest number of fungal colonies per plate or per gram were found in the living rooms, followed by bedrooms. The number of colonies per plate or per gram was in general higher in densely populated than in less populated areas. PMID:7566061

Bokhary, H A; Parvez, S

1995-05-01

297

Tertiary care availability and adolescent pregnancy characteristics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal age and fetal, neonatal, and maternal complications where a professional tertiary medical care service is provided. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed between 2005 and 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All primigravid Saudi women ?24 weeks gestation, carrying a singleton pregnancy, aged <35 years, and with no chronic medical problems were eligible. Women were divided into three groups based on their age, ie, group 1 (G1) <16 years, group 2 (G2) ?16 up to 19 years, and group 3 (G3) ?19 up to 35 years. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal medical records. We calculated the association between the different age groups and maternal characteristics, as well as events and complications during the antenatal period, labor, and delivery. Results The rates of adolescent delivery were 20.0 and 16.3 per 1,000 births in 2009 and 2010, respectively. Compared with G1 and G2 women, G3 women tended to have a higher body mass index, a longer first and second stage of labor, more blood loss at delivery, and a longer hospital stay. Compared with G1 and G2 women, respectively, G3 women had a 42% and a 67% increased risk of cesarean section, and had a 52% increased risk of instrumental delivery. G3 women were more likely to develop gestational diabetes or anemia, G2 women had a three-fold increased risk of premature delivery (odds ratio 2.81), and G3 neonates had a 50% increased overall risk of neonatal complications (odds ratio 0.51). Conclusion The adolescent birth rate appears to be low in central Saudi Arabia compared with other parts of the world. Excluding preterm delivery, adolescent delivery cared for in a tertiary health care center is not associated with a significantly increased medical risk to the mother, fetus, or neonate. The psychosocial effect of adolescent pregnancy and delivery needs to be assessed.

Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Madkhali, Azza; Al-Kadi, Mohammed T; Bakhsh, Hanadi; Alruwaili, Nourah N; Tamim, Hani M

2014-01-01

298

First Record of Five Soil Ciliates (Ciliophora, Hypotricha from Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The morphology and infraciliature of five soil hypotrichous collected from the farm-land at Zulfi city, Saudi Arabia were investigated using living observation and silver impregnation methods. Gastrostyla steinii was found to have 4-8 macronuclei and thus its congener, G. muscorum which was characterized by eight macronuclei is likely a synonym with G. steinii. Redescriptions on Hemiamphisiella granulifera, Urostyla grandis Ehrenberg, 1830 and Nudiamphisiella interrupta, revealed that Saudi Arabia populations were morphologically identical with previous studies. A Nudiamphisiella species which is quite similar with N. illuvialis was also discussed. The abovementioned species show first show in Saudi Arabia and extend the known distribution areas of these species.

Saleh A. Al-Farraj

2011-01-01

299

Saudi Arabia:- Austria, Luxembourg and Singapore among countries signing-on to end tax secrecy - OECD  

...Austria, Luxembourg and Singapore among countries signing-on to end tax secrecy Saudi Arabia:- Austria, Luxembourg and Singapore among countries signing-on to end ...About Countries Topics Statistics Newsroom OECD Home › Saudi Arabia › Austria, Luxembourg and Singapore among countries signing-on to end tax secrecy Austria, Luxembourg and ... Singapore among countries signing-on to end tax secrecy Send Print Tweet   29/05/2013 - As a further sign of international efforts to ... Austria, Belize, Estonia, Latvia, Luxembourg, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and the Slovak Republic signed the Convention. Burkina Faso, Chile and ...

300

Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides

2005-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Determination of Prevalence of Strangles in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strangles is one of the most important infectious diseases that affect the respiratory system of the horse. The disease is characterized by fever, nasal discharges and enlargement of the associated lymph nodes. Strptococcus equi the causative agent of strangles, is a Gram positive bacteria. The goal of this study is to determine the prevalence of strangles among horses residing on horse farms in main regions of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To achieve this goal, field visits were made to horse farms in Al-Ahsa, Dammam, Jubail, Riyadh, Jeddah and Tayf. A total of 75 farms that contain 926 horses were visited. Farm owners and managers were questioned regarding the presence of signs similar to strangles. In the meantime, horses were clinically evaluated. This survey indicated no horses were strangles confirmed. Finally, 35 horses admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at King Faisal University were examined. These horses were admitted for signs of respiratory disorders. Physical and endoscopic examination as well as bacterial culture indicated they were strangles free. Strangles seems not to be a threat to horses in Saudi Arabia.

2008-01-01

302

Differences in prostate cancer detection between Canadian and Saudi populations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Few studies have addressed racial differences in prostate cancer (PCa) detection between Western and Arabian countries, although PCa has a significantly lower prevalence in Arabic populations compared to Western populations. Therefore, an explanation of this difference is lacking. Ser [...] um prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valuable marker used to select patients who should undergo prostate biopsies, although the manner in which it is used may require adjustments based on the ethnic population in question. We investigated racial differences in the PCa detection rate between Canadian and Saudi populations. A retrospective analysis was performed of data collected prospectively over 5 consecutive years in urology clinics at the McGill University Health Center (MUHC) and King Saud University Hospital (KSUH). Men who had high (>4'ng/mL) or rising PSA levels and a negative digital rectal examination were eligible. A total of 1403 Canadian and 414 Saudi patients were evaluated for the study; 717 and 158 men, median age 64 and 68 years, were included in the MUHC and KSUH cohorts, respectively, P

O.Z., Al-Abdin; D.M., Rabah; G., Badr; A., Kotb; A., Aprikian.

2013-06-25

303

Parental responses to consanguinity and genetic disease in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In-depth interviews of 36 Saudi families whose children suffered from neuro-metabolic disorders were conducted at a specialist hospital in Riyadh in order to examine parental understanding of disease and attitudes towards future births and consanguineous marriages. Parents had difficulty accepting a genetic explanation for diseases that did not affect all children at the time of birth; they also expressed religious or folk beliefs to account for illness. Coping behaviours included denial and resignation to the situation, divorce and remarriage. Some families adopted a cautious approach to cousin marriages and future births; this was significantly related to their education level, but not to previous infant deaths. Awareness of medical facts brought little emotional comfort to parents but allowed for preventive measures through screening adult carriers and identifying affected infants. This study presents new material from Saudi Arabia to strengthen current awareness that the range of religious beliefs, social attitudes and reproductive behaviours adopted by families in a society undergoing rapid change is of direct relevance to health care. PMID:1776043

Panter-Brick, C

1991-01-01

304

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.

Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat

2013-12-01

305

Energy and exergy utilization in transportation sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we present an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the transportation sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for the years of 1990-2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its three subsectors, namely road, air and marine, and hence the energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison. Road subsector appears to be the most efficient one compared to air and marine subsectors. It is found that the energy efficiencies in air and marine subsectors are found to be equal to the corresponding exergy efficiencies due to the values of exergy grade function. A comparison of the overall energy and exergy efficiencies of Saudi Arabian transportation sector with the Turkish transportation sector is also presented for the year 1993 based on the data available. Although the sectoral coverage is not same for both countries, it is still useful to illustrate the situation on how subsectoral energy and exergy efficiencies vary over the years. Turkish transportation sector appears to be a bit more efficient for that particular year. It is believed that the present technique is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in transportation sector. It is also be helpful to establish standards, based on exergy, to facilitate applications in industry and in other planning processes such as energy planning

2004-03-01

306

Sand Dune and Sabkha Vegetations of Eastern Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted during 2006 and 2007 in Eastern Saudi Arabia to provide the needed information about the vegetation of sand dunes and sabkhas in the region and to provide insight into the factors controlling community distribution. Eastern Saudi Arabia with arid climatic conditions has sparsely distributed sand dune and sabkha vegetation cover. The vegetation comprises of perennial herbs, dwarf shrubs and few tree species. Seven major plant communities were recognized according to their dominant and co-dominant species: Panicum turgidum-Stipa capensis, Panicum turgidum-Pennisetum divisum, Panicum turgidum-Zygophyllum coccineum, Lasiurus scindicus-Stipagrostis plumose, Aeluropus lagopoides-Halopeplis perfoliata, Tamafix arabica-Aeluropus lagopoides and Zygophyllum coccineum-Cyperus conglomeratus. The seven communities represented different combinations of species. Soil organic carbon, soil salinity and soil water holding capacity appear to have a substantial influence on determining vegetation composition and abundance. In general, there are 45 species in the study area differing in their relative abundance, frequency and richness.

Mohammed A. Al-Fredan

2008-01-01

307

Perception of nursing care: views of Saudi Arabian female nurses.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Values are principles and standards that have meaning and worth to an individual, family, group, or community' (Purnell & Paulanka 1998: p.3). Values are central to the care provided by nurses. The provision of nursing care within the context of value clarification, has been explored from various perspectives, however, as values vary within cultures, there is a limited range of studies reflecting on Saudi Arabian nurses' perspectives of nursing care. Through a Heideggerian phenomenological research design, six nurses were enrolled through purposive sampling. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews, which were audio tape-recorded, were chosen as the methods of data collection. A seven stage framework approach was applied to analyse and organise the research findings in three conceptual themes: values in context of Islam, the nurse-patient relationship, and identity's influence on being in the world of nursing. The findings of the research indicate that values in nursing and the perception of care are closely linked to the Islamic values of the informants. However, one of the most challenging aspects emerging from this study is related to these nurses' experiences related to the public's negative perception of nursing as a profession for Saudi Arabian women. PMID:18844568

Mebrouk, Jette

2008-04-01

308

Preliminary assessment of atmospheric turbidity at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Direct and total radiation measurements carried out over several years in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia in support of the Research Institute's solar energy programs have indicated a relatively large diffuse radiation component. This is primarily due to airborne particulates carried aloft by the prevailing winds in a desert environment and occurs particularly during the Shamal (north wind) sandstorm season. As a first step in quantifying the nature of this atmospheric turbidity, spectral beam solar radiation measurements for the period July 1980 to June 1981 were made in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Lat. 26/sup 0/ 23', Long. 50/sup 0/ 00'), using broad-band filter techniques. Schott filters (OG1, RG2 and RG8) arranged on an automatically rotated disk mounted on an Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer were used for the measurements. The Beer-Lambert relation was used to calculate optical depths from which values of the Angstroem Coefficient of Turbidity, ..beta.., were obtained for the wavelength exponent, ..cap alpha.. = 1.3. In addition, Herovanu's method was used to obtain ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. values for each month. The 12-month average values of ..beta.. and ..cap alpha.. were 0.22 and 1.28, respectively. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Abdelrahman, M.A.; Nimmo, B.G.

1984-01-01

309

Pattern of lymph node pathology in Western saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: This study aimed to characterize the histopathological pattern of lymph node pathology among Saudi patients and to highlight the age and gender variations of these lesions as base line data. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data from lymph node biopsy specimens received at the Department of Pathology, King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia from January 2006 to December 2013. Results: Of the 289 lymph node biopsy specimens received, 154 (53.3%) were from males and 135 (46.7%) from females giving a male: female ratio of 1.14:1. Age of the patients ranged from 2.5 to 96 years with a mean age 33.9 years. The commonest lymph node group affected was the cervical (30.4%) followed by axillary (9.7%) and inguinal (8.7%). Malignant lymphoma [71 Hodgkin's disease (HD), 57 non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)] 128 (44.3%), reactive hyperplasia 68 (23.5%), and tuberculosis 41 (14.2%) were the common causes of lymph node enlargement. While HD, reactive hyperplasia and tuberculosis were commonest in young adult patients (10-29 years old) and rare above the age of 50 years; NHL was the predominant cause of lymph node enlargement above 50 years. Conclusions: Lymph node biopsy plays an important role in establishing the cause of lymphadenopathy. Among the biopsied nodes, lymphomas were the most common (44.3%) followed by non-specific reactive hyperplasia (23.5%) and tuberculous lymphadenitis (14.2%). PMID:24969903

Albasri, Abdulkader Mohammed; El-Siddig, Abeer Abdalla; Hussainy, Akbar Shah; Alhujaily, Ahmed Safar

2014-01-01

310

Consanguinity pattern and heritability of Vitiligo in Arar, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors. Aim: To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar. Patients and Methods: This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 ± 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 ± 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 ± 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%), 21 (30.4%), 8 (11.6%), and 18 (26.1%), respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2%) cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model. Conclusion: Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo.

Alenizi, Dhaifallah A.

2014-01-01

311

Allergic fungal sinusitis in children in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report the allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) in children in Saudi Arabia and to review the experience of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital in diagnosis and management of AFS in children. Hospital charts of 45 children reviewed retrospectively. Clinical presentation, radiological and operative findings, management and outcomes studied. Only 25 patients had >-4 diagnostic criteria, treated endoscopically between January 2000 and December 2005 and followed at least 2 years in KAUH, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Twenty-five patients had at least 4 criteria for AFS> All patients underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with high recurrence rate 44%. Twenty-eight percent needed revision surgery even with medical treatment post operatively. Moreover, no other complications were reported in this study. Aspergillus spp is the most common fungal type in our review. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children is underestimated and understudied associated with poor outcome and high recurrence because of difficulty in management. Therefore, the most effective approach of AFS management in children is to have a high index of suspicion, adequate, preoperative evaluation, medical preparation preoperatively, meticulous surgery, medical management, postoperative including topical and systemic corticosteroids and close clinical follow-up with endoscopically guided debridement. (author)

2000-01-00

312

Inflammatory bowel disease in the Western Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To observe the pattern of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) among the people of Western region of Saudi Arabia, and to correlate the findings with published data. This is a retrospective study. All colonic biopsies were reviewed which were received, and processed at the Histopathology Department of King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from January 2002 to July 2007. Ethical approval was obtained from the Bioethical and Research Committee. There were 711 colonic biopsies received during this period. One hundred and twenty-two patients were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC). There were 65 males and 57 females. The age ranged between 4-73 years. Most of the UC patients presented in adolescence, and in the adult age. Crohn's disease (CD) was diagnosed in 15 patients, 7 males and 8 females. The age ranged from 1-40 years. Most of the cases were seen in the adult age group. We conclude that IBD is certainly one of the major serious colonic lesions in our society, which should be thoroughly investigated by the combined efforts of clinicians and pathologists. We also conclude that gastrointestinal tuberculosis and infective colitis should always be investigated before suggesting the specific diagnosis of IBD. We recommend a broad based epidemiological study, simultaneously involving clinicians, and pathologists, to document the characteristics of this disease in our society. (author)

2009-01-01

313

Quality Level of Bottled Drinking Water Consumed in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern and access to safe water is a fundamental human right. Many national and international organizations set certain parameters and levels for Bottled Drinking Water (BDW to ensure their quality. The present work aims to analyze the quality of various brands of BDW used in Saudi Arabia and to compare the quality levels to the BDW standards. One hundred and twenty six samples of 54 different BDW brands were collected from the Saudi market. The quality level parameters were analyzed using portable meters for pH, EC and TDS; spectrophotometer, HACH DR-2800 for F, SO4 and NO3; Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP Mass Spectrometer (MS and atomic emission spectrometer (AES for elemental analysis. To evaluate the quality level parameters of BDW, the parameters were classified as following: (1 Parameters and substances affect the quality of BDW (pH, EC, TDS, HCO3, F, NO3 and SO4. (2 Macronutrients (Ca, K, Mg and Na. (3 Micronutrients-trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo, Se and Zn, (4 Potentially essential elements that have some beneficial health effects (B, Mn, Ni and V and (5 Toxic elements (Al, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Th and U using Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS. The concentrations of the detected elements were compared with the Golf and international standard like World Health Organization.

Ashraf E.M. Khater

2014-01-01

314

Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: With the evolution of healthcare services in Saudi Arabia, there has been an increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico- Legal malpractice claims over the period 1420H-1424H (1999-2003 was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Results: Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-2002. The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims; the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001, while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003, the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Conclusion: Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation.

Samarkandi Abdulhamid

2006-01-01

315

Phytochemical and biological studies on Saudi Commiphora opobalsamum L.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aerial part of Commiphora opobalsamum L. (Burseraceae) growing in Saudi Arabia was subjected to a phytopharmacological investigation in order to identify its major chemical constituents and to evaluate its extracts and isolated compounds in preliminary in vitro assays for antimicrobial, antimalarial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory (COX-2 inhibition), antioxidant and estrogenic activity. Six compounds were isolated and identified as the triterpenes friedelin, canophyllal, and oleanonic acid; the flavonols mearnsetin and quercetin; and syringic acid. The ethyl acetate extract was moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Plasmodium falciparum; while the petroleum ether and chloroform extracts inhibited COX-2 at 5 and 10 microg mL(-1), respectively. Of the isolated compounds, syringic acid showed moderate antimalarial, anticandidal, and antimycobacterial activity; while mearnsetin and quercetin exhibited antioxidant activity comparable to ascorbic acid and trolox. This is the first detailed phytochemical investigation of C. opobalsamum L. growing in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere. The isolated compounds are reported from this plant for the first time and their full (1)H and (13)C NMR assignments are included. PMID:17487607

Abbas, Fawkeya A; Al-Massarany, Shaza M; Khan, Shabana; Al-Howiriny, Tawfeq A; Mossa, Jaber S; Abourashed, Ehab A

2007-05-01

316

Status of medical liability claims in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)

317

The knowledge of breast cancer among young Saudi females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the breast cancer knowledge level of Saudi female school students.A detailed questionnaire on cancer breast was designed with all the needed information. Using a map of the Jeddah area of Saudi Arabia, schools were identified in each area and permission was sought from the Ministry of Education to distribute the questionnaire to the students. A team of volunteers was instructed on how to distribute and collect the questionnaires. The collected questionnaires were then statistically analyzed. This Pilot study of 500 students was performed in King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital using high schools from the city of Jeddah between April and June 2009. The results were used to build up a base for designing a community educational program. Analysis of the data from 337 questionnaires from high school and college students showed that the level of knowledge of young females on breast cancer is limited. However, it also indicated that the students are very enthusiastic to learn about cancer breast, and its prevention. The limited knowledge level of breast cancer in the younger generation might be an obstacle to screening programs and early diagnosis. Awareness programs should be developed including lectures, seminars workshops, and on hands training (Author).

2010-01-01

318

Radon concentration measurements in the desert caves of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm{sup -3}. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm{sup -3}. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm{sup -3}. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides.

Al-Mustafa, Hanan [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco P.O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia)

2005-11-15

319

Incidence rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas among males in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from the Saudi Cancer Registry, 2001-2008  

Science.gov (United States)

Background This study describes epidemiological data of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 among Saudi men. Materials and methods Retrospective data from all NHL cancer cases among Saudi men recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) between January 2001 and December 2008 were used. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and simple linear regression were also used. Results In total, 2,555 new cases of NHL were recorded between January 2001 and December 2008. The region of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia had the highest overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) at 7.8, followed by the Eastern region at 6.8, and Makkah at 6.1 per 100,000 men; however, Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest average ASIRs at 2.5, 3.7, and 3.9 per 100,000 men, respectively. The incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases was significantly higher in Riyadh (4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.11–5.32), followed by Makkah (4.47, 95% CI 3.94–5.07), and the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia (3.27, 95% CI 2.90–3.69) than that in the reference region of Jazan. Jouf had the highest changes in the ASIRs of NHL among Saudi men from 2001 and 2008 (5.0 per 100,000 men). Conclusion A significant increase in the crude incidence rate and ASIR for NHL in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008 was found. Riyadh, the Eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall ASIR in Saudi Arabia. Jazan, Hail, and Baha had the lowest rates. Additionally, Riyadh, Makkah, and the Eastern region had the highest incidence-rate ratio for the number of NHL cases. Finally, Jouf had the highest changes in crude incidence rate and ASIR from 2001 to 2008. Further analytical studies are needed to determine the potential risk factors of NHL among Saudi men.

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Dohal, Ahlam A; Alghamdi, Mansour M; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

320

Effectiveness of the Saudi Arabian government's programs to modernize Saudi society through the development of a non-oil industrial sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To reduce its dependence on a depletable resource, and its reliance on imports, and increase the country's export base, the Saudi government is using oil revenues to develop alternative sources of income to ensure the continuation of modernization. Having limited agricultural resources, the development of a non-oil industrial sector seems the best choice to diversify the Saudi economic base, given the availability of capital, abundance of oil and natural gas, and the discovery of minerals. The economy, however, faces a severe labor shortage and over 40% of the labor force is composed of foreign workers. In addition, Saudis are reluctant to take blue collar or technical jobs. Saudi Arabia needs to reduce its dependence on foreign labor and increase the participation of Saudis as workers and investors in the industrial sector. This study concludes that the government's policy of using the development of a non-oil industrial sector to achieve its goal of modernization has met with mixed success. Some aspects of modernization, such as the introduction of new technologies, have been actively promoted by the government easily accepted by the population in general. Other aspects of modernization, especially those involving political and social change, have met with resistance from the government, the population, or both.

Al-Rowaithy, A.S.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market

2008-01-01

322

The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market. (author)

Al-Muhawesh, Tareq A. [Saudi Electricity Company, Department of CA, P.O. Box 5190, Dammam 31422 (Saudi Arabia); Qamber, Isa S. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 33831 (Bahrain)

2008-01-15

323

The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market. (author)

2008-01-01

324

75 FR 67433 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7220] Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Government of Saudi Arabia Pursuant to Section 7041 of the Department of State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs Appropriations...

2010-11-02

325

Road Traffic Accidents in Saudi Arabia: An ARDL Approach and Multivariate Granger Causality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper examine the nexus between road traffic accident (RTA and some relevant variables in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971- 2012, using the autoregressive distributed lag ARDL model (Pesaran and Shin, 1999 for co-integration in Saudi Arabia, with the co-integration test. Results show that the variables are co-integrated in Saudi Arabia, moreover, the overall Granger causality results present that road traffic accidents, population and GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and the number of driver license are Granger-causes each other in Saudi Arabia. With these findings, we affirm that there is a strong relationship and effect between road traffic accidents and its population, GDP, road mails, registered vehicles, and the number of driver license. The findings suggest that the  coefficients are negative signed and statistically significant in all VECMs, implying that there is bi-directional causality between the variables of interest in the long run.

Mohammed Moosa Ageli

2013-06-01

326

SOLERAS - Solar Energy Water Desalination Project. Solar energy falling on Yanbu, Saudi Arabia, June 1985  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yanbu, Saudi Arabia was selected as the location for the SOLERAS Solar Powered Desalination Plant. The direct normal and total horizontal insolation that fell on the Yanbu solar powered desalination site during the month of June 1985 are presented. (BCS)

1985-01-01

327

Serum Ferritin and Iron Status of a Saudi Population Assessed from Birth to Adolescence ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ????????? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ??????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The serum iron, total-iron binding capacity, and serum ferritin were measured in a normal Saudi population of both sexes, covering ages from birth to adolescence. Normality was assured by including only those subjects whose haemoglobin concentrations fell within the accepted range for Saudi Arabians in the particular sex and age group. Both serum iron and ferritin levels conformed to recognised patterns. The serum iron was highest at birth, lowest in children aged 6(0 12 months, and in adoles...

HASSAN GHAFOURI; MOHAMMED JAN; ABDULLAH AL-FARIS; SAMIRA ISLAM; AWAD OMAR

1994-01-01

328

Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait as Turning Point in Iran-Saudi Relationship  

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Invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi army had significant impacts on regional and international spheres. The invasion affected relations of the regional countries in particular Iran-Saudi relationship as the most influential countries in the Persian Gulf region. The present article, first, takes into consideration Iran and Saudi Arabia relations in first decade after the Islamic revolution of Iran which finally gave rise to cutting off diplomatic relations in 1988 due to some severe tensions ...

Reza Ekhtiari Amiri; Fakhreddin Soltani

2011-01-01

329

Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions  

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Abstract Background Human origins and migration models proposing the Horn of Africa as a prehistoric exit route to Asia have stimulated molecular genetic studies in the region using uniparental loci. However, from a Y-chromosome perspective, Saudi Arabia, the largest country of the region, has not yet been surveyed. To address this gap, a sample of 157 Saudi males was analyzed at high resolution using 67 Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotypic diversity for its m...

2009-01-01

330

The Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence of dental anomalies that could be a cause of malocclusion in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study of 878 digital orthopantomograms (OPGs) taken of patients, age ranging between 12 and 30 years, who presented to treatment at the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2011. The OPGs and dental records were reviewed for con...

Afify, Ahmed R.; Zawawi, Khalid H.

2012-01-01

331

Pattern Of Tinea Capitis In A Hospital-based Clinic In Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia  

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Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp the purpose of this study was to define the demographic features, clinical patterns and associated symptoms and signs of tinea capitis in Saudi Arabia. All patients who attended the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU) at Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia and who were diagnosed as tinea capitis between January 1991 and December 2001 were reviewed. The collected data were analyzed using statistical package for social sc...

2004-01-01

332

Molecular epidemiology and genotyping of TT virus isolated from Saudi blood donors and hepatitis patients  

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Background: In Saudi Arabia, the epidemiology and clinical signifi-nance of Torque Teno virus (TTV) infection alone and in patients with hepatitis virus infections have not been determined in a single study. In this paper, we molecularly investigated the rate and genotypes of TTV in-fection among Saudi Arabian blood donors and patients with viral hepa-titis. The effect of TTV coinfection on viral hepatitis was also examined. Subjects and Methods: DNA was extracted from the s...

2006-01-01

333

Petroleum and international relations: Saudi Arabia, victim of the new world energy deal?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country

2002-09-01

334

Morphological Diversity of Some Tephrosia Species (Fabaceae) in Saudi Arabia  

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Morphological features of nine wild species belonging to the genus Tephrosia PER growing in Saudi Arabia were extensively studied in order to support the diversity and simplify the identification of these species. The studied features included macro and micro morphological features of stem, leaves, flowers and pods. The most important features regarded for distinction of Saudi Arabia species of Tephrosia were pods shape, color, size, dehiscence and number o...

Al-ghamdi, Faraj A.

2013-01-01

335

Drugs for the treatment of malaria in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Current malaria treatments are based on the use of artemisinin based combinations. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the combination of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine/artesunate is the first line of treatment of uncomplicated malaria, while lumefantrine/artemether (Coartem®) is used as a second option. The treatment of severe malaria rests on the use of quinine or artesunate. In Saudi Arabia, most cases of malaria are imported, mainly from emigrant workers from the Indian subcontinent...

Alexis Nzila; Ibrahim Al-Zahrani

2013-01-01

336

A forecast of ophthalmology practice trends in Saudi Arabia: A survey of junior residents  

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Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influen...

Alwadani Fahad; Alrushood Aziz; Altokhy Hisham; Alasbali Tariq

2010-01-01

337

Unconventional therapy use among asthma patients in a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Objectives: Unconventional therapy (UT) is a therapeutic practice of alternative and complementary medicine that is not currently considered an integral part of modern medical practice. The aim of this article is to investigate the experience of Saudi patients with UT modalities in the treatment of asthma. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study of asthma patients referred to King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the year 2004. Inform...

Al Moamary Mohamed

2008-01-01

338

Clinico-pathological patterns of colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia: Younger with an advanced stage presentation  

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Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and pathological features of CRC in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all patients diagnosed to have CRC at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia over a 10 year period (1995-2005). The data collected from medical files, endoscopy and imaging reports included age, gender, ...

Aljebreen Abdulrahman

2007-01-01

339

Attitudes of Managers towards the Potential Effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia: Factor Analysis  

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This study aims to investigate the attitudes of managers in Saudi Arabia towards the effects of ISO 14001 in Saudi Arabia. The study includes 143 firms in three sectors of activities; private manufacturing, private service and public firms. The study reveals that the five most significant benefits are; safer environment, improvement of image of the certified firms with the international environmental organizations, ensure the safety of workers inside the organizations, improvement of firms im...

Nasser Akeil Kadasah

2013-01-01

340

Biodiversity of the Plant Species in Bisha, Asir Region, Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

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The study focused on plant diversity and species richness in each landform in the southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. One hundred and forty five species were recorded, belonging to 39 families. The most dominant families were Compositae (20 %), Graminae (14.5 %), Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae (7 %). The contribution of the study area for ferns (25 %), gymnospermae (10 %), dicot (12 %) and monocot (11.9) of the total species in Saudi Arabia. The maximum number of plant species was atta...

Heneidy, S. Z.; Bidak, L. M.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Tea and coffee consumption in relation to vitamin D and calcium levels in Saudi adolescents  

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Abstract Background Coffee and tea consumption was hypothesized to interact with variants of vitamin D-receptor polymorphisms, but limited evidence exists. Here we determine for the first time whether increased coffee and tea consumption affects circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in a cohort of Saudi adolescents. Methods A total of 330 randomly selected Saudi adolescents were included. Anthropometrics were recorded and fasting blood samples were analyzed ...

Al-Othman Abdulaziz; Al-Musharaf Sara; Al-Daghri Nasser M; Yakout Sobhy; Alkharfy Khalid M; Al-Saleh Yousef; Al-Attas Omar S; Alokail Majed S; Moharram Osama; Sabico Shaun; Kumar Sudhesh; Chrousos George P

2012-01-01

342

Validation of predictive equations for glomerular filtration rate in the Saudi population  

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Predictive equations provide a rapid method of assessing glomerular filtration rate (GFR). To compare the various predictive equations for the measurement of this parameter in the Saudi population, we measured GFR by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Cockcroft-Gault formulas, cystatin C, reciprocal of cystatin C, creatinine clearance, reciprocal of creatinine, and inulin clearance in 32 Saudi subjects with different stages of renal disease. We com-pared GFR measured by inul...

Al Wakeel Jamal; Hammad Durdana; Al Suwaida Abdulkareem; Tarif Nauman; Chaudhary AbdulRauf; Isnani Arthur; Albedaiwi Waleed; Mitwalli Ahmad; Ahmad Shaik

2009-01-01

343

Interferon-ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C: Efficacy in Saudi patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Hepatitis C affects 2% of Saudi population. Previous local trials showed low response to interferon monotherapy for six-months. Aim: To evaluate biochemical and virological response of interferon-ribavirin combination on naive Saudi patients infected with HCV. Methods: A prospective single armed study was conducted at Riyadh Armed Forces Hospital from July 1999 to July 2002 for fifty patients who have hepatitis C virus (HCV-PCR) positive and chroni...

Sandokji Abdulkareem; Sanai Faisal; Al-Ajlan Abdulaziz; Al-Karawi Mohammed

2003-01-01

344

Language Learning Strategy Use of Saudi EFL Students in an Intensive English Learning Context  

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This study investigates the type and frequency of language learning strategies used by Saudi EFL students. The subjects were 701 male and female Saudi EFL students enrolled in an intensive English language program at the University of Ha’il. The Oxford Strategies Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) was used with some modifications. The study seeks to extend our knowledge by examining the relationship between the use of language learning strategies (LLS) and gender and proficiency level. T...

Eid Alhaisoni

2012-01-01

345

Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits; Arabie Seoudite: deficits persistants mais soutenables  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs.

Anon.

1996-04-16

346

Enclosed and open spaces in the arid region-Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Study of the enclosed (sheltered) and open (unsheltered) spaces in two tradiational and three-contemporary settlements in Saudi Arabia - comparative analysis of micro climatic conditions - solar exposure - analysis of the differences in the design approaches of the old and new ''modern'' developments - recommendations for the appropriate approach to the design of enclosed and open spaces in the arid regions of Saudi Arabia.

Talib, K.; Al-Zamil, A.A.

1986-01-01

347

A Forecast of Ophthalmology Practice Trends in Saudi Arabia: A Survey of Junior Residents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The aim of this study is to identify the trends in practice pattern among current ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Ophthalmology residents in Saudi Arabia responded anonymously to a written survey between November 2007 and February 2008. The survey contained questions on demographic information, medical education, residency training, career goals and factors influencing their career choice. The data were categorized by gender. The influen...

Alwadani Fahad; Alrushood Aziz; Altokhy Hisham; Alasbali Tariq

2010-01-01

348

Proteinuria in adult Saudi patients with sickle cell disease is not associated with identifiable risk factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Renal involvement in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with signi-ficant morbidity and mortality. Proteinuria is common in patients with SCD and is a risk factor for future development of renal failure. We sought to identify risk factors, if any, associated with pro-teinuria in adult Saudi patients with SCD. We studied 67 patients with SCD followed-up at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All patients underwent 24-hour urine collection to measure cr...

Aleem Aamer

2010-01-01

349

Factors influencing E-commerce Adoption by Retailers in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents some findings from a study researching the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing ICT marketplace in the Arab region, e-commerce activities have not progressed at a similar speed. In general, Saudi retailers have not responded actively to the global growth of online retailing. Accordingly new research has been conducted to identify and explore key issues that positively and nega...

Alghamdi, Rayed; Nguyen, Ann; Nguyen, Jeremy; Drew, Steve

2012-01-01

350

Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In dem Beitrag sollen Erfahrungen aus der Durchführung teilstrukturierter Online-Interviews im Rahmen einer ethnografischen Studie vermittelt werden, die zwischen 2000 und 2001 in Saudi-Arabien durchgeführt wurde. Ziel der Untersuchung war es, sowohl die individuelle Beteiligung in Online-Gemeinschaften als auch die Auswirkungen dieser Gemeinschaften auf das Offline-Leben in Saudi-Arabien zu rekonstruieren. Die Wahrnehmungen der jeweiligen Online-Gemeinschaften durch die Teilnehmer und Teil...

Al-saggaf, Yeslam; Williamson, Kirsty

2004-01-01

351

Growth Behavior of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa fusca L.) In Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca) is widely distributed in salt affected areas of many countries. Being a forage crop with many advantages other than its excellent growth in saline., sodic and waterlogged areas, it is an easily propagated crop and palatable to animals. Such advantages attract us to investigate its suitability to Saudi Arabia. The response of the grass to the climatic conditions of central region of Saudi Arabia and its response to salinity treatments at in vitro...

Al-khalifah, Nasser S.

2000-01-01

352

An Analysis of Benchmarking of Business Functions in Organizations of Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigates the extent of performance benchmarking of the major business functions undertaken bythe business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on five major functions namely; marketing,human resources, finance, operations, and quality. Each of these functions includes four sub functions. The scopeof the study extends to private firms (manufacturing and service) as well as public and government organizationsin Saudi Arabia. The study includ...

Nasser Akeil Kadasah; Turki Mohammad Al Ahmari

2013-01-01

353

Proximate Composition and Fatty Acids Profiles in Most Common Available Fish Species in Saudi Market  

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Three highly consumed fish in Saudi market were evaluated for their proximate composition in the muscle and in the head and their fatty acids. The fish species were included Spanish mackerel, (Scomberomorus maculates), Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and Yellow-spotted trevally (Carangoides fulvoguttatus) which respectively known as Kanad, Hammour and Hammam in Saudi market. The moisture, protein, total lipids and ash of the muscle tissue and head of the three fish s...

2009-01-01

354

Toward an objective assessment of technical skills: a national survey of surgical program directors in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud b...

Alkhayal A; Aldhukair S; Alselaim N; Aldekhayel S; Alhabdan S; Altaweel W; Me, Magzoub; Zamakhshary M

2012-01-01

355

Neurogenic bladder evaluation and management after spinal cord injury: Current practice among urologists working in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI) or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and fo...

Al Taweel Waleed; Alkhayal Abdullah

2011-01-01

356

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection

Kamel RM

2013-06-01

357

Level of evidence of clinical orthopedic surgery research in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the level of evidence (LOE of Saudi clinical orthopedic research. Methods: In July 2012, a list of Saudi orthopedic surgeons (N=93 affiliated with all major universities and hospitals in Saudi Arabia were obtained. PubMed and Embase searches were performed for all eligible studies over the last 2 decades (August 1991 to May 2012. The Oxford LOE scale was utilized to determine the LOE of these studies (Level V studies were excluded. The LOE trends were compared between the last 2 decades. In addition, the LOE of Saudi orthopedic studies was compared with North American studies. Results: Of 251 articles, 159 met the inclusion criteria for the LOE evaluation. Most of the published studies are Level IV (86%. The average level of evidence was 3.75. There was no statistically significant difference when we compared the LOE trend between the last 2 decades.  North American studies contained higher proportions of high-level studies when compared to Saudi studies (p   Conclusion: Most of the published studies are low LOE. Academic staff, institutions, and training programs are required to develop research strategies to improve orthopedic research quality in Saudi Arabia. 

Neil Saran

2013-04-01

358

Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents relative to age, gender and region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few lifestyle factors have been simultaneously studied and reported for Saudi adolescents. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to report on the prevalence of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits among Saudi adolescents and to examine the interrelationships among these factors using representative samples drawn from three major cities in Saudi Arabia. Methods This school-based cross-sectional study was conducted during the years 2009-2010 in three cities: Al-Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. The participants were 2908 secondary-school males (1401 and females (1507 aged 14-19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, sedentary behaviors (TV viewing, playing video games and computer use, physical activity using a validated questionnaire and dietary habits. Results A very high proportion (84% for males and 91.2% for females of Saudi adolescents spent more than 2 hours on screen time daily and almost half of the males and three-quarters of the females did not meet daily physical activity guidelines. The majority of adolescents did not have a daily intake of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. Females were significantly (p p p p Conclusions The high prevalence of sedentary behaviors, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among Saudi adolescents is a major public health concern. There is an urgent need for national policy promoting active living and healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviors among children and adolescents in Saudi Arabia.

Al-Hazzaa Hazzaa M

2011-12-01

359

Oil and diplomacy: the evolution of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia, 1933-1945  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study examines the transformation of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia between the years 1933 and 1945. At the beginning of this period American-Saudi relations were negligible. However, by the end of World War II in 1945, American policy-makers had concluded that the Saudi Kingdom was a nation vital to America's long-term economic and strategic interests. This remarkable official about face was the result of several factors including the potential of Saudi Arabian oilfields, the shifting priorities of Washington policy-makers and the lobbying efforts of a Saudi-based American commercial concern, the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO). ARAMCO entered Saudi Arabia in 1933. As the only all-American oil concession in the Middle East they feared European, especially British, interference in their operations. To forestall this possibility, real or imagined, the oilmen turned to Washington for help. Although official assistance was not immediately forthcoming, ARAMCO did find support in the Near Eastern Affairs Division (NEA) of the Department of State.

Casillas, R.J.

1983-01-01

360

Saudi guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hepatocellular carcinoma: technical review and practice guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognizing the significant prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Saudi Arabia, and the difficulties often faced in early and accurate diagnoses, evidence-based management, and the need for appropriate referral of HCC patients, the Saudi Association for the Study of Liver diseases and Transplantation (SASLT) formed a multi-disciplinary task force to evaluate and update the previously published guidelines by the Saudi Gastroenterology Association. These guidelines were later reviewed, adopted and endorsed by the Saudi Oncology Society (SOS) as its official HCC guidelines as well. The committee assigned to revise the Saudi HCC guidelines was composed of hepatologists, oncologists, liver surgeons, transplant surgeons, and interventional radiologists. Two members of the task force served as guidelines editors. A wide based search on all published reports on all aspects of the epidemiology, natural history, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of HCC was performed. All available literature was critically examined and available evidence was then classified according to its strength. The whole document and the recommendations were then discussed in detail by members and consensus was obtained. All recommendations in these guidelines were based on the best available evidence, but were tailored to the patients treated in Saudi Arabia. We hope that these guidelines will improve HCC patient care and enhance the multidisciplinary care needed for these patients. PMID:22366832

Abdo, Ayman A; Hassanain, Mazen; AlJumah, AbdulRahman; Al Olayan, Ashwaq; Sanai, Faisal M; Alsuhaibani, Hamad A; Abdulkareem, Huda; Abdallah, Khalid; AlMuaikeel, Mohammad; Al Saghier, Mohammad; Babatin, Mohammad; Kabbani, Monther; Bazarbashi, Shouki; Metrakos, Peter; Bruix, Jordi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Stroke due to mitochondrial disorders in Saudi children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to report on the clinical and biochemical features of patients who presented with stroke due to mitochondrial disorders amongst a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children. Children, who presented with stroke were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology, or admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the periods July 1992 to February2001 (retrospective study)and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Open muscle biopsies were obtained from patients suspected to have mitochondrial disorders, and examined using conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Biochemical, molecular pathological investigations, or both, of muscle could be arranged for only some of the patients. Mitochondrial disorders were the underlying risk factor for stroke in 4 (3.8%) of 104 children (aged one month to 12 years). Three patients (one male and 2 females) had Leigh syndromes (LS) and one had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). At the time of stroke, the 3 children with LS were 11 months, 15 months, and 7 years old. They presented with psychomotor regression and seizures. Muscle histology and histochemistry showed mild non-specific changes but no ragged red fibers. Biochemical analysis of muscle (in one patient) revealed deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), [the other 2 patients] was negative for the 2 point mutations (T-G and T-C) at nucleotide position 8993, and for two T-C point mutations (at position 8851 and 9176 of the ATPase 6 gene) that have been described in patients with LS. The girl with MELAS syndrome presented with a stroke-like episode at the age of 29 months and had focal brain lesions in the media aspect of the left occipital and temporal lobes, and in the posteromedial aspect of the left thalamus, which resolved within 7 weeks. She had raised cerebrospinal fluid lactate but no ragged red fibres on muscle histochemistry. Biochemical assay of muscle homogenate showed reduction in respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV. Mutation screening of mtDNA at nucleotides 3243 (tRNA) and 8344 (tRNA) was negative. Mitochondrial disorders constitute a risk factor for stroke in Saudi children. However, demanding and highly specialized investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis. These are better performed at supraregional centers where facilities for clinical biochemical and molecular work-up are available. (author)

1992-07-00

362

Patients’ satisfaction with diabetes medications in one hospital, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shiekha Al-Aujan,1 Sinaa Al-Aqeel,1 Abdulhaleem Al-Harbi,2 Emad Al-Abdulatief21Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Family Medicine, Security Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The main aim of this study was to evaluate diabetic patients’ satisfaction with their treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the relationship between treatment satisfaction scores and patient-related factors, if any.Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from patients at a primary care clinic of a government hospital located in Riyadh, the capital of Saudi Arabia. Patients were recruited if they were ?18 years of age, had type 2 diabetes, currently taking oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin or both, and able to read and write in Arabic. Satisfaction was measured using the Diabetes Medication Satisfaction (DiabMedSat questionnaire.Results: One hundred and twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire. The participant mean age was 46 years (standard deviation [SD] = 11.2 years; range 18–75 years, and mean duration of the disease was 7.8 years (SD = 6.9 years. Over half of respondents (63% reported that they were satisfied and only 16% were unsatisfied. Approximately 54% of respondents are interested in changing their diabetes medications. The overall satisfaction score was 59.56 (SD = 15.9. Mean scores for the burden, efficacy, and symptoms domains were 59.81 (SD = 15.7, 58.1 (SD = 22.6, and 60.77 (SD = 22.1, respectively. Treatment factors (eg, type of medication; P < 0.02 and adherence factors (eg, difficulty taking medications; P < 0.032 were independently associated with lower treatment satisfaction.Conclusion: Diabetes patients with difficulties in adherence to recommendations, as well as patients treated with insulin, require more attention in order to improve their treatment satisfaction.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, health status, patient satisfaction, primary health care, quality of health care

Al-Aujan S

2012-10-01

363

Perinatal stroke in Saudi children: clinical features and risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To describe the clinical features and presentations of perinatal stroke in a prospective and retrospective cohort of Saudi children and ascertain the risk factors. Patients with perinatal stroke were identified from within a cohort of 104 Saudi children who were evaluated at the Division of Pediatric Neurology at King Khalid University Hospital, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from July 1992 to February 2001 (retrospective study) and February 2001 to March 2003 (prospective study). Neuroimaging for suspected cases of stroke consisted of cranial CT, MRI, or both. During the study period, 23 (22%) of 104 children (aged one months to 12 years) were diagnosed to have had perinatal stroke. The male: female ratio was 1.6:1. Ten (67%) of the 15 children who had unilateral ischemic involvement had their lesion in the left hemisphere. The presentation of the ischemic result was within 24-72 hours of life in 13 (57%) patients, and in 6 children (26%), motor impairment was recognized at or after the age of 4 months. Nine children (39%) had seizures at presentation. Pregnancy, labor, and delivery risk factors were ascertained in 18 (78%) cases. The most common of these included emergency cesarean section in 5 cases, and instrumental delivery in other 5. Screening for prothrombotic risk factors detected abnormalities in 6 (26%) patients on at least one test carried out between 2 months and 9 years of age. Four children (17%) had low protein C, which was associated low protein S and raised anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) in one patient, and low antithrombin III in another. Low proteins S was detected in a 42-month-old boy. The abnormality in the sixth child was confined to raised ACA. The present study highlights the non-specific features by which stroke presents during the neonatal period. The data are in keeping with the potential role for inherited and acquired thrombophilia as being the underlying cause. However, the high prevalence of additional acquired antenatal and perinatal risk factors support a multifactorial disorder. (author)

2001-02-00

364

Incidence rate of ovarian cancer cases in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR), and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling. Results A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (PSaudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98). The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years) and 1.71 + (0.09× years), respectively. Conclusion We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and ASIRs for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Riyadh, Jouf, and Asir had the highest overall ASIR, while Jazan and Hail had the lowest rates. Makkah, Riyadh, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia had the highest incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases. Further analytical studies are required to determine the potential risk factors of ovarian cancer among Saudi women.

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; Alghamdi, Mansour M; Dohal, Ahlam A; El-Sheemy, Mohammed A

2014-01-01

365

Saudi Arabia. Energy giant between geopolitical reorientation and internal political reforms; Saudi-Arabien. Energieriese zwischen geopolitischer Neuausrichtung und innenpolitischer Reform  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The publication shows that no matter how external policy in Saudi Arabia will develop, oil will remain too important and the Gulf states will remain too weak for outside influences to subside. Internal social challenges will continue. Education, political culture and economic problems are at the center of things. If Saudi Arabia will not be able to find a labour-intensive development path that is at least partly independent of petroleum, and if population growth cannot be stopped, considerable social unrest and even upheaval must be expected. (orig.)

Woertz, E.

2006-09-15

366

Taxonomy of Cyber Crimes and Legislation in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent developments in the field of internetcommunication in the last decade worldwide have crossed allthe physical boundaries laid down by human being and this erawitnessed a major development in the field of InformationTechnology and made a large number of computer users in theworld. Every common man is influenced by this new world ofcommunication named as cyber world. But there are alwaystwo aspects associated with every technology; the destructiveside is threats associated with this internet communication incyberspace. A rapid growth of computer crimes and formationof laws in different countries addresses the severity of problem.This paper discusses the stand of Saudi Arabian governmentagainst cyber crime and its IT act. It analyzes the cybercrimein the Kingdom and the associated legislation to combat thesame.

Naasir Kamaal Khan

2012-10-01

367

Preliminary assessment of atmospheric turbidity at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectral beam solar radiation measurements for the period July 1980 to June 1981 were made in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Lat. 26° 23', Long. 50° 00'), using broad-band niter techniques. Schott filters (OG1, RG2 and R08) arranged on an automatically rotated disk mounted on an Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrhcliometer were used for the measurements. The Beer-Lambert relation was used to calculate optical depths from which values of the Angström Coefficient of Turbidity, ?, were obtained for the wavelength exponent, ? = 1.3. In addition, Herovanu's method was used to obtain ? and ? values for each month. The 12-month average values of ? and ? were 0.22 and 1.28, respectively.

Abdelrahman, M. A.; Nimmo, B. G.

368

Energy and exergy utilization in agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison for a period of 12 years. Two main energy sources are diesel for tractors and electricity for pumps in the sector. It is found that the overall exergy efficiencies in this sector are slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies, e.g. 74.19-69.20% for exergy efficiency and 74.94-74.60% for energy efficiency from 1990 to 2001. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in sectoral analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures

2005-07-01

369

The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many countries now struggle to provide cost-effective, quality healthcare services to their citizens. Saudi Arabia has experienced high costs along with concerns about quality of care in its public facilities. To address these issues the country is currently restructuring their healthcare system to privatize public hos--pitals and introduce insurance coverage for both foreign workers and citizens. The changes provide an interesting and insightful case for the challenges in radically changing a country?s healthcare system. The situation also demonstrates a unique case in the Middle East for greater reliance of the private sector to address rapidly escalating healthcare costs and deteriorating quality. The complexity of changing a healthcare system is discussed with the many challenges associated with the change.

Walston Stephen

2008-01-01

370

Dialysis centers in the kingdom of saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD) centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients at the end of the year 2000. Almost all the dialysis centers were on hospital campus but of variable sizes with an average ratio of 14.8 dialysis machines per center (range 2-113 machines per center). The distribution of the dialysis centers according to the geographical regions of Saudi Arabia included 18(14%) in the northern, 25(19%) in the southern, 13(10%) in the eastern, 35(27%) in the western and 39(30%) in the central region. There was a total of 6,694 dialysis patients served on 1,918 hemodialysis machines. There were 1,793(93%) HD machines capable of performing bicarbonate dialysis. There was an average ratio of 3.5 patients per one HD machine. In addition to the hemodialysis, there were 28(22%) centers engaged in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 56(43%) centers in the follow-up of post transplant patients. The total number of the nephrologists, regardless of their expertise was 212 of whom 180(84%) spoke Arabic; the average ratio was 32 patients per nephrologist (range of 14-58). There were 1320 hemodialysis nurses of whom only 465(35%) spoke Arabic. The average ratio of patients to nurses was five patients per nurse (range of 4-6). There were 72(55%) social workers and 70(54%)dietitians with average patients ratios to these supporting services of 1:93 patients (range of 1:58-137) and 1:96 patients (range of 1:53-137), respectively. The study HD patients had a mean age of 47.8 +/- 17.1 years (range: 2-92 years); of them, 52.5% were males and 12% had non-Saudi nationality. Of the hemodialysis patients, 1,815(27%) were diabetics. The calculated net increase of dialysis population was 988 patients per year (14.8%). There were 5,700(85%) patients on regular bicarbonate dialysate. Chronic viral infection were noted in more than half of all the dialysis population: thus 3,380(50%) were positive for hepatitis C viral (HCV) serology, 448(7%) had positive hepatitis B (HBV) antigenemia and six(0.1%) had the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a satisfactory advancement achieved in many Saudi dialysis centers in terms of equipment, personnel and patients' care. However, there should be more emphasis in the future on quality care through better self-assessment of the performance of these centers. PMID:18209376

Souqiyyeh, M Z; Al-Attar, M B; Zakaria, H; Shaheen, F A

2001-01-01

371

Measuring Studentsâ Beliefs about Physics in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.

Alhadlaq, Hisham; Alshaya, Fahad; Alabdulkareem, Saleh; Perkins, Katherine K.; Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2009-10-02

372

Multielement NAA for the characterization of Saudi Arabian rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

INAA was used in the qualitative and quantitative analyses of 48 geological samples from Saudi Arabia. The samples were irradiated in a neutron flux of 2.4x10"1"2 nxcm"-"2 s"-"1. Gamma spectra from the high resolution Ge(Li) detector were analyzed using the BRUTAL code. 20 trace elements were identified qualitatively and quantitatively: Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Rb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb, Zn and Zr. The investigation on the concentrations of these elements showed that the high grade area is a differentiated rock that crystallyzied in a late stage of the Umm Al-Birak microgranite area. (author)

1987-01-01

373

Emergency response plan for accidents in Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a brief description of the general emergency plan for accidents involving radioactive materials in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Uses of radioactive materials and radiation sources and their associated potential accident are specified. Most general accident scenarios of various levels have been determined. Protective measures have been specified to reduce individual and collective doses arising during accident situations. Intervention levels for temporary exposure situations, as established in the IAEA's basic safety standards for protection against ionising radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, are adopted as national intervention levels. General procedures for implementation of the response plan, including notification and radiological monitoring instrumentation and equipment, are described and radiation monitoring teams are nominated. Training programs for the different parties which may be called upon to respond are studied and will be started. (author)

2000-05-01

374

Dialysis Centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To help future planning of the dialysis services in the different geographical regions and health sectors in Saudi Arabia, we surveyed its 130 active hemodialysis (HD centers using a questionnaire about their manpower, hemodialysis equipment, as well as, peritoneal dialysis and transplant patients at the end of the year 2000. Almost all the dialysis centers were on hospital campus but of variable sizes with an average ratio of 14.8 dialysis machines per center (range 2-113 machines per center. The distribution of the dialysis centers according to the geographical regions of Saudi Arabia included 18(14% in the northern, 25(19% in the southern, 13(10% in the eastern, 35(27% in the western and 39(30% in the central region. There was a total of 6,694 dialysis patients served on 1,918 hemodialysis machines. There were 1,793(93% HD machines capable of performing bicarbonate dialysis. There was an average ratio of 3.5 patients per one HD machine. In addition to the hemodialysis, there were 28(22% centers engaged in peritoneal dialysis (PD and 56(43% centers in the follow-up of post transplant patients. The total number of the nephrologists, regardless of their expertise was 212 of whom 180(84% spoke Arabic; the average ratio was 32 patients per nephrologist (range of 14-58. There were 1320 hemodialysis nurses of whom only 465(35% spoke Arabic. The average ratio of patients to nurses was five patients per nurse (range of 4-6. There were 72(55% social workers and 70(54%dietitians with average patients ratios to these supporting services of 1:93 patients (range of 1:58-137 and 1:96 patients (range of 1:53-137, respectively. The study HD patients had a mean age of 47.8 ± 17.1 years (range: 2-92 years; of them, 52.5% were males and 12% had non-Saudi nationality. Of the hemodialysis patients, 1,815(27% were diabetics. The calculated net increase of dialysis population was 988 patients per year (14.8%. There were 5,700(85% patients on regular bicarbonate dialysate. Chronic viral infection were noted in more than half of all the dialysis population: thus 3,380(50% were positive for hepatitis C viral (HCV serology, 448(7% had positive hepatitis B (HBV antigenemia and six(0.1% had the human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated a satisfactory advancement achieved in many Saudi dialysis centers in terms of equipment, personnel and patients? care. However, there should be more emphasis in the future on quality care through better self-assessment of the performance of these centers.

Souqiyyeh Muhammad

2001-01-01

375

Market Based Mergers- Study on Indian & Saudi Arabian Banks  

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Full Text Available This paper analyses the efficiency and performance of post merger using CRAMEL–type variable of selected private banks in India & Saudi Arabia which are initiated by the market forces. The results suggest that the mergers did not seem to enhance the productive efficiency of the banks as they do not indicate any significant difference. The financial performance suggests that the banks are becoming more focused on their retail activities (intermediation and the main reasons for their merger is to scale up their operations. However, it is found that the loan to total Assets and the profitability are the two main parameters which are to be considered since they are very much affected by mergers. Also, the profitability of the firm is significantly affected after merger giving a negative impact on Earnings.

Ravichandran Krishnamurthy

2010-01-01

376

Prevailing Misconceptions of Vitiligo among Saudi School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To identify the prevailing myths and misconception about vitiligo among the school students in Qassim region of Saudi Arabia. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in 18 schools of Qassim Regions in Saudi Arabia, Data was collected by 486 pre-tested, self-administered questionnaires. The questionnaires included a section on social-demographic information (age, sex, education of parents) besides prevailing myths on vitiligo. Data was analyzed by using SPSS (version 17 for Windows). Results The response rate: Males 46.3%, and females 53.3%. With vitiligo disease: 24.1% and non-diseased 75.9%, with positive family history: Males 9.3%, female 13.8%. Myths among students compared with gender: Vitiligo with; Fish/milk food (P= 0.374), calcium deficiency (P= 0.001), iron deficiency (P= 225), infectious (P= <0.001), Chicken pox like disease (P= <0.001), precancerous (P= 0.212) and not curable (P= <0.001). Myths among students compared with diseased/not diseased, namely that relation of vitiligo with: Fish/milk food (P= 0.006), calcium deficiency (P= <0.001), iron deficiency (P= 0.022), Vit C deficiency (P= <0.001), infectious (P= 0.228), Chicken pox like disease (P= <0.001), precancerous (P= 0.051) and not curable (P= 0.231). Conclusion The prevailing myths and conceptions delay seeking medical advice and should be addressed by focused health education programs through school health services.

Sharaf, Fawzy Khalil

2014-01-01

377

Investigating the High Turnover of Saudi Nationals versus Non-Nationals in Private Sector Companies Using Selected Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Saudization became inevitable for domestic political stability; however, private organizations are suffering fromthe high turnover of Saudi nationals and less commitment towards their employers. The researcher set to examinethe reasons for the high turnover through examining employee engagement antecedents of the Saudi’s nationalsversus non-Saudis’. The purpose of this study is to examine selected antecedents and consequences of employeeengagement. The researcher distributed surveys among...

Mona Naguib Moussa

2013-01-01

378

Prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among saudi medical students in riyadh, saudi arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of active smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure among medical students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and to examine their attitudes and beliefs towards tobacco control programs. The investigation was a cross-sectional study conducted during the first semester of 2013 at King Saud University School of Medicine located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Invited to participate in this study were 1,789 medical students. A descriptive data analysis was performed. A total of 805 medical students completed the questionnaire. The prevalence of experimentation with cigarette smoking was 11.3 %. The estimated prevalence of current smoking among the study participants was 4.7 %. The majority of the students held positive attitudes toward tobacco control and approximately 93.1 % of the students felt that health care professionals should be required to receive training for cessation counseling while only 36.8 % of the students reported having received any training in this area. Over the study's duration 57.7 % of participants reported that ETS exposure was much higher in public places, while 13.9 % reported exposure at home. This investigation revealed that ETS exposure among medical students in Riyadh is at an alarmingly high rate. The data suggests a need for a more robust smoke-free policy and a commitment to greater enforcement in public places. The results of the study also demonstrate a positive attitude among participants for tobacco control. It also indicates a need for cessation counseling and training which could be incorporated into medical school curriculum. PMID:24903238

Almutairi, Khalid M

2014-08-01

379

Energy conservation and its implication for architectural design and town planning in the hot-arid areas of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States keep their oil output high to satisfy an energy-hungry world. Correspondingly their income is high and national development intensive. A more modest development programme, better architectural designs, better town planning and more intensive use of solar energy would dramatically reduce the need for this high income and so would lead to production cuts and oil conservation.

Abd-El-Hamid; Khair-El-Din

1985-01-01

380

The incidence rate of corpus uteri cancer among females in Saudi Arabia: an observational descriptive epidemiological analysis of data from Saudi Cancer Registry 2001-2008  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR), adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0), followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0), and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6). The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah had the highest overall disease ASIRs and incidence rate ratios, while Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest rates. Finally, the northern region experienced the greatest changes in ASIR during the studied period. Further analytical studies are necessary to determine potential risk factors of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients.

Alghamdi, Ibrahim G; Hussain, Issam I; Alghamdi, Mohamed S; El-Sheemy, Mohamed A

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Awareness and attitude of cancer patients about participation in clinical research (CR) in Saudi Arabia. | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Science.gov (United States)

Sheblaq NR,Traifi S,Al Sakiani M,Gasmelseed A,Abolfotouh MA,Jazieh AR. King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; King Abdul Aziz Medical City for National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. ASCO 2013 Annual Meeting. 2013 May 31. 2013 Jun 04. Chicago, IL.

382

An Investigation into the Problems Involved in the Implementation of the Suggested Strategic Planning Model for Schools in Saudi Arabia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Strategic planning at school level is a new concept in the field of education in Saudi Arabia, where the educational system is centralised and directly controlled by the Ministry of Education. The aim of this research was to investigate the consequences of implementing a specially devised strategic planning model in individual schools in Saudi Arabia.

2012-01-01

383

Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

2011-01-01

384

Intercultural Conflicts between Close Friends: A Case Study of Power Relations in Continuing Education in Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…

Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie

2008-01-01

385

Alternative Delivery Systems of Services for the Visually Handicapped in Saudi Arabia and Basic Arabic Braille Chart.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report describes a visit of a Saudi Arabian educator to four programs for visually handicapped students in the United States in order to determine the feasibility of introducing these programs or some aspects of them in Saudi Arabia. Advantages and disadvantages of four types of programs are considered: (1) a residential school, (2) an…

Muhanna, Saleh I.

386

Susceptibility to primary angle closure glaucoma in Saudi Arabia: the possible role of mitochondrial DNA ancestry informative haplogroups  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose In a previous preliminary analysis we reported that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup R0a was significantly more frequent in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) Saudi patients than in healthy Saudi controls. This result prompted us to extend our work using a significant larger Saudi PACG cohort and more healthy controls. Methods We sequenced the mtDNA regulatory hypervariable region-I (HVS-I) and coding regions, comprising haplogroup diagnostic polymorphisms, in 227 PACG Saudi patients and compared their haplogroup frequencies with those obtained from 186 matched healthy controls (free of PACG by examination) and from a large sample of 810 healthy Saudi Arabs representing the general Saudi population. Results MtDNA Haplogroups R0a and J, the most abundant lineages in Saudi Arabia, were in significant higher frequencies in the PACG patients than in controls, while the widespread western Eurasian haplogroup U was associated with reduced risk to developing PACG. Conclusions Haplogroups R0a and J could be ancestry informative markers for PACG in the Saudi Arabian population. In addition, the western Eurasian haplogroup U may play a mild protective effect to this illness.

Gonzalez, Ana M.; Osman, Essam A.; Larruga, Jose M.; Cabrera, Vicente M.; Al-Obeidan, Saleh A.

2011-01-01

387

Stock Market Volatility in Saudi Arabia: An Application of Univariate GARCH Model  

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Full Text Available Study of stock market volatility has been the focus of financial economics. Modelling stock market volatility has great contributions to make in the areas of portfolio management, asset allocation, risk management, etc. We estimate the conditional volatility of Saudi stock market by applying AR (1-GARCH (1, 1 model to the daily stock returns data spanning from August 1, 2004 to October 31, 2013. We show that a linear symmetric GARCH (1, 1 model is adequate to estimate the volatility of the stock market of the country. We find that Saudi stock market returns are characterised by volatility clustering and follow a non-normal distribution. Saudi stock market returns show a time varying volatility, show persistence and are predictable. Past volatility impacts the current period volatility and past returns play a role in determining the current period return. Saudi stock market is nervous in its reactions to market fluctuations. This finding of the study offer important input into the decisions relating to asset allocation and risk management strategies of investors and treasury managers in Saudi stock market.

Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

2014-04-01

388

Emirati and Saudi Students’ Writing Challenges at U.S. Universities  

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Full Text Available The study examines writing challenges Emirati and Saudi students face at U.S. universities. Based on a sample of 219, a mixed methods approach was used to analyze responses from the participants. The results of the questionnaire reveal that Less than 31% Emirati and Saudi students feel “comfortable” in completing written assignments. The interviews results indicate that Emirati and Saudi students have different opinions regarding writing difficulties. An Emirati student, stated: “I am worried a lot because writing is not easy. Writing is very difficult for us.” However, a Saudi student expressed the easiness of her writing assignments. Emirati students stated that grammar, word choice and sentence construction are “somewhat easy”; however, Saudi students indicated that grammar, word choice and sentence construction are “Somewhat difficult.” An Emirati student, stated: “Most Arabs students are told that we do not have vocabulary or grammar. For me, grammar is okay but my difficulty is how to choose the appropriate word for a sentence. A female Emirati student expressed her worry for grammatical mistakes, which she tries to correct: “When I write my reports, I have to reread my report again because I am sure I will have some grammatical mistakes because English is not my first language. The study implies that the students need more coursework in academic writing to prepare them for their academic writing in their disciplines. U.S. universities need to increase the visiting hours of writing centers and design more workshops that teach the students about writing in various genres.

Ghadah Al Murshidi

2014-05-01

389

Macroeconomic Forces and Stock Prices: Some Empirical Evidence from Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper examines if there exists a long run relationship among five macroeconomic variables, consumer price index, industrial output, money supply, exchange rate, oil prices along with the global stock prices proxy Standard and Poor 500 index and Saudi all share stock index. Time series analysis is applied using monthly data from January 1994 to June 2013. Application of Johansen cointegration test finds the existence of a long run relationship among the chosen variables. All macroeconomic variables are found to impact stock prices. Standard and Poor 500 index does not affect Saudi stock prices. Vector error correction model shows the presence of long run causality from the explanatory variables to the stock prices. Short run causality test finds a two-way causality between stock prices and oil prices. Impulse response function shows that industrial production shocks pushes up stock prices while consumer price index shocks pulls it down. Variance decompositions show that historical stock prices are the major driver of Saudi stock prices. This implies that Saudi stock market follows weak form of market efficiency. The results of this paper have important implications for the investors in Saudi stock market.

Lakshmi Kalyanaraman

2014-01-01

390

Attracting Customer in Saudi Arabia to Buy from Your Business Online  

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Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploration of the factors that attract consumers to buy online in Saudi Arabia. Fewcompanies in that country have enabled business sites, but most of them are keen to present product informationon their sites rather than have an online sales process. According to the latest report was issued in 2010 from theCommunications and Information Technology Commission (CITC in Saudi Arabia, there are only 8% ofbusinesses have online purchase channel; in contrast 54% of companies have websites only to present products.Accordingly, new research has been conducted to explore the attraction of customers in Saudi Arabia to buyfrom businesses online. This will assist the Small and Medium Enterprises (SME sector, which represents 90%of companies in Saudi Arabia, to increase communication channels with its customers electronically. Aquantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 381 consumer participants from Saudi Arabia whowere interested to buy online to see what factors would attract them to online shopping. Several factors emergedas attracting factors which were divided into organizational, technical, and cultural factors.

Adel Aboud Bahaddad

2013-03-01

391

An Empirical Study of Problems in Implementation of Electronic Commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabiahas witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been able to catch up with the pace of digitaldevelopment in the rest of the world. The research paper attempts to identify the problems in implementinge-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research paper on the basis of analysis of data throughhierarchical multiple regression modeling and multiple response analysis of the data has identified statisticallysignificant problems in implementation of e-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and outlined key policyoptions that this country as well as other GCC nations can consider in formulation of policies to stimulate,support and maximize the effect e-commerce has on their economies.

Iftekhar Ahmad

2012-07-01

392

Administration, economy and society of Saudi Arabia. Sauji arabia no seiji keizai shakai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To analyze petroleum policies of Saudi Arabia, it is essential to understand its administration, economy and society by and large. Therefore, general analysis of Saudi Arabia was conducted. Saudi Arabia is carrying out various policies to materialize the most preferential target, the stability of the nation and the society; that is, the stable structure of the Saud Family rule. Its petroleum policy is aimed at securing income to materialize other policies, and at strengthening foreign influences. Importance of other policies, however, are ever floating and sometimes they are even contradictory. Effects of the policies are not always clear, either. Moreover, as Saudi Arabia is not a sole supplier of crude oil, its policies are influenced by the world supply-demand relation of petroleum and the balance of powers in OPEC. It is, therefore, impossible to judge and predict the petroleum policy of Saudi Arabia by a simple policy making model. It is necessary to follow at all times the ever-changing internal and external conditions. 9 figs., 42 tabs.

1989-03-20

393

Portfolio approach to the oil surplus problem: Saudi Arabia as a study case  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation investigated the different strategies that Saudi Arabia could have followed in the deployment of surplus oil funds, namely low risk, high risk strategy. The static mean variance portfolio selection model is used to derive the set of efficient portfolios. The optimum portfolios for Saudi Arabia as well as the efficient frontiers, under different constraints, were explored. To find the optimum portfolios, it is necessary to determine the real rate of return of the assets; we must adjust the nominal yield by the following factors; taxes imposed on nonresidents, exchange rate fluctuations, and the inflation rate. The results tend to support the conclusion that low risk strategy is successful through all periods studied while high-risk strategy was not always successful. In addition, the Saudi's strategy of avoiding the United States stock market was not costly, but the US stock market did not perform well during the period of the study. This suggests that if the Saudis want to continue their low risk strategy in the future, they must consider including US private stocks and bonds in their portfolio selection. The success of the high risk strategy seems to require the ability to predict exchange rates. It is observed that if the Saudis follow high risk strategy and fail to predict the exchange rates they might lose. The loss in terms of real rate of return could be greater than the real return if a low risk strategy were followed.

Gazali, M.N.

1985-01-01

394

Final Report for Annex II--Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources In Saudi Arabia, 1998-2000  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Final Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1998-2000 summarizes the accomplishment of work performed, results achieved, and products produced under Annex II, a project established under the Agreement for Cooperation in the Field of Renewable Energy Research and Development between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United States. The report covers work and accomplishments from January 1998 to December 2000. A previous progress report, Progress Report for Annex II - Assessment of Solar Radiation Resources in Saudi Arabia 1993-1997, NREL/TP-560-29374, summarizes earlier work and technical transfer of information under the project. The work was performed in at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, and at selected weather stations of the Saudi Meteorological and Environmental Protection Administration (MEPA).

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.; Marion, W. F.; Al-Abbadi, N. M.; Mahfoodh, M.; Al-Otaibi, Z.

2002-04-01

395

Nutritional Status among a Sample of Saudi College Students  

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Full Text Available Nutritional habits and health behaviors have been a major concern for public health, especially among vulnerable groups such as teenage and college students. This study aims to assess nutritional status of a sample of Saudi college students and their dietary behaviors. A multi-stage sample was obtained from a private college in the north-western region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Descriptive statistics was used to assess the frequency of some nutritional habits and their correlation to Body Mass Index (BMI. The results show that overweight and obese subjects represented 22.6 and 11.6% of the students respectively, compared to 13.7% for underweight subjects. Twenty five percent of male and 20.3% of female students were overweight while 16.7% of male and 6.7% of female students were obese. There was a statistical significant difference between males and females in relation to the mean weight and height (p<0.001 and BMI (p<0.05. Approximately 15.7% of the subjects skip their breakfast daily. Both males (50% and females (45.9% used to eat their meals irregularly. More than 58% of the students stated that they consume fast foods, the proportion of females was more (64.9% than the males (51.4% and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. A relatively small percentage (21.2% of students reported not eating burgers and a majority of respondents 61% preferred regular size burgers. However, the tendency to eat large size burgers was more pronounced among males than females (p<0.05. A regular portion size of potato chips was preferred by 61% of the students, among them 24.3% were females and 11.1% were males (p<0.01. There was a wide range of preferences for consumption of different foods among participants. Females showed a higher rate in the consumption of sweets and chocolates on daily basis (28.4 and 29.7%, respectively compared to males (18.1 and 16.6%, respectively (p<0.05. Males were more prone to consume red meat (p<0.05 and fish (p<0.05 than females. It is recommended to further investigate the eating habits of college students in KSA and propose interventions to improve such habits.

Jafar M. El-Qudah

2012-09-01

396

Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

2011-07-01

397

An Analysis of Benchmarking of Business Functions in Organizations of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The study investigates the extent of performance benchmarking of the major business functions undertaken bythe business organizations in Saudi Arabia. The study is based on five major functions namely; marketing,human resources, finance, operations, and quality. Each of these functions includes four sub functions. The scopeof the study extends to private firms (manufacturing and service as well as public and government organizationsin Saudi Arabia. The study includes four sizes of organizations. The finding of the study shows that the practiceof benchmarking in Saudi Arabian organizations’ is not in advance level. The sequence of the application ofbenchmarking is found to be as follows; marketing, operations, quality, finance and human resources,respectively. The study further shows that the practice of performance benchmarking in private firms better thanpublic organizations. However, the study concludes that there is no significant difference between companiesbased on their sizes.

Nasser Akeil Kadasah

2013-05-01

398

Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis  

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Full Text Available Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR, Impulse Response Function (IFR and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

Hassan Alhajhoj

2007-01-01

399

A Conceptual Framework for the Promotion of Trusted Online Retailing Environment in Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four stages. The outcomes of the studypoint to distrust in the online retailing environment in Saudi Arabia as a key inhibitory factor for growth. As such,a five-part model is proposed to promote trust in the online shopping environment in the KSA.

Rayed AlGhamdi

2012-02-01

400

A statistical analysis of wind energy potential at the eastern region of Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The energy potential of wind for the eastern region of Saudi Arabia is investigated based on measurements of a complete year data at a coastal location in eastern Saudi Arabia. A suitable Weibull distribution is generated and a comparison of its model is made with the Rayleigh distribution of wind power densities. Two horizontal-axis type of wind energy conversion systems which operate at fixed rpm are considered for the determination of the extractable wind power, and a model of quadratic power output function is used between the cut-in speed and rated speed. It is shown that small-scale wind energy systems are suitable in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia for power generation and irrigation purposes. (Author)

Sahin, Ahmet Z. [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Aksakal, Ahmet [King Fahd Univ. of Petroleum and Minerals, Research Inst., Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

Conceptual model for managing the portfolio of Saudi Arabia's reserve funds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to develop a model for managing the foreign exchange reserve portfolio of low absorbing, oil exporting countries, such as Saudi Arabia, through the use of portfolio theory. The nature of these countries relative to high-absorbing countries and the role of reserve funds in their economies are examined. The rationale for these countries to hold a greater portion of excess reserves than is considered normal for other countries is assessed. The interaction of the political, economic, development planning, and oil policy issues as they affect reserve management in capital surplus countries is clarified. The model provides guidelines for the multiple objective management of reserve portfolios. Application of the model has been demonstrated by computing ex post optimal portfolios for Saudi Arabia during the period 1974-1982 as well as during various subperiods and by comparing the results with a proxy of the actual composition of Saudi Arabia's reserves.

Soufi, A.A.

1984-01-01

402

Wind energy resource assessment in Saudi Arabia. Pt.1: Network design and description  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wind has been proven at a cost effective and reliable energy source. Technological advancements over the last five years have placed wind energy in a firm position to compete with conventional power generation technologies. Saudi Arabia has a vast uninhabited land area as well as a long coastline, free from the man made obstacles, presenting a possible wind resource. A research program is under way in the Energy Research Institute of the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (ERI-KACST) with the aim of studying the potential of wind energy in Saudi Arabia. This paper presents a full description of the equipment, instruments, site specifications and other technical needs for the wind assessment project in Saudi Arabia. (author)

Alawaji, S.H. [King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Energy Research Inst.

1996-09-01

403

Geographic distribution of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutations in Saudi Arabia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A descriptive study was undertaken to characterize cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene mutations in the Saudi Arabian cystic fibrosis (CF) population in relation to their clinical picture, demographic features and ethnic origin. From October 1992 to September 1997, 70 patients (46 families) diagnosed with CF were screened for CFTR mutations. A total of 12 mutations were identified in 34 families (70% of the CF alleles in the study group). Most of the families were native Saudis, and in 88% of the families the parents were in consanguineous marriages. The most common Saudi mutations were 1548delG and I1234V. There was no significant difference in the clinical picture between patients of different ethnic origins with the same CFTR mutation. PMID:11924117

Banjar, H

1999-11-01

404

Saudi English-Major Undergraduates' Academic Writing Problems: A Taif University Perspective  

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Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate Saudi English-major undergraduates studying at Taif University to identify a the types of academic writing Saudi English-major undergraduates carry out at English departments, b Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems, c the reasons behind Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems and d the solutions to overcome Saudi English-major undergraduates' writing problems. To collect data for this purpose, senior faculty members were interviewed and a 32-item structured Likert-scale questionnaire was developed that was administered to 75 English-major students (sophomores, juniors & seniors studying at foreign languages department, Taif University. Data generated through the questionnaire were subjected to descriptive analyses and mean and standard deviation were recorded using SPSS. The findings of this study reveal that Saudi English-major undergraduates are very weak in writing skills and commit lots of errors in their academic writings and are usually engaged in sentence-level or at the maximum at paragraph-level academic writing and they do not consider it important at this level to write different kinds of essays. It has been strongly recommended that the language courses should be increased to strengthen all the language skills in general and writing in particular, motivate the students to use English with the teachers as well as with each, introduce modern and novel teaching techniques, equip the classrooms with necessary audio-visual aids, diagnose students’ writing problems in the beginning of their studies at university, tailor the course contents according to their needs, introduce group/pair work, peer correction, use dictionaries frequently etc.

Mohamed Ali Al-Khairy

2013-05-01

405

Indoor radon measurements in the Women College, Dammam, Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm-3 whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm-3. This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors

2005-11-01

406

Indoor radon measurements in the Women College, Dammam, Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm{sup -3} whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm{sup -3}. This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors.

Al-Qahtani, Mona [Women College, P. O. Box 838, Dammam 31113 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

2005-11-15

407

Feasibility study of wind energy utilization in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The wind map of Saudi Arabia indicates that the Kingdom is characterized by the existence of two vast windy regions along the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea coastal areas. The mean annual wind speed in these two windy regions exceeds 9 knots (16.7 kmph) and ranges from about 14 to 22 kmph and 16 to 19 kmph over the Arabian Gulf and Red Sea coastal areas, respectively. The main characteristic features of the wind field of these regions are presented. Four sample sites are selected for possible installation of both small and large wind energy conversion systems. These sites are: Yenbo and Al-Wajh on the Red Sea coast, Dhahran on the Arabian Gulf coast and Quaisumah in the north east of the Kingdom. The manufacturers pre-mass production unit capital costs are used to estimate the cost of electricity produced, in cents/kWh. The estimated costs of electricity produced by WEC systems of various rated powers when installed at the four sites are presented. A further reduction in the manufacturers unit capital cost is still required to enable wind energy to compete with other conventional energy sources. For oil-producing countries, it may be a few decades before wind energy can become cost-competitive with other energy sources. (A.V.)

Amin, M.I. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)); El-Samanoudy, M.A.

1985-04-01

408

Metamorphic evolution of the Qazaz metamorphic complex, Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

Precambrian accretionary orogens largely contributed to continental growth, owing to their high production rates of juvenile crust compared to Phanerozoic accretionary orogens. The Pan-African orogeny is responsible for the evolution and growth of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The Qazaz metamorphic complex in Saudi Arabia is one of the metamorphic complexes that were exhumed due to the activity of the largest Proterozoic shear zone system on the Earth - the Najd Fault System. The Qazaz complex is an example of an unusual new type of core-complex associated with crustal scale strike-slip faulting. Petrography and thermodynamic modelling were used to study the metamorphic evolution of the complex. The core of the complex records peak metamorphic conditions of 560 - 640 oC and 7-8 kbar. The bounding strike-slip shear zones operated at a temperature range of 400-600 oC while the pressure range varied from 5 to 0.5 kbar over a very short distance within the shear zone. The complex shows exhumation of about 25 km due to the activity of the Najd Fault System.

Hassan, Mahmoud; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Stüwe, Kurt; Meyer, Sven; Passchier, Cees

2014-05-01

409

Patterns of thyroid cancer in Southwestern Saudi Arabia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine the pattern of thyroid cancer, assess the magnitude of the problem, and evolve a management plan for such malignancies. This is a retrospective cohort study of all thyroid cases operated at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1998 and December 2007. Clinical presentations, management regimens, and recurrence were reviewed. Five hundred and sixteen patients were operated for different thyroid lesions. Ninety-two (17.8%) were malignant (20 males and 72 females). Mean age for males was 41.35 +/- 15.52 years compared to 36.59 +/- 13.28 years for females. Papillary carcinoma constituted 50%, while follicular carcinoma formed only 4.3% of malignant cases. Lymphoma ranked third with only 1.1% of all malignant thyroid lesions. No cases of medullary carcinoma were found. Of 92 patients, 75 reported for follow-up. The recurrence rate for follow-up patients was 29 (31.5%). High resolution neck ultrasonography and image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology should be considered as routine investigative tools in patients with suspicious thyroid swelling. Total thyroidectomy and removal of all lymph nodes in the central compartment of the neck seem to be the ideal management plan, until such trials emerge. Residual thyroid tissues, following surgery, should be ablated using radioiodine I131 isotope (Author).

2010-01-01

410

Intestinal Parasites Infection among Immunocompromised Patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fecal samples were collected from 136 immunocompromised patients (52 females and 84 males, aged 2 to 69 years. Specimens were fixed with 10% formalin for 30 min (2-3 g fecal-1 and then concentrated by a formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Samples were examined as wet saline mounts and in iodine preparation for detection of protozoan oocysts, cysts, helminthic eggs and larvae. Permanent stained smears were performed for intestinal coccidian parasites by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique and the modified trichrome stain. Intestinal parasites were detected in 54 (39.7% most of them (25.7% were with diarrhea. More specifically the following parasites were detected Cryptosporidium parvum 11(8.1%, Giardia lamblia 9 (6.6%, Cyclospora cayetanensis 8 (5.9%, Blastocystis hominis 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba histolytica 7 (5.2%, Entamoeba coli 5 (3.7%, Strongyloides stercoralis 3 (2.2%, Ascaris lumbricoides 1 (0.7%, Hymenolepis nana 1 (0.7%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum 1 (0.7% and Hook worm 1 (0.7%. The most common parasite associated with diarrhea in patients, was C. parvum (p<0.001, followed by G. lamblia, C. cayetanensis and E. histolytica. However, differences between different age groups were statistically non-significant. Similarly, no significant difference in the infection rate were found between male and female patients.

Wafa A.I. Al-Megrin

2010-01-01

411

Adverse drug reactions caused by methotrexate in Saudi population  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim The aim of this study is to document adverse drug reactions (ARDs) of methotrexate (MTX) in Saudi patients. Methods Cross sectional study of adult patients on MTX, attending rheumatology drug monitoring clinics in a university hospital, over a period of 24 weeks. Adverse drug reactions were sought by patient interview, files review and laboratory abnormalities. Results Data collected included patients’ demographics, diagnoses, co-morbidities, MTX dose and duration, other medications, laboratory abnormalities and adverse reactions, their severity, preventability, and outcome. Out of a total of 593 patients screened, 186 (31.4%) using MTX were interviewed. Most of the patients were female (88.5%). Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were detected in 61 patients (32.8%). Patients with ADRs took a mean dose of 12.9 mg (2.5–22.5 mg). Ten ADRs (16.4% of total reactions) were preventable; they ranged between severe, moderate and mild. The most common ADRs were gastrointestinal (GI) (52.5%), followed by anemia (8.2%) and chest tightness (6.6%). The duration of the reaction ranged from few hours to 4 years. Conclusion In conclusion our patients with adverse reactions were younger, took less medications and had less co-morbidities. Our results were different from those published in the literature relating MTX toxicity.

Al-Malaq, Haya M.; Al-Arfaj, Hussein F.; Al-Arfaj, Abdurhman S.

2012-01-01

412

Conjunctival nevi: Clinical and histopathologic features in a Saudi population  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective : Conjunctival nevi are benign lesions with wide variation in clinical and histopathological features. The differentiation between benign nevi and other pigmented lesions is essential. The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of the histopathologic types of conjunctival nevi among the Saudi population and to provide the basic knowledge needed for proper clinical diagnosis. Patients and Methods : This retrospective study of surgically excised benign conjunctival nevi was conducted at a tertiary care eye hospital from 1995 to 2006. Clinical data was collected from medical records and the histopathologic features reviewed by a single pathologist. Results : A total 105 conjunctival nevi were included from 104 consecutive patients (mean age, 26 years, 54 males and 50 females. The anatomical location was the bulbar conjunctiva in 83%, juxtalimbal in 12%, caruncle in 4% and palpebral in 1%. The lesion was removed for cosmetic reasons in 38% while 8% of the lesions were removed to rule out malignancy. The compound nevus was the commonest (72% in all age groups, followed by subepithelial nevus (24% and finally junctional nevus (3%. Conclusions : The distribution of the histopathologic types of this tumor in our population matches the pattern in other areas of the world with the compound nevus being the commonest lesion. However, fewer lesions among our patients are removed to rule out malignancy.

Alkatan Hind

2010-01-01

413

Conjunctival nevi: clinical and histopathologic features in a Saudi population  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Conjunctival nevi are benign lesions with wide variation in clinical and histopathological features. The differentiation between benign nevi and other pigmented lesions is essential. The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of the histopathologic types of conjunctival nevi among the Saudi population and to provide the basic knowledge needed for proper clinical diagnosis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study of surgically excised benign conjunctival nevi was conducted at a tertiary care eye hospital from 1995 to 2006. Clinical data was collected from medical records and the histopathologic features reviewed by a single pathologist. RESULTS: A total 105 conjunctival nevi were included from 104 consecutive patients (mean age, 26 years, 54 males and 50 females). The anatomical location was the bulbar conjunctiva in 83%, juxtalimbal in 12%, caruncle in 4% and palpebral in 1%. The lesion was removed for cosmetic reasons in 38% while 8% of the lesions were removed to rule out malignancy. The compound nevus was the commonest (72%) in all age groups, followed by subepithelial nevus (24%) and finally junctional nevus (3%). CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the histopathologic types of this tumor in our population matches the pattern in other areas of the world with the compound nevus being the commonest lesion. However, fewer lesions among our patients are removed to rule out malignancy.

Alkatan, Hind M.; Al-Arfaj, Khalid M.; Maktabi, Azza

2010-01-01

414

Prevalence of Glomerular Diseases: King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.

Mitwalli A

2000-01-01

415

Extreme Temperature Trends on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available The extreme temperature trends are analyzed for a meteorological data collection station in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia over approximately last four decades stretching between years 1970 and 2006. The long-term change in temperature has been assessed by Mann-Kendell rank statistics and linear trend analysis. The study also includes the estimation of hot and cold days and nights frequencies and finally the temperature anomalies on yearly basis. The ratio between the seasonal mean temperatures (Tmmean of the daily mean of hottest (July and coldest (January months was 1.032. Similarly the ratios between the seasonal mean temperature of daily maximum (Tmmax of hottest and coldest months was 1.033 while for seasonal mean temperature of daily minimum (Tmmin was 1.030. Significant increase was observed in hot days per year and relatively smaller decrease in hot nights. Significant increase in summer time temperatures was confirmed by both linear regression analysis and M-K rank statistics. The monthly and annual mean maximum temperatures have increased more than the mean and mean minimum temperatures.

Luai M. Al-Hadhrami

2012-07-01

416

Stratigraphic palynology of Devonian boreholes from northern Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This extended abstract describes well-preserved palynomorph assemblages recovered from Devonian strata in five shallow boreholes in the northern part of Saudi Arabia. These fully cored holes overlap stratigraphically to form a 1,640 ft composite section spanning the upper Tawil, Jauf and lower Jubah formations. Only the Jauf and lower Jubah, represented by 188 samples taken over a 1,300 ft stratigraphic interval, are addressed here as the sandy Tawil lithologies are unsuitable for palynological analysis. The 900 feet of alternating of siliciclastic and carbonate units, that together comprise the five members of the Jauf Formation, were sampled comprehensively. However, the Jubah Formation, like the Tawil Formation, is mostly sandstone and is productive palynologically at only two levels separated by a 300 ft barren interval. The age of the sampled succession is assessed using index species from the established Euramerican Devonian palynozonations of Richardson & McGregor (1986 and Streel et alii (1987, and is shown to span the late Early and Middle Devonian.

Breuer Pierre

2005-12-01

417

Measurement of acoustical characteristics of mosques in Saudi Arabia.  

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The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition. PMID:12656385

Abdou, Adel A

2003-03-01

418

Vegetation-Environment Relations in Taif, Saudi Arabia  

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Full Text Available This study assesses the plant communities and environmental factors that govern species, abundance and distribution in Taif area, western Saudi Arabia, using TWINSPAN analysis. Twenty three vegetation groups were identified visual, seven groups dominated by Aerva lanata, Pergularia tomentosa, Arnebia hispidissima, Salsola spinescens, Capparis decidua, Aizoon canariense and Blepharis ciliaris in the sand plains, Calotropis procera, Dipterygium gluacum, Bassia muricata, Haloxylon scoparium, Aerva gavanica, Anthemis melompodina and Coccinea grandis in the valleys, Halothammus bottae, Anvillea gracinii, Euryops arabicus, Dianthis strictus and Ecobolium gymnostachyum in the slopes and Capparis sinaica, Maerua oblongifolia, Salsola kali and Centaurea schimperi in the plateaus. The application of TWINSPAN classified the community types into 10 clusters at level 15. The existence of vegetation discontinuities along the catena`s depended largely on water table depth and salinity. These parameters decline with increasing altitude, whereas, CaCO3 and organic carbon does not vary along well defined large scale gradients. The relationships of the habitat-floristic groups are not simple and hydromorphism interacts in complex way with halomorphism.

Ragab I. Abdel-Fattah

2005-01-01

419

Simulation and modeling of solar radiation in Saudi Arabia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model is used to generate the hourly data for the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface. The generated data are based on the hourly recorded visibility data for 20 years (1970-1989). The model year technique was then applied to model the 20 years of hourly data of solar radiation into one statistically representative year. A model year of hourly data was then generated for the beam and diffuse components of solar radiation on a horizontal surface. Similarly, a model year of hourly data was also generated for the total solar radiation on tilted surfaces with different orientations with its beam, diffuse and reflected components. A simple methodology is proposed for calculating the solar radiation on vertical surfaces, based on a solar impact factor (SIF). Monthly means and daily totals of hourly sums for each month of the year are discussed. The hourly data of solar radiation for a typical day for each month of the year are presented. The data were generated for the four climatic zones of Saudi Arabia, the hot-dry (Riyadh), the warm-humid (Jeddah), the maritime inland desert climate (Dhahran) and the upland climate zone (Taif). The accuracy of the results is discussed and found to be above 90% representative. (author)

Zuhairy, A.A.; Sayigh, A.A.M. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Engineering

1995-04-01

420

Precipitation Patterns Observed over the Southwest Region of Saudi Arabia  

Science.gov (United States)

During 2008 and 2009, an intensive field program has been conducted in the southwest region of Saudi Arabia, which is adjacent to the Red Sea and is bounded by the Yemen border to the south and the region around Jeddah to the north. The period of study focused on analysis of observations for the months of June-August. This period coincides with a climatological peak in precipitation over the region. This region is mountainous with terrain ranging from sea level to a maximum height of about 2800 m. During the field program, convection was observed almost daily during mid-afternoon was focused along the mountain peaks. This peak in convection coincided with the sea breeze reaching the top of the tallest terrain features. The intensity of convection was modulated by the strength of the sea breeze (predominate wind direction, amount of moisture in the boundary layer, etc.) and strength of a persistent mid-level inversion. The main objective of this study focuses on characterizing the spatial and temporal features of convection and related it to the atmospheric conditions that were observed during the months of June-August. The study examines precipitation and atmospheric conditions using a network of C-Band radars (Abha, Baha, Jeddah, Jizan, and Taif) and surface and upper data collected from the site located in Abha. The presentation will provide an overview of the field program and give a summary of the precipitation and atmospheric characteristics for the two years used in the study.

Kucera, Paul; Chapman, Michael

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
421

E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia: adoption and perspectives  

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Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.

Sadiq Sait

2004-11-01

422

A new species of Chalicodoma from Saudi Arabia with modified facial setae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae  

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Full Text Available Some bees and pollen wasps have independently evolved simple, stiff, erect, apically-curved, curly or hooked facial setae as adaptations to collect pollen from nototribic flowers. A distinctive new species of Chalicodoma Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau subgenus Pseudomegachile Friese from Saudi Arabia with such morphological adaptations, C. riyadhense sp. n., is described and figured. The species was captured visiting flowers of Blepharis ciliaris (L. (Acanthaceae. The occurrence of modified facial setae is documented and discussed for the first time in eight other species of Pseudomegachile, and a key to the genera and subgenera of Megachilini currently confirmed for Saudi Arabia is provided.

Abdulaziz Alqarni

2012-06-01